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1

77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tara Morrison, Superintendent, Rock Creek Park, at Rock Creek Park Headquarters, 3545...guide deer management actions in Rock Creek Park over the next 15 years...of individual deer would be an approach used in limited circumstances...

2012-01-11

2

White Rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can't see . . . things like information about what kinds of minerals make up the landforms. Mars scientists once thought, for instance, that these unusual features might be vast hills of salt, the dried up remains of a long-ago, evaporated lake. Not so, said an instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, which revealed that the bright material is probably made up of volcanic ash or windblown dust instead. And talk about a cyclical 'ashes to ashes, dust to dust' story! Particles of this material fell and fell until they built up quite a sedimentary deposit, which was then only eroded away again by the wind over time, leaving the spiky terrain seen today. It looks white, but its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the surrounding material is so dark. Of course, good eyesight always helps in understanding. A camera on Mars Global Surveyor with close-up capabilities revealed that sand dunes are responsible for the smudgy dark material in the bright sediment and around it. But that's not all. The THEMIS camera on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft that took this image reveals that this ashy or dusty deposit once covered a much larger area than it does today. Look yourself for two small dots of white material on the floor of a small crater nearby (center right in this image). They preserve a record that this bright deposit once reached much farther. Since so little of it remains, you can figure that the material probably isn't very hard, and simply blows away. One thing's for sure. No one looking at this image could ever think that Mars is a boring place. With all of its bright and dark contrasts, this picture would be perfect for anyone who loves Ansel Adams and his black-and-white photography.

2002-01-01

3

Rock Creek Tower Painting Project : Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) built a 500-kV line across Rock Creek, a Class I trout stream about 20 miles east of Missoula, MT. Two 190-foot towers rise on either side of the Rock Creek valley, and the line between is suspended 600 feet over the valley floor. The crossing poses a hazard to passing airplanes and disrupts the natural landscape. The area where the line crosses Rock Creek is prized for its scenic beauty. In response to public demand that BPA protect the visual beauty of this area, BPA painted the towers gray to blend them best in with their natural surroundings. The issue now is to decide between either two gray towers or two orange-and-white towers. The underlying need is to resolve the conflict of pilot safety against scenic intrusion. The proposed action is to paint the gray tower aeronautical orange and white. Alternatives are to paint the orange-and-white tower back to its original gray; or leave the dilemma unresolved (the ''no-action'' alternative). 9 refs., 3 figs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1988-10-01

4

ACID MINE DRAINAGE ABATEMENT IN THE LOWER ROCK CREEK WATERSHED - McCREARY COUNTY, KENTUCKY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock Creek above White Oak Junction is a beautiful boulder strewn stream designated as a Kentucky Wild River and is the premier mountain trout stream in Kentucky. Below White Oak Junction acid mine drainage (AMD) from over 40 coal mine portals and eight pyrite-rich refuse dumps has decimated aquatic life and rendered the stream virtually lifeless. The Rock Creek Task

Mark B. Carew

5

Pollack Crater's White Rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides.

In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust.

CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also has a higher spatial resolution that enables CRISM to see smaller exposures of these minerals, if they occur. If White Rock is an evaporative lacustrine or lake deposit, CRISM has the best chance of detecting telltale mineralogical signatures. The images above reveal what CRISM found.

The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic of Pollack Crater taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). White Rock actually appears dark in the THEMIS mosaic due to a low daytime temperature, because its light color leads to less heating by the Sun. The middle-left image is an infrared, false color image that reveals White Rock's reddish hue. The middle-right image shows the signatures of different minerals that are present. CRISM found that White Rock is composed of accumulated dust perhaps with some fine-grained olivine (an igneous mineral), surrounded by basaltic sand containing olivine and dark-colored pyroxene. The lower two images were constructed by draping CRISM images over topography and exaggerating the vertical scale to better illustrate White Rock's topography. White Rock still appears not to contain evaporite, but instead to be composed of accumulated dust and sand.

CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

2008-01-01

6

3. Upstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, closeup of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Upstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, close-up of gates, looking southeast - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

7

5. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west (Diversion into Irrigation District canal) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

8

2. Upstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Upstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking east (Canal slide gates to left, Rock Creek diversion gate to right in raised position) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

9

6. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west (Gate raised to cut off flow to Rock Creek, weir section to left of photo) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

10

4. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west (Irrigation District canal to right, creek gate and weir to left) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

11

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1970-1984  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was designed to determine the characteristics and amounts of industrial and municipal wastes discharged to Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) and subsequently into the Snake River and to evaluate the effects of these wastes on the biota and water quality of Rock Creek. Indus...

12

1. Upstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Upstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking east (Overflow weir right, diversion section into Irrigation District Canal to left) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

13

Sediment discharge in Rock Creek and the effect of sedimentation rate on the proposed Rock Creek Reservoir, northwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment data collected from 1976 to 1985 and stream discharge data collected from 1952 to 1980 at gaging station 09060500, Rock Creek near Toponas, Colorado, were used to determine total sediment discharge into the proposed Rock Creek Reservoir. Suspended sediment discharge and bedload discharge were related to stream discharge by using logarithmic regression relations. Mean annual suspended sediment discharge was estimated to be 309 tons/yr, and mean annual bedload discharge was estimated to be 428 tons/yr in Rock Creek at the Toponas gaging station for the 1953 through 1980 water years. The mean annual total sediment discharge into the proposed reservoir was estimated to be 768 tons/yr, which includes 10% addition to the suspended sediment discharge calculated for the Toponas gaging station to account for suspended sediment discharge from Horse Creek. This rate of mean annual total sediment discharge would decrease the long-term water storage capacity of the proposed reservoir by < 1% after 100 years. Suspended sediment discharge/unit-drainage-basin area at gaging station 09060550, Rock Creek at Crater, located about 5 mi downstream for the proposed reservoir site, was equivalent to suspended-sediment discharge/unit-drainage-basin area at the Toponas gaging station during 1985. Long-term sediment data collection at the Crater gaging station could be used for detecting changes in suspended sediment discharge in Rock Creek at the proposed reservoir site. (Author 's abstract)

Butler, D. L.

1987-01-01

14

76 FR 10938 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Actions on Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction: Clackamas County, OR...project, Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction, Clackamas County, Oregon...587-4716. The Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction Final Environmental...

2011-02-28

15

33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. 208.29 Section 208...Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation...produce flows in excess of bankfull on Rock Creek downstream of the lake and on...

2013-07-01

16

33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. 208.29 Section 208...Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation...produce flows in excess of bankfull on Rock Creek downstream of the lake and on...

2010-07-01

17

33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. 208.29 Section 208...Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation...produce flows in excess of bankfull on Rock Creek downstream of the lake and on...

2011-07-01

18

33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. 208.29 Section 208...Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation...produce flows in excess of bankfull on Rock Creek downstream of the lake and on...

2012-07-01

19

SOUTHERN ROCK MUSICIANS' CONSTRUCTION OF WHITE TRASH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on interviews, song lyrics, websites, and observation of concerts, we examine how southern rock musicians construct themselves as poor, rural, white men. While popular culture often uses negative stereotypes to degrade poor whites, we show how southern rock musicians reclaim what they view as positive attributes of \\

Jason T. Eastman; Douglas P. Schrock

20

2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

21

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA WITH INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD SEEN IN UPPER LEFT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

22

Water quality monitoring report for the White Oak Creek Embayment  

SciTech Connect

Water quality monitoring activities that focused on the detection of resuspended sediments in the Clinch River were conducted in conjunction with the White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE) time-critical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to construct a sediment-retention structure at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC). Samples were collected by use of a 24-h composite sampler and through real-time water grab sampling of sediment plumes generated by the construction activities. Sampling stations were established both at the WOC mouth, immediately adjacent to the construction site, and at K-1513, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site drinking water intake approximately 9.6 km downstream in the Clinch River. Results are described.

Ford, C.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Wefer, M.T. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

1993-01-01

23

75 FR 55539 - Crooked Creek Reservoir Repair; White River National Forest, Eagle County, CO  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service Crooked Creek Reservoir Repair; White River National Forest, Eagle County...project on the Sopris Ranger District of the White River National Forest was published in...CONTACT: Cary Pence, Forest Engineer, White River National Forest, 900 Grand...

2010-09-13

24

Quality of surface and ground water in the White Creek and Mossy Creek watersheds, White County, Georgia, 1992-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface- and ground-water quality data were collected and evaluated from streams and wells in the White Creek and Mossy Creek watersheds in White County, Georgia, during three sampling periods in 1992 and 1993, to identify stream reaches and wells affected by nonpoint-source contaminants. Livestock operations in these watersheds account for approximately 9.8 million tons of manure per year, which is spread over about 5,000 acres of pasture and cropland in the watersheds. White Creek and Mossy Creek are tributaries of the Chattahoochee River which flows into Lake Sidney Lanier. Lake Sidney Lanier and the Chattahoochee River downstream from the lake are the primary sources of drinking water for the Atlanta Metropolitan area and numerous smaller communities downstream of Atlanta. Water samples were collected from 31 stream sites during baseflow and stormwater-runoff conditions and from 8 shallow wells completed in the regolith and 16 deeper wells completed in the crystalline bedrock. All water samples were analyzed for the nutrients ammonia, nitrite plus nitrate, and orthophosphate. None of the surface-water samples from either sampling period had concentrations of these constituents that exceed the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division (EPD), drinking-water standards. Generally, in both watersheds, the streamwater temperature was cool, specific conductance low, dissolved oxygen high, and pH near neutral. Ground-water samples collected from 8 shallow regolith wells and the 16 deep bedrock wells had nutrient concentrations below EPD drinking-water standards, except for two of the deep bedrock wells with nitrite plus nitrate concentrations slightly above the 10 mg/L drinking-water standard of EPD.

Peck, Michael F.; Garrett, Jerry W.

1994-01-01

25

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM, 1987 ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Goals of the Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) Rural Clean Water Program are to significantly reduce the amount of sediment, sediment related pollutants, and animal waste discharging into Rock Creek. Weekly water quality sampling was done through the irrigation season (April - Octobe...

26

9. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD INDICATING CULVERT LOCATION (SEE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD INDICATING CULVERT LOCATION (SEE ROAD ANGLE POINT ON RIGHT) WITH LATROBE RD, INTERSECTION IN DISTANCE (LEFT OF CENTER); VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

27

3. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD FROM THE INTERSECTION OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD FROM THE INTERSECTION OF HIDDEN RIVER WAY (LEFT FOREGROUND) TOWARD ELEVATED INTERSECTION WITH LATROBE ROAD (AT RIGHT HORIZON); VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

28

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM COMPREHENSIVE WATER QUALITY MONITORING ANNUAL REPORT 1989  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents progress on for the Rock Creek Rural Clean Water Program, Twin Falls County, Idaho (17040212), initiated in 1981. Results through 1988 suggest that Best Management Practices (BMPs) implemented under the program have improved water quality in the creek. BMP...

29

Spawning Behavior of the Shorthead Redhorse, Moxostoma macrolepidotum, in Big Rock Creek, Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shorthead redhorse were observed spawning on 17 and 18 May 1976 in Big Rock Creek, Illinois, at 16 C in a manner similar to that described for other redhorse species. Spawning behavior and reproductive characteristics are described for the species.

Brooks M. Burr; Michael A. Morris

1977-01-01

30

White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed [sup 137]Cs concentrations [> 10[sup 6] Bq/kg dry wt (> 10[sup 4] pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of [sup 137]Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h[sup 1] 1 m above the soil surface.

Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

1993-01-01

31

Rock Climbers in Indian Creek, Utah: The Next Environmental Menace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highway 211 in southeastern Utah is a spur that leads you through the Indian Creek Valley and west to the Needles District of Canyonlands National Park. It is a lonely road, or at least it used to be, whose path skirts the north foothills of the Abajo Mountains, and catches up with Indian Creek as it carves down through the

Amelia Patterson

32

Simulation of contaminated sediment transport in White Oak Creek basin  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a systematic approach to management of the contaminated sediments in the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The primary contaminant of concern is radioactive cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), which binds to soil and sediment particles. The key components in the approach include an intensive sampling and monitoring system for flood events; modeling of hydrological processes, sediment transport, and contaminant flux movement; and a decision framework with a detailed human health risk analysis. Emphasis is placed on modeling of watershed rainfall-runoff and contaminated sediment transport during flooding periods using the Hydrologic Simulation Program- Fortran (HSPF) model. Because a large number of parameters are required in HSPF modeling, the major effort in the modeling process is the calibration of model parameters to make simulation results and measured values agree as closely as possible. An optimization model incorporating the concepts of an expert system was developed to improve calibration results and efficiency. Over a five-year simulation period, the simulated flows match the observed values well. Simulated total amount of sediment loads at various locations during storms match with the observed values within a factor of 1.5. Simulated annual releases of {sup 137}Cs off-site locations match the data within a factor of 2 for the five-year period. The comprehensive modeling approach can provide a valuable tool for decision makers to quantitatively analyze sediment erosion, deposition, and transport; exposure risk related to radionuclides in contaminated sediment; and various management strategies.

Bao, Y.; Clapp, R.B.; Brenkert, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moore, T.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fontaine, T.A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)

1995-12-31

33

Monitoring and modeling contaminated sediment transport in the White Oak Creek watershed. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 47 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of the White Oak Creek drainage system. The containments presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in White Oak Creek. During floods, the erosion of these sediments results in the transport of contaminants out of the catchment into the Clinch River. A long-term strategy is required to monitor the movement of contaminated sediments and to predict the transport of these sediments that could occur during major floods. A monitoring program will provide the information required to (1) evaluate the existing off-site transport of contaminated sediments, (2) evaluate the need for short-term control measures, (3) set priorities for remediation of contaminated areas in White Oak Creek (4) verify the success of completed remedial actions intended to control the movement of contaminated sediments, and (5) develop a computer model to simulate the transport of contaminated sediments in White Oak Creek. A contaminant-transport model will be developed to (1) evaluate the potential for the off-site transport of contaminated sediments during major floods, (2) develop long term control measures and remediation solutions, (3) predict the impact of future land-use changes in White Oak Creek on the transport of contaminated sediment. This report contains a plan for the monitoring and modeling activities required to accomplish these objectives.

Fontaine, T.A.

1991-11-01

34

Monitoring and modeling contaminated sediment transport in the White Oak Creek watershed  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 47 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of the White Oak Creek drainage system. The containments presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in White Oak Creek. During floods, the erosion of these sediments results in the transport of contaminants out of the catchment into the Clinch River. A long-term strategy is required to monitor the movement of contaminated sediments and to predict the transport of these sediments that could occur during major floods. A monitoring program will provide the information required to (1) evaluate the existing off-site transport of contaminated sediments, (2) evaluate the need for short-term control measures, (3) set priorities for remediation of contaminated areas in White Oak Creek (4) verify the success of completed remedial actions intended to control the movement of contaminated sediments, and (5) develop a computer model to simulate the transport of contaminated sediments in White Oak Creek. A contaminant-transport model will be developed to (1) evaluate the potential for the off-site transport of contaminated sediments during major floods, (2) develop long term control measures and remediation solutions, (3) predict the impact of future land-use changes in White Oak Creek on the transport of contaminated sediment. This report contains a plan for the monitoring and modeling activities required to accomplish these objectives.

Fontaine, T.A.

1991-11-01

35

Giant desiccation fissures on the Black Rock and Smoke Creek Deserts, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Open fissures, from 100 to several hundred feet apart, that have produced polygonal patterns on the Black Rock Desert, Nevada, are believed to be giant desiccation cracks resulting from a secular trend toward aridity in the last few decades. Similar features on the Smoke Creek Desert probably have the same origin.

Willden, R.; Mabey, D.R.

1961-01-01

36

UPPER ROCK CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1976-1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality samples were collected monthly at 2 stations on Upper Rock Creek in Twin Falls and Cassia Counties, Idaho (17040212) from July 1975 through August 1977. Most parameters were within Idaho Water Quality Standards at the Sawtooth Forest Service boundary wIth the excep...

37

Chemical and isotopic studies of granitic Archean rocks, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming: Uranium-thorium-lead systematics of an Archean granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic analyses of apparently unaltered whole-rock samples of a granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyo., yield a lead-lead isochron age of 2730 {plus minus} 35 Ma, which is somewhat older than the age obtained by the rubidium-strontium whole-rock method. Thorium-lead data for the same samples deviate markedly from an isochronal relation; however, calculated initial ²°⁸Pb\\/²°⁴Pb ratios correlate with whole-rock

J. S. Stuckless; I. T. Nkomo; K. A. Butt

1986-01-01

38

Chemical and isotopic studies of granitic Archean rocks, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming: Geochronology of an Archean granite, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubidium-strontium analyses of whole-rock samples of an Archean granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyo., indicate an intrusive age of 2640 {plus minus} 125 Ma. Muscovite-bearing samples give results suggesting that these samples were altered about 2300 Ma. This event may have caused extensive strontium loss from the rocks as potassium feldspar was altered to muscovite. Alteration was highly localized

C. E. Hedge; K. R. Simmons; J. S. Stuckless

1986-01-01

39

Water quality monitoring report for the White Oak Creek Embayment. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Water quality monitoring activities that focused on the detection of resuspended sediments in the Clinch River were conducted in conjunction with the White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE) time-critical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to construct a sediment-retention structure at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC). Samples were collected by use of a 24-h composite sampler and through real-time water grab sampling of sediment plumes generated by the construction activities. Sampling stations were established both at the WOC mouth, immediately adjacent to the construction site, and at K-1513, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site drinking water intake approximately 9.6 km downstream in the Clinch River. Results are described.

Ford, C.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wefer, M.T. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1993-01-01

40

Adoption in rock and white-tailed ptarmigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reports of adoption in birds are widespread, but few studies report rates of adoption or possible mechanisms for this phenomenon, particularly in the Order Galliformes. We report incidents of adoption in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. leucura) from two sites in western Canada. Adoption rates for White-tailed Ptarmigan on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Ruby Ranges, Yukon Territory were 13% (n = 16 broods) and 4% (n = 27), respectively, while rates for Rock Ptarmigan were 14% (n = 29) in the Ruby Ranges. Low brood densities may result in lower rates of adoption for ptarmigan. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

Wong, M. M. L.; Fedy, B. C.; Wilson, S.; Martin, K. M.

2009-01-01

41

Surface Water Chemistry in White Oak Creek, North-East Texas: Effect of Land Use  

E-print Network

-catchments ....................................................... 46 Figure 10 A) Fluoride and B) chloride concentrations of samples taken from the White Oak Creek sub-catchments ............................................................. 48 Figure 11 Sulfate concentrations of samples taken from... as aggregated particles. While bedload and coarse-grained sediment does not contribute to major water chemistry concerns, it can cause channel aggradations, reducing flow capacity that can 3 lead to flooding, navigational problems, and channel instability...

Watson, Eliza

2012-02-14

42

Extent and bioavailability of trace metal contamination due to acid rock drainage in Pennask Creek, British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pennask Creek is one of the most important rainbow trout producing streams in British Columbia (BC). Much of the Pennask Creek watershed is located within a BC Parks Protected Area, which was set aside to protect the spawning and rearing habitat of this wild rainbow trout population. Construction of Highway 97C, which bisects the Pennask Creek watershed, resulted in the exposure of a highly pyritic rock formation, which began releasing acid rock drainage and causing metals to be leached into Highway Creek, a tributary of Pennask Creek. Previous studies commissioned by the BC Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure indicate that Highway Creek yields fewer invertebrates and elevated levels of some metals in the water when compared with downstream sites in Pennask Creek. This study examines the impacts of this acid rock drainage and metal leaching by determining the extent of trace metal contamination in the water and sediments of the Pennask Creek watershed and determining the bioavailability of these trace metals. Preliminary results indicate concentrations of Al, Cu, and Zn in the water as well as levels of total As, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn in the sediments that are above the BC Water and Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life. The highest level of trace metal contamination is found in Highway Creek, downstream of Highway 97C, with concentrations generally returning to near background levels downstream of the confluence with Pennask Creek. Levels of Cu in the water and Zn in the sediments appear to be of greatest concern in areas furthest from the highway.

Walls, L. D.; Li, L. Y.; Hall, K. J.

2010-05-01

43

Multidimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Dispersion of White Oak Creek Contaminants in the Clinch River  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the simulation of the dispersion and dilution of dissolved or finely suspended contaminants entering the Clinch river from White Oak Creek. The work is accomplished through the application of a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. This study assumes that contaminants originating in the White Oak Creed watershed, which drains Oak Ridge National Laboratory, will eventually reach the mouth of White Oak Creek and be discharged into the clinch River. The numerical model was developed to support the analysis of the off-site consequences of releases from the ORNL liquid low-level waste system. The system contains storage tanks and transfer lines in Bethel Valley and Melton Valley. Under certain failure modes, liquid low-level waste could be released to White Oak Creek or Melton Branch to White Oak Creek and eventually be discharged to the Clinch River. Since the Clinch River has unrestricted access by the public and water usage from the Clinch River is not controlled by the Department of Energy, such a liquid low-level waste spill would create the possibility of public exposure to the contaminant. This study is limited to the dispersion of the contaminants downstream of the confluence of White Oak Creek.

Platfoot, J.H.; Wendel, M.W.; Williams, P.T.

1996-10-01

44

White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure: The Oak Ridge model in action  

SciTech Connect

White Oak Creek is the major surface-water drainage through the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium-137, and lower levels of Cobalt-60 in near-surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBS. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) agreed to initiate a time-critical removal action in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work.

Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmel, B.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Page, D.G.; Hudson, G.R. (USDOE Oak Ridge Field Office, TN (United States)); Wilkerson, R.B. (MK-Ferguson Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Zocolla, M. (Corps of Engineers, Nashville, TN (United States). Nashville District); Kauschinger, J.L. (Ground Engineering Services, Manchester, NH (United States))

1992-01-01

45

White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure: The Oak Ridge model in action  

SciTech Connect

White Oak Creek is the major surface-water drainage through the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium-137, and lower levels of Cobalt-60 in near-surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBS. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) agreed to initiate a time-critical removal action in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work.

Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmel, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Page, D.G.; Hudson, G.R. [USDOE Oak Ridge Field Office, TN (United States); Wilkerson, R.B. [MK-Ferguson Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zocolla, M. [Corps of Engineers, Nashville, TN (United States). Nashville District; Kauschinger, J.L. [Ground Engineering Services, Manchester, NH (United States)

1992-12-01

46

Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks and their use in dating Mesozoic and Tertiary structures in the southern Deep Creek range, Nevada and Utah  

SciTech Connect

Lower Eocene White Sage Formation and upper Eocene volcanic rocks are used to date Mesozoic to middle-Tertiary structures in and near the Goshute Indian Reservation, southern Deep Creek Range. Outcrops of conglomerate, limestone, and dolomite that are correlated with the White Sage type section at Gold Hill are scarce and confined to the eastern part of the map area. Voluminous volcanic rocks (39.5-- 39 Ma) are exposed in the western part of the map area. The relationships between these structures and the lower and upper Eocene rocks indicate that the attenuation faults are Paleocene or older, the broad folds are early to late Eocene, and the high-angle faults are post-late Eocene. Low-angle attenuation faults are most prominent at the Pennsylvanian Ely Limestone-Mississippian Chainman Shale contact, at the Mississippian-Devonian Pilot Shale-Devonian Guilmette Formation contact, and at the top of the Ordovician Eureka Quartzite. The White Sage overlies an attenuated section of Pilot Shale and Guilmette, establishing that the faults are pre-early Eocene. Deposition of White Sage on both Pennsylvanian and Devonian rocks indicates that by early Eocene time the attenuated Paleozoic rocks had been deeply eroded. Broad, N-NE-trending folds deform the White Sage and older rocks but are overlain unconformably by a 39.5-Ma basal tuff, restricting the age of folding to the middle Eocene. Deformation of this age has also been documented at Gold Hill and on the east side of the Elko Basin. Erosion followed folding and stripped the White Sage from most of the area. High-angle, down-to-the-west faults cut all Eocene rocks and are therefore younger than about 39 Ma. Near the southern boundary of the Reservation, the faults die out, and, where present, become near bedding-parallel in moderately to steeply dipping and thinly bedded rocks. These faults can be distinguished from the older attenuation faults by their association with numerous, small-scale, listic normal faults.

Nutt, C.J.; Thorman, C.H. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-04-01

47

Analyses of geochemical samples and descriptions of rock samples, Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas, Clay County, Alabama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semiquantitative spectrographic analyses for 31 elements on 105 rocks, 47 stream-sediment, and 70 soil samples from the Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas and vicinity, Talladega National Forest, Clay County, Alabama are reported here in detail. Atomic-absorption analyses for zinc in all samples and for gold in 5 selected rock samples are also reported. Localities for all sables are given in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. A brief description of each rock sample is included. Rocks analyzed include quartzite, phyllite, vein quartz, and schist.

Erickson, M.S.; Hanley, J.T.; Kelley, D.L.; Sherlock, L.J.

1983-01-01

48

Overview of the Lithophile Element-Bearing Magmatic-Hydrothermal System at Birch Creek, White Mountains, California  

E-print Network

aplite formation. Hydrothermal features developed concurrently with each of these events. Field relations9 Overview of the Lithophile Element-Bearing Magmatic-Hydrothermal System at Birch Creek, White of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 Abstract A large lithophile element-bearing hydrothermal system

Barton, Mark D.

49

White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed {sup 137}Cs concentrations [> 10{sup 6} Bq/kg dry wt (> 10{sup 4} pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of {sup 137}Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h{sup 1} 1 m above the soil surface.

Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

1993-01-01

50

White Oak Creek watershed: Melton Valley area Remedial Investigation report, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes A and B  

SciTech Connect

This document contains Appendixes A ``Source Inventory Information for the Subbasins Evaluated for the White Oak Creek Watershed`` and B ``Human Health Risk Assessment for White Oak Creek / Melton Valley Area`` for the remedial investigation report for the White Oak Creek Watershed and Melton Valley Area. Appendix A identifies the waste types and contaminants for each subbasin in addition to the disposal methods. Appendix B identifies potential human health risks and hazards that may result from contaminants present in the different media within Oak Ridge National Laboratory sites.

NONE

1996-11-01

51

Isotopic composition of ice cores and meltwater from upper fremont glacier and Galena Creek rock glacier, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Meltwater runoff from glaciers can result from various sources, including recent precipitation and melted glacial ice. Determining the origin of the meltwater from glaciers through isotopic analysis can provide information about such things as the character and distribution of ablation on glaciers. A 9.4 m ice core and meltwater were collected in 1995 and 1996 at the glacigenic Galena Creek rock glacier in Wyoming's Absaroka Mountains. Measurements of chlorine-36 (36Cl), tritium (3H), sulphur-35 (35S), and delta oxygen-18 (??18O) were compared to similar measurements from an ice core taken from the Upper Fremont Glacier in the Wind River Range of Wyoming collected in 1991-95. Meltwater samples from three sites on the rock glacier yielded 36Cl concentrations that ranged from 2.1 ?? 1.0 X 106 to 5.8??0.3 X 106 atoms/l. The ice-core 36Cl concentrations from Galena Creek ranged from 3.4??0.3 X 105 to 1.0??0.1 X 106 atoms/l. Analysis of an ice core from the Upper Fremont Glacier yielded 36Cl concentrations of 1.2??0.2 X 106 and 5.2??0.2 X 106 atoms/l for pre- 1940 ice and between 2 X 106 and 3 X 106 atoms/l for post-1980 ice. Purdue's PRIME Lab analyzed the ice from the Upper Fremont Glacier. The highest concentration of 36Cl in the ice was 77 ?? 2 X 106 atoms/l and was deposited during the peak of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the late 1950s. This is an order of magnitude greater than the largest measured concentration from both the Upper Fremont Glacier ice core that was not affected by weapons testing fallout and the ice core collected from the Galena Creek rock glacier. Tritium concentrations from the rock glacier ranged from 9.2??0.6 to 13.2??0.8 tritium units (TU) in the meltwater to -1.3??1.3 TU in the ice core. Concentrations of 3H in the Upper Fremont Glacier ice core ranged from 0 TU in the ice older than 50 years to 6-12 TU in the ice deposited in the last 10 years. The maximum 3H concentration in ice from the Upper Fremont Glacier deposited in the early 1960s during peak weapons testing fallout for this isotope was 360 TU. One meltwater sample from the rock glacier was analyzed for 35S with a measured concentration of 5.4??1.0 millibecquerel per liter (mBeq/l). Modern precipitation in the Rocky Mountains contains 35S from 10 to 40 mBeq/L. The ??18O results in meltwater from the Galena Creek rock glacier (-17.40??0.1 to -17.98??0.1 per mil) are similar to results for modern precipitation in the Rocky Mountains. Comparison of these isotopic concentrations from the two glaciers suggest that the meltwater at the Galena Creek site is composed mostly of melted snow and rain that percolates through the rock debris that covers the glacier. Additionally, this water from the rock debris is much younger (less than two years) than the reported age of about 2000 years for the subsurface ice at the mid-glacier coring site. Thus the meltwater from the Galena Creek rock glacier is composed primarily of melted surface snow and rain water rather than melted glacier ice, supporting previous estimates of slow ablation rates beneath the surface debris of the rock glacier.

DeWayne, Cecil L.; Green, J.R.; Vogt, S.; Michel, R.; Cottrell, G.

1998-01-01

52

Surface radiological investigations at two creek receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

A surface radiological investigation was conducted intermittently from August 1992 July 1993 at two creeks receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard. In this report, the two creeks (both unnamed tributaries of Bear Creek) are, referred to as the east creek and the west creek based on their respective locations relative to White Wing Scrap Yard. The radiological survey of accessible areas at the east creek revealed no detectable gamma exposure rates above typical background levels (8 to 12 {mu}R/h). The very slight elevations in gamma and beta-gamma levels found along the creek were generally associated with outcroppings of shale and typical of naturally occurring radionuclides present in such material. No radiological anomalies were associated with an oily sheen observed on the water at three locations, three 55-gal metal drums in or near the creek, a small pile of metal debris near the creek, or several enclosures used in a 1969 study of animal excretion rates. Radionuclide analysis of three soil samples collected at the east creek demonstrated typical of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, and {sup 40}K.

Uziel, M.S.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

1994-02-01

53

Comagmatic contact relationships between the Rock Creek Gabbro and Round Valley Peak granodiorite, central Sierra Nevada, CA  

SciTech Connect

The Rock Creek Gabbro (RCG) in Little Lakes Valley, near Tom's Place, CA abuts three granodiorites with distinctive contact characteristics. Against within a cm in most places. The contact with Round Valley Peak (RVP) on the north, however, is a zone at least 3 km wide and records a mode of mafic magmatic enclave formation. A northward traverse of the zone begins 300--400 m within the RCG with progressively lighter, though still uniform rock. Next is a 100--200m wide jumble of sharp-edged angular 10--30m gabbroic xenoliths, variable in grainsize and plastic deformation and interspersed with stretched partially disaggregated enclaves in normal RVP granodiorite. Xenoliths are essentially absent from the RVP from here north; stretched enclaves with very consistent strikes paralleling (within 20[degree]) the mapped RCG-RVP contact and high angle dips (70--90[degree]), occur singly and in dense swarms and fall from 4% to 0.5% of outcrop area in the remaining traverse. Rock Creek gabbros including xenoliths at the contact cluster chemically with RVP enclaves on all major and trace element plots, suggesting a common parentage; some of each group show evidence of plagioclase flotation. Trace element data (esp. Zr/Nb) suggests that fractional crystallization dominates mixing in the evolution of the gabbroic/enclave magma.

Christensen, C.C.; Bown, C.J. (Hampshire College, Amherst, MA (United States). School of Natural Science)

1993-03-01

54

Mixing Model Analysis of Suspended Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Sources in White Clay Creek, Pennsylvania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Material exports from watersheds have consequences to upstream catchment elemental budgets, downstream ecosystem processes and water resources management. Despite this importance, quantifying exports of all major and trace elements associated with suspended sediments is challenging due to the highly episodic nature of that export. Constraining sediment sources using various mixing model approaches is further complicated by the diversity of potential sources. In this study, we leveraged the infrastructure of the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory (CRB-CZO) to collect large volume (200 L) samples from 17 storms, including some of the biggest storms of the decade (i.e. Hurricane Irene and Sandy), and 95 potential source soils and sediments within the White Clay Creek watershed, a third-order watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania. On all samples we analyzed major and minor elements, rare earth elements, and radioisotopes in order to determine the erosional source category of stream suspended material, such that differences in the chemical composition of source materials can be used in a multivariate statistical model to predict the chemical composition of suspended sediment. For example, 137Cs is higher in surface and near-surface terrestrial soils and low in streambanks, deeper soils, road cuts, and road dust. Elemental chromium is much higher in road dust than any other source. We integrate sediment fingerprinting analyses common in geomorphological studies of mineral suspended material with biological and ecological characterizations of particulate organic carbon. Through this combination, we determine particle source, a necessary first step to calculating the amount of excess carbon that has complexed with particles during erosion and transit through the watershed. This interdisciplinary project is conducted as one of many studies in the CRB-CZO and directly contributes to the overall research focus of this CZO: to quantify the net carbon sink or source due to mineral production, weathering, erosion and deposition as materials are transported and transformed across geophysical boundaries within a dynamic watershed.

Karwan, D. L.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Aalto, R. E.; Marquard, J.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Newbold, J. D.

2013-12-01

55

Selenium and Other Elements in Water and Adjacent Rock and Sediment of Toll Gate Creek, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, December 2003 through March 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streamwater and solid samples (rock, unconsolidated sediment, stream sediment, and efflorescent material) in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Colorado, were collected and analyzed for major and trace elements to determine trace-element concentrations and stream loads from December 2003 through March 2004, a period of seasonally low flow. Special emphasis was given to selenium (Se) concentrations because historic Se concentrations exceeded current (2004) stream standards. The goal of the project was to assess the distribution of Se concentration and loads in Toll Gate Creek and to determine the potential for rock and unconsolidated sediment in the basin to be sources of Se to the streamwater. Streamwater samples and discharge measurements were collected during December 2003 and March 2004 along Toll Gate Creek and its two primary tributaries - West Toll Gate Creek and East Toll Gate Creek. During both sampling periods, discharge ranged from 2.5 liters per second to 138 liters per second in the watershed. Discharge was greater in March 2004 than December 2003, but both periods represent low flow in Toll Gate Creek, and results of this study should not be extended to periods of higher flow. Discharge decreased moving downstream in East Toll Gate Creek but increased moving downstream along West Toll Gate Creek and the main stem of Toll Gate Creek, indicating that these two streams gain flow from ground water. Se concentrations in streamwater samples ranged from 7 to 70 micrograms per liter, were elevated in the upstream-most samples, and were greater than the State stream standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter. Se loads ranged from 6 grams per day to 250 grams per day, decreased in a downstream direction along East Toll Gate Creek, and increased in a downstream direction along West Toll Gate Creek and Toll Gate Creek. The largest Se-load increases occurred between two sampling locations on West Toll Gate Creek during both sampling periods and between the two sampling locations on the main stem of Toll Gate Creek during the December 2003 sampling. These load increases may indicate that sources of Se exist between these two locations; however, Se loading along West Toll Gate Creek and Toll Gate Creek primarily was characterized by gradual downstream increases in load. Linear regressions between Se load and discharge for both sampling periods had large, significant values of r2 (r2 > 0.96, p < 0.0001) because increases in Se load (per unit of flow increase) were generally constant. This relation is evidence for a constant addition of water having a relatively constant Se concentration over much of the length of Toll Gate Creek, a result which is consistent with a ground-water source for the Se loads. Rock outcroppings along the stream were highly weathered, and Se concentrations in rock and other solid samples ranged from below detection (1 part per million) to 25 parts per million. One sample of efflorescence (a surface encrustation produced by evaporation) had the greatest selenium concentration of all solid samples, was composed of thenardite (sodium sulfate), gypsum (calcium sulfate) and minor halite (sodium chloride), and released all of its Se during a 30-minute water-leaching procedure. Calculations indicate there was an insufficient amount of this material present throughout the watershed to account for the observed Se load in the stream. However, this material likely indicates zones of ground-water discharge that contain Se. This report did not identify an unequivocal source of Se in Toll Gate Creek. However, multiple lines of evidence indicate that ground-water discharge supplies Se to Toll Gate Creek: (1) the occurrence of elevated Se concentrations in the stream throughout the watershed and in the headwater regions, upstream from industrial sources; (2) the progressive increase in Se loads moving downstream, which indicates a continuous input of Se along the stream rather than input from point sources; (3) the occurr

Herring, J. R.; Walton-Day, Katherine

2007-01-01

56

A Long-term Reach-Scale Monitoring Network for Riparian Evapotranspiration, Rock Creek, Kansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riparian evapotranspiration (RET) is an important component of basin-wide evapotranspiration (ET), especially in subhumid to semi-arid regions, with significant impact on water management and conservation. In narrow riparian zones, typical of much of the subhumid to semi-arid U.S., direct measurement of RET by eddy correlation is precluded by the limited fetch distance of riparian vegetation. Alternative approaches based on water balance analyses have a long history, but their accuracy is not well understood. Factors such as heterogeneity in soil properties and root distributions, and sparse measurements, introduce uncertainties in RET estimates. As part of a larger effort aimed at improving understanding of basin-wide RET using scaling theories, we installed a continuous monitoring system for water balance estimation at the scale of a single (~100 m long) reach along Rock Creek in the Whitewater Basin in central Kansas. The distinguishing features of this site include a vadose zone with fine-grained soils underlain by a phreatic zone of coarse gravel embedded in clay, overlying karst bedrock. Across the width (~40 m) of the riparian zone, we installed one transect of four wells screened at the bottom of the alluvium (6-7 m depth), each accompanied by a soil moisture profiler with capacitance sensors at 4 vertical levels above the local water-table elevation (~2.5 m depth) and a shallow well screened just below the water table. All wells were instrumented with pressure transducers for monitoring water levels. Additional sets of all sensors were installed at the upstream and downstream ends of the study reach. Initial results from the monitoring network suggest significant complexities in the behavior of the subsurface system at the site, including a high degree of heterogeneity. All deep wells show a rapid response to streamflow variations and nearby pumping. However, the shallow water-table wells do not respond rapidly to either. Both the shallow wells and soil moisture sensors record diurnal fluctuations in response to RET during the growing season. The soil moisture sensors at depths less than 1 m respond rapidly to precipitation events. The piezometric head in the bedrock and deep alluvial wells is about 0.5 m higher than in the shallow wells, suggesting upward flow across a clay unit that comprises the lower 3-4 m of the alluvium. The hydrology of the system suggests that recharge of soil moisture by precipitation could often be more important than stream-aquifer interaction as a supply of RET. A distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system installed to investigate the spatial variability of groundwater-surface water interaction revealed isolated locations of groundwater seepage into the stream under low flow conditions. These preliminary observations suggest that the bedrock and lower alluvium act like a confined aquifer that is well connected to the stream, while the shallow alluvium acts like an unconfined aquifer recharged by both precipitation and upward leakage from the confined system, and depleted by RET. We also present results from a simplified numerical model to illustrate the controls on water balance.

Rajaram, H.; Solis, J. A.; Whittemore, D. O.; Butler, J. J.; Reboulet, E.; Knobbe, S.; Dealy, M.

2011-12-01

57

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River  

SciTech Connect

On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

1991-09-01

58

CASTLE ROCK FARMERS MARKET OPENS The Castle Rock Farmers Market, aka Plum Creek Valley Farmers Market, will open its  

E-print Network

, and local vendors that sell organic produce and honey. You can purchase all kinds of goodies at the Market of Castle Rock on the Frontage Road (right next to Creekside Bible Church) and maintains 133 acres with Colorado Foundation for Agriculture) CALF is also developing ways to work with the Wellspring Community

Stephens, Graeme L.

59

75 FR 77826 - White River National Forest; Eagle County, CO; Beaver Creek Mountain Improvements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Beaver Creek and Vail Mountain hosted the 1989 and 1999...Currently, the only men's World Cup race venue...requires separate venues for men's and women's Alpine...slalom course on Grouse Mountain. The women's giant...re-grading along the existing men's Birds of Prey...

2010-12-14

60

Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River  

SciTech Connect

As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

Loar, J.M. [ed.] [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico)] [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico); Huq, M.V. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States)] [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States); Meyers-Schone, L.J. [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany)] [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, C.R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.] [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Stout, J.G. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)] [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

1992-12-01

61

Application of a damage model for rock fragmentation to the Straight Creek Mine blast experiments  

SciTech Connect

Early attempts at estimation of stress wave damage due to blasting by use of finite element calculations met with limited success due to numerical instabilities that prevented calculations from being carried past the fragmentation limit. More recently, the improved damage model PRONTO has allowed finite element calculations which remain stable and yield good agreement between calculated fragmented regions and excavated crater profiles for blasting experiments in granite. Application of this damage model to blast experiments at the Straight Creek Mine in Bell County, Kentucky were complicated by anisotropic conditions and uncertainties in material properties. It appears that significant modifications to the damage model and extensive material testing may be necessary in order to estimate damage in these anisotropic materials. 18 refs., 18 figs.

Thorne, B.J.

1991-09-01

62

68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

63

Analytical results for 56 rock, 46 stream-sediment and soil, and 22 panned-concentrate samples from the Welcome Creek Wilderness Study Area, Granite County, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty-six rock, 46 stream-sediment, and 22 panned-concentrate samples were collected from the Welcome Creek Wilderness, Granite County, Montana, during the summers of 1979 and 1980. All samples were analyzed for 31 elements by a six-step semiquantitative emission spectrographic method (Grimes and Marranzino, 1968). All panned concentrate and other selected samples were analyzed for gold by an atomic absorption procedure (Thompson and others, 1968). All rock and stream-sediment samples were also analyzed for Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn by a partial-digestion procedure (Viets and others, 1979). Sample analyses and locations are presented in this report.

Campbell, W. L.; Lee, G. K.; Antweiler, J. C.; Hopkins, R. T.

1983-01-01

64

Paleomagnetism, Paleointensity, and Rock Magnetism of the 9.5 ka volcanics of Sulfur Creek, Mt. Baker, WA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results obtained from an initial study of the paleomagnetism and rock-magnetism of basaltic to basaltic-andesite flows- the volcanics of Sulfur Creek associated with the Mt. Baker composite volcano, in NW Washington State. The age of these rocks are constrained by the ages of 8800 14C yrs BP tephra deposits that underlie the lava flows, and 8500 14C years BP from lahar deposits that overlie the flows (see Tucker and Scott, 2009). For this study, 21 oriented samples were collected from 3 sites located along a 100 m wide road-cut exposure of the basalts. Thermal and a.f. demagnetization were successful- yielding well-defined magnetization vectors. The characteristic remanence was removed between 140 and 500 C in the majority of the samples. Most of the samples have normal polarity, and yield a combined mean direction from the 3 sites with Dec = 12, Incl = 51, k = 116, ?95 = 11. One sample has an upward-directed characteristic magnetization (D = 178 and Incl = -45) that is essentially antipodal to the directions found in the other samples. Given the age of these rocks, we concluded that a recording of a geomagnetic excursion was not likely. An investigation of the rock-magnetism, mainly of the Curie temperatures, found that the Tc of these rocks is ~540 C, with some samples also having a drop in Ms between 200 and 300 C. To test more definitively for the possibility of self-reversed TRM, we conducted laboratory TRM acquisition experiments on samples from each site- all, including a specimen from the sample with reversed directions, acquired a laboratory TRM that was parallel to the applied field in the oven- ruling out self-reversed TRM. Examination of the NRM intensities found that the sample with reversed direction was markedly more magnetic than the other samples- we thus attribute the anomalous direction to lightning-produced magnetization. Because these samples have well-behaved magnetic properties, we conducted an initial set of paleointensity experiments using the modified Thellier-Thellier method. The samples were heated in an oven with an Ar atmosphere, using steps from 140 to 450 C for the demagnetization and pTRM steps. The results from 9/10 samples yielded well-defined linear relationships between the NRM demagnetization and pTRM gain, over the range from 140 to 400 C. Using 6 to 7 temperature steps, best-fit lines were used to estimate the paleointensity of the geomagnetic field, obtaining a paleofield of 35.1 +/- 6 ?T. We conclude that the apparently reversed polarity direction found in one portion of the lava flow we sampled may suggest a note of caution in the use of NRMs (especially measured in the field using a portable magnetometer) to map and correlate among different volcanic flows, or in investigations that use small numbers of samples to define magnetic polarity. Finally, the basaltic flows of Mt. Baker have well-behaved magnetizations- this suggests that these and other similar Holocene volcanics in the Cascades Arc may be attractive targets of full-vector investigations of the geomagnetic field in this region.

Housen, B. A.; Burmester, R. F.; Deboer, C. J.; Hart, A.; Mcguire, Z. J.; Novak, B.; Zyczynski, J.

2011-12-01

65

Long-term water quality and biological responses to multiple best management practices in Rock Creek, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality and macroinvertebrate assemblage data from 1981 to 2005 were assessed to evaluate the water quality and biological responses of a western trout stream to the implementation of multiple best management practices (BMPs) on irrigated cropland. Data from Rock Creek near Twin Falls, Idaho, a long-term monitoring site, were assembled from state and federal sources to provide the evaluation. Seasonal loads of the nonpoint source pollutants suspended sediment (SS), total phosphorus (TP), and nitrate-nitrite (NN) were estimated using a regression model with time-series streamflow data and constituent concentrations. Trends in the macroinvertebrate assemblages were evaluated using a number of biological metrics and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination. Regression analysis found significant annual decreases in TP and SS flow-adjusted concentrations during the BMP implementation period from 1983 to 1990 of about 7 and 10%, respectively. These results are coincident with the implementation of multiple BMPs on about 75% of the irrigated cropland in the watershed. Macroinvertebrate assemblages during this time also responded with a change in taxa composition resulting in improved biotic index scores. Taxon specific TP and SS optima, empirically derived from a large national dataset, predicted a decrease in SS concentrations of about 37% (52 to 33 mg/l) and a decrease in TP concentrations of about 50% (0.20 to 0.10 mg/l) from 1981 to 1987. Decreasing trends in TP, SS, and NN pollutant loads were primarily the result of naturally low streamflow conditions during the BMP post-implementation period from 1993 to 2005. Trends in macroinvertebrate responses during 1993 to 2005 were confounded by the introduction of the New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which approached densities of 100,000 per m 2 in riffle habitat. The occurrence of this invasive species appears to have caused a major shift in composition and function of the macroinvertebrate assemblages. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

Maret, T.R.; MacCoy, D.E.; Carlisle, D.M.

2008-01-01

66

White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C  

SciTech Connect

This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy`s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings.

NONE

1996-11-01

67

Breeding habitat selection of sympatric White-tailed, Rock and Willow Ptarmigan in the southern Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined breeding habitat selection at two scales for White-tailed (Lagopus leucura), Rock (L. muta), and Willow Ptarmigan (L. lagopus) at an alpine site in the Ruby Range Mountains of the Yukon Territory, Canada. To infer species-specific preferences, we\\u000a used logistic regression and AIC model selection to compare nest habitat of White-tailed (n=43) and Rock Ptarmigan (n=58). Only descriptive statistics

Scott Wilson; Kathy Martin

2008-01-01

68

Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year we are going to learn about rocks. Do you like to collect rocks? Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. So you want to learn about rocks? Go to Intro to Rocks for some fascinating facts about rocks! Now lets learn about some of the different kinds of rocks. Igneous Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Click here to see the differences between the types of rocks that you have learned about What Type Of Rock Do I Have?. After doing all the activities above, ...

Woodruff, Mrs.

2010-06-21

69

DIFFERENTIAL CAPACITY OF WHEAT CULTIVARS AND WHITE LUPIN TO ACQUIRE PHOSPHORUS FROM ROCK PHOSPHATE, PHYTATE AND SOLUBLE PHOSPHORUS SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized varying capacity of two wheat cultivars (Brookton and Krichauff) and white lupin to acquire and utilize phosphorus (P) from different P resources [P0, rock phosphate, composted rock phosphate, phytate and soluble P) at 200 mg P kg soil]. In all three genotypes, shoot P concentration and content were highest in the phytate treatment and lowest in P0. Roots

E. Sepehr; Z. Rengel; E. Fateh; M. R. Sadaghiani

2012-01-01

70

Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River  

SciTech Connect

As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

Loar, J.M. [ed.] [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D. [and others] [and others

1994-03-01

71

Effective porosity and density of carbonate rocks (Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite) within Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation based on modern petrophysical techniques  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative data on effective porosity of carbonate rock from the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite within Bear Creek Valley based on modern petrophysical techniques. The data will be useful for groundwater-flow and contaminant-flow modeling in the vicinity of the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Furthermore, the data provides needed information on the amount of interconnected pore space potentially available for operation of matrix diffusion as a transport process within the fractured carbonate rock. A second aspect of this study is to compare effective porosity data based on modern petrophysical techniques to effective porosity data determined earlier by Goldstrand et al. (1995) with a different technique. An added bonus of the study is quantitative data on the bulk density and grain density of dolostone and limestone of the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite which might find use for geophysical modeling on the ORR.

Dorsch, J.

1997-02-01

72

Landslides and other mass movements near TA-33, northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Massive slump complexes and at least two rock avalanches flank the eastern rim of the Pajarito Plateau along northern White Rock Canyon, north of TA-33. Landslides failed along mechanically weak rocks in the Santa Fe Group, within the Puye Formation, or in Pliocene alluvial and lacustrine units. The landslides are mainly of early or middle Pleistocene age. The toe area of at least,one slump complex has been active in the late Pleistocene, damming White Rock Canyon near the mouth of Water Canyon. Lacustrine sediment that filled this lake, or series of lakes, to an elevation of at least 1710 m is preserved at a number of upstream sites, including a deposit near the Buckman townsite that exposes 30 m of lacustrine sediment. Charcoal collected at several sites has been submitted for {sup 14}C dating. Landslides, however, probably do not represent a significant short-term threat to the material disposal areas at TA-33. Bedrock that lies beneath the TA-33 mesa is relatively stable, the mesa shows no signs of incipient failure, and past periods of slide activity were responses to rapid downcutting of the Rio Grande and climate change, probably over periods of several decades, at least. Rockfall and headward erosion of gullies do not represent significant decadal hazards on canyon rims near TA-33. Gully migration near MDA-K is a potential threat, but the gullies were not examined in detail. A system of north-trending faults, at least one of which displays Pleistocene activity, bisects the TA-33 mesa. If these faults are capable of producing significant seismic shaking, generalizations about landslide and rockfall hazards must be reevaluated.

Dethier, D.P.

1993-09-01

73

Forceful emplacement of the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek composite pluton into a structural basin in eastern California; internal structure and wall rock deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility parameters have been analyzed at 311 locations in the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek (EJB) pluton of eastern California. The large amount of data has allowed for the AMS parameters to be contoured using techniques that both reveal map-scale trends and emphasize small-scale differences. The contour maps suggest that magnetic susceptibility is dominantly controlled by composition of the magma but may also be affected by emplacement-related strain as the magma chamber inflated and forced the wall rocks outward. Pluton construction involved two major pulses of different composition magmas that were emplaced sequentially but with overlapping periods of crystallization. The magmas initially intruded as sill-like bodies into a structural basin. The magnetic foliation of the pluton cuts across internal magmatic contacts on the map scale and is parallel to local contacts between the pluton and surrounding metasedimentary wall rocks. The magnetic fabric is similar in orientation and symmetry to intense flattening strains recorded in the aureole rocks. The metasedimentary wall rocks have been shortened between 60 and 70% and this strain magnitude is approximately equal on the west, south, and east margins of the pluton. Strain in the wall rocks is dominantly flattening and concentrated into a narrow (1 km wide) inner aureole. Mapping of bedding/cleavage intersection lineations south of the pluton indicates that the magma made room for itself by translating the wall rocks outward and rotating the already inward dipping wall rocks of the structural basin to sub-vertical. Stretching of the inner aureole around an expanding magma chamber was responsible for the intense shortening. Limited data on the Marble Canyon pluton to the south of the EJB pluton indicates a very similar emplacement process.

Morgan, Sven; Law, Richard; de Saint Blanquat, Michel

2013-11-01

74

Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others] [and others

1996-05-01

75

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking north - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

76

Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking north - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

77

Elevation view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking west - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

78

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking south - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

79

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking southwest - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

80

Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking south - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

81

Detail perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking southwest - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

82

A First Look at Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data in an Area of Altered Volcanic Rocks and Carbonate Formations, Hot Creek Range, South Central Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three flight lines of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected in 128 bands between 1.2 and 2.4 microns in the Hot Creek Range, Nevada on July 25, 1984. The flight lines are underlain by hydrothermally altered and unaltered Paleozoic carbonates and Tertiary rhyolitic to latitic volcanics in the Tybo mining district. The original project objectives were to discriminate carbonate rocks from other rock types, to distinguish limestone from dolomite, and to discriminate carbonate units from each other using AIS imagery. Because of high cloud cover over the prime carbonate flight line and because of the acquisition of another flight line in altered and unaltered volcanics, the study has been extended to the discrimination of alteration products. In an area of altered and unaltered rhyolites and latites in Red Rock Canyon, altered and unaltered rock could be discriminated from each other using spectral features in the 1.16 to 2.34 micron range. The altered spectral signatures resembled montmorillonite and kaolinite. Field samples were gathered and the presence of montmorillonite was confirmed by X-ray analysis.

Feldman, S. C.; Taranik, J. V.; Mouat, D. A.

1985-01-01

83

Geohydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in the carbonate rocks of the Valley Creek basin, eastern Chester County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sixty-eight percent of the 22.6-square-mile Valley Creek basin is underlain by Cambrian and Ordovician limestone and dolomite. Ground water flows through a network of interconnected secondary openings; primary porosity is virtually nonexistent. Some of these openings have been enlarged by solution. Secondary porosity and permeability exhibit great spatial variability, and the yield and specific capacity of wells are highly variable. The number of water-bearing zones decreases with depth. Fifty percent of water-bearing zones are encountered within 100 feet of the land surface, and 81 percent are within 200 feet. Most ground-water flow in the Valley Creek basin is local and discharges to nearby streams. Ground-water discharge comprised an average of 76 percent of the flow of Valley Creek during 1983--87, including both natural ground- water discharge and quarry pumpage discharged to Valley Creek. Discharge from the Cedar Hollow quarry comprised 21 to 26 percent of the base flow of Valley Creek; the average was 23 percent. The average natural base flow of Valley Creek would be 8 percent lower if the quarry were not operating. Regional ground-water flow is to the northeast to the Schuylkill River. On the western side of the Valley Creek basin, the ground-water divide is 1/2 mile west of the surface-water divide. An estimated 0.75 million gallons per day of ground water flows from the adjacent West Valley Creek basn eastward into the Valley Creek basin. A ground-water divide is not present on the eastern side of the basin; the water table slopes gently eastward toward the Schuylkill River. On the northeaster side, an estimated 1.76 million gallons per day of ground water flows northeastward out of the basin to the Schuylkill River beneath the surface-water divide. On the southeaster side, an estimated 0.85 million gallons per day of ground water flows beneath the surface-water divide into the basin. Annual water budgets and an average water budget were calculated for 1983-87 for the 20.8-square-mile area bove the streamflow-gaging station. Annual precipitation for 1983-87 ranged from 40.61 to 56.55 inches and averaged 47.25 inches; annual streamflow ranged from 15.55 to 28.57 inches and averaged 22.31 inches; annual evapotranspiration ranged from 18.21 to 24.83 inches and averaged 22.90 inches; and annual recharge ranged from 15.89 to 26.84 inches and averaged 21.04 inches. The Valley Creek basin was modeled as a two-dimensional water-table aquifer. Recharge to, ground-water flow through, and discharge from the rocks of Chester valley were simulated. In order to include the natural hydrologic boundaries of the ground-water-flwo system, the 66.4-square-mile area between the Brandywine Creek and the Schuylkill River was modeled. The model was calibrated under stead-state conditions using avareage recharge and evapotranspiration rates. Aquifer hydraulic conductivity was estimated from specific-capacity and quifer-test data. The average (1983-87) annual water budget for hte Valley Creek basin was simualted. The effect of increased ground-water development on base flow and underflow was simulated by locating a hypothetical well field produceing 4 million gallons per day in different parts of the basin. Pumpage from a well field near surface-water divides would induce as much as an additional 1.41 inches per year of underflow from an adjacent surface-water basin. Pumpage from a well field near the center of the basin would affect base flow more than underflow. Increased seepage of ground water into quarries as a result of their expansion was simulated as increased withdrawal by pumping. A 100-percent increase in the pumping rate of the Cedar Hollow quarry, from 3.93 to 7.86 million gallons per day, owuld reduce the natural base flow of Valley Creek by 18 percent. However, the quarry pumpage would be discharged to Valley Creek, thereby increasing the base flow at the gaging station by

Sloto, R.A.

1990-01-01

84

Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River  

SciTech Connect

In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

Loar, J.M. [ed.] [ed.

1994-04-01

85

Epizootiology of Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease in the Rock Creek drainage of west-central Montana: 2004-2008.  

PubMed

Whirling disease, caused by the myxozoan parasite Myxobolus cerebralis , remains a serious health threat to salmonid fish in the western United States. A previously published study on the epizootiology of whirling disease in the Rock Creek watershed of west-central Montana, conducted from 1998 to 2003, showed that the intensity of M. cerebralis infections in sentinel trout increased significantly throughout the drainage and that the range of M. cerebralis had expanded considerably. In addition, the parasite had apparently caused a dramatic decline in rainbow trout densities, but the brown trout population numbers had increased. This earlier study was continued from 2004 to 2008 and the results are reported here. It now appears that the disease intensity may have peaked in 2006 and is on the decline in this watershed. The decline cannot be directly attributed to a change in the prevalence of M. cerebralis-infected Tubifex tubifex, as these numbers remained statistically the same from 1998 to 2008. Similarly, changes in water temperature and water flow do not account for the decrease in disease intensity. However, it is possible that wild rainbow trout are developing resistance to the parasite, a phenomenon recently documented to be occurring in the Willow Creek Reservoir of southwest Montana. PMID:19891515

Granath, Willard O; Vincent, E Richard

2010-04-01

86

Epizootiology of Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease in the Rock Creek drainage of west-central Montana.  

PubMed

Whirling disease, caused by the myxozoan parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, remains a health threat to salmonid fish in the western United States. Although various aspects of this host-parasite system have been studied, investigations examining the overall epizootiology of whirling disease in an ecosystem are lacking. Therefore, in June 1998, studies were initiated in the Rock Creek watershed of west-central Montana and continued through 2003 to assess the intensity of infection in trout using sentinel cages stationed throughout the drainage. Additional studies determined the percentage of the annelid worm, Tubifex tubifex, releasing M. cerebralis at various localities in Rock Creek and whether there was a seasonal or daily periodicity in the release of the triactinomyxon stage of the parasite from T. tubifex. Lastly, habitat and water quality parameters, and the effects of habitat restoration on transmission of M. cerebralis, were assessed. Overall, the intensity of M. cerebralis infections in sentinel trout increased significantly throughout the drainage between June of 1998 and 2003, with the biggest jump occurring between 1998 and 1999. In addition, the range of M. cerebralis expanded considerably over the period of study. There was no strict correlation between habitat condition and the occurrence of the parasite; fish became heavily infected in optimal and marginal habitats. However, fish exposed at a locality that had the lowest habitat ranking consistently had the highest intensity of infection. The parasite has apparently caused a dramatic decline in rainbow trout densities, but the brown trout population numbers have increased, and the overall fish density remains high. Although a major habitat restoration project did not seem to have an effect on decreasing disease intensity, this was not surprising because the restored area was located just downstream from a "hotspot" of infected T. tubifex. PMID:17436949

Granath, Willard O; Gilbert, Michael A; Wyatt-Pescador, Elizabeth J; Vincent, E Richard

2007-02-01

87

Multifractal magnetic susceptibility distribution models of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Needle Creek Igneous Center of the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Magnetic susceptibility was measured for 700 samples of drill core from thirteen drill holes in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit of the Stinkingwater mining district in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. The magnetic susceptibility measurements, chemical analyses, and alteration class provided a database for study of magnetic susceptibility in these altered rocks. The distribution of the magnetic susceptibilities for all samples is multi-modal, with overlapping peaked distributions for samples in the propylitic and phyllic alteration class, a tail of higher susceptibilities for potassic alteration, and an approximately uniform distribution over a narrow range at the highest susceptibilities for unaltered rocks. Samples from all alteration and mineralization classes show susceptibilities across a wide range of values. Samples with secondary (supergene) alteration due to oxidation or enrichment show lower susceptibilities than primary (hypogene) alteration rock. Observed magnetic susceptibility variations and the monolithological character of the host rock suggest that the variations are due to varying degrees of alteration of blocks of rock between fractures that conducted hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of rock from the fractures inward progressively reduces the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the rock. The model introduced in this paper consists of a simulation of the fracture pattern and a simulation of the alteration of the rock between fractures. A multifractal model generated from multiplicative cascades with unequal ratios produces distributions statistically similar to the observed distributions. The reduction in susceptibility in the altered rocks was modelled as a diffusion process operating on the fracture distribution support. The average magnetic susceptibility was then computed for each block. For the purpose of comparing the model results with observation, the simulated magnetic susceptibilities were then averaged over the same interval as the measured data. Comparisons of the model and data from drillholes show good but not perfect agreement. ?? 2005 Author(s). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.

Gettings, M.E.

2005-01-01

88

Multifractal magnetic susceptibility distribution models of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Needle Creek Igneous Center of the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic susceptibility was measured for 700 samples of drill core from thirteen drill holes in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit of the Stinkingwater mining district in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. The magnetic susceptibility measurements, chemical analyses, and alteration class provided a database for study of magnetic susceptibility in these altered rocks. The distribution of the magnetic susceptibilities for all samples is multi-modal, with overlapping peaked distributions for samples in the propylitic and phyllic alteration class, a tail of higher susceptibilities for potassic alteration, and an approximately uniform distribution over a narrow range at the highest susceptibilities for unaltered rocks. Samples from all alteration and mineralization classes show susceptibilities across a wide range of values. Samples with secondary (supergene) alteration due to oxidation or enrichment show lower susceptibilities than primary (hypogene) alteration rock. Observed magnetic susceptibility variations and the monolithological character of the host rock suggest that the variations are due to varying degrees of alteration of blocks of rock between fractures that conducted hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of rock from the fractures inward progressively reduces the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the rock. The model introduced in this paper consists of a simulation of the fracture pattern and a simulation of the alteration of the rock between fractures. A multifractal model generated from multiplicative cascades with unequal ratios produces distributions statistically similar to the observed distributions. The reduction in susceptibility in the altered rocks was modelled as a diffusion process operating on the fracture distribution support. The average magnetic susceptibility was then computed for each block. For the purpose of comparing the model results with observation, the simulated magnetic susceptibilities were then averaged over the same interval as the measured data. Comparisons of the model and data from drillholes show good but not perfect agreement.

Gettings, M. E.

2005-06-01

89

Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show provides basic information on the three major rock types and the rock cycle. Diagrams of the rock cycle explain the processes and changes that connect the three rock types and illustrate how one type can be changed into another. Each of the three types (sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic) are described and illustrated with photographs. Addresses for websites with additional information are also included.

Passow, Michael

90

Petrology of Apollo 15 black-and-white rocks 15445 and 15455 - Fragments of the Imbrium impact melt sheet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes two macroscopically similar black-and-white rocks, 15445 and 15455, which were collected from the rim of Spur Crater on the Apennine Front. The two Apollo 15 rocks are very similar in chemistry and clast population, but the matrix of 15455 is finer grained than that of 15445. The 15445 sample contains a lithic clast assemblage of plutonic/metamorphic spinel troctolite, troctolite, norite, and anorthosite, and its fine-grained vesicular black coherent matrix consists of a melt-bonded aggregate of small mineral clasts which are mainly olivine, plagioclase, and pink spinel. The two rocks are distinct from any other large samples from the Apollo 15 site. It is suggested that the rocks are samples of an impact melt sheet which forms a bedrock unit of the Apennine Front, and that this melt sheet did not form in a local small-scale event but was produced during the Imbrium impact event.

Ryder, G.; Bower, J. F.

1977-01-01

91

The geology and tectonic significance of the Big Creek Gneiss, Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Big Creek Gneiss, southern Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming, is a heterogeneous suite of upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks intruded by post-metamorphic pegmatitic granite. The metamorphic rocks consist of three individual protolith suites: (1) pre- to syn-1780-Ma supracrustal rocks including clastic metasedimentary rocks, calc-silicate paragneiss, and metavolcanic rocks; (2) a bimodal intrusive suite composed of metagabbro and granodiorite-tonalite gneiss; and (3) a younger bimodal suite composed of garnet-bearing metagabbronorite and coarse-grained granitic gneiss. Zircons U-Pb ages from the Big Creek Gneiss demonstrate that: (1) the average age of detrital zircons in the supracrustal rocks is ~1805 Ma, requiring a significant source of 1805-Ma (or older) detritus during deposition, possibly representing an older phase of arc magmatism; (2) the older bimodal igneous suite crystallized at ~1780 Ma, correlative with arc-derived rocks of the Green Mountain Formation; (3) the younger bimodal igneous suite crystallized at ~1763 Ma, coeval with the extensional(?) Horse Creek anorthosite complex in the Laramie Mountains and Sierra Madre Granite batholith in the southwestern Sierra Madre; (4) Big Creek Gneiss rocks were tectonically buried, metamorphosed, and partially melted at ~1750 Ma, coeval with the accretion of the Green Mountain arc to the Wyoming province along the Cheyenne belt; (5) the posttectonic granite and pegmatite bodies throughout the Big Creek Gneiss crystallized at ~1630 Ma and are correlative with the 'white quartz monzonite' of the south-central Sierra Madre. Geochemical analysis of the ~1780-Ma bimodal plutonic suite demonstrates a clear arc-affinity for the mafic rocks, consistent with a subduction environment origin. The granodioritic rocks of this suite were not derived by fractional crystallization from coeval mafic magmas, but are instead interpreted as melts of lower-crustal mafic material. This combination of mantle-derived mafic magmas and coeval crust-derived felsic magmas results in the observed bimodality within an arc environment. The lower average initial epsilonNd of the felsic rocks versus the mafic rocks suggests that the Green Mountain arc may have been built on slightly older (e.g., Penokean-age) basement. Geochemical analysis of the 'white quartz monzonite' demonstrates that it was derived by biotite-dehydration melting of rocks similar in elemental and isotopic composition to the Big Creek Gneiss and probably correlative with the Big Creek Gneiss. The melting event is interpreted as a far-field effect of the ~1650-Ma Mazatzal orogeny, with strain localized at the Cheyenne belt---a crustal-scale rheologic boundary. Geothermobarometry, combined with geochronologic results, suggests that the Big Creek Gneiss was metamorphosed at P--T conditions of at least 775 C and 7.5 kb during the ~1750-Ma Medicine Bow orogeny. Following a period of tectonic quiescence, probably associated with slow decompression and cooling, tectonic exhumation of the Big Creek Gneiss at ~1650 Ma resulted in nearly isothermal decompression and P--T conditions of ~650 C and 3.7 kb at the time of 'white quartz monzonite' intrusion. The results of this study suggest that the early (1805[?]--1750 Ma) tectonic events recorded in the Big Creek Gneiss are consanguineous with events recorded in Colorado, requiring a regional perspective for their interpretation. The cycle of convergence (Green Mountain arc magmatism), backarc(?) extension (younger bimodal suite), and later convergence (accretion to the Wyoming province) observed in the Big Creek Gneiss can be correlated with tectonic events throughout central Colorado. Similar cycles of extension and contraction also exist within other paleosubduction systems, notably the Lachlan orogen of eastern Australia, suggesting a fundamental style of tectonism that has been termed a 'retreating accretionary orogen' in recent literature. It is proposed here that the crustal growth of the Colorado province during Yavapai time is also attributable to a 'retreating accre

Jones, Daniel S.

92

Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide explores rocks, from processes that can change them (such as weathering), to what can happen to them as they move through the rock cycle. Using this guide, teachers of middle school students will focus on the tangible process of sedimentary roc

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2009-07-01

93

Bacterial Diversity of Fe/Mn and White Rock Coatings in Krkevagge: A Potential Mars Analogue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock coatings from Krkevagge, a potential Mars analogue, were analyzed for their microbial diversity, yielding distinct bacterial phylogenies of wide-ranging environmental tolerations and physiologies for different rock coating morphologies.

Sheehan, R. C.; Marnocha, C. L.; Dixon, J. C.

2012-03-01

94

Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will use sample sets of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks to learn how to identify the major rock types. They will write the key characteristics that would help them identify each of the rocks on the list. They will find and copy an image of each from the "Volcano World" slide show and answer the questions at the end of this activity. As a result of this lesson students will learn how to identify major rock types through their characteristic properties, especially through the Earth Science Reference Table identification charts, and understand how to find out what types of rocks can be found in a particular area using geologic maps, especially the one in the Earth Science Reference Table.

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, The E.

95

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (January--December 1993)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes, for the 12-month period (January through December 1993), the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily, on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed along with information collected on the surface flow systems which affect the quality or quantity of surface water. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data, an activity that contributes to the Site Investigations (SI) component of the ERP. This report provides and describes sources of hydrologic data for Environmental Restoration activities that use monitoring data to quantify and assess the impact from releases of contaminants from ORNL WAGs.

Borders, D.M.; Frederick, B.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Reece, D.K.; McCalla, W.L. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watts, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Ziegler, K.S. [Midwest Technical, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-10-01

96

Validated analytical data summary report for White Oak Creek Watershed remedial investigation supplemental sampling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

CDM Federal Programs Corporation (CDM Federal) was tasked by the Environmental Restoration Program of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems Inc. (Energy Systems), to collect supplemental surface soil data for the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. The WOC watershed RI/FS is being conducted to define a remediation approach for complying with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The data generated from these supplemental sampling activities will be incorporated into the RUFS to aid decision makers and stakeholders with the selection of remedial alternatives and establish remediation goals for the WOC watershed. A series of Data Quality Objective (DQO) meetings were held in February 1996 to determine data needs for the WOC watershed RI/FS. The meetings were attended by representatives from the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and contractors to DOE. During the DQO meetings, it was determined that the human health risk associated with exposure to radionuclides was high enough to establish a baseline for action; however, it was also determined that the impacts associated with other analytes (mainly metals) were insufficient for determining the baseline ecological risk. Based on this premise, it was determined that additional sampling would be required at four of the Waste Area Groupings (WAGs) included in the WOC watershed to fulfill this data gap.

NONE

1996-09-01

97

White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 1 Main Text  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Remedial Investigation (RI) report is to present an analysis of the Melton Valley portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of cost-effective remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. In this RI existing levels of contamination and radiological exposure are compared to levels acceptable for future industrial and potential recreational use levels at the site. This comparison provides a perspective for the magnitude of remedial actions required to achieve a site condition compatible with relaxed access restrictions over existing conditions. Ecological risk will be assessed to evaluate measures required for ecological receptor protection. For each subbasin, this report will provide site-specific analyses of the physical setting including identification of contaminant source areas, description of contaminant transport pathways, identification of release mechanisms, analysis of contaminant source interactions with groundwater, identification of secondary contaminated media associated with the source and seepage pathways, assessment of potential human health and ecological risks from exposure to contaminants, ranking of each source area within the subwatershed, and outline the conditions that remedial technologies must address to stop present and future contaminant releases, prevent the spread of contamination and achieve the goal of limiting environmental contamination to be consistent with a potential recreational use of the site.

NONE

1996-11-01

98

Rocks, Rocks, Rocks!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the three types of rocks in the earth? Miss Rogers will hand out this chart. Compare and contrast the three rock types as you read. Three-circle Venn Diagram Record what you learn for each type of rock (IGNEOUS, SEDIMENTARY, METAMORPHIC). 3 Types of Rocks Watch this video. Rock Video Read about the rock cycle. Think about what objects in our classroom could represent the rock cycle. The Rock Cycle Read over the activity we ...

Rogers, Miss

2011-10-26

99

A Peek into 'Alamogordo Creek'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3

On its 825th Martian day (May 20, 2006), NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity stopped for the weekend to place its instrument arm onto the soil target pictured here, dubbed 'Alamogordo Creek.' Two views from the panoramic camera, acquired at about noon local solar time, are at the top. Below them is a close-up view from the microscopic imager.

At upper left, a false-color view emphasizes differences among materials in rocks and soil. It combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. At upper right is an approximately true-color rendering made with the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters. The microscopic-imager frame covers the area outlined by the white boxes in the panoramic-camera views, a rectangle 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

As Opportunity traverses to the south, it is analyzing soil and rocks along the way for differences from those seen earlier. At this site, the soil contains abundant small spherical fragments, thought to be hematite-rich concretions, plus finer-grained basaltic sand. Most of the spherical fragments seen in the microscopic image are smaller than those first seen at the rover's landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' some five kilometers (3.1 miles) to the north. However, a few larger spherical fragments and other rock fragments can also be seen in the panoramic-camera images.

2006-01-01

100

Metamorphic Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive lesson on metamorphic rocks starts with a review of the rock cycle and goes on to describe the relationship between metamorphic rocks and their parent rock. The lesson then describes the agents of metamorphism (temperature, pressure, and chemical change) and moves into a discussion on contact, regional, and dynamic metamorphism. The remainder of the lesson consists of descriptions of foliated rocks such as slate, schist, and gneiss, and the non-foliates exemplified by quartzite and white marble.

101

Topographic view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge (located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Topographic view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge (located center of frame), view looking west - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

102

GEE CREEK WILDERNESS, TENNESSEE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mine and prospect surveys, it was determined that the Gee Creek Wilderness, Tennessee has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Iron ore was formerly mined, but the deposits are small, have a high phosphorous content, and are inaccessible. Shale, suitable for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, which could be utilized for crushed stone or sand, are found in the area, but are also found in areas closer to potential markets. The geologic setting precludes the presence of oil and gas resources in the surface rocks, but the possibility of finding natural gas at depth below the rocks exposed in the area cannot be discounted. Geophysical exploration would be necessary to define the local structure in rocks at depth to properly evaluate the potential of the area for gas.

Epstein, Jack, B.; Gazdik, Gertrude, C.

1984-01-01

103

When did movement begin on the Furnace Creek fault zone  

SciTech Connect

About 50 km of post-Jurassic right-lateral slip has occurred on the northern part of the Furnace Creek fault zone (FCFZ). The sedimentology, stratigraphy, and structure of Tertiary rocks suggest that movement on the fault began no earlier than 12--8 Ma and possibly as late as 5--4 Ma. Large remnants of erosion surfaces occur on both sides of the FCFZ in the southern White Mountains and Fish Lake Valley and are buried by rhyolite and basalt, mostly 12--10 Ma; the ash flows and welded tuffs were likely erupted from sources at least 40 km to the east. Thus, the area probably had gentle topography, suggesting a lengthy period of pre-late Miocene tectonic stability. On the west side of the FCFZ, Cambrian sedimentary rocks are buried by a fanglomerate with an [sup [minus

Reheis, M. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-04-01

104

Cloud Creek structure, central Wyoming, USA: Impact origin confirmed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circular Cloud Creek structure in central Wyoming, USA is buried beneath ~1200 m of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and has a current diameter of ~7 km. The morphology\\/morphometry of the structure, as defined by borehole, seismic, and gravity data, is similar to that of other buried terrestrial complex impact structures in sedimentary target rocks, e.g., Red Wing Creek in North

D. S. Stone; A. M. Therriault

2003-01-01

105

HISTORY OF THE BUFFALO CREEK VALLEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeological evidence in and around the Buffalo Creek watershed suggests that this area had a role in supporting early North American civilizations. Only miles away from the watershed, in the town of Avella, is the Meadowcroft Rock Shelter, an archaeological site considered to be one of the first places of human habitation in the United States. The rock shelter was

Michael A. Vacca; Ron Eisert

106

A land-use and water-quality history of White Rock Lake Reservoir, Dallas, Texas, based on paleolimnological analyses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White Rock Lake reservoir in Dallas, Texas contains a 150-cm sediment record of silty clay that documents land-use changes since its construction in 1912. Pollen analysis corroborates historical evidence that between 1912 and 1950 the watershed was primarily agricultural. Land disturbance by plowing coupled with strong and variable spring precipitation caused large amounts of sediment to enter the lake during this period. Diatoms were not preserved at this time probably because of low productivity compared to diatom dissolution by warm, alkaline water prior to burial in the sediments. After 1956, the watershed became progressively urbanized. Erosion decreased, land stabilized, and pollen of riparian trees increased as the lake water became somewhat less turbid. By 1986 the sediment record indicates that diatom productivity had increased beyond rates of diatom destruction. Neither increased nutrients nor reduced pesticides can account for increased diatom productivity, but grain size studies imply that before 1986 diatoms were light limited by high levels of turbidity. This study documents how reservoirs may relate to land-use practices and how watershed management could extend reservoir life and improve water quality.

Platt, Bradbury J.; Van Metre, P.C.

1997-01-01

107

A multi-isotope approach to understanding the evolution of Cenozoic magmatism in the northeastern Basin and Range: Results from igneous rocks in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep crustal rocks exposed by extensional processes in metamorphic core complexes provide a unique opportunity to address the magmatic and isotopic evolution of the crust and assess the relative crust versus mantle contributions in Cenozoic igneous rocks exposed in the complexes. The Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex exposes mid-crustal rocks that resided at depths of ~15-20 km before the onset of Cenozoic extension. Three major Cenozoic magmatic events are represented in the complex and have been studied using multiple isotopic systems (whole rock Sr and Nd coupled with the Oxygen isotopes in zircon). These three major events are: (1) 42-31 Ma intrusion of a composite plutonic complex of calc-alkaline composition that intrudes both upper crustal rocks (~5-10 km depth) and deeper rocks. (2) A 32-25 Ma plutonic complex, with evolved calc-alkaline composition that intruded in the middle crust (~12-15 km depth), and (3) A 10-8 Ma bimodal (basalt-rhyolite) suite of volcanic rocks that contain high-T anhydrous mineral assemblages erupted across the complex. The pre-extensional crust consisted of an upper crust composed primarily of Neoproterozoic through Triassic metasedimentary rocks (schist and quartzite at its base and limestone at its top). The middle crust consists of late Archean orthogneiss with evolved composition (metamorphosed peraluminous granite) with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.800, ?Nd40~ -43.4 and ?18Ozirc ~5.7. The lower crust is inferred to have been composed of Precambrian intermediate composition igneous rocks with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.750, ?Nd40~ -37.5 and ?18Ozirc ~5.9, and Precambrian mafic rocks with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.717, ?Nd40~ -25 and ?18Ozirc ~7.0. Existing and new data indicate that the 42-31 Ma upper crustal plutonic complex ranges in isotopic composition from 87Sr/86Sri=0.709-0.712, ?Ndi=-15 to -25 and ?18Ozirc 4.7-6.5. The composition of the 32-25 Ma middle crustal plutonic complex ranges from 87Sr/86Sri=0.711-0.716, ?Ndi=-25 to -36 and ?18Ozirc 4.8-6.2. The collective data from the 42-25 Ma magmas indicate that they represent a protracted, genetically related magmatic event that progressively assimilated larger amounts of both middle and lower crust through time. New data from the Miocene (10-8 Ma) bimodal volcanic rocks indicate that their isotopic composition ranges from 87Sr/86Sri=0.706-0.714, ?Ndi=-3 to -8 and ?18Ozirc 0-5, most of the ?18Ozirc analyses are in the range of 1-3. These results indicate that the Miocene magmas assimilated variable amounts of hydrothermally altered crust that has been "averaged" in isotopic composition by the earlier Eocene-Oligocene magmatism. These new data from the igneous rocks exposed within and around the ARG, indicate that during the Cenozoic a large volume of new mafic magmas were added to the middle and lower crust. These magmas were responsible for reworking, heating and weakening the continental crust, allowing it to flow in a ductile fashion. The sum of the magmatic and extensional processes in the region resulted in present day configuration of the crust with uniform ~30-35 km thickness and sub-horizontal lower crustal seismic reflectivity.

Konstantinou, A.; Strickland, A.; Miller, E. L.

2012-12-01

108

Rocks, Rocks, Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students test rocks to identify their physical properties (such as luster, hardness, color, etc.) and classify them as igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary. They complete a worksheet table to record all of the rock properties, and then answer worksheet questions to deepen their understanding of rock properties and relate them to the cavern design problem.

Adventure Engineering

109

Rocks, Rocks, Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Continuing the Asteroid Impact challenge, student teams test rocks to identify their physical properties (such as luster, hardness, color, etc.) and classify them as igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary. They complete a worksheet table to record all of the rock properties, and then answer worksheet questions to deepen their understanding of rock properties and relate them to the cavern design problem.

Adventure Engineering

110

Science Rocks!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?" asked another. At this moment, a

Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

2010-01-01

111

Archean rock homologs in the Kola superdeep borehole section in the northern part of the White Sea mobile belt, Voche-Lambina test site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archean Complex homologs of the Kola superdeep borehole (SG-3) were identified in the northern part of the White Sea mobile belt. Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneisses of the Voche-Lambina test site and metavolcanic dacite-rhyodacite rocks of the borehole SG-3 were formed at the stages of 2.97-2.82, 2.81, and 2.78-2.79 Ga. The Sm-Nd model ages of the studied rocks do not exceed 3.1 Ga, and their positive ?Nd(t) values vary from +0.5 to +3.34. They are characterized by Mg# = 0.20-0.44, similar concentrations (HFSE) of Zr, Nb, Y, and also Rb, Cr, and Ni, and sharply differentiated spectra of the REE distribution (Ce/Sm = 3.2-5.8; Gd/Yb = 2.6-7.1). Primary melts were formed in balance with garnetamphibole restite under P ? 15-16 kbar.

Morozova, L. N.; Mitrofanov, F. P.; Bayanova, T. B.; Vetrin, V. R.; Serov, P. A.

2012-01-01

112

McCARTHY CREEK FOREST RESOURCE INVENTORY Michael G. Loso  

E-print Network

a potentially valuable firewood resource: by volume, 72% of the white spruce wood in upper McCarthy Creek Fork. Beetle-killed white spruce dominate the middle ground, and Green Butte is visible behind, productivity, site index, and demographic characteristics of white spruce were determined at 72 subplots

Loso, Michael G.

113

Reconstruction of pluton assembly using trace elements in rock-forming minerals: a LA ICP-MS study of augite and hornblende in the Wooley Creek batholith, Klamath Mountains, California.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of interconnected melt capable of chemically and physically interacting within batholiths emplaced in the middle to upper crust is still debated. In this study, we take an alternative and/or complementary approach to geochronology and use the trace element record in minerals crystallizing early in magmatic systems to reconstruct the assembly history of a batholith. The Wooley Creek batholith (WCb) is a tilted calc-alkaline pluton situated in the Klamath Mountains, northern California, USA. The intrusion can be divided in three main units. The lower WCb ranges from two pyroxene biotite hornblende diorite to quartz-diorite. Trace elements in augite suggest that each sample analyzed belongs to a different magma batch and that individual batches underwent various extents of fractional crystallization. The upper WCb (80km2), ranging from hornblende biotite tonalite to granite, is zoned upward with more felsic rocks toward the structurally highest levels. The REE patterns of hornblende from samples that range from tonalite to granite are essentially identical and their REE abundances vary by a factor ? 3. Dacitic dikes that crop out along the structurally highest, southwestern contact of the intrusion contain hornblende crystals identical in composition to those from the upper part of the batholith, illustrating that the upper WCb was once eruptible. The central part of the WCb displays intermediate characteristics, with rocks ranging from hornblende biotite quartz-diorite to tonalite. Pyroxene is present only as relict inclusions in hornblende. Swarms of partially mingled Mafic Magmatic Enclaves (MME) and syn-plutonic dikes are locally common. The REE compositions of hornblende cores are similar to the hornblende found in the upper WCb, whereas the rims contain lower REE abundances and display no negative Eu anomaly, suggesting that they crystallized from a more mafic magma. This zoning pattern is interpreted as evidence of mixing in the central WCb, and specifically in the boundary zone that separates the upper and lower parts of the system. This zoning evidence is consistent with field relations that indicate mingling of the upper and lower units. We conclude that trace element compositions of minerals provide a useful tool to reconstruct and understand pluton assembly. In the case of the WCb, the lower part is constituted of numerous batches of magma, whereas the upper WCb crystallized from a large volume of chemically interconnected magma. The arrival of mafic magma in the central area provided heat, allowing the upper part of the system to mobilize and homogenize (Burgisser and Bergantz , 2011; Nature). CA-TIMS geochronology is in progress and will give absolute dates for the various part of the intrusion.

Coint, N.; Barnes, C. G.; Yoshinobu, A. S.; Barnes, M. A.; Chamberlain, K. R.

2012-04-01

114

Restoring Fossil Creek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers

Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

2004-01-01

115

Altitude and Configuration of the Potentiometric Surface in the Upper White Clay Creek and Lower West Branch Brandywine Creek Basins including Portions of Penn, London Grove, New Garden, Londonderry, West Marlborough, Highland, and East Fallowfield Townships and West Grove, Avondale, Modena, and South Coatesville boroughs, Chester County, Pennsylvania, May through July 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION Since 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been mapping the altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in Chester County as part of an ongoing cooperative program to measure and describe the water resources of the county. These maps can be used to determine the general direction of ground-water flow and are frequently referenced by municipalities and developers to evaluate ground-water conditions for water supply and resource-protection requirements. For this study, the potentiometric surface was mapped for an area in south-central Chester County. The northern part of the map includes portions of Highland, East Fallowfield, Londonderry, and West Marlborough Townships and South Coatesville and Modena Boroughs. The southern part of the map includes portions of Londonderry, West Marlborough, Penn, London Grove, and New Garden Townships and West Grove and Avondale Boroughs. The study area is mostly underlain by metamorphic rocks of the Glenarm Supergroup including Peters Creek Schist, Octoraro Phyllite, Wissahickon Schist, Cockeysville Mrable, and Setters Quartzite; and by pegmatite, mafic gneiss, felsic gneiss, and diabase. Ground water is obtained from these bedrock formations by wells that intercept fractures. The altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface was contoured from water levels measured on different dates in available wells during May through July 2006 and from the altitude of springs and perennial streams. Topography was used as a guide for contouring so that the altitude of the potentiometric surface was inferred nowhere to be higher than the land surface. The potentiometric surface shown on this map is an approximation of the water table. The altitude of the actual potentiometric surface may differ from the water table, especially in areas where wells are completed in a semi-confined zone or have long open intervals that reflect the composite hydraulic head of multiple water-yielding fractures. A composite head may differ from the potentiometric-surface altitude, particularly beneath hilltops and valleys where vertical hydraulic gradients are significant.

Hale, Lindsay B.

2007-01-01

116

Shell Creek Summers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-01-01

117

Tumblin CreekTumblin Creek Floodplain:Floodplain  

E-print Network

the creek.Erosion and scour are common along the creek. Tumblin Creek is on the FDEP list of impaired waterTumblin Creek is on the FDEP list of impaired water bodies.bodies. BivensBivens Arm isArm is hypereutrophichypereutrophic Pre-development Post-development FlowRate Rainfall Event HydrographHydrograph Pre vs. Post

Ma, Lena

118

Guardians of Tradition and Handmaidens to Change: Women's Roles in Creek Economic and Social Life during the Eighteenth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that, during the eighteenth century, Creek women were central elements in both cultural preservation and adaptation to white ways. Discusses the deerskin trade, matrilineal customs, male and female roles, sexuality, marriage, intermarriage between Creek women and white traders, and the role of mixed bloods as cultural intermediaries. (SV)

Braund, Kathryn E. Holland

1990-01-01

119

Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the Mahanoy Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The Mahanoy Creek Basin encompasses an area of 157 square miles (407 square kilometers) including approximately 42 square miles (109 square kilometers) underlain by the Western Middle Anthracite Field. As a result of more than 150 years of anthracite mining in the basin, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments have been adversely affected. Leakage from streams to underground mines and elevated concentrations (above background levels) of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) degrade the aquatic ecosystem and impair uses of the main stem of Mahanoy Creek from its headwaters to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. Various tributaries also are affected, including North Mahanoy Creek, Waste House Run, Shenandoah Creek, Zerbe Run, and two unnamed tributaries locally called Big Mine Run and Big Run. The Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are the only major tributaries not affected by mining. To assess the current hydrological and chemical characteristics of the AMD and its effect on receiving streams, and to identify possible remedial alternatives, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2001, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Schuylkill Conservation District. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the USGS at five stream sites during low base-flow conditions in October 2001. Twenty species of fish were identified in Schwaben Creek near Red Cross, which drains an unmined area of 22.7 square miles (58.8 square kilometers) in the lower part of the Mahanoy Creek Basin. In contrast, 14 species of fish were identified in Mahanoy Creek near its mouth at Kneass, below Schwaben Creek. The diversity and abundance of fish species in Mahanoy Creek decreased progressively upstream from 13 species at Gowen City to only 2 species each at Ashland and Girardville. White sucker (Catostomus commersoni), a pollution-tolerant species, was present at each of the surveyed reaches. The presence of fish at Girardville was unexpected because of the poor water quality and iron-encrusted streambed at this location. Generally, macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance at these sites were diminished compared to Schwaben Creek and other tributaries draining unmined basins, consistent with the observed quality of streamwater and streambed sediment. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 35 AMD sources and 31 stream sites throughout the Mahanoy Creek Basin were collected by the USGS during high base-flow conditions in March 2001 and low base-flow conditions in August 2001. A majority of the base-flow streamwater samples met water-quality standards for pH (6.0 to 9.0); however, few samples downstream from AMD sources met criteria for acidity less than alkalinity (net alkalinity = 20 milligrams per liter as CaCO3) and concentrations of dissolved iron (0.3 milligram per liter) and total manganese (1.0 milligram per liter). Iron, aluminum, and various trace elements including cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, were present in many streamwater samples at concentrations at which continuous exposure can not be tolerated by aquatic organisms without an unacceptable effect. Furthermore, concentrations of sulfate, iron, manganese, aluminum, and (or) beryllium in some samples exceeded drinking-water standards. Other trace elements, including antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, selenium, silver, and thallium, did not exceed water-quality criteria for protection of aquatic organisms or human health. Nevertheless, when considered together, concentrations of iron, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in a majority of the streambed sediment samples from Mahanoy Creek and

Cravotta, Charles A., III

2004-01-01

120

Petroleum source-bed evaluation of Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone, Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve samples of Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone from seven localities in the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt region were found to be extremely low in organic matter content, even though the darkest colored and least weathered samples were selected for analysis. We believe that very little organic matter was deposited and preserved in the Twin Creek Limestone in this region. Moreover, rocks

P. J. Swetland; J. M. Patterson; G. E. Claypool

1978-01-01

121

10. DETAIL OF AREATYPICAL FENCE LINE WITH HISTORIC ROCK FENCE; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL OF AREA-TYPICAL FENCE LINE WITH HISTORIC ROCK FENCE; VIEW ALONG WHITE ROCK ROAD EAST OF HIDDEN RIVER WAY; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

122

G ate Cre ekG ate Cre ek White Rive r  

E-print Network

35 26 216 197 216 216 197 26 97 26 97 197 14 206 84 84 Badger Cr Badger Cr G ate Cre ekG ate Cre ek ree k Wap initia C ree k Clear Cr Clear Cr Desch utesRiver Desch utesRiver Boulder Creek Boulder Creek BoulderCree k BoulderCree k White RiverWhite River Badger Cr Badger Cr Mill Creek Mill Creek O ak Canyon O

123

Electrofishing on Lookout Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists electrofishing on the Lookout Creek near the Blue River, OR. The fish they collected were analyzed for mercury content and added to the data base that the National Fish Mercury Model is based on. ...

2010-03-17

124

Camel Creek Minnamoolka  

E-print Network

Camel Creek Minnamoolka Rollingsto Mount Garnet Millaa Millaa Kangaroo Hills Valley Of Lagoons Flying Fish Point Ingham Battery Babinda Cardwell Ravenshoe Tully Heads Coral Sea Rockingham Bay R A N G E

Greenslade, Diana

125

Greigite (Fe3S4) as an indicator of drought - The 1912-1994 sediment magnetic record from White Rock Lake, Dallas, Texas, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Combined magnetic and geochemical studies were conducted on sediments from White Rock Lake, a reservoir in suburban Dallas (USA), to investigate how land use has affected sediment and water quality since the reservoir was filled in 1912. The chronology of a 167-cm-long core is constrained by the recognition of the pre-reservoir surface and by 137Cs results. In the reservoir sediments, magnetic susceptibility (MS) and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) are largely carried by detrital titanomagnetite that originally formed in igneous rocks. Titanomagnetite and associated hematite are the dominant iron oxides in a sample from the surficial deposit in the watershed but are absent in the underlying Austin Chalk. Therefore, these minerals were transported by wind into the watershed. After about 1960, systematic decreases in Ti, Fe, and Al suggest diminished input of detrital Fe-Ti oxides from the surficial deposits. MS and IRM remain constant over this interval, however, implying compensation by an increase in strongly magnetic material derived from human activity. Anthropogenic magnetite in rust and ferrite spherules (from fly ash?) are more common in sediment deposited after about 1970 than before and may account for the constant magnetization despite the implied decrease in detrital Fe-Ti oxides. An unexpected finding is the presence of authigenic greigite (Fe3S4), the abundance of which is at least partly controlled by climate. Greigite is common in sediments that predate about 1975, with zones of concentration indicated by relatively high IRM/MS. High greigite contents in sediment deposited during the early to mid-1950s and during the mid-1930s correspond to several-year periods of below-average precipitation and drought from historical records. Relatively long water-residence times in the reservoir during these periods may have led to elevated levels of sulfate available for bacterial sulfate reduction. The sulfate was probably derived via the oxidation of pyrite that is common in the underlying Austin Chalk. These results provide a basis for the paleoenvironmental interpretation of greigite occurrence in older lake sediments. The results also indicate that greigite formed rapidly and imply that it can be preserved in the amounts produced over a short time span (in this lake, only a few years). This finding thus suggests that, in some lacustrine settings, greigite is capable of recording paleomagnetic secular variation.

Reynolds, R.L.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Van Metre, P.; Tuttle, M.; Callender, E.; Goldin, A.

1999-01-01

126

LOST COVE AND HARPER CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, NORTH CAROLINA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation indicated that a part of the Lost Cove and Harper Creek Roadless Areas, North Carolina has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium, niobium, and beryllium. The study areas lie within the Blue Ridge physiographic province and are predominantly underlain by Precambrian plutonic and metasedimentary rocks of low metamorphic grade. The uranium occurs in vein-type deposits and in supergene-enriched foliated rocks. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil fuel resources.

Griffitts, W. R.; Crandall, T. M.

1984-01-01

127

Geometry of Wall Creek sandstones, Salt Creek Oil Field, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern gamma-ray and density well logs at the Salt Creek field define an optimum development of the middle and lower Wall Creek (First Frontier) Sandstone reservoir, which is unusually thick, well sorted, and porous in a belt about 1 mi wide that crosses the Salt Creek anticline in a north-northeasterly trend. The most distinctive aspect of the geometry of this

1986-01-01

128

The Crosswicks Creek Caper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based "caper," students designed and conducted experiments to find answers to their questions related to "mystery rock." Through this investigation, the children learned that rocks and minerals have unique physical and chemical properties

Levine, Ilene J.

2000-01-01

129

Manufacturing Battle Creek  

E-print Network

to the manufacturing sector in Western Michigan. In addition to serving as director of the MRC, Dr. Patten is alsoManufacturing Research Center Kalamazoo Battle Creek The College of Engineering and Applied Sciences The Supporting manufacturing industries by providing opportunities for collaboration with faculty

de Doncker, Elise

130

Early riparian wells along Oil Creek, Northwest Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect

The early oil booms beginning in the 1860`s in Northwest Pennsylvania saw a multitude of derricks crowding the narrow flats of Oil Creek between Titusville and Oil City. Oil Creek is a shallow watercourse with gravel bars and islands. At low water one can wade it without wetting the kneecaps. In wet seasons the stream can quickly become a torrent, flooding its banks. In winter it can pile high with jagged ice blocks creating crystal mountains, especially at its mouth where it empties into the Allegheny River at Oil City. Well spacing in the bottoms finally became so close that some oil men headed for the gravel bars an small islands. Others drilled directly in the creek. The objectives were the Upper Devonian Venango Group sandstones, particularly the Third sand, at depths of only 450-550 feet (137-168 m). Early initial production rates of the best wells were 1000, 3000, even 4000 barrels per day. This was the incentive. Piles of rocks and logs were made for some wells on floodable land along Oil Creek. The jacks and well heads stood high above the flats on these artificial mounds. Protective V walls of wood or concrete were made for creek and bank wells. The V pointed upstream and the wooden separator tank was nuzzled inside it. Another approach was a pier built out into the creek to support drilling. Some of these silent reminders of earlier days are still out there.

Pees, S.T. [Samuel T. Pees and Associates, Meadville, PA (United States)

1995-09-01

131

SOURCES AND EFFECTS OF MINING-RELATED AND NATURAL ACID ROCK DRAINAGE QUANTIFIED USING TRACER  

E-print Network

SOURCES AND EFFECTS OF MINING-RELATED AND NATURAL ACID ROCK DRAINAGE QUANTIFIED USING TRACER Acid Rock Drainage Quantified Using Tracer Dilution, Coal Creek Watershed, Gunnison County, Colorado of Mining-Related and Natural Acid Drainage Quantified Using Tracer Dilution, Coal Creek Watershed, Gunnison

Ryan, Joe

132

40 CFR 131.33 - Idaho.  

...Moonshine Creek, Quigley Creek, Red Rock Creek, Sands Creek, Sawmill Creek...Postoffice Creek, Queen Creek, Robin Creek, Rock Creek, Rye Patch Creek, Sardine Creek...Reynolds Creek, Rim Creek, Ring Creek, Rock Creek, Root Creek, Runaway Creek,...

2014-07-01

133

Gravity, magnetic, and physical property data in the Smoke Creek Desert area, northwest Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Smoke Creek Desert, located approximately 100 km (60 mi) north of Reno near the California-Nevada border, is a large basin situated along the northernmost parts of the Walker Lane Belt (Stewart, 1988), a physiographic province defined by northwest-striking topographic features and strike-slip faulting. Because geologic framework studies play an important role in understanding the hydrology of the Smoke Creek Desert, a geologic and geophysical effort was begun to help determine basin geometry, infer structural features, and estimate depth to Pre-Cenozoic rocks, or basement. In May and June of 2004, and June of 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 587 new gravity stations, more than 160 line-kilometers (100 line-miles) of truck-towed magnetometer data, and 111 rock property samples in the Smoke Creek Desert and vicinity in northwest Nevada, as part of an effort to characterize its hydrogeologic framework. In the Smoke Creek Desert area, gravity highs occur over rocks of the Skedaddle Mountains, Fox Range, Granite Range, and over portions of Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Buffalo Hills. These gravity highs likely reflect basement rocks, either exposed at the surface or buried at shallow depths. The southern Smoke Creek Desert corresponds to a 25-mGal isostatic gravity low, which corresponds with a basin depth of approximately 2 km. Magnetic highs are likely due to granitic, andesitic, and metavolcanic rocks, whereas magnetic lows are probably associated with less magnetic gneiss and metasedimentary rocks in the region. Three distinctive patterns of magnetic anomalies occur throughout the Smoke Creek Desert and Squaw Creek Valley, likely reflecting three different geological and structural settings.

Tilden, Janet E.; Ponce, David A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Tushman, Kira; Duvall, Alison

2006-01-01

134

Geochemical Data for Stream-Sediment, Surface-Water, Rock, and Vegetation Samples from Red Mountain (Dry Creek), an Unmined Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit in the Bonnifield District, Alaska Range, East-Central Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

North-central and northeast Nevada contains numerous large plutons and smaller stocks but also contains many small, shallowly emplaced intrusive bodies, including dikes, sills, and intrusive lava dome complexes. Decades of geologic investigations in the study area demonstrate that many ore deposits, representing diverse ore deposit types, are spatially, and probably temporally and genetically, associated with these igneous intrusions. However, despite the number and importance of igneous instrusions in the study area, no synthesis of geochemical data available for these rocks has been completed. This report presents a synthesis of composition and age data for these rocks. The product represents the first phases of an effort to evaluate the time-space-compositional evolution of Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatism in the study area and identify genetic associations between magmatism and mineralizing processes in this region.

Giles, Stuart A.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Granitto, Matthew; Zelenak, Philip P.; Adams, Monique G.; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Gough, Larry P.; Hageman, Philip L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Horton, John D.; Sutley, Stephan J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Wolf, Ruth E.

2007-01-01

135

CANEY CREEK WILDERNESS, ARKANSAS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources identified in the Caney Creek Wilderness, Arkansas, include many small manganese deposits in areas of novaculite, tripoli, shale, and slate. Small amounts of hand-sorted manganese-oxide ore have been recovered from several of the manganese deposits during sporadic mining activity. Additional manganese resources remain in the known deposits, but the amount in any given deposit is small.

Ericksen, George E.; Dunn, Maynard L., Jr.

1984-01-01

136

Water quality and chemistry of an alpine stream: a case study of Sneffels Creek, Yankee Boy Basin, Colorado  

E-print Network

debris from Atlas Mine, . 4 Looking down from Mount Sncffels at the head of Sneffels Creek. . . . . . . . . . . 29 5 Glacial features: horns, aretes, rock glacier, till, tarns, cols and cirques. . . . . 31 6 Columnar jointing. 7 Mean monthly... debris from Atlas Mine, . 4 Looking down from Mount Sncffels at the head of Sneffels Creek. . . . . . . . . . . 29 5 Glacial features: horns, aretes, rock glacier, till, tarns, cols and cirques. . . . . 31 6 Columnar jointing. 7 Mean monthly...

Heggie, Tracey Michelle

2012-06-07

137

Rad Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why do we have rocks? How are rocks formed? Why do we have rock cycles? There are all differnt kinds of rocks. What parts make up rocks? Can you sort rocks based on color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size? How do the things rocks are made of determine how people use them? Organize rocks by color, weight, shape, and sizes. Click here to find out the basics about ...

2010-04-26

138

Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Archaean LCT pegmatite deposit Cattlin Creek, Ravensthorpe, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LCT (lithium-cesium-tantalum) pegmatite Cattlin Creek is located about 550 km ESE of Perth, Western Australia. The complex-type, rare-element pegmatite is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Archaean Ravensthorpe greenstone belt, which constitutes of the southern edge of the Southern Cross Terranes of the Yilgarn Craton. The deposit is currently mined for both lithium and tantalum by Galaxy Resources Limited since 2010. The pegmatitic melt intruded in a weak structural zone of crossing thrust faults and formed several pegmatite sills, of which the surface nearest mineralized pegmatite body is up to 21 m thick. The Cattlin Creek pegmatite is characterized by an extreme fractionation that resulted in the enrichment of rare elements like Li, Cs, Rb, Sn and Ta, as well as the formation of a vertical zonation expressed by distinct mineral assemblages. The border zone comprises a fine-grained mineral assemblage consisting of albite, quartz, muscovite that merges into a medium-grained wall zone and pegmatitic-textured intermediate zones. Those zones are manifested by the occurrence of megacrystic spodumene crystals with grain sizes ranging from a couple of centimeters up to several metres. The core zone represents the most fractionated part of the pegmatite and consists of lepidolite, cleavelandite, and quartz. It also exhibits the highest concentrations of Cs (0.5 wt.%), Li (0.4 wt.%), Rb (3 wt.%), Ta (0.3 wt.%) and F (4 wt.%). This zone was probably formed in the very last crystallization stage of the pegmatite and its minerals replaced earlier crystallized mineral assemblages. Moreover, the core zone hosts subordinate extremely Cs-enriched (up to 13 wt.% Cs2O) mineral species of beryl. The chemical composition of this beryl resamples that of the extreme rare beryl-variety pezzotaite. Other observed subordinate, minor and accessory minerals comprise tourmaline, garnet, cassiterite, apatite, (mangano-) columbite, tantalite, microlite (Bi-bearing), gahnite, fluorite, sphalerite, zircon, and uranitnite. The mineral composition of micas and the Nb-Ta minerals columbite and tantalite where also used to determine the degree of fractionation within the different zones of the Cattlin Creek pegmatite. The mineral composition of white micas clearly points out a fractionation trend from lithian muscovite composition within the border zone via mixed composition in the intermediate zone towards lepidolite and polylithionite composition within the core zone. A similar trend is shown by the Nb-Ta mineral compositions, the border and intermediate zone is dominated by ferrocolumbite and manganocolumbite, whereas in the core zone only manganotantalite is present. Further geochronological and isotopical investigations studies will help to understand the regional geological framework and provenance history of the Cattlin Creek pegmatite in more detail.

Bauer, Matthias; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

2014-05-01

139

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2010-07-01

140

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2011-07-01

141

Thompson Creek, Poway, California THOMPSON CREEK GROUNDWATER SUSTAINABILITY STUDY  

E-print Network

Thompson Creek, Poway, California THOMPSON CREEK GROUNDWATER SUSTAINABILITY STUDY Victor M. Ponce be discouraged, or else reduced to an amount consistent with current practices of groundwater sustainability. All of water, including groundwater. A groundwater sustainability study seeks to assess the extent

Ponce, V. Miguel

142

Recurrent faulting and petroleum accumulation, Cat Creek Anticline, central Montana  

SciTech Connect

The Cat Creek anticline, scene of central Montana's first significant oil discovery, is underlain by a south-dipping high-angle fault (Cat Creek fault) that has undergone several episodes of movement with opposite sense of displacement. Borehole data suggest that the Cat Creek fault originated as a normal fault during Proterozoic rifting concurrent with deposition of the Belt Supergroup. Reverse faulting took place in Late Cambrian time, and again near the end of the Devonian Period. The Devonian episode, coeval with the Antler orogeny, raised the southern block several hundred feet. The southern block remained high through Meramecian time, then began to subside. Post-Atokan, pre-Middle Jurassic normal faulting lowered the southern block as much as 1,500 ft. During the Laramide orogeny (latest Cretaceous-Eocene) the Cat Creek fault underwent as much as 4,000 ft of reverse displacement and a comparable amount of left-lateral displacement. The Cat Creek anticline is a fault-propagation fold; en echelon domes and listric normal faults developed along its crest in response to wrenching. Oil was generated mainly in organic-rich shales of the Heath Formation (upper Chesterian Series) and migrated upward along tectonic fractures into Pennsylvanian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous reservoir rocks in structural traps in en echelon domes. Production has been achieved only from those domes where structural closure was retained from Jurassic through Holocene time.

Nelson, W.J. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States))

1991-06-01

143

Rock Hounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rock Hounds web site offers information for younger students on how igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are formed, safety tips for collectors, and illustrated pages describing a selection of rock types. After studying these pages, kids can take a quiz or work rock-themed puzzles. For teachers, there is a lesson plan about the rock cycle, a set of activities, ideas for collaborative activities, and a review of some literature on rocks and rock collecting.

144

Depth-gradient analysis of the Colony Creek Cycle (late Pennsylvanian) of north Texas  

E-print Network

-2. Location of the sections studied in the Brazos River valley. m 0 32 13 THE COLONY CREEK CYCLE A COMPOSITE OF THE COLORADO RIVER SECTIONS 28 26 HOME CREEK LIMESTONE 20 I6 l2 52 78 COLONY CREEK SHALE O co co ELI IL ca ILJ 91 O ft...). Banks were parallel to regional depositional strike. The phylloid algae grew on the EST TOHEWALL CO STEPHENS CO EAST POST- CISCO PERMIAN ROCKS 1%% N caOOO ATEO &II - " RIA CONC CIIO r P--- OELI?c flUI La?a%LONE ?UO%1ONE C3 ~ No I NOEIONE IM...

Kennedy, Noel Lynne

2012-06-07

145

Assessment of Hydrology, Water Quality, and Trace Elements in Selected Placer-Mined Creeks in the Birch Creek Watershed near Central, Alaska, 2001-05  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Executive Summary The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, completed an assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace-element concentrations in streambed sediment of the upper Birch Creek watershed near Central, Alaska. The assessment covered one site on upper Birch Creek and paired sites, upstream and downstream from mined areas, on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek. Stream-discharge and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at other selected mined and unmined sites helped characterize conditions in the upper Birch Creek watershed. The purpose of the project was to provide the Bureau of Land Management with baseline information to evaluate watershed water quality and plan reclamation efforts. Data collection began in September 2001 and ended in September 2005. There were substantial geomorphic disturbances in the stream channel and flood plain along several miles of Harrison Creek. Placer mining has physically altered the natural stream channel morphology and removed streamside vegetation. There has been little or no effort to re-contour waste rock piles. During high-flow events, the abandoned placer-mine areas on Harrison Creek will likely contribute large quantities of sediment downstream unless the mined areas are reclaimed. During 2004 and 2005, no substantial changes in nutrient or major-ion concentrations were detected in water samples collected upstream from mined areas compared with water samples collected downstream from mined areas on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek that could not be attributed to natural variation. This also was true for dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance-a measure of total dissolved solids. Sample sites downstream from mined areas on Harrison Creek and Frying Pan Creek had higher median suspended-sediment concentrations, by a few milligrams per liter, than respective upstream sites. However, it is difficult to attach much importance to the small downstream increase, less than 10 milligrams per liter, in median suspended-sediment concentration for either basin. During low-flow conditions in 2004 and 2005, previously mined areas investigated on Harrison Creek and on Frying Pan Creek did not contribute substantial suspended sediments to sample sites downstream from the mined areas. No substantial mining-related water- or sediment-quality problems were detected at any of the sites investigated in the upper Birch Creek watershed during low-flow conditions. Average annual streamflow and precipitation were near normal in 2002 and 2003. Drought conditions, extreme forest fire impact, and low annual streamflow set apart the 2004 and 2005 summer seasons. Daily mean streamflow for upper Birch Creek varied throughout the period of record-from maximums of about 1,000 cubic feet per second to minimums of about 20 cubic feet per second. Streamflow increased and decreased rapidly in response to rainfall and rapid snowmelt events because the steep slopes, thin soil cover, and permafrost areas in the watershed have little capacity to retain runoff. Median suspended-sediment concentrations for the 115 paired samples from Frying Pan Creek and 101 paired samples from Harrison Creek were less than the 20 milligrams per liter total maximum daily load. The total maximum daily load was set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the upper Birch Creek basin in 1996. Suspended-sediment paired-sample data were collected using automated samplers in 2004 and 2005, primarily during low-flow conditions. Suspended-sediment concentrations in grab samples from miscellaneous sites ranged from less than 1 milligram per liter during low-flow conditions to 1,386 milligrams per liter during a high-flow event on upper Birch Creek. Streambed-sediment samples were collected at six sites on Harrison Creek, two sites on Frying Pan Creek, and one site on upper Birch Creek. Trace-element concentrations of mercury, lead, and zinc in streambed sedimen

Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

2007-01-01

146

ADAMS GAP AND SHINBONE CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas in Alabama were evaluated for their mineral potential. The only resource within the established boundary of the roadless area is quartzite suitable for crushed rock or refractory-grade aggregate. The quartzite contains deleterious impurities and is found in abundance outside the areas. Natural gas or petroleum may exist at depth. Detailed seismic studies and deep drilling tests are needed before a reasonable estimate of hydrocarbon potential can be made.

Klein, T. L.; Harrison, Donald, K.

1984-01-01

147

Rockin' around the Rock Cycle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.

Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan

2005-01-01

148

Kiowa Creek Switching Station  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-03-01

149

Ship Creek bioassessment investigations  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

1995-06-01

150

40Ar/39Ar age-spectrum data for hornblende, biotite, white mica, and K-feldspar samples from metamorphic rocks in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains reduced 40Ar/39Ar data of hornblende, biotite, white mica and (or) sericite, and potassium-feldspar mineral separates and phyllite groundmass samples from metamorphic rocks of the Great Smoky Mountains in North Carolina and Tennessee. Included in this report are information on the location of the samples and a brief description of the samples. The data contained herein are not interpreted in a geological context, and care should be taken by users unfamiliar with argon isotopic data in the use of these results. No geological meaning is implied for any of the apparent ages presented below, and many of the individual apparent ages are not geologically meaningful. This report is primarily a detailed source document for subsequent publications that will integrate these data into a geological context. All the samples in this report were collected in and around the Great Smoky Mountain National Park in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee.

Kunk, Michael J.; McAleer, Ryan

2011-01-01

151

Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash animation about the rock cycle is suitable for a review or overview in an introductory level Physical Geology class. It includes animations, photos, and descriptions involving rock types and processes in the rock cycle.

Smoothstone; Company, Houghton M.

152

Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from Moorland School in England, describes the rock cycle. Topics briefly discussed include rock formation, erosion, transportation, and deposition, plus various types of rocks. The page is directed towards a middle-school audience.

School, Moorland

153

Correlation of Twin Creek limestone with Arapien shale in Arapien embayment, Utah - preliminary appraisal  

SciTech Connect

Striking and important stratigraphic patterns have emerged as a result of recent work during which members of the Twin Creek Limestone were correlated with the Arapien Shale, all of Middle Jurassic age. These correlations, determined first on the basis of electric and lithologic logs, are supported by recent palynologic work. Three distinct dinoflagellate assemblages, assigned to the Bajocian(.), Bathonian, and Callovian stages, form the paleontologic basis for these correlations. The Bajocian(.) assemblage is found in rocks of the Sliderock and Rich Members of the Twin Creek Limestone. The Bathonian assemblage is found in units of the Boundary Ridge and Watton Canyon Members of the Twin Creek, and also in units of the lower Arapien Shale (lower Leeds Creek Member of the Twin Creek of Wyoming). The Callovian assemblage is found in rocks of the upper Arapien (upper Leeds Creek and Giraffe Creek Members of the Twin Creek of Wyoming). Isopach maps, based on these correlations, indicate that most of central Utah was the site of a large marine embayment - the Arapien embayment -that was flanked on the west, south, and east by highlands. The maps also suggest that the ancestral Uinta Mountains, a submerged feature, affected sedimentation as early as Bajocian time, and became a significant barrier from the late Bathonian through Callovian. In central Utah, marine carbonates were deposited in the Arapien embayment during deposition of the Gypsum Spring through Watton Canyon Members of the Twin Creek Limestone. During deposition of the Arapien Shale, a major northward regression occurred; the embayment shrank to form a smaller basin - the Arapien basin - that lay directly south of the ancestral Uinta Mountains. Most of the Arapien Shale is shallow-water deposits that formed in the basin under hypersaline conditions.

Sprinkel, D.A.; Waanders, G.L.

1984-07-01

154

Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in the Peninsular Ranges, Southern California. [including San Diego River, Otay Mts., Japatul Valley, Barrett Lake, Horsethief Canyon, Pine Valley Creek, Pine Creek, and Mojave Desert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Thin sections of rock exposed along the San Diego River linear were prepared and determined to be fault breccia. Single band and ratio images of the western Mojave Desert were prepared from the multispectral scanner digital tapes. Subtle differences in color of soil and rock are enhanced on the ratio images. Two north-northeast trending linears (Horsethief Canyon and Pine Valley Creek) and an east-west linear (Pine Creek) were concluded to have resulted from erosion along well-developed foliation in crystalline basement rocks.

Merifield, P. M. (principal investigator)

1975-01-01

155

Geometry of Wall Creek sandstones, Salt Creek Oil Field, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Modern gamma-ray and density well logs at the Salt Creek field define an optimum development of the middle and lower Wall Creek (First Frontier) Sandstone reservoir, which is unusually thick, well sorted, and porous in a belt about 1 mi wide that crosses the Salt Creek anticline in a north-northeasterly trend. The most distinctive aspect of the geometry of this well-sorted sandstone is its east-sloping clinoform shape in cross section. Detailed well-log control defines (1) moderate paleotopography on the basal Wall Creek regional unconformity, then (2) deposition of a local depositional shelf, shelf-edge, and north-trending slope, and finally (3) deposition of optimum sandstone reservoirs across this local shelf edge and slope by a high-energy current that appears to have flowed obliquely downslope northeastward into deeper water. If similar Wall Creek sandstones were deposited east of the Salt Creek field in the deeper part of the Powder River basin, recent wells, which are being drilled 1 mi apart, are too widely spaced to define the geometry of the individual sandstone bodies. Because of the asymmetric shape of the clinoform sandstones, hydrocarbon shows along the east or west edges of a sandstone have different implications as to the possible location of the center of the sandstone body. Many, but not all, Upper Cretaceous sandstones in this part of the basin have clinoform geometry.

Curry, W.H. III

1986-08-01

156

78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 3730-005] Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption...filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that...

2013-10-22

157

Lagrangian Sampling of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek,  

E-print Network

Lagrangian Sampling of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer...................................................................................................................... 5 Acidic Organic Wastewater Compounds

158

Igneous Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive lesson on igneous rocks begins with a comparison of intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks with diagrams to show their origin. This leads to a discussion of intrusive rock formations including dikes, sills, laccoliths and batholiths and a block diagram to show their location. Basaltic rocks are described to include basalt, pumice, and gabbro and are contrasted with granitic rhyolite and obsidian.

159

Rocking Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this earth science activity, learners conduct a series of short experiments to explore how rocks change. Learners will examine the components of the rock cycle as well as how rocks can change over time due to weathering, erosion, pressure and heat. In particular, learners will model igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

Workshop, Mission S.

2013-01-01

160

Multimedia Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of a unit on rocks and minerals, students engaged in hands-on, inquiry-based activities that helped them discover what geologists do, how to identify rocks and minerals, and how rocks change over time through the rock cycle. This article describes

Perry, Laurie

2000-05-01

161

rock properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. Lets review: What do you already know about rocks? Please write down your thoughts on a piece of paper. Now, click on the link below to find out what the definition of a rock is. *Intro to Rocks Please answer the questions below in complete sentences on your paper. 1. Rocks are made up of several particles. ...

Krystal

2009-12-14

162

Investigaing Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your mission is to look at different types of rocks and be able to sort them based on color, feel, hardness, texture, layering they may have, and particle size they are made of. Identify how the properties of rocks determine how people use them. Click below to find out more about different kinds of rocks there are: Types of Rocks Now, Start Your Rock Collection! It's a race against time! Can you do it? Identify Rock Types How are rocks made? Check out: The Rock Cycle Now take the quiz: Diagram the rock cycle quiz Next, click the link to view the Virtual Quarry website. Here, you will be able to look at different rock ...

Lindsey, Tiffany A.

2010-06-21

163

White Toenails  

MedlinePLUS

... Ankle Conditions White Toenails Text Size Print Bookmark White Toenails White toenails can develop for several reasons. Trauma, such ... trauma does not cause broken blood vessels, a white spot may appear under the nail. The spot ...

164

Ground-water geology and pump irrigation in Frenchman Creek Basin above Palisade, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the geography, geology, and ground-water resources of that part of the Frenchman Creek basin upstream from Palisade, Nebr., an area of about 4,900 square miles. The basin includes all of Phillips County, Colo., and Chase County, Nebr., and parts of Logan, Sedgwick, Washington, and Yuma Counties, Colo., and Dundy, Hayes, Hitchcock, and Perkins Counties, Nebr. The land surface ranges from nearly flat to rolling; choppy hills and interdune saddles are common in the areas of dune sand, and steep bluffs and gullies cut the edges of the relatively flat loess plateaus. Most of the basin is drained by tributaries of Frenchman Creek, but parts of the sandhills are undrained. Farming and livestock raising are the principal industries. Irrigation with ground water has expanded rapidly since 1934. The rocks exposed in the basin are largely unconsolidated and range in age from Pliocene to Recent. They comprise the Ogallala formation (Pliocene), the Sanborn formation (Pleistocene and Recent?), dune sand (Pleistocene and Recent), and alluvium (Recent). The rocks underlying the Ogallala are the Pierre shale (Late Cretaceous) and the White River group (Oligocene). The Pierre shale is relatively impermeable and yields little or no water to wells. The White River group also is relatively impermeable and yields little or no water to wells; however, small to moderate quantities of water possibly may be obtained from wells that penetrate fractured or 'porous' zones in the upper part of the White River group or permeable channel deposits within the group. The Ogallala formation is the main aquifer in the basin and yields moderate to large quantities of water to wells. The Sanborn formation and the dune sand generally lie above the water table, but in areas of high water table the dune sand yields small quantities of water to wells for domestic and stock supplies. The alluvium, which includes the low terrace deposits bordering the major streams, yields small to large quantities of water to wells. The ground-water reservoir is recharged only from precipitation on the basin. Of the average annual precipitation of 19.5 inches, about 0.9 inch infiltrates to the water table, thereby contributing about 220,000 acre-feet of water annually to the ground-water reservoir. About 81 million acre-feet of water that could drain under gravity, and thus theoretically is available to wells, is held in groundwater storage in the basin. Water is discharged from the ground-water reservoir by wells, evaporation and transpiration, springs, seepage into streams, and movement into adjacent areas to the east and southeast. Most of the domestic, stock, and irrigation water supplies and all the public supplies are pumped from wells. During 1953, 96 wells were used to irrigate 10,000 acres of land with 19,000 acre-feet of water. About 34,000 acre-feet of water is evaporated and transpired annually in the valleys of the main streams and in areas of shallow water table in the sandhills. From the projection of base-flow measurements made during 1952, it was estimated that the average annual flow of Frenchman Creek into the reservoir above Enders Dam is about 57,000 acre-feet. By similar determinations, the average annual flow of Frenchman Creek at the gaging station at Palisade, Nebr., about 22 miles downstream from Enders Dam, is about 76,000 acre-feet, and the flow of Stinking Water Creek at the gaging station near Palisade is about 22,000 acre-feet. The combined flow of Frenchman and Stinking Water Creeks at their confluence near Palisade thus is about 98,000 acre-feet per year. About 90,000 acre-feet of ground water is estimated to move eastward each year across the Colorado-Nebraska State line within the basin. Additional irrigation wells that will tap the Ogallala formation and the alluvium in the major valleys undoubtedly will be drilled. On the basis of current estimates of future irrigation.withdrawals, it is concluded that by the

Cardwell, W.D.E.; Jenkins, Edward D.

1963-01-01

165

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Carey Creek, Technical Report 2005.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Carey Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Carey Creek Project provides a total of 172.95 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 4.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetlands provide 52.68 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 2.82 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow and grassland meadow provide 98.13 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Emergent wetlands provide 11.53 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Open water provides 2.88 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Carey Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

Entz, Ray

2005-05-01

166

The Elk Creek Carbonatite, Southeast Nebraska-An Overview  

SciTech Connect

A framework geophysical program in southeastern Nebraska during 1970 identified a near-circular feature having gravity relief of about 8 mgal and a magnetic anomaly of about 800 gammas. Analysis of the geophysical data provided a model of a cylindrical mass of indefinite length with a radius of 5500 ft (1676 m) and beveled at the basement surface at about 600 ft (183 m). At the approximate depth at which Precambrian rocks were expected, the initial test hole (2-B-71) encountered an iron-rich weathered zone overlying carbonate-rich rock. The carbonate rocks consist essentially of dolomite, calcite, and ankerite and lesser amounts of hematite, chlorite, phlogopite, barite, serpentine, pyrochlore, and quartz and contain barium, strontium, and rare earths. Total REE, P2O5, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios confirm the carbonatite identification. Texturally, the rocks range from fragmental to contorted to massive. Associated with the carbonatite are lesser amounts of basalt, lamprophyre, and syenite. Additional exploratory drilling has provided about 80,000 ft (24,384 m) of rock record and has penetrated about 3400 ft (1038 m) of carbonatite. The carbonatite is overlain by marine sediments of Pennsylvanian (Missourian) age. The surrounding Precambrian basement rocks are low-to medium-grade metamorphic gneiss and schist of island arc origin and granitic plutons. The Elk Creek carbonatite is located near the boundary between the Penokean orogen created at about 1.84 Ga (billion years) and the Dawes terrane (1.78 Ga) of the Central Plains orogen. This boundary strongly influenced the geometry of both the Midcontinent Rift System (1.1 Ga) and the Nemaha uplift (0.3 Ga). It is assumed that the emplacement of the Elk Creek carbonatite (0.5 Ga) was influenced similarly by the pre-existing tectonic sutures.

Carlson, M. P., E-mail: mcarlson1@unl.edu; Treves, S. B. [University of Nebraska, Nebraska Geological Survey (United States)

2005-03-15

167

Experimental study of opening-mode crack growth in rock. Progress report and renewal proposal  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to relate fracture toughness to rock microstructure. Crack propagation measurements are made on samples of stockbridge marble and Stony Creek granite. Force-displacement curves are recorded and the texture of the fracture surfaces observed. (ACR)

Gordon, R.B.

1981-01-01

168

Microthermometry and geochemistry of fluid inclusions from the Tennant Creek gold-copper deposits: implications for ore deposition and exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold-copper-bismuth mineralization in the Tennant Creek goldfield of the Northern Territory occurs in pipe-like, ellipsoidal, or lensoidal lodes of magnetite hematite ironstones which are hosted in turbiditic sedimentary rocks of Proterozoic age. Fluid inclusion studies have revealed four major inclusion types in quartz associated with mineralized and barren ironstones at Ten nant Creek; (1) liquid-vapour inclusions with low liquid\\/vapour

Khin Zaw; D. L. Huston; R. R. Large; T. Mernagh; C. F. Hoffmann

1994-01-01

169

Rock Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands-on activity covers the basics of rock identification. After a brief discussion of the terms 'rock' and 'mineral', students will study the characteristics and classifications of the three major rock groups (igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary). Using an online tutorial to test their knowledge and to learn more about rocks, they will identify 10 different specimens, record their observations, and provide a name for each.

Pratte, John

170

Metamorphic Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here is an in-depth description of metamorphic rocks, from their classification to formation and identification. It covers types of metamorphism (including Barrovian, or regional rock changes), classification by foliation, and metamorphic processes (facies and zones). An alphabetical list of rocks with picture, composition, description, tectonic association, and type of metamorphism is given. Common metamorphic minerals are covered as well.

Fichter, Lynn

171

Rock Jeopardy!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students reinforce their understanding of rocks, the rock cycle, and geotechnical engineering by playing a trivia game. They work in groups to prepare Jeopardy-type trivia questions (answers) and compete against each other to demonstrate their knowledge of rocks and engineering.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

172

Shallow Early Cretaceous oil production in Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Over 1.5 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Early Cretaceous Fall River and Lakota Formations on the east side of the Powder River basin in the Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming. Producing depths range from 42 ft at the Barton Ranch field to over 2528 ft at an unnamed field. The gravity of the gas-free oil ranges from 17/sup 0/ API at Barton Ranch to over 49/sup 0/ API in the deeper reservoir rocks located at an unnamed oil field. Oil has been trapped in Lakota channel sandstones and Fall River nearshore sandstones on the Black Hills monocline within a catchment area located on the northeast side of the large northeast-southwest-trending Gillette arch. Currently, the oldest producible oil on or east of the central Black Hills monocline is Early Cretaceous in age. This oil is the highest structural, active, primary production along the west-central flank of the Black Hills uplift. Two Permian-Pennsylvanian fields are located structurally higher, but one is a thermal tertiary project and the other has been abandoned.

Randall, A.G.

1986-08-01

173

Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

1995-04-01

174

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2013-07-01

175

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2012-07-01

176

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2010-07-01

177

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2011-07-01

178

The Lyons Creek boat remains  

E-print Network

THE LYONS CREEK BOAT REMAINS A Thesis by ROBERT STEPHEN NEYLAND Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A a M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1990 Ma/or Subject...: Anthropology THE LYONS CREEK BOAT REMAINS A Thesis by ROBERT STEPHEN NEYLAND Approved as to style and content by: D. L. Hamilton (Chair of Co it e) J. Richard eff ( mber) John Canu (Member) ~i' . g Vaughn M. Bryant (Head of Department) December...

Neyland, Robert Stephen

2012-06-07

179

LittleRockCreek SOIL SURVEY OF ATOKA COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

E-print Network

Source of Map: Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil Survey URL: http: 3/8/1995; 3/10/1995 MAP LEGEND Soil Map Units Cities Detailed Counties Detailed States Interstate Highways Roads Rails Water Hydrography Oceans Escarpment, bedrock Escarpment, non-bedrock Gulley Levee

Ghajar, Afshin J.

180

Monument Creek hydraulics project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given some general questions (file "IntroQuestions_07.pdf") related to project design during the class session before the main project is handed out. They need to use their textbook and/or other class resources to attempt to answer these questions and to prepare to discuss them the next class session. These questions concern field reconstruction of flood hydraulics, specifically. of bankfull flow. At this next class session we discuss their answers to the preliminary questions. Students are then given the main project handout (Monument_Ck_Problem_07.pdf). This gives them the general questions to be answered in the project. After reading it, students brainstorm again as a class about how to go about answering the questions. Students then divide themselves into research of three. These teams will synthesize data together and ultimately write up the project together. Each team then sends one member to join members of other teams to do one of the three main aspects of the field or computer work (1) field identification of the bankfull channel and measurement of bankfull channel geometry, (2) field determination of modern channel roughness from modern stream hydraulics (Manning's n is back-calculated from present channel geometry and flow), (3) development of a flood-frequency curve for this reach of Monument Creek from USGS discharge data. These working groups (with one member from each research team) work initially independently in the field and subsequently doing calculations in the lab, or on the computer. Once each working group has completed what it can do on its own, these groups split up and each member of each group carries the groups results back to his/her research team, and explains to the other members of the research team what he/she has done to this point and what results he/she has for the team. The team then works to synthesize he results into an overall answer to the questions posed at the beginning of the lab (confusing enough for you?). Each research team then writes up the results, sometimes (as in 2007) as a lab write up, in other years in scientific paper format. Whether the project is turned in simply as a lab write up or as a scientific paper, students are always asked to assess sources of error and how they might affect the results. Key words: Fluvial geomorphology, fluvial hydraulics, bankfull discharge, flood-frequency analysis Designed for a geomorphology course

Leonard, Eric

181

Paleomagnetism of the Miocene intrusive suite of Kidd Creek: Timing of deformation in the Cascade arc, southern Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paleomagnetic study of the intrusive suite of Kidd Creek in the southern Washington Cascades (23 sites in dikes and sills) was undertaken to help determine if these rocks are comagmatic and whether they postdate regional folding of the volcanic arc. Fission track and 40Ar-39Ar age determinations indicate an age of ???12.7 Ma (middle Miocene) for these rocks. The similarity of normal-polarity characteristic directions for most samples corroborate the available geochemical data indicating that these rocks are most likely comagmatic. Reversed-polarity directions for samples from four sites, however, show that emplacement of Kidd Creek intrusions spanned at least one reversal of the geomagnetic field. The paleomagnetic directions for the dikes and sills fail a fold test at the 99% confidence level indicating that the Kidd Creek rocks postdate regional folding. The mean in situ direction also indicates that the Kidd Creek and older rocks have been rotated 22?? ?? 6?? clockwise about a vertical or near-vertical axis from the expected Miocene direction. Compression and regional folding of the Cascade arc in southern Washington therefore had ended by ???12 Ma prior to the onset of deformation resulting in rotation of these rocks.

Hagstrum, J.T.; Swanson, D.A.; Snee, L.W.

1998-01-01

182

Wolf Creek, rurality and the Australian gothic  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with Crocodile Dundee before it, the recent Australian film Wolf Creek promotes a specific and arguably urban-centric understanding of rural Australia. However, whilst the former film is couched in mythologized notions of the rural idyll, Wolf Creek is based firmly around the concept of rural horror. Wolf Creek is both a horror movie and a road movie, one which

John Scott; Dean Biron

2010-01-01

183

SALMON RESEARCH AT DEER CREEK, CALIF.  

E-print Network

temperatures at Deer Creek Station ...... 10 7. Losses in Deer Creek Irrigation Company Canal, 1914$. 11 #12. Parker, Engineering advice and aid in construction was supplied by the Uo S, Bureau of Reclamation of Vina» In common with many other streams draining the western slopes of the Sierras, Deer Creek begins

184

Genetic evidence for two evolutionarily significant units of White Sands pupfish  

E-print Network

in southern New Mexico: Salt Creek, Malpais Spring and Mound Spring located on White Sands Missile Range Ecology Laboratory, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802, USA 2 Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, Salt Creek, Mound Spring and Lost River. Recently reported histor- ical accounts indicate

Jones, Adam

185

Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

1982-03-01

186

OXYGEN AERATION AT NEWTOWN CREEK  

EPA Science Inventory

A successful initial feasibility investigation of oxygen aeration at the 0.11-cu m/sec (2.5-mgd) municipal wastewater treatment plant in Batavia, New York, prompted a larger demonstration at New York City's 13.6-cu m/sec (310-mgd) Newtown Creek Plant. A 34-mo evaluation was perfo...

187

'Escher' Rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water.

Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend.

These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

2004-01-01

188

Stable isotope study of water-rock interaction and ore formation, Bayhorse base and precious metal district, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole-rock ??18O and ??D values from the Garden Creek Phyllite define an isotopically depleted zone (60 km2) around the Nevada Mountain stock and are the result of high-temperature interactions with ancient meteoric waters at water/rock ratios ranging from 0.002 to 0.09. Comparison of the ore fluid ??18OH2O and ??DH2O values with hypothetical waters equilibrated with the Garden Creek Phyllite indicates that the hydrothermal fluids must have also interacted with the basal dolomite of Bayhorse Creek, which underlies the phyllite. The ?? 13CCO2 values for the hydrothermal fluids also record a transition from early water/rock interactions that were dominated by the Garden Creek Phyllite to later interactions that were influenced significantly by the basal dolomite of Bayhorse Creek. The range of ??34S values may be interpreted as either a heterogeneous sedimentary source or mixed sedimentary-magmatic sources. -from Authors

Seal, R.R., II; Rye, R.O.

1992-01-01

189

ROCKing the JAKs.  

PubMed

The endocrine cytokine leptin is mainly secreted by white adipose tissue and plasma leptin levels positively correlate with body fat mass. Via its action on neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), leptin regulates body weight by stimulating energy expenditure and inhibiting food intake. The main signaling pathway of the leptin receptor is the JAK2-STAT3 pathway. A recent publication of Huang et al. in Nature Neuroscience shows that leptin's hypothalamic signaling via JAK2 requires the kinase ROCK1 (Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1). ROCK1 directly phosphorylates JAK2, and this phosphorylation is required for the JAK2-STAT3 pathway of the leptin receptor. Gene deletion of ROCK1 in ARC neurons targeted by leptin makes these neurons less sensitive to leptin. This is reflected by a pronounced weight gain with hyperphagia, reduced locomotor activity, and increased fat accumulation. In this article we comment on the article of Huang et al. While the mechanism of ROCK1 activation in the neurons remains uncharacterized for the moment, a literature survey suggests that the interplay between ROCK1 and a JAK kinase may be a common theme for receptors that function via a JAK2 and even for other members of the JAK kinase family. PMID:24069551

Peelman, Frank; Tavernier, Jan

2013-07-01

190

The geology and mechanics of formation of the Fort Rock Dome, Yavapai County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Fort Rock Dome, a craterlike structure in northern Arizona, is the erosional product of a circular domal uplift associated with a Precambrian shear zone exposed within the crater and with Tertiary volcanism. A section of Precambrian to Quaternary rocks is described, and two Tertiary units, the Crater Pasture Formation and the Fort Rock Creek Rhyodacite, are named. A mathematical model of the doming process is developed that is consistent with the history of the Fort Rock Dome.

Fuis, Gary S.

1996-01-01

191

Sedimentary Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This in-depth description of sedimentary rocks covers their classification as clastic, carbonate, or chemical/biochemical as well as their depositional environments, known as long and short clastic systems and carbonate depositional environments. It also presents a discussion of sedimentary rock evolution with an evolutionary diagram and a section on tectonics and sedimentary rocks. An alphabetical list of rocks with photograph, quartz-feldspar-lithic (QFL) composition, description, tectonic association, and formation and environments is given. Identification keys, both basic and QFL are also provided.

Fichter, Lynn

192

Rock flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.

Matveyev, S. N.

1986-01-01

193

Application of the Basin Characterization Model to Estimate In-Place Recharge and Runoff Potential in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A regional-scale water-balance model was used to estimate recharge and runoff potential and support U.S. Geological Survey efforts to develop a better understanding of water availability for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah. The water-balance model, or Basin Characterization Model (BCM), was used to estimate regional ground-water recharge for the 13 hydrographic areas in the study area. The BCM calculates recharge by using a distributed-parameter, water-balance method and monthly climatic boundary conditions. The BCM requires geographic information system coverages of soil, geology, and topographic information with monthly time-varying climatic conditions of air temperature and precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration, snow accumulation, and snowmelt are distributed spatially with process models. When combined with surface properties of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of bedrock and alluvium, the potential water available for in-place recharge and runoff is calculated using monthly time steps using a grid scale of 866 feet (270 meters). The BCM was used with monthly climatic inputs from 1970 to 2004, and results were averaged to provide an estimate of the average annual recharge for the BARCAS study area. The model estimates 526,000 acre-feet of potential in-place recharge and approximately 398,000 acre-feet of potential runoff. Assuming 15 percent of the runoff becomes recharge, the model estimates average annual ground-water recharge for the BARCAS area of about 586,000 acre-feet. When precipitation is extrapolated to the long-term climatic record (1895-2006), average annual recharge is estimated to be 530,000 acre-feet, or about 9 percent less than the recharge estimated for 1970-2004.

Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.

2007-01-01

194

Sedimentary Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview of sedimentary rocks is part of an online historical geology class taught by Dr. Pamela J.W. Gore at Georgia Perimeter College. The outline format includes basic information about the different types and classifications of sedimentary rocks and their defining characteristics, sedimentary structures, and sedimentary environments. Photographs help illustrate the concepts by providing real-world examples.

Gore, Pamela J.; College, Georgia P.

195

78 FR 50090 - Notice of Intent To Extend the Public Scoping Period for the Rock Springs Resource Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...revising the respective Resource Management Plans for the Rock Springs and...Salt Wells [Creek] HMA [Herd Management Area] to a Herd Area, which...Adobe Town HMA [Appropriate Management Level] AML to 225-450 wild...

2013-08-16

196

Development of Rock Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter describes the development of rock engineering and provides introductory descriptions of the following concepts: rockbursts and elastic theory, discontinuous rock masses, engineering rock mechanics, geological data collection, laboratory testing of rock, rock mass classification, rock mass strength, in situ stress measurements, groundwater problems, rock reinforcement, excavation methods in rock, and analytical tools used in rock engineering.

2008-08-21

197

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rock Cycle Mineralogy 4 Kids Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Rock Cycle Map Rocks and Minerals Rocks and Minerals Pictures Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Earth Science Earth Science Uses for Minerals Metamorphic Rock Forming Sedimentary Rocks Observation ...

Richrigby

2010-02-23

198

Art Rocks with Rock Art!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals

Bickett, Marianne

2011-01-01

199

NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington  

E-print Network

NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington Federal funds $0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Salt Creek Estuary Reconnection project will significantly enhance tidal and fluvial hydrology to 22.5 acres of salt marsh, which will return the salt marsh to its

US Army Corps of Engineers

200

DEEP CREEK AND MUD CREEK, TWIN FALLS, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Deep Creek and Mud Creek are located in Twin Falls County near Buhl, Idaho (17040212). From April through October, these creeks convey irrigation drainage water from the western part of the Twin Falls irrigation tract to the Snake River. During 1986, water quality surveys were ...

201

Rock Shots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently debuted on Adam Curry's METAVERSE site is Rock Shots, the first exclusive gallery of Rock 'n Roll photography on the Web by photographer Niels Van Iperen. Niels has been shooting musicians, fans and festivals for over 12 years in Europe and the U.S. His clients include the magazines Rolling Stone, Musician, Metal Hammer, OOR and Guitar World . Rock Shots brings you face to face with Aerosmith live in Brazil, Pearl Jam in their dressing room, the Red Hot Chili Peppers in a swimming pool and more ... on stage, backstage and audience rage. Portraits are viewed in Rock Shots through a custom-made search engine and is updated weekly with new artists.

Iperen, Niels V.

1995-01-01

202

77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...reduced. The vertical clearance of Snake Creek Bridge, across Snake Creek is 27 feet. Vessels with...pass underneath the bridge while it is in the closed position. The normal operating schedule for Snake Creek Bridge is set forth in...

2012-02-24

203

78 FR 47427 - AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Operate the Reno Creek ISR Project AGENCY...operate its proposed Reno Creek, In Situ Leach Uranium...Basin near Wright, Wyoming. DATES: Requests for...facility at AUC's Reno Creek site near Wright, Wyoming. Requirements for...

2013-08-05

204

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lobos Creek Inlet Structure, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

205

2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

206

33 CFR 117.793 - Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek).  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). 117...Requirements New York 117.793 Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). ...requirements apply to all bridges across Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek):...

2014-07-01

207

33 CFR 117.793 - Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). 117...Requirements New York 117.793 Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). ...requirements apply to all bridges across Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek):...

2013-07-01

208

33 CFR 117.793 - Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). 117...Requirements New York 117.793 Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). ...requirements apply to all bridges across Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek):...

2011-07-01

209

33 CFR 117.793 - Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). 117...Requirements New York 117.793 Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek). ...requirements apply to all bridges across Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek):...

2010-07-01

210

128. Credit JE. Outlet of tunnel on South Battle Creek ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

128. Credit JE. Outlet of tunnel on South Battle Creek Canal immediately above Junction with Cross Country Canal. (JE, v. 25 1910 p. 118). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

211

8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, 1928' - Harp Creek Bridge, Spans Harp Creek at State Highway 7, Harrison, Boone County, AR

212

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

213

1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the Oregon coast, view looking east - Rocky Creek Bridge, Spanning Rocky Creek on Oregon Coast Highway (U.S. Route 101), Depoe Bay, Lincoln County, OR

214

White holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that observable white holes may be considered local inhomogeneities of the cosmic background field. Calculations are proposed for the magnitude of the frequency shift on the Schwarzschild sphere, governing the formal stability of white holes. The white holes which are observable have not expanded beyond their Schwarzschild spheres in our space and have always been visible. Other

KAYLL LAKE

1978-01-01

215

Should We Dam Nanticoke Creek?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this decision-making exercise, students investigate what would occur if a dam were built along Nanticoke Creek, a real stream just north of West Corners near the Village of Endicott, New York. They will use topographic maps to determine how much area would be flooded by the new reservoir, to study river drainages, and to consider the impacts of dams on a region. They must also consider rivers in the context of their relation to humankind. The exercise can be extended to other, more local locations having similar topography.

Childs, Philip

216

"Sweet Little (White) Girls"? Sex and Fantasy across the Color Line and the Contestation of Patriarchal White Supremacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presence of the Little Rock Nine at Little Rock's Central High in September 1957 as a result of "Brown vs. the Board of Education" evoked anger, fear, and even panic among some parts of the white community, and many white women and girls responded with near hysteria. This article seeks to answer why. What was it about integration that provoked

Godfrey, Phoebe

2004-01-01

217

33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of the State highway bridge, mile...

2013-07-01

218

33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of the State highway bridge, mile...

2010-07-01

219

33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of the State highway bridge, mile...

2012-07-01

220

33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of the State highway bridge, mile...

2011-07-01

221

NAME: Stewart's Creek LOCATION: Barnstable, Massachusetts  

E-print Network

NAME: Stewart's Creek LOCATION: Barnstable, Massachusetts ACRES/RIVER MILES: 14 acres NON-FEDERAL SPONSOR(S): Town of Barnstable, Massachusetts PROJECT PARTNERS: Massachusetts Wetlands Restoration Program and an estuarine embayment (open water and intertidal flat) at Stewart's Creek in Hyannis, Massachusetts

US Army Corps of Engineers

222

Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

Berry, Mark E.

2003-02-01

223

Aquatic toxicology of Turkey Creek, Missouri, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

At low flows, ambient toxicity (measured as a reduction in Ceriodaphnia survival) was observed in two tributaries and in the main channel of Turkey Creek. Toxicity during periods of no observable stream flow was absent in Turkey Creek upstream of these sources and reduced downstream of them and a wastewater treatment plant. During stormwater runoff, ambient toxicity increased throughout Turkey

Tim D. Harrell; Joseph A. Arruda; James R. Triplett

2007-01-01

224

Goldsborough Creek Smolt Trapping Study, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is in the process of removing the severely deteriorating Goldsborough Dam on Goldsborough Creek. The purpose of this project is to restore creek conditions to pre-dam status and to restore fish passage into the upper reach...

B. Missildine

2001-01-01

225

Lida Abdul White House , 2005  

E-print Network

woman, is methodically painting white everything in her patheven the rocks and rubble on the ground. Eventually a ghost-like man, also clothed in black, enters the scene. He turns to face the whitewashed ruins and Abdul paints his back with the same...

Cateforis, David; Dusenbury, Mary

2006-05-01

226

Rock Pioneers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners investigate organisms that live along the ocean's rocky coast. Learners add bare rocks to an intertidal zone, and over the course of 6-8 weeks observe what plant and animals colonize (come to live) on the new rocks. The intertidal zone, covered by water during high tides and uncovered at low tides, is usually densely covered with marine organisms such as seaweeds, mussels, barnacles, snails, limpets, anemones and sea stars. Learners may not only discover pioneer organisms (first colonizers) of their new rocks, but other organisms that replace the first arrivals in the process of succession. This activity calls for multiple, weekly return visits to the intertidal zone.

Science, Lawrence H.

1981-01-01

227

Geophysical Investigations of the Smoke Creek Desert and their Geologic Implications, Northwest Nevada and Northeast California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Smoke Creek Desert is a large basin about 100 km (60 mi) north of Reno near the California-Nevada border, situated along the northernmost parts of the Walker Lane Belt, a physiographic region defined by diverse topographic expression consisting of northweststriking topographic features and strike-slip faulting. Because geologic and geophysical framework studies play an important role in understanding the hydrogeology of the Smoke Creek Desert, a geophysical effort was undertaken to help determine basin geometry, infer structural features, and estimate depth to basement. In the northernmost parts of the Smoke Creek Desert basin, along Squaw Creek Valley, geophysical data indicate that the basin is shallow and that granitic rocks are buried at shallow depths throughout the valley. These granitic rocks are faulted and fractured and presumably permeable, and thus may influence ground-water resources in this area. The Smoke Creek Desert basin itself is composed of three large oval sub-basins, all of which reach depths to basement of up to about 2 km (1.2 mi). In the central and southern parts of the Smoke Creek Desert basin, magnetic anomalies form three separate and narrow EW-striking features. These features consist of high-amplitude short-wavelength magnetic anomalies and probably reflect Tertiary basalt buried at shallow depth. In the central part of the Smoke Creek Desert basin a prominent EW-striking gravity and magnetic prominence extends from the western margin of the basin to the central part of the basin. Along this ridge, probably composed of Tertiary basalt, overlying unconsolidated basin-fill deposits are relatively thin (< 400 m). The central part of the Smoke Creek Desert basin is also characterized by the Mid-valley fault, a continuous geologic and geophysical feature striking NS and at least 18-km long, possibly connecting with faults mapped in the Terraced Hills and continuing southward to Pyramid Lake. The Mid-valley fault may represent a lateral (east-west) barrier to ground-water flow. In addition, the Mid-valley fault may also be a conduit for along-strike (north-south) ground-water flow, channeling flow to the southernmost parts of the basin and the discharge areas north of Sand Pass.

Ponce, David A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Tilden, Janet E.

2006-01-01

228

Sedimentary Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a course handout that accompanies the discussion of the origin of sedimentary rocks. Topics include depositional tectonic settings, texture as an indicator of energy levels in the depositional environment, interpretation of various sandstones, and the influences of paleoclimate and source area lithology. Photos depict grain size and texture. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1995-09-24

229

Classic Rock  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While "early college" programs designed for high-school-age students are beginning to proliferate nationwide, a small New England school has been successfully educating teens for nearly four decades. In this article, the author features Simon's Rock, a small liberal arts college located in the Great Barrington, Massachusetts, that has been

Beem, Edgar Allen

2004-01-01

230

Rock Grinding  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Rocks from the Stillwater Mine are brought to the USGS in Denver, Colorado, where they are sledged and ground before entering the plasma melter at Zybek Advanced Products. __________ The USGS has created man-made moon dirt, or regolith, to help NASA prepare for upcoming moon explorations. Four ton...

2009-05-26

231

Stillwater Rocks  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Rocks from the Stillwater Mine are brought to the USGS in Denver, Colorado, where they are ground before entering the plasma melter at Zybek Advanced Products. __________ The USGS has created man-made moon dirt, or regolith, to help NASA prepare for upcoming moon explorations. Four tons of the sim...

2009-05-26

232

The investigation of the Caney Creek shipwreck archaeological site 41MG32  

E-print Network

" century. DEDICATION The Caney Creek Steamboat Project would not have been possible without the support of Mrs. Valye White. Over the last four years, Mrs. White has allowed the SUAS and THC crew members the use of her home and docking facilities... to help with the study of this site. This support has been a key factor in the success of this thesis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS More than 2, 500 volunteer hours were donated to the project by 60 divers and professional archaeologists from across the State...

Hedrick, David Layne

2012-06-07

233

Igneous Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects. So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not sports of nature, a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

Doe, Bruce R.

234

Age of Neoproterozoic Bilatarian Body and Trace Fossils, White  

E-print Network

Age of Neoproterozoic Bilatarian Body and Trace Fossils, White Sea, Russia: Implications-bearing, shallow marine siliciclastic rocks in the Zimnie Gory section of the White Sea region indicates the Flinders Ranges (10, 21) in South Australia and White Sea coast in Russia (22), which account for 60

235

Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

Wiley, J. B.

1994-01-01

236

Crab Creek Subbasin: Telford Unit -Management Plan Introduction  

E-print Network

Crab Creek Subbasin: Telford Unit - Management Plan Introduction The Telford Unit of the Crab Creek, S, E and W.) The Telford Unit is shown in Figure 1. 1 #12;Figure 1. Telford Unit of Crab Creek grazing are the dominant land uses within the Telford Unit of the Crab Creek subbasin. Crops are primarily

237

Crab Creek Subbasin: Telford Unit/Swanson Lakes Wildlife Area  

E-print Network

Crab Creek Subbasin: Telford Unit/Swanson Lakes Wildlife Area Assessment and Inventory Introduction This portion of the Crab Creek Subbasin Plan is narrowed down in scope, from Crab Creek in general within a portion of the Crab Creek Subbasin (Vander Haegen et al. 2000, WDFW 2000). Many of these species

238

2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN FROM SAME ANGLE AS CA-167-X-1. THREE ORIGINAL PENSTOCKS PLUS FOURTH AND FIFTH PENSTOCKS (VISIBLE TO LEFT OF ORIGINAL THREE), AND THREE ORIGINAL STANDPIPES COUPLED TO FOURTH STANDPIPE SHOWN BEHIND AND ABOVE POWERHOUSE BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

239

3. OVERVIEW CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BIG CREEK NO. 3 COMPLEX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. OVERVIEW CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BIG CREEK NO. 3 COMPLEX SHOWING SWITCHRACKS AND SUPPORT BUILDINGS TO PHOTO RIGHT OF POWERHOUSE, SAN JOAQUIN RIVER FLOWING IN PHOTO CENTER TO LOWER RIGHT, AND PENSTOCKS AND STANDPIPES IN BACKGROUND ABOVE POWERHOUSE. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

240

Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

Reiser, Dudley W.

1986-01-01

241

Flood of August 27-28, 1977, West Cache Creek and Blue Beaver Creek, southwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents a major storm which occurred August 27-28, 1977, in southwest Oklahoma near the communities of Cache and Faxon, OK. Blue Beaver Creek and West Cache Creek and their tributaries experienced extensive flooding that caused an estimated $1 million in damages. Reported rainfall amounts of 8 to 12 inches in 6 hours indicate the storm had a frequency in excess of the 100-year rainfall. Peak discharges on Blue Beaver Creek near Cache and West Cache Creek near Faxon were 13,500 cubic feet per second and 45,700 cubic feet per second respectively. The estimated flood frequency was in excess of 100 years on Blue Beaver Creek and in excess of 50 years on West Cache Creek. Unit runoff on small basins were in excess of 2000 cubic feet per second per square mile. Surveyed highwater marks were used to map the flooded area. (USGS)

Corley, Robert K.; Huntzinger, Thomas L.

1979-01-01

242

Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987  

SciTech Connect

Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

1988-03-01

243

Reintroduction of Native FishReintroduction of Native Fish Species to Coal CreekSpecies to Coal Creek  

E-print Network

1 Reintroduction of Native FishReintroduction of Native Fish Species to Coal CreekSpecies to Coal Control and Reclamation ActSurface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977of 1977 Coal Creek Watershed Foundation (2000)Coal Creek Watershed Foundation (2000) BackgroundBackground Fish populations in Coal Creek

Gray, Matthew

244

Poohbear Rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image, taken by Sojourner's front right camera, was taken when the rover was next to Poohbear (rock at left) and Piglet (not seen) as it looked out toward Mermaid Dune. The textures differ from the foreground soil containing a sorted mix of small rocks, fines and clods, from the area a bit ahead of the rover where the surface is covered with a bright drift material. Soil experiments where the rover wheels dug in the soil revealed that the cloudy material exists underneath the drift.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

1997-01-01

245

Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

1992-04-01

246

33 CFR 117.185 - Pacheco Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California 117.185 Pacheco Creek. The draw of the Contra Costa County highway bridge, mile 1.0, and Union Pacific Railroad bridge, mile 1.1, both near Martinez, shall open on...

2010-07-01

247

33 CFR 117.185 - Pacheco Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California 117.185 Pacheco Creek. The draw of the Contra Costa County highway bridge, mile 1.0, and Union Pacific Railroad bridge, mile 1.1, both near Martinez, shall open on...

2011-07-01

248

Wallace Creek Interpretive Trail: A Geologic Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of guides covers the geology, seismology, hydrology, and physical geography of the San Andreas Fault in the area of Wallace Creek in San Luis Obispo County, California. Materials available here include a downloadable trail guide for Wallace Creek; an interactive guide with information on the earthquakes, the fault, and plate tectonics; a downloadable guide from the Geologic Society of America (GSA); and a downloadable self-guided automobile tour for the Carrizo Plain. There are also field exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site, and a link to a bulletin from the GSA that explores the research done at Wallace Creek and explains how the slip rate for the San Andreas fault was measured.

Meltzner, Aron

249

33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

2013-07-01

250

33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

2010-07-01

251

33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

2012-07-01

252

Isoseismal Map: 1988 Tennant Creek Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This isoseismal map shows the distribution of Modified Mercalli values compiled from questionnaires distributed after the largest shock of the January 1988 Tennant Creek earthquake, which occurred in Northern Territory, Australia.

253

33 CFR 334.480 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island...  

...Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...zone on Archers Creek (between the Broad River and Beaufort River), Ribbon Creek,...

2014-07-01

254

External Resource: Rock and Roll  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains information on exactly what a rock is, as well as a diagram of the rock cycle. Topics include: characteristics of rocks, types of rocks, igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks, and sedimentary rocks.

1900-01-01

255

Landowners lead successful Buck Creek restoration  

E-print Network

of the watershed, according to Dr. John Sij, retired agronomist and former project leader at the Vernon center. ?#31;is e#27;ort veri#25;ed that bacteria levels periodi- cally reach problematic levels,? he said. Landowners lead successful Buck Creek... of the watershed, according to Dr. John Sij, retired agronomist and former project leader at the Vernon center. ?#31;is e#27;ort veri#25;ed that bacteria levels periodi- cally reach problematic levels,? he said. Landowners lead successful Buck Creek...

Boutwell, Kathryn S.

2012-01-01

256

Welcome to Rock Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Seeking to revitalize a unit on rocks, sand, and soil for first-graders, the authors created new hands-on lessons. These included testing the hardness of rocks, making models of the Earth, and sorting rocks. As a culminating activity, students participated in a series of Rock Day events that focused on the three different types of rocks and the rock cycle.

Benhart, Jeaneen; Varelas, Maria; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2004-01-01

257

Boulder Creek: A Virtual Field Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a field lesson that is designed to enhance classroom education about urban resource management issues. The lesson consists of web materials and a self-guided field study of Boulder Creek, located in Boulder, Colorado. By completing this field lesson, students can learn about the tremendous benefits and dangers posed by an important urban-aquatic resource (Boulder Creek). The field study of Boulder Creek has three objectives: to study human-environment interactions in Boulder, CO, to learn basic techniques of fieldwork in geography, and to understand how natural hazards affect life in Boulder, CO. Although the lesson is built around a field excursion to the Boulder Creek area, the information contained in the preview link could stand on its own as an educational tool. Additionally, the information in the preview section includes questions that students can answer without going into the field. For those who are in the Boulder area and can travel to Boulder Creek, twelve stops have been chosen to supplement the online preview material. A map and questions are available for this field excursion. The web site also provides a forum for students to discuss their opinions on human-environment interactions pertaining to the Boulder Creek area.

Hill, A.; Solem, Michael

258

Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

2001-01-01

259

Pop Rocks Experiment 25 Pop rock packages  

E-print Network

Pop Rocks Experiment Materials · 25 Pop rock packages · Four 9 inch balloons · Four 16 oz sodas of it, tell them that many people believe that eating pop rocks and drinking soda at the same time will make your stomach explode. Grand Finale: Pop rocks & soda 1. Ask the kids what they think will happen

Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

260

Edible Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson has been designed as a comfortable introduction to describing meteorites. It helps students become better observers by making a connection between the familiar (candy bars) and the unfamiliar (meteorites). Edible "rocks" are used in a scientific context, showing students the importance of observation, teamwork and communication skills. In everyday terms, students draw and describe the food. They pair their observations with short descriptions that are in geologic "Field Note" style. As the teacher and class review, appropriate geologic terminology may be substituted by the teacher and subsequently embraced by even very young students.

Lindstrom, Marilyn

261

Classifying Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants and animals are usually organized by their family tree (origin) and by their physical and genetic characteristics. This activity helps to demonstrate to students that geologists do the same with rocks, which are usually organized by their origin and by their physical and chemical characteristics. To have a better understanding of nature and as one of the initial steps of scientific understanding, it is important for humans to organize nature into groups. This site has a list of materials, background information, a detailed procedure, and a suggestion for assessment.

262

Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

1990-01-01

263

The importance of tidal creek ecosystems Keywords: Estuary; Tidal creek; Pollution  

E-print Network

.g. the Chesapeake Bay, the Albemarle�Pamlico Sound System, Florida Bay, to name a few). These better-known large Marine Biology and Ecology 298 (2004) 145�149 #12;estuaries such as the ICW, Laguna Madre, Chesapeake BayPreface The importance of tidal creek ecosystems Keywords: Estuary; Tidal creek; Pollution Tidal

Mallin, Michael

264

All About Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will be learning about different types of rocks today.This project will teach you how to sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. We will even see a video of new rocks being formed! Visit this link to read an intro about rocks. Intro to Rocks Then visit these three links 1) Metamorphic Rocks 2) Igneous Rocks 3) Sedimentary Rocks Now answer these questions: 1) What types of rocks do you think you would find in your backyard? 2)Compare and contrast 2 of the 3 different types of rocks. 3)What is your favorite ...

Heffernan, Laura

2010-06-21

265

Rock cycle in chocolate lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab students receive two small blocks (1 cm3) of chocolate (white and dark), and follow it through the entire rock cycle. The chocolate blocks are melted on a hot plate, with different melting temperatures and rheologies due to compositional differences. The "magma" is then cooled either slowly or quickly, and the resulting textures are examined and compared to granite and basalt hand samples. The "igneous" chocolate is then ground and abraded to show erosion, and the eroded material is pressure-lithified to form "sedimentary" chocolate. The sedimentary chocolate then undergoes greater pressure to mimic metamorphism, and additional heat re-melts the chocolate back into magma. Students compare the chocolate "rocks" in each of these stages with real rock samples. The final assignment is to describe the "life story" of complex conglomerate rock sample. The lab is a bit messy and takes a bit of preparation, but students come away with a significantly better understanding of the rock cycle as a whole and each of its component parts.

Stelling, Pete

266

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

White, Jim

2004-02-01

267

Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Montezuma Creek-Aneth area, southeastern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Montezuma Creek-Aneth area is in the northeastern part of the Navajo Indian Reservation in southeastern Utah. It is a semiarid area along the San Juan River near the communities of Montezuma Creek and Aneth. Within the Blanding Basin, geologic formations exposed are of Jurassic and Quaternary age. The rock strata are nearly horizontal, dipping gently northeastward. Wells derive small quantities of mater for domestic use from aquifers in the Morrison Formation and the Bluff Sandstone of Jurassic age, but aquifers in deeper formations contain saline mater or brine. Alluvium consisting of sand and gravel along the San Juan River is a potential source of additional moderately large quantities of water to shallow wells for industrial use and public supply. The chemical quality of water in the alluvium is good and varies directly with the discharge of the San Juan River.

Sumsion, C.T.

1975-01-01

268

GEOLOGIC AND GEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE MEAGER CREEK GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA  

SciTech Connect

Meager Creek is perhaps the most intensely explored geothermal system occurring in the Cascade and Garibaldi Volcanic Belts. This paper describes the results of new lithologic, petrographic, X-ray, isotopic, and geochemical investigations of core and cuttings from the Meager Creek wells. The data demonstrate that alteration related to the present geothermal system is superimposed on basement rocks which were metamorphosed and intruded by dioritic stocks prior to the onset of volcanism. The geothermal alteration developed mainly after emplacement of hypabyssal dikes associated with Meager Mountain volcanism and is characterized by mineral assemblages consisting primarily of sheet silicates, quartz, carbonate, hematite, iron oxides, pyrite, and minor epidote, potassium feldspar, actinolite and biotite. Permeabilities within the upper portions of the reservoir are low, reflecting filling of the fracture systems by carbonate. Petrographic observations suggest that sealing of the fractures accompanied hydrothermal brecciation and boiling of the fluids.

Moore, J.N.; Adams, M.C.; Stauder, J.J.

1985-01-22

269

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Tacoma Creek South Project, Technical Report 2003-2005.  

SciTech Connect

On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Tacoma Creek South property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in June 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Tacoma Creek South Project provides a total of 190.79 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetlands provide 20.51 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Grassland provides 1.65 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 11.76 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 139.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forest also provides 19.15 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Tacoma Creek South Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

Entz, Ray

2005-02-01

270

Utilizing Undergraduate Research Projects to Assist in the Development of Interpretive Resources at City of Rocks National Reserve and Castle Rocks State Park, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Albion Mountains of southern Idaho, granitic rock of the 28 Ma Almo pluton and 2.5 Ga Green Creek Complex of southern Idaho has weathered and eroded into a spectacular landscape of towers and spires. These unusual landforms impressed travelers on the California Trail who compared their shapes to cathedrals, castles, pyramids, and other man-made structures. The region eventually

K. R. Pogue

2003-01-01

271

76 FR 57729 - Boundary Hydroelectric Project; Sullivan Creek Project; Notice of Availability of the Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sullivan Creek Project is located on Sullivan Lake, and Sullivan Creek and Outlet Creeks, tributaries...Project and surrendering the Sullivan Creek Project. The final EIS...information, please contact David Turner at (202) 502-...

2011-09-16

272

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hoe Creek, Wyoming underground coal gasification site and comparison with the Hanna, Wyoming site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978 the third test (Hoe Creek III) in a series of underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments was completed at a site south of Gillette, Wyoming. The post-burn study of the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock of the two coal seams affected by the experiment is based on the study of fifteen cores. The primary purpose of the

F. C. Ethridge; L. K. Burns; W. G. Alexander; G. N. II Craig; A. D. Youngberg

1983-01-01

273

The Pumpkin Creek Watershed Limited Irrigation and No-Till Demonstration Gary L. Stone, Gary W. Hergert, Dean Yonts, Jim Schild, Rex A. Nielson and James Margheim  

E-print Network

The Pumpkin Creek Watershed Limited Irrigation and No-Till Demonstration Gary L. Stone, Gary W and Jail rock in the distance. PROCEDURES All producers used no-till cropping practices (Figure 3). Limited this was a no-till demonstration, we only looked at grain and/or forage crops, not root crops such as sugar

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

274

FIDDLER CREEK POLYMER AUGMENTATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Fiddler Creek field is in Weston County, Wyoming, and was discovered in 1948. Secondary waterflooding recovery was started in 1955 and terminated in the mid-1980s with a fieldwide recovery of approximately 40%. The West Fiddler Creek Unit, the focus of this project, had a lower recovery and therefore has the most remaining oil. Before the project this unit was producing approximately 85 bbl of oil per day from 20 pumping wells and 17 swab wells. The recovery process planned for this project involved adapting two independent processes, the injection of polymer as a channel blocker or as a deep-penetrating permeability modifier, and the stabilization of clays and reduction of the residual oil saturation in the near-wellbore area around the injection wells. Clay stabilization was not conducted because long-term fresh water injection had not severely reduced the injectivity. It was determined that future polymer injection would not be affected by the clay. For the project, two adjoining project patterns were selected on the basis of prior reservoir studies and current well availability and production. The primary injection well of Pattern 1 was treated with a small batch of MARCIT gel to create channel blocking. The long-term test was designed for three phases: (1) 77 days of injection of a 300-mg/l cationic polyacrylamide, (2) 15 days of injection of a 300-mg/l anionic polymer to ensure injectivity of the polymer, and (3) 369 days of injection of the 300-mg/l anionic polymer and a 30:1 mix of the crosslinker. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted as planned. Phase 3 was started in late March 1999 and terminated in May 2001. In this phase, a crosslinker was added with the anionic polymer. Total injection for Phase 3 was 709,064 bbl. To maintain the desired injection rate, the injection pressure was slowly increased from 1,400 psig to 2,100 psig. Early in the application of the polymer, it appeared that the sweep improvement program was having a positive effect on Pattern 1 with lesser effects in Pattern 2. These early observations did not continue to develop. The oil production for both patterns remained fairly constant to the rates established by the restart of waterflooding. The water production declined but stabilized in both patterns. The stabilization of the oil at prepolymer rates and water production at the lower rates can be attributed to the polymer injection, but the effect was not as great as originally predicted. The sweep improvement for the patterns appeared to be negatively impacted by extended shutdowns in the injection and production systems. Such problems as those experienced in this project can be expected when long-term polymer injection is started in old waterflood fields. To prevent these problems, new injection and production tubulars and pumps would be required at a cost prohibitive to the present, independent operators. Unless the future results from the continued waterflood show positive effects of the long-term polymer injection, it appears that the batch-type polymer treatment may have more promise than the long-term treatment and should be more cost effective.

Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

2001-10-31

275

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page offers a simple illustrated guide to the three rock types- igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic; and the most common rock-forming mineral groups: quartz, plagioclase feldspars, potassium feldspars, micas, amphiboles, olivine, and calcite. The rock types include extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks, clastic, biologic, and chemical sedimentary rocks, and both foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rocks. A section is included on naming igneous rocks. The igneous rocks tuff and basalt are also discussed, as is sediment. Users are directed to related resources and may print out a simplified rock classification chart.

276

External Resource: Rock Cycle Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This cutaway view of Earth shows where some common rock-forming processes occur. Embedded animations will illustrate the path of a rock moving through the rock cycle. Topics include: rock cycle, magma chamber, magma, igneous rock, sedimentary rock, erosio

1900-01-01

277

Steel Creek fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987  

SciTech Connect

Fish samples were collected from Steel Creek during 1986 and 1987 following the impoundment of the headwaters of the stream to form L-Lake, a cooling reservoir for L-Reactor which began operating late in 1985. Electrofishing and ichthyoplankton sample stations were located throughout the creek. Fykenetting sample stations were located in the creek mouth and just above the Steel Creek swamp. Larval fish and fish eggs were collected with 0.5 m plankton nets. Multivariate analysis of the electrofishing data suggested that the fish assemblages in Steel Creek exhibited structural differences associated with proximity to L-Lake, and habitat gradients of current velocity, depth, and canopy cover. The Steel Creek corridor, a lotic reach beginning at the base of the L-Lake embankment was dominated by stream species and bluegill. The delta/swamp, formed where Steel Creek enters the Savannah River floodplain, was dominated by fishes characteristic of slow flowing waters and heavily vegetated habitats. The large channel draining the swamp supported many of the species found in the swamp plus riverine and anadromous forms.

Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.; Kissick, L.A.

1988-03-01

278

An investigation of carbon dynamics in Beaver Creek, Alaska, using in-situ sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (pCO2), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and water-quality sensors were deployed at two remote sites on sub-arctic Beaver Creek, Alaska, to characterize carbon dynamics during the open water season of 2010. Beaver Creek is a tributary of the Yukon River, with nearly half of its 300 mile length classified as a national Wild and Scenic River. Beaver Creek above Victoria Creek (BCV) drains 3315 km2, and receives water inputs primarily from the White Mountains and other headwater catchments. Beaver Creek near Michel Lake (BCM) drains 6164 km2, and is located 180 km downriver from BCV in the Yukon Flats. The location of the sites permitted the study of lake and wetland inputs between the sites. Seasonal pCO2 ranged from ~1000 to 2200 ppm at BCV and from ~600 to 1200 ppm at BCM. Diel pCO2 variations were as high as 500 ppm at BCV and 200 ppm at BCM. Both sites were supersaturated in pCO2 with respect to atmospheric levels for the entire open water season. CO2 fluxes from water to atmosphere at each site will be presented. CDOM, pH, and O2 were used to further characterize river carbon dynamics. While rapidly changing river levels resulted in sensors being exposed to the atmosphere for varying periods of time, the use of these in-situ sensors provided a means to explore C dynamics on scales that would be impossible to investigate with random discreet sampling in this remote area of Alaska.

Dornblaser, M.; Striegl, R. G.

2010-12-01

279

Water-quality appraisal. Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, Mono County, California  

SciTech Connect

A late summer reconnaissance in 1981 and a spring high-flow sampling in 1982 of Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, located in the Mammoth crest area of the Sierra Nevada, indicated that three water-quality processes were occurring: (1) mineralization; (2) eutrophication; and (3) sedimentation. Limited areas of fecal contamination were also observed. Mineralization due primarily to geothermal springs increased dissolved-solids concentration downstream, which changed the chemical composition of the water. The percentage of calcium decreased gradually, the percentage of magnesium and sodium increased, and the percentage of fluoride, sulfate, and chloride fluctuated, but increased overall. These changes produced water quality in Mammoth Creek similar to that of the springs forming Hot Creek. Twin Lakes and the reach of Hot Creek below the fish hatchery showed evidence of eutrophication. Twin Lakes had floating mats of algae and a high dissolved-oxygen saturation of 147% at a pH of 9.2. Hot Creek had abundant growth of aquatic vascular plants and algae, dissolved-oxygen saturations ranging from 65% to 200%, algal growth potential of 30 milligrams per liter, nitrate concentration of 0.44 milligram per liter, and phosphate concentration of 0.157 milligram per liter. Sediment deposition was determined from detailed observations of bed-material composition, which showed that fine material was deposited at Sherwin Creek Road and downstream. Fecal contamination was indicated by fecal-coliform bacteria counts of 250 colonies per 100 milliliters and fecal-streptococcal bacteria counts greater than 1000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Although bacterial sampling was sporadic and incomplete, it did indicate adverse effects on water quality for the following beneficial uses that have been identified for Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek: (1) municipal supply; (2) cold-water habitat; and (3) contact and noncontact water recreation. 6 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

Setmire, J.G.

1984-06-01

280

6. VIEW OF BAMBOO GATE LEADING INTO WHITE GRAVEL AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF BAMBOO GATE LEADING INTO WHITE GRAVEL AND ROCK CLUSTER GARDEN REMINISCENT OF RYOAN-JI TEMPLE GARDEN IN KYOTO - Kykuit, Japanese Gardens, 200 Lake Road, Pocantico Hills, Westchester County, NY

281

Response of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout and Their Habitat to Drainage-Wide Habitat Management at Huff Creek, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 1978, in an effort to restore Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah, 68 instream habitat structures and 3,760 ft of rock riprap were installed in the Huff Creek (Wyoming) drainage, and livestock was controlled through exclosures and herding. Drainage-wide cutthroat trout abundance and biomass peaked in 1984 at 456 trout\\/mi and 56 lb\\/acre. The largest population (1984; 685

N. Allen Binns; Ronald Remmick

1994-01-01

282

Selected hydrologic data for Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selected hydrologic data were collected during 1986, 1987, and 1988 by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado. The data were obtained as part of a study to determine the present and projected effects of wastewater discharges on the two creeks. The data, which are available for 129 surface-water sites, include: (1) About 1,100 water quality analyses; (2) about 420 measurements of discharge, (3) characteristics of about 50 dye clouds associated with measurements of traveltime and reaeration , and (4) about 360 measurements of channel geometry. (USGS)

Kuhn, Gerhard; Ortiz, Roderick F.

1989-01-01

283

Major Rock Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the University of Saskatchewan contains general information on the major rock groups: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. Describes the rock cycle and the properties and formation of each major rock group.

2008-08-21

284

78 FR 28897 - Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project; Sweetwater County, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION [Docket No. 040-09068; License SUA-1598; NRC-2008-0391] Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project; Sweetwater County, Wyoming AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Environmental...

2013-05-16

285

75 FR 74701 - Ryckman Creek Resources, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PF10-18-000] Ryckman Creek Resources, LLC; Notice...November 8, 2010, Ryckman Creek Resources, LLC (Ryckman...capacity in Uinta County, Wyoming, all as more fully set...field in Uinta County, Wyoming; (2) a blanket certificate...Thomas Wynne, Ryckman Creek Resources, LLC, 3...

2010-12-01

286

Crab Creek Subbasin Plan Prepared for the Washington Department  

E-print Network

Crab Creek Subbasin Plan 5/26/2004 Prepared for the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Ecological Sciences, Inc. Crab Creek Subbasin Plan Approach and Public Involvement Outreach The Washington Planning for the Crab Creek Subbasin. Lincoln County Conservation District has been responsible

287

Nutrient limitation and algal blooms in urbanizing tidal creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal creeks are commonly found in low energy systems on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States, and are often subject to intense watershed human development. Many of these creeks are receiving urban and suburban runoff containing nutrients, among other pollutants. During the period 19932001, we studied three tidal creeks located in southeastern North Carolina, a rapidly urbanizing

Michael A. Mallin; Douglas C. Parsons; Virginia L. Johnson; Matthew R. McIver; Heather A. CoVan

2004-01-01

288

Collecting and Identifying Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Earth Science activity, students will investigate rocks in an outdoor field trip. Students will be divided into groups and given a Ziploc bag to collect rocks. We will then return to the classroom, and the students will put their rocks into different groups. The different groups could be the size, shape, color, and texture of the rocks. We will then talk about the Rock Cycle and the three main types of rocks. Students will record their observations in their science journals.

Linda Harvey, Marquette Catholic School, Virginia,MN

289

Rocks are fun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. Click on each of the links below to learn about the main types of rocks and then answer the questions that follow. *Igneous Rocks 1. In your own words, explain the TWO ways in which an igneous rock can be formed. 2. Please illustrate ONE of the ways an igneous rock is formed. *Metamorphic Rocks 1. Why ...

Peterson, Lori

2009-12-14

290

Wallace Creek Interpretive Trail: A Geologic Guide to the San Andreas Fault at Wallace Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These guides cover the geology, seismology, hydrology, and physical geography of the San Andreas Fault in the area of Wallace Creek in San Luis Obispo County, California. Materials available here include a downloadable trail guide for Wallace Creek; an interactive guide with information on the earthquakes,the fault, and plate tectonics; a downloadable guide from the Geologic Society of America (GSA); and a downloadable self-guided automobile tour for the Carrizo Plain. A bulletin from the GSA is available to explore some of the research done at Wallace Creek and explain in depth how the slip rate for the San Andreas fault was determined for the area. It is intended for those with some geological background and describes details not mentioned in the Interpretive Trail guide. There is also a section featuring field exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site.

291

Water Quality Monitoring in the Buck Creek Watershed and Facilitation of Buck Creek Watershed Partnership  

E-print Network

Water Quality Monitoring in the Buck Creek Watershed and Facilitation of Buck Creek Watershed Partnership: Final Report Lucas Gregory, Texas Water Resources Institute Phyllis Dyer, Texas A&M AgriLife Research Kevin Wagner, Texas Water Resources.... Lucas Gregory and Phyllis Dyer served as principle authors. Drs. Kevin Wagner and Paul DeLaune were the principle investigators for this project. We would like to extend a special thanks to members of the Hall-Childress Soil and Water...

Gregory, L.; Dyer, P.

292

Shallow Early Cretaceous oil production in Wind Creek\\/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1.5 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Early Cretaceous Fall River and Lakota Formations on the east side of the Powder River basin in the Wind Creek\\/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming. Producing depths range from 42 ft at the Barton Ranch field to over 2528 ft at an unnamed field. The gravity of the gas-free

Arthur G. Randall

1986-01-01

293

Water-quality appraisal. Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, Mono County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A late summer reconnaissance in 1981 and a spring high-flow sampling in 1982 of Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, located in the Mammoth crest area of the Sierra Nevada, indicated that three water-quality processes were occurring: (1) mineralization; (2) eutrophication; and (3) sedimentation. Limited areas of fecal contamination were also observed. Mineralization due primarily to geothermal springs increased dissolved-solids concentration

Setmire

1984-01-01

294

OROFINO CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Orofino Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present condition of the stream and to assess the impact of point and nonpoint sources. The study involved approximately bi-monthly monitoring for the...

295

ELK CREEK STUDY, IDAHO COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, the American River, the Red River, and Elk Creek in Idaho County (17060305) were studied to determine their present water quality and to obtain background information on effluent limitations development for the Elk City sewage treatment plant. Quarterly monit...

296

The Secret of Bog Creek Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fictional story about a real Superfund site is available in English or Spanish. The Secret of Bog Creek Farm is a story about a real Superfund site where children learn through the eyes of local residents. The story explains how soil can become polluted and how it can be cleaned up by incineration.

297

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM GEORGINA RIVER & EYRE CREEK  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the GEORGINA RIVER & EYRE CREEK This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Eyre

Greenslade, Diana

298

33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Creek. The draws of the US30 bridge, mile 3.1 at Nortonville, the Conrail railroad bridge, mile 4.0 at Jumbo, and the Salem County bridge, mile 5.1 at Pedricktown, need not be opened for the passage of vessels. However, the draws of any of these...

2013-07-01

299

27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...maps. They are titled: (1) Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 1984, photoinspected...The beginning point is on the Winston-Salem, North Carolina map at the intersection...Rocky Creek, returning to the Winston-Salem map, to the intersection of Rocky...

2012-04-01

300

33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal if at least 24 hours...

2012-07-01

301

33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Creek. The draws of the US30 bridge, mile 3.1 at Nortonville, the Conrail railroad bridge, mile 4.0 at Jumbo, and the Salem County bridge, mile 5.1 at Pedricktown, need not be opened for the passage of vessels. However, the draws of any of these...

2010-07-01

302

33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal if at least 24 hours...

2010-07-01

303

27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...maps. They are titled: (1) Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 1984, photoinspected...The beginning point is on the Winston-Salem, North Carolina map at the intersection...Rocky Creek, returning to the Winston-Salem map, to the intersection of Rocky...

2013-04-01

304

33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal if at least 24 hours...

2011-07-01

305

27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...maps. They are titled: (1) Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 1984, photoinspected...The beginning point is on the Winston-Salem, North Carolina map at the intersection...Rocky Creek, returning to the Winston-Salem map, to the intersection of Rocky...

2011-04-01

306

27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.  

...maps. They are titled: (1) Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 1984, photoinspected...The beginning point is on the Winston-Salem, North Carolina map at the intersection...Rocky Creek, returning to the Winston-Salem map, to the intersection of Rocky...

2014-04-01

307

33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Creek. The draws of the US30 bridge, mile 3.1 at Nortonville, the Conrail railroad bridge, mile 4.0 at Jumbo, and the Salem County bridge, mile 5.1 at Pedricktown, need not be opened for the passage of vessels. However, the draws of any of these...

2012-07-01

308

33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal if at least 24 hours...

2013-07-01

309

33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Creek. The draws of the US30 bridge, mile 3.1 at Nortonville, the Conrail railroad bridge, mile 4.0 at Jumbo, and the Salem County bridge, mile 5.1 at Pedricktown, need not be opened for the passage of vessels. However, the draws of any of these...

2011-07-01

310

27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...maps. They are titled: (1) Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 1984, photoinspected...The beginning point is on the Winston-Salem, North Carolina map at the intersection...Rocky Creek, returning to the Winston-Salem map, to the intersection of Rocky...

2010-04-01

311

DEARY CREEK STUDY, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Mount Deary Creek in Latah County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present water quality of the stream and to obtain background information to determine effluent limitations for the City of Deary. The survey involved t...

312

Drywell corrosion stopped at Oyster Creek  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the detection of corrosion on the drywell containment vessel of Oyster Creek Nuclear Plant and the application of a protective coating to repair the drywell. The topics of the article include drywell design features, identification of the problem, initial action, drywell corrosion, failure of cathodic protection, long-term repair, and repair results.

Lipford, B.L. (MPR Associates, Washington, DC (United States)); Flynn, J.C.

1993-11-01

313

CAMAS CREEK STUDY, CAMAS COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Eutrophication Survey on Magic Reservoir determined that Camas Creek in Camas County, Idaho (17040220) contributed roughly 45% of the total phosphorus load and 34% of the total nitrogen load into Magic Reservoir. From this finding, a water quality study was conducte...

314

Gold Creek: Preserving an Environmental Studies Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a Board of Trustees request for information and recommendations concerning the future use of the Gold Creek property owned by the Los Angeles Community College District, this report emphasizes that the use of this site for instructional field experiences enhances the quality of environmental education for the district's diverse

Brooks, Suzanne

315

Buck CreekWatershed Protection Plan  

E-print Network

State Soil and Water Conservation Board (Project 06-11) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Developed the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Buck Creek include: � Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board � USDA-APHIS Wildlife Services � USDA Farm

316

Uranium in the Vermillion Creek core samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unusually high uranium contents in the Vermillion Creek core samples have been determined to be in the shales rather than coals. Uranium contents range from approx. 1 to 138 ppm in the shale and 9 to 20 ppm in the coal. Scanning electron microscopy and fission-track investigations show uranium occurring both as discrete minerals and associated with the organic matter.

J. S. Leventhal; R. B. Finkelman

1987-01-01

317

33 CFR 117.709 - Cheesequake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...709 Cheesequake Creek. (a) The draw of the S35 Bridge, at mile 0.0, at...November 30 from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m., the draw need only open on the hour. From 8 p.m. to 11 p.m. the draw shall open on signal. From 11...

2010-07-01

318

Bereavement Rituals in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone before burial; (c) enclosing personal items and food in

Andrea C. Walker; David E. Balk

2007-01-01

319

33 CFR 117.234 - Cedar Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware 117.234 Cedar Creek. The SR 36 Bridge, mile 0.5 in Cedar Beach, shall open on signal. From April 1 through November 30 from 2 a.m. to 4...

2010-07-01

320

Horse Creek Restoration Project 1994-95.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This letter is to document completion of Interagency Agreement No. 14-48-001-94539, Project No. 94-HR-10, Horse Creek Restoration Project. The contract specified a target of five W.I.N. sites rehabilitated. The authors exceeded that target by three sites ...

1995-01-01

321

Bereavement Rituals in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone

Walker, Andrea C.; Balk, David E.

2007-01-01

322

Grieving in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative, collective case study explores grieving in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, reveal tendencies in patterns of grieving. Commonalities include (a) individual strength and certainty of recovery; (b) focus on giving to others in the family and coping as a family unit;

Walker, Andrea C.

2008-01-01

323

MORES CREEK STUDY, BOISE COUNTY, IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Mores Creek in Boise County, Idaho (17050112) to determine the present water quality of the stream and obtain background information on effluent limitations development for Idaho City. The study was designed for approxim...

324

How Fern Creek Is Beating Goliath  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "David" is Fern Creek Elementary, a small urban school in Orlando, Florida, that serves an overwhelmingly disadvantaged student population. The "Goliaths" are the mountains of problems that many inner-city students face--poverty, homelessness, mobility, instability, limited parent involvement, and violent neighborhood

Donovan, Margaret; Galatowitsch, Patrick; Hefferin, Keri; Highland, Shanita

2013-01-01

325

Gold Creek: An Environmental Studies Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is provided of the Gold Creek Ecological Reserve, 240 acres of undisturbed land in Northeast Los Angeles County, which serves the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) as an outdoor laboratory for students and faculty in numerous disciplines. Section I provides introductory information on the reserve and its features, which

Woodley, Laurel

326

Intensive survey of the bay creek watershed, July 1992  

SciTech Connect

During July 1992, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency conducted an intensive survey of the Bay Creek basin, a fifth order tributary in the Mississippi River North Central Basin. Bay Creek drains approximately 176.4 square miles primarily in Pike and a small portion of Calhoun counties. Four stations were sampled on the Bay Creek main stem and one on Honey Creek. The survey focused on macroinvertebrate communities, fish populations, instream habitat, fish tissue, sediment and water chemistry, and land use as well as a review of ambient water quality data from IEPA station KCA-01 near Nebo, Illinois, as tools to document the biological and chemical status of Bay Creek.

Short, M.B.; Kelly, T.G.; Hefley, J.E.

1995-05-01

327

Caryophyllaceae (Pink family) White campion (white cockle)  

E-print Network

Caryophyllaceae (Pink family) White campion (white cockle) Silene latifolia Poir. Life cycle Annual Similar weeds Bladder campion [S. vulgaris (Moench) Garcke] Differs by having a strong perennial nature

328

Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

Berry, Mark E.

2001-11-01

329

Sedimentology and depositional environments of part of the Walden Creek Group, central east Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Recent questions concerning the age of the Walden Creek Group (WCG), Ocoee Supergroup have increased interest in the depositional history of these rocks. This study focuses on the sedimentology and local stratigraphy of rocks in exposures of the lithologically diverse late Precambrian and/or lower Paleozoic WCG occurring within the Kinzel Springs and Wear Cove quadrangles. Units exposed in the structurally complex Alleghenian thrust setting include the Licklog, Shields, and Wilhite formations. These rocks are divided into twelve lithofacies composed of shale, siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate and carbonate rock. The lithofacies are grouped into seven facies associations indicating deposition below storm wave base in a deep-water, probably marine, environment. Within the study area, rocks of the Wilhite Formation represent deposition in basin plain, lower slope, slope, base of slope, and sandy channel environments. Rocks of the Shields Formation are coarse channel and related overbank deposits of the inner to middle parts of a deep water fan environment. The Licklog Formation contains rocks deposited as lobe and outer-fan or fan-fringe deposits in a middle- to lower-fan environment. These formations can be placed within a single depositional system composed of a submarine slope transitional with a basin plain, and of proximal channels and distal lobes in a sand-rich submarine fan system. Inferred depositional components (associations) compare well with general models of deep-water deposits associated with high gradient fan-delta-fed margins. The basin was bounded by an uplifted, most likely block faulted, margin composed of crystalline basement located to the northwest. Local sedimentologic and stratigraphic relationships suggest an overall progradational sequence during the deposition of these rocks.

Lewis, R.F. III (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Miller, J.M.G. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

330

Cripple Creek and other alkaline-related gold deposits in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA: Influence of regional tectonics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alkaline-related epithermal vein, breccia, disseminated, skarn, and porphyry gold deposits form a belt in the southern Rocky Mountains along the eastern edge of the North American Cordillera. Alkaline igneous rocks and associated hydrothermal deposits formed at two times. The first was during the Laramide orogeny (about 70-40 Ma), with deposits restricted spatially to the Colorado mineral belt (CMB). Other alkaline igneous rocks and associated gold deposits formed later, during the transition from a compressional to an extensional regime (about 35-27 Ma). These younger rocks and associated deposits are more widespread, following the Rocky Mountain front southward, from Cripple Creek in Colorado through New Mexico. All of these deposits are on the eastern margin of the Cordillera, with voluminous calc-alkaline rocks to the west. The largest deposits in the belt include Cripple Creek and those in the CMB. The most important factor in the formation of all of the gold deposits was the near-surface emplacement of relatively oxidized volatile-rich alkaline magmas. Strontium and lead isotope compositions suggest that the source of the magmas was subduction-modified subcontinental lithosphere. However, Cripple Creek alkaline rocks and older Laramide alkaline rocks in the CMB that were emplaced through hydrously altered LREE-enriched rocks of the Colorado (Yavapai) province have 208Pb/204Pb ratios that suggest these magmas assimilated and mixed with significant amounts of lower crust. The anomalously hot, thick, and light crust beneath Colorado may have been a catalyst for large-scale transfer of volatiles and crustal melting. Increased dissolved H2O (and CO2, F, Cl) of these magmas may have resulted in more productive gold deposits due to more efficient magmatic-hydrothermal systems. High volatile contents may also have promoted Te and V enrichment, explaining the presence of fluorite, roscoelite (vanadium-rich mica) and tellurides in the CMB deposits and Cripple Creek as opposed to deposits to the south. Deep-seated structures of regional extent that formed during the Proterozoic allowed the magmas to rise to shallow crustal levels. Proterozoic sites of intrusions at 1.65, 1.4, and 1.1 Ga were also important precursors to alkaline-related gold deposits. Many of the larger gold deposits are located at sites of Proterozoic intrusions, and are localized at the intersection of northeast-trending ductile shear zones formed during Mesoproterozoic deformation, and an important north-trending fault formed during 1.1 Ga rifting.

Kelley, K. D.; Ludington, S.

2002-01-01

331

The Crabtree Creek pluton: A deformed Mid-Paleozoic( ) stitching pluton on the west flank of the Raleigh metamorphic belt  

SciTech Connect

Crystalline rocks on the west flank of the Alleghanian-aged Raleigh metamorphic belt are subdivided into four west-dipping lithotectonic terranes in the Falls Lake and north Raleigh areas. The rocks of these terranes are separated from east to west on the basis of bulk rock composition, metamorphic textural characteristics, and discrete structural discontinuities into the Raleigh terrane (RT), Crabtree terrane (CT), Falls Lake melange (FLM), and the volcanogenic Carolina slate belt (CSB). The RT and CT are separated by the dextral shear Nutbush Creek fault zone, while the Falls Lake thrust juxtaposes the CT and FLM. The structural character of the discontinuity separating the FLM and the CSB is unclear, although thrusting has been proposed. The results of geologic mapping in the Raleigh West 7.5[prime] quadrangle for the NC Geological Survey's COGEOMAP project in the Raleigh 1[degree] sheet indicate that only the CSB and CT are exposed west of I-440 between US 70 and I-40. This confirms the mapping results of Horton and others that the melange pinches out in north Raleigh just north of US 70. South of US 70, a large orthogneiss body, the Crabtree Creek composite granitic pluton, occupies the same relative position as the melange, separating mafic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks of the CSB from nonlineated and lineated interlayered schists and gneisses of the CT. The pluton is subdivided into a foliated leucocratic, medium grained muscovite granitic orthogneiss, and a foliated leucocratic to mesocratic medium to coarse grained muscovite [plus minus] biotite granitic orthogneiss containing abundant porphyroclastic disks, rods, and knobs of quartz. Because its lobes locally display intrusive contacts with metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of both terranes, the Crabtree Creek pluton represents an intrusion that stitched the two terranes together.

Blake, E.F. (Univ. of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Stoddard, E.F. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of MEAS)

1993-03-01

332

Everybody Find a Rock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, younger students will learn to recognize the properties of selected rocks. After participating in a read-aloud, the students will examine a variety of polished rocks, and take a walk outside to find their own rocks. As a closure activity, they are directed to explore other unique rocks at home and bring them in for class discussion and sorting.

333

The relationship of geophysical measurements to engineering and construction parameters in the Straight Creek Tunnel pilot bore, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic-refraction and electrical-resistivity measurements made along the walls of the Straight Creek Tunnel pilot bore indicate that both a low-velocity and a high-resistivity layer exist in the disturbed rock surrounding the excavation. Seismic measurements were analyzed to obtain the thickness and seismic velocity of rock in the low-velocity layer, the velocity of rock behind the layer and the amplitude of seismic energy received at the detectors. Electrical-resistivity measurements were analyzed to obtain the thickness and electrical resistivity of the high-resistivity layer and the resistivity of rock behind the layer. The electrical resistivity and the seismic velocity of rock at depth, the thickness of rock in the low-velocity layer, and the relative amplitude of seismic energy were correlated against the following parameters, all of which are important in tunnel construction: height of the tension arch, stable vertical rock load, rock quality, rate of construction and cost per foot, percentage of lagging and blocking, set spacing, and type and amount of steel support required, The correlations were statistically meaningful, having correlation coefficients ranging in absolute value from about 0??7 to nearly 1??0. This finding suggests the possibility of predicting parameters of interest in tunnel construction from geophysical measurements made in feeler holes drilled ahead of a working face. Predictions might be based on correlations established either during the early stages of construction or from geophysical surveys in other tunnels of similar design in similar geologic environments. ?? 1968.

Scott, J. H.; Lee, F. T.; Carroll, R. D.; Robinson, C. S.

1968-01-01

334

Habitat Projects Completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999 Completion Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority in southeastern WA. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1999. Twenty of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1999 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; thirty-eight were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as vegetative plantings (17,000 trees and shrubs) and noxious weed control. Two sediment basin constructions, 67 acres of grass seeding, and seven hundred forty-five acres of minimum till were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed.

Johnson, Bradley J.

2000-01-01

335

Habitat Projects Completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, 1998 Completion Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred forty-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1998. Fifty-nine of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1998 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; one hundred thirty-nine pools were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as fencing, vegetative plantings, and noxious weed control. Two alternative water developments were completed, providing off-stream-watering sources for livestock. 20,500 ft of upland terrace construction, seven sediment basin construction, one hundred eighty-seven acres of grass seeding, eight hundred fifty acres of direct seeding and eighteen sediment basin cleanouts were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed.

Johnson, Bradley J.

1999-11-01

336

What makes a rock?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. Lets review: What do you already know about rocks? Please write down your thoughts on a piece of paper. Now, click on the link below to find out what the definition of a rock is. *Intro to Rocks Please answer the questions below in complete sentences on your paper. 1. Rocks are made up of several particles. ...

Christen

2010-06-21

337

All About Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. Lets review: What do you already know about rocks? Please write down your thoughts on a piece of paper. Now, click on the link below to find out what the definition of a rock is. *Intro to Rocks Please answer the questions below in complete sentences on your paper. 1. Rocks are made up of several particles. ...

Frankovic, Whitney

2009-09-28

338

Geologic characteristics and movement of the Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex, western Kane County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex in western Kane County, Utah, is about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) wide and 1.3 miles (2.1 km) long and contains six smaller historical slides. The upper part of the Meadow Creek landslide is gently sloping and consists of displaced and back-rotated blocks of Cretaceous Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations that form northeast- to locally east-trending ridges that are separated by sediment-filled half-grabens. The lower part of the landslide is gently to moderately sloping, locally incised, and consists of heterogeneous debris that overrides the Jurassic Carmel Formation near Meadow Creek. Monitoring using a survey-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument detected movement of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide between October 2005 and October 2008, including movement of two of the historical slides-landslides 1 and 2. The most movement during the measurement period occurred within the limits of persistently moving landslide 1 and ranged from about 24 to 64 inches (61-163 cm). Movement of the abutting southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide ranged from approximately 6 to 10 inches (15-25 cm). State Route 9 crosses over approximately a mile (1.6 km) of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide, including landslide 1. The highway and its predecessor (State Route 15) have been periodically displaced and damaged by persistent movement of landslide 1. Most of the landslide characteristics, particularly its size, probable depth, and the inferred weak strength and low permeability of clay-rich gouge derived from the Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations, are adverse to and pose significant challenges to landslide stabilization. Secondary hazards include piping-induced sinkholes along scarps and ground cracks, and debris flows and rock falls from the main-scarp escarpment.

Ashland, Francis X.; McDonald, Greg N.

2010-01-01

339

Metamorphic Rock Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students develop skill in the visual identification of metamorphic rock species and conceptualize the relationships between non-metamorphosed species and their metamorphic counterparts. Students will use a hand lens to examine metamorphic rocks and make observations about grain size, foliation, and other characteristics. Then, using this data, they identify the rocks with the classification sheet included with the student worksheet. They will then match the metamorphic rock with its parent rock.

340

Rock preconditioning to prevent rock bursts  

SciTech Connect

A US Bureau of Mines method to precondition rocks to prevent rock bursts is presented. The approach uses deep drill holes from a mine opening in a radial pattern in the vein and load and blast to fracture the rock prior to production mining. The method was successfully tested on a sphalerite-galena vein in a hard gangue of quartz and quartzite at the 7700 level of the Hecla Mining Company's Star Mine in Burke, Idaho. (JMT)

Not Available

1981-05-01

341

Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - Libby Creek (Lower Cleveland) Stabilization Project  

SciTech Connect

This project is follow-up to stream stabilization activities on Libby Creek that were initiated on the Upper Cleveland reach of Libby Creek 2 years ago. BPA now proposes to fund FWP to complete channel stabilization activities on the Lower Cleveland reach of Libby Creek, reduce sediment sources, convert overwidened portions of the stream into self-maintaining channel types, use natural stream stabilization techniques, and improve wildlife migratory corridors. This lower reach is about one river mile below the upper Cleveland Reach and the proposed activities are very similar to those conducted before. The current work would be constructed in two additional phases. The first phase of the Lower Cleveland project would be completed in the fall of 2004 (9/1/04--12/31/04), to include the upper 3,100 feet. The second phase will be constructed in the fall of 2005 (9/1/05--12/31/05), to include stabilizing the remaining 6,200 feet of stream. The Cleveland reaches are a spawning and rearing tributary for resident redband trout, and resident and fluvial bull trout migrating from the Kootenai River. The planned work at the two remaining phases calls for shaping cut banks; installing root wads and tree revetments; installing channel grade control structures; planting native vegetation; and installing cross vanes constructed from rock and trees to control channel gradient. In the past, this reach of Libby Creek has been degraded by past management practices, including road building, hydraulic and dredge mining, and riparian logging. This past activity has resulted in accelerated bank erosion along a number of meander bends, resulting in channel degradation and poor fish habitat. Currently the stream channel is over-widened and shallow having limited pool habitat. The current stream channel is over-widened and shallow, having limited pool habitat.

N /A

2004-07-29

342

Benthic macroinvertebrate richness along Sausal Creek, Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sausal Creek, 5.0 km long, is one of the principal watercourses in Oakland, California. The headwaters of Sausal Creek arise in the Oakland Hills and the creek flows southwestward through the city, discharging into the tidal canal that separates the island of Alameda from Oakland; the creek ultimately flows into San Francisco Bay. Due to the presence of rainbow trout, the stream health of Sausal Creek is a local conservation priority. In the present study, a survey of benthic macroinvertebrates in the creek was conducted and possible correlations between environmental variables and taxonomic richness were analyzed. Three stations along the creek were sampled using a 30.5cm 500 micron aquatic d-net, and temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels were measured in creek samples obtained at each station. Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels remained constant along the creek. Taxonomic richness was highest at the upstream site of Palo Seco, located in an eastern section of the creek, and furthest downstream at Dimond Park, in the western portion of the creek. The Monterrey site, just west of Palo Seco was found to be significantly low in benthic macroinvertebrates. The Palo Seco and Monterrey sites are separated by Highway 13 and storm drain inputs may bring contaminants into the creek at this site. At the Monterrey site Sausal Creek follows the Hayward Fault, gas emissions or change in substrate may also affect the local population of benthic invertebrates. Further research will be conducted to determine what factors are contributing to this local anomaly.

Lara, D.; Ahumada, E.; Leon, Y.; Bracho, H.; Telles, C.

2012-12-01

343

Genetic implications of minor-element and Sr-isotope geochemistry of alkaline rock complexes in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of Rb, Sr, and REE (rare earth elements), and Sr-isotopic ratios in rocks of the Cambrian alkaline complexes in the Wet Mountains area, Colorado, show that rocks formed as end-products of a variety of magmas generated from different source materials. The complexes generally contain a bimodal suite of cumulus mafic-ultramafic rocks and younger leucocratic rocks that include nepheline syenite and hornblende-biotite syenite in the McClure Mountain Complex, nepheline syenite pegmatite in the Gem Park Complex, and quartz syenite in the complex at Democrat Creek. The nepheline syenite and hornblende-biotite syenite at McClure Mountain (535??5m.y.) are older than the syenitic rocks at Democrat Creek (511??8m.y.). REE concentrations indicate that the nepheline syenite at McClure Mountain cannot be derived from the hornblende-biotite syenite, which it intrudes, or from the associated mafic-ultramafic rocks. REE also indicate that mafic-ultramafic rocks at McClure Mountain have a source distinct from that of the mafic-ultramafic rocks at Democrat Creek. In the McClure Mountain Complex, initial87Sr/86Sr ratios for mafic-ultramafic rocks (0.7046??0.0002) are similar to those of hornblende-biotite syenite (0.7045??0.0002), suggesting a similar magmatic source, whereas ratios for carbonatites (0.7038??0.0002) are similar to those of nepheline syenite (0.7038??0.0002). At Democrat Creek, initial ratios of syenitic rocks (0.7032??0.0002) and mafic-ultramafic rocks (0.7028??0.0002) are different from those of corresponding rocks at McClure Mountain. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag.

Armbrustmacher, T.J.; Hedge, C.E.

1982-01-01

344

Genetic implications of minor-element and Sr-isotope geochemistry of alkaline rock complexes in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of Rb, Sr, and REE (rare earth elements), and Sr-isotopic ratios in rocks of the Cambrian alkaline complexes in the Wet Mountains area, Colorado, show that rocks formed as end-products of a variety of magmas generated from different source materials. The complexes generally contain a bimodal suite of cumulus mafic-ultramafic rocks and younger leucocratic rocks that include nepheline syenite and hornblende-biotite syenite in the McClure Mountain Complex, nepheline syenite pegmatite in the Gem Park Complex, and quartz syenite in the complex at Democrat Creek. The nepheline syenite and hornblende-biotite syenite at McClure Mountain (5355m.y.) are older than the syenitic rocks at Democrat Creek (5118m.y.). REE concentrations indicate that the nepheline syenite at McClure Mountain cannot be derived from the hornblende-biotite syenite, which it intrudes, or from the associated mafic-ultramafic rocks. REE also indicate that mafic-ultramafic rocks at McClure Mountain have a source distinct from that of the mafic-ultramafic rocks at Democrat Creek. In the McClure Mountain Complex, initial87Sr/86Sr ratios for mafic-ultramafic rocks (0.70460.0002) are similar to those of hornblende-biotite syenite (0.70450.0002), suggesting a similar magmatic source, whereas ratios for carbonatites (0.70380.0002) are similar to those of nepheline syenite (0.70380.0002). At Democrat Creek, initial ratios of syenitic rocks (0.70320.0002) and mafic-ultramafic rocks (0.70280.0002) are different from those of corresponding rocks at McClure Mountain.

Armbrustmacher, Theodore J.; Hedge, Carl E.

1982-12-01

345

Surface-water quality in the Campbell Creek basin, Anchorage, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four streams in the Campbell Creek Basin were sampled during different flow conditions for an 18-month period. North Fork Campbell and South Fork Campbell Creeks drain areas virtually undisturbed by man 's activities. The other two streams, Little Campbell Creek and the main stem Campbell Creek, drain areas that have been urbanized. The water from South Fork Campbell and North Fork Campbell Creeks is of good quality and does not adversely affect the water quality of the main stem Campbell Creek. Little Campbell Creek, which has been affected by urbanization, impacts the water quality of Campbell Creek during lowland snowmelt periods when discharges from South Fork Campbell and North Fork Campbell Creeks are small. High concentrations of suspended sediment in Campbell Creek may be contributed by Little Campbell Creek. Fecal-coliform bacteria concentrations are highest at Little Campbell Creek and probably account for most of the high coliform concentrations at Campbell Creek. (USGS)

Brabets, T.P.; Wittenberg, L.A.

1983-01-01

346

Rock Cycle Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This rock cycle unit was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. From this module, students learn to distinguish between minerals and rocks, how rocks are classified, and how rocks are constantly recycled providing raw materials for other rocks. Igneous rocks are discussed on the basis of being intrusive or extrusive, sedimentary rocks are divided into clastic and non-clastic, while the metamorphic rocks are described as being foliated or non-foliated and common examples are cited for each classification. The processes and conditions of rock formation are also discussed. The module contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions, and a practice quiz. One feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

Haberlin, Rita

347

Elementary GLOBE Unit: Discoveries at Willow Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, the GLOBE Kids, on their second visit to Willow Creek, discover why the creek looks different. They learn about making observations, measuring water temperature and speed, and looking for critters in the water. In Activity 1, 'Magnify That', students will be able to identify a magnifying lens and its purpose. They will be able to explain how the same object looks different when using the unaided eye and then using a magnifying lens. In Activity 2, 'Measure Up', students will learn how to make nonstandard and standard linear measurements. They will test their estimates and record their results. In Activity 3, 'Water Wonders', students will have an understanding of what aquatic macroinvertebrates are, what kinds of adaptations they have for their environment, and why scientists study them.

2006-01-01

348

Interactives: The Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much do you know about rocks? Well, if you are a bit unsure about distinguishing an igneous rock from a sedimentary rock you'll certainly be on solid ground after taking a tour through this feature created by Annenberg Media. Visitors can make their way through graphically-enhanced sections that include "Types of Rocks", "How Rocks Change", and "The Rock Cycle Diagram". In the "Types of Rocks" area visitors will learn about the basic types of rocks and they can even check out a handy chart that will give them some of the finer points of rock identification. The "How Rocks Change" area provides a basic overview of the processes involved with rock creation and transformation through a heady blend of Flash animations and straight-forward prose. Finally, the "Rock Cycle Diagram" provides an illustration of rock transformation over time. This site will be quite useful to educators and anyone who has peered at a rock and wondered: "How did you come to be?"

2008-04-11

349

Interactives: The Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much do you know about rocks? Well, if you are a bit unsure about distinguishing an igneous rock from a sedimentary rock you'll certainly be on solid ground after taking a tour through this feature created by Annenberg Media. Visitors can make their way through graphically-enhanced sections that include "Types of Rocks", "How Rocks Change", and "The Rock Cycle Diagram". In the "Types of Rocks" area visitors will learn about the basic types of rocks and they can even check out a handy chart that will give them some of the finer points of rock identification. The "How Rocks Change" area provides a basic overview of the processes involved with rock creation and transformation through a heady blend of Flash animations and straight-forward prose. Finally, the "Rock Cycle Diagram" provides an illustration of rock transformation over time. This site will be quite useful to educators and anyone who has peered at a rock and wondered: "How did you come to be?"

350

Summer food habits and trophic overlap of roundtail chub and creek chub in Muddy Creek, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial declines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. tatipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because it is the only area known to have sympatric populations of all 3 species in Wyoming. However, introduced creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) are abundant and might have a negative influence on native fishes. We assessed summer food habits of roundtail chub and creek chub to provide information on the ecology of each species and obtain insight on potential trophic overlap. Roundtail chub and creek chub seemed to be opportunistic generalists that consumed a diverse array of food items. Stomach contents of both species were dominated by plant material, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and Fishes, but also included gastropods and mussels. Stomach contents were similar between species, indicating high trophic, overlap. No length-related patterns in diet were observed for either species. These results suggest that creek chubs have the potential to adversely influence the roundtail chub population through competition for food and the native fish assemblage through predation.

Quist, M. C.; Bower, M. R.; Hubert, W. A.

2006-01-01

351

Older Hydrothermal Activity along the Northern Yellowstone Caldera Margin at Sulphur Creek, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tuff of Sulphur Creek (480 ka) is well exposed in the Seven Mile Hole area of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The rhyolitic tuff erupted after the collapse of the Yellowstone Caldera (640 ka) and hosts more than 350 vertical meters of hydrothermal alteration. Two epithermal alteration assemblages with different mineral associations have been identified in the area: an illite-silica-pyrite phase and a kaolinite-alunite-silica-pyrite phase. Kaolinite and opal occur along the canyon rim, montmorillonite and other smectites are found at intermediate depths, and illite and sulfides (pyrite) are found deepest in the section. Our work on the north side of the Sevenmile Hole altered area has found a complex system of veining. The veins are concentrated in the eastern portion of the canyon and are less frequent to the west. Brecciated cross-cutting veins ranging from 2 to 30cm wide are found at the base of the canyon. Moving vertically up the canyons walls, the veining style becomes less complex. These veins are about 1 to 1.5cm wide and are not brecciated, occurring less frequently than the brecciated veins. The canyon walls and the canyon rim mainly contain millimeter-scale cross-cutting silica veinlets. These stockwork-like veinlets are the most abundant fracture filling that we find throughout the canyon walls. Veins at the base of the system, found in the stream bed, contain abundant sulfides (mainly pyrite). Sulfides are present in three forms: disseminated in a silica matrix, as massive pyrite in healed fractures, and encrusting clays and silica. The latter is the least common. Disseminated and massive sulfides are typically associated with the matrix in the brecciated veins. Breccias include angular clasts of altered tuff with argillized feldspar phenocrysts and fragments of earlier vein-filling opal. Sulfides are most abundant in the bottom of the canyon and in the western part of the field area. Hydrothermal silica, dominantly opal, is pervasive in the veins throughout the entire system. At the base of the system it is very dark grey and found in the matrix of the veins. The silica veins found on the canyon walls are most often white to cream in color. These veins rarely have cross-cutting relationship with other veins. The stockwork veinlets are found throughout the system. Though the veins are narrow, the wall rock surrounding them is pervasively silicified. The silica in these veins is usually bluish in color, or is rarely clear, and contains very minor sulfides. Wall rock alteration associated with all of the vein types does not vary significantly across the field area. The tuff deeper in the system is completely silicified, so much so that outcrops are well exposed and extensive. The canyon walls are mostly silicified though occasionally there are unsilicified pockets. The top of the system is not silicified though there is one section, on the ridge, that has been thoroughly altered such that the original lithology can not be determined in a hand sample.

Manion, J. L.; Larson, P.

2008-12-01

352

Spawning and Larva Drift of Sympatric Walleyes and White Suckers in an Ontario Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walleyes Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and white suckers Catostomus commersoni shared a common spawning ground in Apsley Creek. Their reproduction overlapped in time, but white suckers spawned mainly in the riffle zone (710 eggs\\/m) and rarely in quiet water (0.5 eggs\\/m) surrounding the riffle. In contrast, walleyes spawned more in quiet water (6,241 eggs\\/m) than in the riffle (65 eggs\\/m). Walleye

B. W. Corbett; P. M. Powles

1986-01-01

353

Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

Rus, David, L.; Soenksen, Philip, J.

1998-01-01

354

Active channel for Fanno Creek, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff and shows characteristic flashy streamflow and poor water quality commonly associated with urban streams. This data set represents the active, wetted channel as derived from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and aerial photographic imagery. The wetted channel boundary is equivalent to the extent of water observed during a 2-yr high flow event.

Sobieszczyk, Steven

2011-01-01

355

Stratigraphic and structural implications of conodont and detrital zircon U-Pb ages from metamorphic rocks of the Coldfoot terrane, Brooks Range, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New paleontologic and isotopic data from the Emma Creek and Marion Creek schists of the Coldfoot terrane, Arctic Alaska superterrane, central Brooks Range, suggest Devonian and possibly younger ages of deposition for their sedimentary protoliths. Conodonts from marble of the Emma Creek schist, intruded by a roughly 392 Ma orthogneiss, are late Lochkovian (early Early Devonian, between about 408 and 396 Ma) and Silurian to Devonian at two other locations. Spherical to oblong detrital zircons from quartz-mica schist of the overlying Marion Creek schist yield mostly discordant U-Pb data suggestive of provenance ages of 3.0, 2.0-1.8, and 1.5-1.4 Ga; however, several euhedral grains of zircon from Marion Creek quartz-mica schist have concordant U-Pb ages from 370 to 360 Ma. The Marion Creek schist in our study area therefore is at least 26 m.y. younger than the Emma Creek schist. The age data imply that the protolith of the Emma Creek schist is age correlative with Devonian carbonate rocks in the Hammond and North Slope terranes, whereas the Marion Creek schist is age correlative with Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian clastic sedimentary rocks of the Endicott Group in the Endicott Mountains terrane and shale and carbonate units in the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes. Consequently, tectonic models restoring the entire Coldfoot terrane beneath partly or wholly coeval rocks of the Hammond, Endicott Mountains, De Long Mountains, and Sheenjek River terranes of the Arctic Alaska superterrane require revision. Alternative reconstructions, including restoration of the Coldfoot terrane inboard of the Endicott Mountains terrane or outboard of the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes are plausible but require either larger amounts of shortening than previously suggested or indicate problematic facies relations. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

Moore, T.E.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Harris, A.G.

1997-01-01

356

Online Field Journal: Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site allows students to take a closer look at three rocks: Gowganda Tillite, Loraine Quartzite, and Gowganda Glacial Conglomerate. On the opening page, there are side-by-side photos of the three rocks and students are asked to describe each one. Clicking a photo of the rock takes students to a magnified view of the rock. The site also includes links to a Tips for Adult Helpers page and to a printable Rocks Field Journal page that has instructions for using it on a rock hunt.

357

Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

1992-02-01

358

Compositional gradients in large reservoirs of silicic magma as evidenced by ignimbrites versus Taylor Creek Rhyolite lava domes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico consists of 20 lava domes and flows that were emplaced during a period of a few thousand years or less in late Oligocene time. Including genetically associated pyroclastic deposits, which are about as voluminous as the lava domes and flows, the Taylor Creek Rhyolite represents roughly 100 km3 of magma erupted from vents distributed throughout an area of several hundred square kilometers. Major-element composition is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous high-silica rhyolite and is nearly constant throughout the lava field. The magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was vertically zoned in trace elements, 87Sr/86Sr, and phenocryst abundance and size. Mean trace-element concentrations, ranges in concentrations, and element-pair correlations are similar to many subalkaline silicic ignimbrites. However, the polarity of the zonation was opposite that in reservoirs for ignimbrites, for most constituents. For example, compared to the Bishop Tuff, only 87Sr/86Sr and Sc increased upward in both reservoirs. Quite likely, a dominant but nonerupted volume of the magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was zoned like that for the Bishop Tuff, whereas an erupted, few-hundred-meter-thick cap on the magma body was variably contaminated by roof rocks whose contribution to this part of the magma system moderated relatively extreme trace-element concentrations of uncontaminated Taylor Creek Rhyolite but did not change the sense of correlation for most element pairs. The contaminant probably was a Precambrian rock of broadly granitic composition and with very high 87Sr/86Sr. Although examples apparently are not yet reported in the literature, evidence for a similar thin contaminated cap on reservoirs for large-volume silicic ignimbrites may exist in the bottom few meters of ignimbrites or perhaps only in the pumice fallout that normally immediately precedes ignimbrite emplacement. 87Sr/86Sr in sanidine phenocrysts of the Taylor Creek Rhyolite is higher than that of their host whole rocks. Covariation of this isotope ratio with sanidine abundance and size indicates positive correlations for all three features with decreasing distance to the roof of the magma reservoir. The sanidine probably is more radiogenic than host whole rock because growing phenocrysts partly incorporated Sr from the first partial melt of roof rocks, which contained the highly radiogenic Sr of Precambrian biotite ?? hornblende, whereas diffusion was too slow for sanidine to incorporate much of the Sr from subsequently produced less radiogenic partial melt of roof rocks, before eruption quenched the magma system. Disequilibrium between feldspar phenocrysts and host groundmass is fairly common for ignimbrites, and a process of contamination similar to that for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite may help explain some of these situations. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

Duffield, W.A.; Ruiz, J.

1992-01-01

359

Seepage investigation for Leap, South Ash, Wet Sandy, and Leeds creeks in the Pine Valley Mountains, Washington County, Utah, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seepage loss-gain data were collected along four creeks (Leap, South Ash, Wet Sandy, and Leeds) that drain the eastern flank of the Pine Valley Mountains in southwestern Utah. Streamflow was measured at a minimum of eight sites on each of the four creeks during each of three (four on South Ash) seepage investigations at higher streamflows in May and June, and at lower streamflows during August, October, and November 1998. Only two reaches on Leap and Leeds Creeks showed a significant reversal of loss or gain trends between high and low streamflow where the difference in streamflow exceeded the measurement error. Error analyses were computed both for individual reaches between consecutive measurement sites and for composite reaches between specified, nonconsecutive measurement sites to determine if seepage losses or gains exceed the error associated with measurement of streamflow. Computed losses or gains at 31 individual reaches exceed the normalized measurement error; 16 were along channel reaches that traverse unconsolidated deposits, 7 were associated with reaches that traverse sedimentary rocks other than Navajo Sandstone, 6 were associated with reaches that traverse the Navajo Sandstone, and 2 were associated with reaches that traverse rocks of igneous origin. Composite reaches that encompass the outcrop of one of four hydrogeologic units (Navajo Sandstone, unconsolidated deposits, igneous rocks, or sedimentary rocks other than Navajo Sandstone) were used to compute the loss or gain based on the amount measured at the upstream and downstream nonconsecutive sites. For composite reaches that traverse outcrops of Navajo Sandstone, less water was measured at (or near) the downstream contact than at (or near) the upstream contact for 11 of the 13 seepage investigations. Of those 11 investigations with computed losses, the normalized difference (N d) was greater than the normalized error (Ne) for 6 investigations and confirms that a source of recharge to the Navajo Sandstone is seepage loss from the measured streams.

Wilberg, Dale E.; Swenson, Robert L.; Slaugh, Bradely A.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

2001-01-01

360

Rock Mech. Rock Engng. (2000) 33 (1), 113 Rock Mechanics  

E-print Network

Hammer test is very similar in principle to a down-hole hammer while drill- ing, a patent in 1971 was in a good agreement with rock drillability or cutting ability, to the knowledge of the authors there does

361

The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks for the White Rim oil. The most attractive potential sources for White Rim oil include beds within one or more of the following formations: the Proterozoic Chuar Group, which is present in the subsurface southwest of the Tar Sand triangle; the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone and equivalent formations, the Permian Kaibab Limestone, the Sinbad Limestone Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, and the Jurassic Arapien Shale, Twin Creek Limestone, and Carmel Formation, which are present west of the Tar Sand triangle; the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation in the Paradox basin east of the Tar Sand triangle; and the Permian Park City Formation northwest of the Tar Sand triangle. Each formation has a high total organic carbon content and is distributed over a wide enough geographic area to have provided a huge volume of oil. Source beds in all of the formations reached thermal maturity at times prior to or during the time that migration into the White Rim is interpreted to have occurred. Based on all available data, the most likely source for the Tar Sand triangle appears to be the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone. Secondary migration out of the Delle is interpreted to have occurred during the Cretaceous, during Sevier thrusting. Subsequent tertiary migration into the Tar Sand triangle reservoir is interpreted to have occurred later, during middle Tertiary Laramide deformation.

Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

1999-01-01

362

Unveiling White Privilege.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Racism, discrimination, and prejudice are typically viewed from the perspective of the disadvantaged ethnic minority, but another approach is to address the advantages of whites. There is one culture that is usually invisible to whites, and that is "whiteness." To grow up white is to be the focal point from which others differ. Whites grapple with

Pappas, Georgia

1995-01-01

363

The Rock Cycle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

1977-01-01

364

Igneous Rock Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a simple Flash roll over, view hand specimens of different igneous rocks classified according by texture and chemical composition. There are also views of the more common rock forming minerals. Expect long loading times.

Wiley

365

Igneous Rock Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to provide students with the opportunity to analyze the textures of various igneous rocks and use these textures as a basis for classification and identification. Students will develop visual identification skills for the common igneous rocks and learn that igneous rocks are those that cool from molten rock materials known as magma. They will discover that igneous rocks are classified on the basis of their texture and their mineralogical composition. Texture is the overall size, shape, and arrangement of the mineral grains that make up the rock. Students will also realize that rocks containing more silica, such as granite and rhyolite, are generally lighter in color while dark colored rocks commonly have the composition of gabbro or basalt.

366

Metamorphic Rock Pancakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students identify the properties of metamorphic rocks and learn that they are formed by heat and pressure. Using a griddle and pancake batter, they will make metamorphic "rocks" and eat them.

1998-01-01

367

The Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Satellite Geodesy describes the rock cycle, and quantitative ways to estimate how long geological features took to form. Popcorn is used to demonstrate half-life and radio-active decay, which is used to date rocks.

Tauxe, Lisa; Geodesy, Satellite

368

Rock Cycle Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many people might know about the life cycle of a rock, but it can be a process that is hard to understand without a handy visual aid. Just such a series of aids can be found right here, courtesy of Mark Francek of Central Michigan University. These rock cycle animations display some of the most common rock-forming processes, including the crystallization of magma to form igneous rock, rock erosion to create sediment, and several others. That's not all, as visitors can also examine a comprehensive Flash animation which contains three separate movies, each of which looks at the formation of igneous rocks in environments that include a deep magma chamber and rocks forming from a pyroclastic flow. The site is rounded out by an interactive igneous rocks classification chart, arranged by texture and chemical composition.

369

Theory of wing rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wing rock is one type of lateral-directional instabilities at high angles of attack. To predict wing rock characteristics and to design airplanes to avoid wing rock, parameters affecting wing rock characteristics must be known. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model is developed to investigate the main aerodynamic nonlinearities causing wing rock. In the present theory, the Beecham-Titchener asymptotic method is used to derive expressions for the limit-cycle amplitude and frequency of wing rock from nonlinear flight dynamics equations. The resulting expressions are capable of explaining the existence of wing rock for all types of aircraft. Wing rock is developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

Hsu, C.-H.; Lan, C. E.

1985-01-01

370

Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

2009-01-01

371

Characterization of Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2004-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 15 river miles long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson (fig. 1). Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, began studying Fish Creek in 2004 to describe the hydrology of the creek and later (2007?08) to characterize the water quality and the biological communities. The purpose of this fact sheet is to summarize the study results from 2004 to 2008.

Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

372

Geologic map of the Sand Creek Pass quadrangle, Larimer County, Colorado, and Albany County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New geologic mapping within the Sand Creek Pass 7.5 minute quadrangle defines geologic relationships within the northern Front Range of Colorado along the Wyoming border approximately 35 km south of Laramie, Wyo. Previous mapping within the quadrangle was limited to regional reconnaissance mapping; Eaton Reservoir 7.5 minute quadrangle to the east (2008), granite of the Rawah batholith to the south (1983), Laramie River valley to the west (1979), and the Laramie 30' x 60' quadrangle to the north (2007). Fieldwork was completed during 1981 and 1982 and during 2007 and 2008. Mapping was compiled at 1:24,000-scale. Minimal petrographic work was done and no isotope work was done in the quadrangle area, but detailed petrographic and isotope studies were performed on correlative map units in surrounding areas as part of a related regional study of the northern Front Range. Stratigraphy of Proterozoic rocks is primarily based upon field observation of bulk mineral composition, macroscopic textural features, and field relationships that allow for correlation with rocks studied in greater detail outside of the map area. Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic rocks is primarily based upon correlation with similar rocks to the north in the Laramie Basin of Wyoming and to the east in the Front Range of Colorado.

Workman, Jeremiah B.; Braddock, William A.

2010-01-01

373

Igneous Rocks Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this section, see close-up pictures of the major rock types and learn about where different types of igneous rocks are formed, what style of magmatic activity is associated with each type of magma, and what rock types are melted to form each of these magma compositions.

2002-01-01

374

Friction of rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stress the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface roughness. At high normal stress that effect is diminished and the friction is nearly independent of rock type. If the sliding

J. Byerlee

1978-01-01

375

Everybody Needs a Rock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to properties of rocks, specifically weight and density. They will select a rock, make a list of words to describe it, estimate its mass and use a balance to check their estimates, write a story about what they have learned, and group or classify the rocks according to what they have learned.

376

Soil vs. Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will extend the learning on rocks with the Foss kit, Pebbles, Sand, and Silt to include soil. Students will perform the soil sifting activity like the one designed for rocks in the Foss it. Through their work, students will complete a Venn diagram of soil and rocks as a class.

Ama Xiong, Ames Elementary School, Saint Paul, MN Based on an original activity from the FOSS Kit, Pebbles, Sand, & Silt.

377

The Rock Physics Handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rock Physics Handbook conveniently brings together the theoretical and empirical relations that form the foundations of rock physics, with particular emphasis on seismic properties. It also includes commonly used models and relations for electrical and dielectric rock properties. Seventy-six articles concisely summarize a wide range of topics, including wave propagation, AVO-AVOZ, effective media, poroelasticity, pore fluid flow and diffusion.

Gary Mavko; Tapan Mukerji; Jack Dvorkin

2003-01-01

378

Rock and Sexuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses rock as a form of both sexual expression and control. Describes rock's representations of masculinity and femininity and considers the contradictions involved in the representations. Relates the effects of rock to its form--as music, as commodity, as culture, and as entertainment. (JMF)

Frith, Simon; McRobbie, Angela

1978-01-01

379

Metamorphic Rocks Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students each obtain 2 rock samples from a collection of 20 for the lab. Students complete a data form for observations concerning metamorphic features. Each student identifies the 2 samples and describes the metamorphic parent rock. When everyone in the lab has finished, the group matches all the non-metamorphic samples to the metamorphic samples in a large rock cycle puzzle.

Hadley, Ann C.

380

78 FR 62361 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted...of a new license for the Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project No. 2558. The programmatic...as applicant for the Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project, has expressed an...

2013-10-21

381

78 FR 25434 - Henwood Associates, Inc.; Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Transfer of Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Henwood Associates, Inc.; Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Transfer of Exemption...Associates, Inc. and Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that...from licensing for the Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 3730,...

2013-05-01

382

77 FR 6012 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek), Bronx, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek), Bronx...Railroad Bridge, mile 0.5, across the Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek) at the Bronx...Pelham Bay Railroad Bridge, across the Hutchinson River (Eastchester Creek), mile...

2012-02-07

383

76 FR 13344 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District...the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project in the Federal Register (75...the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project was published in the...

2011-03-11

384

PLUMMER CREEK AND CHATCOLET LAKE, BENEWAH AND KOOTENAI COUNTIES, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1990  

EPA Science Inventory

The Plummer Creek watershed drains a portion of northwestern Beneway County and southwestern Kootenai County, Idaho (17010304) into Chatcolet Lake. Suspended sediment impacts from nonpoint sources were observed at all but 2 stations along Plummer Creek, Little Plummer Creek, and...

385

75 FR 68780 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. RC11-1-000] Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing November 2, 2010. Take notice that on October 27, 2010, Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC (Cedar Creek) filed an appeal with the...

2010-11-09

386

77 FR 21722 - Gore Creek Restoration Project; Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement to disclose the environmental consequences of the proposed Gore Creek Restoration Project (Gore Creek...Creek Restoration project area in order to meet or move toward desired conditions in a specified timeframe. Vegetation...

2012-04-11

387

76 FR 70223 - Saratoga and North Creek Railway, LLC-Operation Exemption-Tahawus Line  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Saratoga Springs and North Creek. See Saratoga & N. Creek Ry.--Acquis. & Operation Exemption...STB served June 1, 2011) and Saratoga & N. Creek Ry., LLC-- Operation Exemption--Warren Cnty., N.Y., Docket No. FD 35500 (Sub-...

2011-11-10

388

Geology and hydrostratigraphy of Guadalupe River State Park and Honey Creek State Natural Area, Kendall and Comal Counties, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeologic mapping and descriptions of the lithostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of Guadalupe River State Park and Honey Creek State Natural Area, Kendall and Comal Counties, Texas, are presented in this first detailed 1:24,000 geologic map, along with proposed names and descriptions of the hydrostratigraphic units in the study area. Variations in the amount and type of porosity of the lithostratigraphic unit, which vary depending on the depositional environment, lithology, structural history and diagenesis support the resulting hydrostratigraphy proposed herein. Rocks exposed in the study area consist of Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks that are assigned to the Trinity Group. The lithostratigraphy includes the Hammett Shale, Cow Creek Limestone, Hensell Sand Members of the Pearsall Formation, and the lower member of the Glen Rose Limestone. These lithologic units contain shale, grainstone, sandstone, and fossiliferous limestone, alternating and interfingering with mudstone, wackestone, packstone, and grainstone. The Trinity aquifer hydrostratigraphic units shown on the map and described herein are characterized by their porosity types. Porosity types were first determined from an analysis of two boreholes conducted in comparison with 143 geophysical logs from northern Bexar County, Texas. The cores and geophysical log comparison resulted in division of the lower member of the Glen Rose Limestone into six hydrostratigraphic units, designated A through F. Of those six units, only three remain in the study area because of erosion. The proposed naming of these three hydrostratigraphic units is based on topographic or historical features that occur in the outcrop area of those units. Hydrostratigraphic units that correlate with the boundaries of the formation have been given formational names excluding the lithologic modifier. The Doeppenschmidt hydrostratigraphic unit is stratigraphically the highest interval in the study area, characterized by interparticle, moldic, burrowed, bedding plane, fracture, and cave porosity. The underlying Rust hydrostratigraphic unit appears to be a confining unit with springs/seeps issuing near the contact with the overlying Doeppenschmidt unit. The Rust unit has interparticle, fracture, and cave porosity with cave porosity primarily associated with faulting. The Honey Creek hydrostratigraphic unit is an aquifer in the subsurface and exhibits extremely, well developed porosity and permeability including interparticle, moldic, burrowed, bedding plane, fracture, channel, and cave porosity. This unit is named for Honey Creek Cave, which discharges water into Honey Creek. The Hensell hydrostratigraphic unit contains primarily interparticle porosity, but also exhibits some moldic and cave porosity in its upper parts. The Cow Creek hydrostratigraphic unit contains interparticle, moldic, vug, burrowed, fracture, bedding plane, channel, and cave porosity. The Cow Creek hydrostratigraphic unit is an aquifer in the subsurface and is the primary target for water-well drillers in the area. The Hammett hydrostratigraphic unit is not exposed in the study area but is thought to underlie parts of the Guadalupe River, based on mapping of the overlying units and comparisons with subsurface thicknesses obtained from the geophysical log. The Hammett unit restricts the downward migration of groundwater, resulting in springs that discharge at the base of the Cow Creek unit. These springs also create some base flow to the Guadalupe River during periods of extreme drought. The faulting and fracturing in the study area are part of the Miocene Balcones Fault Zone, which is an extensional system of faults that generally trend southwest to northeast in south-central Texas. An igneous dike, containing aphanitic texture, cuts through the center of the study area near the confluence of Honey Creek and the Guadalupe River. The dike penetrates the Cow Creek Limestone and the lower part of the Hensell Sand, which outcrops at three locations.

Clark, Allan K.; Blome, Charles D.; Morris, Robert R.

2014-01-01

389

Pupil - white spots  

MedlinePLUS

White spots in the pupil is a condition that causes the pupil of the eye to look white instead of black. ... Sometimes, the pupil of the eye may appear white, or the normal red reflex may appear to ...

390

Ramp Creek and Harrodsburg Limestones: A shoaling-upward sequence with storm-produced features in southern Indiana, U.S.A.. Carbonate petrology seminar, Indiana University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most previously described examples of storm-produced stratification have been reported from siliciclastic rocks. However, such features should also be common in carbonate rocks. The Mississippian (Valmeyeran) Ramp Creek and Harrodsburg Limestones, deposited on the east margin of the Illinois Basin on top of the Borden Delta, contain storm-produced features. The dolomitic, geode-bearing Ramp Creek Limestone contains muddying-upward sequences, commonly with scoured bases overlain by grainstones, packstones, wackestones, and burrowed mudstones. These sequences are similar to hummocky sequences formed by storm waves below fair-weather wave base. The middle portion of the section including the upper Ramp Creek and lower Harrodsburg Limestones contains dolomitized mud lenses of uncertain origin. They may have formed by the baffling effect of bryozoans and/or unpreserved algae. The Harrodsburg is gradational with the Ramp Creek and consists predominantly of grainstones and packstones deposited in shallower water. Low-angle cross-stratification and truncation surfaces suggest a foreshore depositional environment for the Harrodsburg. Neither formation contains any indication of supratidal deposition as has been previously suggested. Open marine conditions during deposition of both formations are indicated by the fauna which includes crinoids, bryozoans, brachiopods, corals, ostracods, echinoids, trilobites, molluscs, fish (sharks), and trace fossils.

1987-05-01

391

Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

2011-01-01

392

Seepage study of McLeod Creek and East Canyon Creek near Park City, Summit County, Utah, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seepage investigations on McLeod Creek downstream of U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station McLeod Creek near Park City, Utah, and its confluence with Kimball Creek during the summer of 2004 indicate that this section of the creek is a gaining reach. The total seepage gains ranged from 1.8 to 2.7 cubic feet per second, or a 32 to 55 percent gain. The apparent average total seepage gain was 2.2 cubic feet per second, or an average 42 percent gain. Seepage investigations from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station at East Canyon Creek below I-80 Rest Stop near Park City, Utah, to the station at East Canyon Creek near Jeremy Ranch, Utah, indicate that this section of East Canyon Creek is a slightly losing reach. The total seepage losses ranged from -1.2 to -2.0 cubic feet per second. This is a loss of between -18 and -27 percent from discharge measured at the upstream gaging station. The apparent average total seepage loss for the reach was -1.0 cubic feet per second, or -18 percent. Seepage information also was obtained along East Canyon Creek by using water-temperature data recorded in three shallow streambed piezometers. Surface-water temperature also was recorded at these locations. These water-temperature profiles indicate a seepage loss at all three locations along East Canyon Creek. This seepage loss appears to decrease in September and October.

Wilkowske, C.D.

2005-01-01

393

Effectiveness of a Redesigned Water Diversion Using Rock Vortex Weirs to Enhance Longitudinal Connectivity for Small Salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

For nearly 100 years, water diversions have affected fish passage in Beaver Creek, a tributary of the lower Methow River in north-central Washington State. From 2000 to 2004, four dam-style water diversions were replaced with a series of rock vortex weirs (RVWs). The weirs were designed to allow fish passage while maintaining the ability to divert water into irrigation canals.

Kyle D. Martens; Patrick J. Connolly

2010-01-01

394

Apollo 14 inverted pigeonites - Possible samples of lunar plutonic rocks.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of 'inverted pigeonites' found in Apollo 14 samples 14082 and 14083 (a polymict breccia, the 'white rock') by a combination of optical, electron probe, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. These 'inverted pigeonites' are regarded as samples of plutonic rocks that have been blasted out of the Imbrium Basin. It is also concluded that lunar pigeonites will invert to orthopyroxenes, given sufficiently slow cooling histories even in very anhydrous environments.

Papike, J. J.; Bence, A. E.

1972-01-01

395

Igneous Rock Crystallization Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation contains three separate movies, each exhibiting the formation of an igneous rocks in a different environment: a) rocks forming from a deep magma chamber where the slow cooling of magma results in large interlocking crystals; b) rocks forming from a pyroclastic flow with a combination of large and small crystals; and c) rocks with small crystals created from a fast cooling lava. The rock is further modified by bubbles from dissolved gases resulting in vesicles. Each movie concludes with a view of a hand specimen representative of each environment. The animation can be paused and rewound to stress important points.

Armstrong, Lenni; Earth, Exploring

396

78 FR 54674 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Gold Rock Mine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for the Proposed Gold Rock Mine Project, White Pine County, NV...may submit comments related to the Gold Rock Mine Project by any of the following methods...Email: BLM_NV_EYDO_Midway_Gold_Rock_EIS@blm.gov Fax:...

2013-09-05

397

Paleomagnetic Constraints on Terrane Translation: the Churn Creek Succession in South Central British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental controversy in Cordilleran tectonics concerns the timing and magnitude of terrane displacement in the Cretaceous to Tertiary evolution of the North American continental margin. Paleomagnetic data from stratified and plutonic rocks in the Canadian Cordillera suggest large-scale northward translation of these rocks relative to the North American craton between ca. 90-55 Ma. Previous paleomagnetic interpretation predicted the existence of a major fault separating the Intermontane Superterrane, which was displaced ~1000 km northward during this period, from the Insular Superterrane, which was displaced ~3000 km northward during the same time interval. Geologic data, including structural, stratigraphic and sedimentologic studies, suggest less than a few hundred km motion between the superterranes, and less than 1000 km with respect to the craton. The conflicting data sets have generated intense debate between proponents of two fundamentally opposed tectonic models, one proposing major latitudinal displacement during Late Cretaceous to Eocene time, and one arguing for terrane accretion at or slightly south of the present latitude in mid-Cretaceous time. Stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data from Churn Creek, in south-central British Columbia document widely disparate terrane displacement values within a single stratigraphic section. Upper Cretaceous strata exposed in Churn Creek comprise two rock packages: a lower package of Albian volcanic and minor volcaniclastic rocks, and a disconformably overlying upper package of Albian to Santonian polymict conglomerate and associated clastic strata. Paleomagnetic data suggest the lower package formed 700 +/- 600 km to the south of its present position at ~100-105 Ma, tying it to other Intermontane Superterrane results. The disconformably overlying upper package was deposited 3000 +/- 450 km to the south at between ~92-83 Ma, confirming the important Mount Tatlow result for the Insular Superterrane. Thus we demonstrate that there can be no "Baja BC fault" separating the Insular and Intermontane superterranes within this region. The large magnitude multi-stage 'yo-yo' translation required by these geophysical data are complex and geologically unreasonable under our current understanding of Late Cretaceous terrane displacement and oceanic plate trajectories. This is an important conclusion, as the Churn Creek data set is a microcosm of the Baja BC controversy, independent of disagreements about the validity of terrane linkages or other geologic data. If one assumes that the 'yo-yo' tectonics required by the Churn Creek data set are implausible, then one is forced to investigate other potential explanations for the observed data. Solutions to the conundrum may potentially exist in: 1) effect of differential compaction shallowing between the upper and lower packages in Churn Creek 2) the inevitability of initial dip in stratigraphic successions 3) the reliability of the Late Cretaceous reference pole 4) concordance of problematic paleomagnetic data with the Late Cretaceous Long Normal SuperChron 5) a rapid polar wander (TPW) episode in the Late Cretaceous 6) the hot spot reference frame, used to reconstruct Mesozoic plate motions, is inaccurate, and our understanding ocean plate trajectories is incomplete.

Mahoney, J. B.; Enkin, R. J.; Haskin, M.

2001-12-01

398

A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that runoff from the watershed that leads into the bay may reflect a moderately healthy San Leandro Bay.

Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

2011-12-01

399

Low-temperature cooling histories of the Cheyenne belt and Laramie Peak shear zone, Wyoming, and the Soda Creek-Fish Creek shear zone, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The base of a fossil apatite fission-track (AFT) partial annealing zone (PAZ), which formed when the area now occupied by the central and southern Rocky Mountains was at sea level in Late Cretaceous time, has since been disrupted by Laramide and post-Laramide tectonism and denudation. New AFT data are used to identify this marker and to examine its disruption across Proterozoic boundaries in north-central Colorado and south-central Wyoming. The cooling history recorded by the AFT data in the Laramie Range is not strongly controlled by basement structures, but instead reflects either long-wavelength warping of the base of the PAZ during Laramide deformation or N-S variations in Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediment thickness across this range. In contrast, at least one structure associated with the Cheyenne belt in the Medicine Bow Mountains, the Rambler shear zone, influenced the Laramide cooling history of this range. The Rambler shear zone separates Laramide AFT cooling ages (60 to 79 Ma) to the northwest from >100 Ma AFT ages to the southeast. In the Sierra Madre, Wyoming, AFT ages from Archean rocks north of the Cheyenne belt and from Proterozoic rocks to the south are nearly equivalent (49-79 Ma); the Late Cretaceous PAZ is not preserved in this mountain range. Similarly, AFT ages north and south of the Proterozoic Soda Creek-Fish Creek shear zone the Park Range, Colorado are about the same (45-75 Ma). Thus, these shear zones apparently were not strongly reactivated during Laramide deformation.

Kelley, Sharri A.

400

Hydrology and channel form of an urban creek : Rheem Creek in the context of restoration efforts  

E-print Network

pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), water temperature, and water conductivity using an YSI Sonde 556 Calibration water qualityWater quality results for four sampling sites along Rheem Creek. Site Temp ( ?C) pHwater quality samples at the Headwaters, Rollingwood, the College, and Breuner Marsh. Temperature and pH

Balazs, Carolina; Lang, Micah

2005-01-01

401

SUMMER FOOD HABITS AND TROPHIC OVERLAP OF ROUNDTAIL CHUB AND CREEK CHUB IN MUDDY CREEK, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial de- clines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. latipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because

Michael C. Quist; Michael R. Bower; Wayne A. Hubert; Kevin Bestgen

2006-01-01

402

Recrystallization and anatexis along the plutonic-volcanic contact of the Turkey Creek caldera, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unusual geologic and geochemical relations are preserved along the contact between intracaldera tuff and a resurgent intrusion within the 26.9 Ma Turkey Creek caldera of southeast Arizona. Thick intracaldera tuff is weakly argillically altered throughout, except in zones within several hundred meters of its contact with the resurgent intrusion, where the groundmass of the tuff has been variably converted to granophyre and unaltered sanidine phenocrysts are present. Dikes of similarly granophyric material originate at the tuff-resurgent intrusion contact and intrude overlying intracaldera megabreccia and tuff. Field relations indicate that the resurgent intrusion is a laccolith and that it caused local partial melting of adjacent intracaldera tuff. Geochemical and petrographic relations indicate that small volumes of partially melted intracaldera tuff assimilated and mixed with dacite of the resurgent intrusion along their contact, resulting in rocks that have petrographic and compositional characteristics transitional between those of tuff and dacite. Some of this variably contaminated, second-generation magma coalesced, was mobilized, and was intruded into overlying intracaldera rocks. Interpretation of the resurgent intrusion in the Turkey Creek and other calderas as intracaldera laccoliths suggests that intrusions of this type may be a common, but often unrecognized, feature of calderas. Development of granophyric and anatectic features such as those described here may be equally common in other calderas. The observations and previously undocumented processes described here can be applied to identification and interpretation of similarly enigmatic relations and rocks in other caldera systems. Integration of large-scale field mapping with detailed petrographic and chemical data has resulted in an understanding of otherwise intractable but petrologically important caldera-related features.

du Bray, E.A.; Pallister, J.S.

1999-01-01

403

Changes in the freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) fauna of the Bear Creek system of Northwest Alabama and Northeast Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drastic reductions in diversity and abundance of mussel populations are documented in many systems. Bear Creek, located in northwest Alabama and northeast Mississippi, has seen changes to its fauna, possibly the result of impoundment, channelization, wastewater discharge, and sedimentation from such sources such as strip mining, agriculture, and silviculture. The most obvious influences have been impoundment of the lowermost 32 km of Bear Creek by Pickwick Reservoir of Tennessee River, the construction of four dams within the system, construction of a 29-km-long channel designed to limit flooding, and bank destabilization. Mussels are absent from much of the system and faunal composition has apparently been altered where mussels persist, based on comparison to limited previous studies. The most notable changes are the loss of Cumberlandian species diversity and the apparent increase in Ohioan species diversity. We sampled 40 stations in the Bear Creek system and report 32 mussel species live or fresh dead, including 3 Cumberlandian species, and 2 others weathered dead. Fourteen of these species were not reported in two earlier studies. During this study the most depauperate populations were upstream of Bear Creek km 41.0 and in tributaries. No mussels were collected immediately downstream of dams, and diversity gradually increased downstream from the lowermost main channel dam until 28 species occurred together in a free-flowing reach shortly before entering Pickwick Reservoir. One weathered dead zebra mussel, Dreisenna polymorpha, was also collected, representing a new tributary record. The population of Epioblasma brevidens in Bear Creek is the only population of that species known in the lower Tennessee River system, and the population of Lexingtonia dolabelloides, another new tributary record, is one of only two populations of that species known downstream of Paint Rock River.

McGregor, S. W.; Garner, J. T.

2003-01-01

404

Magnetostratigraphic correlation of Eocene rocks from the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A paleomagnetic framework has been established for the correlation of the Eocene section throughout the southern and eastern Absaroka Mountains of northwestern Wyoming, and it has been tested against biostratigraphic and rock stratigraphic markers. Correlation is based on the magnetic polarity of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks samples collected from nine sites that include Togwotee Pass, the East Fork basin, the Owl Creek and Cottonwood Creek drainages, Phelps Mountain, Carter Mountain, and along the South fork and North fork of the Shoshone River. The remnant magnetization of these samples reflects the polarity of the earth's magnetic field when the rocks were deposited. Magnetic polarity zonations, determined at individual sections, were correlated throughout the region and established horizons that are contemporaneous to within a few thousand years. This represents a method for timing volcanic, tectonic, and depositional events that is more precise than any other technique currently known. In addition, the method provides absolute ages if the polarity zonations can be matched to the pattern of Eocene geomagnetic reversals. Using this approach, it has been determined that (1) the Wiggins Formation in the Carter and Phelps Mountain areas is similar in age to the Tepee Trail Formation in the southeastern Absarokas; (2) the Pitchfork Formation is a transitional facies between the Aycross and Wapiti Formations; and (3) the Eocene section from the upper Willwood to the lower Wiggins was deposited between 52 and 47 Ma.

Shive, P.N.; Sundell, K.A.

1986-08-01

405

Do Rocks Last Forever?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about chemical and mechanical weathering in rocks. From the background material, they will learn that the change that takes place in rocks is called weathering and that this term refers to the destructive processes that change the character of rock at or near the Earth's surface. Processes of mechanical weathering (or physical disintegration) break rock into smaller pieces but do not change its chemical composition; processes of chemical weathering (or rock decomposition) transform rocks and minerals exposed to water and atmospheric gases into new chemical compounds (different rocks and minerals), some of which can be dissolved away. Four experiments that illustrate the effects of mechanical and chemical weathering are provided.

406

Beaver dams and channel sediment dynamics on Odell Creek, Centennial Valley, Montana, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beaver dams in streams are generally considered to increase bed elevation through in-channel sediment storage, thus, reintroductions of beaver are increasingly employed as a restoration tool to repair incised stream channels. Here we consider hydrologic and geomorphic characteristics of the study stream in relation to in-channel sediment storage promoted by beaver dams. We also document the persistence of sediment in the channel following breaching of dams. Nine reaches, containing 46 cross-sections, were investigated on Odell Creek at Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Centennial Valley, Montana. Odell Creek has a snowmelt-dominated hydrograph and peak flows between 2 and 10 m3 s- 1. Odell Creek flows down a fluvial fan with a decreasing gradient (0.018-0.004), but is confined between terraces along most of its length, and displays a mostly single-thread, variably sinuous channel. The study reaches represent the overall downstream decrease in gradient and sediment size, and include three stages of beaver damming: (1) active; (2) built and breached in the last decade; and (3) undammed. In-channel sediment characteristics and storage were investigated using pebble counts, fine-sediment depth measurements, sediment mapping and surveys of dam breaches. Upstream of dams, deposition of fine (? 2 mm) sediment is promoted by reduced water surface slope, shear stress and velocity, with volumes ranging from 48 to 182 m3. High flows, however, can readily transport suspended sediment over active dams. Variations in bed-sediment texture and channel morphology associated with active dams create substantial discontinuities in downstream trends and add to overall channel heterogeneity. Observations of abandoned dam sites and dam breaches revealed that most sediment stored above beaver dams is quickly evacuated following a breach. Nonetheless, dam remnants trap some sediment, promote meandering and facilitate floodplain development. Persistence of beaver dam sediment within the main channel on Odell Creek is limited by frequent breaching (< 1-5 years), so in-channel sediment storage because of damming has not caused measurable channel aggradation over the study period. Enhanced overbank flow by dams, however, likely increases fine-grained floodplain sedimentation and riparian habitat. Contrasts between beaver-damming impacts on Odell Creek and other stream systems of different scales suggest a high sensitivity to hydrologic, geomorphic, and environmental controls, complicating predictions of the longer-term effects of beaver restoration.

Levine, Rebekah; Meyer, Grant A.

2014-01-01

407

Characterization and mapping of the Browns Creek rhyolite: Western Snake River Plain, ID, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to map and characterize the geologic units that comprise the Brown's Creek region of the western Snake River Plain, with a focus on the eruptive behavior and physical characteristics of the exposed rhyolite. Located near Oreana ID, southeast of the Owyhee Front, the rhyolite in Browns Creek and adjacent rocks has never been mapped in detail. The volcanics in the Browns Creek area are predominantly comprised of low to high silica rhyolite (73%-78% SiO2), and a previously published 40Ar/39Ar date returned an age of 11.20 .02 Ma. The rhyolites have phenocryst assemblages of Na-plagioclase, quartz, K-feldspar, pyroxene, oxides, and zircon. Both phenocryst content and crystal size vary widely from approximately 15-50% and 1-10 mm respectively. The rhyolite in the Browns Creek region has a ?18O value of 8.5 and marks a very sharp boundary (<10 km) between normal ?18O rhyolites of the Western Snake River plain to the northwest, and the roughly contemporaneous and much more voluminous low-?18O rhyolites of the Central Snake River Plain to the southeast. The earliest, large scale mapping suggested that the rhyolite in the Browns Creek region was a rheomorphic ignimbrite, sourced from the North, while later workers proposed that the unit was composed of an early, small, non-welded ignimbrite, followed by two separate lava flows. Detailed field work and sample collection from this study indicates that the outcrops of rhyolite lava display a continuum of phenocryst contents and structural features, consistent with a single evolving magma which effused from multiple vent areas. Steeply dipping flow features are pervasive, basal and marginal breccias are common, and the unit rarely displays the lower aspect ratio outcrops typical of other large lava flows in the region. Currently, our preferred explanation for these observations is that of a single magma showing an evolutionary trend of crystallization and fractionation, with periodic effusion from multiple vent locations, until crystal content exceeds the possibility of eruption. This interpretation is broadly consistent with geochemical data, which displays continuous evolutionary trends in trace elements, and little or no evidence for discrete magma batches. These characteristics are unusual when compared to other roughly contemporaneous rhyolites throughout southern Idaho, and may represent a fundamental change in the source region and/or tectonics between the low-?18O rhyolites of the Central Snake River Plain and the normal ?18O rhyolites of the Owyhee Front.

Clippinger, D. T.; Boroughs, S.; Bonnichsen, B.

2012-12-01

408

PSC 424: Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a webpage designed to give students access to basic information about rocks and minerals. Rocks and Minerals Introduction Video Basic Definitions- Mineral: a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence Rock: a mixture of minerals Ways to identify a mineral: Hardness Luster (metallic/nonmetallic) Streak Color Rock Song Three basic rock types: Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary Rock Cycle Animation ...

Graham, Ms.

2011-10-13

409

RILEY CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1975-1976  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents a review of Riley Creek, Idaho (17040212) water quality data collected from September 1975 through September 1976. The creek meets all water quality standards except for total and fecal coliform bacteria. Sources of coliform bacteria include fish hatcheries,...

410

77 FR 73650 - Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir Hydroelectric Project (Trout Creek Reservoir Project or project) to be...foot-high, compacted earth-fill dam with a normal high water elevation...level forming a 392-acre reservoir and impounding 11,720...

2012-12-11

411

8. CLOSEUP OF THE GATES ON THE TOBY CREEK OUTLET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. CLOSEUP OF THE GATES ON THE TOBY CREEK OUTLET AND THE OUTLET OF THE PUMP DISCHARGE CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

412

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge,...

2010-07-01

413

Tons of Heavy Metals in Mill Creek Sediments Heather Freeman  

E-print Network

time the sewers overflow, a mixture of raw sewage and storm water goes directly into the Mill Creek. My objectives for this summer research were to: 1.) determine how much heavy metal pollution has accumulated in the Mill Creek sediments, and 2.) whether there is a change over time in the amount of pollution

Maynard, J. Barry

414

2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This is an oblique aerial view to the north, looking over the flooded fields between Chino Creek and the Santa Ana River, just upstream of the Prado Dam site. File number written on negative: R & H 80 024. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

415

Clear Creek Athletic Complex Marv Kay Stadium at Campbell Field  

E-print Network

Marv Kay Stadium at Campbell Field Mines Athletic Center · Operations · New home to track and footballClear Creek Athletic Complex Marv Kay Stadium at Campbell Field Mines Athletic Center #12;· Site Creek Athletic Complex Marv Kay Stadium at Campbell Field Mines Athletic Center #12;Mines Master Plan

416

Recovery of a PCB-Contaminated Creek Fish Community  

EPA Science Inventory

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek until the early 1990s. PCB concentrations in fish in this creek have remained elevated: levels in six target fish species are still a...

417

31. Construction Drawing: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. Construction Drawing: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, Emergency Power Building, Floor Plans and Details, USACOE, no date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

418

30. Construction Drawing: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Construction Drawing: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, Emergency Power Building, Sections and Elevations, USACOE, no date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

419

33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, FD Radar Facilities-FPS-27, Electrical Plot Plan and Duet Details, USACOE, not date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

420

BILLINGSLEY CREEK, GOODING COUNTY, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1984  

EPA Science Inventory

Billingsley Creek in Gooding County, Idaho (17040212) has been identified as a stream where fish farm discharges and other land use practices are degrading water quality. The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environment sampled Billingsley Creek to assess in-s...

421

33 CFR 117.149 - China Basin, Mission Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false China Basin, Mission Creek. 117.149 Section 117.149 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California 117.149 China Basin, Mission Creek. The draws of the 3rd Street...

2012-07-01

422

33 CFR 117.149 - China Basin, Mission Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false China Basin, Mission Creek. 117.149 Section 117.149 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California 117.149 China Basin, Mission Creek. The draws of the 3rd Street...

2013-07-01

423

33 CFR 117.149 - China Basin, Mission Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false China Basin, Mission Creek. 117.149 Section 117.149 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California 117.149 China Basin, Mission Creek. The draws of the 3rd Street...

2011-07-01

424

MIDDLE POTLATCH CREEK, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO - PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION REPORT, 1993  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1992 Idaho Water Quality Status Report listed the Middle Potlatch Creek (17060306) as an Idaho Impaired Stream Segment Requiring Further Assessment and listed the creek as a water body not fully supporting at least one beneficial use. This preliminary resource assessment foc...

425

DRY CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1976-1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality samples were collected monthly at one station in Water Year 1977 to determine the water quality status of Dry Creek in Twin Falls and Cassia Counties, Idaho (17040212). The stream was sampled near the mouth upstream from Murtaugh Lake. The section of Dry Creek abo...

426

Arctic Creek facies, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic Creek section is dissimilar to the typical Cretaceous section exposed elsewhere in Ignek Valley. The more typical Ignek Valley sequence consists of Kingak Shale (Jurassic to Neocomian), Kemik Sandstone (Hauterivian), Pebble Shale (Hauterivian-Barremian), Hue Shale (Aptian.to Santonian), and turbidites of the Canning Formation (Campanian to Paleocene). The two main differences that distinguish the Arctic Creek section from the

J. Decker; W. Camber; M. A. Vandergon; R. K. Crowder

1988-01-01

427

Early riparian wells along Oil Creek, Northwest Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early oil booms beginning in the 1860`s in Northwest Pennsylvania saw a multitude of derricks crowding the narrow flats of Oil Creek between Titusville and Oil City. Oil Creek is a shallow watercourse with gravel bars and islands. At low water one can wade it without wetting the kneecaps. In wet seasons the stream can quickly become a torrent,

Pees

1995-01-01

428

Urban Creek and Lake Water Quality Issues as  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Urban creeks and lakes can beimportant habitats for a variety of aquatic life, as well asan,aesthetic resource to communities. A key ,component ,of this resource is the quality of water in these waterbodies. This paper is devoted to a review of water quality problems in urban creeks and lakes associated with stormwater ,runoff and other urban sources of

G. Fred Lee

429

33 CFR 117.149 - China Basin, Mission Creek.  

...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false China Basin, Mission Creek. 117.149 Section 117.149 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California 117.149 China Basin, Mission Creek. The draws of the 3rd Street...

2014-07-01

430

3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE POWERHOUSE AT NEWHALEM. J.D. ROSS HAD THE GROUNDS LANDSCAPED AND PLANTED WITH EXOTIC FLOWERS AND VEGETATION DURING THE 1930S AS AN ADDITIONAL TOURIST ATTRACTION, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Skagit River & Newhalem Creek Hydroelectric Project, On Skagit River, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

431

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge, mile...

2013-07-01

432

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge, mile...

2011-07-01

433

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge, mile...

2012-07-01

434

33 CFR 117.149 - China Basin, Mission Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false China Basin, Mission Creek. 117.149 Section 117.149 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California 117.149 China Basin, Mission Creek. The draws of the 3rd Street...

2010-07-01

435

Hickory Creek 319 grant project City of Denton  

E-print Network

Hickory Creek 319 grant project City of Denton Kenneth Banks, Division of Environmental Quality;Project background 319(h) grant through the TCEQ to examine watershed protection issues for Hickory Creek Pilot Point Krum Ponder Corinth Denton I-35W I-35E Intake North Waste water #12;Implications for Hickory

436

33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the S634 bridge, mile 0.3 at...

2011-07-01

437

33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the S634 bridge, mile 0.3 at...

2012-07-01

438

33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the S634 bridge, mile 0.3 at...

2010-07-01

439

33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the S634 bridge, mile 0.3 at...

2013-07-01

440

Hoe Creek 1990 quarterly sampling cumulative report  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for benzene and for total phenols three times during 1990. This report summarizes the results of these sampling events and compares the results with those obtained in previous years. Possible further options for remediation of the Hoe Creek site was addressed. Three underground coal gasification (UCG) burns were performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy in 1976, 1977, and 1979 at the Hoe Creek site, which is about 20 miles south of Gillette, Wyoming. As a result of these burns, there has been considerable contamination of groundwater by various organic compounds. There have been three efforts at remediating this situation. In 1986 and again in 1987, contaminated water was pumped out, treated, and reinjected. In 1989, the water was pumped, treated, and sprayed into the atmosphere. Benzene and total phenols have been monitored at various monitoring wells as the site during 1990. The highest detected benzene concentration in 1990 was 220 {mu}g/L, and the highest total phenols concentration was 430 {mu}g/L. It is apparent that contamination is still above baseline levels, although the concentration of total phenols is far less than immediately after the burns. The burned coal seams are still releasing organic compounds into the groundwater that passes through them.

Crader, S.E.; Huntington, G.S.

1991-03-01

441

Ductile shear in granitic gneisses adjacent to the Beaver Creek fault zone, northwest lowlands, New York State  

SciTech Connect

Greenville-age rocks are exposed in the Beaver Creek area in the Northwest Lowlands of New York State. The prominent structural grain in the area strikes approximately N40E and is defined by a series of metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks elongate parallel to the Beaver Creek Fault Zone. A series of 7 granitic augen gneiss bodies lies to the west of the fault. These bodies are elongate parallel to the Beaver Creek Fault Zone and are bordered by metasedimentary units. Structural analysis of the 7 granitic gneiss bodies shows that the bodies underwent several phases of ductile shear. These shearing events are responsible for both fabric development and the overall shape of the bodies. The granitic gneiss is a well-foliated and lineated augen gneiss. The foliation is defined by biotite alignment, quartz ribbons, and feldspar augen. The foliation has a strike of N42E, with dips ranging from 85SE to vertical. Quartz ribbon lineations plunge 20--25 NE. The gneiss exhibits three distinct ductile shear fabrics showing oblique slip with a large strike-slip component. Fabric asymmetry indicates oblique slip with a large component of sinistral shear. The second shear fabric is somewhat recovered but not annealed. Quartz ribbons are dominantly monogranular and many show pronounced undulose extinction. Feldspar porphyroclasts form well-defined sigma grains showing a component of sinistral shear. The youngest ductile shear fabric is defined by quartz grain shape preferred orientation and mica fish. This third fabric exhibits a component of dextral shear, rather than sinistral shear. A late cataclastic texture crosscuts the earlier ductile fabrics. The elongate character of the 7 bodies and their NE/SE alignment is probably due to the regional shearing processes responsible for forming the fabric in the rocks.

Marcoline, J. (Hamilton Coll., Clinton, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

442

Site evaluation for U.S. Bureau of Mines experimental oil-shale mine, Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Bureau of Mines in the selection of a site for a shaft and experimental mine to be constructed in the Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colo. The Piceance Creek basin, an asymmetric, northwest-trending large structural downwarp, is located approximately 40 km (25 mi) west of the town of Meeker in Rio Blanco County, Colo. The oil-shale, dawsonite, nahcolite, and halite deposits of the Piceance Creek basin occur in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age. In the basin the Green River Formation comprises three members. In ascending order, they are the Douglas Creek, the Garden Gulch, and the Parachute Creek Members, Four sites are presented for consideration and evaluated on geology and hydrology with respect to shale-oil economics. Evaluated criteria include: (1) stratigraphy, (2) size of site, (3) oil-shale yield, (4) representative quantities of the saline minerals dawsonite and nahcolite, which must be present with a minimum amount of halite, (5) thickness of a 'leached' saline zone, (6) geologic structure, (7) engineering characteristics of rock, (8) representative surface and ground-water conditions, with emphasis on waste disposal and dewatering, and (9) environmental considerations. Serious construction and support problems are anticipated in sinking a deep shaft in the Piceance Creek basin. The two major concerns will be dealing with incompetent rock and large inflow of saline ground water, particularly in the leached zone. Engineering support problems will include stabilizing and hardening the rock from which a certain amount of ground water has been removed. The relative suitability of the four potential oil-shale experimental shaft sites in the Piceance Creek basin has been considered on the basis of all available geologic, hydrologic, and engineering data; site 2 is preferred to sites 1, 3, and 4, The units in this report are presented in the form: metric (English). Both units of measurement are necessary as measurements were taken in English units, and most of the contracting agencies involved are using predominantly English units.

Ege, John R.; Leavesley, G.H.; Steele, G.S.; Weeks, J.B.

1978-01-01

443

White Light Interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

White light interferometry is an extremely powerful tool for optical measurements. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of white light interferometry compared to laser light interferometry. Three different white light interferometers are discussed; 1. diffraction grating interferometers, 2. vertical scanning or coherence probe interferometers, and 3. white light scatterplate interferometers.

James C. Wyant

2002-01-01

444

Rock Mech. Rock Engng. (1999) 32 (2), 8199 Rock Mechanics  

E-print Network

required for fracture; E elastic or Young's modulus; surface energy per unit area of the crack surfaces and interact. Thus, rock strength was found to decrease with increasing grain size, not by inducing crack (e.g. Gri�th's theory, linear elastic fracture mechanics) primarily involves the determination

445

The late cretaceous Donlin Creek gold deposit, Southwestern Alaska: Controls on epizonal ore formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Donlin Creek gold deposit, southwestern Alaska, has an indicated and inferred resource of approximately 25 million ounces (Moz) Au at a cutoff grade of 1.5 g/t. The ca. 70 Ma deposit is hosted in the Late Cretaceous Kuskokwim flysch basin, which developed in the back part of the are region of an active continental margin, on previously accreted oceanic terranes and continental fragments. A hypabyssal, mainly rhyolitic to rhyodacitic, and commonly porphyritic, 8- ?? 3-km dike complex, part of a regional ca. 77 to 58 Ma magmatic arc, formed a structurally competent host for the mineralization. This deposit is subdivided into about one dozen distinct prospects, most of which consist of dense quartz ?? carbonate veinlet networks that fill north-northeast-striking extensional fractures in the northeast-trending igneous rocks. The sulfide mineral assemblage is dominated by arsenopyrite, pyrite, and, typically younger, stibnite; gold is refractory within the arsenopyrite. Sericitization, carbonatization, and suffidation were the main alteration processes. Fluid inclusion studies of the quartz that hosts the resource indicate dominantly aqueous ore fluids with also about 3 to 7 mol percent CO2 ?? CH4 and a few tenths to a few mole percent NaCl + KCl. The gold-bearing fluids were mainly homogeneously trapped at approximately 275?? to 300??C and at depths of 1 to 2 km. Some of the younger stibnite may have been deposited by late-stage aqueous fluids at lower temperature. Measured ??18O values for the gold-bearing quartz range between 11 and 25 per mil; the estimated ??18O fluid values range from 7 to 12 per mil, suggesting a mainly crustally derived fluid. A broad range of measured ??D values for hydrothermal micas, between -150 and -80 per mil, is suggestive of a contribution from devolatilization of organic matter and/or minor amounts of mixing with meteoric fluids. Gold-associated hydrothermal sulfide minerals are characterized by ??34S values mainly between -16 and -10 per mil, with the sulfur derived from diagenetic pyrite and organic matter within ihe flysch basin. A smaller group of ??34S measurements, which shows values as depleted as -27 per mil, suggests a different local sulfur reservoir in the basin for the later hydrothermal episode dominated by stibnite. Initial ENd of -8.7 to -3.1 and 87Sr/86Sr measurements of 0.706 to 0.709 for the ore-hosting dikes also indicate a crustal reservoir for some of the Late Cretaceous magmatism. Overlapping lead isotope data for these intrusive rocks and for sulfide minerals suggest a crustal contribution for the lead in both. Copper- and gold-bearing stockwork veinlets in hornfels occur at Dome, a prospect located at the northern end of the Donlin Creek deposit. These stockworks are cut by the younger auriferous gold veins that define the main Donlin Creek gold mineralization. Highly saline, gas-rich, heterogeneously trapped fluids deposited the stockworks at temperatures approximately 100??C hotter than those of the main gold-forming event at Donlin Creek. The genetic relationship of the Dome prospect to the main Donlin Creek gold resource is equivocal. The epizonal Donlin Creek deposit shows affinities to the gold systems interpreted by various workers as orogenic or intrusion related; it shows important differences from typical epithermal and Carlin-like deposits. The ore-forming fluids were derived by either broad-scale metamorphic devolatilization above rising mantle melts or exsolution from a magma that was dominated by a significant flysch melt component. ??2004 by Economic Geology.

Goldfarb, R.J.; Ayuso, R.; Miller, M.L.; Ebert, S.W.; Marsh, E.E.; Petsel, S.A.; Miller, L.D.; Bradley, D.; Johnson, C.; McClelland, W.

2004-01-01

446

Sources of baseflow for the Minnehaha Creek Watershed, Minnesota, US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minnehaha Creek is among the most valued surface water features in the Minneapolis, MN metro area, with a waterfall as it enters the Minnehaha Creek park. Flow in Minnehaha Creek is heavily dependent on discharge from the stream's origin, Lake Minnetonka, the outlet of which is closed during drought periods to maintain water elevations in the lake resulting in low- (or no-) flow conditions in the creek. Stormwater runoff entering directly to the creek from the creek's largely urbanized watershed exacerbates extremes in flow conditions. Given the cultural and ecological value of this stream system, there is great interest in enhancing the cultural and ecosystem services provided by Minnehaha Creek through improvements in streamflow regime by reducing flashiness and sustaining increased low-flows. Determining the potential for achieving improvements in flow requires first that the current sources of water contributing to low-flows in the creek be identified and quantified. Work on this source identification has involved a number of different approaches, including analyses of the streamflow record using a hydrologic system model framework, examination of the Quaternary and bedrock geology of the region, estimation of groundwater-surface water exchange rates within the channel using hyporheic zone temperature surveys and flux meter measurements, and analyses of the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in samples of stream water, groundwater, and rainfall. Analysis of baseflow recessions using the method of Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) indicates that only a small portion of the catchment, probably the riparian zone, contributes to baseflows. This result appears to be supported by the observation that the limestone/shale bedrock layer underlying the surficial aquifer has a non-zero permeability, and in a significant portion of the watershed the layer has been eroded away leaving the surficial aquifer ';bottomless' and highly susceptible to vertical (down) water loss. The analysis of the stable isotopes indicate that much of the low flow volume originates from surface storages including wetlands and small lakes within the watershed, with a small amount of the flow originating from groundwater seepage into the creek in the upper reaches of the creek. The temperature surveys and the seepage meter measurements along the main channel of the watershed show a trend that groundwater enters into the creek in the upper reaches, while the flux exchange is from the creek to groundwater in the lower reaches. The differences in flux direction between the upper and lower portions of the creek can be explained by three possible nonexclusive causes. First, the creek empties to the Mississippi River, and as the mouth of the creek is approached, the regional piezometric head drops significantly. Second, the lower end of the creek has a much larger portion of ';bottomless' surficial aquifer and therefore greater potential vertical loss of water. Third, the lower portion of the watershed is more developed and has major stormwater pipe infrastructure, a possible pathway for accelerating drainage of the surficial aquifer. To address the issue of low groundwater contribution to low-flows in the creek it is proposed to divert stormwater to key locations within the riparian zone along the creek, and to infiltrate that water and store it for slow release to the creek during non-rain periods.

Nieber, J. L.; Moore, T. L.; Gulliver, J. S.; Magner, J. A.; Lahti, L. B.

2013-12-01

447

Rock Cycle Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, sudents write a series of three stories that explain and/or illustrate rock-forming processes. As an alternative, they may write a single story that addresses the rock cycle. Describing these processes at a level appropriate for their target audience (second graders) requires an adequate understanding of the geologic processes involved and can reveal problems or misconceptions in the students' ideas of how rocks are formed. Teacher's notes and rubrics for teacher and peer review are provided.

Ebert, James

448

Friction of rocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stress the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface roughness. At high normal stress that effect is diminished and the friction is nearly independent of rock type. If the sliding surfaces are separated by gouge composed of Montmorillonite or vermiculite the friction can be very low. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.

Byerlee, J.

1978-01-01

449

Hot Science: Hot rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explores two kinds of igneous rock, pumice and granite. Pumice is an example of extrusive igneous rock, while granite is an example of intrusive igneous rock. Intrusive indicates that the magma was forced close to the surface, but then cooled more slowly underneath the surface. The question, "How hot is Lava?" is linked to an explanation of the heat of lava, why it must be sampled when it is very hot, and how the samples are taken.

450

Stratigraphy and depositional history of Coyote Creek-Miller Creek Trend, Lower Cretaceous Fall River formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend produces high-gravity, low-sulfur oil from a series of Fall River fields in an area generally characterized by west-southwestward monoclinal dip. The trend includes, from south to north, the Coyote Creek South, Coyote Creek, Donkey Creek, Kummerfeld, and Miller Creek fields. The Wood and West Moorcroft fields produce oil from very similar Fall River traps located several miles east and northeast, respectively, of Miller Creek. Only Donkey Creek includes structural closure; all of the other fields produce from purely stratigraphic traps. The reservoir sandstones are characterized by upward-fining sequences. These sequences locally replace and are generally easily distinguishable from two regionally correlative upward-coarsening sequences. Analyses of cores and nearby outcrops indicate that the upward-fining sequences accumulated on point bars of a meandering river; the upward-coarsening sequences were deposited on the fronts of northwestward-prograding deltas. Detailed mapping of the fluvial and delta-front facies demonstrates that the Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend, together with the Wood and West Moorcroft fields, represents a meander-belt system that was contemporaneous with the younger of the two delta-front units. Each of the stratigraphic-type fields occurs at a convexity along the eastern edge of the irregularly shaped meander belt; each consists of numerous point bars. Clay plugs, which resulted from infilling of abandoned meander loops, were preferentially preserved along the margins of the meander belt, where they now serve as updip permeability barriers between the oil-bearing fluvial and water-wet delta-front sandstones.

Ryer, T.A.; Gustason, E.R.

1985-05-01

451

My Pet Rock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster. While this type of lesson is concise and direct, the authors have found a new way of targeting the same Earth science benchmarks for upper elementary students. Their inquiry-based approach allows students to discover geologic properties as they befriend their pet rocks.

Lark, Adam; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie; Kramp, Robyne

2008-01-01

452

Real Fake Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity can be placed under the category of GeoArt. GeoArt is based on the premise that by looking with both artistic and scientific eyes, people develop deeper and more personal geologic understandings. GeoArt programs use artistic approaches to promote critical thinking about geology and geologic processes. In this activity, students create rocks out of tissue paper. The work of creating an eye-fooling rock leads to an interest in understanding the geologic significance of rock attributes such as color, pattern, texture and form. The rock-building process sharpens participant's powers of observation and nudges them to compare their observations against a range of interpretations.

Mieras, Barb

453

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides younger students with an introduction to rocks and minerals. Topics include the definition of a mineral, the physical properties of minerals and how they are measured, and a discussion of quartz, the most basic silicate mineral and one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth's crust. The discussion on rocks includes the rock cycle, the three rock types (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic), and how they are formed. There is also a vocabulary list and downloadable, printable worksheets for each major topic.

Medina, Philip

2010-09-08

454

Hungry for Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit hazard identification camera shows the rover's perspective just before its first post-egress drive on Mars. On Sunday, the 15th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey, engineers drove Spirit approximately 3 meters (10 feet) toward its first rock target, a football-sized, mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack (not pictured). In the foreground of this image are 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi' - two rocks that scientists considered investigating first. Ultimately, these rocks were not chosen because their rough and dusty surfaces are ill-suited for grinding.

2004-01-01

455

Geologic controls on producibility at Clear Creek Field, Uinta County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Production from the eolian Nugget formation at Clear Creek field in the southwest Wyoming thrust belt is controlled in large part by permeability anisotropy emplaced at the time of deposition and subsequent reorientation of the formation as a result of folding. Maximum permeability in this eolian system occurs in and parallel to dune slip-face bedding planes. Vertical permeability across less porous interdunal deposits ranges from two to three orders of magnitude less than the maximum permeability in the dune deposits. At the time of Nugget deposition the dune orientation was predominantly northwest-southeast with the slipfaces dipping to the southwest, giving a northwest-southeast orientation to the axis of maximum permeability (K/sub max/ axis). This K/sub max/ axis was curved or bent during subsequent folding of the sediments, giving it various orientations depending on structural position. Higher gas oil ratios are observed at Clear Creek where the separation of oil zone perfs from the gas cap along the K/sub max/ axis is smaller. These higher gas oil ratios result as gas is preferentially ''channeled'' along the slipface bedding planes to the oil zone perfs. In situations as at Clear Creek, where the oil zone is thin and a gas cap is present, oil zone completions must be located where the K/sub max/ axis is near horizontal, thus maximizing the separation of perfs from the gas cap. This reduces the ''channeling'' of gas along the K/sub max/ axis and maximizes oil zone recoveries. Another parameter affecting producibility is rock deformation due to faulting. Faulting in the Nugget results in the development of intense gouge zones along and adjacent to fault planes. These gouge zones represent potential barriers to flow.

Alexander, W.G.

1986-01-01

456

Sediment Dynamics and Southern Steelhead Habitat (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Matilija Creek Watershed, Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matilija Creek, one of two principal forks of the Ventura River, drains 142 km2 in the Transverse Ranges of southern California. Thanks to rapid tectonic uplift and weak clastic rocks, sediment yields exceed 1200 m3/km2 annually. Matilija Dam was built in 1947 with an initial capacity of 8 million m3 and is now nearly full of sediment. The dam is structurally unsafe, blocks anadromous fish migration, and is being considered for removal. The Ventura River has one of the southernmost runs of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with an average of approximately 2,500 annually migrating up Matilija Creek before the dam was built. The high sediment yields and highly variable flow regime have raised questions about the interactions among high flows, sediment transfer from lower order tributaries to the third order channels used by the fish, and fish life history. Previous studies in Southern California have documented sediment yields (especially following debris flows and fires, and mostly in the San Gabriel Mountains), but the interaction of geomorphic processes and aquatic habitat in this highly episodic environment is not well understood. We used a combination of mapping and survey techniques, sediment traps, grain size analysis, lithologic analysis and scour rods to study intra-annual geomorphic processes and sediment dynamics affecting Southern Steelhead habitat in the Matilija Creek area in 16 study pools over the 2002 and 2003 flow seasons (dry and "normal", respectively) and found little sediment was deposited or scoured from pools. However, other processes not previously recognized significantly affected the steelhead habitat in the study pools including tufa cementation (carbonate deposition) and alder root growth in spawning gravels, as well as seasonal desiccation of some reaches. Removal of Matilija Dam will reopen suitable habitat to steelhead trout, but managers should recognize that habitat quality is likely to vary considerably from year-to-year, especially in response to episodic events.

Minear, J. T.; Kondolf, G. M.

2003-12-01

457

Age resetting of hanging wall rocks above a low-angle detachment fault: Tinos Island (Aegean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central Aegean region has been affected by extensional tectonics since at least the Oligo-Miocene. On Tinos Island (Cyclades, Greece), a low-angle normal fault places low-grade metamorphic rocks (the Upper Unit) above high-pressure rocks (the Cycladic Blueschist Unit). K-Ar and 40Ar\\/39Ar ages were obtained by us on white-micas, amphiboles, and whole-rock samples separated from various metamorphic rocks representing different structural

Sara Zeffren; Dov Avigad; Ariel Heimann; Zohar Gvirtzman

2005-01-01

458

+2 Valence Metal Concentrations in Lion Creek, Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven major creeks exist within the City of Oakland, California. These creeks all flow in the southwest direction from forested hills down through densely populated streets where they become susceptible to urban runoff. Lion Creek has been diverted to engineered channels and underground culverts and runs directly under our school (Roots International) before flowing into the San Leandro Bay. One branch of the creek begins near an abandoned sulfur mine. Previous studies have shown that extremely high levels of lead, arsenic and iron exist in this portion of the creek due to acid mine drainage. In this study +2 valence heavy metals concentration data was obtained from samples collected from a segment of the creek located approximately 2.8 miles downstream from the mine. Concentrations in samples collected at three different sites along this segment ranged between 50 ppb and 100 ppb. We hypothesize that these levels are related to the high concentration of +2 valence heavy metals at the mining site. To test this hypothesis, we have obtained samples from various locations along the roughly 3.75 miles of Lion Creek that are used to assess changes in heavy metals concentration levels from the mining site to the San Leandro Bay.

Vazquez, P.; Zedd, T.; Chagolla, R.; Dutton-Starbuck, M.; Negrete, A.; Jinham, M.; Lapota, M.

2012-12-01

459

Hydrology of Salt Wells Creek : a plains stream in southwestern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Development of energy minerals in plains areas of Wyoming is expanding rapidly. Such development may affect water resources and hydrologic relations of the plains; however, little information exists concerning hydrologic processes for these areas. This report summarizes results of a hydrologic study made during 1975-78 of Salt Wells creek, a drainage area of about 500 square miles located southeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming. The area is typical of arid and semiarid plains areas in southwestern Wyoming where mineral development is occurring. Salt Wells Creek is predominately an intermittent stream. Numerous springs in the headwaters cause small perennial flows in some upstream tributaries, but evaporation, freezeup, and seepage deplete these flows so that the middle and lower reaches of the main channel have only intermittent flows. The intermittent nature of streamflow affects water quality. It was observed that a flushing of dissolved solids and suspended sediment occurs during the first flows of a runoff event. A striking feature of the stream is its deeply incised channel. The downcutting is attributed to the cummulative effects of: (1) a change in the relative climate, amounts of annual precipitation occurring as rain and snow, (2) change in base level due to downstream channelization, and (3) changes in land use. Because of the incision, erosion is now expanding to include intervening tributaries. (USGS)

Lowham, H.W.; DeLong, L.L.; Collier, K.R.; Zimmerman, E.A.

1982-01-01

460

Environmental Impact of the Contact and Sonoma Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek Watersheds, Sonoma County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Contact and Sonoma mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the western part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Sonoma County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek, which is a tributary to Little Sulphur Creek. The Contact Hg mine produced about 1,000 flasks of Hg, and the Sonoma mine produced considerably less. Waste rock and tailings eroded from the Contact and Sonoma mines have contributed Hg-enriched mine waste material to the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Contact and Sonoma mines and in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Contact and Sonoma mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Contact and Sonoma mines that was initiated on April 20 during a storm event, and on June 19, 2001. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area was completed on April 1, 2003. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of