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Sample records for white rock creek

  1. 77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock... the White-tailed Deer Management Plan (Plan), Rock Creek Park, Washington, DC The Plan will support... resources in Rock Creek Park. DATES: The NPS will execute a Record of Decision (ROD) no sooner than 30...

  2. Impact of Urbanization on Storm Response of White Rock Creek, Dallas, Texas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H.; Groening-Vicars, J.

    2005-12-01

    This study documents hydrological changes resulting from urbanization of the upper sub-basin of White Rock Creek watershed in Collin and Dallas counties, Texas. The 66.4 square mile watershed was transformed from 87% rural in 1961 to 95% urban in 2002, following construction of the Dallas suburbs of Richardson, Addison, Plano and Frisco. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in the storm response of White Rock Creek in terms of peak storm flow, storm flow volume and lag time. The approach employed to compare pre- and post-urbanization hydrology was to develop average unit hydrographs for each time period and use them to generate the creek's storm flow response to a set of six hypothetical precipitation events. The results suggest that substantial hydrological changes have occurred. The average infiltration capacity of the watershed was reduced by about 60%, so that storm flow was generated at lower precipitation intensities in the post-urbanization period. Storm flow peak discharge and volume were more than doubled for a hypothetical 10-year precipitation event. Average lag time was about 45 minutes faster in the post-urbanization period. It was concluded that urbanization has significantly impacted the storm response of the creek and increased the potential for flooding. It is anticipated that similar hydrological changes will occur in other rapidly urbanizing watersheds in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan region.

  3. Water-quality trends in White Rock Creek Basin from 1912-1994 identified using sediment cores from White Rock Lake Reservoir, Dallas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.

    1997-01-01

    Historical trends in selected water-quality variables from 1912 to 1994 in White Rock Creek Basin were identified by dated sediment cores from White Rock Lake. White Rock Lake is a 4.4-km2 reservoir filled in 1912 and located on the north side of Dallas, Texas, with a drainage area of 259 km2. Agriculture dominated land use in White Rock Creek Basin before about 1950. By 1990, 72% of the basin was urban. Sediment cores were dated using cesium-137 and core lithology. Major element concentrations changed, and sedimentation rates and percentage of clay-sized particles in sediments decreased beginning in about 1952 in response to the change in land use. Lead concentrations, normalized with respect to aluminum, were six times larger in sediment deposited in about 1978 than in pre-1952 sediment. Following the introduction of unleaded gasoline in the 1970s, normalized lead concentrations in sediment declined and stabilized at about two and one-half times the pre-1952 level. Normalized zinc and arsenic concentrations increased 66 and 76%, respectively, from before 1952 to 1994. No organochlorine compounds were detected in sediments deposited prior to about 1940. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and DDE (a metabolite of DDT) increased rapidly beginning in the 1940s and peaked in the 1960s at 21 and 20 ??g kg-1, respectively, which is coincident with their peak use in the United States. Concentrations of both declined about an order of magnitude from the 1960s to the 1990s to 3.0 and 2.0 ??g kg-1, respectively. Chlordane and dieldrin concentrations increased during the 1970s and 1980s. The largest chlordane concentration was 8.0 ??g kg-1 and occurred in a sediment sample deposited in about 1990. The largest dieldrin concentration was 0.7 ??g kg-1 and occurred in the most recent sample deposited in the early 1990s. Agricultural use of chlordane and dieldrin was restricted in the 1970s; however, both were used as termiticides, and urban use of chlordane continued at least until 1990. Recent use of dieldrin and aldrin, which degrades to dieldrin, has not been reported; however, increasing trends in dieldrin since the 1970s suggest recent urban use could have occurred.

  4. Chemical and Ecological Health of White Sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Cherie V.; Weyers, Holly S.; Blazer, Vicki; Freeman, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded threshold or chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

  5. Chemical and ecological health of white sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003?04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.V.; Weyers, H.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Freeman, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded thresholdor chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

  6. Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway / Waterside Drive Sycamore and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway / Waterside Drive Sycamore and White Ash Trees, Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, median between northbound and southbound lanes near the Waterside Drive exit and entrance ramps., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can't see . . . things like information about what kinds of minerals make up the landforms. Mars scientists once thought, for instance, that these unusual features might be vast hills of salt, the dried up remains of a long-ago, evaporated lake. Not so, said an instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, which revealed that the bright material is probably made up of volcanic ash or windblown dust instead. And talk about a cyclical 'ashes to ashes, dust to dust' story! Particles of this material fell and fell until they built up quite a sedimentary deposit, which was then only eroded away again by the wind over time, leaving the spiky terrain seen today. It looks white, but its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the surrounding material is so dark. Of course, good eyesight always helps in understanding. A camera on Mars Global Surveyor with close-up capabilities revealed that sand dunes are responsible for the smudgy dark material in the bright sediment and around it. But that's not all. The THEMIS camera on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft that took this image reveals that this ashy or dusty deposit once covered a much larger area than it does today. Look yourself for two small dots of white material on the floor of a small crater nearby (center right in this image). They preserve a record that this bright deposit once reached much farther. Since so little of it remains, you can figure that the material probably isn't very hard, and simply blows away. One thing's for sure. No one looking at this image could ever think that Mars is a boring place. With all of its bright and dark contrasts, this picture would be perfect for anyone who loves Ansel Adams and his black-and-white photography.

  8. Rock Creek Tower Painting Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1988-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) built a 500-kV line across Rock Creek, a Class I trout stream about 20 miles east of Missoula, MT. Two 190-foot towers rise on either side of the Rock Creek valley, and the line between is suspended 600 feet over the valley floor. The crossing poses a hazard to passing airplanes and disrupts the natural landscape. The area where the line crosses Rock Creek is prized for its scenic beauty. In response to public demand that BPA protect the visual beauty of this area, BPA painted the towers gray to blend them best in with their natural surroundings. The issue now is to decide between either two gray towers or two orange-and-white towers. The underlying need is to resolve the conflict of pilot safety against scenic intrusion. The proposed action is to paint the gray tower aeronautical orange and white. Alternatives are to paint the orange-and-white tower back to its original gray; or leave the dilemma unresolved (the ''no-action'' alternative). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Metasedimentary Rocks at the Apple Creek Formation

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Art Bookstrom looks at puzzling sedimentary structures in metasedimentary rocks of the Apple Creek Formation, near the Jackass prospect, near Iron Creek, in the southeastern part of the Idaho cobalt belt, in east-central Idaho....

  10. 63. SURVEY OF RESERVOIR SITE ON LITTLE ROCK CREEK FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. SURVEY OF RESERVOIR SITE ON LITTLE ROCK CREEK FOR PALMDALE WATER CO., J.B. LIPPINCOTT ENGINEERING OFFICES; OCTOBER, 1915. Palmdale Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides.

    In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust.

    CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also has a higher spatial resolution that enables CRISM to see smaller exposures of these minerals, if they occur. If White Rock is an evaporative lacustrine or lake deposit, CRISM has the best chance of detecting telltale mineralogical signatures. The images above reveal what CRISM found.

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic of Pollack Crater taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). White Rock actually appears dark in the THEMIS mosaic due to a low daytime temperature, because its light color leads to less heating by the Sun. The middle-left image is an infrared, false color image that reveals White Rock's reddish hue. The middle-right image shows the signatures of different minerals that are present. CRISM found that White Rock is composed of accumulated dust perhaps with some fine-grained olivine (an igneous mineral), surrounded by basaltic sand containing olivine and dark-colored pyroxene. The lower two images were constructed by draping CRISM images over topography and exaggerating the vertical scale to better illustrate White Rock's topography. White Rock still appears not to contain evaporite, but instead to be composed of accumulated dust and sand.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  12. Odyssey/White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Mars Odyssey images show the 'White Rock' feature on Mars in both infrared (left) and visible (right) wavelengths. The images were acquired simultaneously on March 11, 2002. The box shows where the visible image is located in the infrared image. 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform that was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. The variations in brightness in the infrared image are due to differences in surface temperature, where dark is cool and bright is warm. The dramatic differences between the infrared and visible views of White Rock are the result of solar heating. The relatively bright surfaces observed at visible wavelengths reflect more solar energy than the darker surfaces, allowing them to stay cooler and thus they appear dark in the infrared image. The new thermal emission imaging system data will help to address the long standing question of whether the White Rock deposit was produced in an ancient crater lake or by dry processes of volcanic or wind deposition. The infrared image has a resolution of 100 meters (328 feet) per pixel and is 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide. The visible image has a resolution of 18 meters per pixel and is approximately 18 kilometers (11 miles) wide. The images are centered at 8.2 degrees south latitude and 24.9 degrees east longitude.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. WHITE MOUNTAINS AND BIRCH CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral survey of the White Mountains and Birch Creek Roadless Areas in California and Nevada indicates that there is probable and substantiated resource potential for gold, silver, lead, copper, zinc, tungsten, and mercury as well as barite and pyrophyllite. Pumice resources occur in several areas in the White Mountains Roadless Area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the areas. Metasedimentary rocks in Jeffrey Mine Canyon along the range front of the White Mountains Roadless Area contain known rutile occurrences at the site of the Champion mine. Geochemical studies and (or) a drilling program could help define the possibility of a titanium resource.

  14. 20. DISTANT HELICOPTER VIEW TO SOUTHEAST UP LITTLE ROCK CREEK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DISTANT HELICOPTER VIEW TO SOUTHEAST UP LITTLE ROCK CREEK CANYON, WITH DAM AND RESERVOIR AT RIGHT CENTER. PALMDALE-LITTLEROCK DITCH, MARKED BY DENSE VEGETATION, CROSSES ROAD AT LOWER CENTER - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 'White Rock' of Pollack Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    1 January 2004 The famous 'White Rock' of Pollack Crater has been known for three decades; it was originally found in images acquired by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) close-up view, obtained in October 2003, shows some of the light-toned, wind-eroded sedimentary rock that makes up 'White Rock.' It is not actually white, except when viewed in a processed, grayscale image (in color, it is more of a light butterscotch to pinkish material). The sediment that comprises 'White Rock' was deposited in Pollack Crater a long time ago, perhaps billions of years ago; the material was later eroded by wind. Dark, windblown ripples are present throughout the scene. This picture is located near 8.2oS, 335.1oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  16. Bridge 223, view looking east up Rock Creek Canyon at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bridge 22-3, view looking east up Rock Creek Canyon at Milepost 22.82. The line passes through tunnel 4 onto Bridge 22-3 and heads eastward up Rock Creek Canyon out onto the Camas Prairie - Camas Prairie Railroad, Second Subdivision, From Spalding in Nez Perce County, through Lewis County, to Grangeville in Idaho County, Spalding, Nez Perce County, ID

  17. 115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF SIPHON CROSSING ROCK CREEK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. ROCK CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1970-1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was designed to determine the characteristics and amounts of industrial and municipal wastes discharged to Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) and subsequently into the Snake River and to evaluate the effects of these wastes on the biota and water quality of Rock Creek. Indus...

  19. "Bridge #6 Rock Creek: Castiron 48" pipe lines to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Bridge #6 - Rock Creek: Cast-iron 48" pipe lines to Gravity - 1859." Construction photo of Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge, 1859. Photograph courtesy Washington Aqueduct Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Rock Creek Center, Portland Community College, Portland, Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The Portland Community College was given an award in the AS&U 1977 College & University Architectural Competition for the Rock Creek Center, designed like a shopping center that lets people view the various activities inside. (Author/MLF)

  1. 3. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY RAMP. VIEW TAKEN FROM NORTHERN RAILING OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Watergate & Bridge Plaza, Adjacent to Arlington Memorial Bridge & Lincoln Memorial, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 3. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY RAMP. VIEW TAKEN FROM NORTHERN RAILING OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Boundary Channel Extension, Spanning Mount Vernon Memorial Highway & Boundary Channel, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.

  4. ROCK CREEK, IDAHO RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM TEN YEAR REPORT. 1981-1991

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to this program, water quality of Rock Creek, Idaho (170040212) was severely impacted by irrigated agriculture. Impairments included phosphate, organic nitrogen, suspended solids, turbidity, bacteria, and toxic chemicals. The uses of Rock Creek for recreation, drinking wa...

  5. ROCK CREEK RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM, 1988 ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Implementation of the Rock Creek (17040212) rural clean water program began in 1980, following a Section 208 planning study. Contracting phases concluded on September 30, 1986. Best Management Practices (BMP) implementation phase began in 1980. As of 1 Oct 88, 38% of the contr...

  6. 110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET, DIVERSION SPILL IN BACKGROUND, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. 113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF INLET SIDE OF SIPHON, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. 112. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  10. 111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF SIPHON, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. 93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL NORTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  12. 114. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW, WEST OF INLET SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. 33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. 208.29 Section 208.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Arbuckle... in excess of bankfull on Rock Creek downstream of the lake and on the Washita River, from...

  14. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA WITH INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD SEEN IN UPPER LEFT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  15. 2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  16. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Water quality monitoring report for the White Oak Creek Embayment

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, C.J. ); Wefer, M.T. )

    1993-01-01

    Water quality monitoring activities that focused on the detection of resuspended sediments in the Clinch River were conducted in conjunction with the White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE) time-critical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to construct a sediment-retention structure at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC). Samples were collected by use of a 24-h composite sampler and through real-time water grab sampling of sediment plumes generated by the construction activities. Sampling stations were established both at the WOC mouth, immediately adjacent to the construction site, and at K-1513, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site drinking water intake approximately 9.6 km downstream in the Clinch River. Results are described.

  18. 76 FR 56394 - Kootenai National Forest, Sanders, County, MT; Rock Creek Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Forest Service Kootenai National Forest, Sanders, County, MT; Rock Creek Project AGENCY: Forest Service... Kootenai National Forest will prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Rock... will respond to the US District Court Decision in Rock Creek Alliance et al. v. USFS, Revett...

  19. White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmell, B.L.; Page, D.G.; Wilkerson, R.B.; Hudson, G.R.; Kauschinger, J.L.; Zocolla, M.

    1994-12-31

    White Oak Creek is the major surface water drainage throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium 137 and lower level of Cobalt 60 in near surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBs. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) agreed to initiate a time critical removal action in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent the transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work.

  20. Rock Creek methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project. Topical report. Rock Creek coalbed methane data summary, December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Dobscha, F.X.; Headley, A.L.; Lambert, S.W.; Lanier, J.B.; Robb, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    The Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project is a joint venture, investigating the drilling, completion, testing, stimulation, and production procedures for the economic production of methane from multiple coal seams. The report summarizes research conducted at Rock Creek to date. Much geologic and reservoir characterization of the project site has been performed to provide a basis for stimulation design, production analysis and reservoir testing. Geologic characterization included stratigraphic and structural evaluation along with coal cleat, rock joint, seam thickness, coal methane content, coal chemistry and coal petrography studies. Extensive reservoir data has been collected from permeability testing, hydrologic testing, stress testing, production and pressure monitoring, and a gas and water analysis program. Stimulation design and post testment diagnostics have been performed to optimize stimulation designs.

  1. ROCK CREEK, IDAHO RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM, 1987 ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goals of the Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) Rural Clean Water Program are to significantly reduce the amount of sediment, sediment related pollutants, and animal waste discharging into Rock Creek. Weekly water quality sampling was done through the irrigation season (April - Octobe...

  2. 33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. 208.29 Section 208.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.29 Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. The...

  3. 33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. 208.29 Section 208.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.29 Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. The...

  4. Bridge 17, view looking east at Milepost 17.14. Rock Creek ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bridge 17, view looking east at Milepost 17.14. Rock Creek is in the foreground. The grade loops back north and climbs east up Rock Creek Canyon - Camas Prairie Railroad, Second Subdivision, From Spalding in Nez Perce County, through Lewis County, to Grangeville in Idaho County, Spalding, Nez Perce County, ID

  5. 75 FR 77826 - White River National Forest; Eagle County, CO; Beaver Creek Mountain Improvements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Forest Service White River National Forest; Eagle County, CO; Beaver Creek Mountain Improvements AGENCY... disclose the anticipated environmental effects of implementing projects from Beaver Creek Resort's 2010 Master Development Plan (MIDP). These projects are designed to enhance and sustain Beaver Creek's...

  6. Forecasting contaminant concentrations: Spills in the White Oak Creek Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Borders, D.M.; Hyndman, D.W.; Huff, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (SSARR) model has been installed and sufficiently calibrated for use in managing accidental release of contaminants in surface waters of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed at ORNL. The model employs existing watershed conditions, hydrologic parameters representing basin response to precipitation, and a Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) to predict variable flow conditions throughout the basin. Natural runoff from each of the hydrologically distinct subbasins is simulated and added to specified plant and process water discharges. The resulting flows are then routed through stream reaches and eventually to White Oak Lake (WOL), which is the outlet from the WOC drainage basin. In addition, the SSARR model is being used to simulate change in storage volumes and pool levels in WOL, and most recently, routing characteristics of contaminant spills through WOC and WOL. 10 figs.

  7. 3. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD FROM THE INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD FROM THE INTERSECTION OF HIDDEN RIVER WAY (LEFT FOREGROUND) TOWARD ELEVATED INTERSECTION WITH LATROBE ROAD (AT RIGHT HORIZON); VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  8. 9. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD INDICATING CULVERT LOCATION (SEE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD INDICATING CULVERT LOCATION (SEE ROAD ANGLE POINT ON RIGHT) WITH LATROBE RD, INTERSECTION IN DISTANCE (LEFT OF CENTER); VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  9. ROCK CREEK, IDAHO RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM COMPREHENSIVE WATER QUALITY MONITORING ANNUAL REPORT 1989

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents progress on for the Rock Creek Rural Clean Water Program, Twin Falls County, Idaho (17040212), initiated in 1981. Results through 1988 suggest that Best Management Practices (BMPs) implemented under the program have improved water quality in the creek. BMP...

  10. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed [sup 137]Cs concentrations [> 10[sup 6] Bq/kg dry wt (> 10[sup 4] pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of [sup 137]Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h[sup 1] 1 m above the soil surface.

  11. 75 FR 55539 - Crooked Creek Reservoir Repair; White River National Forest, Eagle County, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... Federal Register (86 FR 24215). The Forest Service has decided to cancel the preparation of this EIS. The...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Crooked Creek Reservoir Repair; White River National Forest, Eagle... of Intent (NOT) to prepare an environmental impact statement (ElS) for the Crooked Creek...

  12. Simulation of contaminated sediment transport in White Oak Creek basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Y.; Clapp, R.B.; Brenkert, A.L.; Moore, T.D.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a systematic approach to management of the contaminated sediments in the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The primary contaminant of concern is radioactive cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), which binds to soil and sediment particles. The key components in the approach include an intensive sampling and monitoring system for flood events; modeling of hydrological processes, sediment transport, and contaminant flux movement; and a decision framework with a detailed human health risk analysis. Emphasis is placed on modeling of watershed rainfall-runoff and contaminated sediment transport during flooding periods using the Hydrologic Simulation Program- Fortran (HSPF) model. Because a large number of parameters are required in HSPF modeling, the major effort in the modeling process is the calibration of model parameters to make simulation results and measured values agree as closely as possible. An optimization model incorporating the concepts of an expert system was developed to improve calibration results and efficiency. Over a five-year simulation period, the simulated flows match the observed values well. Simulated total amount of sediment loads at various locations during storms match with the observed values within a factor of 1.5. Simulated annual releases of {sup 137}Cs off-site locations match the data within a factor of 2 for the five-year period. The comprehensive modeling approach can provide a valuable tool for decision makers to quantitatively analyze sediment erosion, deposition, and transport; exposure risk related to radionuclides in contaminated sediment; and various management strategies.

  13. Monitoring and modeling contaminated sediment transport in the White Oak Creek watershed. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1991-11-01

    Over the past 47 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of the White Oak Creek drainage system. The containments presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in White Oak Creek. During floods, the erosion of these sediments results in the transport of contaminants out of the catchment into the Clinch River. A long-term strategy is required to monitor the movement of contaminated sediments and to predict the transport of these sediments that could occur during major floods. A monitoring program will provide the information required to (1) evaluate the existing off-site transport of contaminated sediments, (2) evaluate the need for short-term control measures, (3) set priorities for remediation of contaminated areas in White Oak Creek (4) verify the success of completed remedial actions intended to control the movement of contaminated sediments, and (5) develop a computer model to simulate the transport of contaminated sediments in White Oak Creek. A contaminant-transport model will be developed to (1) evaluate the potential for the off-site transport of contaminated sediments during major floods, (2) develop long term control measures and remediation solutions, (3) predict the impact of future land-use changes in White Oak Creek on the transport of contaminated sediment. This report contains a plan for the monitoring and modeling activities required to accomplish these objectives.

  14. Monitoring and modeling contaminated sediment transport in the White Oak Creek watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1991-11-01

    Over the past 47 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of the White Oak Creek drainage system. The containments presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in White Oak Creek. During floods, the erosion of these sediments results in the transport of contaminants out of the catchment into the Clinch River. A long-term strategy is required to monitor the movement of contaminated sediments and to predict the transport of these sediments that could occur during major floods. A monitoring program will provide the information required to (1) evaluate the existing off-site transport of contaminated sediments, (2) evaluate the need for short-term control measures, (3) set priorities for remediation of contaminated areas in White Oak Creek (4) verify the success of completed remedial actions intended to control the movement of contaminated sediments, and (5) develop a computer model to simulate the transport of contaminated sediments in White Oak Creek. A contaminant-transport model will be developed to (1) evaluate the potential for the off-site transport of contaminated sediments during major floods, (2) develop long term control measures and remediation solutions, (3) predict the impact of future land-use changes in White Oak Creek on the transport of contaminated sediment. This report contains a plan for the monitoring and modeling activities required to accomplish these objectives.

  15. Rock creek methane from multiple coal seams completion project: Rock Creek coalbed methane completion project data summary update. Topical report, December 1990-February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ellard, J.; Lambert, S.W.; Litzinger, L.A.; Saulsberry, J.L.; Steidl, P.F.

    1995-12-01

    The report provides a summary of the data collected from 12 production wells and 17 monitor wells that were present at the Rock Creek Project. Well testing, reservoir evaluation, experimental fracturing treatments, diagnostic testing, and production testing were conducted to optimize stimulation methods for multiple thin coal seams. Much geologic and reservoir characterization of the project site has been performed to provide a basis for stimulation design, production analysis and reservoir testing. Geologic characterization included stratigraphic and structural evaluation along with coal cleat, rock joint, seam thickness, coal methane content, coal chemistry and coal petrography studies. The report summarizes the data collected over the 10 year life of the project.

  16. Mars' "White Rock" Feature Lacks Evidence of an Aqueous Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, S. W.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, R. N.; Kieffer, H. H.; Malin, M. C.; Bandfield, J. L.; Jakosky, B. M.; Lane, M. D.; Mellon, M. T.; Presley, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor has observed "White Rock" and the data do not indicate the presence of evaporite minerals. We suggest it is a deposit of compacted or weakly cemented aeolian sediment.

  17. Giant desiccation fissures on the Black Rock and Smoke Creek Deserts, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willden, R.; Mabey, D.R.

    1961-01-01

    Open fissures, from 100 to several hundred feet apart, that have produced polygonal patterns on the Black Rock Desert, Nevada, are believed to be giant desiccation cracks resulting from a secular trend toward aridity in the last few decades. Similar features on the Smoke Creek Desert probably have the same origin.

  18. ROCK CREEK, POWER COUNTY, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1977-1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey was conducted on Rock Creek, Power County, Idaho (17040209) to assess the levels of transported sediment, various chemical and physical parameters, and macroinvertebrate fauna during base and peak flow periods. The survey was initiated in October 1977 and sampling was c...

  19. Portland Community College, Rock Creek: A Community Based Educational Shopping Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bernardis, Amo

    An overview is presented of Portland Community College's plans to create the Rock Creek campus, scheduled to open in January 1976. The physical environment is considered to be an important factor in a student's cultural and aesthetic experience, and all facilities have been designed with this in mind. The philosophy guiding campus planning is one…

  20. Altered tuffaceous rocks of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griggs, Roy Lee

    1968-01-01

    More than 50 ash-fall tuff beds which have altered to analcitized or feldspathized rocks have been found in the upper 500-600 feet of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin of northwestern Colorado. Similarly altered water-washed tuff occurs as tongues in the uppermost part of this member, and forms most of the lower 400-600 feet of the overlying Evacuation Creek Member of the Green River Formation. 'The altered ash-fall beds of the Parachute Creek Member are all thin and show a characteristic pattern of alteration. Most beds range in thickness from a fraction of an inch to a few inches. One bed reaches a maximum thickness of 5 feet, and, unlike the other beds, is composed of several successive ash falls. The pattern of alteration changes from the outer part to the center of the basin. Most beds in the outer part of the basin contain about 50 to 65 percent analcite,with the interstices between the crystals filled mainly by microlites of feldspar, opal, and quartz, and small amounts of carbonate. At the center of the basin .essentially all the beds -are composed of microlites of feldspar, opal, and quartz, and small amounts of carbonate. The tongues of water-washed tuff in the uppermost part of the Parachute Creek Member and the similar rocks composing the lower 400-600 feet of the Evacuation Creek Mewber are feldspathized rocks composed mainly of microlites of feldspar, opal, and quartz, varying amounts of carbonate, and in some specimens tiny subrounded crystals of analcite. The general trend in alteration of the tuffaceous rocks from analcitization near the margin to feidspathization near the center of the Piceance Creek Basin is believed to have taken place at shallow depth during diagenesis , as indicated by field observations and laboratory work. It is believed that during sedimentation and diagenesis the waters of the central part of the basin were more alkaline and following the breakdown of the original tuffaceous glass to a colloidal gel during diagenesis analcitized rocks crystallized near the basin margin and feldspathized rocks crystallized near the center of the basin.

  1. Adoption in rock and white-tailed ptarmigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, M.M.L.; Fedy, B.C.; Wilson, S.; Martin, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Reports of adoption in birds are widespread, but few studies report rates of adoption or possible mechanisms for this phenomenon, particularly in the Order Galliformes. We report incidents of adoption in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. leucura) from two sites in western Canada. Adoption rates for White-tailed Ptarmigan on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Ruby Ranges, Yukon Territory were 13% (n = 16 broods) and 4% (n = 27), respectively, while rates for Rock Ptarmigan were 14% (n = 29) in the Ruby Ranges. Low brood densities may result in lower rates of adoption for ptarmigan. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

  2. Water quality monitoring report for the White Oak Creek Embayment. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, C.J.; Wefer, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality monitoring activities that focused on the detection of resuspended sediments in the Clinch River were conducted in conjunction with the White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE) time-critical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to construct a sediment-retention structure at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC). Samples were collected by use of a 24-h composite sampler and through real-time water grab sampling of sediment plumes generated by the construction activities. Sampling stations were established both at the WOC mouth, immediately adjacent to the construction site, and at K-1513, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site drinking water intake approximately 9.6 km downstream in the Clinch River. Results are described.

  3. Rock Creek methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project. Annual report, January 1989-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dodscha, F.X.; Headley, A.L.; Lambert, S.W.; Lanier, J.B.; Robb, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    The Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project is a joint venture developing drilling, completion, testing, stimulation, and production procedures for economic production of methane from multiple coal seams. During the report period, much well testing was conducted. Slug tests and injection tests were performed on Wells P6 and P7 in addition to slug tests on several offsite wells. Hydrological testing of Well P4 indicates there is communication between the Black Creek and Mary Lee Coal Groups. A drawdown study of the field and a mass balance analysis indicate about 10 percent of the gas within the area of drawdown has been produced. Production summaries of gas and water production is stable or declining for all of the wells. Production is good from Well P5 that was completed in the rock above the bottom seams in both the Mary Lee and Black Creek Groups. The sand packed rock interval has screened out coal fines and proppant which are normally produced during dewatering. This has allowed Well P5 to be pumped for 530 consecutive days with no pump problems. Treatment of water produced from the wells has been modified to adjust for the increasing proportion of water from the Black Creek Group with a higher TDS and iron levels.

  4. 76 FR 10938 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock... a proposed highway project, Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction, Clackamas County, Oregon..., NE., Suite 100, Salem, Oregon 97301, Telephone: (503) 587-4716. The Sunrise Project, I-205 to...

  5. Post-rock-avalanche dam outburst flood sedimentation in Ram Creek, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Lisa M.; Dunning, Stuart A.; Woodward, John; Davies, Timothy R. H.

    2015-07-01

    Rock avalanches are common in mountainous regions that are tectonically active. They are capable of forming natural dams of uncertain persistence that have significant impacts on the river system over wide spatial scales and possibly over geological time scales. Here we combine field data and digital elevation model (DEM) analysis to show the response of Ram Creek, New Zealand, to 28 years of sediment dispersion following the 1968 emplacement of a co-seismic, rock-avalanche dam that breached catastrophically in 1981. The results show a system that has not attained equilibrium, being unable to move the quantity of dam-derived sediments, and will likely not attain equilibrium before the next major sediment input; it is in a state of persistent disturbance where localised reworking dominates. Erosion in Ram Creek is focussed on lateral bevelling and bedrock gorge widening rather than vertical incision to keep pace with tectonic uplift. Importantly for studies of tectonic geomorphology, this widening - which if sustained will form a strath terrace - does not represent a period of reduced uplift. Stream metrics (concavity and steepness) are unable to differentiate the identified rock-avalanche-induced knickpoint from tectonic and lithological knickpoints.

  6. Multidimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Dispersion of White Oak Creek Contaminants in the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Platfoot, J.H.; Wendel, M.W.; Williams, P.T.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the simulation of the dispersion and dilution of dissolved or finely suspended contaminants entering the Clinch river from White Oak Creek. The work is accomplished through the application of a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. This study assumes that contaminants originating in the White Oak Creed watershed, which drains Oak Ridge National Laboratory, will eventually reach the mouth of White Oak Creek and be discharged into the clinch River. The numerical model was developed to support the analysis of the off-site consequences of releases from the ORNL liquid low-level waste system. The system contains storage tanks and transfer lines in Bethel Valley and Melton Valley. Under certain failure modes, liquid low-level waste could be released to White Oak Creek or Melton Branch to White Oak Creek and eventually be discharged to the Clinch River. Since the Clinch River has unrestricted access by the public and water usage from the Clinch River is not controlled by the Department of Energy, such a liquid low-level waste spill would create the possibility of public exposure to the contaminant. This study is limited to the dispersion of the contaminants downstream of the confluence of White Oak Creek.

  7. Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks and their use in dating Mesozoic and Tertiary structures in the southern Deep Creek range, Nevada and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, C.J.; Thorman, C.H. )

    1993-04-01

    Lower Eocene White Sage Formation and upper Eocene volcanic rocks are used to date Mesozoic to middle-Tertiary structures in and near the Goshute Indian Reservation, southern Deep Creek Range. Outcrops of conglomerate, limestone, and dolomite that are correlated with the White Sage type section at Gold Hill are scarce and confined to the eastern part of the map area. Voluminous volcanic rocks (39.5-- 39 Ma) are exposed in the western part of the map area. The relationships between these structures and the lower and upper Eocene rocks indicate that the attenuation faults are Paleocene or older, the broad folds are early to late Eocene, and the high-angle faults are post-late Eocene. Low-angle attenuation faults are most prominent at the Pennsylvanian Ely Limestone-Mississippian Chainman Shale contact, at the Mississippian-Devonian Pilot Shale-Devonian Guilmette Formation contact, and at the top of the Ordovician Eureka Quartzite. The White Sage overlies an attenuated section of Pilot Shale and Guilmette, establishing that the faults are pre-early Eocene. Deposition of White Sage on both Pennsylvanian and Devonian rocks indicates that by early Eocene time the attenuated Paleozoic rocks had been deeply eroded. Broad, N-NE-trending folds deform the White Sage and older rocks but are overlain unconformably by a 39.5-Ma basal tuff, restricting the age of folding to the middle Eocene. Deformation of this age has also been documented at Gold Hill and on the east side of the Elko Basin. Erosion followed folding and stripped the White Sage from most of the area. High-angle, down-to-the-west faults cut all Eocene rocks and are therefore younger than about 39 Ma. Near the southern boundary of the Reservation, the faults die out, and, where present, become near bedding-parallel in moderately to steeply dipping and thinly bedded rocks. These faults can be distinguished from the older attenuation faults by their association with numerous, small-scale, listic normal faults.

  8. Chemical and isotopic studies of granitic Archean rocks, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming: Geochronology of an Archean granite, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hedge, C.E.; Simmons, K.R.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium analyses of whole-rock samples of an Archean granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyo., indicate an intrusive age of 2640 {plus minus} 125 Ma. Muscovite-bearing samples give results suggesting that these samples were altered about 2300 Ma. This event may have caused extensive strontium loss from the rocks as potassium feldspar was altered to muscovite. Alteration was highly localized in nature as evidence by unaffected rubidium-strontium mineral ages in the Owl Creek Mountains area. Furthermore, the event probably involved a small volume of fluid relative to the volume of rock because whole-rock {delta}{sup 18}O values of altered rocks are not distinct from those of unaltered rocks. In contrast to the rubidium-strontium whole-rock system, zircons from the granite have been so severely affected by the alteration event, and possibly by a late-Precambrian uplift event, that the zircon system yields little usable age information. The average initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.7033 {plus minus} 0.0042) calculated from the isochron intercept varies significantly. Calculated initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios for nine apparently unaltered samples yield a range of 0.7025 to 0.7047. These calculated initial ratios correlate positively with whole-rock {delta}{sup 18}O values; and, therefore, the granite was probably derived from an isotopically heterogeneous source. The highest initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio is lower than the lowest reported for the metamorphic rocks intruded by the granite as it would have existed at 2640 Ma. Thus, the metamorphic sequence, at its current level of exposure, can represent no more than a part of the protolith for the granite.

  9. Analyses of geochemical samples and descriptions of rock samples, Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas, Clay County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, M.S.; Hanley, J.T.; Kelley, D.L.; Sherlock, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Semiquantitative spectrographic analyses for 31 elements on 105 rocks, 47 stream-sediment, and 70 soil samples from the Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas and vicinity, Talladega National Forest, Clay County, Alabama are reported here in detail. Atomic-absorption analyses for zinc in all samples and for gold in 5 selected rock samples are also reported. Localities for all sables are given in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. A brief description of each rock sample is included. Rocks analyzed include quartzite, phyllite, vein quartz, and schist.

  10. Regulatory compliance issues related to the White Oak Creek Embayment time-critical removal action

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, M. ); Kimmel, B.L. )

    1991-01-01

    In September 1990, Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) discovered high levels of Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in surface sedimenus near the mouth of White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE). White Oak Creek (WOC) receives surface water drainage from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Since this discovery, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems have pursued actions designed to stabilize the contaminated WOCE sediments under provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the implementing regulations in the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (40 CFR Part 300), as a time-critical removal action. By definition, a time-critical removal is an action where onsite activities are initiated within six months of the determination that a removal action is appropriate. Time-critical removal actions allow comparatively rapid mobilization to protect human health and the environment without going through the lengthy and extensive CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study/Record of Decision process. Many aspects of the project, in terms of compliance with the substantive requirements of the NCP and ARARs, have exceeded the regulatory requirements, despite the fact that there is no apparent authority on conducting removal actions at Federal facilities. Much of the interpretation of the NCP was groundbreaking in nature for both EPA and DOE. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Impacts on water quality and biota from natural acid rock drainage in Colorado's Lake Creek watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, D.A.; Sares, Matthew A.; Policky, Greg A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Church, Stanley E.

    2006-01-01

    Colorado's Lake Creek watershed hosts natural acid rock drainage that significantly impacts surface water, streambed sediment, and aquatic life. The source of the ARD is a group of iron-rich springs that emerge from intensely hydrothermally altered, unexploited, low-grade porphyry copper mineralization in the Grizzly Peak Caldera. Source water chemistry includes pH of 2.5 and dissolved metal concentrations of up to 277 mg/L aluminum, 498 mg/L iron, and 10 mg/L copper. From the hydrothermally altered area downstream for 27 kilometers to Twin Lakes Reservoir, metal concentrations in streambed sediment are elevated and the watershed experiences locally severe adverse impacts to aquatic life due to the acidic, metal-laden water. The water and sediment quality of Twin Lakes Reservoir is sufficiently improved that the reservoir supports a trout fishery, and remnants of upstream ARD are negligible.

  12. Water quality, sediment quality, and stream-channel classification of Rock Creek, Washington, D.C., 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Anita L.; Miller, Cherie V.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Doheny, Edward J.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Rock Creek Park is within the National Capital Region in Washington, D.C., and is maintained by the National Park Service. Part of Montgomery County, Maryland, and part of the District of Columbia drain into Rock Creek, which is a tributary of the Potomac River. Water quality in Rock Creek is important to biotic life in and near the creek, and in the Potomac River Basin and the Chesapeake Bay. The water quality of the Rock Creek Basin has been affected by continued urban and agricultural growth and development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, investigated water quality and sediment quality in Rock Creek over a 2-year period (1998?2000), and performed a stream-channel classification to determine the distribution of bottom sediment in Rock Creek. This report presents and evaluates water quality and bottom sediment in Rock Creek for water years 1999 (October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999) and 2000 (October 1, 1999 to September 30, 2000). A synoptic surface-water assessment was conducted at five stations from June 23 to June 25, 1999, a temporal surface-water assessment was conducted at one station from February 18, 1999 to September 26, 2000, and bed-sediment samples were collected and assessed from three stations from August 17 to August 19, 1999. The synoptic surface-water assessment included pesticides (parent compounds and selected transformation products), field parameters, nutrients, and major ions. The temporal surface-water assessment included pesticides (parent compounds and selected transformation products) and field parameters. The bed-sediment assessment included trace elements and organic compounds (including low- and high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, poly-chlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, and phthalates). Some, but not all, of the pesticides known to be used in the area were included in the synoptic water-quality assessment, the temporal water-quality assessment, and the bed-sediment assessment. In addition to the water-quality and sediment-quality assessments, a Rosgen stream-channel classification was performed on a 900-foot-long segment of Rock Creek. In the synoptic water-quality assessment, two pesticides were found to be above published criteria for the protection of aquatic life. In the temporal water-quality assessment, four pesticides were found to be above published criteria for the protection of aquatic life. In the bed-sediment assessment, 8 trace elements, 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6 pesticides, and 1 phthalate compound were found to be above published criteria for the protection of aquatic life. In the Rosgen classification, a comparison to a previous classification for this segment showed an increase in sands and other fine-grained sediments in the creek bed.

  13. The development of an aquatic spill model for the White Oak Creek watershed, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.O.

    1996-05-01

    This study develops an aquatic spill model applicable to the White Oak Creek watershed draining the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemicals are handled and stored on the laboratory reservation. An accidental spill into the White Oak Creek watershed could contaminate downstream water supplies if insufficient dilution did not occur. White Oak Creek empties into the Clinch River, which flows into the Tennessee River. Both rivers serve as municipal water supplies. The aquatic spill model provides estimates of the dilution at sequential downstream locations along White Oak creek and the Clinch River after an accidental spill of a liquid containing a radioactively decaying constituent. The location of the spill on the laboratory is arbitrary, while hydrologic conditions range from drought to extreme flood are simulated. The aquatic spill model provides quantitative estimates with which to assess water quality downstream from the site of the accidental spill, allowing an informed decision to be made whether to perform mitigating measures so that the integrity of affected water supplies is not jeopardized.

  14. Transport of contaminated sediment during floods in White Oak Creek near Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    Parts of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed have become contaminated during the last 47 years of operation of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 16 sq. km. catchment consists of a short embayment between White Oak Dam and the Clinch River, a small lake (7 ha), and two main tributaries (Melton Branch and White Oak Tributary) which converge 1 km upstream of the lake. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the floodplains and channels of WOC and in White Oak Lake (WOL). During floods, the erosion and resuspension of these sediments can result in the transport of contaminants within the catchment and out of WOL into the Clinch River. It is not possible to predict the transport of contaminated sediment during storms because the existing database and monitoring program were not developed to address this issue. In order to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods, and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport, a data collection program and a modeling investigation have been initiated. The data collection program is required to establish a conceptual model of contaminated sediment transport in WOC, to provide the data required to calibrate and apply the computer model, and to generate a database that will be used in the future to evaluate the effectiveness of completed clean up activities. The computer model will be used to simulate the transport of contaminated sediments during floods up to the 100-year event with existing and future land use conditions. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  15. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed {sup 137}Cs concentrations [> 10{sup 6} Bq/kg dry wt (> 10{sup 4} pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of {sup 137}Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h{sup 1} 1 m above the soil surface.

  16. White Oak Creek watershed: Melton Valley area Remedial Investigation report, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes A and B

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This document contains Appendixes A ``Source Inventory Information for the Subbasins Evaluated for the White Oak Creek Watershed`` and B ``Human Health Risk Assessment for White Oak Creek / Melton Valley Area`` for the remedial investigation report for the White Oak Creek Watershed and Melton Valley Area. Appendix A identifies the waste types and contaminants for each subbasin in addition to the disposal methods. Appendix B identifies potential human health risks and hazards that may result from contaminants present in the different media within Oak Ridge National Laboratory sites.

  17. Rock magnetic properties of a soil developed on an alluvial deposit at Buttermilk Creek, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Anna K.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Waters, Michael R.

    2011-12-01

    The evolution of magnetization within a floodplain soil begins with initial deposition of magnetic particles during sedimentation and continues via subsequent alteration and growth of iron-bearing compounds by pedogenic and biologic processes. Measurements of soil magnetic properties capture information about the developmental history of the soil and are a convenient method by which to investigate environmental change and pedogenesis. Using a range of magnetic measurements, a comprehensive scenario for soil development was constructed for floodplain sediments at the Debra L. Friedkin site, an important archeological site near Buttermilk Creek, Texas. Floodplain deposits have traditionally been avoided for soil magnetism studies because it is thought that the episodic input of sediment would form soils characterized by discrete sedimentary units rather than a continuous record of pedogenesis. We demonstrate that alluvial deposits can sometimes carry a straightforwardly interpretable magnetic signal similar to those typically seen in loess deposits. Smooth variation of rock magnetic parameters as a function of depth also leads us to conclude that the soil at this site is largely undisturbed and that the age of lithic artifacts found within the soil may be interpreted within stratigraphic context.

  18. Streamflow characteristics of small tributaries of Rock Creek, Milk River basin, Montana, base period water years 1983-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Five streamflow-gaging stations were installed in the Rock Creek basin north of the Milk River near Hinsdale, Montana. Streamflow was monitored at these stations and at an existing gaging station upstream on Rock Creek from May 1983 through September 1987. The data collected were used to describe the flow characteristics of four small tributary streams. Annual mean streamflow ranges from 2.8 to 57 cu ft/sec in the mainstem and from 0 to 0.60 cu ft/sec in the tributaries. Monthly mean streamflow ranged from 0 to 528 cu ft/sec in Rock Creek and from zero to 5.3 cu ft/sec in the four tributaries. The six gaged sites show similar patterns of daily mean streamflow during periods of large runoff, but substantial individual variations during periods of lesser runoff. During periods of lesser runoff , the small tributaries may have small daily mean streamflows. At other times, daily mean streamflow at the two mainstem sites decreased downstream. Daily mean streamflow in the tributaries appears to be closely related to daily mean streamflow in the mainstem only during periods of substantial area-wide runoff. Thus, streamflow in the tributaries resulting from local storms or local snowmelt may not contribute to streamflow in the mainstem. (USGS)

  19. Isotopic composition of ice cores and meltwater from upper fremont glacier and Galena Creek rock glacier, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Green, J.R.; Vogt, S.; Michel, R.; Cottrell, G.

    1998-01-01

    Meltwater runoff from glaciers can result from various sources, including recent precipitation and melted glacial ice. Determining the origin of the meltwater from glaciers through isotopic analysis can provide information about such things as the character and distribution of ablation on glaciers. A 9.4 m ice core and meltwater were collected in 1995 and 1996 at the glacigenic Galena Creek rock glacier in Wyoming's Absaroka Mountains. Measurements of chlorine-36 (36Cl), tritium (3H), sulphur-35 (35S), and delta oxygen-18 (??18O) were compared to similar measurements from an ice core taken from the Upper Fremont Glacier in the Wind River Range of Wyoming collected in 1991-95. Meltwater samples from three sites on the rock glacier yielded 36Cl concentrations that ranged from 2.1 ?? 1.0 X 106 to 5.8??0.3 X 106 atoms/l. The ice-core 36Cl concentrations from Galena Creek ranged from 3.4??0.3 X 105 to 1.0??0.1 X 106 atoms/l. Analysis of an ice core from the Upper Fremont Glacier yielded 36Cl concentrations of 1.2??0.2 X 106 and 5.2??0.2 X 106 atoms/l for pre- 1940 ice and between 2 X 106 and 3 X 106 atoms/l for post-1980 ice. Purdue's PRIME Lab analyzed the ice from the Upper Fremont Glacier. The highest concentration of 36Cl in the ice was 77 ?? 2 X 106 atoms/l and was deposited during the peak of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the late 1950s. This is an order of magnitude greater than the largest measured concentration from both the Upper Fremont Glacier ice core that was not affected by weapons testing fallout and the ice core collected from the Galena Creek rock glacier. Tritium concentrations from the rock glacier ranged from 9.2??0.6 to 13.2??0.8 tritium units (TU) in the meltwater to -1.3??1.3 TU in the ice core. Concentrations of 3H in the Upper Fremont Glacier ice core ranged from 0 TU in the ice older than 50 years to 6-12 TU in the ice deposited in the last 10 years. The maximum 3H concentration in ice from the Upper Fremont Glacier deposited in the early 1960s during peak weapons testing fallout for this isotope was 360 TU. One meltwater sample from the rock glacier was analyzed for 35S with a measured concentration of 5.4??1.0 millibecquerel per liter (mBeq/l). Modern precipitation in the Rocky Mountains contains 35S from 10 to 40 mBeq/L. The ??18O results in meltwater from the Galena Creek rock glacier (-17.40??0.1 to -17.98??0.1 per mil) are similar to results for modern precipitation in the Rocky Mountains. Comparison of these isotopic concentrations from the two glaciers suggest that the meltwater at the Galena Creek site is composed mostly of melted snow and rain that percolates through the rock debris that covers the glacier. Additionally, this water from the rock debris is much younger (less than two years) than the reported age of about 2000 years for the subsurface ice at the mid-glacier coring site. Thus the meltwater from the Galena Creek rock glacier is composed primarily of melted surface snow and rain water rather than melted glacier ice, supporting previous estimates of slow ablation rates beneath the surface debris of the rock glacier.

  20. Surface radiological investigations at two creek receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Uziel, M.S.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

    1994-02-01

    A surface radiological investigation was conducted intermittently from August 1992 July 1993 at two creeks receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard. In this report, the two creeks (both unnamed tributaries of Bear Creek) are, referred to as the east creek and the west creek based on their respective locations relative to White Wing Scrap Yard. The radiological survey of accessible areas at the east creek revealed no detectable gamma exposure rates above typical background levels (8 to 12 {mu}R/h). The very slight elevations in gamma and beta-gamma levels found along the creek were generally associated with outcroppings of shale and typical of naturally occurring radionuclides present in such material. No radiological anomalies were associated with an oily sheen observed on the water at three locations, three 55-gal metal drums in or near the creek, a small pile of metal debris near the creek, or several enclosures used in a 1969 study of animal excretion rates. Radionuclide analysis of three soil samples collected at the east creek demonstrated typical of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, and {sup 40}K.

  1. Chemical and isotopic studies of granitic Archean rocks, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming: Uranium-thorium-lead systematics of an Archean granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Stuckless, J.S.; Nkomo, I.T.; Butt, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of apparently unaltered whole-rock samples of a granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyo., yield a lead-lead isochron age of 2730 {plus minus} 35 Ma, which is somewhat older than the age obtained by the rubidium-strontium whole-rock method. Thorium-lead data for the same samples deviate markedly from an isochronal relation; however, calculated initial {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratios correlate with whole-rock {delta}{sup 18}O values and lead to the conclusion that the {sup 232}Th-{sup 208}Pb data are not colinear because of an originally heterogeneous granitic magma. Relationships in the {sup 207}Pb/{sup 235}U-{sup 206}Pb/{sup 238}U system show that uranium was mobilized during early Laramide time or shortly before, such that most surface and shallow drill-core samples lost 60-80 percent of their uranium, and some fractured, deeper drill-core samples gained from 50 to 10,000 percent uranium. Fission-track maps show that much uranium is located along edges and cleavages of biotite and magnetic where it is readily accessible to oxidizing ground water. Furthermore, qualitative comparisons of uranium distribution in samples with excess radiogenic lead and in samples with approximately equilibrium amounts of uranium and lead suggest that the latter contain more uranium in these readily accessible sites. Unlike other granites that have uranium distributions and isotopic systematics similar to those observed in this study, the granite of the Owl Creek Mountains is not associated with economic uranium deposits.

  2. White Oak Creek Embayment time-critical CERCLA removal action sediment-retention structure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Over a 20-month period between September 1990 and April 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE), acting through Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., managing contractor for the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR), conducted a DOE-lead and DOE-funded time-critical removal action at the White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE), pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The time-critical removal action specifically consisted of the design and construction of a sediment-retention structure across the mouth of WOCE to prevent off-site migration of sediments contaminated by cesium ([sup 137]Cs) into the Clinch River. Construction of a sediment-retention structure was completed in mid-April 1992. The purpose of this report is to meet the substantive requirements of 40 CFR 300.165 describing a complete report on the removal operation and the actions taken.'' This section of the NCP specifically addresses on-scene coordinator reports for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund-lead actions and includes several elements that are not applicable to this DOE-lead action. Only those sections that are pertinent and applicable are addressed in this final report.

  3. Food of white perch, rock bass and yellow perch in eastern Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.; Griswold, Bernard L.; Schneider, Clifford P.; Wolfert, David R.

    1981-01-01

    The contents of stomachs from 1,485 white perch, 218 rock bass and 1,399 yellow perch collected in eastern Lake Ontario from May to October in 1972 and in May 1973 were examined. All three species fed primarily on amphipods, but they also ate chironomids and trichopterans regularly. Rock bass ate more trichopterans than chironomids, whereas white perch and yellow perch ate more chironomids. Snails and crayfish were significant items in the diet of rock bass, but occurred infrequently in stomachs of white perch and yellow perch. White perch and yellow perch frequently ate fish eggs during early summer, but rock bass seldom ate fish eggs. Fish were important in the diets of white perch longer than 300 millimeters and rock bass and yellow perch longer than 200 millimeters. Similarities in the diets of fish 1 year old or older suggest that the potential for competition between white perch and yellow perch is greater than that between rock bass and either white perch or yellow perch.

  4. Comagmatic contact relationships between the Rock Creek Gabbro and Round Valley Peak granodiorite, central Sierra Nevada, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.C.; Bown, C.J. . School of Natural Science)

    1993-03-01

    The Rock Creek Gabbro (RCG) in Little Lakes Valley, near Tom's Place, CA abuts three granodiorites with distinctive contact characteristics. Against within a cm in most places. The contact with Round Valley Peak (RVP) on the north, however, is a zone at least 3 km wide and records a mode of mafic magmatic enclave formation. A northward traverse of the zone begins 300--400 m within the RCG with progressively lighter, though still uniform rock. Next is a 100--200m wide jumble of sharp-edged angular 10--30m gabbroic xenoliths, variable in grainsize and plastic deformation and interspersed with stretched partially disaggregated enclaves in normal RVP granodiorite. Xenoliths are essentially absent from the RVP from here north; stretched enclaves with very consistent strikes paralleling (within 20[degree]) the mapped RCG-RVP contact and high angle dips (70--90[degree]), occur singly and in dense swarms and fall from 4% to 0.5% of outcrop area in the remaining traverse. Rock Creek gabbros including xenoliths at the contact cluster chemically with RVP enclaves on all major and trace element plots, suggesting a common parentage; some of each group show evidence of plagioclase flotation. Trace element data (esp. Zr/Nb) suggests that fractional crystallization dominates mixing in the evolution of the gabbroic/enclave magma.

  5. Mixing Model Analysis of Suspended Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Sources in White Clay Creek, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwan, D. L.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Aalto, R. E.; Marquard, J.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Newbold, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Material exports from watersheds have consequences to upstream catchment elemental budgets, downstream ecosystem processes and water resources management. Despite this importance, quantifying exports of all major and trace elements associated with suspended sediments is challenging due to the highly episodic nature of that export. Constraining sediment sources using various mixing model approaches is further complicated by the diversity of potential sources. In this study, we leveraged the infrastructure of the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory (CRB-CZO) to collect large volume (200 L) samples from 17 storms, including some of the biggest storms of the decade (i.e. Hurricane Irene and Sandy), and 95 potential source soils and sediments within the White Clay Creek watershed, a third-order watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania. On all samples we analyzed major and minor elements, rare earth elements, and radioisotopes in order to determine the erosional source category of stream suspended material, such that differences in the chemical composition of source materials can be used in a multivariate statistical model to predict the chemical composition of suspended sediment. For example, 137Cs is higher in surface and near-surface terrestrial soils and low in streambanks, deeper soils, road cuts, and road dust. Elemental chromium is much higher in road dust than any other source. We integrate sediment fingerprinting analyses common in geomorphological studies of mineral suspended material with biological and ecological characterizations of particulate organic carbon. Through this combination, we determine particle source, a necessary first step to calculating the amount of excess carbon that has complexed with particles during erosion and transit through the watershed. This interdisciplinary project is conducted as one of many studies in the CRB-CZO and directly contributes to the overall research focus of this CZO: to quantify the net carbon sink or source due to mineral production, weathering, erosion and deposition as materials are transported and transformed across geophysical boundaries within a dynamic watershed.

  6. Selenium and Other Elements in Water and Adjacent Rock and Sediment of Toll Gate Creek, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, December 2003 through March 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, J.R.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Streamwater and solid samples (rock, unconsolidated sediment, stream sediment, and efflorescent material) in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Colorado, were collected and analyzed for major and trace elements to determine trace-element concentrations and stream loads from December 2003 through March 2004, a period of seasonally low flow. Special emphasis was given to selenium (Se) concentrations because historic Se concentrations exceeded current (2004) stream standards. The goal of the project was to assess the distribution of Se concentration and loads in Toll Gate Creek and to determine the potential for rock and unconsolidated sediment in the basin to be sources of Se to the streamwater. Streamwater samples and discharge measurements were collected during December 2003 and March 2004 along Toll Gate Creek and its two primary tributaries - West Toll Gate Creek and East Toll Gate Creek. During both sampling periods, discharge ranged from 2.5 liters per second to 138 liters per second in the watershed. Discharge was greater in March 2004 than December 2003, but both periods represent low flow in Toll Gate Creek, and results of this study should not be extended to periods of higher flow. Discharge decreased moving downstream in East Toll Gate Creek but increased moving downstream along West Toll Gate Creek and the main stem of Toll Gate Creek, indicating that these two streams gain flow from ground water. Se concentrations in streamwater samples ranged from 7 to 70 micrograms per liter, were elevated in the upstream-most samples, and were greater than the State stream standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter. Se loads ranged from 6 grams per day to 250 grams per day, decreased in a downstream direction along East Toll Gate Creek, and increased in a downstream direction along West Toll Gate Creek and Toll Gate Creek. The largest Se-load increases occurred between two sampling locations on West Toll Gate Creek during both sampling periods and between the two sampling locations on the main stem of Toll Gate Creek during the December 2003 sampling. These load increases may indicate that sources of Se exist between these two locations; however, Se loading along West Toll Gate Creek and Toll Gate Creek primarily was characterized by gradual downstream increases in load. Linear regressions between Se load and discharge for both sampling periods had large, significant values of r2 (r2 > 0.96, p < 0.0001) because increases in Se load (per unit of flow increase) were generally constant. This relation is evidence for a constant addition of water having a relatively constant Se concentration over much of the length of Toll Gate Creek, a result which is consistent with a ground-water source for the Se loads. Rock outcroppings along the stream were highly weathered, and Se concentrations in rock and other solid samples ranged from below detection (1 part per million) to 25 parts per million. One sample of efflorescence (a surface encrustation produced by evaporation) had the greatest selenium concentration of all solid samples, was composed of thenardite (sodium sulfate), gypsum (calcium sulfate) and minor halite (sodium chloride), and released all of its Se during a 30-minute water-leaching procedure. Calculations indicate there was an insufficient amount of this material present throughout the watershed to account for the observed Se load in the stream. However, this material likely indicates zones of ground-water discharge that contain Se. This report did not identify an unequivocal source of Se in Toll Gate Creek. However, multiple lines of evidence indicate that ground-water discharge supplies Se to Toll Gate Creek: (1) the occurrence of elevated Se concentrations in the stream throughout the watershed and in the headwater regions, upstream from industrial sources; (2) the progressive increase in Se loads moving downstream, which indicates a continuous input of Se along the stream rather than input from point sources; (3) the occurr

  7. Geohydrology of White Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande from Otowi to Frijoles Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Owens, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Twenty-seven springs discharge from the Totavi Lentil and Tesuque Formation in White Rock Canyon. Water generally acquires its chemical characteristics from rock units that comprise the spring aquifer. Twenty-two of the springs are separated into three groups of similar aquifer-related chemical quality. The five remaining springs make up a fourth group with a chemical quality that differs due to localized conditions in the aquifer. Localized conditions may be related to recharge or discharge in or near basalt intrusion or through faults. Streams from Pajarito, Ancho, and Frijoles Canyons discharge into the Rio Grande in White Rock Canyon. The base flow in the streams is from springs. Sanitary effluent in Mortandad Canyon from the treatment plant at White Rock also reaches the Rio Grande.

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Ross basin, upper Cement Creek in Watershed above North Fork Cement Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Western view toward the Red Mountains near Silverton, Colorado, taken just upstream from the North Fork Cement Creek drainage in 2006. The photo illustrates acidic drainage (red drainage at right) and less acidic drainage (white drainage at left of photo) that originates from altered rocks and mine...

  10. Mars' "White Rock" feature lacks evidence of an aqueous origin: Results from Mars Global Surveyor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruff, S.W.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, R.N.; Kieffer, H.H.; Malin, M.C.; Bandfield, J.L.; Jakosky, B.M.; Lane, M.D.; Mellon, M.T.; Presley, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The "White Rock" feature on Mars has long been viewed as a type example for a Martian playa largely because of its apparent high albedo along with its location in a topographic basin (a crater). Data from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) demonstrate that White Rock is not anomalously bright relative to other Martian bright regions, reducing the significance of its albedo and weakening the analogy to terrestrial playas. Its thermal inertia value indicates that it is not mantled by a layer of loose dust, nor is it bedrock. The thermal infrared spectrum of White Rock shows no obvious features of carbonates or sulfates and is, in fact, spectrally flat. Images from the Mars Orbiter Camera show that the White Rock massifs are consolidated enough to retain slopes and allow the passage of saltating grains over their surfaces. Material appears to be shed from the massifs and is concentrated at the crests of nearby bedforms. One explanation for these observations is that White Rock is an eroded accumulation of compacted or weakly cemented aeolian sediment. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Overview of shallow gas production from Eagle-equipment rocks south and east of Cedar Creek Anticline

    SciTech Connect

    Shurr, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    Shallow gas has been produced for more than fifty years from Eagle-equivalent Cretaceous sandstones on Cedar Creek Anticline in eastern Montana. In the last two decades four fields have been developed off the south and east flanks of the anticline: (1) West Short Pine Hills and (2) Cady Creek in Harding County, SD; (3) Gaslight in Fallon County, MT; and (4) Little Missouri in Bowman County, ND. Paleogeographic reconstructions indicate that the reservoir rocks in all four fields were deposited near an outer shelf margin more than 200 mi (322 km) east of the strandline. West Short Pine Hills and Cady Creek Fields are located within a sandstone sheet up to 15 ft (4.6 m) thick. Gaslight Field is near the margin of the sheet and has thinner sandstones. In Little Missouri Field the reservoir is primarily interbedded siltstone and shale. Regional lineament zones mapped on satellite images influenced Cretaceous deposition and were also the sites of post-depositional deformation. The South Dakota gas fields are located within a tectonic block well away from bounding lineament zones. Gaslight is within a northeast-trending lineament zone and Little Missouri is at the intersection of lineament zones trending north-east and northwest. Production in Little Missouri Field is clearly influenced by structure. Values of initial production and marker-bed elevation show a strong correlation. Wells with large IP values are found along the crest of a small anticline and show steeper decline curves than wells with small IP values at the margins of the structure. In contrast, IP values show little correlation with structural altitude in the gas fields of South Dakota and Montana.

  12. Roof-rock contamination of Taylor Creek Rhyolite, New Mexico, as recorded in hornblende phenocrysts and biotite xenocrysts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittke, J.H.; Duffield, W.A.; Jones, C.

    1996-01-01

    The Taylor Creek Rhyolite, a group of coeval, mid-Tertiary, silica-rich rhyolite lava domes in southwestern New Mexico, is notable for recording bulk-rock evidence of minor, yet easily measurable, contamination of its source magma reservoir resulting from assimilation of Proterozoic roof rock. Most of the evidence is recorded in trace element concentrations and 87Sr/86Sri ratios, which are far different in unconlaminated magma and roof rocks. Hornblende phenocrysts and biotite xenocrysts also record the effects of contamination. Electron microprobe analyses show that all hornblende grains are zoned to Mg-rich and Fe- and Mn-poor rims. Rim MgO content is typically about 10 wt% greater than core MgO content. Other hornblende constituents are not measurably variable. Biotite xenocrysts, trace mineral constituents, are present only in the domes that are most contaminated, as judged by bulk-rock variations in trace element concentrations and 87Sr/ 86Sri. Biotite grains are invariably partly to almost completely altered. Microprobe analyses of the cores of the least-altered grains show that large variations in Fe and Mg and that biotite contains 2-20 times as much Mg as fresh biotite phenocrysts in other silica-rich rhyolite lavas. Fe and Mg are negatively correlated in hornblende and biotite, consistent with mixing two end-member compositions. The mass ratio of contaminant to magma was probably less than 1:100, and major constituents, including Al, were not measurably affected in hornblende. Al-in-hornblende barometry yields essentially a constant calculated pressure of about 1.5 kbar, which is consistent with the interpretation that all contamination occurred in a boundary zone about 300 m thick at the top of the magma reservoir.

  13. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K.; Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Huq, M.V.; Meyers-Schone, L.J.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.; Stout, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  14. Application of a damage model for rock fragmentation to the Straight Creek Mine blast experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, B.J.

    1991-09-01

    Early attempts at estimation of stress wave damage due to blasting by use of finite element calculations met with limited success due to numerical instabilities that prevented calculations from being carried past the fragmentation limit. More recently, the improved damage model PRONTO has allowed finite element calculations which remain stable and yield good agreement between calculated fragmented regions and excavated crater profiles for blasting experiments in granite. Application of this damage model to blast experiments at the Straight Creek Mine in Bell County, Kentucky were complicated by anisotropic conditions and uncertainties in material properties. It appears that significant modifications to the damage model and extensive material testing may be necessary in order to estimate damage in these anisotropic materials. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  15. 68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 65. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: UPSTREAM ELEVATION, SHEET 3; APRIL, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 66. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: DIMENSION SHEET, SECTION THROUGH CROWN, SHEET 6, APRIL, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Conservation practice effectiveness in the irrigated Upper Snake/Rock Creek watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Upper Snake-Rock (USR) Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was initiated in 2005 to determine the effectiveness of conservation practices in an irrigated watershed. Our objectives were to determine water and salt balances and water quality effects of using sprinkler rather than furrow...

  19. Radiocarbon and cation-radio ages for rock varnish on Tioga and Tahoe marainal boulders of Pine Creek, eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and their paleoclimatic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorn, R.I.; Turrin, B.D.; Jull, A.J.T.; Linick, T.W.; Donahue, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C analyses of organic matter extracted from rock varnishes on morainal boulders yield limiting minimum ages for three crests of the Tioga glaciation. At Pine Creek in the eastern Sierra Nevada, varnish started to form on boulders of the outermost Tioga moraine before 19,000 yr B.P., and varnish originated on the innermost Tioga moraine before 13,200 yr B.P. Comparisons with lake-level, paleohydrological, paleoecological, colluvial, and rock varnish micromorphological data indicate that central-eastern California and western Nevada experienced a moisture-effective period during the late Pleistocene but after the Tioga maximum, and perhaps as Tioga glaciers receded from the mouth of Pine Creek canyon. Varnishes on Tahoeage morainal boulders at Pine Creek have cation-ratio ages of about 143,000-156,000 yr B.P., suggesting that the Tahoe glaciation should not be correlated with oxygen-isotope stage 4 in the early Wisconsin, but rather with stage 6. Varnishes on morainal boulders of an older glaciation at Pine Creek are dated by cation ratio at about 182,000-187,000 yr B.P. ?? 1987.

  20. Geochemical and stable isotope variations in baseflow from an urbanized watershed: White Rock Creek, Dallas, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hercod, D.J.; Gregory, R.T.; Brady, P.V. |

    1995-03-01

    Public concerns about surface water quality and its impact on health issues have put a premium on the ability to predict surface and groundwater quality in urban areas. The movement of toxins and nutrients in urban areas is largely controlled by interactions with soil and aquifer minerals along hydrologic pathways. Despite progress in theoretical modeling of the effects of these interactions on water chemistry, it is presently impossible to predict overall trends in urban water quality. Determining the controls on stream water chemistry is problematic due to the interplay between different hydrologic reservoirs which cannot be easily observed or measured. Natural tracers, such as dissolved ions and isotopes, provide an indirect method for observing subsurface interactions and are useful for time series analysis of stream water composition. Ionic species are generally nonconservative components because of chemical reactions and are thus useful for discerning the overall discharge chemistry affected by the relationship.

  1. Analytical results for 56 rock, 46 stream-sediment and soil, and 22 panned-concentrate samples from the Welcome Creek Wilderness Study Area, Granite County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.L.; Lee, G.K.; Antweiler, J.C.; Hopkins, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-six rock, 46 stream-sediment, and 22 panned-concentrate samples were collected from the Welcome Creek Wilderness, Granite County, Montana, during the summers of 1979 and 1980. All samples were analyzed for 31 elements by a six-step semiquantitative emission spectrographic method (Grimes and Marranzino, 1968). All panned concentrate and other selected samples were analyzed for gold by an atomic absorption procedure (Thompson and others, 1968). All rock and stream-sediment samples were also analyzed for Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn by a partial-digestion procedure (Viets and others, 1979). Sample analyses and locations are presented in this report.

  2. Geology of the lower Yellow Creek Area, Northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    The lower Yellow Creek area is located in Rio Blanco and Moffat Counties of northwestern Colorado, about midway between the towns of Rangely and Meeker. The study area is in the northwestern part of the Piceance Creek basin, a very deep structural and sedimentary basin that formed during the Laramide orogeny. Potentially important resources in the area are oil shale and related minerals, oil and gas, coal, and uranium. Topics discussed in the report include: Stratigraphy (Subsurface rocks, Cretaceous rocks, Tertiary rocks, and Quaternary deposits); Structure (Midland anticline, graben at Pinyon Ridge, and Crooked Wash syncline, Folds and faults in the vicinity of the White River, Red Wash syncline and central graben zone, Yellow Creek anticlinal nose); Economic geology (Oil shale and associated minerals, Coal, Oil and gas, Uranium, Gravel).

  3. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy`s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings.

  4. Pesticides in groundwater in the Anacostia River and Rock Creek watersheds in Washington, D.C., 2005 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koterba, Michael T.; Dieter, Cheryl A.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the District Department of the Environment, conducted a groundwater-quality investigation to (a) determine the presence, concentrations, and distribution of selected pesticides in groundwater, and (b) assess the presence of pesticides in groundwater in relation to selected landscape, hydrogeologic, and groundwater-quality characteristics in the shallow groundwater underlying the Anacostia River and Rock Creek watersheds in Washington, D.C. With one exception, well depths were 100 feet or less below land surface. The USGS obtained or compiled ancillary data and information on land use (2001), subsurface sediments, and groundwater samples from 17 wells in the lower Anacostia River watershed from September through December 2005, and from 14 wells in the lower Anacostia River and lower Rock Creek watersheds from August through September 2008. Twenty-seven pesticide compounds, reflecting at least 19 different types of pesticides, were detected in the groundwater samples obtained in 2005 and 2008. No fungicides were detected. In relation to the pesticides detected, degradate compounds were as or more likely to be detected than applied (parent) compounds. The detected pesticides chiefly reflected herbicides commonly used in urban settings for non-specific weed control or insecticides used for nonspecific haustellate insects (insects with specialized mouthparts for sucking liquid) or termite-specific control. Detected pesticides included a combination of pesticides currently (2008) in use, banned or under highly restricted use, and some that had replaced the banned or restricted-use pesticides. The presence of banned and restricted-use pesticides illustrates their continued persistence and resistance to complete degradation in the environment. The presence of the replacement pesticides indicates the susceptibility of the surficial aquifer to contamination irrespective of the changes in the pesticides used. A preliminary review of the data collected in 2005 and 2008 indicated that differences in the surficial geology, land use (as a surrogate for pesticide use), and above-average precipitation for most of 2004 through 2008, as well as differences in the number and performance of USGS laboratory methods used, could have led to more pesticides detected in groundwater samples collected in 2008 than in groundwater samples collected in 2005. Thus, although data from both years of collection were used for interpretive analysis, emphasis was placed on the analysis of the data obtained in 2008. The presence of pesticides in shallow groundwater (less than approximately 100 ft (feet), or 30 m (meters), below land surface) indicated at least the upper surficial aquifer in Washington, D.C. was susceptible to contamination. One or more herbicides or insecticides were detected in groundwater samples collected from 50 percent of the shallow wells sampled in 2005, and from 62 percent of the shallow wells sampled in 2008. Differences among types of pesticides in shallow groundwater were apparent. The most frequently detected class of herbicides was the s-triazine compounds-atrazine, simazine, or prometon, or the atrazine-degradate compounds-2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (desethylatrazine or CIAT) and 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (hydroxyatrazine or OIET). The next most frequently detected classes of herbicides were the chloroacetanilides, including metolachlor and acetochlor, and the ureic herbicides, including diuron (and degradate, 3,4-dichloroaniline), fluometuron, metsulfuron methyl, sulfameturon, bromacil, and tebuthiuron. Insecticides also were detected, but less frequently than herbicides, with one or more insecticides present in groundwater samples from 38 percent of shallow wells sampled in 2008. Detected insecticides included parent or degradate compounds commonly used for either nonspecific or haustellate (sucking) insects, including chlorpyri

  5. White Oak Creek Embayment time-critical CERCLA removal action sediment-retention structure. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Over a 20-month period between September 1990 and April 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE), acting through Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., managing contractor for the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR), conducted a DOE-lead and DOE-funded time-critical removal action at the White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE), pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The time-critical removal action specifically consisted of the design and construction of a sediment-retention structure across the mouth of WOCE to prevent off-site migration of sediments contaminated by cesium ({sup 137}Cs) into the Clinch River. Construction of a sediment-retention structure was completed in mid-April 1992. The purpose of this report is to meet the substantive requirements of 40 CFR 300.165 describing ``a complete report on the removal operation and the actions taken.`` This section of the NCP specifically addresses on-scene coordinator reports for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund-lead actions and includes several elements that are not applicable to this DOE-lead action. Only those sections that are pertinent and applicable are addressed in this final report.

  6. Long-term water quality and biological responses to multiple best management practices in Rock Creek, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, T.R.; MacCoy, D.E.; Carlisle, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Water quality and macroinvertebrate assemblage data from 1981 to 2005 were assessed to evaluate the water quality and biological responses of a western trout stream to the implementation of multiple best management practices (BMPs) on irrigated cropland. Data from Rock Creek near Twin Falls, Idaho, a long-term monitoring site, were assembled from state and federal sources to provide the evaluation. Seasonal loads of the nonpoint source pollutants suspended sediment (SS), total phosphorus (TP), and nitrate-nitrite (NN) were estimated using a regression model with time-series streamflow data and constituent concentrations. Trends in the macroinvertebrate assemblages were evaluated using a number of biological metrics and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination. Regression analysis found significant annual decreases in TP and SS flow-adjusted concentrations during the BMP implementation period from 1983 to 1990 of about 7 and 10%, respectively. These results are coincident with the implementation of multiple BMPs on about 75% of the irrigated cropland in the watershed. Macroinvertebrate assemblages during this time also responded with a change in taxa composition resulting in improved biotic index scores. Taxon specific TP and SS optima, empirically derived from a large national dataset, predicted a decrease in SS concentrations of about 37% (52 to 33 mg/l) and a decrease in TP concentrations of about 50% (0.20 to 0.10 mg/l) from 1981 to 1987. Decreasing trends in TP, SS, and NN pollutant loads were primarily the result of naturally low streamflow conditions during the BMP post-implementation period from 1993 to 2005. Trends in macroinvertebrate responses during 1993 to 2005 were confounded by the introduction of the New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which approached densities of 100,000 per m 2 in riffle habitat. The occurrence of this invasive species appears to have caused a major shift in composition and function of the macroinvertebrate assemblages. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

  7. Landslides and other mass movements near TA-33, northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dethier, D.P.

    1993-09-01

    Massive slump complexes and at least two rock avalanches flank the eastern rim of the Pajarito Plateau along northern White Rock Canyon, north of TA-33. Landslides failed along mechanically weak rocks in the Santa Fe Group, within the Puye Formation, or in Pliocene alluvial and lacustrine units. The landslides are mainly of early or middle Pleistocene age. The toe area of at least,one slump complex has been active in the late Pleistocene, damming White Rock Canyon near the mouth of Water Canyon. Lacustrine sediment that filled this lake, or series of lakes, to an elevation of at least 1710 m is preserved at a number of upstream sites, including a deposit near the Buckman townsite that exposes 30 m of lacustrine sediment. Charcoal collected at several sites has been submitted for {sup 14}C dating. Landslides, however, probably do not represent a significant short-term threat to the material disposal areas at TA-33. Bedrock that lies beneath the TA-33 mesa is relatively stable, the mesa shows no signs of incipient failure, and past periods of slide activity were responses to rapid downcutting of the Rio Grande and climate change, probably over periods of several decades, at least. Rockfall and headward erosion of gullies do not represent significant decadal hazards on canyon rims near TA-33. Gully migration near MDA-K is a potential threat, but the gullies were not examined in detail. A system of north-trending faults, at least one of which displays Pleistocene activity, bisects the TA-33 mesa. If these faults are capable of producing significant seismic shaking, generalizations about landslide and rockfall hazards must be reevaluated.

  8. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  9. Evidence of deposition from individual tides and of tidal cycles from the Francis Creek Shale (host rock to the Mazon Creek Biota), Westphalian D (Pennsylvanian), northeastern Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuecher, Gerald J.; Woodland, Bertram G.; Broadhurst, Frederick M.

    1990-09-01

    A silt-clayrock sequence in the Francis Creek Shale (Pennsylvanian, Westphalian D) of northeastern Illinois is characterized by (1) the presence of numerous clayrock-paired bands; and (2) cyclic variations in thickness of silt between and within these clayrock pairs. The sequence is interpreted to result from tidal influence on inner estuarine sediments; the clayrocks representing deposition from suspension at times of tidal slack, the interbedded silts and fine sands representing deposition from bottom traction during ebb and flood tidal flow. The cyclic variations in thickness is interpreted to represent lunar neap-spring forcing of tidal range in a dominantly diurnal tidal system. The association of tidal characteristics provides a means whereby the rate of sedimentation can be quantified at about 1.0 m/yr of compacted sediment during times of active deposition. Such a high rate of sedimentation would account for the rapid burial and preservation of soft-bodied organisms as indicated by the associated Mazon Creek Biota. Similar rates in similar settings (i.e., tidal estuaries) have recently been reported. Although the depositional setting of many Westphalian sequences was favorable to the preservation of tidal features, few examples have been recorded. It is suggested that evidence of Westphalian tides may have been misinterpreted or overlooked in field studies elsewhere.

  10. Effective porosity and density of carbonate rocks (Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite) within Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation based on modern petrophysical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsch, J.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative data on effective porosity of carbonate rock from the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite within Bear Creek Valley based on modern petrophysical techniques. The data will be useful for groundwater-flow and contaminant-flow modeling in the vicinity of the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Furthermore, the data provides needed information on the amount of interconnected pore space potentially available for operation of matrix diffusion as a transport process within the fractured carbonate rock. A second aspect of this study is to compare effective porosity data based on modern petrophysical techniques to effective porosity data determined earlier by Goldstrand et al. (1995) with a different technique. An added bonus of the study is quantitative data on the bulk density and grain density of dolostone and limestone of the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite which might find use for geophysical modeling on the ORR.

  11. Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

  12. Forceful emplacement of the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek composite pluton into a structural basin in eastern California; internal structure and wall rock deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Sven; Law, Richard; de Saint Blanquat, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility parameters have been analyzed at 311 locations in the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek (EJB) pluton of eastern California. The large amount of data has allowed for the AMS parameters to be contoured using techniques that both reveal map-scale trends and emphasize small-scale differences. The contour maps suggest that magnetic susceptibility is dominantly controlled by composition of the magma but may also be affected by emplacement-related strain as the magma chamber inflated and forced the wall rocks outward. Pluton construction involved two major pulses of different composition magmas that were emplaced sequentially but with overlapping periods of crystallization. The magmas initially intruded as sill-like bodies into a structural basin. The magnetic foliation of the pluton cuts across internal magmatic contacts on the map scale and is parallel to local contacts between the pluton and surrounding metasedimentary wall rocks. The magnetic fabric is similar in orientation and symmetry to intense flattening strains recorded in the aureole rocks. The metasedimentary wall rocks have been shortened between 60 and 70% and this strain magnitude is approximately equal on the west, south, and east margins of the pluton. Strain in the wall rocks is dominantly flattening and concentrated into a narrow (1 km wide) inner aureole. Mapping of bedding/cleavage intersection lineations south of the pluton indicates that the magma made room for itself by translating the wall rocks outward and rotating the already inward dipping wall rocks of the structural basin to sub-vertical. Stretching of the inner aureole around an expanding magma chamber was responsible for the intense shortening. Limited data on the Marble Canyon pluton to the south of the EJB pluton indicates a very similar emplacement process.

  13. A First Look at Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data in an Area of Altered Volcanic Rocks and Carbonate Formations, Hot Creek Range, South Central Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. C.; Taranik, J. V.; Mouat, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Three flight lines of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected in 128 bands between 1.2 and 2.4 microns in the Hot Creek Range, Nevada on July 25, 1984. The flight lines are underlain by hydrothermally altered and unaltered Paleozoic carbonates and Tertiary rhyolitic to latitic volcanics in the Tybo mining district. The original project objectives were to discriminate carbonate rocks from other rock types, to distinguish limestone from dolomite, and to discriminate carbonate units from each other using AIS imagery. Because of high cloud cover over the prime carbonate flight line and because of the acquisition of another flight line in altered and unaltered volcanics, the study has been extended to the discrimination of alteration products. In an area of altered and unaltered rhyolites and latites in Red Rock Canyon, altered and unaltered rock could be discriminated from each other using spectral features in the 1.16 to 2.34 micron range. The altered spectral signatures resembled montmorillonite and kaolinite. Field samples were gathered and the presence of montmorillonite was confirmed by X-ray analysis.

  14. Geohydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in the carbonate rocks of the Valley Creek basin, eastern Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Sixty-eight percent of the 22.6-square-mile Valley Creek basin is underlain by Cambrian and Ordovician limestone and dolomite. Ground water flows through a network of interconnected secondary openings; primary porosity is virtually nonexistent. Some of these openings have been enlarged by solution. Secondary porosity and permeability exhibit great spatial variability, and the yield and specific capacity of wells are highly variable. The number of water-bearing zones decreases with depth. Fifty percent of water-bearing zones are encountered within 100 feet of the land surface, and 81 percent are within 200 feet. Most ground-water flow in the Valley Creek basin is local and discharges to nearby streams. Ground-water discharge comprised an average of 76 percent of the flow of Valley Creek during 1983--87, including both natural ground- water discharge and quarry pumpage discharged to Valley Creek. Discharge from the Cedar Hollow quarry comprised 21 to 26 percent of the base flow of Valley Creek; the average was 23 percent. The average natural base flow of Valley Creek would be 8 percent lower if the quarry were not operating. Regional ground-water flow is to the northeast to the Schuylkill River. On the western side of the Valley Creek basin, the ground-water divide is 1/2 mile west of the surface-water divide. An estimated 0.75 million gallons per day of ground water flows from the adjacent West Valley Creek basn eastward into the Valley Creek basin. A ground-water divide is not present on the eastern side of the basin; the water table slopes gently eastward toward the Schuylkill River. On the northeaster side, an estimated 1.76 million gallons per day of ground water flows northeastward out of the basin to the Schuylkill River beneath the surface-water divide. On the southeaster side, an estimated 0.85 million gallons per day of ground water flows beneath the surface-water divide into the basin. Annual water budgets and an average water budget were calculated for 1983-87 for the 20.8-square-mile area bove the streamflow-gaging station. Annual precipitation for 1983-87 ranged from 40.61 to 56.55 inches and averaged 47.25 inches; annual streamflow ranged from 15.55 to 28.57 inches and averaged 22.31 inches; annual evapotranspiration ranged from 18.21 to 24.83 inches and averaged 22.90 inches; and annual recharge ranged from 15.89 to 26.84 inches and averaged 21.04 inches. The Valley Creek basin was modeled as a two-dimensional water-table aquifer. Recharge to, ground-water flow through, and discharge from the rocks of Chester valley were simulated. In order to include the natural hydrologic boundaries of the ground-water-flwo system, the 66.4-square-mile area between the Brandywine Creek and the Schuylkill River was modeled. The model was calibrated under stead-state conditions using avareage recharge and evapotranspiration rates. Aquifer hydraulic conductivity was estimated from specific-capacity and quifer-test data. The average (1983-87) annual water budget for hte Valley Creek basin was simualted. The effect of increased ground-water development on base flow and underflow was simulated by locating a hypothetical well field produceing 4 million gallons per day in different parts of the basin. Pumpage from a well field near surface-water divides would induce as much as an additional 1.41 inches per year of underflow from an adjacent surface-water basin. Pumpage from a well field near the center of the basin would affect base flow more than underflow. Increased seepage of ground water into quarries as a result of their expansion was simulated as increased withdrawal by pumping. A 100-percent increase in the pumping rate of the Cedar Hollow quarry, from 3.93 to 7.86 million gallons per day, owuld reduce the natural base flow of Valley Creek by 18 percent. However, the quarry pumpage would be discharged to Valley Creek, thereby increasing the base flow at the gaging station by

  15. 2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY AND WHITE MOUNTAINS IN BACKGROUND, SOUTH LAKE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  16. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  17. Diel use of a saltwater creek by white-tip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) in Academy Bay, Galapagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Peiaherrera, Csar; Hearn, Alex R; Kuhn, Angela

    2012-06-01

    White-tip reef sharks are common inhabitants of the shallow waters surrounding the Galapagos Islands, where several known aggregation sites have become touristic attractions. With the aim to describe site fidelity and residency patterns of the white-tip reef sharks in a saltwater creek, we used the ultrasonic telemetry method. The study was undertaken in a saltwater channel South of Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island, from May 2008-September 2009. A total of nine transmitters were attached to sharks and ultrasonic receivers were deployed at the inner and outside areas of the creek. From the total of fitted sharks, four lost their transmitters. The results obtained with the remaining sharks showed an elevated use of the inner area of the channel during the day, with more use of the external area during the night. However, none of the sharks were detected at the site every day, suggesting that they may have a number of preferred sites within their home range. More studies are needed to detail the home range and habitat use of this species, and to guide its protection level in the Academy Bay area. PMID:23894942

  18. Effects of storm runoff on water quality in the White River and Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana, June through October 1986 and 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.D.; Craig, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Four continuous, flow-through water-quality monitors were installed upstream from, in, and downstream from Indianapolis on the White River and near the mouth of Fall Creek in Indianapolis to monitor water quality, especially dissolved oxygen, during periods of base flow and storm runoff. Streamflow, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature were measured at 15-minute intervals from June through October 1986 at the four sites and from June through October 1987 at two sites. Photosynthesis caused the large fluctuations and supersaturation of dissolved oxygen, and indicates that the White River is more productive than Fall Creek. Water quality during base flow is the typical condition against which water quality during storm runoff is compared. A rapid increase in streamflow indicates the beginning of a period of storm runoff and is associated with a decrease in specific conductance and pH and, dissolved oxygen or temperature. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen often decreased during storm runoff, especially during the initial rise in the hydrograph. Storm runoff consistently diminished or eliminated daily cycles of dissolved oxygen. Minimum concentrations during 12 low dissolved-oxygen periods of storm runoff. Minimum concentrations during twelve low dissolved-oxygen periods ranged from 1.0 to 3.9 mg/L and had a median concentration of 2.8 mg/L. Durations of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from .75 to 83.75 hours and had median durations of five hrs. Minimum concentrations during five low dissolved-oxygen periods at Fall Creek ranged from 2.0 to 3.4 mg/L and had a median concentration of 2.7 mg/L. Duration of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from 1.75 to 33.75 hrs and had a median duration of 7 hrs.

  19. Audiomagnetotelluric data to characterize the Revett-type copper-silver deposits at Rock Creek in the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The Revett-type deposits at Rock Creek are part of the concealed stratabound copper-silver deposits located in the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness of Montana. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources data are being evaluated with existing and new mineral deposit models to predict the possibility and probability of undiscovered deposits in covered terranes. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and depth of the mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional southwest-northeast audiomagnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. Further studies will attempt to determine if induced polarization parameters can be extracted from the magnetotelluric data to determine the size of the mineralized area. The purpose of this report is to release the audiomagnetotelluric sounding data collected along that southwest-northeast profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  20. Multifractal magnetic susceptibility distribution models of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Needle Creek Igneous Center of the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility was measured for 700 samples of drill core from thirteen drill holes in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit of the Stinkingwater mining district in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. The magnetic susceptibility measurements, chemical analyses, and alteration class provided a database for study of magnetic susceptibility in these altered rocks. The distribution of the magnetic susceptibilities for all samples is multi-modal, with overlapping peaked distributions for samples in the propylitic and phyllic alteration class, a tail of higher susceptibilities for potassic alteration, and an approximately uniform distribution over a narrow range at the highest susceptibilities for unaltered rocks. Samples from all alteration and mineralization classes show susceptibilities across a wide range of values. Samples with secondary (supergene) alteration due to oxidation or enrichment show lower susceptibilities than primary (hypogene) alteration rock. Observed magnetic susceptibility variations and the monolithological character of the host rock suggest that the variations are due to varying degrees of alteration of blocks of rock between fractures that conducted hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of rock from the fractures inward progressively reduces the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the rock. The model introduced in this paper consists of a simulation of the fracture pattern and a simulation of the alteration of the rock between fractures. A multifractal model generated from multiplicative cascades with unequal ratios produces distributions statistically similar to the observed distributions. The reduction in susceptibility in the altered rocks was modelled as a diffusion process operating on the fracture distribution support. The average magnetic susceptibility was then computed for each block. For the purpose of comparing the model results with observation, the simulated magnetic susceptibilities were then averaged over the same interval as the measured data. Comparisons of the model and data from drillholes show good but not perfect agreement. ?? 2005 Author(s). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.

  1. Late Pleistocene landslide-dammed lakes along the Rio Grande, White Rock Canyon, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Reneau, S.L.; Dethier, D.P.

    1996-11-01

    Massive slump complexes composed of Pliocene basaltic rocks and underlying Miocene and Pliocene sediments flank the Rio Grande along 16 km of northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico. The toe area of at least one slump complex was active in the late Pleistocene, damming the Rio Grande at least four times during the period from 18 to 12 {sup 14}C ka and impounding lakes that extended 10-20 km upriver. Stratigraphic relationships and radiocarbon age constraints indicate that three separate lakes formed between 13.7 and 12.4 {sup 14}C ka. The age and dimensions of the ca. 12.4 ka lake are best constrained; it had an estimated maximum depth of {approx}30 m, a length of {approx}13 km, a surface area of {approx}2.7 km{sup 2}, and an initial volume of {approx}2.5 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}. The youngest landslide-dammed lakes formed during a period of significantly wetter regional climate, strongly suggesting that climate changes were responsible for reactivation of the slump complexes. We are not certain about the exact triggering mechanisms for these landslides, but they probably involved removal of lateral support due to erosion of the slope base by the Rio Grande during periods of exceptionally high flood discharge or rapid incision; increased pore pressures associated with higher water tables; higher seepage forces at sites of ground-water discharge; or some combination of these processes. Seismic shaking could also have contributed to triggering of some of the landslides, particularly if aided by wet antecedent conditions. 54 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Petrology of Apollo 15 black-and-white rocks 15445 and 15455 - Fragments of the Imbrium impact melt sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Bower, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes two macroscopically similar black-and-white rocks, 15445 and 15455, which were collected from the rim of Spur Crater on the Apennine Front. The two Apollo 15 rocks are very similar in chemistry and clast population, but the matrix of 15455 is finer grained than that of 15445. The 15445 sample contains a lithic clast assemblage of plutonic/metamorphic spinel troctolite, troctolite, norite, and anorthosite, and its fine-grained vesicular black coherent matrix consists of a melt-bonded aggregate of small mineral clasts which are mainly olivine, plagioclase, and pink spinel. The two rocks are distinct from any other large samples from the Apollo 15 site. It is suggested that the rocks are samples of an impact melt sheet which forms a bedrock unit of the Apennine Front, and that this melt sheet did not form in a local small-scale event but was produced during the Imbrium impact event.

  3. Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    This science unit is designed for limited- and non-English speaking students in a Chinese bilingual education program. The unit covers rock material, classification, characteristics of types of rocks, and rock cycles. It is written in Chinese and simple English. At the end of the unit there is a list of main terms in both English and Chinese, and…

  4. Yosemite Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In this image, Yosemite Creek may be seen just below the base of Yosemite Falls. Yosemite Creek is a 31.2 mile long creek in Yosemite National Park. It eventually joins with the Merced River in Yosemite Valley....

  5. In situ oxygen isotope analysis of monazite as a monitor of fluid infiltration during contact metamorphism: Birch Creek Pluton aureole, White Mountains, eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, John C.; Loflin, Miranda; Miller, Calvin F.; Barton, Mark D.; Coath, Christopher D.

    2006-08-01

    Monazite from the hydrothermal aureole of the Cretaceous two-mica Birch Creek Pluton in the White Mountains of eastern California records the infiltration of magmatic fluids into the metasedimentary Early Cambrian Deep Spring Formation. Monazite in the Birch Creek Pluton displays concentric, euhedral magmatic zoning, δ18O = 8.7 ± 0.2‰, and Th-Pb magmatic ages of 78.0 ± 0.7 Ma. The middle Deep Spring Formation ˜0.5 km east of the contact underwent moderate- to low-temperature alteration by F-rich magmatic fluids; monazite displays patchy zoning but has similar δ18O values (8.7 ± 0.4‰) and Th-Pb ages (78.3 ± 1.6 Ma) to monazite in the Birch Creek Pluton. In contrast, monazite from the upper Deep Spring Formation ˜0.6 km west of the contact and outside the mapped hydrothermal zone shows concentric zoning, δ18O = 5.2 ± 0.3‰, and partially reset detrital ages from 583 to 1069 Ma. Deep Spring Formation monazite within the hydrothermal alteration zone dissolved and reprecipitated during magmatic fluid infiltration, whereas monazite outside the zone was unaffected. In contrast, Deep Spring zircon within the hydrothermal alteration zone preserved its magmatic zoning and Cambrian Precambrian U-Pb ages. Zircon can reliably date events prior to hydrothermal activity, whereas monazite, being more susceptible to alteration by fluids, is useful for mapping the extent and timing of fluid infiltration events.

  6. Observation of induced fractures intercepted by mining in the Warrior Basin, Alabama. Topical report. Rock Creek methane from multiple coal seams completion project

    SciTech Connect

    Steidl, P.F.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes research and inspection of induced fractures that have been intercepted by mining. Induced fractures from 13 wells intercepted by mining were inspected at the Jim Walter Resources' (JWR) No. 4 and 5 Mines in Tuscaloosa County, and the Oak Grove Mine in Jefferson County, Alabama. In this area the Mary Lee and Blue Creek coalbeds average 1.3 ft and 4 to 5.5 ft, respectively at depths of about 2,000 ft at the JWR mines and 1,000 ft in the Oak Grove Mine. These seams are usually separated by 2 to 10 ft of rock parting. The wells were completed open hole from 1982 to 1986. Hydraulic fracture treatments were used to stimulate production. Some expected results include: in general, the fractures followed the coal face cleat direction; they were vertical, and were sandpacked close to the wall. Other observations include the following: (1) most of the fractures and proppant were present in the parting and roof rock, (2) results were similar in the JWR and Oak Grove Mines even though there is 1,000 ft less overburden at the Oake Grove Mine, and (3) no horizontal fractures were observed in the study; though other stimulations have propagated horizontal fractures at Oak Grove.

  7. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Borders, D.M.; Ziegler, K.S.; Reece, D.K.; Watts, J.A.; Frederick, B.J.; McCalla, W.L.; Pridmore, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes, for the 12-month period January through December 1994, the available dynamic hydrologic data collected on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed as well as information collected on surface flow systems in the surrounding vicinity that may affect the quality or quantity of surface water in the watershed. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to characterize the quantity and quality of water in the surface flow system, assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities, provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance of these data, and support long-term measures of contaminant fluxes at a spatial scale to provide a comprehensive picture of watershed performance that is commensurate with future remedial actions.

  8. Maintenance action readiness assessment plan for White Oak Creek and Melton Branch Weir Stilling Pool cleanout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan has been prepared to document operational readiness for the following maintenance action: (1) removal of sediment from the White Oak Creek and Melton Branch Weir Stilling Pools and (2) disposal of the radiologically contaminated sediment in another location upstream of the weirs in an area previously contaminated by stream overflow from Melton Branch in Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This project is being performed as a maintenance action rather than an action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act because the risk to human health and environment is well below the US Environmental Protection Agency`s level of concern. The decision to proceed as a maintenance action was documented by an interim action proposed plan, which is included in the administrative record. The administrative record is available for review at the US Department of Energy Information Resource Center, 105 Broadway Avenue, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.

  9. 40Ar/39Ar Data for White Mica, Biotite, and K-Feldspar Samples from Low-Grade Metamorphic Rocks in the Westminster Terrane and Adjacent Rocks, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunk, Michael J.; McAleer, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This report contains reduced 40Ar/39Ar data of white mica and K-feldspar mineral separates and matrix of a whole rock phyllite, all from low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Westminster terrane and adjacent strata in central Maryland. This report presents these data in a preliminary form, but in more detail than can be accommodated in todays professional journals. Also included in this report is information on the location of the samples and a brief description of the samples. The data contained herein are not interpreted in a geological context, and care should be taken by readers unfamiliar with argon isotopic data in the use of these results; many of the individual apparent ages are not geologically meaningful. This report is primarily a detailed source document for subsequent publications that will integrate these data into a geological context.

  10. Yuccas in Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Mojave Desert, home to drought-tolerant plants like yuccas, gradually mixes with loblolly pine ecosystems in Pine Creek Canyon. Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Cany...

  11. Polymorphobacter multimanifer gen. nov., sp. nov., a polymorphic bacterium isolated from Antarctic white rock.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Wakao; Chino, Yohzo; Araki, Shigeo; Kondo, Yuka; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Kanai, Tamotsu; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2014-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, aerobic, oligotrophic bacterium (strain 262-7(T)) was isolated from a crack of white rock collected in the Skallen region of Antarctica. Strain 262-7(T) grew at temperatures between -4 and 30 °C, with optimal growth at 25 °C. The pH range for growth was between pH 6.0 and 9.0, with optimal growth at approximately pH 7.0. The NaCl concentration range allowing growth was between 0.0 and 1.0%, with an optimum of 0.5%. Strain 262-7(T) showed an unprecedented range of morphological diversity in response to growth conditions. Cells grown in liquid medium were circular or ovoid with smooth surfaces in the lag phase. In the exponential phase, ovoid cells with short projections were observed. Cells in the stationary phase possessed long tentacle-like projections intertwined intricately. By contrast, cells grown on agar plate medium or in liquid media containing organic compounds at low concentration exhibited short- and long-rod-shaped morphology. These projections and morphological variations clearly differ from those of previously described bacteria. Ubiquinone 10 was the major respiratory quinone. The major fatty acids were C(17 : 1)ω6c (28.2%), C(16 : 1)ω7c (22.6%), C(18 : 1)ω7c (12.9%) and C(15 : 0) 2-OH (12.3%). The G+C content of genomic DNA was 68.0 mol%. Carotenoids were detected from the cells. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 262-7(T) belongs to the family Sphingomonadaceae, and that 262-7(T) should be distinguished from known genera in the family Sphingomonadaceae. According to the phylogenetic position, physiological characteristics and unique morphology variations, strain 262-7(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel genus of the family Sphingomonadaceae. Here, a novel genus and species with the name Polymorphobacter multimanifer gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed (type strain 262-7(T) = JCM 18140(T) = ATCC BAA-2413(T)). The novel species was named after its morphological diversity and formation of unique projections. PMID:24651306

  12. Aquia Creek Sandstone

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This Aquia Creek Sandstone originated from a quarry about 40 miles south of Washington, D.C., in Stafford County, Va. This type of stone was used in the construction of many of D.C.'s most famous landmarks, including the White House and the U.S. Capitol building....

  13. 80. LITTLE ROCK DAM: DIMENSIONS, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, AMENDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. LITTLE ROCK DAM: DIMENSIONS, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, AMENDED SHEET 5; SEPTEMBER, 1922. Palmdale Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Plymouth Rock Landed on Us: Malcolm X's Whiteness Theory as a Basis for Alternative Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Keith D.

    2004-01-01

    Using Burkean theory, I claim that Malcolm X brilliantly exposed the rhetoric and epistemology of whiteness as he rejected the African American jeremiad--a dominant form of African American oratory for more than 150 years. Whiteness theory served as the basis for Malcolm X's alternative literacy, which raises important questions that literacy

  15. Plymouth Rock Landed on Us: Malcolm X's Whiteness Theory as a Basis for Alternative Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Keith D.

    2004-01-01

    Using Burkean theory, I claim that Malcolm X brilliantly exposed the rhetoric and epistemology of whiteness as he rejected the African American jeremiad--a dominant form of African American oratory for more than 150 years. Whiteness theory served as the basis for Malcolm X's alternative literacy, which raises important questions that literacy…

  16. Annual hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek Watershed: Water Year 1990 (October 1989--September 1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Moore, G.K.; Watts, J.A.; Broders, C.C.; Bednarek, A.T.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes, for the Water Year 1990 (October 1989-- September 1990), the dynamic hydrologic data collected on the Whiteoak Creek (WOC) Watershed's surface and subsurface flow systems. These systems affect the quality or quantity of surface water and groundwater. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to 1. characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow system, 2. plan and assess remedial action activities, and 3. provide long-term availability of data and assure quality. Characterizing the hydrology of the WOC watershed provides a better understanding of the processes which drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identifying of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. Hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. The majority of the data summarized in this report are available from the Remedial Action Programs Data and Information Management System data base. Surface water data available within the WOC flow system include discharge and runoff, surface water quality, radiological and chemical contamination of sediments, and descriptions of the outfalls to the WOC flow system. Climatological data available for the Oak Ridge area include precipitation, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction. Information on groundwater levels, aquifer characteristics, and groundwater quality are presented. Anomalies in the data and problems with monitoring and accuracy are discussed. 58 refs., 54 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (January--December 1993)

    SciTech Connect

    Borders, D.M.; Frederick, B.J.; Reece, D.K.; McCalla, W.L.; Watts, J.A.; Ziegler, K.S.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes, for the 12-month period (January through December 1993), the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily, on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed along with information collected on the surface flow systems which affect the quality or quantity of surface water. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data, an activity that contributes to the Site Investigations (SI) component of the ERP. This report provides and describes sources of hydrologic data for Environmental Restoration activities that use monitoring data to quantify and assess the impact from releases of contaminants from ORNL WAGs.

  18. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 1 Main Text

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Remedial Investigation (RI) report is to present an analysis of the Melton Valley portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of cost-effective remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. In this RI existing levels of contamination and radiological exposure are compared to levels acceptable for future industrial and potential recreational use levels at the site. This comparison provides a perspective for the magnitude of remedial actions required to achieve a site condition compatible with relaxed access restrictions over existing conditions. Ecological risk will be assessed to evaluate measures required for ecological receptor protection. For each subbasin, this report will provide site-specific analyses of the physical setting including identification of contaminant source areas, description of contaminant transport pathways, identification of release mechanisms, analysis of contaminant source interactions with groundwater, identification of secondary contaminated media associated with the source and seepage pathways, assessment of potential human health and ecological risks from exposure to contaminants, ranking of each source area within the subwatershed, and outline the conditions that remedial technologies must address to stop present and future contaminant releases, prevent the spread of contamination and achieve the goal of limiting environmental contamination to be consistent with a potential recreational use of the site.

  19. Whiteness.

    PubMed

    Altman, Neil

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to make meaning of the experience of being white in the United States at this point in history. The self-awareness of white people is limited by a blind spot around the meaning and impact of being white in a multiracial society. Using psychoanalytic and literary methodology, the author seeks to cast light with which to explore this blind spot. Everyday experiences are used to illustrate the widely pervasive impact of race in the lives of white people, and a clinical vignette illustrates how race might show up in a white-on-white psychotherapy. Enactments within this paper are noted when they are evident to the author PMID:16482960

  20. A tale of 10 plutons - Revisited: Age of granitic rocks in the White Mountains, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, E.H.; Conrad, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analysis and conventional K-Ar age determinations on plutonic rocks of the White Mountains define two stages of magmatic emplacement: Late Cretaceous, between ca. 90 Ma and 75 Ma, and Middle-Late Jurassic, between ca. 180 and 140 Ma. The Jurassic stage can be divided into two substages, 180-165 Ma and 150-140 Ma. Thermal effects of the younger plutons on the older granitoids partially to completely reset ages, making it difficult to determine the age of emplacement and cooling of several of the plutons even by 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analyses. New data together with published ages and regional geochronological synthesis of the Sierra Nevada batholith indicate that regions within the batholith have coherent periods or episodes of magmatic activity. In the White Mountains and Sierra Nevada directly to the west there was little or no activity in Early Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time; magmatism took place during relatively short intervals of 15 m.y. or less in the Middle and Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous periods. The new K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar analyses of granitoids from the White Mountains help, but do not completely clarify the complex history of emplacement, cooling, and reheating of the batholith.

  1. Quantifying Geomorphic Change to a Point Bar in Response to High Flow Events Using Terrestrial LiDAR, White Clay Creek, Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orefice, M. J.; O'Neal, M. A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) can accurately measure three dimensional surfaces for quantifying fluvial erosion and deposition. Point bars are topographic features that form on the convex bank of a meander. While point bars are considered to be formed by depositional processes, they display features such as chute channels and scour holes that suggest that erosion (due to high flow events) may significantly influence point bar evolution. Through the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), we observed how a point bar on the White Clay Creek near Newark, Delaware responded to a flood event with a return period of 5-50 years. Pre-flood and post-flood LiDAR scans were completed in April and May of 2014. Scans were referenced to a common coordinate system, vegetation points were removed, and two 0.10 m resolution gridded Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were created. A DEM of Difference (DoD) was created by subtracting the pre-flood DEM from the post-flood DEM. Total deposition was 43.58 m3 and total erosion was 79.15 m3, with a net volumetric change of -35.57 m3 over an area of 630.32 m2. Erosion was dominant on the surface of the scroll bar and on the upstream end of the point bar. The pre-flood surface had a large chute channel adjacent to the scroll bar that was filled in during the storm, particularly on the downstream end. Deposits from the storm also extended the point bar into the river channel on the downstream end of the study site. Our results suggest that 1) sediment deposited on point bars is eroded frequently by flood events; and 2) TLS can provide useful estimates of erosion and deposition. If TLS surveys are repeated through time, sediment residence times in point bars can be quantified. This information is useful for creating accurate sediment budgets and for remediating contamination issues.

  2. A Peek into 'Alamogordo Creek'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3

    On its 825th Martian day (May 20, 2006), NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity stopped for the weekend to place its instrument arm onto the soil target pictured here, dubbed 'Alamogordo Creek.' Two views from the panoramic camera, acquired at about noon local solar time, are at the top. Below them is a close-up view from the microscopic imager.

    At upper left, a false-color view emphasizes differences among materials in rocks and soil. It combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. At upper right is an approximately true-color rendering made with the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters. The microscopic-imager frame covers the area outlined by the white boxes in the panoramic-camera views, a rectangle 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

    As Opportunity traverses to the south, it is analyzing soil and rocks along the way for differences from those seen earlier. At this site, the soil contains abundant small spherical fragments, thought to be hematite-rich concretions, plus finer-grained basaltic sand. Most of the spherical fragments seen in the microscopic image are smaller than those first seen at the rover's landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' some five kilometers (3.1 miles) to the north. However, a few larger spherical fragments and other rock fragments can also be seen in the panoramic-camera images.

  3. Bridalveil Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In this image, Bridalveil Creek is seen flowing just beneath the base of Bridalveil Fall. The waterfall is 617 ft (188 m) in height and is one of the most well-known of Yosemite National Park's waterfalls....

  4. Hell Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Hell Creek and underlying Fox Hills Formations are present at the land surface along the margins of the Williston Basin, but otherwise are the deepest bedrock aquifers that are commonly used in the basin....

  5. GEE CREEK WILDERNESS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, Jack B.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mine and prospect surveys, it was determined that the Gee Creek Wilderness, Tennessee has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Iron ore was formerly mined, but the deposits are small, have a high phosphorous content, and are inaccessible. Shale, suitable for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, which could be utilized for crushed stone or sand, are found in the area, but are also found in areas closer to potential markets. The geologic setting precludes the presence of oil and gas resources in the surface rocks, but the possibility of finding natural gas at depth below the rocks exposed in the area cannot be discounted. Geophysical exploration would be necessary to define the local structure in rocks at depth to properly evaluate the potential of the area for gas.

  6. A land-use and water-quality history of White Rock Lake Reservoir, Dallas, Texas, based on paleolimnological analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Platt, Bradbury J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    White Rock Lake reservoir in Dallas, Texas contains a 150-cm sediment record of silty clay that documents land-use changes since its construction in 1912. Pollen analysis corroborates historical evidence that between 1912 and 1950 the watershed was primarily agricultural. Land disturbance by plowing coupled with strong and variable spring precipitation caused large amounts of sediment to enter the lake during this period. Diatoms were not preserved at this time probably because of low productivity compared to diatom dissolution by warm, alkaline water prior to burial in the sediments. After 1956, the watershed became progressively urbanized. Erosion decreased, land stabilized, and pollen of riparian trees increased as the lake water became somewhat less turbid. By 1986 the sediment record indicates that diatom productivity had increased beyond rates of diatom destruction. Neither increased nutrients nor reduced pesticides can account for increased diatom productivity, but grain size studies imply that before 1986 diatoms were light limited by high levels of turbidity. This study documents how reservoirs may relate to land-use practices and how watershed management could extend reservoir life and improve water quality.

  7. Sunset over Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  8. Sunset in Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  9. Manzanita in Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  10. Yucca in Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  11. When did movement begin on the Furnace Creek fault zone

    SciTech Connect

    Reheis, M. )

    1993-04-01

    About 50 km of post-Jurassic right-lateral slip has occurred on the northern part of the Furnace Creek fault zone (FCFZ). The sedimentology, stratigraphy, and structure of Tertiary rocks suggest that movement on the fault began no earlier than 12--8 Ma and possibly as late as 5--4 Ma. Large remnants of erosion surfaces occur on both sides of the FCFZ in the southern White Mountains and Fish Lake Valley and are buried by rhyolite and basalt, mostly 12--10 Ma; the ash flows and welded tuffs were likely erupted from sources at least 40 km to the east. Thus, the area probably had gentle topography, suggesting a lengthy period of pre-late Miocene tectonic stability. On the west side of the FCFZ, Cambrian sedimentary rocks are buried by a fanglomerate with an [sup [minus

  12. A multi-isotope approach to understanding the evolution of Cenozoic magmatism in the northeastern Basin and Range: Results from igneous rocks in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinou, A.; Strickland, A.; Miller, E. L.

    2012-12-01

    Deep crustal rocks exposed by extensional processes in metamorphic core complexes provide a unique opportunity to address the magmatic and isotopic evolution of the crust and assess the relative crust versus mantle contributions in Cenozoic igneous rocks exposed in the complexes. The Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex exposes mid-crustal rocks that resided at depths of ~15-20 km before the onset of Cenozoic extension. Three major Cenozoic magmatic events are represented in the complex and have been studied using multiple isotopic systems (whole rock Sr and Nd coupled with the Oxygen isotopes in zircon). These three major events are: (1) 42-31 Ma intrusion of a composite plutonic complex of calc-alkaline composition that intrudes both upper crustal rocks (~5-10 km depth) and deeper rocks. (2) A 32-25 Ma plutonic complex, with evolved calc-alkaline composition that intruded in the middle crust (~12-15 km depth), and (3) A 10-8 Ma bimodal (basalt-rhyolite) suite of volcanic rocks that contain high-T anhydrous mineral assemblages erupted across the complex. The pre-extensional crust consisted of an upper crust composed primarily of Neoproterozoic through Triassic metasedimentary rocks (schist and quartzite at its base and limestone at its top). The middle crust consists of late Archean orthogneiss with evolved composition (metamorphosed peraluminous granite) with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.800, ?Nd40~ -43.4 and ?18Ozirc ~5.7. The lower crust is inferred to have been composed of Precambrian intermediate composition igneous rocks with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.750, ?Nd40~ -37.5 and ?18Ozirc ~5.9, and Precambrian mafic rocks with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.717, ?Nd40~ -25 and ?18Ozirc ~7.0. Existing and new data indicate that the 42-31 Ma upper crustal plutonic complex ranges in isotopic composition from 87Sr/86Sri=0.709-0.712, ?Ndi=-15 to -25 and ?18Ozirc 4.7-6.5. The composition of the 32-25 Ma middle crustal plutonic complex ranges from 87Sr/86Sri=0.711-0.716, ?Ndi=-25 to -36 and ?18Ozirc 4.8-6.2. The collective data from the 42-25 Ma magmas indicate that they represent a protracted, genetically related magmatic event that progressively assimilated larger amounts of both middle and lower crust through time. New data from the Miocene (10-8 Ma) bimodal volcanic rocks indicate that their isotopic composition ranges from 87Sr/86Sri=0.706-0.714, ?Ndi=-3 to -8 and ?18Ozirc 0-5, most of the ?18Ozirc analyses are in the range of 1-3. These results indicate that the Miocene magmas assimilated variable amounts of hydrothermally altered crust that has been "averaged" in isotopic composition by the earlier Eocene-Oligocene magmatism. These new data from the igneous rocks exposed within and around the ARG, indicate that during the Cenozoic a large volume of new mafic magmas were added to the middle and lower crust. These magmas were responsible for reworking, heating and weakening the continental crust, allowing it to flow in a ductile fashion. The sum of the magmatic and extensional processes in the region resulted in present day configuration of the crust with uniform ~30-35 km thickness and sub-horizontal lower crustal seismic reflectivity.

  13. Sailing to White Boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a composite red-green-blue image of the rock called White Boat. It is the first rock target that Spirit drove to after finishing a series of investigations on the rock Adirondack. White Boat stood out to scientists due to its light color and more tabular shape compared to the dark, rounded rocks that surround it.

  14. Science Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

    2010-01-01

    It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?" asked another. At this moment, a

  15. Science Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

    2010-01-01

    It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?" asked another. At this moment, a…

  16. Structural analysis of mylonitic rocks in the Cougar Creek Complex, Oregon-Idaho using the porphyroclast hyperbolic distribution method, and potential use of SC'-type extensional shear bands as quantitative vorticity indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Gene A.; Northrup, Clyde J.

    2008-08-01

    Mylonitic rocks of the Cougar Creek Complex of northeastern Oregon and west-central Idaho provide an opportunity to document the deformational structures produced during general non-coaxial shear within quartz-feldspar mylonites and to explore the potential role of SC'-type extensional shear bands in vorticity analysis. Well-developed feldspar porphyroclasts within six mylonite zones were utilized to estimate bulk kinematic vorticity ( Wk) using the porphyroclast hyperbolic distribution (PHD) method. Wk values for the Cougar Creek mylonites range from Wk = 0.26 to Wk = 0.37. Synthetic and antithetic shear band inclinations were measured relative to observed shear zone boundaries within five mylonite zones with estimated Wk values and compared to the non-coaxial flow field geometries and eigenvector orientations. In each mylonite zone, synthetic SC'-type shear band populations exhibit a range of inclination with maximum inclination lying approximately parallel to the acute bisector (AB) of the eigenvectors. Similarly, antithetic shear band populations show a range of inclination near the obtuse bisector (OB) of the eigenvectors. We infer that SC'-type extensional shear bands form initially parallel to AB and OB and rotate towards the flow plane with progressive deformation, decreasing their inclination relative to the shear zone boundary. AB and OB have significance in the strain field in that they represent orientations of maximum angular strain rate. Thus, planes perpendicular to AB and OB are mechanically favorable for small zones of localized simple shear (shear bands) within the heterogeneous bulk strain of the mylonite. Orientation analysis of populations of SC'-type shear bands may provide a direct, quantitative means of estimating Wk.

  17. Rock Creek methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project - geologic and reservoir characterization for the Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project. Volume 2. Topical report, March 1983-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, C.M.; Briscoe, F.H.; Camp, B.S.; Koenig, R.A.; Malone, P.G.

    1986-12-01

    Commercialization of coalbed methane, especially in the eastern United States, has been primarily limited to gas production from a single coal seam per well. The Multi-Seam project is a multi-year joint venture investigating the combination of drilling, completion, stimulation, and production parameters required for the viable economic production of methane from shallow, multiple coal seams. Extensive geologic and reservoir characterization was performed during the early stages of the project to set the framework for evaluation of planned completion and production tests. Geologic evaluation included stratigraphic and structural evaluation, especially coal cleat, rock joint, coal seam gas content, coal chemistry, and coal petrography. Reservoir evaluation included single- and two-phase hydrologic testing of the coal seam reservoirs using single and multiple well configurations and in-situ state-of-stress testing of the target coal seams and the boundary rock.

  18. Rock Creek methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project - geologic and reservoir characterization for the Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project. Volume 1. Topical report, March 1983-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, C.M.; Briscoe, F.H.; Camp, B.S.; Koenig, R.A.; Malone, P.G.

    1986-12-01

    Commercialization of coalbed methane, especially in the eastern United States, has been primarily limited to gas production from a single coal seam per well. The Multi-Seam project is a multi-year joint venture investigating the combination of drilling, completion, stimulation, and production parameters required for the viable economic production of methane from shallow, multiple coal seams. Extensive geologic and reservoir characterization was performed during the early stages of the project to set the framework for evaluation of planned completion and production tests. Geologic evaluation included stratigraphic and structural evaluation, especially coal cleat, rock joint, coal-seam gas content, coal chemistry, and coal petrography. Reservoir evaluation included single- and two-phase hydrologic testing of the coal seam reservoirs using single- and multiple-well configurations and in-situ state-of-stress testing of the target coal seams and the boundary rock.

  19. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gable, Dolores J.

    1980-01-01

    The Boulder Creek batholith is the best known of several large Precambrian batholiths of similar rock composition that crop out across central Colorado. The rocks in the batholith belong to the calc-alkaline series and range in composition from granodiorite through quartz diorite (tonalite) to gneissic aplite. Two rock types dominate': the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, the major rock unit, and a more leucocratic and slightly younger unit herein named Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Besides mafic inclusions, which occur mainly in hornblende-bearing phases of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, there are cogenetic older and younger lenses, dikes, and small plutons of hornblende diorite, hornblendite, gabbro, and pyroxenite. Pyroxenite is not found in the batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite in the batholith represents essentially two contemporaneous magmas, a northern body occurring in the Gold Hill and Boulder quadrangles and a larger southern body exposed in the Blackhawk and the greater parts of the Tungsten and Eldorado Springs quadrangles. The two bodies are chemically and mineralogically distinct. The northern body is richer in CaO and poorer in K2O, is more mafic, and has a larger percentage of plagioclase than the southern body. A crude sequence of rock types occurs from west to east in the batholith accompanied by a change in plagioclase composition from calcic plagioclase on the west to sodic on the east. Ore minerals tend to decrease, and the ratio potassium feldspar:plagioclase increases inward from the western contact of the batholith, indicating that the Boulder Creek batholith is similar to granodiorite batholiths the world over. Emplacement of the Boulder Creek batholith was contemporaneous with plastic deformation and high-grade regional metamorphism that folded the country rock and the batholith contact along west-northwest and north-northwest axes. Also, smaller satellitic granodiorite bodies tend to conform to the trends of foliation and fold axes in the country rock, suggesting that emplacement was controlled by preexisting structures in the country rock. On a gross scale, chemical equilibrium in the Boulder Creek Granodiorite is expressed by a near 1:1 ratio, or straight-line relationship in the distribution of iron, magnesium, and manganese in biotite and hornblende. General mineralogical trends in the Boulder Creek Granodiorite indicate that modal biotite, hornblende, and plagioclase tend to increase and quartz and microcline tend to decrease as CaO increases. These trends were not found in the Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Differentiation is believed to have played a major role and assimilation a minor role in the development of the Boulder Creek batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite is of probable mantle or lower crust origin, and, based on the scant data available, the Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite may be of crustal origin, but the magma was extensively altered by contaminants of ambiguous origin. Mafic inclusions, possibly derived from a dioritic magma which was an early differentiate associated temporally with the Boulder Creek Granodiorite and (or) the Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite, were in jected into the Boulder Creek Granodiorite during the mush stage and before the batholith was completely crystallized. Biotite, hornblende, and potassium feldspar were studied extensively. Their chemistry and petrology indicate a homogeneity throughout the batholith not believed possible by a casual observance of the batholithic rocks in the field. The accessory minerals, where investigated, also tend to indicate this same pervasive homogeneity.

  20. Sunset Panorama in Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  1. Barrel Cactus in Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  2. Loblolly Pines in Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  3. Geologic map of the Skull Creek Quadrangle, Moffat County Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Loenen, R. E.; Selner, Gary; Bryant, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Skull Creek quadrangle is in northwestern Colorado a few miles north of Rangely. The prominent structural feature of the Skull Creek quadrangle is the Skull Creek monocline. Pennsylvanian rocks are exposed along the axis of the monocline while hogbacks along its southern flank expose rocks that are from Permian to Upper Cretaceous in age. The Wolf Creek monocline and the Wolf Creek thrust fault, which dissects the monocline, are salient structural features in the northern part of the quadrangle. Little or no mineral potential exists within the quadrangle. A geologic map of the Lazy Y Point quadrangle, which is adjacent to the Skull Creek quadrangle on the west, is also available (Geologic Investigations Series I-2646). This companian map shows similar geologic features, including the western half of the Skull Creek monocline. The geology of this quadrangle was mapped because of its proximity to Dinosaur National Monument. It is adjacent to quadrangles previously mapped to display the geology of this very scenic and popular National Monument. The Skull Creek quadrangle includes parts of the Skull Creek Wilderness Study Area, which was assessed for its mineral resource potential.

  4. St. Vrain Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    St. Vrain Creek below Boulder Creek at Hwy 119 near Longmont, CO; Bob Brandle, Cory Stephens, Matt Nicotra, and Kevin Scofield measure discharge and install temporary streamgage replacing nearby damaged streamgage....

  5. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers

  6. Altitude and Configuration of the Potentiometric Surface in the Upper White Clay Creek and Lower West Branch Brandywine Creek Basins including Portions of Penn, London Grove, New Garden, Londonderry, West Marlborough, Highland, and East Fallowfield Townships and West Grove, Avondale, Modena, and South Coatesville boroughs, Chester County, Pennsylvania, May through July 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hale, Lindsay B.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Since 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been mapping the altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in Chester County as part of an ongoing cooperative program to measure and describe the water resources of the county. These maps can be used to determine the general direction of ground-water flow and are frequently referenced by municipalities and developers to evaluate ground-water conditions for water supply and resource-protection requirements. For this study, the potentiometric surface was mapped for an area in south-central Chester County. The northern part of the map includes portions of Highland, East Fallowfield, Londonderry, and West Marlborough Townships and South Coatesville and Modena Boroughs. The southern part of the map includes portions of Londonderry, West Marlborough, Penn, London Grove, and New Garden Townships and West Grove and Avondale Boroughs. The study area is mostly underlain by metamorphic rocks of the Glenarm Supergroup including Peters Creek Schist, Octoraro Phyllite, Wissahickon Schist, Cockeysville Mrable, and Setters Quartzite; and by pegmatite, mafic gneiss, felsic gneiss, and diabase. Ground water is obtained from these bedrock formations by wells that intercept fractures. The altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface was contoured from water levels measured on different dates in available wells during May through July 2006 and from the altitude of springs and perennial streams. Topography was used as a guide for contouring so that the altitude of the potentiometric surface was inferred nowhere to be higher than the land surface. The potentiometric surface shown on this map is an approximation of the water table. The altitude of the actual potentiometric surface may differ from the water table, especially in areas where wells are completed in a semi-confined zone or have long open intervals that reflect the composite hydraulic head of multiple water-yielding fractures. A composite head may differ from the potentiometric-surface altitude, particularly beneath hilltops and valleys where vertical hydraulic gradients are significant.

  7. Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit, Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1996, a memorandum of understanding was signed by representatives of the U.S. Geological Survey and Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to initiate a cooperative applied research project focused on the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit in southeastern Alaska. The goals of the project were consistent with the mandate of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to maintain a leading role in national mineral deposits research and with the need of Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to further development of the Greens Creek deposit and similar deposits in Alaska and elsewhere. The memorandum enumerated four main research priorities: (1) characterization of protoliths for the wall rocks, and elucidation of their alteration histories, (2) determination of the ore mineralogy and paragenesis, including metal residences and metal zonation within the deposit, (3) determination of the ages of events important to ore formation using both geochronology and paleontology, and (4) development of computer models that would allow the deposit and its host rocks to be examined in detail in three dimensions. The work was carried out by numerous scientists of diverse expertise over a period of several years. The written results, which are contained in this Professional Paper, are presented by 21 authors: 13 from the U.S. Geological Survey, 4 from Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company, 2 from academia, and 2 from consultants. The Greens Creek deposit (global resource of 24.2 million tons at an average grade of 13.9 percent zinc, 5.1 percent lead, 0.15 troy ounce per ton gold, and 19.2 troy ounces per ton silver at zero cutoff) formed in latest Triassic time during a brief period of rifting of the Alexander terrane. The deposit exhibits a range of syngenetic, diagenetic, and epigenetic features that are typical of volcanogenic (VMS), sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), and Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) genetic models. In the earliest stages of rifting, formation of precious-metal-rich silica-barite-carbonate white ores began at low temperature in a shallow, subaqueous setting, probably a thin carbonate shelf on the flanks of the Alexander landmass. Epigenetic carbonate replacement textures in the footwall dolostones are overlain by stratiform silica-carbonate-barite-rich ores and indicate that early mineralization formed at and just beneath the paleo sea floor by mixing of a reduced, precious-metal-rich, base-metal-poor hydrothermal fluid with oxygenated seawater. As rifting intensified, the shelf was downfaulted and isolated as a graben. Isolation of the basin and onset of starved-basin shale sedimentation was concurrent with emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusives at shallow levels in the rift, resulting in an increasingly higher temperature and progressively more anoxic ore-forming environment. The formation of the main stage of massive sulfide ores began as the supply of bacterially reduced sulfur increased in the accumulating shales. As the main-stage mineralization intensified, shale sedimentation inundated the hydrothermal system, eventually forming a cap. Biogenic sulfate reduction supplied reduced sulfur to the base of the shales where mixing occurred with hot, base-metal-rich hydrothermal fluids. Ore deposition continued by destruction and epigenetic replacement of the early white ores in proximal areas and by inflation and diagenetic replacement of unlithified shale at the interface between the white ores and the base of the shale cap. Ore deposition waned as the shales became lithified and as the supply of bacterially reduced sulfur to the site of ore deposition ceased. The final stages of rifting resulted in the emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks into the Greens Creek system and extrusion of voluminous basaltic flows at the top of the Triassic section. Greenschist facies metamorphism during the Jurassic-Cretaceous accretion of the Alexander terrane to the continental margin resulted in recrystalli

  8. 11. SIDE VIEW OF ROCK FENCE LINE AND ASSOCIATED THREESTRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SIDE VIEW OF ROCK FENCE LINE AND ASSOCIATED THREE-STRAND BARBED WIRE FENCE; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  9. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF COURSING, SOUTH ELEVATION. LARGER ROCKS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF COURSING, SOUTH ELEVATION. LARGER ROCKS ARE SCRABBLED TO GIVE THE APPEARANCE OF A FINISHED SURFACE, LOOKING NORTH - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  10. Oxygen Isotopes and the Cooling History of the Mount Barcroft Area, Central White Mountains, Easternmost California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, W. G.; Rumble, D.

    2001-12-01

    The White-Inyo Range + Owens Valley marks the western limit of the Basin and Range province, directly east of the Sierra Nevada. At Mount Barcroft, mid-Mesozoic, alkaline, bimodal White Mountain Peak metavolcanic + metaclastic rocks on the N are separated from Lower Cambrian siliciclastic + carbonate metasedimentary strata on the S by the NE-trending Middle Jurassic Barcroft mafic granodioritic pluton. It consists of mineralogically/chemically intergradational gabbro/diorite, granodiorite, metadiorite, and alaskite. Eastward, the section is intruded by the Late Cretaceous, ternary-minimum McAfee Creek Granite. Ignoring altered dikes, bulk-rock analyses of plutonic rocks indicate that metaluminous, I-type rocks of the Barcroft comagmatic suite possess an av(12) d18O value of 7.5. Slightly peraluminous, apparently S-type granitic rocks sensu stricto of the McAfee Creek series have an av(8) d18O value of 8.6. Evidence is lacking for large-scale bulk-rock interaction with near-surface waters, suggesting intermediate crustal depths of intrusion and cooling for these plutons. Coexisting Barcroft minerals exhibit consistent oxygen isotopic partitioning from high to low d18O in the sequence quartz > plagioclase > K-feldspar >> amphibole = biotite. Wall-rock quartz and biotite are richer in 18O than analogous phases in the plutonic rocks, and show slightly greater fractionations than igneous counterparts. Along its borders, late-stage exchange with heated aqueous fluids, derived from recrystallized wall rocks due to emplacement of the Middle Jurassic magma, increased 18O/16O ratios of dikes, and some Barcroft igneous plagioclase and subsolidus tremolite-actinolite. Oxygen isotope geothermometry for Barcroft quartz-amphibole and quartz-biotite pairs yields broadly similar temperatures; the combined average of 13 pairs is 519oC. A single quartz-biotite pair analyzed from a Lower Cambrian quartzite within the inner metamorphic aureole of the Barcroft pluton yields a temperature of 511oC, in agreement with values based on wall-rock metamorphic parageneses. Barcroft quartz, feldspars, biotite, and clinoamphiboles were subjected to exchange with deuteric fluid, and re-equilibrated under subsolidus conditions. Quartz-plagioclase pairs from two Barcroft granodiorites possess similar temperatures of 519 and 515oC, so also re-equilibrated at subsolidus temperatures. Areal distributions for quartz-plagioclase, quartz-clinoamphibole, and quartz-biotite pairs reveal that annealing temperatures are lowest in axial portions of the Barcroft granodioritic pluton. Late Cretaceous emplacement of the McAfee Creek Granite had little effect on d18O values of Barcroft minerals and bulk rocks.

  11. 5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. In-situ Ar-Ar white mica ages reveal differences in mica crystallization behaviour in quartz-rich and calcite-rich rocks of the same shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossette, lise; Schneider, David; Warren, Clare; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Conventional Ar-Ar dating of tectonites can result in equivocal ages due to mixed mineral populations, excess 40Ar (decoupled from its parent 40K), or partial resetting of the K-Ar systematics. In-situ Ar-Ar dating was performed on white micas from footwall marbles and schists of the Western Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS) of the Aegean. These rocks are part of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, which experienced HP conditions during the Eocene and strong extension during the Miocene. The rocks contain undeformed, kinked, and neocrystallized micas with the mica phases recording higher strain (elongated grains and mica-fish structures) in quartz-dominated rocks compared to the calcite-dominated assemblages. In both quartzitic and calcitic rocks, deformed white micas are chemically zoned. Two chemical populations were identified: (1) a high component of Al-celadonite in undeformed portions of grains that likely crystallized during high pressure metamorphism; (2) enrichment in muscovite in deformed portions of grains as a result of Tschermak substitution that took place during deformation-induced neocrystallization under shallow crustal conditions. Neocrystallization occurs preferentially in zones of localized deformation and in zones of enhanced fluid availability. The latter is supported by stable isotope (O, C, H) analyses of calcite, dolomite and white micas that suggest a moderate fluid-rock interaction resulting in a coupled depletion of ?18O vs ?13C and ?18O vs ?D. Recrystallized quartz exhibits planar indentation structures, also consistent with fluid-assisted deformation. Completely neocrystallized grains, in quartzitic rocks from Kea Island at the center of the WCDS yield Ar-Ar deformation ages of c. 18-21 Ma, which are interpreted as dating the timing of ductile extension along the detachment system. Undeformed (unkinked, prismatic) portions of white micas in calcitic rocks from Serifos Island at the southern end of the WCDS yield Ar-Ar ages of c. 40-45 Ma, whereas deformed (kinked or strained) portions of the same grains yield younger ages of c. 31-36 Ma. Calcitic rocks are intrinsically less permeable than quartzitic rocks, thus are less affected by fluid-induced recrystallization. Moreover, in calcite-muscovite aggregates, strain is accommodated in calcite (by dislocation creep) whereas in quartz-muscovite aggregates, strain is accommodated in mica (as mica-fish structures). Hence, ductily deformed and completely neocrystallized micas occur more often in quartzitic rocks, whereas calcitic rocks contain micas that are only partially neocrystallized due to a lack of deformation and fluid infiltration. Consequently, consistent with our empirical results, the minimum age of ductile deformation is more likely to be preserved in quartzitic rocks, such as the c. 18-21 Ma obtained on Kea. Similarly, inherited or partially reset ages are likely to be found in calcitic rocks, such as the c. 31-36 Ma from Serifos.

  13. Greigite (Fe3S4) as an indicator of drought - The 1912-1994 sediment magnetic record from White Rock Lake, Dallas, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.L.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Van Metre, P.; Tuttle, M.; Callender, E.; Goldin, A.

    1999-01-01

    Combined magnetic and geochemical studies were conducted on sediments from White Rock Lake, a reservoir in suburban Dallas (USA), to investigate how land use has affected sediment and water quality since the reservoir was filled in 1912. The chronology of a 167-cm-long core is constrained by the recognition of the pre-reservoir surface and by 137Cs results. In the reservoir sediments, magnetic susceptibility (MS) and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) are largely carried by detrital titanomagnetite that originally formed in igneous rocks. Titanomagnetite and associated hematite are the dominant iron oxides in a sample from the surficial deposit in the watershed but are absent in the underlying Austin Chalk. Therefore, these minerals were transported by wind into the watershed. After about 1960, systematic decreases in Ti, Fe, and Al suggest diminished input of detrital Fe-Ti oxides from the surficial deposits. MS and IRM remain constant over this interval, however, implying compensation by an increase in strongly magnetic material derived from human activity. Anthropogenic magnetite in rust and ferrite spherules (from fly ash?) are more common in sediment deposited after about 1970 than before and may account for the constant magnetization despite the implied decrease in detrital Fe-Ti oxides. An unexpected finding is the presence of authigenic greigite (Fe3S4), the abundance of which is at least partly controlled by climate. Greigite is common in sediments that predate about 1975, with zones of concentration indicated by relatively high IRM/MS. High greigite contents in sediment deposited during the early to mid-1950s and during the mid-1930s correspond to several-year periods of below-average precipitation and drought from historical records. Relatively long water-residence times in the reservoir during these periods may have led to elevated levels of sulfate available for bacterial sulfate reduction. The sulfate was probably derived via the oxidation of pyrite that is common in the underlying Austin Chalk. These results provide a basis for the paleoenvironmental interpretation of greigite occurrence in older lake sediments. The results also indicate that greigite formed rapidly and imply that it can be preserved in the amounts produced over a short time span (in this lake, only a few years). This finding thus suggests that, in some lacustrine settings, greigite is capable of recording paleomagnetic secular variation.

  14. 10. DETAIL OF AREATYPICAL FENCE LINE WITH HISTORIC ROCK FENCE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF AREA-TYPICAL FENCE LINE WITH HISTORIC ROCK FENCE; VIEW ALONG WHITE ROCK ROAD EAST OF HIDDEN RIVER WAY; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  15. Guardians of Tradition and Handmaidens to Change: Women's Roles in Creek Economic and Social Life during the Eighteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, Kathryn E. Holland

    1990-01-01

    Argues that, during the eighteenth century, Creek women were central elements in both cultural preservation and adaptation to white ways. Discusses the deerskin trade, matrilineal customs, male and female roles, sexuality, marriage, intermarriage between Creek women and white traders, and the role of mixed bloods as cultural intermediaries. (SV)

  16. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided

  17. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  18. Irrigated Acreage Within the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welborn, Toby L.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate delineations of irrigated acreage are needed for the development of water-use estimates and in determining water-budget calculations for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study. Irrigated acreage is estimated routinely for only a few basins in the study area. Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper platforms were used to delineate irrigated acreage on a field-by-field basis for the entire study area. Six hundred and forty-three fields were delineated. The water source, irrigation system, crop type, and field activity for 2005 were identified and verified through field reconnaissance. These data were integrated in a geodatabase and analyzed to develop estimates of irrigated acreage for the 2000, 2002, and 2005 growing seasons by hydrographic area and subbasin. Estimated average annual potential evapotranspiration and average annual precipitation also were estimated for each field.The geodatabase was analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of field locations, the total amount of irrigated acreage by potential irrigation water source, by irrigation system, and by crop type. Irrigated acreage in 2005 totaled nearly 32,000 acres ranging from less than 200 acres in Butte, Cave, Jakes, Long, and Tippett Valleys to 9,300 acres in Snake Valley. Irrigated acreage increased about 20 percent between 2000 and 2005 and increased the most in Snake and White River Valleys. Ground-water supplies as much as 80 percent of irrigation water during dry years. Almost 90 percent of the irrigated acreage was planted with alfalfa.

  19. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A., III

    2004-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the Mahanoy Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The Mahanoy Creek Basin encompasses an area of 157 square miles (407 square kilometers) including approximately 42 square miles (109 square kilometers) underlain by the Western Middle Anthracite Field. As a result of more than 150 years of anthracite mining in the basin, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments have been adversely affected. Leakage from streams to underground mines and elevated concentrations (above background levels) of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) degrade the aquatic ecosystem and impair uses of the main stem of Mahanoy Creek from its headwaters to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. Various tributaries also are affected, including North Mahanoy Creek, Waste House Run, Shenandoah Creek, Zerbe Run, and two unnamed tributaries locally called Big Mine Run and Big Run. The Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are the only major tributaries not affected by mining. To assess the current hydrological and chemical characteristics of the AMD and its effect on receiving streams, and to identify possible remedial alternatives, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2001, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Schuylkill Conservation District. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the USGS at five stream sites during low base-flow conditions in October 2001. Twenty species of fish were identified in Schwaben Creek near Red Cross, which drains an unmined area of 22.7 square miles (58.8 square kilometers) in the lower part of the Mahanoy Creek Basin. In contrast, 14 species of fish were identified in Mahanoy Creek near its mouth at Kneass, below Schwaben Creek. The diversity and abundance of fish species in Mahanoy Creek decreased progressively upstream from 13 species at Gowen City to only 2 species each at Ashland and Girardville. White sucker (Catostomus commersoni), a pollution-tolerant species, was present at each of the surveyed reaches. The presence of fish at Girardville was unexpected because of the poor water quality and iron-encrusted streambed at this location. Generally, macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance at these sites were diminished compared to Schwaben Creek and other tributaries draining unmined basins, consistent with the observed quality of streamwater and streambed sediment. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 35 AMD sources and 31 stream sites throughout the Mahanoy Creek Basin were collected by the USGS during high base-flow conditions in March 2001 and low base-flow conditions in August 2001. A majority of the base-flow streamwater samples met water-quality standards for pH (6.0 to 9.0); however, few samples downstream from AMD sources met criteria for acidity less than alkalinity (net alkalinity = 20 milligrams per liter as CaCO3) and concentrations of dissolved iron (0.3 milligram per liter) and total manganese (1.0 milligram per liter). Iron, aluminum, and various trace elements including cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, were present in many streamwater samples at concentrations at which continuous exposure can not be tolerated by aquatic organisms without an unacceptable effect. Furthermore, concentrations of sulfate, iron, manganese, aluminum, and (or) beryllium in some samples exceeded drinking-water standards. Other trace elements, including antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, selenium, silver, and thallium, did not exceed water-quality criteria for protection of aquatic organisms or human health. Nevertheless, when considered together, concentrations of iron, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in a majority of the streambed sediment samples from Mahanoy Creek and

  20. The Silver Creek Preserve

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Before The Nature Conservancy established the Silver Creek Preserve, the watershed had been degraded by years of livestock grazing and overfishing. Preserve managers have been concerned about sedimentation, increasing stream temperatures, and invasive species. To measure the effectiveness of their ...

  1. Hot Springs Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Jennifer Lewicki measures the discharge along a tributary to Hot Springs Creek, Akutan Island, Alaska. Steam (upper left) rises from 3 high-temperature springs that discharge into the tributary....

  2. Electrofishing on Lookout Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists electrofishing on the Lookout Creek near the Blue River, OR. The fish they collected were analyzed for mercury content and added to the data base that the National Fish Mercury Model is based on. ...

  3. Sunset over Red Rock Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  4. LOST COVE AND HARPER CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, NORTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, W.R.; Crandall, T.M.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation indicated that a part of the Lost Cove and Harper Creek Roadless Areas, North Carolina has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium, niobium, and beryllium. The study areas lie within the Blue Ridge physiographic province and are predominantly underlain by Precambrian plutonic and metasedimentary rocks of low metamorphic grade. The uranium occurs in vein-type deposits and in supergene-enriched foliated rocks. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil fuel resources.

  5. CITICO CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Behum, Paul T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Citico Creek Wilderness Study Area, in easternmost Tennessee, indicated that the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Geochemical sampling found traces of gold, copper, cobalt, barium, arsenic, lead, zinc, and thorium in rocks, stream sediments, and panned concentrates, but not in sufficient quantities to indicate the presence of metallic mineral deposits. The only apparent resources are nonmetallic commodities including rock suitable for construction materials, and small amounts of sand and gravel; however, these commodities are found in abundance outside the study area. The potential for oil and natural gas at great depths could not be evaluated by this study. Deep drilling would test the potential for hydrocarbon resources underlying the metamorphic rocks.

  6. BUCKS LAKE AND CHIPS CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, Martin L.; Linne, J. Mitchell

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bucks Lake and Chips Creek Roadless Areas, California indicate several areas with mineral-resource potential. The presence or absence of these potentially auriferous deposits can best be determined by drilling through the relatively thin cover of volcanic rocks.

  7. Regional significance of recurrent faulting and intracanyon volcanism at Oak Creek Canyon, southern Colorado Palteau, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, R.F. ); Cloud, R.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Measured sections of late Miocene basalt lava flows, Tertiary gravel, and Paleozoic strata are the basis for stratigraphic reconstructions that provide evidence for pre- and post-volcanic movements on the Oak Creek fault, and for the existence of a prevolcanic ancestral Oak Creek Canyon, Arizona. Recurrent faulting, recording Laramide compression and Basin and Range extension, suggests probable control by an ancestral Oak Creek fault that would belong to a regional system of basement faults hat have controlled Colorado Plateau structures in Phanerozoic rocks. Locally derived Tertiary gravel and overlying lavas filled a canyon eroded in Paleozoic strata along the Oak Creek fault. Southward flow of ancestral Oak Creek, indicated y the lithology and geomorphic position of the gravel, valley reconstruction, and lava vents to the north, northeast, or east, requires that the regional drainage reversal on the southern Colorado Plateau occurred before late Miocene time in the Oak Creek area.

  8. BEAVER CREEK WILDERNESS, KENTUCKY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Englund, K.J.; Hammack, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky, was studied. Coal is the most important mineral resource in the Beaver Creek Wilderness. The coal is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A bituminous, and like coal of this rank in nearby mining areas, it is primarily suitable for use as steam coal. The coal resources are estimated to total 8. 31 million short tons in beds greater than 14 in. thick. Nonmetallic minerals present in the Wilderness include limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone; these commodities are abundant outside the wilderness. The information available is not adequate for the assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the Beaver Creek Wilderness. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources.

  9. Early riparian wells along Oil Creek, Northwest Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Pees, S.T.

    1995-09-01

    The early oil booms beginning in the 1860`s in Northwest Pennsylvania saw a multitude of derricks crowding the narrow flats of Oil Creek between Titusville and Oil City. Oil Creek is a shallow watercourse with gravel bars and islands. At low water one can wade it without wetting the kneecaps. In wet seasons the stream can quickly become a torrent, flooding its banks. In winter it can pile high with jagged ice blocks creating crystal mountains, especially at its mouth where it empties into the Allegheny River at Oil City. Well spacing in the bottoms finally became so close that some oil men headed for the gravel bars an small islands. Others drilled directly in the creek. The objectives were the Upper Devonian Venango Group sandstones, particularly the Third sand, at depths of only 450-550 feet (137-168 m). Early initial production rates of the best wells were 1000, 3000, even 4000 barrels per day. This was the incentive. Piles of rocks and logs were made for some wells on floodable land along Oil Creek. The jacks and well heads stood high above the flats on these artificial mounds. Protective V walls of wood or concrete were made for creek and bank wells. The V pointed upstream and the wooden separator tank was nuzzled inside it. Another approach was a pier built out into the creek to support drilling. Some of these silent reminders of earlier days are still out there.

  10. The Paint Creek Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, David; Vonck, Beth

    1998-01-01

    Describes a summer program project designed and conducted by a mixed-age group of elementary children. Students collected data to determine whether a local stream was polluted, and interpretations of the data varied. An informational video about the project and the creek was produced. (PVD)

  11. Boulder Creek Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of

  12. Panther Creek Energy Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gawel, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Panther Creek Facility was developed by Panther Creek Partners. The resource recovery facility is designed to use the anthracite mining refuse (culm) left over from decades of coal mining in the region. Employing state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler technology, the facility is able to efficiently burn the low BTU, high ash refuse in an environmentally safe and acceptable manner. Over time the facility will consume the black piles of culm from the surrounding area. High pressure, superheated steam from the circulating fluidized bed boiler drives a turbine generator that produces 94,389 kilowatts of electric power for use in the plant and for sale to Metropolitan Edison Company. The plant is designed to operate 24 hours per day, seven days per week and generates enough electricity to meet the needs of 32,000 homes. Air pollution emissions are controlled by state-of-the art systems utilizing limestone injection and staged combustion with a patented thermal nitrogen oxide emission control system and fabric filter (baghouse) system. The Panther Creek Facility is connected to the Metropolitan Edison Company electrical system in Hamburg, Pennsylvania by a 31-mile long 115 kilovolt transmission line. Near Hamburg, the Panther Creek Hill Road Substation reduces the voltage to 69 kilovolts for delivery to Metropolitan Edison Company through approximately one-half mile of 69 transmission line.

  13. WILLOW CREEK RECLAMATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Working in cooperation with the EPA, Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology, and others, the Willow Creek Reclamation Committee (WCRC) will investigate the sources and character of water entering the mine workings on the Amethyst vein near the town of Creede, Colorado. Activi...

  14. Warm Springs Creek, Idaho

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Warm Springs Creek is a tributary of the Big Wood River in south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

  15. Boulder Creek Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

  16. Three classes of Martian rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this portion of the 360-degree color gallery pan, looking to the northeast, the colors have been exaggerated to highlight the differences between rocks and soils. Visible are the downwind sides of rocks, not exposed to wind scouring like Barnacle Bill (which faces upwind). There is a close correspondence between the shapes and colors of the rocks. Three general classes of rocks are recognized: large rounded rocks with weathered coatings, small gray angular rocks lacking weathered coatings, and flat white rocks. The large rounded rocks in the distance, marked by the red arrows, are comparable to Yogi. Spectral properties show that these rocks have a highly weathered coating in addition to a distinctive shape. A second population of smaller, angular rocks (blue arrows) in the foreground have unweathered surfaces even on the downwind side, except where covered on their tops by drift. These are comparable to Barnacle Bill. They may have been emplaced at the site relatively recently, perhaps as ejecta from an impact crater, so they have not had time to weather as extensively as the larger older rocks. The third kind of rock (white arrows) is white and flat, and includes Scooby Doo in the foreground and a large deposit in the background called Baker's Bank. The age of the white rock relative to the other two classes is still being debated. One representative rock of each class (Yogi, Barnacle Bill, and Scooby Doo) has been measured by the rover.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  17. Gravity, magnetic, and physical property data in the Smoke Creek Desert area, northwest Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilden, Janet E.; Ponce, David A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Tushman, Kira; Duvall, Alison

    2006-01-01

    The Smoke Creek Desert, located approximately 100 km (60 mi) north of Reno near the California-Nevada border, is a large basin situated along the northernmost parts of the Walker Lane Belt (Stewart, 1988), a physiographic province defined by northwest-striking topographic features and strike-slip faulting. Because geologic framework studies play an important role in understanding the hydrology of the Smoke Creek Desert, a geologic and geophysical effort was begun to help determine basin geometry, infer structural features, and estimate depth to Pre-Cenozoic rocks, or basement. In May and June of 2004, and June of 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 587 new gravity stations, more than 160 line-kilometers (100 line-miles) of truck-towed magnetometer data, and 111 rock property samples in the Smoke Creek Desert and vicinity in northwest Nevada, as part of an effort to characterize its hydrogeologic framework. In the Smoke Creek Desert area, gravity highs occur over rocks of the Skedaddle Mountains, Fox Range, Granite Range, and over portions of Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Buffalo Hills. These gravity highs likely reflect basement rocks, either exposed at the surface or buried at shallow depths. The southern Smoke Creek Desert corresponds to a 25-mGal isostatic gravity low, which corresponds with a basin depth of approximately 2 km. Magnetic highs are likely due to granitic, andesitic, and metavolcanic rocks, whereas magnetic lows are probably associated with less magnetic gneiss and metasedimentary rocks in the region. Three distinctive patterns of magnetic anomalies occur throughout the Smoke Creek Desert and Squaw Creek Valley, likely reflecting three different geological and structural settings.

  18. Geochemical Data for Stream-Sediment, Surface-Water, Rock, and Vegetation Samples from Red Mountain (Dry Creek), an Unmined Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit in the Bonnifield District, Alaska Range, East-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Stuart A.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Granitto, Matthew; Zelenak, Philip P.; Adams, Monique G.; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Gough, Larry P.; Hageman, Philip L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Horton, John D.; Sutley, Stephan J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Wolf, Ruth E.

    2007-01-01

    North-central and northeast Nevada contains numerous large plutons and smaller stocks but also contains many small, shallowly emplaced intrusive bodies, including dikes, sills, and intrusive lava dome complexes. Decades of geologic investigations in the study area demonstrate that many ore deposits, representing diverse ore deposit types, are spatially, and probably temporally and genetically, associated with these igneous intrusions. However, despite the number and importance of igneous instrusions in the study area, no synthesis of geochemical data available for these rocks has been completed. This report presents a synthesis of composition and age data for these rocks. The product represents the first phases of an effort to evaluate the time-space-compositional evolution of Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatism in the study area and identify genetic associations between magmatism and mineralizing processes in this region.

  19. Radioactivity at the Copper Creek copper lode prospect, Eagle district, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedow, Helmuth; Tolbert, Gene Edward

    1952-01-01

    Investigation of radioactivity anomalies at the Copper Creek copper lode prospect, Eagle district, east-central Alaska, during 1949 disclosed that the radioactivity is associated with copper mineralization in highly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These rocks are a roof pendant in the Mesozoic "Charley River" batholith. The radioactivity is probably all due to uranium associated with bornite and malachite.

  20. Geology and ore deposits of the Chicago Creek area, Clear Creek County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, J.E.; Wells, J.D.

    1956-01-01

    The Chicago Creek area, Clear Creek County, Colo., forms part of the Front Range mineral belt, which is a northeast-trending belt of coextensive porphyry intrusive rocks and hydrothermal veins of Tertiary age. More than $4.5 million worth of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and uranium was produced from the mines in the area between 1859 and 1954. This investigation was made by the Geological survey on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The bedrock in the area is Precambrian and consists of igneous rocks, some of which have been metamorphosed , and metasedimentary rocks. The metasedimentary rocks include biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss that is locally garnetiferous, sillimanitic biotite-quartz gneiss, amphibolite, and lime-silicate gneiss. Rocks that may be metasedimentary or meta-igneous are quartz monzonite gneiss and granite gneiss and pegmatite. The granite gneiss and pegmatite locally form a migmatite with the biotitic metasedimentary rocks. These older rocks have been intruded by granodiorite, quartz, and granite pegmatite. During Tertiary time the Precambrian rocks were invaded by dikes and plugs of quartz monzonite porphyry, alaskite porphyry, granite porphyry, monzonite porphyry, bostonite and garnetiferous bostonite porphyry, quartz bostonite porphyry, trachytic granite porphyry, and biotite-quartz latite-porphyry. Solifluction debris of Wisconsin age forms sheets filling some of the high basins, covering some of the steep slopes, and filling parts of some of the valleys; talus and talus slides of Wisconsin age rest of or are mixed with solifluction debris in some of the high basins. Recent and/or Pleistocene alluvium is present along valley flats of the larger streams and gulches. Two periods of Precambrian folding can be recognized in the area. The older folding crumpled the metasedimentary rocks into a series of upright and overturned north-northeast plunging anticlines and synclines. Quartz monzonite gneiss, granite gneiss and pegmatite, granodiorite, and quartz diorite and associated hornblendite are metamorphosed during this period. The second period of folding appears to have been the reflection at depth of faulting nearer the surface; it resulted in crushing as well as some folding of the already folded rocks into terrace and monoclinal folds that plunge gently east-northeast. The biotite-muscovite granite, which is the youngest major Precambrian rock unit, is both concordant (phacolithic) and crosscutting along the older fold system and has been fractured by the younger fold system.

  1. Mineralogy and diagenesis of low-permeability sandstones of Late Cretaceous age, Piceance Creek Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansley, Paula L.; Johnson, Ronald C.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents preliminary results of a mineralogic and diagenetic study of some low-permeability sandstones from measured surface sections and cores obtained from drill holes in the Piceance Creek Basin of northwestern Colorado. A documentation of the mineralogy and diagenetic history will aid in the exploration for natural gas and in the development of recovery technology in these low-permability sandstones. These sandstones are in the nonmarine upper part of the Mesaverde Formation (or Group) of Late Cretaceous age and are separated from overlying lower Tertiary rocks by a major regional unconformity. Attention is focused on the sandstone units of the Ohio Creek Member, which directly underlies the unconformity; however, comparisons between the mineralogy of the Ohio Creek strata and that of the underlying sandstone units are made whenever possible. The Ohio Creek is a member of the Hunter Canyon Formation (Mesaverde Group) in the southwestern part of the basin, and the Mesaverde Formation in the southern and central parts of the basin. The detrital mineralogy is fairly constant throughout all of these nonrnarine Cretaceous sandstone units; however, in the southeastern part of the basin, there is an increase in percentage of feldspar, quartzite, and igneous rock fragments in sandstones of the Ohio Creek Member directly underlying the unconformity. In the southwestern part of the basin, sandstones of the Ohio Creek Member are very weathered and are almost-entirely comprised of quartz, chert, and kaolinite. A complex diagenetic history, partly related to the overlying unconformity, appears to be responsible for transforming these sandstones into potential gas reservoirs. The general diagenetic sequence for the entire Upper Cretaceous interval studied is interpreted to be (early to late): early(?) calcite cement, chlorite, quartz overgrowths, calcite cement, secondary porosity, analcime (surface only), kaolinite and illite, and late carbonate cements. Authigenic high-iron chlorite, which occurs on grain rims and in pore throats, is primarily responsible for the low-permeability of the subsurface sandstones of the Ohio Creek Member in the center of the basin. Kaolinite is the most abundant pore-filling authigenic clay in these sandstones, from the southwestern part of the basin and is responsible for their distinctive white-weathering color in outcrop. In the sandstones below the Ohio Creek Member, however, chlorite and kaolinite occur locally, and authigenic calcite and illite are more abundant. The occurrence and distribution of secondary porosity is one of the most important aspects of the diagenetic history of these sandstones. It is present as moldic intra- and intergranular porosity, as well as microporosity among authigenic clay pariicles. Although present locally in most sandstone units, secondary porosity is particularly common in the uppermost sandstone units and is interpreted to have formed primarily asa result ofweathering during the time represented by the Cretaceous-Tertiary unconformity.

  2. Rockin' around the Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan

    2005-01-01

    In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.…

  3. Rockin' around the Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan

    2005-01-01

    In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.

  4. 40Ar/39Ar age-spectrum data for hornblende, biotite, white mica, and K-feldspar samples from metamorphic rocks in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunk, Michael J.; McAleer, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    This report contains reduced 40Ar/39Ar data of hornblende, biotite, white mica and (or) sericite, and potassium-feldspar mineral separates and phyllite groundmass samples from metamorphic rocks of the Great Smoky Mountains in North Carolina and Tennessee. Included in this report are information on the location of the samples and a brief description of the samples. The data contained herein are not interpreted in a geological context, and care should be taken by users unfamiliar with argon isotopic data in the use of these results. No geological meaning is implied for any of the apparent ages presented below, and many of the individual apparent ages are not geologically meaningful. This report is primarily a detailed source document for subsequent publications that will integrate these data into a geological context. All the samples in this report were collected in and around the Great Smoky Mountain National Park in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee.

  5. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Archaean LCT pegmatite deposit Cattlin Creek, Ravensthorpe, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Matthias; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The LCT (lithium-cesium-tantalum) pegmatite Cattlin Creek is located about 550 km ESE of Perth, Western Australia. The complex-type, rare-element pegmatite is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Archaean Ravensthorpe greenstone belt, which constitutes of the southern edge of the Southern Cross Terranes of the Yilgarn Craton. The deposit is currently mined for both lithium and tantalum by Galaxy Resources Limited since 2010. The pegmatitic melt intruded in a weak structural zone of crossing thrust faults and formed several pegmatite sills, of which the surface nearest mineralized pegmatite body is up to 21 m thick. The Cattlin Creek pegmatite is characterized by an extreme fractionation that resulted in the enrichment of rare elements like Li, Cs, Rb, Sn and Ta, as well as the formation of a vertical zonation expressed by distinct mineral assemblages. The border zone comprises a fine-grained mineral assemblage consisting of albite, quartz, muscovite that merges into a medium-grained wall zone and pegmatitic-textured intermediate zones. Those zones are manifested by the occurrence of megacrystic spodumene crystals with grain sizes ranging from a couple of centimeters up to several metres. The core zone represents the most fractionated part of the pegmatite and consists of lepidolite, cleavelandite, and quartz. It also exhibits the highest concentrations of Cs (0.5 wt.%), Li (0.4 wt.%), Rb (3 wt.%), Ta (0.3 wt.%) and F (4 wt.%). This zone was probably formed in the very last crystallization stage of the pegmatite and its minerals replaced earlier crystallized mineral assemblages. Moreover, the core zone hosts subordinate extremely Cs-enriched (up to 13 wt.% Cs2O) mineral species of beryl. The chemical composition of this beryl resamples that of the extreme rare beryl-variety pezzotaite. Other observed subordinate, minor and accessory minerals comprise tourmaline, garnet, cassiterite, apatite, (mangano-) columbite, tantalite, microlite (Bi-bearing), gahnite, fluorite, sphalerite, zircon, and uranitnite. The mineral composition of micas and the Nb-Ta minerals columbite and tantalite where also used to determine the degree of fractionation within the different zones of the Cattlin Creek pegmatite. The mineral composition of white micas clearly points out a fractionation trend from lithian muscovite composition within the border zone via mixed composition in the intermediate zone towards lepidolite and polylithionite composition within the core zone. A similar trend is shown by the Nb-Ta mineral compositions, the border and intermediate zone is dominated by ferrocolumbite and manganocolumbite, whereas in the core zone only manganotantalite is present. Further geochronological and isotopical investigations studies will help to understand the regional geological framework and provenance history of the Cattlin Creek pegmatite in more detail.

  6. Talking Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Dale; Corley, Brenda

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the ways that rocks can be used to enhance children's creativity and their interest in science. Suggests the creation of a dramatic production involving rocks. Includes basic information on sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. (TW)

  7. USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek - Photo taken by Heidi Koontz, USGS Communications, Friday, Sept. 13. USGS scientist Ben Glass conducting current profiler measurements along Bear Creek near Bear Creek Lake in Morrison, Colo....

  8. Recurrent faulting and petroleum accumulation, Cat Creek Anticline, central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.J. )

    1991-06-01

    The Cat Creek anticline, scene of central Montana's first significant oil discovery, is underlain by a south-dipping high-angle fault (Cat Creek fault) that has undergone several episodes of movement with opposite sense of displacement. Borehole data suggest that the Cat Creek fault originated as a normal fault during Proterozoic rifting concurrent with deposition of the Belt Supergroup. Reverse faulting took place in Late Cambrian time, and again near the end of the Devonian Period. The Devonian episode, coeval with the Antler orogeny, raised the southern block several hundred feet. The southern block remained high through Meramecian time, then began to subside. Post-Atokan, pre-Middle Jurassic normal faulting lowered the southern block as much as 1,500 ft. During the Laramide orogeny (latest Cretaceous-Eocene) the Cat Creek fault underwent as much as 4,000 ft of reverse displacement and a comparable amount of left-lateral displacement. The Cat Creek anticline is a fault-propagation fold; en echelon domes and listric normal faults developed along its crest in response to wrenching. Oil was generated mainly in organic-rich shales of the Heath Formation (upper Chesterian Series) and migrated upward along tectonic fractures into Pennsylvanian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous reservoir rocks in structural traps in en echelon domes. Production has been achieved only from those domes where structural closure was retained from Jurassic through Holocene time.

  9. Surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, in Lauderdale County, West Tennessee, was studied from 1985-88. Peoria Loess is the parent material from which soils in the Cane Creek drainage basin were derived. In general, a brown silt grades into a gray silt from 5 to I7 feet below ground surface. This color change probably represents depth to water table prior to the channelization of Cane Creek. Only at river mile 11.9 does rock outcrop near the main channel. Lower reaches of major tributaries have surficial geology similar to the main channel. In upper reaches of Hyde Creek and Fain Spring Creek, the sequence from the St&ace is sand and gravels, red-brown sandstone, sand and clay layers, and then, an orange sand layer. Coarse-grained deposits are found most often along the northern boundary of the basin and only occasionally in areas to the west and south of the main channel. Depth to sand or gravel ranges from about 0 to 158 feet in the uplands, and generally deeper than 40 feet near the main channel.

  10. Rock strength reductions during incipient weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, P. J.; Anderson, S. P.; Blum, A.

    2012-12-01

    Patrick Kelly, Suzanne Anderson, Alex Blum In rock below the surface, temperature swings are damped, water flow is limited, and biota are few. Yet rock weathers, presumably driven by these environmental parameters. We use rock strength as an indicator of rock weathering in Gordon Gulch in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory, a watershed at 2500 m underlain by Proterozoic gneiss intruded by the Boulder Creek granodiorite. Fresh rock is found at depths of 8-30 m in this area, and the thickness of the weathered rock zone imaged with shallow seismic refraction is greater on N-facing slopes than S-facing slopes (Befus et al., 2011, Vadose Zone J.). We use the Brazilian splitting test to determine tensile strength of cores collected with a portable drilling rig. Spatial variations in rock strength that we measure in the top 2 m of the weathered rock mantle can be connected to two specific environmental variables: slope aspect and the presence of a soil mantle. We find weaker rock on N-facing slopes and under soil. There is no clear correlation between rock strength and the degree of chemical alteration in these minimally weathered rocks. Denudation rates of 20-30 microns/yr imply residence times of 105-106 years within the weathered rock layers of the critical zone. Given these timescales, rock weathering is more likely to have occurred under glacial climate conditions, when periglacial processes prevailed in this non-glaciated watershed. Incipient weathering of rock appears to be controlled by water and frost cracking in Gordon Gulch. Water is more effectively delivered to the subsurface on N-facing slopes, and is more likely held against rock surfaces under soil than on outcrops. These moisture conditions, and the lower surface temperatures that prevail on N-facing slopes also favor frost cracking as an important weathering process.

  11. 6. West elevation of Drift Creek Bridge, view looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West elevation of Drift Creek Bridge, view looking east from new alignment of Drift Creek Road - Drift Creek Bridge, Spanning Drift Creek on Drift Creek County Road, Lincoln City, Lincoln County, OR

  12. Assessment of Hydrology, Water Quality, and Trace Elements in Selected Placer-Mined Creeks in the Birch Creek Watershed near Central, Alaska, 2001-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, completed an assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace-element concentrations in streambed sediment of the upper Birch Creek watershed near Central, Alaska. The assessment covered one site on upper Birch Creek and paired sites, upstream and downstream from mined areas, on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek. Stream-discharge and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at other selected mined and unmined sites helped characterize conditions in the upper Birch Creek watershed. The purpose of the project was to provide the Bureau of Land Management with baseline information to evaluate watershed water quality and plan reclamation efforts. Data collection began in September 2001 and ended in September 2005. There were substantial geomorphic disturbances in the stream channel and flood plain along several miles of Harrison Creek. Placer mining has physically altered the natural stream channel morphology and removed streamside vegetation. There has been little or no effort to re-contour waste rock piles. During high-flow events, the abandoned placer-mine areas on Harrison Creek will likely contribute large quantities of sediment downstream unless the mined areas are reclaimed. During 2004 and 2005, no substantial changes in nutrient or major-ion concentrations were detected in water samples collected upstream from mined areas compared with water samples collected downstream from mined areas on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek that could not be attributed to natural variation. This also was true for dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance-a measure of total dissolved solids. Sample sites downstream from mined areas on Harrison Creek and Frying Pan Creek had higher median suspended-sediment concentrations, by a few milligrams per liter, than respective upstream sites. However, it is difficult to attach much importance to the small downstream increase, less than 10 milligrams per liter, in median suspended-sediment concentration for either basin. During low-flow conditions in 2004 and 2005, previously mined areas investigated on Harrison Creek and on Frying Pan Creek did not contribute substantial suspended sediments to sample sites downstream from the mined areas. No substantial mining-related water- or sediment-quality problems were detected at any of the sites investigated in the upper Birch Creek watershed during low-flow conditions. Average annual streamflow and precipitation were near normal in 2002 and 2003. Drought conditions, extreme forest fire impact, and low annual streamflow set apart the 2004 and 2005 summer seasons. Daily mean streamflow for upper Birch Creek varied throughout the period of record-from maximums of about 1,000 cubic feet per second to minimums of about 20 cubic feet per second. Streamflow increased and decreased rapidly in response to rainfall and rapid snowmelt events because the steep slopes, thin soil cover, and permafrost areas in the watershed have little capacity to retain runoff. Median suspended-sediment concentrations for the 115 paired samples from Frying Pan Creek and 101 paired samples from Harrison Creek were less than the 20 milligrams per liter total maximum daily load. The total maximum daily load was set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the upper Birch Creek basin in 1996. Suspended-sediment paired-sample data were collected using automated samplers in 2004 and 2005, primarily during low-flow conditions. Suspended-sediment concentrations in grab samples from miscellaneous sites ranged from less than 1 milligram per liter during low-flow conditions to 1,386 milligrams per liter during a high-flow event on upper Birch Creek. Streambed-sediment samples were collected at six sites on Harrison Creek, two sites on Frying Pan Creek, and one site on upper Birch Creek. Trace-element concentrations of mercury, lead, and zinc in streambed sedimen

  13. ADAMS GAP AND SHINBONE CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Harrison, Donald K.

    1984-01-01

    The Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas in Alabama were evaluated for their mineral potential. The only resource within the established boundary of the roadless area is quartzite suitable for crushed rock or refractory-grade aggregate. The quartzite contains deleterious impurities and is found in abundance outside the areas. Natural gas or petroleum may exist at depth. Detailed seismic studies and deep drilling tests are needed before a reasonable estimate of hydrocarbon potential can be made.

  14. Chollas in Pine Creek Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Mojave Desert, home to drought-tolerant plants like Cholla cacti, gradually mixes with loblolly pine ecosystems in Pine Creek Canyon. Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Roc...

  15. Deep Creek Road Banded Siltite

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Outcrop of the banded siltite unit of the Apple Creek Formation of the Lemhi Group, in the Lemhi sub-basin of the Mesoproterozoic Belt Basin. This exposure is along the Deep Creek road, southeast of the Blackbird cobalt-copper mine area, in the Salmon River Mountains of east-central Idaho. USGS inte...

  16. Tectonic significance of Currant Creek formation, north-central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Isby, J.S.; Picard, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Currant Creek Formation is composed of conglomerate, sandstone, and fine-grained clastic rocks that crop out along the northwestern margin of the Uinta basin in north-central Utah. Lateral gradations in grain size define proximal, medial, and distal parts of coalescing alluvial-fan deposits that prograded eastward from the active Sevier-Laramide orogenic belt during Maestrichtian through Paleocene (.) time. Paleocurrent directions indicate a dominant southerly transport direction and a minor easterly component. Strong east and southeasterly directions, measured in imbricated clasts and in sand lenses in conglomerate, indicate multiple source areas for the detritus. Source of the coarse-grained detritus in the Currant Creek Formation was the Charleston thrust sheet. Conglomeratic clasts are composed of Precambrian and Cambrian quartzite, chert derived from Cambrian and Mississippian carbonate beds, and Pennsylvanian sandstone. These rocks are exposed in the upper plate of the Charleston thrust near Deer Creek Reservoir, Mount Timpanogos, and Strawberry Reservoir. At Big and Little Cottonwood Canyons, the same rocks are exposed in the lower plate.

  17. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  19. Mapping Evapotranspiration Units in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J. LaRue; Laczniak, Randell J.; Moreo, Michael T.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of ground-water discharge are crucial in the development of a water budget for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system study area. One common method used throughout the southwestern United States is to estimate ground-water discharge from evapotranspiration (ET). ET is a process by which water from the Earth's surface is transferred to the atmosphere. The volume of water lost to the atmosphere by ET can be computed as the product of the ET rate and the acreage of vegetation, open water, and moist soil through which ET occurs. The procedure used in the study groups areas of similar vegetation, water, and soil conditions into different ET units, assigns an average annual ET rate to each unit, and computes annual ET from each ET unit within the outer extent of potential areas of ground-water discharge. Data sets and the procedures used to delineate the ET-unit map used to estimate ground-water discharge from the study area and a qualitative assessment of the accuracy of the map are described in this report.

  20. 75 FR 40034 - Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort Patrick Henry... Land Management Plan (NTRLMP) for the 4,933 acres of TVA-managed public land on Beaver Creek, Clear... the Watauga River. Beaver Creek and Clear Creek reservoirs are on tributaries within the South...

  1. Correlation of Twin Creek limestone with Arapien shale in Arapien embayment, Utah - preliminary appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkel, D.A.; Waanders, G.L.

    1984-07-01

    Striking and important stratigraphic patterns have emerged as a result of recent work during which members of the Twin Creek Limestone were correlated with the Arapien Shale, all of Middle Jurassic age. These correlations, determined first on the basis of electric and lithologic logs, are supported by recent palynologic work. Three distinct dinoflagellate assemblages, assigned to the Bajocian(.), Bathonian, and Callovian stages, form the paleontologic basis for these correlations. The Bajocian(.) assemblage is found in rocks of the Sliderock and Rich Members of the Twin Creek Limestone. The Bathonian assemblage is found in units of the Boundary Ridge and Watton Canyon Members of the Twin Creek, and also in units of the lower Arapien Shale (lower Leeds Creek Member of the Twin Creek of Wyoming). The Callovian assemblage is found in rocks of the upper Arapien (upper Leeds Creek and Giraffe Creek Members of the Twin Creek of Wyoming). Isopach maps, based on these correlations, indicate that most of central Utah was the site of a large marine embayment - the Arapien embayment -that was flanked on the west, south, and east by highlands. The maps also suggest that the ancestral Uinta Mountains, a submerged feature, affected sedimentation as early as Bajocian time, and became a significant barrier from the late Bathonian through Callovian. In central Utah, marine carbonates were deposited in the Arapien embayment during deposition of the Gypsum Spring through Watton Canyon Members of the Twin Creek Limestone. During deposition of the Arapien Shale, a major northward regression occurred; the embayment shrank to form a smaller basin - the Arapien basin - that lay directly south of the ancestral Uinta Mountains. Most of the Arapien Shale is shallow-water deposits that formed in the basin under hypersaline conditions.

  2. Four Generations of Poarch Creek History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Karla Susanne

    2011-01-01

    The Poarch Band of Creek Indians are a segment of the original Creek Nation that avoided removal and remained in Alabama. This dissertation is a qualitative study designed to record oral histories of Poarch Creek people. Together the tribe and I collected and recorded oral histories from four generations of four Poarch Creek families. In addition,…

  3. FLINT CREEK RANGE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, George E.; Marks, Lawrence Y.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Flint Creek Range Wilderness study area, Montana shows the presence of mineral deposits. By far the most important are low-grade, potentially large, contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits. A large stockwork molybdenum deposit is probably low in grade. The areas of these tungsten and molybdenum deposits have substantiated mineral-resource potential. A multimillion ton phosphate-rock deposit occurs in an area of substantiated resource potential in the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the south-central part of the study area. Deposits of massive quartz, perhaps suitable for smelter flux, a demonstrated resource. Small scattered silver- and gold-bearing veins are present, but no resource potential was identified.

  4. Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in the Peninsular Ranges, Southern California. [including San Diego River, Otay Mts., Japatul Valley, Barrett Lake, Horsethief Canyon, Pine Valley Creek, Pine Creek, and Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merifield, P. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Thin sections of rock exposed along the San Diego River linear were prepared and determined to be fault breccia. Single band and ratio images of the western Mojave Desert were prepared from the multispectral scanner digital tapes. Subtle differences in color of soil and rock are enhanced on the ratio images. Two north-northeast trending linears (Horsethief Canyon and Pine Valley Creek) and an east-west linear (Pine Creek) were concluded to have resulted from erosion along well-developed foliation in crystalline basement rocks.

  5. Water, Rivers and Creeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac, Robert D.

    Luna B. Leopold's intent in Water, Rivers and Creeks was to provide a nontechnical primer on hydrology and water resources, and he succeeded admirably. The terse style is reminiscent of the mystery writer Mickey Spillane, though the content is complex science expounded in simple terms. Part I, Hydrology and Morphology, makes up the first two thirds of the book, and in this section, Leopold develops hydrologic and geomorphic concepts and principles using analogies with items common to any household. Garden hoses, dishpans, bath tubs, and sieves provide illuminating examples of the effects of channel storage on stream flow, water tables and the movement of groundwater, sustainable yield and the storage equation, and the infiltration/percolation process.

  6. Panther Creek Upstream of Big Deer Creek, central Idaho

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Panther Creek was severely damaged by heavy metals released from mining and milling activities at the former Blackbird Mine. USGS and other scientists compiled a 30-year record of recovery of the stream’s fish and macroinvertebrate populations....

  7. Horizontal drilling potential of the Cane Creek Shale, Paradox Formation, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Chidsey, T.C. )

    1991-06-01

    The Cane Creek shale of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation is a well-defined target for horizontal drilling. This unit is naturally fractures and consists of organic-rich marine shale with interbedded dolomitic siltstone and anhydrite. Six fields have produced oil from the Cane Creek shale in the Paradox basin fold-and-fault belt. The regional structural trend is north-northwest with productive fractures occurring along the crest and flanks of both the larger and more subtle smaller anticlines. The Long Canyon, Cane Creek, Bartlett Flat, and Shafer Canyon fields are located on large anticlines, while Lion Mesa and Wilson Canyon fields produce from subtle structural noses. The Cane Creek shale is similar to the highly productive Bakken Shale in the Williston basin. Both are (1) proven producers of high-gravity oil, (2) highly fractured organic-rich source rocks, (3) overpressured, (4) regionally extensive, and (5) solution-gas driven with little or no associated water. Even though all production from the Cane Creek shale has been from conventional vertical wells, the Long Canyon 1 well has produced nearly 1 million bbl of high-gravity, low-sulfur oil. Horizontal drilling may result in the development of new fields, enhance recovery in producing fields, and revive production in abandoned fields. In addition, several other regionally extensive organic-rich shale beds occur in the Paradox Formation. The Gothic and Chimney Rock shales for example, offer additional potential lying above the Cane Creek shale.

  8. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF WHITE MILLER LAKE AND UPSTREAM FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF WHITE MILLER LAKE AND UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, White Miller Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 6.9 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  9. 1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS GLACIER VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Deadwood Creek Bridge, Spanning Deadwood Creek on Mather Memorial Parkway, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  10. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  11. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  12. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration

  13. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the

  14. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  15. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  16. Experimental study of opening-mode crack growth in rock. Progress report and renewal proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The objective is to relate fracture toughness to rock microstructure. Crack propagation measurements are made on samples of stockbridge marble and Stony Creek granite. Force-displacement curves are recorded and the texture of the fracture surfaces observed. (ACR)

  17. Ground-water geology and pump irrigation in Frenchman Creek Basin above Palisade, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardwell, W.D.E.; Jenkins, Edward D.

    1963-01-01

    This report describes the geography, geology, and ground-water resources of that part of the Frenchman Creek basin upstream from Palisade, Nebr., an area of about 4,900 square miles. The basin includes all of Phillips County, Colo., and Chase County, Nebr., and parts of Logan, Sedgwick, Washington, and Yuma Counties, Colo., and Dundy, Hayes, Hitchcock, and Perkins Counties, Nebr. The land surface ranges from nearly flat to rolling; choppy hills and interdune saddles are common in the areas of dune sand, and steep bluffs and gullies cut the edges of the relatively flat loess plateaus. Most of the basin is drained by tributaries of Frenchman Creek, but parts of the sandhills are undrained. Farming and livestock raising are the principal industries. Irrigation with ground water has expanded rapidly since 1934. The rocks exposed in the basin are largely unconsolidated and range in age from Pliocene to Recent. They comprise the Ogallala formation (Pliocene), the Sanborn formation (Pleistocene and Recent?), dune sand (Pleistocene and Recent), and alluvium (Recent). The rocks underlying the Ogallala are the Pierre shale (Late Cretaceous) and the White River group (Oligocene). The Pierre shale is relatively impermeable and yields little or no water to wells. The White River group also is relatively impermeable and yields little or no water to wells; however, small to moderate quantities of water possibly may be obtained from wells that penetrate fractured or 'porous' zones in the upper part of the White River group or permeable channel deposits within the group. The Ogallala formation is the main aquifer in the basin and yields moderate to large quantities of water to wells. The Sanborn formation and the dune sand generally lie above the water table, but in areas of high water table the dune sand yields small quantities of water to wells for domestic and stock supplies. The alluvium, which includes the low terrace deposits bordering the major streams, yields small to large quantities of water to wells. The ground-water reservoir is recharged only from precipitation on the basin. Of the average annual precipitation of 19.5 inches, about 0.9 inch infiltrates to the water table, thereby contributing about 220,000 acre-feet of water annually to the ground-water reservoir. About 81 million acre-feet of water that could drain under gravity, and thus theoretically is available to wells, is held in groundwater storage in the basin. Water is discharged from the ground-water reservoir by wells, evaporation and transpiration, springs, seepage into streams, and movement into adjacent areas to the east and southeast. Most of the domestic, stock, and irrigation water supplies and all the public supplies are pumped from wells. During 1953, 96 wells were used to irrigate 10,000 acres of land with 19,000 acre-feet of water. About 34,000 acre-feet of water is evaporated and transpired annually in the valleys of the main streams and in areas of shallow water table in the sandhills. From the projection of base-flow measurements made during 1952, it was estimated that the average annual flow of Frenchman Creek into the reservoir above Enders Dam is about 57,000 acre-feet. By similar determinations, the average annual flow of Frenchman Creek at the gaging station at Palisade, Nebr., about 22 miles downstream from Enders Dam, is about 76,000 acre-feet, and the flow of Stinking Water Creek at the gaging station near Palisade is about 22,000 acre-feet. The combined flow of Frenchman and Stinking Water Creeks at their confluence near Palisade thus is about 98,000 acre-feet per year. About 90,000 acre-feet of ground water is estimated to move eastward each year across the Colorado-Nebraska State line within the basin. Additional irrigation wells that will tap the Ogallala formation and the alluvium in the major valleys undoubtedly will be drilled. On the basis of current estimates of future irrigation.withdrawals, it is concluded that by the

  18. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Carey Creek, Technical Report 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    In August 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Carey Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Carey Creek Project provides a total of 172.95 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 4.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetlands provide 52.68 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 2.82 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow and grassland meadow provide 98.13 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Emergent wetlands provide 11.53 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Open water provides 2.88 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Carey Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  19. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  20. 77 FR 2493 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Spa Creek and Annapolis Harbor, Annapolis, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... ``TriRock Triathlon Series'', a marine event to be held on the waters of Spa Creek and Annapolis Harbor... navigable waters during the event. This action is intended to temporarily restrict vessel traffic in...

  1. 78 FR 38000 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events, Spa Creek and Annapolis Harbor; Annapolis, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...; Annapolis, MD'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 20066). The rulemaking concerned the Coast Guard's proposal... the ``TriRock Triathlon Series,'' a marine event to be held on the waters of Spa Creek and Annapolis Harbor on July 20, 2013. The Coast Guard was notified on May 21, 2013, that the event had been...

  2. 78 FR 20066 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events, Spa Creek and Annapolis Harbor; Annapolis, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We...Rock Triathlon Series'', a marine event to be held on the waters of Spa Creek and Annapolis Harbor...

  3. The Elk Creek Carbonatite, Southeast Nebraska-An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, M. P. Treves, S. B.

    2005-03-15

    A framework geophysical program in southeastern Nebraska during 1970 identified a near-circular feature having gravity relief of about 8 mgal and a magnetic anomaly of about 800 gammas. Analysis of the geophysical data provided a model of a cylindrical mass of indefinite length with a radius of 5500 ft (1676 m) and beveled at the basement surface at about 600 ft (183 m). At the approximate depth at which Precambrian rocks were expected, the initial test hole (2-B-71) encountered an iron-rich weathered zone overlying carbonate-rich rock. The carbonate rocks consist essentially of dolomite, calcite, and ankerite and lesser amounts of hematite, chlorite, phlogopite, barite, serpentine, pyrochlore, and quartz and contain barium, strontium, and rare earths. Total REE, P2O5, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios confirm the carbonatite identification. Texturally, the rocks range from fragmental to contorted to massive. Associated with the carbonatite are lesser amounts of basalt, lamprophyre, and syenite. Additional exploratory drilling has provided about 80,000 ft (24,384 m) of rock record and has penetrated about 3400 ft (1038 m) of carbonatite. The carbonatite is overlain by marine sediments of Pennsylvanian (Missourian) age. The surrounding Precambrian basement rocks are low-to medium-grade metamorphic gneiss and schist of island arc origin and granitic plutons. The Elk Creek carbonatite is located near the boundary between the Penokean orogen created at about 1.84 Ga (billion years) and the Dawes terrane (1.78 Ga) of the Central Plains orogen. This boundary strongly influenced the geometry of both the Midcontinent Rift System (1.1 Ga) and the Nemaha uplift (0.3 Ga). It is assumed that the emplacement of the Elk Creek carbonatite (0.5 Ga) was influenced similarly by the pre-existing tectonic sutures.

  4. 76 FR 42124 - Henwood Associates, Inc.; White Mountain Ranch, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Henwood Associates, Inc.; White Mountain Ranch, LLC; Notice of Transfer of... been transferred to White Mountain Ranch, LLC. The project is located on the Millner Creek Water System...\\ Henwood Associates, Inc., 16 FERC ] 62,075 (1981). White Mountain Ranch, LLC, located at 30130...

  5. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  6. Metal concentrations and sources in the Miller Creek watershed, Park County, Montana, August 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleasby, Thomas E.; Nimick, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Miller Creek is a tributary of Soda Butte Creek in south-central Montana near the northeast corner of Yellowstone National Park. Surface-water and streambed-sediment samples were collected from streams and seeps throughout the Miller Creek watershed during low-flow conditions on August 28-31, 2000, to characterize metal concentrations and identify possible sources contributing metal to Miller Creek. Most water in Miller Creek appears to be unaffected by mining disturbances or natural weathering of mineralized rocks, although such effects are common elsewhere in the New World Mining District. Values for pH were near neutral to basic. Total-recoverable copper, lead, and zinc concentrations were low, relative to State of Montana water-quality standards, with many concentrations less than the analytical minimum reporting levels. Metal concentrations in Miller Creek during this study ranged from 1 to 6 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for total-recoverable copper, <1 to 5 ?g/L for total-recoverable lead, and <1 to 26 ?g/L for total-recoverable zinc. Concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in all samples from Miller Creek were less than the chronic aquatic-life criteria, except for one total-recoverable lead value (5 ?g/L) just downstream from the Black Warrior Mine inflow. Leachable lead and zinc concentrations in streambed-sediment samples collected during this study were highest at the Black Warrior Mine inflow. Leachable concentrations at this site were about 20 times greater for lead and 11 times greater for zinc than concentrations in the streambed-sediment sample collected from Miller Creek upstream from this inflow. However, these elevated concentrations had little effect on the leachable metal concentrations in the streambed-sediment sample collected downstream from the Black Warrior Mine inflow. Metal loading to Miller Creek during this low-flow study was relatively small. Three small left-bank inflows having elevated copper concentrations entered Miller Creek near the middle of the study reach and their combined total-recoverable copper load accounted for about 96 percent of the copper load in Miller Creek. Small loads of lead (about 2 micrograms per second) entered Miller Creek from the Black Warrior Mine inflow and a right bank inflow. None of the loads entering Miller Creek had an appreciable effect on mainstem metal concentrations. In addition, substantial differences between mining related areas and areas influenced by local geology could not be determined.

  7. Application of the Basin Characterization Model to Estimate In-Place Recharge and Runoff Potential in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2007-01-01

    A regional-scale water-balance model was used to estimate recharge and runoff potential and support U.S. Geological Survey efforts to develop a better understanding of water availability for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah. The water-balance model, or Basin Characterization Model (BCM), was used to estimate regional ground-water recharge for the 13 hydrographic areas in the study area. The BCM calculates recharge by using a distributed-parameter, water-balance method and monthly climatic boundary conditions. The BCM requires geographic information system coverages of soil, geology, and topographic information with monthly time-varying climatic conditions of air temperature and precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration, snow accumulation, and snowmelt are distributed spatially with process models. When combined with surface properties of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of bedrock and alluvium, the potential water available for in-place recharge and runoff is calculated using monthly time steps using a grid scale of 866 feet (270 meters). The BCM was used with monthly climatic inputs from 1970 to 2004, and results were averaged to provide an estimate of the average annual recharge for the BARCAS study area. The model estimates 526,000 acre-feet of potential in-place recharge and approximately 398,000 acre-feet of potential runoff. Assuming 15 percent of the runoff becomes recharge, the model estimates average annual ground-water recharge for the BARCAS area of about 586,000 acre-feet. When precipitation is extrapolated to the long-term climatic record (1895-2006), average annual recharge is estimated to be 530,000 acre-feet, or about 9 percent less than the recharge estimated for 1970-2004.

  8. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring.

  9. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene, Protests, and Comments Take notice that...

  10. Rock flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveyev, S. N.

    1986-12-01

    Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.

  11. Rock flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matveyev, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.

  12. Shallow Early Cretaceous oil production in Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, A.G.

    1986-08-01

    Over 1.5 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Early Cretaceous Fall River and Lakota Formations on the east side of the Powder River basin in the Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming. Producing depths range from 42 ft at the Barton Ranch field to over 2528 ft at an unnamed field. The gravity of the gas-free oil ranges from 17/sup 0/ API at Barton Ranch to over 49/sup 0/ API in the deeper reservoir rocks located at an unnamed oil field. Oil has been trapped in Lakota channel sandstones and Fall River nearshore sandstones on the Black Hills monocline within a catchment area located on the northeast side of the large northeast-southwest-trending Gillette arch. Currently, the oldest producible oil on or east of the central Black Hills monocline is Early Cretaceous in age. This oil is the highest structural, active, primary production along the west-central flank of the Black Hills uplift. Two Permian-Pennsylvanian fields are located structurally higher, but one is a thermal tertiary project and the other has been abandoned.

  13. PECONIC ESTUARY PROGRAM TIDAL CREEK STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EEA evaluated ten tidal creeks throughout the Peconic Estuary representing a wide range of watershed variables. Primary focus was directed towards the collection and analysis of the macrobenthic invertebrate communities of these ten tidal creeks. Analysis of the macrobenthic comm...

  14. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have changed its name to Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC for...

  15. Petrography and geochemistry of selected lignite beds in the Gibbons Creek mine (Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Paleocene) of east-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, P.D.; Crowley, S.S.; Ruppert, L.F.; Pontolillo, J.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of two lignite beds (3500 and 4500 beds, Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Eocene) that are mined at the Gibbons Creek mine in east-central Texas. The purpose of the study was to identify the relations among sample ash yield, coal petrography, and trace-element concentrations in lignite and adjoining rock layers of the Gibbons Creek mine. Particular interest was given to the distribution of 12 environmentally sensitive trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U) that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Eleven lignite, floor, and rock parting samples were collected from incremental channel samples of the 3500 and 4500 beds that were exposed in a highwall of pit A3 at the Gibbons Creek mine. Short proximate and ultimate and forms of sulfur analyses were performed on all lignite samples, and lignite and rock samples were analyzed for 60 major, minor and trace elements. Representative splits of all lignite samples were ground and cast into pellets, and polished for petrographic analyses in blue-light fluorescence and reflected white light to determine liptinite, inertinite, and huminite maceral group percentages. The following observations summarize our results and conclusions about the geochemistry, petrography, and sedimentology of the 3500 and 4500 beds of the Gibbons Creek lignite deposit: (1) Weighted average dry (db) ash yield for the two beds is 29.7%, average total sulfur content is 2.6%, and average calorific value is 7832 Btu (18.22 MJ/kg). Ash yields are greatest in the lower bench (59.33% db) of the 3500 bed and in the upper bench of the 4500 bed (74.61% db). (2) For lignite samples (on a whole-coal basis), the distributions of two of the HAPs (Pb and Sb) are positively related to ash yield, probably indicating an inorganic affinity for these elements. By using cluster analysis we found that Be and Cd were poorly associated with ash yield, indicating a possible organic affinity, and that Ni, Se, Hg, U, and Pb cluster with most of the rare-earth elements. (3) The dominance of the crypto-eugelinite maceral subgroup over the crypto-humotelinite subgroup suggests that all Gibbons Creek lignites were subjected to peat-forming conditions (either biogenic or chemical) conducive to the degradation of wood cellular material into matrix gels, or that original plant material was not very woody and was prone to formation of matrix gels. The latter idea is supported by pollen studies of Gibbons Creek lignite beds; results indicate that the peat was derived in part from marsh plants low in wood tissue. (4) The occurrence of siliceous sponge spicules in the lower benches of the 3500 bed suggests the original peat in this part of the bed was deposited in standing, fresh water. (5) The petrographic data indicate that the upper sample interval of the 3500 bed contains more inertinite (3%) than the other samples studied. Increases in inertinite content in the upper part of the 3500 bed may have been associated with alteration of the peat by acids derived from the volcanic ash or could have been caused by fire, oxidation and drying, or biologic alteration of the peat in the paleo-mire. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  17. Paleomagnetism of the Miocene intrusive suite of Kidd Creek: Timing of deformation in the Cascade arc, southern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Swanson, D.A.; Snee, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Paleomagnetic study of the intrusive suite of Kidd Creek in the southern Washington Cascades (23 sites in dikes and sills) was undertaken to help determine if these rocks are comagmatic and whether they postdate regional folding of the volcanic arc. Fission track and 40Ar-39Ar age determinations indicate an age of ???12.7 Ma (middle Miocene) for these rocks. The similarity of normal-polarity characteristic directions for most samples corroborate the available geochemical data indicating that these rocks are most likely comagmatic. Reversed-polarity directions for samples from four sites, however, show that emplacement of Kidd Creek intrusions spanned at least one reversal of the geomagnetic field. The paleomagnetic directions for the dikes and sills fail a fold test at the 99% confidence level indicating that the Kidd Creek rocks postdate regional folding. The mean in situ direction also indicates that the Kidd Creek and older rocks have been rotated 22?? ?? 6?? clockwise about a vertical or near-vertical axis from the expected Miocene direction. Compression and regional folding of the Cascade arc in southern Washington therefore had ended by ???12 Ma prior to the onset of deformation resulting in rotation of these rocks.

  18. Nekton use of intertidal creek edges in low salinity salt marshes of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Binsong; Qin, Haiming; Xu, Wang; Wu, Jihua; Zhong, Junsheng; Lei, Guangchun; Chen, Jiakuan; Fu, Cuizhang

    2010-07-01

    Non-vegetated creek edges were investigated to explore spatial nekton use patterns in a low salinity intertidal salt marsh creek network of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient with four creek orders. Non-vegetated creek edges were arbitrarily defined as the approximately 3 m extending from the creek bank (the marsh-creek interface) into open water. Nekton was sampled using seine nets during daytime high slack water during spring tides for two or three days each in May through July 2008. Twenty-three nekton species (16 fishes and 7 crustaceans) were caught during the study. Fishes were dominated by gobies ( Mugilogobius abei, Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus, Periophthalmus modestus, Synechogobius ommaturus), mullets ( Chelon haematocheilus, Liza affinis) and Chinese sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus). Crustaceans were dominated by mud crab ( Helice tientsinensis) and white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda). Rank abundance curves revealed higher evenness of nekton assemblages in lower-order creeks compared to higher-order creeks. Fish abundance tended to increase with increasing creek order. Crustacean abundance was higher in the first-third order creeks than in the fourth-order creek. Dominant nekton species displayed various trends in abundance and length-frequency distributions along the stream-order gradient. The spatial separation of nekton assemblages between the first-third order creeks and the fourth-order creek could be attributed to geomorphological factors (distance to mouth and cross-sectional area). These findings indicate that both lower- and higher-order creek edges play important yet different roles for nekton species and life history stages in salt marshes.

  19. CLOUD PEAK CONTIGUOUS, ROCK CREEK, PINEY CREEK, AND LITTLE GOOSE ROADLESS AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Brown, Don S.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral surveys, study areas surrounding the Cloud Peak Primitive Area in northern Wyoming offer little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. The geologic setting precludes the existence of deposits of organic fuels. Nonmetallic commodities, such as feldspar, limestone, building stone, clay, sand, and gravel are present, but these materials are readily available nearby in large quantities in more accessible areas.

  20. Stable isotope study of water-rock interaction and ore formation, Bayhorse base and precious metal district, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, R.R., II; Rye, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Whole-rock ??18O and ??D values from the Garden Creek Phyllite define an isotopically depleted zone (60 km2) around the Nevada Mountain stock and are the result of high-temperature interactions with ancient meteoric waters at water/rock ratios ranging from 0.002 to 0.09. Comparison of the ore fluid ??18OH2O and ??DH2O values with hypothetical waters equilibrated with the Garden Creek Phyllite indicates that the hydrothermal fluids must have also interacted with the basal dolomite of Bayhorse Creek, which underlies the phyllite. The ?? 13CCO2 values for the hydrothermal fluids also record a transition from early water/rock interactions that were dominated by the Garden Creek Phyllite to later interactions that were influenced significantly by the basal dolomite of Bayhorse Creek. The range of ??34S values may be interpreted as either a heterogeneous sedimentary source or mixed sedimentary-magmatic sources. -from Authors

  1. The geology and mechanics of formation of the Fort Rock Dome, Yavapai County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, Gary S.

    1996-01-01

    The Fort Rock Dome, a craterlike structure in northern Arizona, is the erosional product of a circular domal uplift associated with a Precambrian shear zone exposed within the crater and with Tertiary volcanism. A section of Precambrian to Quaternary rocks is described, and two Tertiary units, the Crater Pasture Formation and the Fort Rock Creek Rhyodacite, are named. A mathematical model of the doming process is developed that is consistent with the history of the Fort Rock Dome.

  2. Little Rock Split as Historic Date Nears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty years ago, nine black students walked through the doors of Little Rock Central High School, guarded by U.S. Army and National Guard troops dispatched to protect them from angry white residents protesting integration. Now, Arkansas is inviting the world to turn its eyes to Little Rock--this time, to see how far the city has come since those

  3. 27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Swan Creek. 9.211 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas 9.211 Swan Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Swan Creek....

  4. 27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Swan Creek. 9.211 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas 9.211 Swan Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Swan Creek....

  5. 27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Swan Creek. 9.211 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas 9.211 Swan Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Swan Creek....

  6. Grizzly Bear Creek Flooding May 2015, SD

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Grizzly Bear Creek in Keystone, SD, on May 24, 2015. USGS streamgage 06403850 (Grizzly Bear Creek near Keystone, SD) showed the creek was more than one-half foot above flood stage on May 24. This streamgage is operated in cooperation with the METWARN (Rapid City/Pennington County Emer...

  7. 27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the intersection of the Yadkin River and U.S. Highway 21, along the Surry-Yadkin county line, between... Rocky Creek at Turnersburg; then (3) Proceed 12.3 miles generally north and west along Rocky Creek, returning to the Winston-Salem map, to the intersection of Rocky Creek with State Highway 115 at New Hope...

  8. 'Tetl' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's trek through the 'Columbia Hills' at 'Gusev Crater,' shows the horizontally layered rock dubbed 'Tetl.' Scientists hope to investigate this rock in more detail, aiming to determine whether the rock's layering is volcanic or sedimentary in origin. If for some reason this particular rock is not favorably positioned for grinding and examination by the toolbox of instruments on the rover's robotic arm, Spirit will be within short reach of another similar rock, dubbed 'Coba.' Spirit took this image on its 264th martian day, or sol (Sept. 29, 2004). This is a false-color composite image generated from the panoramic camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters.

  9. ALLEGHENY FRONT AND HICKORY CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, PENNSYLVANIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Girol, Vaughn P.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral-resource survey the Allegheny Front and Hickory Creek Roadless Areas, Pennsylvania, have a substantiated potential for oil resources, a probable potential for gas resources, and little likelihood for the occurrence of coal and metallic mineral resources. The oil and gas in the Upper Devonian rocks are found in stratigraphic traps, that commonly are not evident from surface indications. The only sure method to determine if the Upper Devonian sandstones contain oil or gas at a specific site is to drill through the sequence and test the more favorable zones.

  10. Temperature, size, and depth of the magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; du Bray, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    The 55 km3 mid-Tertiary Taylor Creek Rhyolite in southwestern New Mexico consists of 20 lava domes and flows. This rhyolite is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous. Compositional zonation in feldspar phenocrysts is very minor and nonsystematic. The compositions of each feldspar species vary little throughout the suite of analyzed samples. This chemical homogeneity of phenocrysts reflects similar whole-rock homogeneity and suggests that the lavas were tapped from a single large reservoir of magma. Ages of sanidine phenocrysts determined using 40Ar/39Ar indicate that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite lavas were emplaced during a period of less than 0.42 my. and possibly less than 0.13 m.y., which is consistent with the single-reservoir scenario. Two-feldspar geothermometry suggests that Taylor Creek Rhyolite phenocrysts crystallized at about 775??C, at an assumed pressure of 2 kbar. Fe-Ti-oxide geothermometry suggests phenocryst growth at about 800??C. Experimental studies suggest that quartz and potassium-feldspar crystals that grow from H2O-undersaturated granitic magmas should exhibit resorption texture, a texture ubiquitous to Taylor Creek Rhyolite quartz and sanidine phenocrysts. We tentatively conclude that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma was H2O undersaturated and subliquidus at an unspecified pressure greater than 0.5 kbar during phenocryst growth and that Taylor Creek Rhyolite pyroclastic deposits formed because volatile saturation developed during the ascent of magma to sites of eruption. -from Authors

  11. OXYGEN AERATION AT NEWTOWN CREEK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A successful initial feasibility investigation of oxygen aeration at the 0.11-cu m/sec (2.5-mgd) municipal wastewater treatment plant in Batavia, New York, prompted a larger demonstration at New York City's 13.6-cu m/sec (310-mgd) Newtown Creek Plant. A 34-mo evaluation was perfo...

  12. Cement Creek Following Storm Event

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Cement Creek following storm event in July, 2004. Note the orange discoloration of the stream derived from weathering of bedrocks and from mined areas. This type of event happens frequently in the Animas Watershed near Silverton, Colorado. View is to the south, with Kendall Mountain in the distance....

  13. LINCOLN CREEK ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Lincoln Creek Roadless Area, Nevada was determined to have little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. Geologic terrane favorable for the occurrence of contact-metasomatic tungsten deposits exists, but no evidence for this type of mineralization was identified. The geologic setting precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels and no other energy resources were identified.

  14. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This pamphlet describes Union Oil's shale oil project in the Parachute Creek area of Garfield County, Colorado. The oil shale is estimated to contain 1.6 billion barrels of recoverable oil in the high Mahogany zone alone. Primarily a public relations publication, the report presented contains general information on the history of the project and Union Oil's future plans. (JMT)

  15. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals

  16. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  17. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in northern Terby Crater. Terby is located along the north edge of Hellas Planitia. The sedimentary rocks might have been deposited in a greater, Hellas-filling sea -- or not. Today, the rocks are partly covered by dark-toned sediment and debris.

    Location near: 27.2oS, 285.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  18. Reconstructing the Shock Wave From the Wolfe Creek Meteorite Impact.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, C.; O'Neill, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    The Wolfe Creek meteorite crater is an 800m diameter impact structure located in the Tanami Desert near Hall's Creek, Western Australia. The crater formed <300000 years ago, and is the 2nd largest crater from which fragments of the impacting meteorite (a medium octahedrite) have been recovered. We present the results of new ground based geophysical (magnetics and gravity) surveys conducted over the structure in July-August, 2003. The results highlight the simple structure of the crater under the infilling sediments, and track the extent of deformation and the ejecta blanket under the encroaching sanddunes. The variations in the dip of the foliations around the crater rim confirm that the crater approached from East-Northeast, as deduced from the ejecta distribution, and provide constraints on the kinetic energy and angle of the impactor. We also use the distribution of shocked quartz in the target rock (Devonian sandstones) to reconstruct the shock loading conditions of the impact using the Grieve and Robertson (1976) criterion. We also use a Simplified Arbitrary Langrangian-Eulerian hydrocode (SALE 2) to simulate the propagation of shock waves through a material described by a Tillotson equation of state. Using the deformational and PT constraints of the Wolfe-Creek crater, we can estimate the partitioning of kinetic energy as a result of this medium-size impact.

  19. Steel Creek water quality: L Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Nagle, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    The objective of this portion of the L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program is to document the current status of water quality in the Steel Creek system, assess the overall impact of L-Reactor operation and L-Lake on Steel Creek water quality, determine whether ecologically important alterations in the water quality of Steel Creek have occurred, and compare Steel Creek water quality with other southeastern lotic systems. This report covers the period November 1985 through December 1987. The impoundment and discharge from L-Lake has had an impact on the water quality of Steel Creek through the introduction of Savannah River water into Steel Creek. Flow velocity throughout Steel Creek was related to the discharge volume at the L-Lake dam. This relationship was most evident at the creek corridor and channel stations.

  20. Rock Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This false color composite image of the Rock Garden shows the rocks 'Shark' and 'Half Dome' at upper left and middle, respectively. Between these two large rocks is a smaller rock (about 0.20 m wide, 0.10 m high, and 6.33 m from the Lander) that was observed close-up with the Sojourner rover (see PIA00989).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  1. Soda Creek springs - metamorphic waters in the eastern Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, D.H.; Donaldson, D.E.; Lamarre, R.A.

    1973-01-01

    The Soda Creek springs are a group of small, cold mineral springs on the southern flank of the eastern Alaska Range. The spring waters contain anomalous concentrations of carbon dioxide, sodium, chlorine, sulfate, boron, and ammonia and are actively precipitating deposits of calcite and aragonite. Sparingly present in these deposits are mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite clays and zeolite minerals. Low-temperaturemetamorphic reactions in subjacent marine sedimentary rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age may have produced the fluids and silicate minerals. With only a few exceptions, cool bicarbonate-rich springs in Alaska are concentrated south of the Denali fault system in south-central Alaska, southeastern Alaska, and along the Kaltag-Tintina fault system. These areas are characterized by active or recently activetectonism, major faults and folds, and an abundance of marine sedimentary rocks.

  2. 2. EASTERN VIEW OF WATERGATE AT CENTER AND THE ROCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EASTERN VIEW OF WATERGATE AT CENTER AND THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY RAMP AT LEFT. VIEW TAKEN FROM NORTHERN RAILING OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Boundary Channel Extension, Spanning Mount Vernon Memorial Highway & Boundary Channel, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on the bays, bayous, creeks, marinas, and rivers from Horseshoe Point to the...

  4. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on the bays, bayous, creeks, marinas, and rivers from Horseshoe Point to the...

  5. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on the bays, bayous, creeks, marinas, and rivers from Horseshoe Point to the...

  6. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on the bays, bayous, creeks, marinas, and rivers from Horseshoe Point to the...

  7. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on the bays, bayous, creeks, marinas, and rivers from Horseshoe Point to the...

  8. Stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Date Creek Basin, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Butz, T.R.; Tieman, D.J.; Grimes, J.G.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-06-30

    Results of the Date Creek Basin detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are reported for 239 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Based on stream sediment geochemical data, significant concentrations of uranium are restricted to the Anderson Mine area. The 84th percentile concentrations of U-FL, U-NT, and U-FL/U-NT combined with low thorium/U-NT values reflect increased mobility and enrichment of uranium in the carbonate host rocks of that area. Elements characteristically associated with the uranium mineralization include lithium and arsenic. No well defined diffusion halos suggesting outliers of similar uranium mineralization were observed from the stream sediment data in other areas of the Date Creek Basin. Significant concentrations of U-FL or U-NT found outside the mine area are generally coincident with low U-FL/U-NT values and high concentrations of zirconium, titanium, and phosphorus. This suggests that the uranium is related to a resistate mineral assemblage derived from surrounding crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  9. "Sweet Little (White) Girls"? Sex and Fantasy across the Color Line and the Contestation of Patriarchal White Supremacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Phoebe

    2004-01-01

    The presence of the Little Rock Nine at Little Rock's Central High in September 1957 as a result of "Brown vs. the Board of Education" evoked anger, fear, and even panic among some parts of the white community, and many white women and girls responded with near hysteria. This article seeks to answer why. What was it about integration that provoked

  10. Otter Creek Wilderness, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Warlow, R.C.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Otter Creek Wilderness conducted in 1978 resulted in the determination of demonstrated coal resources estimated to total about 24 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick and an additional 62 million short tons of coal in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick. There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  11. Analyses and description of geochemical samples, Mill Creek Wilderness Study Area, Giles County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mei, Leung; Lesure, Frank Gardner

    1978-01-01

    Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses for 64 elements on 62 stream sediment and 71 rock samples from Mill Creek Wilderness Study area, Giles County, Virginia, are reported here in detail. Locations for all samples are given in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Brief descriptions of rock samples are also included. Rocks analysed are mostly sandstone. Samples of hematitic sandstone of the Rose Hill Formation and limonite-cemented sandstone of the Rocky Gap Sandstone contain high values of iron; these rocks are submarginal iron resources. Some of the same iron-rich samples have a little more barium, copper, cobalt, lead, silver, and/or zinc then is in average sandstone, but they do not suggest the presence of economic deposits of these metals. No other obviously anomalous values related to mineralized rock are present in the data.

  12. Geologic map of the Redwood Creek drainage basin, Humboldt County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Deborah Reid; Kelsey, H.M.; Morrison, S.D.; Stephens, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    A 1:62,500-scale geologic map with 14 rock stratigraphic units and an accompanying explanatory text are used to describe the geology of the Redwood Creek drainage basin of northwestern California. A large part of Redwood National Park is located in the downstream part of this actively eroding drainage basin. The bedrock consists primarily of Mesozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The structurally complex Franciscan assemblage of rocks underlies most of the basin, but rocks of the Klammath Mountain tectonic province occurs in a small eastern part of the basin. Most major boundaries between Mesozoic rock units are north-northwest trending faults parallel to the regional structural trend. Extensive areas of surficial coastal plain sediments, landslide deposits, stream terrace deposits and modern alluvium are also present; these areas help identify loci of vigorous recent erosion. (USGS)

  13. Geologic controls of uranium mineralization in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    Two important orebodies have been defined by drilling in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado. They are the Hansen orebody, which contains about 12 million kg of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and the Picnic Tree orebody, which contains about 1 million kg of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Host rock for the Hansen is the upper Eocene Echo Park Alluvium, and host rock for the Picnic Tree is the lower Oligocene Tallahassee Creek onglomerate. Average ore grade for both deposits is about 0.08 percent U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The principal source rock for the uranium depsoits is the lower Oligocene Wall Mountain Tuff, although a younger volcanic rock, the Oligocene Thirtynine Mile Andesite, and Precambrian granitic rocks probably also contributed some uranium. Leaching and transportation of the uranium occurred in alkaline oxidizing ground water that developed during alteration of the ash in a semi-arid environment. The uranium was transported in the ground water to favorable sites where it was deposited in a reducing environment controlled by carbonaceous material and associated pyrite. Localization of the ore was controlled by ground-water flow conditions and by the distribution of organic matter in the host rock. Ground-water flow, which was apparently to the southeast in Echo Park Alluvium that is confined in the Echo Park graben, was impeded by a fault that offsets the southern end of the graben. This offset prevented efficient discharge into the ancestral Arkansas River drainage, and protected chemically reducing areas from destruction by the influx of large amounts of oxidizing ground water. The location of orebodies in the Echo Park Alluvium also may be related to areas where overlying rocks of low permeability were breached by erosion during deposition of the fluvial Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate allowing localized entry of uranium-bearing water.

  14. Do suspended sediment and bedload move progressively from the summit to the sea along Magela Creek, northern Australia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erskine, W. D.; Saynor, M. J.; Turner, K.; Whiteside, T.; Boyden, J.; Evans, K. G.

    2015-03-01

    Soil erosion rates on plots of waste rock at Ranger uranium mine and basin sediment yields have been measured for over 30 years in Magela Creek in northern Australia. Soil erosion rates on chlorite schist waste rock are higher than for mica schist and weathering is also much faster. Sediment yields are low but are further reduced by sediment trapping effects of flood plains, floodouts, billabongs and extensive wetlands. Suspended sediment yields exceed bedload yields in this deeply weathered, tropical landscape, but the amount of sand transported greatly exceeds that of silt and clay. Nevertheless, sand is totally stored above the topographic base level. Longitudinal continuity of sediment transport is not maintained. As a result, suspended sediment and bedload do not move progressively from the summit to the sea along Magela Creek and lower Magela Creek wetlands trap about 90.5% of the total sediment load input.

  15. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements, discharges ranged from 82 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) at Black Gore Creek near Minturn (U.S. Geological Survey station number 09066000) to 724 ft3/s at Gore Creek at mouth near Minturn (U.S. Geological Survey station number 09066510), whereas during the September traveltime measurements, discharges ranged from 3.6 ft3/s at Black Gore Creek near Minturn to 62 ft3/s at Gore Creek at mouth near Minturn. Cumulative traveltimes for the peak dye concentration during the May traveltime measurements ranged from 3.45 hours (site 1 to site 3) in Black Gore Creek to 2.50 hours (site 8 to site 12) in Gore Creek, whereas cumulative traveltimes for the peak dye concentration during the September traveltime measurements ranged from 15.33 hours (site 1 to site 3) in Black Gore Creek to 8.65 hours (site 8 to site 12) in Gore Creek. During the September dye injections, beaver dams on Black Gore Creek, between site 1 and the confluence with Gore Creek, substantially delayed movement of the rhodamine WT. Estimated traveltimes were developed using relations established from linear-regression methods of relating measured peak traveltime to discharge during those measurements, which were obtained at Black Gore Creek near Minturn and Gore Creek at mouth near Minturn. Resulting estimated peak traveltimes for Black Gore Creek (sites 1 to 5) ranged from 5.4 to 0.4 hour for 20 to 200 ft3/s and for Gore Creek (sites 5 to 12), 5.5 to 0.3 hour for 20 to 800 ft3/s. Longitudinal-dispersion coefficients that were calculated for selected stream reaches ranged from 17.2 square feet per second at 4 ft3/s between sites 2 and 3 to 650 square feet per second at 144 ft3/s between sites 7 and 8. Longitudinal-dispersion coefficients are necessary variables for future stream-contaminant modeling in the Gore Creek watershed.

  16. LIGHTNING CREEK, PACK RIVER, AND SAND CREEK, BONNER COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY SUMMARY, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Water Year 1978, water quality studies were conducted on Lightning Creek, Pack River, and Sand Creek in Bonner County, Idaho (17010214, 17010213) to determine the present status of the streams. Water quality in Lightning Creek was generally very high. No violations of standa...

  17. DEEP CREEK AND MUD CREEK, TWIN FALLS, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deep Creek and Mud Creek are located in Twin Falls County near Buhl, Idaho (17040212). From April through October, these creeks convey irrigation drainage water from the western part of the Twin Falls irrigation tract to the Snake River. During 1986, water quality surveys were ...

  18. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  19. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  20. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  1. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  2. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  3. 77 FR 56238 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Consideration of Issuance of Amendment published in the Federal Register on December 28, 2010 (75 FR 81673... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Application for Amendment... Commission (NRC or the Commission) has granted the request of Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation...

  4. Geophysical characterization of the Sinking Creek Landfill in Montgomery County, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, S.; Phinney, E.J.; Robinson, E.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-03-01

    The five acre Sinking Creek Landfill in Montgomery County, Virginia was used for general disposal purposes until 1974 when it was closed, covered, and planted to white pine. In 1992--93 a geophysical survey was carried out to measure thickness of the debris layer, to characterize its buried contents, and to identify possible concentrations of leachate. Thicknesses mostly between 5 m and 7 m were measured along five seismic refraction lines. In the debris layer P-wave velocity is locally variable in the 300 m/s to 1,000 m/s range, contrasted to the 1,600 m/s to 2,800 m/s range in the underlying weathered zone and bedrock. Total magnetic field intensity measurements at 1,749 points reveal local magnetic anomalies within a 4,000 nT range, which indicate locations of Fe-metallic debris. Electrical resistivity was measured at three locations by expanding Wenner configurations, and along six profiles by a roll-along offset wenner sound method. In the vadose zone of the debris layer resistivity ranges between 100 ohm-m and 400 ohm-m, and from less than 5 ohm-m to 50 ohm-m in the saturated zone. In the underlying rock the resistivity is between 70 ohm-m and 600 ohm-m. There is no compelling evidence to suggest that leachate has migrated to any great depth beneath the debris layer. Gravity observations at 57 points reveal anomalies mostly smaller than 0.2 mgal, which appear to result from density contrasts within the debris layer. Gravity variations and P-wave travel time residuals along seismic refraction lines will be examined in the effort to distinguish different zones within the debris layer.

  5. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, 1928' - Harp Creek Bridge, Spans Harp Creek at State Highway 7, Harrison, Boone County, AR

  6. 59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  7. 3. Threequarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center facing southwest - Oak Creek Administrative Center, One half mile east of Zion-Mount Carmel Highway at Oak Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  8. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. CLOVER CREEK BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING NORTH Generals Highway, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOVER CREEK BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING NORTH - Generals Highway, Clover Creek Bridge, Spanning Clover Creek on Generals Highway, approximately 22 miles northeast of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  10. CLOVER CREEK BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION, FACING SOUTHWEST Generals Highway, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOVER CREEK BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION, FACING SOUTHWEST - Generals Highway, Clover Creek Bridge, Spanning Clover Creek on Generals Highway, approximately 22 miles northeast of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  11. CLOVER CREEK BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION, FACING SOUTH Generals Highway, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOVER CREEK BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION, FACING SOUTH - Generals Highway, Clover Creek Bridge, Spanning Clover Creek on Generals Highway, approximately 22 miles northeast of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  12. CLOVER CREEK BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION DETAIL, FACING NORTH NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOVER CREEK BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION DETAIL, FACING NORTH NORTHEAST - Generals Highway, Clover Creek Bridge, Spanning Clover Creek on Generals Highway, approximately 22 miles northeast of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  13. CLOVER CREEK BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING NORTHWEST Generals Highway, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOVER CREEK BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING NORTHWEST - Generals Highway, Clover Creek Bridge, Spanning Clover Creek on Generals Highway, approximately 22 miles northeast of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  14. Coop Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Co-op Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, no date, Zion National Park collection - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Co-op Creek Bridge, Spanning Co-op Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  15. 122. Credit JE. Millseat Creek above the intake of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. Credit JE. Millseat Creek above the intake of the ditch leading to the Volta forebay. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 233). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  16. Detail perspective view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge arch, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail perspective view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge arch, decorative cantilevered balustrade, and floor beams. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  17. Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge decorative concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge decorative concrete arched balustrade at southeast corner of bridge, view looking east. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  18. Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge, view looking northeast at the modified "X" bracing and concrete hangers. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  19. 121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water to the Keswick ditch, supplying Volta powerhouse. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 235). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  20. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  1. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  2. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  5. Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  6. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  7. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  8. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  9. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  10. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  11. Assessment of Young Dong tributary and Imgok Creek impacted by Young Dong coal mine, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Ranville, James F; Wildeman, Thomas R; Jang, Min; Shim, Yon Sik; Ji, Won Hyun; Park, Hyun Sung; Lee, Hyun Ju

    2012-01-01

    An initial reclamation of the Young Dong coal mine site, located in northeastern South Korea, was completed in 1995. Despite the filling of the adit with limestone, acid rock drainage (ARD) enters Young Dong tributary and is then discharged to Imgok Creek. This ARD carries an average of 500 mg CaCO(3)/l of mineral acidity, primarily as Fe(II) and Al. Before spring runoff, the flow of Imgok Creek is 3.3-4 times greater than that of the tributary and has an alkalinity of 100 mg CaCO(3)/l, which is sufficient to eliminate the mineral acidity and raise the pH to about 6.5. From April through September 2008, there were at least two periods of high surface flow that affects the flow of ARD from the adit. Flow of ARD reaches 2.8 m(3)/min during spring runoff. This raised the concentrations of Fe and Al in the confluence with Imgok Creek. However, by 2 km downstream the pH of the Imgok Creek is 6.5 and only dissolved Fe is above the Korean drinking water criteria (0.30 mg/l). This suggests only a minor impact of Young Dong Creek water on Imgok Creek. Acid digestion of the sediments in Imgok Creek and Young Dong Tributary reveals considerable abundances of heavy metals, which could have a long-term impact on water quality. However, several water-based leaching tests, which better simulate the bioavailable metals pool, released only Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn at concentrations exceeding the criteria for drinking water or aquatic life. PMID:21818559

  12. Stillwater Rocks

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Rocks from the Stillwater Mine are brought to the USGS in Denver, Colorado, where they are ground before entering the plasma melter at Zybek Advanced Products. __________ The USGS has created man-made moon dirt, or regolith, to help NASA prepare for upcoming moon explorations. Four tons of the sim...

  13. Rock Grinding

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Rocks from the Stillwater Mine are brought to the USGS in Denver, Colorado, where they are sledged and ground before entering the plasma melter at Zybek Advanced Products. __________ The USGS has created man-made moon dirt, or regolith, to help NASA prepare for upcoming moon explorations. Four ton...

  14. Research Rocks

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Dr. Alex Andronikov, a geologist from the University of Michigan Department of Geological Science, and Kelley Brumley, a geologist from Stanford University, sort through rocks that were dredged from the Arctic Ocean floor Sept. 9, 2009, aboard the Coast Guard Cutter Healy.The dredging is part of the...

  15. Classic Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Edgar Allen

    2004-01-01

    While "early college" programs designed for high-school-age students are beginning to proliferate nationwide, a small New England school has been successfully educating teens for nearly four decades. In this article, the author features Simon's Rock, a small liberal arts college located in the Great Barrington, Massachusetts, that has been

  16. Reconnaissance investigation of the Lisburne Group in the Cobblestone Creek area, Chandler Lake quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Whalen, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group in the Cobblestone Creek area, Chandler Lake Quadrangle, yields insights into its resource potential and regional relations. Locally porous vuggy dolostone with hydrocarbon reservoir potential occurs in the lower Lisburne in the three most southerly of five thrust sheets, and contains traces of dead oil in two of these sheets. The dolostones are coarse crystalline, commonly cross-bedded, and at least in part of Osagean (late Early Mississippian) age; they have pelmatozoan grainstone protoliths that likely formed in sand shoals of the midramp to inner ramp. Similar, coeval porous dolostones occur in the Lisburne from Skimo Creek to Itkillik Lake, ~70 km west and 10 km east of the Cobblestone Creek area, respectively. We also examined the uppermost Lisburne Group at several localities in the Cobblestone Creek area, mainly in the northernmost thrust sheet where the rocks are as young as Morrowan (Early Pennsylvanian). Cobblestone sections contain more supportstone than equivalent strata at Skimo Creek, and overlying Permian successions also differ between the two areas. These lithologic contrasts may reflect different rates of tectonically controlled subsidence, and (or) changes in sediment input, along the late Paleozoic continental margin.

  17. White Toenails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body, causing protein to be deposited within the nail bed. A fungal infection that affects the outermost layer of the toenail may cause a bright white discoloration of the toenail. A white area close to the nail fold (the lunula) varies in size from one ...

  18. Pore geometry: Control on reservoir properties, Walker Creek Field, Columbia and Lafayette Counties, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Bliefnick, D.M.; Kaldi, J.G.

    1996-07-01

    Walker Creek field in southern Arkansas produces hydrocarbons from oolitic packstones and grainstones of the Jurassic Smackover Formation. The relationships between pore geometry and reservoir quality in these rocks were evaluated using petrographic methods and mercury injection capillary pressure analyses. Results indicate that reservoir quality is controlled by pore geometry, which, in turn, is determined by depositional and diagenetic processes. Reservoir rocks at Walker Creek were deposited as prograding grainstone shoals in a shallow-water, high-energy environment. Diagenetic processes, including early marine cementation, compaction, and deeper burial pressure solution and calcite cementation, modified the original pore system. Primary interparticle porosity is the dominant effective pore type and is most important in terms of reservoir performance. Secondary microporosity is also abundant, comprising a significant percentage of total porosity (locally up to 100%), but is generally ineffective.

  19. Illite/smectite diagenesis and hydrocarbon generation in Cretaceous Mowry and Skull Creek Shales of northern Rocky Mountains-Great Plains region

    SciTech Connect

    Burtner, R.L.; Warner, M.A.

    1983-03-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Mowry and Skull Creek Shales and their equivalents are among the major source rocks in the northern Rocky Mountains-Great Plains region. They are the major source of hydrocarbons in the Lower Cretaceous Muddy Sandstone of the Powder River basin. This sandstone has a geographic distribution similar to that of the Mowry and much of the Skull Creek. Illite/smectite mixed-layer clay in the Mowry and Skull Creek Shales of eastern Montana and western North Dakota is unaltered. No significant amounts of hydrocarbons have ever been found in the Muddy Sandstone of this area. Hydrocarbons in the Muddy Sandstone occur within or immediately adjacent to areas in which the smectite component of the illite/smectite in the Mowry and Skull Creek Shales has undergone alteration to illite during burial diagenesis. Anomalous decreases in the total organic carbon content of the Mowry and Skull Creek Shales lie within areas of illite/smectite alteration and coincide with the deeper parts of structural basins which developed after deposition of the Mowry and Skull Creek. These regional variations in illite/smectite alteration and total organic carbon content reflect thermal maturation and are not provenance controlled. They are useful indicators of areas where the potential source rocks have been subjected to temperatures adequate to generate hydrocarbons. The degree of illite/smectite diagenesis in the Mowry and Skull Creek of the northern Rocky Mountains-Great Plains region is thus of exploration significance in the search of hydrocarbons in this area.

  20. Hydrogeology of the carbonate rocks of the Lebanon Valley, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meisler, Harold

    1963-01-01

    The Lebanon Valley, which is part of the Great Valley in southeastern Pennsylvania, is underlain by carbonate rocks in the southern part and by shale in the northern part. The carbonate rocks consist of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite of Cambrian and Ordovician age. Although the beds generally dip to the south, progressively younger beds crop out to the north, because the rocks are overturned. The stratigraphic units, from oldest to youngest, are: the Buffalo Springs Formation, Snitz Creek, Schaefferstown, Millbach, and Richland Formations of the Conococheague Group; the Stonehenge, Rickenbach, Epler, and Ontelaunee Formations of the Beekmantown Group; and the Annville, Myerstown, and Hershey Limestones.

  1. Geology of crystalline rocks of northern Fiordland: details of the granulite facies Western Fiordland Orthogneiss and associated rock units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradshaw, J.Y.

    1990-01-01

    A c. 700 km2 area of northern Fiordland (South Island, New Zealand) is described in which Early Cretaceous high-pressure metamorphic rocks and virtually unmetamorphosed plutonic rocks occur. The dominant rocks are orthogneisses developed from synmetamorphic basic-intermediate intrusive complexes, the youngest and most widespread of which is the Early Cretaceous Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO). The latter has undergone granulite facies metamorphism and occurs throughout much of western Fiordland. WFO was emplaced synkinematically in a subduction-related magmatic arc. A collisional event during or immediately following magma emplacement resulted in crustal thickening equivalent to onloading of a 20 km thick section over rocks already buried at mid-crustal depths. This event was responsible for peak load pressures of c. 12-13 kbar. The steeply dipping Surprise Creek Fault juxtaposes high-pressure metamorphic rocks of western and central Fiordland against virtually unmetamorphosed gabbroic rocks of the Early Cretaceous Darran Complex. -from Author

  2. The geochemical record in rock glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steig, E.J.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.; Potter, N., Jr.; Clark, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    A 9.5 m ice core was extracted from beneath the surficial debris cover of a rock glacier at Galena Creek, northwestern Wyoming. The core contains clean, bubble-rich ice with silty debris layers spaced at roughly 20 cm intervals. The debris layers are similar in appearance to those in typical alpine glaciers, reflecting concentration of debris by melting at the surface during the summer ablation season. Profiles of stable isotope concentrations and electrical conductivity measurements provide independent evidence for melting in association with debris layers. These observations are consistent with a glacial origin for the ice, substantiating the glacigenic model for rock glacier formation. The deuterium excess profile in the ice indicates that the total depth of meltwater infiltration is less than the thickness of one annual layer, suggesting that isotope values and other geochemical signatures are preserved at annual resolution. This finding demonstrates the potential for obtaining useful paleoclimate information from rock glacier ice.

  3. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Yakama Indian Nation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Gregory

    2003-05-01

    This document represents the FY2002 BPA contract Statement of Work for the Yakama Nation (YN) portion of the project entitled 'Assessment of current and potential salmonid production in Rattlesnake Creek associated with restoration efforts'. The purpose of the project is to complete detailed surveys of water quality, fish populations, habitat conditions and riparian health in the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin of the White Salmon River in south central Washington. Results of the surveys will be used to establish Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin baseline environmental factors prior to anticipated removal of Condit Dam in 2006 and enable cost-effective formulation of future watershed restoration strategies.

  4. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the...

  5. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the...

  6. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the...

  7. 33 CFR 117.555 - College Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false College Creek. 117.555 Section 117.555 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland 117.555 College Creek. The draws of...

  8. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the...

  9. 33 CFR 117.233 - Broad Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Broad Creek. 117.233 Section 117.233 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.233 Broad Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  10. 33 CFR 117.231 - Brandywine Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brandywine Creek. 117.231 Section 117.231 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.231 Brandywine Creek. The draw of...

  11. 33 CFR 117.234 - Cedar Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cedar Creek. 117.234 Section 117.234 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.234 Cedar Creek. The SR 36 Bridge, mile 0.5...

  12. 33 CFR 117.809 - Tonawanda Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tonawanda Creek. 117.809 Section 117.809 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.809 Tonawanda Creek. The draw of...

  13. 33 CFR 117.813 - Wappinger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wappinger Creek. 117.813 Section 117.813 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.813 Wappinger Creek. The draw of...

  14. 33 CFR 117.809 - Tonawanda Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tonawanda Creek. 117.809 Section 117.809 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.809 Tonawanda Creek. The draw of...

  15. 33 CFR 117.809 - Tonawanda Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tonawanda Creek. 117.809 Section 117.809 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.809 Tonawanda Creek. The draw of...

  16. 33 CFR 117.813 - Wappinger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wappinger Creek. 117.813 Section 117.813 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.813 Wappinger Creek. The draw of...

  17. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  18. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  19. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  20. TOXICITY PERSISTENCE IN PRICKLY PEAR CREEK, MONTANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Instream toxicity tests using the larval fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata were conducted on Prickly Pear Creek, Montana waters to study toxicity persistence in a stream. The toxicity source was Spring Creek, a tributary of Prickly Pear...

  1. Flooding on Hidewood Creek near Estelline, SD

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Localized flooding on Hidewood Creek near Estelline, SD, on June 23, 2013. Severe stormsduring June 21-22, 2013, in eastern South Dakota resulted in high flows in several streams across the area. The peak discharge on Hidewood Creek (streamgage 06479640) from this storm event wasabout 4,...

  2. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the...

  3. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  4. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  5. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  6. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  7. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  8. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  9. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the...

  10. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the...

  11. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  12. 27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... purposes of part 4 of this chapter, Swan Creek is a term of viticultural significance. (b) Approved Maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Swan Creek viticultural area are three United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1:100,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1)...

  13. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  14. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  15. 33 CFR 117.809 - Tonawanda Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tonawanda Creek. 117.809 Section 117.809 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.809 Tonawanda Creek. The draw of...

  16. 33 CFR 117.809 - Tonawanda Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tonawanda Creek. 117.809 Section 117.809 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.809 Tonawanda Creek. The draw of the Penn Central Corporation railroad bridge, mile...

  17. 33 CFR 117.815 - Westchester Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Westchester Creek. 117.815 Section 117.815 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.815 Westchester Creek. The draw of the Bruckner Boulevard/Unionport Bridge, mile...

  18. 33 CFR 117.813 - Wappinger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wappinger Creek. 117.813 Section 117.813 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.813 Wappinger Creek. The draw of the Metro-North Commuter railroad bridge, mile 0.0...

  19. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  20. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  1. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  2. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  3. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  4. 33 CFR 117.729 - Mantua Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mantua Creek. 117.729 Section 117.729 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.729 Mantua Creek. (a) The draw of the CONRAIL Railroad Bridge, mile 1.4 at...

  5. 33 CFR 117.903 - Darby Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Darby Creek. 117.903 Section 117.903 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Pennsylvania § 117.903 Darby Creek. (a) The draw of the CONRAIL Railroad Bridge, mile 0.3, at...

  6. 33 CFR 117.741 - Raccoon Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raccoon Creek. 117.741 Section 117.741 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.741 Raccoon Creek. (a) The draw of the Route 130 highway bridge, mile 1.8 at...

  7. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  8. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  9. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in the crater, Terby. The crater is located on the north rim of Hellas Basin. If one could visit the rocks in Terby, one might learn from them whether they formed in a body of water. It is possible, for example, that Terby was a bay in a larger, Hellas-wide sea.

    Location near: 27.9oS, 285.7oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  10. Meridiani Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the complex surfaces of some of the light- and intermediate-toned sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in eastern Sinus Meridiani. Similar rocks occur at the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, site, but they are largely covered by windblown sand and granules. The dark feature with a rayed pattern is the product of a meteor impact.

    Location near: 0.8oN, 355.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  11. Poohbear Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image, taken by Sojourner's front right camera, was taken when the rover was next to Poohbear (rock at left) and Piglet (not seen) as it looked out toward Mermaid Dune. The textures differ from the foreground soil containing a sorted mix of small rocks, fines and clods, from the area a bit ahead of the rover where the surface is covered with a bright drift material. Soil experiments where the rover wheels dug in the soil revealed that the cloudy material exists underneath the drift.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  12. Geophysical Investigations of the Smoke Creek Desert and their Geologic Implications, Northwest Nevada and Northeast California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, David A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Tilden, Janet E.

    2006-01-01

    The Smoke Creek Desert is a large basin about 100 km (60 mi) north of Reno near the California-Nevada border, situated along the northernmost parts of the Walker Lane Belt, a physiographic region defined by diverse topographic expression consisting of northweststriking topographic features and strike-slip faulting. Because geologic and geophysical framework studies play an important role in understanding the hydrogeology of the Smoke Creek Desert, a geophysical effort was undertaken to help determine basin geometry, infer structural features, and estimate depth to basement. In the northernmost parts of the Smoke Creek Desert basin, along Squaw Creek Valley, geophysical data indicate that the basin is shallow and that granitic rocks are buried at shallow depths throughout the valley. These granitic rocks are faulted and fractured and presumably permeable, and thus may influence ground-water resources in this area. The Smoke Creek Desert basin itself is composed of three large oval sub-basins, all of which reach depths to basement of up to about 2 km (1.2 mi). In the central and southern parts of the Smoke Creek Desert basin, magnetic anomalies form three separate and narrow EW-striking features. These features consist of high-amplitude short-wavelength magnetic anomalies and probably reflect Tertiary basalt buried at shallow depth. In the central part of the Smoke Creek Desert basin a prominent EW-striking gravity and magnetic prominence extends from the western margin of the basin to the central part of the basin. Along this ridge, probably composed of Tertiary basalt, overlying unconsolidated basin-fill deposits are relatively thin (< 400 m). The central part of the Smoke Creek Desert basin is also characterized by the Mid-valley fault, a continuous geologic and geophysical feature striking NS and at least 18-km long, possibly connecting with faults mapped in the Terraced Hills and continuing southward to Pyramid Lake. The Mid-valley fault may represent a lateral (east-west) barrier to ground-water flow. In addition, the Mid-valley fault may also be a conduit for along-strike (north-south) ground-water flow, channeling flow to the southernmost parts of the basin and the discharge areas north of Sand Pass.

  13. Geochemical Investigation of Source Water to Cave Springs, Great Basin National Park, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.; Glancy, Patrick A.

    2009-01-01

    Cave Springs supply the water for the Lehman Caves Visitor Center at Great Basin National Park, which is about 60 miles east of Ely, Nevada, in White Pine County. The source of water to the springs was investigated to evaluate the potential depletion caused by ground-water pumping in areas east of the park and to consider means to protect the supply from contamination. Cave Springs are a collection of several small springs that discharge from alluvial and glacial deposits near the contact between quartzite and granite. Four of the largest springs are diverted into a water-collection system for the park. Water from Cave Springs had more dissolved strontium, calcium, and bicarbonate, and a heavier value of carbon-13 than water from Marmot Spring at the contact between quartzite and granite near Baker Creek campground indicating that limestone had dissolved into water at Cave Springs prior to discharging. The source of the limestone at Cave Springs was determined to be rounded gravels from a pit near Baker, Nevada, which was placed around the springs during the reconstruction of the water-collection system in 1996. Isotopic compositions of water at Cave Springs and Marmot Spring indicate that the source of water to these springs primarily is from winter precipitation. Mixing of water at Cave Springs between alluvial and glacial deposits along Lehman Creek and water from quartzite is unlikely because deuterium and oxygen-18 values from a spring discharging from the alluvial and glacial deposits near upper Lehman Creek campground were heavier than the deuterium and oxygen-18 values from Cave Springs. Additionally, the estimated mean age of water determined from chlorofluorocarbon concentrations indicates water discharging from the spring near upper Lehman Creek campground is younger than that discharging from either Cave Springs or Marmot Spring. The source of water at Cave Springs is from quartzite and water discharges from the springs on the upstream side of the contact between quartzite and granite where the alluvial and glacial deposits are thin. Consequently, the potential for depletion of discharge at Cave Springs from ground-water pumping in Snake Valley east of the park is less than if the source of water was from alluvial and glacial deposits or carbonate rocks, which would be more directly connected to downstream pumping sites in Snake Valley.

  14. White House

    MedlinePLUS

    ... White House events and statements as they happen Music & Arts Performances See the lineup of artists and ... News Share-Worthy Photos Video Gallery Live Events Music & Arts Performances From the Press Office Your Weekly ...

  15. Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of sedimentary rocks in a crater located just north of the Sinus Meridiani region. Perhaps the crater was once the site of a martian lake.

    Location near: 2.9oN, 359.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  16. Geology of the lower Yellow Creek area, northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, W.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The geology and resources of the lower Yellow Creek area, an area at the northwestern margin of the Piceance Creek basin comprising of four 7.5-minute quadrangles, are described. Subsurface face rocks penetrated by drill holes range in age from Pennsylvania to Cretaceous. Measured sections show the Mancos Shale and the Castlegate Sandstone, Iles Formation, and Williams Fork Formation of the Mesaverde Group of Late Cretaceous age and the Fort Union, Wasatch, Green River, and Uinta formations of Tertiary age. Surficial deposits of Quaternary age include terrace gravels, alluvium, and landslides. Fold axes and faults in the area trend northwesterly. The southern part of the area contains major oil-shale resources. Coal-bearing zones in the Williams Fork and Iles formations contain considerable coal. The coal-resources potential is limited, however, by nonpersistence of the thicker coal beds. Small amounts of gas have been produced from shallow, lenticular Tertiary sandstones. Large, but very lowgrade uranium resources are present in the Fort Union Formation.

  17. 2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN FROM SAME ANGLE AS CA-167-X-1. THREE ORIGINAL PENSTOCKS PLUS FOURTH AND FIFTH PENSTOCKS (VISIBLE TO LEFT OF ORIGINAL THREE), AND THREE ORIGINAL STANDPIPES COUPLED TO FOURTH STANDPIPE SHOWN BEHIND AND ABOVE POWERHOUSE BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  18. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND TREE. RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  19. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT (TAILRACE IN FOREGROUND), BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT ABOVE AND BEHIND BUILDING 106. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  20. 77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY... of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek, in Islamorada, Florida. The regulation is set... Sheriff's Office has requested a temporary modification to the operating schedule of Snake Creek Bridge...

  1. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  2. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Vanishing White Matter Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vanishing White Matter Disease What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? Vanishing White Matter Disease (VWM) is inherited ... about this). Other Clinical Names for Vanishing White Matter Disease Other clinical names of Vanishing White Matter ...

  4. Rock Driller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The next series of planetary exploration missions require a method of extracting rock and soil core samples. Therefore a prototype ultrasonic core driller (UTCD) was developed to meet the constraints of Small Bodies Exploration and Mars Sample Return Missions. The constraints in the design are size, weight, power, and axial loading. The ultrasonic transducer requires a relatively low axial load, which is one of the reasons this technology was chosen. The ultrasonic generator breadboard section can be contained within the 5x5x3 limits and weighs less than two pounds. Based on results attained the objectives for the first phase were achieved. A number of transducer probes were made and tested. One version only drills, and the other will actually provide a small core from a rock. Because of a more efficient transducer/probe, it will run at very low power (less than 5 Watts) and still drill/core. The prototype generator was built to allow for variation of all the performance-effecting elements of the transducer/probe/end effector, i.e., pulse, duty cycle, frequency, etc. The heart of the circuitry is what will be converted to a surface mounted board for the next phase, after all the parameters have been optimized and the microprocessor feedback can be installed.

  5. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  6. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  7. Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

    1988-03-01

    Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

  8. Flood of August 27-28, 1977, West Cache Creek and Blue Beaver Creek, southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corley, Robert K.; Huntzinger, Thomas L.

    1979-01-01

    This report documents a major storm which occurred August 27-28, 1977, in southwest Oklahoma near the communities of Cache and Faxon, OK. Blue Beaver Creek and West Cache Creek and their tributaries experienced extensive flooding that caused an estimated $1 million in damages. Reported rainfall amounts of 8 to 12 inches in 6 hours indicate the storm had a frequency in excess of the 100-year rainfall. Peak discharges on Blue Beaver Creek near Cache and West Cache Creek near Faxon were 13,500 cubic feet per second and 45,700 cubic feet per second respectively. The estimated flood frequency was in excess of 100 years on Blue Beaver Creek and in excess of 50 years on West Cache Creek. Unit runoff on small basins were in excess of 2000 cubic feet per second per square mile. Surveyed highwater marks were used to map the flooded area. (USGS)

  9. Rock mechanics. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Jumikis, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Rock Mechanics, 2nd Edition deals with rock as an engineering construction material-a material with which, upon which, and within which civil engineers build structures. It thus pertains to hydraulic structures engineering; to highway, railway, canal, foundation, and tunnel engineering; and to all kinds of rock earthworks and to substructures in rock. Major changes in this new edition include: rock classification, rock types and description, rock testing equipment, rock properties, stability effects of discontinuity and gouge, grouting, gunite and shotcrete, and Lugeon's water test. This new edition also covers rock bolting and prestressing, pressure-grouted soil anchors, and rock slope stabilization.

  10. Depositional setting and diagenetic evolution of some Tertiary unconventional reservoir rocks, Uinta Basin, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, J.K.; Fouch, T.D.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    The Douglas Creek Member of the Tertiary Green River Formation underlies much of the Uinta basin, Utah, and contains large volumes of oil and gas trapped in a complex of fractured low-permeability sandstone reservoirs. In the SE part of the basin at Pariette Bench, the Eocene Douglas Creek Member is a thick sequence of fine- grained alluvial sandstone complexly intercalated with lacustrine claystone and carbonate rock. Sediments were deposited in a subsiding intermontane basin along the shallow fluctuating margin of ancient Lake Uinta. Although the Uinta basin has undergone postdepositional uplift and erosion, the deepest cored rocks at Pariette Bench have never been buried more than 3000m.-from Authors

  11. 78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind Park...

  12. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Evaluation of thrusting and folding of the Deadman Creek Thrust Fault, Sangre de Cristo range, Saguache County, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Jacob F., II

    The Deadman Creek Thrust Fault was mapped in a structural window on the west side of the Sangre de Cristo Range. The study area, located in southern Colorado, is a two square mile area halfway between the town of Crestone and the Great Sand Dunes National Park. The Deadman Creek Thrust Fault is the center of this study because it delineates the fold structure in the structural window. The fault is a northeast-directed low-angle thrust folded by subsequent additional compression. This study was directed at understanding the motion of the Deadman Creek Thrust Fault as affected by subsequent folding, and the driving mechanism behind the folding of the Pole Creek Anticline as part of a broader study of Laramide thrust faulting in the range. This study aids in the interpretation of the geologic structure of the San Luis Valley, which is being studied by staff of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), to understand Rio Grande Rift basin evolution by focusing on rift and pre-rift tectonic activity. It also provides a geologic interpretation for the Saguache County Forest Service, Great Sand Dunes National Park, and its visitors. The Sangre de Cristo Mountain Range has undergone tectonic events in the Proterozoic, Pennsylvanian (Ancestral Rocky Mountains), Cretaceous-Tertiary (Laramide Orogeny) and mid-Tertiary (Rio Grande Rift). During the Laramide Orogeny the Deadman Creek Thrust Fault emplaced Proterozoic gneiss over Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and Proterozoic granodiorite in the area. Continued deformation resulted in folding of the fault to form the Pole Creek Anticline. The direction of motion of both the fault and fold is northeastward. A self-consistent net of cross-sections and stereonet plots generated from existing and new field data show that the anticline is an overturned isoclinal fold in Pole Creek Canyon, which shows an increasing inter-limb angle and a more vertical axial surface northwestward toward Deadman Creek Canyon. Southwest-directed apparent normal fault motion reflects out-of-syncline thrust faulting primarily on the forelimb of the anticline, which has subsequently been overturned by further tightening of the anticline. The driving force of the anticline is inferred to be a propagating reverse fault breaking toward the surface and causing the Deadman Creek Thrust Fault to fold, forming the Pole Creek Anticline. This fault appears to have a complex geometry that causes the fold axis to change orientation in two locations within the study area. Furthermore, diverse fault motions indicated in stereonet plots suggest a complex deformation system in these massive rock units. A syncline (Alpine Gulch Syncline) to the southwest of the Pole Creek Anticline becomes more open to the southeast. The driving force for the Alpine Gulch Syncline is not understood, but may also have affected the Pole Creek Anticline. Additional complexities include two minor faults north of the Pole Creek Canyon mouth, an inferred fault in Pole Creek Canyon, and a second inferred fault in Deadman Creek Canyon. These complexities make structural interpretation challenging.

  14. 33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels....

  15. 33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels....

  16. 33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels....

  17. Salt Marshes along Little Mosquito Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salt marshes along Little Mosquito Creek of Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

  18. 33 CFR 117.813 - Wappinger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.813 Wappinger Creek. The draw of the Metro-North Commuter railroad bridge, mile 0.0 at New Hamburg, need not be opened for the passage...

  19. 33 CFR 117.813 - Wappinger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.813 Wappinger Creek. The draw of the Metro-North Commuter railroad bridge, mile 0.0 at New Hamburg, need not be opened for the passage...

  20. Muscogee Creek spirituality and meaning of death.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrea C; Thompson, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, collective case study involves interviews with 27 members of the Muscogee Creek Tribe to explore spirituality as related to death and bereavement. Results yielded that Creeks are generally open to the existence of inexplicable supernatural events. Creek spirituality encompasses awareness of spiritual beings, both good and bad. Participants believed that spirits exist alongside people and can send and receive messages from people to guide and inform them. Creeks have ongoing, though not constant, relationships with loved ones and others who have died. Spiritual attunement can occur at every point in the life cycle but seems to be especially astute in children and animals. Results are discussed in terms of continuing bonds and meaning making perspectives. PMID:19697716

  1. Wolf Creek Generating Station containment model

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.H.; Neises, G.J.; Howard, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a CONTEMPT-LT/28 containment model that has been developed by Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC) to predict containment pressure and temperature behavior during the postulated events at Wolf Creek Generating Station (WCGS). The model has been validated using data provided in the WCGS Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR). CONTEMPT-LT/28 model has been used extensively at WCGS to support plant operations, and recently, to support its 4.5% thermal power uprate project.

  2. The Tallahala Creek Complex, Smith County, Mississippi: The crest is not always the best

    SciTech Connect

    Sticker, E.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Tallahala Creek complex, comprising both Tallahala Creek and East Tallahala Creek fields, is a salt-induced anticline transacted by two down-to-the-north fault systems. Since 1967, the upper portion of the Jurassic Smackover Formation has yielded almost 15 million bbl of oil and 20 billion ft{sup 3} of gas, or 75% and 64% of the total oil and gas, respectively, produced from the fields. Contemporaneous sediment accumulation and structural growth have created various lithofacies in the upper Smackover, thereby significantly affecting reservoir heterogeneity. These lithofacies can be delineated by their structural position on the anticline. On the most downdip and downthrown portions of the structure, the Lipper Smackover consists of a series of gray, fine to medium-grained sandstones separated by limestones. These sandstones generally exhibit both high porosity and permeability, and have thus contributed over 95% of the total Smackover production. Updip the upper Smackover becomes increasingly calcareous, finally grading into a sandy, occasionally dolomitic, limestone on the crest and southern upthrown flank of the anticline. This limestone lithofacies has been noncommercial as a reservoir rock, as evidenced by the less than 7000 bbl of oil cumulatively produced from the Smackover in two of the structurally highest wells, the Shell 2 E. M. Lane and the Shell 1 F. James. Structural and stratigraphic relationships discovered through field development of the Tallahala Creek complex have significantly altered the conventional idea that {open_quotes}the crest is always the best.{close_quotes}

  3. White phosphorus

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    White phosphorus ; CASRN 7723 - 14 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  4. White Tern

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The White Tern is one of eight seabird species whose population density and susceptibility to sea-level rise was studied on the French Frigate Shoals' Tern Island by biologists with the USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center's Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Climate Change Project.  ...

  5. White Nights.

    PubMed

    Shani, Michal

    2016-01-01

    "How can you sleep at night after you ruined my life?" Arthur, a veteran patient of mine, implored after receiving his test results. This essay recounts my experience as a physician in coping with an extremely anxious patient, its influence on me, and some of my reflections on the ensuing white nights. PMID:26755788

  6. 6. VIEW OF BAMBOO GATE LEADING INTO WHITE GRAVEL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BAMBOO GATE LEADING INTO WHITE GRAVEL AND ROCK CLUSTER GARDEN REMINISCENT OF RYOAN-JI TEMPLE GARDEN IN KYOTO - Kykuit, Japanese Gardens, 200 Lake Road, Pocantico Hills, Westchester County, NY

  7. Sandstone petrology and diagenesis of lower Tuscaloosa Formation reservoirs in McComb and Little Creek field areas, southwest Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlin, K.H.; Cameron, C.P.

    1987-09-01

    Two major depositional facies characterize producing lower Tuscaloosa Formation (Upper Cretaceous) sandstone reservoirs in the McComb-Little Creek field areas: a lower fluvial sequence (Denkman sand) topped by nearshore marine deposits (McComb sand). Petrographic studies reveal that the sandstones of both fields were deposited as very fine to medium-grained quartzarenites and quartz litharenites. Petrographic and x-ray diffraction analyses of the clay mineral content of the sandstones indicate that most of the clays are authigenic and comprise a suite which includes chlorite, kaolinite, mixed-layer illite/smectite, and illite. Mixed-layer illite/smectite appears to be considerably more abundant in the McComb reservoir sandstones than at Little Creek. The reservoir sandstones in the McComb and Little Creek fields are highlighted by good secondary porosity (3-27%, average 19%) developed through dissolution of rock fragments and carbonate cements.

  8. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Calispell Creek Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Calispell Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in February 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Calispell Creek Project provides a total of 138.17 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 5.16 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Grassland provides 132.02 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 0.99 HUs for yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Calispell Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  10. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources... Comments and Motions To Intervene On February 24, 2012, AER NY-Gen, LLC (transferor), Eagle Creek Hydro...' Contact: Transferor: Mr. Joseph Klimaszewski, AER NY- Gen, LLC, P.O. Box 876, East Aurora, NY 14052,...

  11. 75 FR 5631 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967). There will be no change to radioactive... no significant impact [Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental...

  12. 4. O'BRIAN CANAL/SECOND CREEK INTERSECTION Second Creek is in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. O'BRIAN CANAL/SECOND CREEK INTERSECTION Second Creek is in the foreground; the O'Brian Canal is in the background; vicinity of East 112th Avenue and Potomac Road in Adams County - O'Brian Canal, South Platte River Drainage Area Northest of Denver, Brighton, Adams County, CO

  13. Post-Supereruption (18-19 Ma) Magmatic Reactivation Beneath the Silver Creek Caldera, Black Mountains, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcdowell, S.; Miller, C. F.; Ferguson, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Silver Creek caldera, southern Black Mountains, AZ, is the source of the supereruption that produced the Miocene (18.8 Ma) Peach Spring Tuff (PST), an extensive ignimbrite found throughout much of northwestern Arizona, southern Nevada, and southeastern California. The caldera's eastern margin is intruded by a slightly younger (18.5 +/- 0.5 Ma), ~30 km2 complex of epizonal, intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks. Because it is the largest known suite of intrusive rocks associated with the Peach Spring supereruption and contiguous (~19.5-17.5 Ma) volcanic activity in the Black Mountains, the Silver Creek intrusive complex provides a valuable record of processes operating in the shallow crust in the aftermath of a major eruption and during a period of intense volcanic activity. Rocks in the Silver Creek intrusive complex have historically been divided into two units, the Moss porphyry and the Times porphyry, though the complex exhibits textural and compositional complexity that belies a simple two-unit classification scheme. Field observations and geochemical analysis indicate that the northern portion of the Silver Creek suite comprises porphyries and coarse-grained rocks with ~62 to ~68 wt. % SiO2 ("Moss porphyry"). Rounded, 2-10 cm enclaves (59 wt. % SiO2) with crenulate margins are sparse overall but locally abundant in this portion of the complex. The southern part of the complex consists of leucogranitic porphyry and coarse-grained granite with >70 wt. % SiO2 ("Times porphyry"). At the east/west-trending Times/Moss contact zone along Silver Creek, the coarse-grained component of the Times contains < 0.5-2 m-diameter, fine-grained enclaves with crenulate margins and compositions similar to that of the intermediate Moss to the north. Mafic, intermediate, and felsic porphyritic dikes crosscut the entire complex. Major and trace element compositions of the Silver Creek intrusive complex define a coherent and continuous array extending from the most mafic enclaves to the most silicic Times, consistent with their representing a broadly cogenetic suite. Our preliminary data reveal that the Times units are geochemically similar to rhyolitic pumice in PST outflow, while the Moss is geochemically comparable to voluminous trachydacite lava and tuff that erupted shortly before the PST. The geochemical and age data, combined with field evidence for mafic reheating and magma mixing, suggest that the Silver Creek intrusive complex records rapid reinvigoration of the magmatic system that fed the PST supereruption and its volcanic predecessors in the Black Mountains.

  14. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Distribution of gold, tellurium, silver, and mercury in part of the Cripple Creek district, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gott, Garland Bayard; McCarthy, J.H.; Van Sickle, G.H.; McHugh, J.B.

    1967-01-01

    Geochemical exploration studies were undertaken in the Cripple Creek district to test the possibility that large low-grade gold deposits might be found. Surface rock samples taken throughout the district indicate that the volcanic rocks between the productive veins contain an average of about 0.6 ppm (part per million) gold. In an area above 3,800 feet long and 500 feet wide near the Cresson mine in the south-central part of the district, scattered surface samples show that the rocks contain an average of 2.5 ppm gold, equivalent to $2.50 per ton. Inasmuch as veins that contain more than 2.5 ppm may also exist in the area, systematic sampling by trenching and drilling is warranted.

  16. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Tacoma Creek South Project, Technical Report 2003-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Tacoma Creek South property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in June 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Tacoma Creek South Project provides a total of 190.79 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetlands provide 20.51 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Grassland provides 1.65 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 11.76 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 139.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forest also provides 19.15 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Tacoma Creek South Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  17. Layered Rocks in 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This black-and-white image shows the first layered rocks scientists have seen close up in Gusev Crater, where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit landed Jan. 4, 2004. While Spirit's twin rover, Opportunity, reached the stadium-size Endurance Crater on the other side of Mars and began exploring its many layered outcrops in early May, Spirit traveled more than 3.5 kilometers (2.2 miles) to get to this layered bedrock in the 'Columbia Hills.' Scientists are planning to conduct a study of these rocks to determine if they are volcanic or sedimentary in origin, and if they have been chemically altered. Spirit's panoramic camera took this image on sol 217 (Aug. 13, 2004).

  18. Swift Creek Hydroelectric Project rehabilitation, Swift Creek Power Company, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to re-evaluate and update the original environmental analysis of the Swift Crook Hydroelectric Project rehabilitation. That analysis and the decision to allow the proponent toproceed with the project as described in the EA alternatives 3, 4, and 5 was completed an May 8, 1981. Since that decision, no action has been taken and no special-use permit has ever been issued. The Bridger-Trton National Forest completed a Forest Plan in March of 1990 which sets current direction for all lands within the Forest and new and significant issues pertaining to the amount of water to be bypassed have been raised by the public in response to this proposed project. The original proponent, Lower Valley Power and Light, sold the project and existing facilities to Swift Crack Power Company Inc. in 1984. Swift Crock Power Company has submitted a proposal to rehabilitate the existing power generation facility in Swift Creek Canyon, which will involve some significant construction and alteration of the river corridor. Theyhave also submitted an application for relicense to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission who has asked for the Forest Service to comment on the application and to submit recommended conditions for approval (4e requirements). The proposed rehabilitation of existing facilities includes replacement of the existing damaged penstock (pipe) with a new, larger one; dredging two existing reservoirs and removal, refurbishment, and reinstallation of the turbines and generators in the two powerhouses with relocation and reconstruction of the lower powerhouse that is located on privately owned land below the Forest boundary.

  19. Multispectral analysis of limestone, dolomite, and granite, Mill Creek, Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C.; Watson, K.

    1970-01-01

    Spectral reflectance and thermal emission data were collected at the Mill Creek, Oklahoma test site during NASA missions 132 and 133 in June 1970. The data were collected by three aircraft flown several times during the diurnal cycle at altitudes of 150 to 17,000 m above mean terrain. Reflectance of the main rock types (limestone, dolomite, and granite) was determined from the data collected using a 12-channel multispectral scanner during mission 133 and from thermal infrared images recorded during mission 132 on an RS-7 scanner from 17,000 m above terrain. A preliminary rock recognition map was generated automatically using data collected from 900 m above terrain. The discrimination provided by the map is reasonably accurate. Misidentification occurred in areas of unusually high dolomite reflectivity. High altitude thermal infrared (10 to 12 micrometers) images show regional folds and faults distinguished by the presence of thermally contrasting materials. Linear and curvilinear structural features two to three times smaller than the nominal 17 m resolution could be detected.

  20. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  1. GEOLOGIC AND GEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE MEAGER CREEK GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.N.; Adams, M.C.; Stauder, J.J.

    1985-01-22

    Meager Creek is perhaps the most intensely explored geothermal system occurring in the Cascade and Garibaldi Volcanic Belts. This paper describes the results of new lithologic, petrographic, X-ray, isotopic, and geochemical investigations of core and cuttings from the Meager Creek wells. The data demonstrate that alteration related to the present geothermal system is superimposed on basement rocks which were metamorphosed and intruded by dioritic stocks prior to the onset of volcanism. The geothermal alteration developed mainly after emplacement of hypabyssal dikes associated with Meager Mountain volcanism and is characterized by mineral assemblages consisting primarily of sheet silicates, quartz, carbonate, hematite, iron oxides, pyrite, and minor epidote, potassium feldspar, actinolite and biotite. Permeabilities within the upper portions of the reservoir are low, reflecting filling of the fracture systems by carbonate. Petrographic observations suggest that sealing of the fractures accompanied hydrothermal brecciation and boiling of the fluids.

  2. Painter Reservoir, east Painter Reservoir and Clear Creek Fields, Uinta County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, J.R.; Cluff, S.; Bauman, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Painter Reservoir, East Painter Reservoir, and Clear Creek fields are part of a series of recent major hydrocarbon discoveries in the Thrust Belt Province of NE. Utah-SW. Wyoming that began with the discovery of the Pineview field in Utah. Oil and gas production in the fields is from the Triassic-Jurassic Nugget Sandstone. There the Nugget is a varicolored, fine- to medium-grained quartz arenite believed to be of eolian origin. Core porosity averages 12.5% and core permeability averages ca 5.4 md. All 3 fields occur in reverse-faulted, asymmetric folds on the hanging wall of the Absaroka thrust and overlie Cretaceous source rocks. The Painter Reservoir and Clear Creek structures are much steeper on the east whereas the East Painter structure is much steeper on the west.

  3. In stream habitat and stock restoration for salmon otter creek barrier bypass subproject. Restoration project 94139-b1. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, K.; Gillikin, D.

    1995-05-01

    In 1994, two barrier falls on Otter Creek, Bay of Isles, Knight Island, Prince William Sound were modified to provide upstream passage to adult pink salmon (Onchorhynchus gorbuscha). The falls were modified by using wire basket gabions, rock drills and wooden weir structures. In addition, an existing set of Alaska steeppasses were maintained and slightly modified for efficient passage of salmon.

  4. Hydrologic characteristics of Bear Creek near Silver Hill and Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Jim C.; Haggard, Brian E.; Green, W. Reed

    2002-01-01

    The Buffalo River and its tributary Bear Creek are in the White River Basin in the Ozark Plateaus in north-central Arkansas. Analysis of streamflow measurements and water-quality samples at a site on Bear Creek and a site on the Buffalo River in Searcy County, Arkansas, quantify differences between the two sites during calendar years 1999 and 2000. Streamflow and water quality also vary seasonally at each site. Mean annual streamflow was substantially larger at the Buffalo River site (836 and 719 cubic feet per second in 1999 and 2000) than at the Bear Creek site (56 and 63 cubic feet per second). However, during times of low flow, discharge of Bear Creek comprises a larger proportion of the flow of the Buffalo River. Concentrations of nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment generally were greater in samples from Bear Creek than in samples from the Buffalo River. Statistically significant differences were detected in concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus, orthophosphorus, total phosphorus, fecal coliform bacteria, and suspended sediment. Loads varied between sites, hydrologic conditions, seasons, and years. Loads were substantially higher for the Buffalo River than for Bear Creek (as would be expected because of the Buffalo?s higher streamflow). Loads contributed by surface runoff usually comprised more than 85 percent of the annual load. Constituent yields (loads divided by drainage area) were much more similar between sites than were loads. Flow-weighted concentrations and dissolved constituent yields generally were greater for Bear Creek than yields for the Buffalo River and flowweighted concentrations yields were higher than typical flow-weighted concentrations and yields in undeveloped basins, but lower than flow-weighted concentrations and yields at a site in a more developed basin.

  5. Lithofacies, Age, and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group in the Skimo Creek Area, Central Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Whalen, Michael T.; Harris, Anita G.

    2008-01-01

    The Lisburne Group, a mainly Carboniferous carbonate succession that is widely distributed across northern Alaska, contains notable amounts of oil and gas at Prudhoe Bay. Detailed studies of the Lisburne in the Skimo Creek area, central Brooks Range, delineate its lithofacies, age, conodont biofacies, depositional environments, and sequence stratigraphy and provide new data on its hydrocarbon source-rock and reservoir potential, as well as its thermal history, in this area. We have studied the Lisburne Group in two thrust sheets of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, herein called the Skimo and Tiglukpuk thrust sheets. The southern, Skimo Creek section, which is >900 m thick, is composed largely of even-bedded to nodular lime mudstone and wackestone intercalated with intervals of thin- to thick-bedded bioclastic packstone and grainstone. Some parts of the section are partially to completely dolomitized and (or) replaced by chert. A distinctive, 30-m-thick zone of black, organic-rich shale, lime mudstone, and phosphorite is exposed 170 m below the top of the Lisburne. The uppermost 40 m of section is also distinctive and made up of dark shale, lime mudstone, spiculite, and glauconitic grainstone. The northern, Tiglukpuk Creek section, which is similar to the Skimo Creek section but only ~760 m thick, includes more packstone and grainstone and less organic-rich shale. Analyses of conodonts and foraminifers indicate that both sections range in age from late Early Mississippian (Osagean) through Early Pennsylvanian (early Morrowan) and document a hiatus of at least 15 m.y. at the contact between the Lisburne and the overlying Siksikpuk Formation. No evidence of subaerial exposure was observed along this contact, which may represent a submarine erosional surface. Lithofacies and biofacies imply that the Lisburne Group in the study area was deposited mainly in midramp to outer-ramp settings. Deepest water strata are mud rich and formed below storm or fair-weather wave base on the outer ramp to outer midramp; shallowest facies are storm, sand-wave, and shoal deposits of the inner midramp to inner ramp. A relatively diverse, open-marine fauna occurs throughout much of the Lisburne in the study area, but some beds also contain clasts typical of more restricted, shallow-water environments that were likely transported seaward by storms and currents. Radiolarians are abundant in the shale and phosphorite unit at Skimo Creek and also occur in equivalent strata at Tiglukpuk Creek; high gamma-ray response and elevated total organic-carbon contents (max 5?8 weight percent) also characterize this unit at Skimo Creek. Lithologic, faunal, and geochemical data all suggest that these rocks formed mainly in an outer-ramp to basinal setting with low sedimentation rates, high productivity, and poorly oxygenated bottom water. Shale and mudstone at the top of the Lisburne Group accumulated in a similarly sediment starved, mainly outer ramp environment but lack comparable evidence for high nutrient and low oxygen levels during deposition. Vertical shifts in rock types and faunas delineate numerous parasequences and six probable third-order sequences in the study area; the same sequences are also recognized in the Lisburne Group to the east. Transgressive-system tracts in these sequences generally fine upward, whereas highstand-system tracts coarsen upward. Sequences in the Tiglukpuk Creek section are mostly thinner, contain thinner and more numerous parasequences, and accumulated in somewhat shallower settings than those in the Skimo Creek section. These differences reflect the more seaward position and, thus, increased accommodation space of the Skimo Creek section relative to the Tiglukpuk Creek section during deposition. Organic-rich calcareous shale in the shale and phosphorite unit has a cumulative thickness of at least 15 m and a lateral extent of >50 km; this lithology is the best potential hydrocarbon source rock in the Lisburne Group

  6. FIDDLER CREEK POLYMER AUGMENTATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

    2001-10-31

    The Fiddler Creek field is in Weston County, Wyoming, and was discovered in 1948. Secondary waterflooding recovery was started in 1955 and terminated in the mid-1980s with a fieldwide recovery of approximately 40%. The West Fiddler Creek Unit, the focus of this project, had a lower recovery and therefore has the most remaining oil. Before the project this unit was producing approximately 85 bbl of oil per day from 20 pumping wells and 17 swab wells. The recovery process planned for this project involved adapting two independent processes, the injection of polymer as a channel blocker or as a deep-penetrating permeability modifier, and the stabilization of clays and reduction of the residual oil saturation in the near-wellbore area around the injection wells. Clay stabilization was not conducted because long-term fresh water injection had not severely reduced the injectivity. It was determined that future polymer injection would not be affected by the clay. For the project, two adjoining project patterns were selected on the basis of prior reservoir studies and current well availability and production. The primary injection well of Pattern 1 was treated with a small batch of MARCIT gel to create channel blocking. The long-term test was designed for three phases: (1) 77 days of injection of a 300-mg/l cationic polyacrylamide, (2) 15 days of injection of a 300-mg/l anionic polymer to ensure injectivity of the polymer, and (3) 369 days of injection of the 300-mg/l anionic polymer and a 30:1 mix of the crosslinker. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted as planned. Phase 3 was started in late March 1999 and terminated in May 2001. In this phase, a crosslinker was added with the anionic polymer. Total injection for Phase 3 was 709,064 bbl. To maintain the desired injection rate, the injection pressure was slowly increased from 1,400 psig to 2,100 psig. Early in the application of the polymer, it appeared that the sweep improvement program was having a positive effect on Pattern 1 with lesser effects in Pattern 2. These early observations did not continue to develop. The oil production for both patterns remained fairly constant to the rates established by the restart of waterflooding. The water production declined but stabilized in both patterns. The stabilization of the oil at prepolymer rates and water production at the lower rates can be attributed to the polymer injection, but the effect was not as great as originally predicted. The sweep improvement for the patterns appeared to be negatively impacted by extended shutdowns in the injection and production systems. Such problems as those experienced in this project can be expected when long-term polymer injection is started in old waterflood fields. To prevent these problems, new injection and production tubulars and pumps would be required at a cost prohibitive to the present, independent operators. Unless the future results from the continued waterflood show positive effects of the long-term polymer injection, it appears that the batch-type polymer treatment may have more promise than the long-term treatment and should be more cost effective.

  7. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  8. Ground-water reconnaissance of the Sailor Creek area, Owyhee, Elmore, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1962-01-01

    This reports evaluates the ground-water resources of about 1,000 square miles in the semiarid uplands south of the Snake River between Bruneau River and Salmon Falls Creek. The outcropping rocks are the Idavada Volcanics of Pliocene age, and the Idaho Group of Pliocene and Plieistocene age, consisting of the Banbury Basalt of middle Pliocene age and overlying predominantly sedimentary deposits of middle Pliocene through middle Pleistocene age. These rocks dip gently northward. The volcanic rocks are the best aquifers, but the yield of water from the sedimentary deposits is adequate for domestic and stock use. About 6,000 acre-feet of water is withdrawn annually from the Idavada Volcanics by 9 irrigation wells to irrigate about 3,000 acres. Only a few tends of acre-feet of water withdrawn from the other formations. The regional dip of the rocks induces weak artesian conditions in the volcanic rocks and somewhat higher artesian head in the sedimentary rocks. Estimated depth to water ranges from less than 250 feet to more than 750 feet, as shown in an accompanying map. The eastern part of the area appears to be more favorable for the development of ground water for irrigation than the western part because of better aquifers at shallower depth.

  9. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the New Driver-Cave Creek area, Maricopa and Yavapai counties, Arizona; 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littin, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The New River-Cave Creek area includes about 500 square miles in central Arizona. The ground-water conditions vary greatly owing to large differences in rock type and extent of fracturing. Information shown on the maps includes depth to water, altitude of the water level, well depth, and specific conductance and fluoride concentration in the water. Scale 1:125,000. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view looking north - Oregon Electric Railroad, Fanno Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 34.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  11. 12. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing floor joist and support beams - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  12. 5. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking northwest showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  13. 15. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second floor support beams. - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  14. 1. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking south, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking south, with road in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  15. 13. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second floor window sill - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  16. 1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, AND FROM SANTA ANA RIVER THROUGH TUNNEL #0 AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. 13. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast; looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast; looking at canal going to the tree line - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  18. Elevation of deck truss span over creek, looking NW along ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of deck truss span over creek, looking NW along U.S. route 322. - Pennsylvania Railroad, Brandywine Valley Viaduct, Spanning Brandywine Creek & U.S. Route 322, Downingtown, Chester County, PA

  19. 4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of the dam/bridge looking east - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  20. 3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of dam/bridge looking southwest - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  1. DISTANT ELEVATION, NOTE CREEK BRIDGE FOREGROUND, COVERED BRIDGE OVER DIFFERENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT ELEVATION, NOTE CREEK BRIDGE FOREGROUND, COVERED BRIDGE OVER DIFFERENT STREAM IN THE BACKGROUND, NORTHEAST PORTAL - Larwood Bridge, Spanning Crabtree Creek, Fish Hatchery Road (CR 648), Lacomb, Linn County, OR

  2. 1. View of Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and cliff ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and cliff looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 8. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking WSW. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking WSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 9. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking ENE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 7. Elevation of single arch stone bridge on Laurel Creek ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Elevation of single arch stone bridge on Laurel Creek Road looking N. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. Natural Iron-rich Acidic Spring Flowing into Cement Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Photograph showing natural iron-rich acidic spring flowing into Cement Creek near Silverton, Colorado.  Similar natural springs contribute water to Cement Creek and other tributaries of the upper Animas River. ...

  7. Steel Creek water quality: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.; Kretchmer, D.W.; Chimney, M.J.

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet envirorunental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Water-quality appraisal, Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, Mono County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Setmire, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A late summer reconnaissance in 1981 and a spring high-flow sampling in 1982 of Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, located in the Mammoth crest area of the Sierra Nevada, indicated that mineralization, eutrophication, sedimentation, and limited areas of fecal contamination were occurring. Mineralization, indicated by a downstream increase in dissolved-solids concentration, was due primarily to geothermal springs that gradually decreased in the percentage of calcium, increased in the percentage of magnesium and sodium, and caused fluctuating, but overall increasing percentage of fluoride, sulfate, and chloride. Resulting water quality in Mammoth Creek was similar to that of the springs forming Hot Creek. Eutrophication was observed in Twin Lakes and the reach of Hot Creek below the fish hatchery. Twin Lakes had floating mats of algae and a high dissolved-oxygen saturation of 147 percent at a pH of 9.2. Hot Creek had excessive aquatic vascular plant and algae growth, dissolved-oxygen saturations ranging from 65 to 200 percent, algal growth potential of 30 milligrams per liter, and nitrates and phosphates of 0.44 and 0.157 milligrams per liter. Sedimentation was noted in observations of bed-material composition showing the presence of fine material beginning at Sherwin Creek Road. Fecal contamination was indicated by fecal coliform counts of 250 colonies per 100 milliliters and fecal streptococcal counts greater than 1,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. (USGS)

  9. Steel Creek fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.; Kissick, L.A.

    1988-03-01

    Fish samples were collected from Steel Creek during 1986 and 1987 following the impoundment of the headwaters of the stream to form L-Lake, a cooling reservoir for L-Reactor which began operating late in 1985. Electrofishing and ichthyoplankton sample stations were located throughout the creek. Fykenetting sample stations were located in the creek mouth and just above the Steel Creek swamp. Larval fish and fish eggs were collected with 0.5 m plankton nets. Multivariate analysis of the electrofishing data suggested that the fish assemblages in Steel Creek exhibited structural differences associated with proximity to L-Lake, and habitat gradients of current velocity, depth, and canopy cover. The Steel Creek corridor, a lotic reach beginning at the base of the L-Lake embankment was dominated by stream species and bluegill. The delta/swamp, formed where Steel Creek enters the Savannah River floodplain, was dominated by fishes characteristic of slow flowing waters and heavily vegetated habitats. The large channel draining the swamp supported many of the species found in the swamp plus riverine and anadromous forms.

  10. Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

  11. Water-quality appraisal. Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Setmire, J.G.

    1984-06-01

    A late summer reconnaissance in 1981 and a spring high-flow sampling in 1982 of Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, located in the Mammoth crest area of the Sierra Nevada, indicated that three water-quality processes were occurring: (1) mineralization; (2) eutrophication; and (3) sedimentation. Limited areas of fecal contamination were also observed. Mineralization due primarily to geothermal springs increased dissolved-solids concentration downstream, which changed the chemical composition of the water. The percentage of calcium decreased gradually, the percentage of magnesium and sodium increased, and the percentage of fluoride, sulfate, and chloride fluctuated, but increased overall. These changes produced water quality in Mammoth Creek similar to that of the springs forming Hot Creek. Twin Lakes and the reach of Hot Creek below the fish hatchery showed evidence of eutrophication. Twin Lakes had floating mats of algae and a high dissolved-oxygen saturation of 147% at a pH of 9.2. Hot Creek had abundant growth of aquatic vascular plants and algae, dissolved-oxygen saturations ranging from 65% to 200%, algal growth potential of 30 milligrams per liter, nitrate concentration of 0.44 milligram per liter, and phosphate concentration of 0.157 milligram per liter. Sediment deposition was determined from detailed observations of bed-material composition, which showed that fine material was deposited at Sherwin Creek Road and downstream. Fecal contamination was indicated by fecal-coliform bacteria counts of 250 colonies per 100 milliliters and fecal-streptococcal bacteria counts greater than 1000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Although bacterial sampling was sporadic and incomplete, it did indicate adverse effects on water quality for the following beneficial uses that have been identified for Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek: (1) municipal supply; (2) cold-water habitat; and (3) contact and noncontact water recreation. 6 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Quality of water and time-of-travel in Bakers Creek near Clinton, Mississippi. [Bakers Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    A short-term intensive quality-of-water study was conducted during a period of generally low streamflow in Bakers Creek and its tributary, Lindsey Creek, near Clinton, Mississippi. During the September 15-18, 1980 study, dissolved oxygen concentrations in Bakers Creek were less than 5 milligrams per liter. The specific conductance, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, nutrient concentrations, and bacteria densities in Bakers Creek decreased downstream through the study reach. The mean specific conductance decreased from 670 to 306 microhms per centimeter. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand decreased from 19 to 2.8 milligrams per liter. The mean total nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations decreased from 10 and 7.1 to 1.0 and 0.87 milligram per litter, respectively. The maximum fecal bacteria decreased from 7200 to 400 colonies per 100 milliliter. The concentrations of mercury, iron, and manganese in a sample collected at the downstream site exceeded recommended limits. Diazinon and 2,4-D were also present in the water. A bottom material sample contained DDD (2.5 micrograms per kilogram), DDE (2.7 micrograms per kilogram), and DDT (.3 micrograms per kilogram). The tributary inflow from Lindsey Creek did not improve the water quality of Bakers Creek. The dissolved oxygen concentrations were generally less than 5.0 milligrams per liter at the sampling site on Lindsey Creek. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, the mean specific conductance, and fecal coliform densities were greater in the tributary than at the downstream site on Bakers Creek. The average rate of travel through a 1.8-mile reach of Bakers Creek was 0.06 foot per second or 0.04 miles per hour. 6 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  14. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT, BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO CENTER, BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT, AND BUILDING 104 ABOVE BUILDING 106 PARTIALLY OBSCURED BEHIND TREE AT UPPER PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  15. Flood-inundation maps for Indian Creek and Tomahawk Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Arin J.; Studley, Seth E.

    2015-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile upper reach of Indian Creek from College Boulevard to the confluence with Tomahawk Creek, a 3.9-mile reach of Tomahawk Creek from 127th Street to the confluence with Indian Creek, and a 1.9-mile lower reach of Indian Creek from the confluence with Tomahawk Creek to just beyond the Kansas/Missouri border at State Line Road in Johnson County, Kansas, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Overland Park, Kansas. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages on Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas. Near real time stages at these streamgages may be obtained on the Web from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at these sites.Flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated for each reach by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the streamgages. The hydraulic models were then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; 17 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and 14 water-surface profiles for Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas, for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the next interval above the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood level (500-year recurrence interval). The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined in a geographic information system with a digital elevation model derived from light detection and ranging data (having a 0.429-foot vertical and 0.228-foot horizontal accuracy) to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps, along with Web information regarding current stage from the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages and forecasted high-flow stages from the National Weather Service, will provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response activities such as evacuations, road closures, and postflood recovery efforts.

  16. Grieving in the Muscogee Creek tribe.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrea C

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative, collective case study explores grieving in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, reveal tendencies in patterns of grieving. Commonalities include (a) individual strength and certainty of recovery; (b) focus on giving to others in the family and coping as a family unit; and (c) support mainly received from family. Cultural factors of belief in nature's balance, family, community, and Indian medicine influence the meaning Creeks associate with death, which, in turn, contributes to grieving patterns. PMID:18693381

  17. 78 FR 28897 - Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project; Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project; Sweetwater County, Wyoming AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Environmental assessment and finding of no...

  18. 75 FR 8036 - Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent... continued livestock grazing ] within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area. The analysis will... conditions within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area towards desired conditions. The project...

  19. View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at left center of frame. Bridge in foreground is west entrance to abandoned Phoenix iron works. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  20. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND SWITCHRACKS AND TREE. POWERHOUSE IS AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  1. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. BUILDING 122 IS VISIBLE AT PHOTO CENTER. PLANT 5 INTAKE DAM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  2. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. BUILDING 113 IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT PHOTO CENTER. PLANT 5 INTAKE DAM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  3. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ROOF OF BUILDING 105 IS VISIBLE IN UPPER PHOTO CENTER. PLANT 5 INTAKE DAM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  4. Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge joint between ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge joint between the tied arch span and the approach span, view looking east at southwest corner of bridge. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  5. A Rainbow Trout Rests Among Substrate in Panther Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A rainbow trout rests among substrate in Panther Creek upstream of Big Deer Creek, central Idaho. Panther Creek was severely damaged by heavy metals released from mining and milling activities at the former Blackbird Mine. USGS and other scientists compiled a 30-year record of recovery of the stream...

  6. A Rainbow Trout Rests Among Cobble Substrate in Panther Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A rainbow trout rests among cobble substrate in Panther Creek downstream of Big Deer Creek, central Idaho. Panther Creek was severely damaged by heavy metals released from mining and milling activities at the former Blackbird Mine, and water quality in this section of the stream was acutely lethal t...

  7. 78 FR 938 - Burton Creek Hydro Inc., Sollos Energy, LLC'

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Burton Creek Hydro Inc., Sollos Energy, LLC' Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed December 19, 2012, Burton Creek Hydro Inc. informed the Commission that its exemption from licensing for the Burton Creek Hydro Project, FERC No. 7577, originally issued September...

  8. Geohydrologic data for selected springs in eastern Nevada through 1982, with emphasis on White Pine County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pupacko, Alex; Wood, D.B.; Williams, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Discharge and water-chemistry data for springs in eastern Nevada , with an emphasis on White Pine County, are compiled and tabulated. Discharge data for springs emanating from the deep carbonate rocks are included. The report contains: (1) miscellaneous discharge measurements for 131 selected springs in White Pine County and vicinity; (2) selected water quality data for 557 sampled springs in White Pine County and vicinity; and (3) discharge data for 42 regional springs in the eastern Nevada carbonate-rock system. (USGS)

  9. A sedimentological model for the Loves Creek Member of the Bitter Springs Formation, northern Amadeus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southgate, P. N.

    Sediments of the Loves Creek Member of the Bitter Springs Formation comprise the transgressive and highstand systems tracts of a stratigraphic sequence. The member is bounded top and bottom by disconformity surfaces and is divisible into three sedimentary packages referred to as units. Each unit represents a series of depositional environments related to each other by position on a large-scale sea-level cycle. The uppermost redbed and dolomitic limestone/dolostone unit provides evidence for continued regression and progradation as the underlying marine sediments are succeeded by carbonate rocks and redbeds deposited in lacustrine and terrestrial environments respectively.

  10. Stratigraphic permeability in the Baca geothermal system, Redondo Creek Area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Synthesis of surface and borehole data from the Baca geothermal system, as defined by drilling to date in the Redondo Creek area of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, indicates that thermal fluid flow in the system is partially controlled by distinct stratigraphic aquifers. These aquifers are relatively thin, laterally restricted beds of non-welded tuff and tuffaceous sandstone, confined primarily to the Quaternary Bandelier Tuff. Recognition of the role of these rocks in reservoir definition at Baca should improve chances for future geothermal discoveries in the Valles Caldera and similar settings elsewhere.

  11. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334... and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md....

  12. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334... and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md....

  13. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334... and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md....

  14. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334... and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md....

  15. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334... and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md....

  16. Intensive survey of the bay creek watershed, July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Short, M.B.; Kelly, T.G.; Hefley, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    During July 1992, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency conducted an intensive survey of the Bay Creek basin, a fifth order tributary in the Mississippi River North Central Basin. Bay Creek drains approximately 176.4 square miles primarily in Pike and a small portion of Calhoun counties. Four stations were sampled on the Bay Creek main stem and one on Honey Creek. The survey focused on macroinvertebrate communities, fish populations, instream habitat, fish tissue, sediment and water chemistry, and land use as well as a review of ambient water quality data from IEPA station KCA-01 near Nebo, Illinois, as tools to document the biological and chemical status of Bay Creek.

  17. How Fern Creek Is Beating Goliath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Margaret; Galatowitsch, Patrick; Hefferin, Keri; Highland, Shanita

    2013-01-01

    The "David" is Fern Creek Elementary, a small urban school in Orlando, Florida, that serves an overwhelmingly disadvantaged student population. The "Goliaths" are the mountains of problems that many inner-city students face--poverty, homelessness, mobility, instability, limited parent involvement, and violent neighborhood

  18. Boulder Creek, Colo., at Flood Stage

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This bridge is at 75th Street east of Boulder showing Boulder Creek at flood stage (5000 cfs) on Friday, September 13, 2013. When looking west (upstream), the USGS streamgage is on the right. Numerous rivers flooded during a significant September 2013 rain event along Colorado's Front Range, damagi...

  19. Alexander Creek in the Susitna Basin

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Researchers with the Alaska Fish and Game travel along Alexander Creek in the Susitna Basin of south-central Alaska. The team is on their way to a back country base-camp for a study examining the preferred diet of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius).  ...

  20. 33 CFR 117.815 - Westchester Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.815 Westchester Creek. The draw of the Bruckner Boulevard/Unionport Bridge, mile 1.7, at the Bronx, New York, shall open on signal if at least a two-hour advance notice is given to the New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT)...