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1

Restoring Lower Rock Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video describes how Lower Rock Creek’s location between two National Wild and Scenic Rivers caused Kentucky environmentalists to choose the creek as a target for acid mine drainage remediation.

Ket

2011-01-11

2

Water-quality trends in White Rock Creek Basin from 1912-1994 identified using sediment cores from White Rock Lake Reservoir, Dallas, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical trends in selected water-quality variables from 1912 to 1994 in White Rock Creek Basin were identified by dated sediment cores from White Rock Lake. White Rock Lake is a 4.4-km2 reservoir filled in 1912 and located on the north side of Dallas, Texas, with a drainage area of 259 km2. Agriculture dominated land use in White Rock Creek Basin before about 1950. By 1990, 72% of the basin was urban. Sediment cores were dated using cesium-137 and core lithology. Major element concentrations changed, and sedimentation rates and percentage of clay-sized particles in sediments decreased beginning in about 1952 in response to the change in land use. Lead concentrations, normalized with respect to aluminum, were six times larger in sediment deposited in about 1978 than in pre-1952 sediment. Following the introduction of unleaded gasoline in the 1970s, normalized lead concentrations in sediment declined and stabilized at about two and one-half times the pre-1952 level. Normalized zinc and arsenic concentrations increased 66 and 76%, respectively, from before 1952 to 1994. No organochlorine compounds were detected in sediments deposited prior to about 1940. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and DDE (a metabolite of DDT) increased rapidly beginning in the 1940s and peaked in the 1960s at 21 and 20 ??g kg-1, respectively, which is coincident with their peak use in the United States. Concentrations of both declined about an order of magnitude from the 1960s to the 1990s to 3.0 and 2.0 ??g kg-1, respectively. Chlordane and dieldrin concentrations increased during the 1970s and 1980s. The largest chlordane concentration was 8.0 ??g kg-1 and occurred in a sediment sample deposited in about 1990. The largest dieldrin concentration was 0.7 ??g kg-1 and occurred in the most recent sample deposited in the early 1990s. Agricultural use of chlordane and dieldrin was restricted in the 1970s; however, both were used as termiticides, and urban use of chlordane continued at least until 1990. Recent use of dieldrin and aldrin, which degrades to dieldrin, has not been reported; however, increasing trends in dieldrin since the 1970s suggest recent urban use could have occurred.

Van Metre, P. C.; Callender, E.

1997-01-01

3

63. SURVEY OF RESERVOIR SITE ON LITTLE ROCK CREEK FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

63. SURVEY OF RESERVOIR SITE ON LITTLE ROCK CREEK FOR PALMDALE WATER CO., J.B. LIPPINCOTT ENGINEERING OFFICES; OCTOBER, 1915. Palmdale Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

4

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1970-1984  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was designed to determine the characteristics and amounts of industrial and municipal wastes discharged to Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) and subsequently into the Snake River and to evaluate the effects of these wastes on the biota and water quality of Rock Creek. Indus...

5

Sediment Discharge in Rock Creek and the Effect of Sedimentation Rate on the Proposed Rock Creek Reservoir, Northwestern Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sediment data collected from 1976 to 1985 and stream-discharge data collected from 1952 to 1980 at gaging station 09060500, Rock Creek near Toponas, Colorado, were used to determine total-sediment discharge into the proposed Rock Creek Reservoir. Suspende...

D. L. Butler

1987-01-01

6

Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.

Not Available

1991-07-01

7

Water quality monitoring report for the White Oak Creek Embayment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality monitoring activities that focused on the detection of resuspended sediments in the Clinch River were conducted in conjunction with the White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE) time-critical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to construct a sediment-retention structure at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC). Samples were collected by use of a 24-h composite

C. J. Ford; M. T. Wefer

1993-01-01

8

Quality of surface and ground water in the White Creek and Mossy Creek watersheds, White County, Georgia, 1992-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface- and ground-water quality data were collected and evaluated from streams and wells in the White Creek and Mossy Creek watersheds in White County, Georgia, during three sampling periods in 1992 and 1993, to identify stream reaches and wells affected by nonpoint-source contaminants. Livestock operations in these watersheds account for approximately 9.8 million tons of manure per year, which is spread over about 5,000 acres of pasture and cropland in the watersheds. White Creek and Mossy Creek are tributaries of the Chattahoochee River which flows into Lake Sidney Lanier. Lake Sidney Lanier and the Chattahoochee River downstream from the lake are the primary sources of drinking water for the Atlanta Metropolitan area and numerous smaller communities downstream of Atlanta. Water samples were collected from 31 stream sites during baseflow and stormwater-runoff conditions and from 8 shallow wells completed in the regolith and 16 deeper wells completed in the crystalline bedrock. All water samples were analyzed for the nutrients ammonia, nitrite plus nitrate, and orthophosphate. None of the surface-water samples from either sampling period had concentrations of these constituents that exceed the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division (EPD), drinking-water standards. Generally, in both watersheds, the streamwater temperature was cool, specific conductance low, dissolved oxygen high, and pH near neutral. Ground-water samples collected from 8 shallow regolith wells and the 16 deep bedrock wells had nutrient concentrations below EPD drinking-water standards, except for two of the deep bedrock wells with nitrite plus nitrate concentrations slightly above the 10 mg/L drinking-water standard of EPD.

Peck, Michael F.; Garrett, Jerry W.

1994-01-01

9

Rock creek multiple coal streams project. Final report, July 1984November 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarizes the research conducted at the Rock Creek Project from 1984 to 1994. The Rock Creek Project was a field laboratory with the purpose of determining the best methods to produce methane from multiple coal seams. The site is located in the Oak Grove field of the Black Warrior Basin approximately 15 miles west of Birmingham, Alabama. The

J. L. Saulsberry; S. W. Lambert; J. A. Wallace; S. D. Spafford; P. F. Steidl

1995-01-01

10

Rock Creek Multiple Coal Streams Project. Final Report, July 1984-November 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the research conducted at the Rock Creek Project from 1984 to 1994. The Rock Creek Project was a field laboratory with the purpose of determining the best methods to produce methane from multiple coal seams. The site is located in th...

J. L. Saulsberry S. W. Lambert J. A. Wallace S. D. Spafford P. F. Steidl

1995-01-01

11

33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla...REGULATIONS § 208.29 Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla...agent, shall operate the Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles in the interest of...

2013-07-01

12

Forecasting contaminant concentrations: Spills in the White Oak Creek Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (SSARR) model has been installed and sufficiently calibrated for use in managing accidental release of contaminants in surface waters of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed at ORNL. The model employs existing watershed conditions, hydrologic parameters representing basin response to precipitation, and a Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) to predict variable flow conditions throughout the basin. Natural runoff from each of the hydrologically distinct subbasins is simulated and added to specified plant and process water discharges. The resulting flows are then routed through stream reaches and eventually to White Oak Lake (WOL), which is the outlet from the WOC drainage basin. In addition, the SSARR model is being used to simulate change in storage volumes and pool levels in WOL, and most recently, routing characteristics of contaminant spills through WOC and WOL. 10 figs.

Borders, D.M.; Hyndman, D.W.; Huff, D.D.

1987-01-01

13

Rock creek multiple coal streams project. Final report, July 1984-November 1994  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes the research conducted at the Rock Creek Project from 1984 to 1994. The Rock Creek Project was a field laboratory with the purpose of determining the best methods to produce methane from multiple coal seams. The site is located in the Oak Grove field of the Black Warrior Basin approximately 15 miles west of Birmingham, Alabama. The research performed under the Rock Creek Project involved: resource evaluation, reservoir testing, completion techniques, stimulation design and evaluation, operational methods, production forecasting, and remedial stimulations. Offsite cooperative research with other operators was also performed as part of the project. In addition to developing new technology, the work at Rock Creek demonstrated how existing technology from mining, groundwater hydrology, and the petroleum industry could be applied to coalbed methane production. The work also highlighted the pitfalls associated with some of the technology that was being used by certain operators.

Saulsberry, J.L.; Lambert, S.W.; Wallace, J.A.; Spafford, S.D.; Steidl, P.F.

1995-12-01

14

Rock creek methane from multiple coal seams completion project: Rock Creek coalbed methane completion project data summary update. Topical report, December 1990February 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report provides a summary of the data collected from 12 production wells and 17 monitor wells that were present at the Rock Creek Project. Well testing, reservoir evaluation, experimental fracturing treatments, diagnostic testing, and production testing were conducted to optimize stimulation methods for multiple thin coal seams. Much geologic and reservoir characterization of the project site has been performed

J. Ellard; S. W. Lambert; L. A. Litzinger; J. L. Saulsberry; P. F. Steidl

1995-01-01

15

Water quality monitoring report for the White Oak Creek Embayment. Environmental Restoration Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality monitoring activities that focused on the detection of resuspended sediments in the Clinch River were conducted in conjunction with the White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE) time-critical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to construct a sediment-retention structure at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC). Samples were collected by use of a 24-h composite

C. J. Ford; M. T. Wefer

1993-01-01

16

Age and petroleum potential of rocks exposed on Hay Creek anticline, Jefferson County, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

For many years, the rocks exposed along the eroded axis of the Hay Creek anticline were reported to be metamorphic and Mesozoic, or even Paleozoic in age. Outcrops consists of black to dark-gray siltstones and sandstones with less abundant chert pebble conglomerate and recrystallized limestone. They refer to these strata informally as the Hay Creek formation. Various thermal maturation indicators document that the sequence is only slightly overmature for petroleum generation. Calcareous nannofossils recovered from the limestone yield an age of early to middle Eocene. Thus, the Hay Creek outcrops are the first marine Tertiary rocks identified east of the Cascade Range in either Oregon or Washington. The depositional environment of the Hay Creek formation is interpreted to be a submarine turbidite fan. Siltstones were deposited as pelagic rain and turbidite fallout. Sandstones and conglomerates were deposited by turbidite flows, as evidenced by flute casts and graded bedding. Limestone pods possibly represent shelf calcareous oozes transported to deeper water. The petroleum source rock potential of the Hay Creek formation is good. High total organic carbon in the siltstones, type II and III kerogens, and the maturity indicators suggest that hydrocarbons have been produced. Oil and gas shows in nearby wildcat wells are further indications of the potential for production from these prevolcanic rocks.

Wareham, S.I.; Fisk, L.H.

1987-08-01

17

Monitoring and modeling contaminated sediment transport in the White Oak Creek watershed  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 47 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of the White Oak Creek drainage system. The containments presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in White Oak Creek. During floods, the erosion of these sediments results in the transport of contaminants out of the catchment into the Clinch River. A long-term strategy is required to monitor the movement of contaminated sediments and to predict the transport of these sediments that could occur during major floods. A monitoring program will provide the information required to (1) evaluate the existing off-site transport of contaminated sediments, (2) evaluate the need for short-term control measures, (3) set priorities for remediation of contaminated areas in White Oak Creek (4) verify the success of completed remedial actions intended to control the movement of contaminated sediments, and (5) develop a computer model to simulate the transport of contaminated sediments in White Oak Creek. A contaminant-transport model will be developed to (1) evaluate the potential for the off-site transport of contaminated sediments during major floods, (2) develop long term control measures and remediation solutions, (3) predict the impact of future land-use changes in White Oak Creek on the transport of contaminated sediment. This report contains a plan for the monitoring and modeling activities required to accomplish these objectives.

Fontaine, T.A.

1991-11-01

18

Monitoring and modeling contaminated sediment transport in the White Oak Creek watershed. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 47 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of the White Oak Creek drainage system. The containments presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in White Oak Creek. During floods, the erosion of these sediments results in the transport of contaminants out of the catchment into the Clinch River. A long-term strategy is required to monitor the movement of contaminated sediments and to predict the transport of these sediments that could occur during major floods. A monitoring program will provide the information required to (1) evaluate the existing off-site transport of contaminated sediments, (2) evaluate the need for short-term control measures, (3) set priorities for remediation of contaminated areas in White Oak Creek (4) verify the success of completed remedial actions intended to control the movement of contaminated sediments, and (5) develop a computer model to simulate the transport of contaminated sediments in White Oak Creek. A contaminant-transport model will be developed to (1) evaluate the potential for the off-site transport of contaminated sediments during major floods, (2) develop long term control measures and remediation solutions, (3) predict the impact of future land-use changes in White Oak Creek on the transport of contaminated sediment. This report contains a plan for the monitoring and modeling activities required to accomplish these objectives.

Fontaine, T.A.

1991-11-01

19

Comparative Assessment of Fertility and Hatchability of Barred Plymouth Rock, White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red and White Rock Hen  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: A total of 3000 eggs; 750 eggs from each breed namely Barred Plymouth Rock (BPR),White Leghorn (WLH), Rhode Island Red (RIR) and White Rock (WR) were collected in 3 batches following AI from individually caged hens and were hatched to compare hatching parameters among breeds. The different hatchability traits of hen of different breeds; BPR, WLH, RIR and

2002-01-01

20

WATER QUALITY RELATED PUBLICATIONS FOR ROCK CREEK, IDAHO. REFERENCES THROUGH 1991  

EPA Science Inventory

This bibliography contains citations and abstracts for 626 water quality and water resource related publications for Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) through 1991. Clark, W.H. 1991.Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Divison of Environmental Quality, Boise, ID. 167 pp....

21

Impacats of Deer Herbivory on Vegetation in Rock Creek Park, 2001-2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Starting in 2001, vegetation data have been collected annually in 16 study modules consisting of paired (1x4 m) fenced plots and unfenced control plots located in the upland forests of Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C. Vegetation data collected from 2001-...

C. C. Krafft J. S. Hartfield

2011-01-01

22

Portland Community College, Rock Creek: A Community Based Educational Shopping Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is presented of Portland Community College's plans to create the Rock Creek campus, scheduled to open in January 1976. The physical environment is considered to be an important factor in a student's cultural and aesthetic experience, and all facilities have been designed with this in mind. The philosophy guiding campus planning is one

De Bernardis, Amo

23

ROCK CREEK, POWER COUNTY, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1977-1979  

EPA Science Inventory

A survey was conducted on Rock Creek, Power County, Idaho (17040209) to assess the levels of transported sediment, various chemical and physical parameters, and macroinvertebrate fauna during base and peak flow periods. The survey was initiated in October 1977 and sampling was c...

24

Altered tuffaceous rocks of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 50 ash-fall tuff beds which have altered to analcitized or feldspathized rocks have been found in the upper 500-600 feet of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin of northwestern Colorado. Similarly altered water-washed tuff occurs as tongues in the uppermost part of this member, and forms most of the lower 400-600 feet of the overlying Evacuation Creek Member of the Green River Formation. 'The altered ash-fall beds of the Parachute Creek Member are all thin and show a characteristic pattern of alteration. Most beds range in thickness from a fraction of an inch to a few inches. One bed reaches a maximum thickness of 5 feet, and, unlike the other beds, is composed of several successive ash falls. The pattern of alteration changes from the outer part to the center of the basin. Most beds in the outer part of the basin contain about 50 to 65 percent analcite,with the interstices between the crystals filled mainly by microlites of feldspar, opal, and quartz, and small amounts of carbonate. At the center of the basin .essentially all the beds -are composed of microlites of feldspar, opal, and quartz, and small amounts of carbonate. The tongues of water-washed tuff in the uppermost part of the Parachute Creek Member and the similar rocks composing the lower 400-600 feet of the Evacuation Creek Mewber are feldspathized rocks composed mainly of microlites of feldspar, opal, and quartz, varying amounts of carbonate, and in some specimens tiny subrounded crystals of analcite. The general trend in alteration of the tuffaceous rocks from analcitization near the margin to feidspathization near the center of the Piceance Creek Basin is believed to have taken place at shallow depth during diagenesis , as indicated by field observations and laboratory work. It is believed that during sedimentation and diagenesis the waters of the central part of the basin were more alkaline and following the breakdown of the original tuffaceous glass to a colloidal gel during diagenesis analcitized rocks crystallized near the basin margin and feldspathized rocks crystallized near the center of the basin.

Griggs, Roy Lee

1968-01-01

25

Petrochemistry of Mafic Rocks Within the Northern Cache Creek Terrane, NW British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cache Creek terrane is a belt of oceanic rocks that extend the length of the Cordillera in British Columbia. Fossil fauna in this belt are exotic with respect to the remainder of the Canadian Cordillera, as they are of equatorial Tethyan affinity, contrasting with coeval faunas in adjacent terranes that show closer linkages with ancestral North America. Preliminary results reported here from geochemical studies of mafic rocks within the Nakina area of NW British Columbia further constrain the origin of this enigmatic terrane. The terrane is typified by tectonically imbricated slices of chert, argillite, limestone, wacke and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as mafic and ultramafic rocks. These lithologies are believed to represent two separate lithotectonic elements: Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic, subduction-related accretionary complexes, and dismembered basement assemblages emplaced during the closure of the Cache Creek ocean in the Middle Jurassic. Petrochemical analysis revealed four distinct mafic igneous assemblages that include: magmatic 'knockers' of the Nimbus serpentinite mlange, metabasalts of 'Blackcaps' Mountain, augite-phyric breccias of 'Laughing Moose' Creek, and volcanic pediments to the reef-forming carbonates of the Horsefeed Formation. Major and trace element analysis classifies the 'Laughing Moose' breccias and the carbonate-associated volcanics as alkaline in nature, whereas the rest are subalkaline. Tectonic discrimination diagrams show that the alkaline rocks are of within-plate affinity, while the 'Blackcaps' basalts and 'knockers' from within the mlange typically straddle the island-arc tholeiite and the mid-ocean ridge boundaries. However, primitive mantle normalized multi-element plots indicate that these subalkaline rocks have pronounced negative Nb anomalies, a characteristic arc signature. The spatial association of alkaline volcanic rocks with extensive carbonate domains points to the existence of seamounts within the Cache Creek ocean. However, the precise origin of the 'Laughing Moose' breccias remains somewhat uncertain and may be related to a subsequent rifting event. To conclude, preliminary data from the Nakina region show it to be dominated by two different petrogenetic components: alkaline volcanic rocks of within-plate affinity, and primitive arc-related, subalkaline mafic rocks. An accretionary complex/ oceanic arc origin may provide a mechanism to explain the lithological diversity within the Nakina area.

English, J. M.; Johnston, S. T.; Mihalynuk, M. G.

2002-12-01

26

Extent and bioavailability of trace metal contamination due to acid rock drainage in Pennask Creek, British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pennask Creek is one of the most important rainbow trout producing streams in British Columbia (BC). Much of the Pennask Creek watershed is located within a BC Parks Protected Area, which was set aside to protect the spawning and rearing habitat of this wild rainbow trout population. Construction of Highway 97C, which bisects the Pennask Creek watershed, resulted in the exposure of a highly pyritic rock formation, which began releasing acid rock drainage and causing metals to be leached into Highway Creek, a tributary of Pennask Creek. Previous studies commissioned by the BC Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure indicate that Highway Creek yields fewer invertebrates and elevated levels of some metals in the water when compared with downstream sites in Pennask Creek. This study examines the impacts of this acid rock drainage and metal leaching by determining the extent of trace metal contamination in the water and sediments of the Pennask Creek watershed and determining the bioavailability of these trace metals. Preliminary results indicate concentrations of Al, Cu, and Zn in the water as well as levels of total As, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn in the sediments that are above the BC Water and Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life. The highest level of trace metal contamination is found in Highway Creek, downstream of Highway 97C, with concentrations generally returning to near background levels downstream of the confluence with Pennask Creek. Levels of Cu in the water and Zn in the sediments appear to be of greatest concern in areas furthest from the highway.

Walls, L. D.; Li, L. Y.; Hall, K. J.

2010-05-01

27

Multidimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Dispersion of White Oak Creek Contaminants in the Clinch River  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the simulation of the dispersion and dilution of dissolved or finely suspended contaminants entering the Clinch river from White Oak Creek. The work is accomplished through the application of a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. This study assumes that contaminants originating in the White Oak Creed watershed, which drains Oak Ridge National Laboratory, will eventually reach the mouth of White Oak Creek and be discharged into the clinch River. The numerical model was developed to support the analysis of the off-site consequences of releases from the ORNL liquid low-level waste system. The system contains storage tanks and transfer lines in Bethel Valley and Melton Valley. Under certain failure modes, liquid low-level waste could be released to White Oak Creek or Melton Branch to White Oak Creek and eventually be discharged to the Clinch River. Since the Clinch River has unrestricted access by the public and water usage from the Clinch River is not controlled by the Department of Energy, such a liquid low-level waste spill would create the possibility of public exposure to the contaminant. This study is limited to the dispersion of the contaminants downstream of the confluence of White Oak Creek.

Platfoot, J.H.; Wendel, M.W.; Williams, P.T.

1996-10-01

28

Analyses of geochemical samples and descriptions of rock samples, Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas, Clay County, Alabama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semiquantitative spectrographic analyses for 31 elements on 105 rocks, 47 stream-sediment, and 70 soil samples from the Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas and vicinity, Talladega National Forest, Clay County, Alabama are reported here in detail. Atomic-absorption analyses for zinc in all samples and for gold in 5 selected rock samples are also reported. Localities for all sables are given in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. A brief description of each rock sample is included. Rocks analyzed include quartzite, phyllite, vein quartz, and schist.

Erickson, M. S.; Hanley, J. T.; Kelley, D. L.; Sherlock, L. J.

1983-01-01

29

Rock Creek oil field CO/sub 2/ pilot tests, Roane County, West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the design and operation of two CO/sub 2/ EOR tests conducted in the Rock Creek field in Roane County, WV. The history, fluid properties, and geology of the Rock Creek field are presented first. The test area is then addressed more specifically with an evaluation of the cores and the geophysical logs of the injection, production, and observation wells. Finally, the injection history and the production response are documented. The first test was conducted in two 10-acre (4-ha), normal five-spot patterns, with 13,000 scf CO/sub 2//STB oil (2315 st m/sup 3//stock-tank m/sup 3/) injected. This test effort recovered 13,078 STB (2079 stock-tank m/sup 3/) of oil (3% of the original oil in place (OOIP)) but was terminated after 3 years before all oil capable of being mobilized was recovered. About 15% of an HCPV was injected. The first test was followed by a second, smaller test that, given the same amount of CO/sub 2/ to be purchased, would result in an increase in HCPV's of CO/sub 2/ injected and a greater potential for oil recovery. The second test was conducted in a 1.55-acre (0.63-ha), normal four-spot pattern contained within the original test pattern. This test lasted 2 years, with 9,000 scf CO/sub 2//STB oil (1603 std m/sup 3//stock-tank m/sup 3/) injected. Recovery from this test was 3,821 STB (607 stock-tank m/sup 3/) of oil (11% of the OOIP). About 48% of an HCPV was injected. It appears that CO/sub 2/ miscible flooding is technically successful in Appalachian reservoirs.

Brummert, A.C.; Watts, R.J.; Boone, D.A.; Wasson, J.A.

1988-03-01

30

Species composition, diversity, biomass, and chlorophyll of periphyton in greasy creek, red rock creek, and the Arkansas River, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-nine taxa of periphyton were collected on Plexiglas plates at seven stations in the three streams between March, 1975, and February, 1976. More taxa and lower densities were generally observed at the upstream stations in the creeks than at the downstream stations resulting in greater species diversity values at the upstream stations. Species diversity was generally lower in the river

Jerry Wilhm; James Cooper; Harold Namminga

1978-01-01

31

Streamflow characteristics of small tributaries of Rock Creek, Milk River basin, Montana, base period water years 1983-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five streamflow-gaging stations were installed in the Rock Creek basin north of the Milk River near Hinsdale, Montana. Streamflow was monitored at these stations and at an existing gaging station upstream on Rock Creek from May 1983 through September 1987. The data collected were used to describe the flow characteristics of four small tributary streams. Annual mean streamflow ranges from 2.8 to 57 cu ft/sec in the mainstem and from 0 to 0.60 cu ft/sec in the tributaries. Monthly mean streamflow ranged from 0 to 528 cu ft/sec in Rock Creek and from zero to 5.3 cu ft/sec in the four tributaries. The six gaged sites show similar patterns of daily mean streamflow during periods of large runoff, but substantial individual variations during periods of lesser runoff. During periods of lesser runoff , the small tributaries may have small daily mean streamflows. At other times, daily mean streamflow at the two mainstem sites decreased downstream. Daily mean streamflow in the tributaries appears to be closely related to daily mean streamflow in the mainstem only during periods of substantial area-wide runoff. Thus, streamflow in the tributaries resulting from local storms or local snowmelt may not contribute to streamflow in the mainstem. (USGS)

Parrett, Charles; Hull, J. A.

1990-01-01

32

White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed {sup 137}Cs concentrations [> 10{sup 6} Bq/kg dry wt (> 10{sup 4} pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of {sup 137}Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h{sup 1} 1 m above the soil surface.

Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

1993-01-01

33

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope study of minerals from metapelitic rocks, staurolite to sillimanite zones, Mica Creek, British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses have been made of coexisting quartz, ilmenite, muscovite, and biotite from Late Precambrian metapelitic rocks, staurolite-kyanite to K-feldspar-muscovite-sillimanite zones, from Mica Creek, British Columbia. The delta/sup 18/O and delta D values of these minerals are generally uniform and do not decrease significantly with increasing metamorphic grade. This implies that there has not been significant infiltration of deep crustal fluids that has been suggested for some other high-grade metamorphic terranes. The uniformity of oxygen isotope compositions of the Mica Creek rocks may reflect isotopic uniformity in the sedimentary protolith rather than widespread exchange with an isotopically homogeneous metamorphic pore fluid. Temperature estimates based upon /sup 18/O exchange thermometry for samples below the sillimanite zone are in reasonable agreement with the results of garnet-biotite Fe-Mg exchange thermometry. In the higher grade rocks, the oxygen isotope and garnet-biotite thermometry yield results which disagree by about 100/sup 0/C. The highest temperatures recorded by oxygen isotope thermometry in the higher grade rocks, 595/sup 0/C, are at least 60/sup 0/C below the minimum temperatures required by phase equilibria. These discrepancies appear to result from pervasive equilibrium retrograde exchange of oxygen isotopes between coexisting minerals. Retrograd-oxygen isotope exchange may be a general characteristic of high grade metamorphic rocks and oxygen isotope thermometry may not usually record peak metamorphic temperatures if they significantly exceed 600/sup 0/C.

Bowman, J.R.; Ghent, E.D.

1985-01-01

34

Rock magnetic properties of a soil developed on an alluvial deposit at Buttermilk Creek, Texas, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of magnetization within a floodplain soil begins with initial deposition of magnetic particles during sedimentation and continues via subsequent alteration and growth of iron-bearing compounds by pedogenic and biologic processes. Measurements of soil magnetic properties capture information about the developmental history of the soil and are a convenient method by which to investigate environmental change and pedogenesis. Using a range of magnetic measurements, a comprehensive scenario for soil development was constructed for floodplain sediments at the Debra L. Friedkin site, an important archeological site near Buttermilk Creek, Texas. Floodplain deposits have traditionally been avoided for soil magnetism studies because it is thought that the episodic input of sediment would form soils characterized by discrete sedimentary units rather than a continuous record of pedogenesis. We demonstrate that alluvial deposits can sometimes carry a straightforwardly interpretable magnetic signal similar to those typically seen in loess deposits. Smooth variation of rock magnetic parameters as a function of depth also leads us to conclude that the soil at this site is largely undisturbed and that the age of lithic artifacts found within the soil may be interpreted within stratigraphic context.

Lindquist, Anna K.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Waters, Michael R.

2011-12-01

35

Selenium and Other Elements in Water and Adjacent Rock and Sediment of Toll Gate Creek, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, December 2003 through March 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streamwater and solid samples (rock, unconsolidated sediment, stream sediment, and efflorescent material) in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Colorado, were collected and analyzed for major and trace elements to determine trace-element concentrations and stream loads from December 2003 through March 2004, a period of seasonally low flow. Special emphasis was given to selenium (Se) concentrations because historic Se concentrations exceeded current (2004) stream standards. The goal of the project was to assess the distribution of Se concentration and loads in Toll Gate Creek and to determine the potential for rock and unconsolidated sediment in the basin to be sources of Se to the streamwater. Streamwater samples and discharge measurements were collected during December 2003 and March 2004 along Toll Gate Creek and its two primary tributaries - West Toll Gate Creek and East Toll Gate Creek. During both sampling periods, discharge ranged from 2.5 liters per second to 138 liters per second in the watershed. Discharge was greater in March 2004 than December 2003, but both periods represent low flow in Toll Gate Creek, and results of this study should not be extended to periods of higher flow. Discharge decreased moving downstream in East Toll Gate Creek but increased moving downstream along West Toll Gate Creek and the main stem of Toll Gate Creek, indicating that these two streams gain flow from ground water. Se concentrations in streamwater samples ranged from 7 to 70 micrograms per liter, were elevated in the upstream-most samples, and were greater than the State stream standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter. Se loads ranged from 6 grams per day to 250 grams per day, decreased in a downstream direction along East Toll Gate Creek, and increased in a downstream direction along West Toll Gate Creek and Toll Gate Creek. The largest Se-load increases occurred between two sampling locations on West Toll Gate Creek during both sampling periods and between the two sampling locations on the main stem of Toll Gate Creek during the December 2003 sampling. These load increases may indicate that sources of Se exist between these two locations; however, Se loading along West Toll Gate Creek and Toll Gate Creek primarily was characterized by gradual downstream increases in load. Linear regressions between Se load and discharge for both sampling periods had large, significant values of r2 (r2 > 0.96, p < 0.0001) because increases in Se load (per unit of flow increase) were generally constant. This relation is evidence for a constant addition of water having a relatively constant Se concentration over much of the length of Toll Gate Creek, a result which is consistent with a ground-water source for the Se loads. Rock outcroppings along the stream were highly weathered, and Se concentrations in rock and other solid samples ranged from below detection (1 part per million) to 25 parts per million. One sample of efflorescence (a surface encrustation produced by evaporation) had the greatest selenium concentration of all solid samples, was composed of thenardite (sodium sulfate), gypsum (calcium sulfate) and minor halite (sodium chloride), and released all of its Se during a 30-minute water-leaching procedure. Calculations indicate there was an insufficient amount of this material present throughout the watershed to account for the observed Se load in the stream. However, this material likely indicates zones of ground-water discharge that contain Se. This report did not identify an unequivocal source of Se in Toll Gate Creek. However, multiple lines of evidence indicate that ground-water discharge supplies Se to Toll Gate Creek: (1) the occurrence of elevated Se concentrations in the stream throughout the watershed and in the headwater regions, upstream from industrial sources; (2) the progressive increase in Se loads moving downstream, which indicates a continuous input of Se along the stream rather than input from point sources; (3) the occurr

Herring, J. R.; Walton-Day, Katherine

2007-01-01

36

A Long-term Reach-Scale Monitoring Network for Riparian Evapotranspiration, Rock Creek, Kansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riparian evapotranspiration (RET) is an important component of basin-wide evapotranspiration (ET), especially in subhumid to semi-arid regions, with significant impact on water management and conservation. In narrow riparian zones, typical of much of the subhumid to semi-arid U.S., direct measurement of RET by eddy correlation is precluded by the limited fetch distance of riparian vegetation. Alternative approaches based on water balance analyses have a long history, but their accuracy is not well understood. Factors such as heterogeneity in soil properties and root distributions, and sparse measurements, introduce uncertainties in RET estimates. As part of a larger effort aimed at improving understanding of basin-wide RET using scaling theories, we installed a continuous monitoring system for water balance estimation at the scale of a single (~100 m long) reach along Rock Creek in the Whitewater Basin in central Kansas. The distinguishing features of this site include a vadose zone with fine-grained soils underlain by a phreatic zone of coarse gravel embedded in clay, overlying karst bedrock. Across the width (~40 m) of the riparian zone, we installed one transect of four wells screened at the bottom of the alluvium (6-7 m depth), each accompanied by a soil moisture profiler with capacitance sensors at 4 vertical levels above the local water-table elevation (~2.5 m depth) and a shallow well screened just below the water table. All wells were instrumented with pressure transducers for monitoring water levels. Additional sets of all sensors were installed at the upstream and downstream ends of the study reach. Initial results from the monitoring network suggest significant complexities in the behavior of the subsurface system at the site, including a high degree of heterogeneity. All deep wells show a rapid response to streamflow variations and nearby pumping. However, the shallow water-table wells do not respond rapidly to either. Both the shallow wells and soil moisture sensors record diurnal fluctuations in response to RET during the growing season. The soil moisture sensors at depths less than 1 m respond rapidly to precipitation events. The piezometric head in the bedrock and deep alluvial wells is about 0.5 m higher than in the shallow wells, suggesting upward flow across a clay unit that comprises the lower 3-4 m of the alluvium. The hydrology of the system suggests that recharge of soil moisture by precipitation could often be more important than stream-aquifer interaction as a supply of RET. A distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system installed to investigate the spatial variability of groundwater-surface water interaction revealed isolated locations of groundwater seepage into the stream under low flow conditions. These preliminary observations suggest that the bedrock and lower alluvium act like a confined aquifer that is well connected to the stream, while the shallow alluvium acts like an unconfined aquifer recharged by both precipitation and upward leakage from the confined system, and depleted by RET. We also present results from a simplified numerical model to illustrate the controls on water balance.

Rajaram, H.; Solis, J. A.; Whittemore, D. O.; Butler, J. J.; Reboulet, E.; Knobbe, S.; Dealy, M.

2011-12-01

37

Geohydrology of White Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande from Otowi to Frijoles Canyon  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven springs discharge from the Totavi Lentil and Tesuque Formation in White Rock Canyon. Water generally acquires its chemical characteristics from rock units that comprise the spring aquifer. Twenty-two of the springs are separated into three groups of similar aquifer-related chemical quality. The five remaining springs make up a fourth group with a chemical quality that differs due to localized conditions in the aquifer. Localized conditions may be related to recharge or discharge in or near basalt intrusion or through faults. Streams from Pajarito, Ancho, and Frijoles Canyons discharge into the Rio Grande in White Rock Canyon. The base flow in the streams is from springs. Sanitary effluent in Mortandad Canyon from the treatment plant at White Rock also reaches the Rio Grande.

Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Owens, J.W.

1980-12-01

38

Upper Snake Rock Watershed Management Plan-Modification. A Modification of Mid-Snake TMDL and Upper Snake Rock TDML to Account for the Aquaculture Wasteload Allocation. Part One: Fish Production Facilities and Conservation Hatcheries; Part Two: Fish Processors; and Part Three: Billingsley Creek Facilties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the modification of three total maximum daily loads (TMDLs): the Middle Snake River Watershed Management Plan (or Mid-Snake TMDL), the Upper Snake Rock Watershed Management Plan (or Upper Snake Rock TMDL), and the Billingsley Creek...

2005-01-01

39

68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

40

Public Health Assessment for White Oak Creek Radionuclide Releases, Oak Ridge Reservation (USDOE), Oak Ridge, Roane County, Tennessee, August 3, 2006. EPA Facility ID: TN1890090003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This public health assessment evaluates the releases of radionuclides to the Clinch River (and the Lower Watts Bar Reservoir, or LWBR) from the ORR via White Oak Creek, assesses past, current, and future exposure to radionuclide releases for people who us...

2006-01-01

41

Technical background information for the ORNL environmental and safety report. Volume 2. A description of the aquatic ecology of the White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River below Melton Hill Dam  

SciTech Connect

In order to characterize the aquatic communities in the vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a biological sampling program was initiated in March 1979 and continued until June 1980. The periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities were sampled at four sites in White Oak Creek watershed above White Oak Lake. In addition to these communities, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and ichthyoplankton were routinely collected at sites in White Oak Lake, White Oak Creek embayment below the dam, and in the Clinch River above and below the confluence with White Oak Creek. Also, muscle tissue of several fish species, including sauger and striped bass from the Clinch River, was analyzed for seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, and Zn). Data on the taxonomic composition, abundance, and temporal distribution of each community are presented for each of three study areas: upper White Oak Creek watershed, White Oak Lake, and the Clinch River (including White Oak Creek embayment). The spatial distribution of major taxonomic groups in each area was examined using analysis of variance techniques and dissimilarity indices. Results obtained from this study are compared with those of previous surveys of White Oak Creek when equivalent sampling methodologies were used. Attempts were also made to document changes that have occurred since the 1950-1953 survey.

Loar, J.M.; Solomon, J.A.; Cada, G.F.

1981-10-01

42

Factors affecting colour change in white western rock lobsters, Panulirus cygnus  

Microsoft Academic Search

At 45 years old, western rock lobsters migrate offshore to the fishery, soon after their colouring has changed from red to a pale pink colour. Although a large number of these animals (known as whites) are landed by the commercial fishery during November to January each year, they are less popular with consumers in the Japanese market, and so have

Roy Melville-Smith; Yuk Wing Cheng; Adrian W. Thomson

2003-01-01

43

Investigation of Plutonium Concentration and Distribution in Burrowing Crayfish from the White Oak Creek Floodplain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The White Oak floodplain was contaminated with several radionuclides, including exp 239 Pu, during the Manhattan Project in 1944. Plutonium distribution in the soil is nonhomogeneous. An investigation was conducted to deterine Pu accumulation in a residen...

M. S. Delaney R. C. Dahlman R. B. Craig

1979-01-01

44

Effective porosity and density of carbonate rocks (Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite) within Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation based on modern petrophysical techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative data on effective porosity of carbonate rock from the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite within Bear Creek Valley based on modern petrophysical techniques. The data will be useful for groundwater-flow and contaminant-flow modeling in the vicinity of the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Furthermore, the data provides

Dorsch

1997-01-01

45

Floods on Elk River and Whitehead, Shawneehaw, Hanging Rock, Horse Bottom, and Sugar Creeks in the vicinity of Banner Elk, North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

This flood hazard information report describes the extent and severity of the flood potential along selected reaches of the Elk River and Whitehead, Shawneehaw, Hanging Rock, Horse Bottom, and Sugar Creeks in the vicinity of Banner Elk, North Carolina. The report is intended to provide a sound basis for informed decisions regarding the wise use of flood-prone lands within the town of Banner Elk and the surrounding portion of Avery County for those stream reaches covered by this report.

Not Available

1985-09-01

46

Geology of the lower Yellow Creek Area, Northwestern Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The lower Yellow Creek area is located in Rio Blanco and Moffat Counties of northwestern Colorado, about midway between the towns of Rangely and Meeker. The study area is in the northwestern part of the Piceance Creek basin, a very deep structural and sedimentary basin that formed during the Laramide orogeny. Potentially important resources in the area are oil shale and related minerals, oil and gas, coal, and uranium. Topics discussed in the report include: Stratigraphy (Subsurface rocks, Cretaceous rocks, Tertiary rocks, and Quaternary deposits); Structure (Midland anticline, graben at Pinyon Ridge, and Crooked Wash syncline, Folds and faults in the vicinity of the White River, Red Wash syncline and central graben zone, Yellow Creek anticlinal nose); Economic geology (Oil shale and associated minerals, Coal, Oil and gas, Uranium, Gravel).

Hail, W.J.

1990-01-01

47

Effects of storm runoff on water quality in the White River and Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana, June through October 1986 and 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four continuous, flow-through water-quality monitors were installed upstream from, in, and downstream from Indianapolis on the White River and near the mouth of Fall Creek in Indianapolis to monitor water quality, especially dissolved oxygen, during periods of base flow and storm runoff. Streamflow, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature were measured at 15-minute intervals from June through October

J. D. Martin; R. A. Craig

1990-01-01

48

Areal distribution of ⁶°Co, ¹³⁷Cs, and ⁹°Sr in streambed gravels of White Oak Creek Watershed, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of ⁹°Sr, ⁶°Co, and ¹³⁷Cs in streambed gravels from contaminated drainages in White Oak Creek Watershed were determined. Methods to determine the relative contributions of various sources to the total discharge from the watershed were developed. Principal sources of ⁹°Sr were: ORNL plant effluents (50%), leaching from solid waste disposal area (SWDA) 4 (30%), and leaching from SWDA

T. E. Cerling; B. P. Spalding

1981-01-01

49

81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT P STREET BEND, FROM 1940 REPORT ON PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT OF ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY, SECTION II (ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY FILE, HISTORY DEPARTMENT ARCHIVES, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, WASHINGTON, DC). - Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

50

Sounds of hate: White power rock and roll and the neo?nazi skinhead subculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the most violent sub?group of a variety of contemporary right?wing extremist organizations ? neo?Nazi skinheads. Specifically, I argue that in order to understand the growth and violent nature of this subculture it is necessary to address the important role played by its main propaganda tool called white power rock and roll. After reviewing the close relationship

John M. Cotter

1999-01-01

51

Fluorine and chlorine behavior in chlorine-rich volcanic rocks from White Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraordinarily high chlorine-bearing volcanic bombs were erupted from White Island volcano on January 25, 1987. The concentrations of fluorine and chlorine were measured in these paralava bombs and their likely parent rocks. The paralavas contain glass with over 1.0 wt.% and up to 1.7% of chlorine. The F\\/Cl ratios and their relationship with other constituents show that the fluorine and

Katsuro Anazawa; C. Peter Wood; Patrick R. L. Browne

2011-01-01

52

Rotation of Plio-Pleistocene Sedimentary Rocks in the Fish Creek Vallecito Basin, Western Salton Trough, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of paleomagnetism to the study of vertical axis rotations in deformed regions can be used to test estimates of block rotation derived from other methods, such as GPS, with many implications for our understanding of crustal deformation and seismic hazard. We present results of a study that compares magnetization directions obtained by a combination of low-temperature and thermal demagnetization experiments that is inspired by the work of David Dunlop and his colleagues. The magnetostratigraphy of Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin (FCVB), southern California, is well documented (Opdyke et al., 1977; Johnson et al., 1983), who found these rocks to contain a complete record of geomagnetic field reversals spanning Plio-Pleistocene time. Johnson et al. (1983) also concluded that the FCVB had undergone 35 of CW rotation during the past 0.9 Ma. We resampled and reanalyzed their section in order to better document the amount of vertical axis rotation recorded by these rocks. Initial results from 29 sites have well-defined magnetizations with two components. Low temperature (77 K) demagnetization produced 5 to 15% drops in NRM intensity. The first removed component in all samples is unblocked between 90 and 220 C, and the second-removed components are unblocked between 300 and 590 C. These two components have sharp and well-defined LT-HT junctions in most samples, indicating SD-like magnetizations. We thus interpret the first-removed component to represent a thermo-viscous magnetization acquired during the past 500-700 ka. The mean of this component is D = 358.4, I = 56.8, k =111, ?95 = 2.6, N = 29. The second-removed components have either normal or reverse polarity. Due to gentle and mostly homoclinal bedding dips, paleomagnetic fold tests are statistically inconclusive, but do show stratigraphic variation in degree of maximum clustering as a function of tilting. Sites from the upper portion of the section have directions that are best clustered at 0-40% untilting, and sites from the base of the section have directions that are best-clustered at 80-100% untilting. For this initial interpretation, results are tilt-corrected for maximum degree of clustering. Sites from near the base of the section (Diablo Fm) are predominately reverse and have a mean of D = 204, I = -48.3, k = 37, ?95 = 12.7, N = 5. Sites from the middle of the section (Olla and Tapiado Fms) are predominantly normal and have a mean of D = 8.1, I = 48, k = 32, ?95 = 8.7, N = 10. Sites from the upper portion of the section (Hueso Fm) have predominately reverse polarity with means of D = 179.6, I = -43.4, k = 82, ?95 = 10.2, N = 4. Based on these results and correlations between the magnetostratigraphy of this section with the polarity timescale we tentatively conclude that little or no CW rotation has occurred in the FCVB during the past 2 Ma. Larger (24 CW) rotations are recorded by the 3-4 Ma rocks of the Diablo Fm, indicating that significant rotation occurred between 2 and 3 Ma. We tentatively ascribe slowing of the rotation rate in the FCVB to still poorly understood evolution of the west Salton detachment fault system. The relative lack of rotation since 2 Ma suggests that younger, post-detachment strike-slip faulting has not produced significant CW rotation between the San Jacinto and Elsinore faults.

Housen, B. A.; Dorsey, R. J.; Janecke, S. U.; Axen, G. J.

2005-12-01

53

DIFFERENTIAL CAPACITY OF WHEAT CULTIVARS AND WHITE LUPIN TO ACQUIRE PHOSPHORUS FROM ROCK PHOSPHATE, PHYTATE AND SOLUBLE PHOSPHORUS SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized varying capacity of two wheat cultivars (Brookton and Krichauff) and white lupin to acquire and utilize phosphorus (P) from different P resources [P0, rock phosphate, composted rock phosphate, phytate and soluble P) at 200 mg P kg soil]. In all three genotypes, shoot P concentration and content were highest in the phytate treatment and lowest in P0. Roots

E. Sepehr; Z. Rengel; E. Fateh; M. R. Sadaghiani

2012-01-01

54

Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year we are going to learn about rocks. Do you like to collect rocks? Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. So you want to learn about rocks? Go to Intro to Rocks for some fascinating facts about rocks! Now lets learn about some of the different kinds of rocks. Igneous Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Click here to see the differences between the types of rocks that you have learned about What Type Of Rock Do I Have?. After doing all the activities above, ...

Woodruff, Mrs.

2010-06-21

55

Effective porosity and density of carbonate rocks (Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite) within Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation based on modern petrophysical techniques  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative data on effective porosity of carbonate rock from the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite within Bear Creek Valley based on modern petrophysical techniques. The data will be useful for groundwater-flow and contaminant-flow modeling in the vicinity of the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Furthermore, the data provides needed information on the amount of interconnected pore space potentially available for operation of matrix diffusion as a transport process within the fractured carbonate rock. A second aspect of this study is to compare effective porosity data based on modern petrophysical techniques to effective porosity data determined earlier by Goldstrand et al. (1995) with a different technique. An added bonus of the study is quantitative data on the bulk density and grain density of dolostone and limestone of the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite which might find use for geophysical modeling on the ORR.

Dorsch, J.

1997-02-01

56

Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the White Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware. Water from the basin is used for recreation, drinking water supply, and to support aquatic life. The Christina River Basin includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, White Clay Creek, and Red Clay Creek. The White Clay Creek is the second largest of the subbasins and drains an area of 108 mi2. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the streams. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in non point-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the three major subbasins and for the Christina River, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base- flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the White Clay Creek subbasin and at nine sites in the other subbasins. The HSPF model for the White Clay Creek Basin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into 17 reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.37 to 13 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the White Clay Creek Basin are agricultural, forested, residential, and urban. The hydrologic component of the model was run at an hourly time step and primarily calibrated using streamflow data from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-measurement stations for the period of October 1, 1994, through October 29, 1998. Additional calibration was done using data from two other USGS streamflow-measurement stations with periods of record shorter than the calibration period. Daily precipitation data from two National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) gages and hourly precipitation and other meteorological data for one NOAA gage were used for model input. The difference between simulated and observed streamflow volume ranged from -0.9 to 1.8 percent for the 4-year period at the two calibration sites with 4-year records. Annual differences between observed and simulated streamflow generally were greater than the overall error. For example, at a site near the bottom of the basin (drainage area of 89.1 mi2), annual differences between observed and simulated streamflow ranged from -5.8 to 14.4 percent and the overall error for the 4-year period was -0.9 percent. Calibration errors for 36 storm periods at the two calibration sites for total volume, low-flowrecession rate, 50-percent lowest flows, 10-percent highest flows, and storm peaks were within the recommended criteria of 20 percent or less. Much of the error in simulating storm events on an hourly time step can be attributed to uncertainty in the hourly rainfall data. The water-quality component of the model was calibrated using data collected by the USGS and state agencies at three USGS streamflow-measurement stations with variable water-quality monitoring periods ending October 1998. Because of availability, monitoring data for suspended-solids concentrations were used as surrogates for suspended-sediment concentrations, although suspended solids may underestimate suspended sediment and affect apparent accura

Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

2003-01-01

57

Landslides and other mass movements near TA-33, northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Massive slump complexes and at least two rock avalanches flank the eastern rim of the Pajarito Plateau along northern White Rock Canyon, north of TA-33. Landslides failed along mechanically weak rocks in the Santa Fe Group, within the Puye Formation, or in Pliocene alluvial and lacustrine units. The landslides are mainly of early or middle Pleistocene age. The toe area of at least,one slump complex has been active in the late Pleistocene, damming White Rock Canyon near the mouth of Water Canyon. Lacustrine sediment that filled this lake, or series of lakes, to an elevation of at least 1710 m is preserved at a number of upstream sites, including a deposit near the Buckman townsite that exposes 30 m of lacustrine sediment. Charcoal collected at several sites has been submitted for {sup 14}C dating. Landslides, however, probably do not represent a significant short-term threat to the material disposal areas at TA-33. Bedrock that lies beneath the TA-33 mesa is relatively stable, the mesa shows no signs of incipient failure, and past periods of slide activity were responses to rapid downcutting of the Rio Grande and climate change, probably over periods of several decades, at least. Rockfall and headward erosion of gullies do not represent significant decadal hazards on canyon rims near TA-33. Gully migration near MDA-K is a potential threat, but the gullies were not examined in detail. A system of north-trending faults, at least one of which displays Pleistocene activity, bisects the TA-33 mesa. If these faults are capable of producing significant seismic shaking, generalizations about landslide and rockfall hazards must be reevaluated.

Dethier, D.P.

1993-09-01

58

Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others] [and others

1996-05-01

59

Effects of storm runoff on water quality in the White River and Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana, June through October 1986 and 1987  

SciTech Connect

Four continuous, flow-through water-quality monitors were installed upstream from, in, and downstream from Indianapolis on the White River and near the mouth of Fall Creek in Indianapolis to monitor water quality, especially dissolved oxygen, during periods of base flow and storm runoff. Streamflow, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature were measured at 15-minute intervals from June through October 1986 at the four sites and from June through October 1987 at two sites. Photosynthesis caused the large fluctuations and supersaturation of dissolved oxygen, and indicates that the White River is more productive than Fall Creek. Water quality during base flow is the typical condition against which water quality during storm runoff is compared. A rapid increase in streamflow indicates the beginning of a period of storm runoff and is associated with a decrease in specific conductance and pH and, dissolved oxygen or temperature. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen often decreased during storm runoff, especially during the initial rise in the hydrograph. Storm runoff consistently diminished or eliminated daily cycles of dissolved oxygen. Minimum concentrations during 12 low dissolved-oxygen periods of storm runoff. Minimum concentrations during twelve low dissolved-oxygen periods ranged from 1.0 to 3.9 mg/L and had a median concentration of 2.8 mg/L. Durations of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from .75 to 83.75 hours and had median durations of five hrs. Minimum concentrations during five low dissolved-oxygen periods at Fall Creek ranged from 2.0 to 3.4 mg/L and had a median concentration of 2.7 mg/L. Duration of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from 1.75 to 33.75 hrs and had a median duration of 7 hrs.

Martin, J.D.; Craig, R.A. (Geological Survey, Indianapolis, IN (United States))

1990-01-01

60

An aerial radiological survey of the White Oak Creek Floodplain, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Date of survey: September-October 1986  

SciTech Connect

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the White Oak Creek Floodplain of the Oak Ridge Reservation during the period 30 September through 3 October 1986. The survey was performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge Operations Office, by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM), a contractor of the DOE. The survey results will be utilized in support of the Remedial Action Program being conducted at the site by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., operator of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A flight line spacing of 37 meters (120 feet) and a survey altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) yielded the maximum data density and sensitivity achievable by the aerial system, which was greater than that achieved from prior surveys of the entire Oak Ridge Reservation. Isopleth maps of Cs-137, Co-60, Ti-208 implied concentrations, and exposure rates provided an estimate of the location and magnitude of the man-made activity. These maps, overlaid on a current photograph of the area, combine to yield a view of the radiological condition of the White Oak Creek Floodplain. 5 refs., 40 figs., 3 tabs.

Fritzsche, A.E.

1987-06-01

61

Diel use of a saltwater creek by white-tip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) in Academy Bay, Galapagos Islands.  

PubMed

White-tip reef sharks are common inhabitants of the shallow waters surrounding the Galapagos Islands, where several known aggregation sites have become touristic attractions. With the aim to describe site fidelity and residency patterns of the white-tip reef sharks in a saltwater creek, we used the ultrasonic telemetry method. The study was undertaken in a saltwater channel South of Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island, from May 2008-September 2009. A total of nine transmitters were attached to sharks and ultrasonic receivers were deployed at the inner and outside areas of the creek. From the total of fitted sharks, four lost their transmitters. The results obtained with the remaining sharks showed an elevated use of the inner area of the channel during the day, with more use of the external area during the night. However, none of the sharks were detected at the site every day, suggesting that they may have a number of preferred sites within their home range. More studies are needed to detail the home range and habitat use of this species, and to guide its protection level in the Academy Bay area. PMID:23894942

Peiaherrera, Csar; Hearn, Alex R; Kuhn, Angela

2012-06-01

62

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes, for the 12-month period January through December 1994, the available dynamic hydrologic data collected on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed as well as information collected on surface flow systems in the surrounding vicinity that may affect the quality or quantity of surface water in the watershed. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to characterize the quantity and quality of water in the surface flow system, assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities, provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance of these data, and support long-term measures of contaminant fluxes at a spatial scale to provide a comprehensive picture of watershed performance that is commensurate with future remedial actions.

Borders, D.M.; Ziegler, K.S.; Reece, D.K.; Watts, J.A.; Frederick, B.J.; McCalla, W.L.; Pridmore, D.J.

1995-08-01

63

Late Pleistocene landslide-dammed lakes along the Rio Grande, White Rock Canyon, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Massive slump complexes composed of Pliocene basaltic rocks and underlying Miocene and Pliocene sediments flank the Rio Grande along 16 km of northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico. The toe area of at least one slump complex was active in the late Pleistocene, damming the Rio Grande at least four times during the period from 18 to 12 {sup 14}C ka and impounding lakes that extended 10-20 km upriver. Stratigraphic relationships and radiocarbon age constraints indicate that three separate lakes formed between 13.7 and 12.4 {sup 14}C ka. The age and dimensions of the ca. 12.4 ka lake are best constrained; it had an estimated maximum depth of {approx}30 m, a length of {approx}13 km, a surface area of {approx}2.7 km{sup 2}, and an initial volume of {approx}2.5 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}. The youngest landslide-dammed lakes formed during a period of significantly wetter regional climate, strongly suggesting that climate changes were responsible for reactivation of the slump complexes. We are not certain about the exact triggering mechanisms for these landslides, but they probably involved removal of lateral support due to erosion of the slope base by the Rio Grande during periods of exceptionally high flood discharge or rapid incision; increased pore pressures associated with higher water tables; higher seepage forces at sites of ground-water discharge; or some combination of these processes. Seismic shaking could also have contributed to triggering of some of the landslides, particularly if aided by wet antecedent conditions. 54 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

Reneau, S.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Dethier, D.P. [Williams College, Williamstown, MA (United States)

1996-11-01

64

PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLE ROCK DAM: REINFORCEMENT, SECTION THROUGH ARCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLE ROCK DAM: REINFORCEMENT, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, AMENDED SHEET 6; SEPTEMBER, 1922. Palmdale Water District files - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

65

Development of a digital model of ground-water flow in deeply weathered crystalline rock, Indian Creek area, North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

The digital ground-water model of the regolith-bedrock aquifer system in the Indian Creek area is based on the US Geological Survey's modular finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW). Use of MODFLOW assumes porous media equivalence; however, special approaches have been used to account for non-uniform fracture distribution. The model is divided into a uniformly spaced grid having 196 rows, 140 columns, and a 500-foot spacing. Rows are oriented parallel to fractures (N 72 E) and columns are oriented parallel to foliation (N 18 W). The area represented by active model cells is 146 square miles and has about 17,400 cells. The model has 11 layers of different thickness; the top layer represents the regolith and the lower 10 layers represent bedrock. The regolith-bedrock contact is at a uniform depth of 50 feet. The base of the model is 850 feet below land surface. Hydraulic properties of regolith are based on diffusivity calculated from streamflow recession and are assumed to be areally constant. The steady-state model simulates recharge to, flow through, and discharge from the regolith-bedrock aquifer system. The mass balance between inflow and outflow differs by less than 1%. Along select sections, computed travel times from drainage divides to streams range from less than 4 years in the regolith to as much as 300 years for flow passing through the bottom layer of bedrock. The volume of ground water that flows through the bottom layer is only about 2% of the flow through the regolith.

Daniel, C.C. III; Eimers, J.L. (Geological Survey, Raleigh, NC (United States))

1994-03-01

66

Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide explores rocks, from processes that can change them (such as weathering), to what can happen to them as they move through the rock cycle. Using this guide, teachers of middle school students will focus on the tangible process of sedimentary roc

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2009-07-01

67

Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will use sample sets of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks to learn how to identify the major rock types. They will write the key characteristics that would help them identify each of the rocks on the list. They will find and copy an image of each from the "Volcano World" slide show and answer the questions at the end of this activity. As a result of this lesson students will learn how to identify major rock types through their characteristic properties, especially through the Earth Science Reference Table identification charts, and understand how to find out what types of rocks can be found in a particular area using geologic maps, especially the one in the Earth Science Reference Table.

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, The E.

68

Annual hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek Watershed: Water Year 1990 (October 1989--September 1990)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes, for the Water Year 1990 (October 1989-- September 1990), the dynamic hydrologic data collected on the Whiteoak Creek (WOC) Watershed's surface and subsurface flow systems. These systems affect the quality or quantity of surface water and groundwater. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to 1. characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow system, 2. plan and assess remedial action activities, and 3. provide long-term availability of data and assure quality. Characterizing the hydrology of the WOC watershed provides a better understanding of the processes which drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identifying of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. Hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. The majority of the data summarized in this report are available from the Remedial Action Programs Data and Information Management System data base. Surface water data available within the WOC flow system include discharge and runoff, surface water quality, radiological and chemical contamination of sediments, and descriptions of the outfalls to the WOC flow system. Climatological data available for the Oak Ridge area include precipitation, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction. Information on groundwater levels, aquifer characteristics, and groundwater quality are presented. Anomalies in the data and problems with monitoring and accuracy are discussed. 58 refs., 54 figs., 15 tabs.

Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Moore, G.K.; Watts, J.A.; Broders, C.C.; Bednarek, A.T.

1991-09-01

69

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (January--December 1993)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes, for the 12-month period (January through December 1993), the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily, on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed along with information collected on the surface flow systems which affect the quality or quantity of surface water. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data, an activity that contributes to the Site Investigations (SI) component of the ERP. This report provides and describes sources of hydrologic data for Environmental Restoration activities that use monitoring data to quantify and assess the impact from releases of contaminants from ORNL WAGs.

Borders, D.M.; Frederick, B.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Reece, D.K.; McCalla, W.L. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watts, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Ziegler, K.S. [Midwest Technical, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-10-01

70

White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 1 Main Text  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Remedial Investigation (RI) report is to present an analysis of the Melton Valley portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of cost-effective remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. In this RI existing levels of contamination and radiological exposure are compared to levels acceptable for future industrial and potential recreational use levels at the site. This comparison provides a perspective for the magnitude of remedial actions required to achieve a site condition compatible with relaxed access restrictions over existing conditions. Ecological risk will be assessed to evaluate measures required for ecological receptor protection. For each subbasin, this report will provide site-specific analyses of the physical setting including identification of contaminant source areas, description of contaminant transport pathways, identification of release mechanisms, analysis of contaminant source interactions with groundwater, identification of secondary contaminated media associated with the source and seepage pathways, assessment of potential human health and ecological risks from exposure to contaminants, ranking of each source area within the subwatershed, and outline the conditions that remedial technologies must address to stop present and future contaminant releases, prevent the spread of contamination and achieve the goal of limiting environmental contamination to be consistent with a potential recreational use of the site.

NONE

1996-11-01

71

Validated analytical data summary report for White Oak Creek Watershed remedial investigation supplemental sampling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

CDM Federal Programs Corporation (CDM Federal) was tasked by the Environmental Restoration Program of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems Inc. (Energy Systems), to collect supplemental surface soil data for the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. The WOC watershed RI/FS is being conducted to define a remediation approach for complying with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The data generated from these supplemental sampling activities will be incorporated into the RUFS to aid decision makers and stakeholders with the selection of remedial alternatives and establish remediation goals for the WOC watershed. A series of Data Quality Objective (DQO) meetings were held in February 1996 to determine data needs for the WOC watershed RI/FS. The meetings were attended by representatives from the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and contractors to DOE. During the DQO meetings, it was determined that the human health risk associated with exposure to radionuclides was high enough to establish a baseline for action; however, it was also determined that the impacts associated with other analytes (mainly metals) were insufficient for determining the baseline ecological risk. Based on this premise, it was determined that additional sampling would be required at four of the Waste Area Groupings (WAGs) included in the WOC watershed to fulfill this data gap.

NONE

1996-09-01

72

Paleomagnetism of Rocks from the White Mountain Plutonic-Volcanic Series in New Hampshire and Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples were collected at 17 sites in gabbros, monzonites, and diorites of the White Moun- tain plutonic-volcanic series in New Hampshire and Vermont. No useful information was obtained from the diorites. The main mass of the White Mountain series has been dated at 180 m.y. After partial demagnetization by alternating fields to remove unable components of magnetization, the directions of

N. D. Opdyke; H. Wensink

1966-01-01

73

Plymouth Rock Landed on Us: Malcolm X's Whiteness Theory as a Basis for Alternative Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using Burkean theory, I claim that Malcolm X brilliantly exposed the rhetoric and epistemology of whiteness as he rejected the African American jeremiad--a dominant form of African American oratory for more than 150 years. Whiteness theory served as the basis for Malcolm X's alternative literacy, which raises important questions that literacy

Miller, Keith D.

2004-01-01

74

Metamorphic Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive lesson on metamorphic rocks starts with a review of the rock cycle and goes on to describe the relationship between metamorphic rocks and their parent rock. The lesson then describes the agents of metamorphism (temperature, pressure, and chemical change) and moves into a discussion on contact, regional, and dynamic metamorphism. The remainder of the lesson consists of descriptions of foliated rocks such as slate, schist, and gneiss, and the non-foliates exemplified by quartzite and white marble.

75

Observation of induced fractures intercepted by mining in the Warrior Basin, Alabama. Topical report. Rock Creek methane from multiple coal seams completion project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes research and inspection of induced fractures that have been intercepted by mining. Induced fractures from 13 wells intercepted by mining were inspected at the Jim Walter Resources' (JWR) No. 4 and 5 Mines in Tuscaloosa County, and the Oak Grove Mine in Jefferson County, Alabama. In this area the Mary Lee and Blue Creek coalbeds average 1.3

1991-01-01

76

When did movement begin on the Furnace Creek fault zone  

SciTech Connect

About 50 km of post-Jurassic right-lateral slip has occurred on the northern part of the Furnace Creek fault zone (FCFZ). The sedimentology, stratigraphy, and structure of Tertiary rocks suggest that movement on the fault began no earlier than 12--8 Ma and possibly as late as 5--4 Ma. Large remnants of erosion surfaces occur on both sides of the FCFZ in the southern White Mountains and Fish Lake Valley and are buried by rhyolite and basalt, mostly 12--10 Ma; the ash flows and welded tuffs were likely erupted from sources at least 40 km to the east. Thus, the area probably had gentle topography, suggesting a lengthy period of pre-late Miocene tectonic stability. On the west side of the FCFZ, Cambrian sedimentary rocks are buried by a fanglomerate with an [sup [minus

Reheis, M. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-04-01

77

Attenuation and dispersion of compressional waves in fluid-filled porous rocks with partial gas saturation (White model). Part II. Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, Biot's (1962) theory for wave propagation in porous solids is applied to study the velocity and attenuation of compressional seismic waves in partially gas-saturated porous rocks. The physical model, proposed by White (1975), is solved rigorously by using Biot's equations which describe the coupled solid-fluid motion of a porous medium in a systematic way. The quantiative results

N. C. Dutta; H. Ode

1979-01-01

78

Attenuation and dispersion of compressional waves in fluid-filled porous rocks with partial gas saturation (White model). Part I. Biot theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exact theory of attenuation and dispersion of seismic waves in porous rocks containing spherical gas pockets (White model) is presented using the coupled equations of motion given by Biot. Assumptions made are (1) the acoustic wavelength is long with respect to the distance between gas pockets and their size, and (2) the gas pockets do not interact. Thus, the

N. C. Dutta; H. Ode

1979-01-01

79

HISTORY OF THE BUFFALO CREEK VALLEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeological evidence in and around the Buffalo Creek watershed suggests that this area had a role in supporting early North American civilizations. Only miles away from the watershed, in the town of Avella, is the Meadowcroft Rock Shelter, an archaeological site considered to be one of the first places of human habitation in the United States. The rock shelter was

Michael A. Vacca; Ron Eisert

80

A land-use and water-quality history of White Rock Lake Reservoir, Dallas, Texas, based on paleolimnological analyses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White Rock Lake reservoir in Dallas, Texas contains a 150-cm sediment record of silty clay that documents land-use changes since its construction in 1912. Pollen analysis corroborates historical evidence that between 1912 and 1950 the watershed was primarily agricultural. Land disturbance by plowing coupled with strong and variable spring precipitation caused large amounts of sediment to enter the lake during this period. Diatoms were not preserved at this time probably because of low productivity compared to diatom dissolution by warm, alkaline water prior to burial in the sediments. After 1956, the watershed became progressively urbanized. Erosion decreased, land stabilized, and pollen of riparian trees increased as the lake water became somewhat less turbid. By 1986 the sediment record indicates that diatom productivity had increased beyond rates of diatom destruction. Neither increased nutrients nor reduced pesticides can account for increased diatom productivity, but grain size studies imply that before 1986 diatoms were light limited by high levels of turbidity. This study documents how reservoirs may relate to land-use practices and how watershed management could extend reservoir life and improve water quality.

Platt, Bradbury, J.; Van Metre, P. C.

1997-01-01

81

Geologic Map of the Upper Wolf Island Creek Watershed, Reidsville Area, Rockingham County, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This geologic map provides a foundation for hydrogeologic investigations in the Reidsville area of Rockingham County, north-central North Carolina. The 16-mi2 area within the Southeast Eden and Reidsville 7.5-min quadrangles includes the watershed of Wolf Island Creek and its tributary, Carroll Creek, upstream of their confluence. Layered metamorphic rocks in this area of the Milton terrane, here informally named the Chinqua-Penn metamorphic suite, include a heterogeneous mica gneiss and schist unit that contains interlayers and lenses of white-mica schist, felsic gneiss, amphibolite, and ultramafic rock; a felsic gneiss that contains interlayers of amphibolite, white-mica schist, and minor ultramafic lenses; and a migmatitic biotite gneiss. Crushed stone is produced from an active quarry in the felsic gneiss. Igneous intrusive rocks include a mafic-ultramafic assemblage that may have originated as mafic intrusive bodies containing ultramafic cumulates, a foliated two-mica granite informally named the granite of Reidsville, and unmetamorphosed Jurassic diabase dikes. The newly recognized Carroll Creek shear zone strikes roughly east-west and separates heterogeneous mica gneiss and schist to the north from structurally overlying felsic gneiss to the south. Regional amphibolite-facies metamorphism accompanied polyphase ductile deformation in the metamorphic rocks. Two phases of isoclinal to tight folding and related penetrative deformation, described as D1 and D2, were followed by phases of high-strain mylonitic deformation in shear zones and late gentle to open folding. Later brittle deformation produced minor faults, steep joints, foliation-parallel parting, and sheeting joints. The metamorphic and igneous rocks are mantled by saprolite and residual soil derived from weathering of the underlying bedrock, and unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium occupies the flood plains of Wolf Island Creek and its tributaries. The geologic map delineates lithologic and structural features that may act as barriers or conduits for ground-water flow. It provides a hydrogeologic framework for the upper Wolf Island Creek drainage basin, including coreholes and ground-water monitoring wells along two transects. Collaborative hydrogeologic investigations by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey are in progress to increase understanding of the influence of geological features on ground-water quality, availability, and transport in an area representative of large areas in the west-central Piedmont.

Horton, J. Wright., Jr.; Geddes, Donald J., Jr.

2006-01-01

82

Greigite (Fe3S4) as an indicator of drought The 19121994 sediment magnetic record from White Rock Lake, Dallas, Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined magnetic and geochemical studies were conducted on sediments from White Rock Lake, a reservoir in suburban Dallas (USA), to investigate how land use has affected sediment and water quality since the reservoir was filled in 1912. The chronology of a 167-cm-long core is constrained by the recognition of the pre-reservoir surface and by 137Cs results. In the reservoir sediments,

Richard L. Reynolds; Joseph G. Rosenbaum; Peter van Metre; Michele Tuttle; Edward Callender; Alan Goldin

1999-01-01

83

Science Rocks!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?" asked another. At this moment, a

Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

2010-01-01

84

Water quality in the Anacostia River, Maryland and Rock Creek, Washington, D.C.: Continuous and discrete monitoring with simulations to estimate concentrations and yields of nutrients, suspended sediment, and bacteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations and loading estimates for nutrients, suspended sediment, and E. coli bacteria were summarized for three water-quality monitoring stations on the Anacostia River in Maryland and one station on Rock Creek in Washington, D.C. Both streams are tributaries to the Potomac River in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area and contribute to the Chesapeake Bay estuary. Two stations on the Anacostia River, Northeast Branch at Riverdale, Maryland and Northwest Branch near Hyattsville, Maryland, have been monitored for water quality during the study period from 2003 to 2011 and are located near the shift from nontidal to tidal conditions near Bladensburg, Maryland. A station on Paint Branch is nested above the station on the Northeast Branch Anacostia River, and has slightly less developed land cover than the Northeast and Northwest Branch stations. The Rock Creek station is located in Rock Creek Park, but the land cover in the watershed surrounding the park is urbanized. Stepwise log-linear regression models were developed to estimate the concentrations of suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and E. coli bacteria from continuous field monitors. Turbidity was the strongest predictor variable for all water-quality parameters. For bacteria, water temperature improved the models enough to be included as a second predictor variable due to the strong dependence of stream metabolism on temperature. Coefficients of determination (R2) for the models were highest for log concentrations of suspended sediment (0.9) and total phosphorus (0.8 to 0.9), followed by E. coli bacteria (0.75 to 0.8), and total nitrogen (0.6). Water-quality data provided baselines for conditions prior to accelerated implementation of multiple stormwater controls in the watersheds. Counties are currently in the process of enhancing stormwater controls in both watersheds. Annual yields were estimated for suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and E. coli bacteria using the U.S. Geological Survey model LOADEST with hourly time steps of turbidity, flow, and time. Yields of all four parameters were within ranges found in other urbanized watersheds in Chesapeake Bay. Annual yields for all four watersheds over the period of study were estimated for suspended sediment (65,500 166,000 kilograms per year per square kilometer; kg/yr/km2), total nitrogen (465 - 911 kg/yr/km2), total phosphorus (36 - 113 kg/yr/km2), and E. coli bacteria (6.0 38 x 1012 colony forming units/yr/km2). The length of record was not sufficient to determine trends for any of the water-quality parameters; within confidence intervals of the models, results were similar to loads determined by previous studies for the Northeast and Northwest Branch stations of the Anacostia River.

Miller, Cherie V.; Chanat, Jeffrey G.; Bell, Joseph M.

2013-01-01

85

PINEY CREEK WILDERNESS, MISSOURI.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Piney Creek Wilderness in southwest Missouri was investigated by geologic, geochemical, and mineral-occurrence surveys. These is no evidence of metallic mineral deposits in the rock units exposed at the surface in the wilderness, but the entire area has a probable potential for significant zinc-lead deposits at depths of several hundred feet. A probable potential also exists for a small to moderate-sized iron ore deposit at a depth of at least 2100 ft along the northwest side of the wilderness. Evaluation of these potentials would require deep drilling, and in the case of the possible iron ore deposit, a detailed magnetic survey. No energy resource potential was identified within this area.

Pratt, Walden, P.; Ellis, Clarence

1984-01-01

86

Mercury contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek and Bear Creek  

SciTech Connect

A one-month study was performed to determine the concentration of mercury in sediment, fish, moss, and pasture grass in the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) and Bear Creek drainages and to determine whether mercury is still being released from the Y-12 Plant. Total mercury concentration in a sediment core from New Hope Pond was 100 ..mu..g/g dry wt at the surface and up to 300 ..mu..g/g dry wt in subsurface sediments, relative to background concentrations of less than 0.3 ..mu..g/g dry wt. There has been an apparent decrease since 1973 in mercury concentration of sediment entering New Hope Pond. Total mercury concentration in muscle tissue of bluegill from EFPC was positively correlated with body weight, as expected. Total mercury concentration averaged 3.5 and 0.2 ..mu..g/g fresh wt for dead and live foliage in pasture grass, respectively, on the flood plain of EFPC. Results for Bear Creek indicate that this drainage is considerably less contaminated with mercury than East Fork Poplar Creek. The concentration in the sediment was 13 ..mu..g/g dry wt near the settling basins at the west end of the Y-12 Plant area, but decreased to background concentrations before the confluence of Bear Creek with EFPC. Total mercury concentration in fish, except for one rock bass, did not exceed the FDA action level. Recommendations are made (1) to limit the quantity of mercury released from the Y-12 Plant area into EFPC, (2) to consider notifying the responsible state agencies and fishermen concerning mercury concentrations found in fish in EFPC, and (3) to measure mercury concentration in hair from cattle grazing on pasture grasses along EFPC. Recommendations concerning further monitoring are also made. 15 references, 3 figures, 8 tables.

Van Winkle, W.; Counts, R.W.; Dorsey, J.G.; Elwood, J.W.; Lowe, V.W. Jr.; McElhaney, R.; Schlotzhauer, S.D.; Taylor, F.G. Jr.; Turner, R.R.

1984-02-01

87

Reconstruction of pluton assembly using trace elements in rock-forming minerals: a LA ICP-MS study of augite and hornblende in the Wooley Creek batholith, Klamath Mountains, California.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of interconnected melt capable of chemically and physically interacting within batholiths emplaced in the middle to upper crust is still debated. In this study, we take an alternative and/or complementary approach to geochronology and use the trace element record in minerals crystallizing early in magmatic systems to reconstruct the assembly history of a batholith. The Wooley Creek batholith (WCb) is a tilted calc-alkaline pluton situated in the Klamath Mountains, northern California, USA. The intrusion can be divided in three main units. The lower WCb ranges from two pyroxene biotite hornblende diorite to quartz-diorite. Trace elements in augite suggest that each sample analyzed belongs to a different magma batch and that individual batches underwent various extents of fractional crystallization. The upper WCb (80km2), ranging from hornblende biotite tonalite to granite, is zoned upward with more felsic rocks toward the structurally highest levels. The REE patterns of hornblende from samples that range from tonalite to granite are essentially identical and their REE abundances vary by a factor ? 3. Dacitic dikes that crop out along the structurally highest, southwestern contact of the intrusion contain hornblende crystals identical in composition to those from the upper part of the batholith, illustrating that the upper WCb was once eruptible. The central part of the WCb displays intermediate characteristics, with rocks ranging from hornblende biotite quartz-diorite to tonalite. Pyroxene is present only as relict inclusions in hornblende. Swarms of partially mingled Mafic Magmatic Enclaves (MME) and syn-plutonic dikes are locally common. The REE compositions of hornblende cores are similar to the hornblende found in the upper WCb, whereas the rims contain lower REE abundances and display no negative Eu anomaly, suggesting that they crystallized from a more mafic magma. This zoning pattern is interpreted as evidence of mixing in the central WCb, and specifically in the boundary zone that separates the upper and lower parts of the system. This zoning evidence is consistent with field relations that indicate mingling of the upper and lower units. We conclude that trace element compositions of minerals provide a useful tool to reconstruct and understand pluton assembly. In the case of the WCb, the lower part is constituted of numerous batches of magma, whereas the upper WCb crystallized from a large volume of chemically interconnected magma. The arrival of mafic magma in the central area provided heat, allowing the upper part of the system to mobilize and homogenize (Burgisser and Bergantz , 2011; Nature). CA-TIMS geochronology is in progress and will give absolute dates for the various part of the intrusion.

Coint, N.; Barnes, C. G.; Yoshinobu, A. S.; Barnes, M. A.; Chamberlain, K. R.

2012-04-01

88

Restoring Fossil Creek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers

Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

2004-01-01

89

Restoring Fossil Creek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers

Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

2004-01-01

90

Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit, Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1996, a memorandum of understanding was signed by representatives of the U.S. Geological Survey and Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to initiate a cooperative applied research project focused on the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit in southeastern Alaska. The goals of the project were consistent with the mandate of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to maintain a leading role in national mineral deposits research and with the need of Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to further development of the Greens Creek deposit and similar deposits in Alaska and elsewhere. The memorandum enumerated four main research priorities: (1) characterization of protoliths for the wall rocks, and elucidation of their alteration histories, (2) determination of the ore mineralogy and paragenesis, including metal residences and metal zonation within the deposit, (3) determination of the ages of events important to ore formation using both geochronology and paleontology, and (4) development of computer models that would allow the deposit and its host rocks to be examined in detail in three dimensions. The work was carried out by numerous scientists of diverse expertise over a period of several years. The written results, which are contained in this Professional Paper, are presented by 21 authors: 13 from the U.S. Geological Survey, 4 from Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company, 2 from academia, and 2 from consultants. The Greens Creek deposit (global resource of 24.2 million tons at an average grade of 13.9 percent zinc, 5.1 percent lead, 0.15 troy ounce per ton gold, and 19.2 troy ounces per ton silver at zero cutoff) formed in latest Triassic time during a brief period of rifting of the Alexander terrane. The deposit exhibits a range of syngenetic, diagenetic, and epigenetic features that are typical of volcanogenic (VMS), sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), and Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) genetic models. In the earliest stages of rifting, formation of precious-metal-rich silica-barite-carbonate white ores began at low temperature in a shallow, subaqueous setting, probably a thin carbonate shelf on the flanks of the Alexander landmass. Epigenetic carbonate replacement textures in the footwall dolostones are overlain by stratiform silica-carbonate-barite-rich ores and indicate that early mineralization formed at and just beneath the paleo sea floor by mixing of a reduced, precious-metal-rich, base-metal-poor hydrothermal fluid with oxygenated seawater. As rifting intensified, the shelf was downfaulted and isolated as a graben. Isolation of the basin and onset of starved-basin shale sedimentation was concurrent with emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusives at shallow levels in the rift, resulting in an increasingly higher temperature and progressively more anoxic ore-forming environment. The formation of the main stage of massive sulfide ores began as the supply of bacterially reduced sulfur increased in the accumulating shales. As the main-stage mineralization intensified, shale sedimentation inundated the hydrothermal system, eventually forming a cap. Biogenic sulfate reduction supplied reduced sulfur to the base of the shales where mixing occurred with hot, base-metal-rich hydrothermal fluids. Ore deposition continued by destruction and epigenetic replacement of the early white ores in proximal areas and by inflation and diagenetic replacement of unlithified shale at the interface between the white ores and the base of the shale cap. Ore deposition waned as the shales became lithified and as the supply of bacterially reduced sulfur to the site of ore deposition ceased. The final stages of rifting resulted in the emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks into the Greens Creek system and extrusion of voluminous basaltic flows at the top of the Triassic section. Greenschist facies metamorphism during the Jurassic-Cretaceous accretion of the Alexander terrane to the continental margin resulted in recrystalli

Taylor, Cliff D.; Johnson, Craig A.

2010-01-01

91

6. DETAIL VIEW OF COURSING, SOUTH ELEVATION. LARGER ROCKS ARE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF COURSING, SOUTH ELEVATION. LARGER ROCKS ARE SCRABBLED TO GIVE THE APPEARANCE OF A FINISHED SURFACE, LOOKING NORTH - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

92

PADDY CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MISSOURI.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Paddy Creek Wilderness study area, Missouri was investigated by geologic and mineral surveys. There is no known record of mineral production, development, or prospecting in the area. Several rock units that underlie the study area are known to be the host rocks for important lead-zinc-silver-copper-nickel-cobalt deposits and magnetic iron-ore deposits of the Southeast Missouri district, about 52 mi east of the study area. Similar occurrences may exist in the Paddy Creek Wilderness study area, but the mineral-resource potential cannot be adequately evaluated without further study, specifically, deep drilling within or close to the area to test the potential for base-metal mineralization, and detailed magnetic surveys of the area to test for magnetic anomalies.

Pratt, Walden, P.; Ellis, Clarence

1984-01-01

93

Shell Creek Summers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-01-01

94

Shell Creek Summers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-01-01

95

STEAMBOAT CREEK FLOOD STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will present the development, analy- sis, calibration, and results of a comprehensive hydrologic and hydraulic study performed for the Steamboat Creek watershed, located in Reno, Nevada. The purpose of the study was to establish accurate Base Flood Elevations (BFEs) in support of a number of residential developments proposed along Steamboat Creek. There had been several studies performed over

Carla Muscarella; Todd Cochran

2007-01-01

96

The geology and tectonic significance of the Big Creek Gneiss, Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Big Creek Gneiss, southern Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming, is a heterogeneous suite of upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks intruded by post-metamorphic pegmatitic granite. The metamorphic rocks consist of three individual protolith suites: (1) pre- to syn-1780-Ma supracrustal rocks including clastic metasedimentary rocks, calc-silicate paragneiss, and metavolcanic rocks; (2) a bimodal intrusive suite composed of metagabbro and granodiorite-tonalite gneiss; and (3) a

Daniel S. Jones

2010-01-01

97

Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the Mahanoy Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The Mahanoy Creek Basin encompasses an area of 157 square miles (407 square kilometers) including approximately 42 square miles (109 square kilometers) underlain by the Western Middle Anthracite Field. As a result of more than 150 years of anthracite mining in the basin, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments have been adversely affected. Leakage from streams to underground mines and elevated concentrations (above background levels) of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) degrade the aquatic ecosystem and impair uses of the main stem of Mahanoy Creek from its headwaters to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. Various tributaries also are affected, including North Mahanoy Creek, Waste House Run, Shenandoah Creek, Zerbe Run, and two unnamed tributaries locally called Big Mine Run and Big Run. The Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are the only major tributaries not affected by mining. To assess the current hydrological and chemical characteristics of the AMD and its effect on receiving streams, and to identify possible remedial alternatives, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2001, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Schuylkill Conservation District. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the USGS at five stream sites during low base-flow conditions in October 2001. Twenty species of fish were identified in Schwaben Creek near Red Cross, which drains an unmined area of 22.7 square miles (58.8 square kilometers) in the lower part of the Mahanoy Creek Basin. In contrast, 14 species of fish were identified in Mahanoy Creek near its mouth at Kneass, below Schwaben Creek. The diversity and abundance of fish species in Mahanoy Creek decreased progressively upstream from 13 species at Gowen City to only 2 species each at Ashland and Girardville. White sucker (Catostomus commersoni), a pollution-tolerant species, was present at each of the surveyed reaches. The presence of fish at Girardville was unexpected because of the poor water quality and iron-encrusted streambed at this location. Generally, macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance at these sites were diminished compared to Schwaben Creek and other tributaries draining unmined basins, consistent with the observed quality of streamwater and streambed sediment. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 35 AMD sources and 31 stream sites throughout the Mahanoy Creek Basin were collected by the USGS during high base-flow conditions in March 2001 and low base-flow conditions in August 2001. A majority of the base-flow streamwater samples met water-quality standards for pH (6.0 to 9.0); however, few samples downstream from AMD sources met criteria for acidity less than alkalinity (net alkalinity = 20 milligrams per liter as CaCO3) and concentrations of dissolved iron (0.3 milligram per liter) and total manganese (1.0 milligram per liter). Iron, aluminum, and various trace elements including cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, were present in many streamwater samples at concentrations at which continuous exposure can not be tolerated by aquatic organisms without an unacceptable effect. Furthermore, concentrations of sulfate, iron, manganese, aluminum, and (or) beryllium in some samples exceeded drinking-water standards. Other trace elements, including antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, selenium, silver, and thallium, did not exceed water-quality criteria for protection of aquatic organisms or human health. Nevertheless, when considered together, concentrations of iron, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in a majority of the streambed sediment samples from Mahanoy Creek and

Cravotta, Charles A., III

2004-01-01

98

Electrofishing on Lookout Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists electrofishing on the Lookout Creek near the Blue River, OR. The fish they collected were analyzed for mercury content and added to the data base that the National Fish Mercury Model is based on. ...

2010-03-17

99

A Study of the Winter Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) Flora in Fall Creek, Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diatom flora was studied at four stations on Fall Creek upstream from its confluence with White River at Tenth Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, over a three month period, December through February 1961-2. The entire course of the Creek studied was classified as fairly clean water. Pollution was due largely to contamination by sanitary wastes. The water had an average temperature

Robert G. Lipscomb

1964-01-01

100

Greigite (Fe3S4) as an indicator of drought - The 1912-1994 sediment magnetic record from White Rock Lake, Dallas, Texas, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Combined magnetic and geochemical studies were conducted on sediments from White Rock Lake, a reservoir in suburban Dallas (USA), to investigate how land use has affected sediment and water quality since the reservoir was filled in 1912. The chronology of a 167-cm-long core is constrained by the recognition of the pre-reservoir surface and by 137Cs results. In the reservoir sediments, magnetic susceptibility (MS) and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) are largely carried by detrital titanomagnetite that originally formed in igneous rocks. Titanomagnetite and associated hematite are the dominant iron oxides in a sample from the surficial deposit in the watershed but are absent in the underlying Austin Chalk. Therefore, these minerals were transported by wind into the watershed. After about 1960, systematic decreases in Ti, Fe, and Al suggest diminished input of detrital Fe-Ti oxides from the surficial deposits. MS and IRM remain constant over this interval, however, implying compensation by an increase in strongly magnetic material derived from human activity. Anthropogenic magnetite in rust and ferrite spherules (from fly ash?) are more common in sediment deposited after about 1970 than before and may account for the constant magnetization despite the implied decrease in detrital Fe-Ti oxides. An unexpected finding is the presence of authigenic greigite (Fe3S4), the abundance of which is at least partly controlled by climate. Greigite is common in sediments that predate about 1975, with zones of concentration indicated by relatively high IRM/MS. High greigite contents in sediment deposited during the early to mid-1950s and during the mid-1930s correspond to several-year periods of below-average precipitation and drought from historical records. Relatively long water-residence times in the reservoir during these periods may have led to elevated levels of sulfate available for bacterial sulfate reduction. The sulfate was probably derived via the oxidation of pyrite that is common in the underlying Austin Chalk. These results provide a basis for the paleoenvironmental interpretation of greigite occurrence in older lake sediments. The results also indicate that greigite formed rapidly and imply that it can be preserved in the amounts produced over a short time span (in this lake, only a few years). This finding thus suggests that, in some lacustrine settings, greigite is capable of recording paleomagnetic secular variation.

Reynolds, R. L.; Rosenbaum, J. G.; Van Metre, P.; Tuttle, M.; Callender, E.; Goldin, A.

1999-01-01

101

Basal Ottawa Limestone, Chattanooga Shale, Floyd Shale, Porters Creek Clay, and Yazoo Clay in parts of Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee as potential host rocks for underground emplacement of waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impermeable rock units, preferably at least 500 feet thick and lying 1000 to 3000 feet below land surface, were sought in the region consisting roughly of the western \\/ths of Tennessee and the northern \\/ths of Alabama and Mississippi. All rock sequences, Cambrian through Eocene, were examined in varying detail, except the Cretaceous Selma Chalk and except the diapiric salt.

Mellen

1976-01-01

102

BUCKS LAKE AND CHIPS CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bucks Lake and Chips Creek Roadless Areas, California indicate several areas with mineral-resource potential. The presence or absence of these potentially auriferous deposits can best be determined by drilling through the relatively thin cover of volcanic rocks.

Sorensen, Martin, L.; Linne, J. Mitchell

1984-01-01

103

Investigation of the Gold Creek Dam Spillway, Australia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gold Creek dam is a 19th century structure located on the outskirts of Brisbane, Australia. Built between 1882 and 1885, the dam is an earth embankment, 16-m high, equipped with a lateral overflow spillway. The original unlined rock spillway was spoon...

H. Chanson R. L. Whitmore

1996-01-01

104

Rock Fracture by High Speed Water Jet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses a study of rock breakage phenomena by high speed water jets. The water jets were 1 mm (0.039 in.) in diameter, traveling at 1200 m/sec (4000 fps) and had a duration of nearly 1.5 secs. Six rock types, viz. French Creek gabbro, Milford...

P. J. Huck M. M. Singh

1970-01-01

105

Regional significance of recurrent faulting and intracanyon volcanism at Oak Creek Canyon, southern Colorado Palteau, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Measured sections of late Miocene basalt lava flows, Tertiary gravel, and Paleozoic strata are the basis for stratigraphic reconstructions that provide evidence for pre- and post-volcanic movements on the Oak Creek fault, and for the existence of a prevolcanic ancestral Oak Creek Canyon, Arizona. Recurrent faulting, recording Laramide compression and Basin and Range extension, suggests probable control by an ancestral Oak Creek fault that would belong to a regional system of basement faults hat have controlled Colorado Plateau structures in Phanerozoic rocks. Locally derived Tertiary gravel and overlying lavas filled a canyon eroded in Paleozoic strata along the Oak Creek fault. Southward flow of ancestral Oak Creek, indicated y the lithology and geomorphic position of the gravel, valley reconstruction, and lava vents to the north, northeast, or east, requires that the regional drainage reversal on the southern Colorado Plateau occurred before late Miocene time in the Oak Creek area.

Holm, R.F. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (USA)); Cloud, R.A. (Exxon Company, International, Houston, TX (USA))

1990-10-01

106

Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky, was studied in 1980 by the USGS and USBM. Coal is the most important mineral resource in the Beaver Creek Wilderness. The coal is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A bituminous, and like coal of this rank in nearby mining areas, it is primarily suitable for use as steam coal. The coal resources are estimated to total 8.31 million short tons in beds greater than 14 in. thick. Nonmetallic minerals present in the Wilderness include limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone; these commodities are abundant outside the wilderness. The information available is not adequate for the assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the Beaver Creek Wilderness. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources.

Englund, K.J.; Hammack, R.W.

1984-01-01

107

The Crosswicks Creek Caper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based "caper," students designed and conducted experiments to find answers to their questions related to "mystery rock." Through this investigation, the children learned that rocks and minerals have unique physical and chemical properties

Levine, Ilene J.

2000-01-01

108

Sedimentary Rocks: Carbonate Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sedimentary Rocks: Carbonate Rocks is a course handout meant to accompany the discussion of chemical and biochemical sedimentary rocks. Rock composition is broken into the main categories of limestone and dolostone. Depositional conditions are discussed, including the topics of coral reefs, plankton, and carbonate compensation depth (CCD). There are a few photographs, which display calcareous algae. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

109

Gravity, magnetic, and physical property data in the Smoke Creek Desert area, northwest Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Smoke Creek Desert, located approximately 100 km (60 mi) north of Reno near the California-Nevada border, is a large basin situated along the northernmost parts of the Walker Lane Belt (Stewart, 1988), a physiographic province defined by northwest-striking topographic features and strike-slip faulting. Because geologic framework studies play an important role in understanding the hydrology of the Smoke Creek Desert, a geologic and geophysical effort was begun to help determine basin geometry, infer structural features, and estimate depth to Pre-Cenozoic rocks, or basement. In May and June of 2004, and June of 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 587 new gravity stations, more than 160 line-kilometers (100 line-miles) of truck-towed magnetometer data, and 111 rock property samples in the Smoke Creek Desert and vicinity in northwest Nevada, as part of an effort to characterize its hydrogeologic framework. In the Smoke Creek Desert area, gravity highs occur over rocks of the Skedaddle Mountains, Fox Range, Granite Range, and over portions of Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Buffalo Hills. These gravity highs likely reflect basement rocks, either exposed at the surface or buried at shallow depths. The southern Smoke Creek Desert corresponds to a 25-mGal isostatic gravity low, which corresponds with a basin depth of approximately 2 km. Magnetic highs are likely due to granitic, andesitic, and metavolcanic rocks, whereas magnetic lows are probably associated with less magnetic gneiss and metasedimentary rocks in the region. Three distinctive patterns of magnetic anomalies occur throughout the Smoke Creek Desert and Squaw Creek Valley, likely reflecting three different geological and structural settings.

Tilden, Janet E.; Ponce, David A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Tushman, Kira; Duvall, Alison

2006-01-01

110

Water, Rivers and Creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luna B. Leopold's intent in Water, Rivers and Creeks was to provide a nontechnical primer on hydrology and water resources, and he succeeded admirably. The terse style is reminiscent of the mystery writer Mickey Spillane, though the content is complex science expounded in simple terms. ``Part I, Hydrology and Morphology,'' makes up the first two thirds of the book, and

Robert D. Mac

1998-01-01

111

Boulder Creek Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scienti

Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla B.

2010-02-01

112

Boulder Creek Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of

Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

2010-01-01

113

Interaction of acid mine drainage with waters and sediments of West Squaw Creek in the West Shasta mining district, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage has acidified large volumes of water and added high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals to West Squaw Creek, a California stream draining igneous rocks of low-acid-neutralizing capacity. During mixing of the acid sulfate streams waters in the South Fork of West Squaw Creek with an almost equal volume of dilute uncontaminated water, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Al

Lorraine H. Filipek; D. Kirk Nordstrom; Walter H. Ficklin

1987-01-01

114

Basal Ottawa Limestone, Chattanooga Shale, Floyd Shale, Porters Creek Clay, and Yazoo Clay in Parts of Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee as Potential Host Rocks for Underground Emplacement of Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Impermeable rock units, preferably at least 500 feet thick and lying 1000 to 3000 feet below land surface, were sought in the region consisting roughly of the western exp 3 / sub 5 ths of Tennessee and the northern exp 3 / sub 5 ths of Alabama and Mississ...

F. F. Mellen

1976-01-01

115

Geochemical Data for Stream-Sediment, Surface-Water, Rock, and Vegetation Samples from Red Mountain (Dry Creek), an Unmined Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit in the Bonnifield District, Alaska Range, East-Central Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

North-central and northeast Nevada contains numerous large plutons and smaller stocks but also contains many small, shallowly emplaced intrusive bodies, including dikes, sills, and intrusive lava dome complexes. Decades of geologic investigations in the study area demonstrate that many ore deposits, representing diverse ore deposit types, are spatially, and probably temporally and genetically, associated with these igneous intrusions. However, despite the number and importance of igneous instrusions in the study area, no synthesis of geochemical data available for these rocks has been completed. This report presents a synthesis of composition and age data for these rocks. The product represents the first phases of an effort to evaluate the time-space-compositional evolution of Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatism in the study area and identify genetic associations between magmatism and mineralizing processes in this region.

Giles, Stuart A.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Granitto, Matthew; Zelenak, Philip P.; Adams, Monique G.; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Gough, Larry P.; Hageman, Philip L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Horton, John D.; Sutley, Stephan J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Wolf, Ruth E.

2007-01-01

116

Rad Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why do we have rocks? How are rocks formed? Why do we have rock cycles? There are all differnt kinds of rocks. What parts make up rocks? Can you sort rocks based on color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size? How do the things rocks are made of determine how people use them? Organize rocks by color, weight, shape, and sizes. Click here to find out the basics about ...

2010-04-26

117

Timing and Nature of Tertiary Plutonism and Extension in the Grouse Creek Mountains, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Grouse Creek-Albion-Raft River metamorphic core complex in northwestern Utah and southern Idaho is characterized by several Tertiary plutons with a range of ages and crosscutting relations that help constrain the timing of extensional deformation. In the Grouse Creek Mountains, at least three distinct, superimposed, extension-related Tertiary deformational events are bracketed by intrusive rocks, followed by a fourth event: motion

Anne E. Egger; Trevor A. Dumitru; Elizabeth L. Miller; Charles F. I. Savage; Joseph L. Wooden

2003-01-01

118

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2009-07-01

119

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2013-07-01

120

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2006-07-01

121

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2007-07-01 2007-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2007-07-01

122

Recurrent faulting and petroleum accumulation, Cat Creek Anticline, central Montana  

SciTech Connect

The Cat Creek anticline, scene of central Montana's first significant oil discovery, is underlain by a south-dipping high-angle fault (Cat Creek fault) that has undergone several episodes of movement with opposite sense of displacement. Borehole data suggest that the Cat Creek fault originated as a normal fault during Proterozoic rifting concurrent with deposition of the Belt Supergroup. Reverse faulting took place in Late Cambrian time, and again near the end of the Devonian Period. The Devonian episode, coeval with the Antler orogeny, raised the southern block several hundred feet. The southern block remained high through Meramecian time, then began to subside. Post-Atokan, pre-Middle Jurassic normal faulting lowered the southern block as much as 1,500 ft. During the Laramide orogeny (latest Cretaceous-Eocene) the Cat Creek fault underwent as much as 4,000 ft of reverse displacement and a comparable amount of left-lateral displacement. The Cat Creek anticline is a fault-propagation fold; en echelon domes and listric normal faults developed along its crest in response to wrenching. Oil was generated mainly in organic-rich shales of the Heath Formation (upper Chesterian Series) and migrated upward along tectonic fractures into Pennsylvanian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous reservoir rocks in structural traps in en echelon domes. Production has been achieved only from those domes where structural closure was retained from Jurassic through Holocene time.

Nelson, W.J. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States))

1991-06-01

123

Bryant Creek Watershed Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bryant Creek Watershed Project created this online atlas filled with a wealth of information on every aspect of this Missouri watershed -- even for those who do not live near the site. Teachers can find interactive, fun lesson plans for kindergarten through twelfth grade dealing with many aspects of the physical environment. Students will find an abundance of games, quizzes, and interactive modules. By taking the photo tour, visitors can learn about the fascinating unique places connected to the watershed. Users can also find materials on the biologic, historic, social, and recreational aspects of the watershed.

124

Shell Creek Summers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would motivate high school students to donate valuable summer vacation time to do science research?--the opportunity to make a difference! The Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group (SCWIG) was formed to identify and promote needed conservation practices within a local watershed, and turned to the high school science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality. Since 2002, for the past three summers, in this ongoing project, students collect water quality data and report their findings to the three involved community organizations.

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-04-01

125

Wallace Creek Field Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains model class exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site. These exercises are designed for college-level students who have had some background in geology and a general background of fault mechanics and earthquake geology. Particular questions in these exercises requires the students to conduct certain exercises or participate in appropriate discussions regarding geomorphology and slip rates. Five figures necessary to complete certain parts of the exercises are available for downloading.

126

MARSH CREEK WATERSHED (LR05)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marsh Creek Watershed drains 44 square miles and is surrounded by agricultural fields. It has a medium susceptibility for groundwater contamination based on WDNR groundwater susceptibility mapping. Marsh Creek watershed was selected as an Environmental Quality Improvement Program (EQIP) project. This program, funded by the U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), targets critical watersheds for implementation of agricultural best

127

Rockin' around the Rock Cycle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.

Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan

2005-01-01

128

Ship Creek bioassessment investigations  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

1995-06-01

129

Coyote Creek Geologic Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are required to make field observations, collect data and then create a detailed geologic map and report for a small area (approximately 1 sq. mile) on the edge of the Tularosa Basin in south central New Mexico. The study area is located within the Tularosa NE quadrangle, but maps from the Cat Mountain quadrangle to the East are also useful. Gently dipping carbonate and siliciclastic beds, igneous intrusions, bioherms and a normal fault are present in the study area along Coyote Creek, a few miles north of Tularosa, NM. The creek generally runs parallel to dip, allowing relatively easy access to inclined strata. Bioherm(s) are present in the lower section. Several dikes are present running both parallel and perpendicular to sedimentary bed strike. One is very non-resistant to weathering, creating unusual troughs as it passes through the carbonate bioherms. A sill is present in the upper section and a N/S trending normal fault roughly parallels strike of sedimentary beds.

Walsh, Timothy R.

130

Kiowa Creek Switching Station  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-03-01

131

Rock fracture by high speed water jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report discusses a study of rock breakage phenomena by high speed water jets. The water jets were 1 mm (0.039 in.) in diam, traveling at 1,200 m\\/sec. (4,000 fps) and had a duration of nearly 1.5 sec. Six rock types, viz., French Creek gabbro, Milford Pink granite, Connecticut brownstone, Minnesota dolomite, Indiana limestone and Massillon sandstone, ranging in compressive

P. J. Huck; M. M. Singh

1970-01-01

132

Correlation of Twin Creek limestone with Arapien shale in Arapien embayment, Utah - preliminary appraisal  

SciTech Connect

Striking and important stratigraphic patterns have emerged as a result of recent work during which members of the Twin Creek Limestone were correlated with the Arapien Shale, all of Middle Jurassic age. These correlations, determined first on the basis of electric and lithologic logs, are supported by recent palynologic work. Three distinct dinoflagellate assemblages, assigned to the Bajocian(.), Bathonian, and Callovian stages, form the paleontologic basis for these correlations. The Bajocian(.) assemblage is found in rocks of the Sliderock and Rich Members of the Twin Creek Limestone. The Bathonian assemblage is found in units of the Boundary Ridge and Watton Canyon Members of the Twin Creek, and also in units of the lower Arapien Shale (lower Leeds Creek Member of the Twin Creek of Wyoming). The Callovian assemblage is found in rocks of the upper Arapien (upper Leeds Creek and Giraffe Creek Members of the Twin Creek of Wyoming). Isopach maps, based on these correlations, indicate that most of central Utah was the site of a large marine embayment - the Arapien embayment -that was flanked on the west, south, and east by highlands. The maps also suggest that the ancestral Uinta Mountains, a submerged feature, affected sedimentation as early as Bajocian time, and became a significant barrier from the late Bathonian through Callovian. In central Utah, marine carbonates were deposited in the Arapien embayment during deposition of the Gypsum Spring through Watton Canyon Members of the Twin Creek Limestone. During deposition of the Arapien Shale, a major northward regression occurred; the embayment shrank to form a smaller basin - the Arapien basin - that lay directly south of the ancestral Uinta Mountains. Most of the Arapien Shale is shallow-water deposits that formed in the basin under hypersaline conditions.

Sprinkel, D.A.; Waanders, G.L.

1984-07-01

133

Early carboniferous back?arc deformation in the Lachlan Fold Belt, Shoalhaven River?Ettrema Creek area, NSW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre?Permian rocks of the Shoalhaven River and Ettrema Creek area are the easternmost exposure of the Lachlan Fold Belt. The Ordovician turbidite sequence consists of interbedded psammite and pelite and is overlain by the late Middle Devonian Grassy Gully Rhyolite and the terrestrial to shallow marine sedimentary rocks of the Late Devonian Merrimbula Group contained within the Budawang Syncline. Two

G. T. Cooper

1992-01-01

134

Talking Rocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the ways that rocks can be used to enhance children's creativity and their interest in science. Suggests the creation of a dramatic production involving rocks. Includes basic information on sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. (TW)

Rice, Dale; Corley, Brenda

1987-01-01

135

Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

136

Rock Solid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A teacher describes how developing a structured, focused, and fun curriculum on rocks and minerals for learning-disabled students transformed her initial reluctance about Earth science into enthusiasm. Students observed, described, and sorted rocks and explored rock formation. A sample worksheet is included, as is a list of children's trade books about rocks.

Sorel, Katherine

2003-02-01

137

Igneous Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive lesson on igneous rocks begins with a comparison of intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks with diagrams to show their origin. This leads to a discussion of intrusive rock formations including dikes, sills, laccoliths and batholiths and a block diagram to show their location. Basaltic rocks are described to include basalt, pumice, and gabbro and are contrasted with granitic rhyolite and obsidian.

138

rock properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. Lets review: What do you already know about rocks? Please write down your thoughts on a piece of paper. Now, click on the link below to find out what the definition of a rock is. *Intro to Rocks Please answer the questions below in complete sentences on your paper. 1. Rocks are made up of several particles. ...

Krystal

2009-12-14

139

Igneous Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explores igneous rocks in-depth through descriptions and pictures. The formation and distribution of this rock type are covered, as well as magma types associated with them (mafic to felsic). Classification of igneous rocks covers their texture and composition, including the difference between intrusive and extrusive. An alphabetical listing of rocks connects the user with a description, picture, tectonic association, and mineral composition of the rock. Bowens Reaction Series is covered as well, with associated rock types. A self-test allows the user to identify rocks by picture alone. Links are provided to sites with further information.

2007-12-12

140

White lies, white truth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within and through texts written in English by white women both before and since the opening of the hearings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, a process of confession has been enacted. The TRC's amnesty hearings heard no submissions from English-speaking white women as perpetrators. However, the telling of stories about the self, autobiographically inflected stories significantly stories of

Georgina Horrell

2009-01-01

141

Mineralogy and petrology of the Dutchmans Creek gabbroic intrusion, South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dutchmans Creek gabbro is a differentiated pluton consisting of olivine gabbro, anorthositic gabbro, pyroxene gabbro, and hornblende-pyroxene gabbro. This sequence of rock types represents advancing differentiation, as indicated by progressive increaie in Fel (Fe+Mg) ratios of coexisting ferromagnesian minerals and decrease in the anorthite com- ponent of plagioclase. Modal olivine decreases systematically in the sequence. The parent magma crystallized

Hnnny Y. McSwrnN

142

Some petrological aspects of the Prairie Creek diamond-bearing kimberlite diatreme, Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on modal and chemical composition, the rocks of the Prairie Creek diatreme situated 4 km SSE of Murfreesboro, Pike County, Arkansas, are classified as micaceous kimberlite. The K-Ar isotopic analysis of phlogopite from this diatreme yielded an age of 106 3 m.y. (Albian) which is in agreement with stratigraphic relations. Electron beam probe data on minerals from kimberlite

Subbarayudu V. Gogineni; Charles E. Melton; A. A. Giardini

1978-01-01

143

Ground-water geology and pump irrigation in Frenchman Creek Basin above Palisade, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the geography, geology, and ground-water resources of that part of the Frenchman Creek basin upstream from Palisade, Nebr., an area of about 4,900 square miles. The basin includes all of Phillips County, Colo., and Chase County, Nebr., and parts of Logan, Sedgwick, Washington, and Yuma Counties, Colo., and Dundy, Hayes, Hitchcock, and Perkins Counties, Nebr. The land surface ranges from nearly flat to rolling; choppy hills and interdune saddles are common in the areas of dune sand, and steep bluffs and gullies cut the edges of the relatively flat loess plateaus. Most of the basin is drained by tributaries of Frenchman Creek, but parts of the sandhills are undrained. Farming and livestock raising are the principal industries. Irrigation with ground water has expanded rapidly since 1934. The rocks exposed in the basin are largely unconsolidated and range in age from Pliocene to Recent. They comprise the Ogallala formation (Pliocene), the Sanborn formation (Pleistocene and Recent?), dune sand (Pleistocene and Recent), and alluvium (Recent). The rocks underlying the Ogallala are the Pierre shale (Late Cretaceous) and the White River group (Oligocene). The Pierre shale is relatively impermeable and yields little or no water to wells. The White River group also is relatively impermeable and yields little or no water to wells; however, small to moderate quantities of water possibly may be obtained from wells that penetrate fractured or 'porous' zones in the upper part of the White River group or permeable channel deposits within the group. The Ogallala formation is the main aquifer in the basin and yields moderate to large quantities of water to wells. The Sanborn formation and the dune sand generally lie above the water table, but in areas of high water table the dune sand yields small quantities of water to wells for domestic and stock supplies. The alluvium, which includes the low terrace deposits bordering the major streams, yields small to large quantities of water to wells. The ground-water reservoir is recharged only from precipitation on the basin. Of the average annual precipitation of 19.5 inches, about 0.9 inch infiltrates to the water table, thereby contributing about 220,000 acre-feet of water annually to the ground-water reservoir. About 81 million acre-feet of water that could drain under gravity, and thus theoretically is available to wells, is held in groundwater storage in the basin. Water is discharged from the ground-water reservoir by wells, evaporation and transpiration, springs, seepage into streams, and movement into adjacent areas to the east and southeast. Most of the domestic, stock, and irrigation water supplies and all the public supplies are pumped from wells. During 1953, 96 wells were used to irrigate 10,000 acres of land with 19,000 acre-feet of water. About 34,000 acre-feet of water is evaporated and transpired annually in the valleys of the main streams and in areas of shallow water table in the sandhills. From the projection of base-flow measurements made during 1952, it was estimated that the average annual flow of Frenchman Creek into the reservoir above Enders Dam is about 57,000 acre-feet. By similar determinations, the average annual flow of Frenchman Creek at the gaging station at Palisade, Nebr., about 22 miles downstream from Enders Dam, is about 76,000 acre-feet, and the flow of Stinking Water Creek at the gaging station near Palisade is about 22,000 acre-feet. The combined flow of Frenchman and Stinking Water Creeks at their confluence near Palisade thus is about 98,000 acre-feet per year. About 90,000 acre-feet of ground water is estimated to move eastward each year across the Colorado-Nebraska State line within the basin. Additional irrigation wells that will tap the Ogallala formation and the alluvium in the major valleys undoubtedly will be drilled. On the basis of current estimates of future irrigation.withdrawals, it is concluded that by the

Cardwell, W. D. E.; Jenkins, Edward D.

1963-01-01

144

Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

1999-03-01

145

Microthermometry and geochemistry of fluid inclusions from the Tennant Creek gold-copper deposits: implications for ore deposition and exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold-copper-bismuth mineralization in the Tennant Creek goldfield of the Northern Territory occurs in pipe-like, ellipsoidal, or lensoidal lodes of magnetite hematite ironstones which are hosted in turbiditic sedimentary rocks of Proterozoic age. Fluid inclusion studies have revealed four major inclusion types in quartz associated with mineralized and barren ironstones at Ten nant Creek; (1) liquid-vapour inclusions with low liquid\\/vapour

Khin Zaw; D. L. Huston; R. R. Large; T. Mernagh; C. F. Hoffmann

1994-01-01

146

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Carey Creek, Technical Report 2005.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Carey Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Carey Creek Project provides a total of 172.95 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 4.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetlands provide 52.68 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 2.82 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow and grassland meadow provide 98.13 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Emergent wetlands provide 11.53 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Open water provides 2.88 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Carey Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

Entz, Ray

2005-05-01

147

Geology of the Cottonwood Creek field, Carter County, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

In late 1987, the Cottonwood Creek field, Carter County, Oklahoma, was heralded by flows of nearly 4,000 BOPD and 3 MMCFGD from the upper Arbuckle Group. The field structure is part of the buried Criner uplift along the southwest flank of the Ardmore basin. The uplift formed during a Late Mississippian/Early Pennsylvanian episode of bidirectional thrusting (northeast and southwest) probably related to convergent strike-slip faulting. The basic field structure formed as a northeast-directed thrust plate, cored with Arbuckle Group carbonates and cut by a backthrust. The Cottonwood Creek anticline was near the crest of the uplift. It was erosionally denuded of its Simpson through Caney cover and karsted to depths of at least 1,600 ft. Subthrust strata include the Woodford source rocks. In the Middle to Late Pennsylvanian the uplift was buried by clastics (about 8,000 ft thick over cottonwood Creek). Culminating in the late Pennsylvanian, a second episode of wrench faulting sliced through the Criner uplift. About 3 mi of left-lateral slip occurred on this Criner-Healdton fault, which also dropped the anticline about 3,000 ft relative to the block to the south, completing the trap at Cottonwood Creek field. Fourteen wells have found oil in the anticline over an approximately 2.5 by 0.5-mi area. The oil column is at least 900 ft thick. Eight of the wells tested for 1,200-3,700 BOPD plus associated gas from a complex of fractures, Brown Zone dolomite, and karst-enhanced porosity in the West Spring Creek and Kindblade formations.

Roberts, M.T.; Read, D.L. (CNG Producing Co., Denver, CO (USA))

1990-05-01

148

Paleomagnetism of the Miocene intrusive suite of Kidd Creek: Timing of deformation in the Cascade arc, southern Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paleomagnetic study of the intrusive suite of Kidd Creek in the southern Washington Cascades (23 sites in dikes and sills) was undertaken to help determine if these rocks are comagmatic and whether they postdate regional folding of the volcanic arc. Fission track and 40Ar-39Ar age determinations indicate an age of ???12.7 Ma (middle Miocene) for these rocks. The similarity of normal-polarity characteristic directions for most samples corroborate the available geochemical data indicating that these rocks are most likely comagmatic. Reversed-polarity directions for samples from four sites, however, show that emplacement of Kidd Creek intrusions spanned at least one reversal of the geomagnetic field. The paleomagnetic directions for the dikes and sills fail a fold test at the 99% confidence level indicating that the Kidd Creek rocks postdate regional folding. The mean in situ direction also indicates that the Kidd Creek and older rocks have been rotated 22?? ?? 6?? clockwise about a vertical or near-vertical axis from the expected Miocene direction. Compression and regional folding of the Cascade arc in southern Washington therefore had ended by ???12 Ma prior to the onset of deformation resulting in rotation of these rocks.

Hagstrum, J. T.; Swanson, D. A.; Snee, L. W.

1998-01-01

149

33 CFR 117.573 - Stoney Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.573 Stoney Creek. The draw of the Stoney Creek (S173) bridge, mile 0.9, in Riviera shall open on...

2013-07-01

150

Mann Creek Reservoir 1992 Sedimentation Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the 1992 results of the first extensive sedimentation survey of Mann Creek Reservoir by Reclamation since construction of Mann Creek Dam. The primary objectives of the survey were to: gather data needed for developing new reservoir to...

R. L. Ferrari

1992-01-01

151

PECONIC ESTUARY PROGRAM TIDAL CREEK STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

EEA evaluated ten tidal creeks throughout the Peconic Estuary representing a wide range of watershed variables. Primary focus was directed towards the collection and analysis of the macrobenthic invertebrate communities of these ten tidal creeks. Analysis of the macrobenthic comm...

152

Valley Creek Restoration Plan, August 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Restoration Plan presents restoration strategies and projects that can be implemented in the Valley Creek watershed to enhance the Valley Creek fishery and restore the natural resources in the watershed, with the ultimate goal of renewed uses, such a...

2004-01-01

153

Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

1995-04-01

154

Rock Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration

Henn, Cynthia A.

2004-01-01

155

Rock Finding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the

Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

2006-01-01

156

Collecting Rocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using

Barker, Rachel M.

157

Metamorphic Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here is an in-depth description of metamorphic rocks, from their classification to formation and identification. It covers types of metamorphism (including Barrovian, or regional rock changes), classification by foliation, and metamorphic processes (facies and zones). An alphabetical list of rocks with picture, composition, description, tectonic association, and type of metamorphism is given. Common metamorphic minerals are covered as well.

2007-12-12

158

Stable isotope study of water-rock interaction and ore formation, Bayhorse base and precious metal district, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole-rock ??18O and ??D values from the Garden Creek Phyllite define an isotopically depleted zone (60 km2) around the Nevada Mountain stock and are the result of high-temperature interactions with ancient meteoric waters at water/rock ratios ranging from 0.002 to 0.09. Comparison of the ore fluid ??18OH2O and ??DH2O values with hypothetical waters equilibrated with the Garden Creek Phyllite indicates that the hydrothermal fluids must have also interacted with the basal dolomite of Bayhorse Creek, which underlies the phyllite. The ?? 13CCO2 values for the hydrothermal fluids also record a transition from early water/rock interactions that were dominated by the Garden Creek Phyllite to later interactions that were influenced significantly by the basal dolomite of Bayhorse Creek. The range of ??34S values may be interpreted as either a heterogeneous sedimentary source or mixed sedimentary-magmatic sources. -from Authors

Seal, II, R. R.; Rye, R. O.

1992-01-01

159

Microthermometry and geochemistry of fluid inclusions from the Tennant Creek gold-copper deposits: implications for ore deposition and exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold-copper-bismuth mineralization in the Tennant Creek goldfield of the Northern Territory occurs in pipe-like, ellipsoidal, or lensoidal lodes of magnetite hematite ironstones which are hosted in turbiditic sedimentary rocks of Proterozoic age. Fluid inclusion studies have revealed four major inclusion types in quartz associated with mineralized and barren ironstones at Ten nant Creek; (1) liquid-vapour inclusions with low liquid/vapour ratios (Type I), (2) liquid-vapour inclusions with high liquid/vapour ratios or high vapour/liquid ratios and characteristic dark bubbles (Type II), (3) liquid-vapour-halite inclusions (Type III), and (4) liquid-vapour inclusions with variable liquid/vapour ratios (Type V). Type I inclusions are present in the barren ironstones and the unmineralized portions of fertile ironstones, whereas Types II and III inclusions are recognized in fertile ironstones. Trails of Types II and III inclusions cut trails of Type I inclusions. Type I fluid inclusions have homogenization temperatures of 100 to 350 C with a mode at 200 to 250 C. Type II inclusions in mineralized ironstones (e.g. Juno, White Devil, Eldorado, TC8 and Gecko K-44 deposits) have homogenization temperatures of 250 C to 600 C with a mode of 350 C. Type I fluid inclusions have a salinity range of 10 to 30 NaCl equiv. wt %. Salinity measurements on fluid inclusions in the mineralized zones gave a range of 10 to 50 NaCl equiv. wt % with a mode of 35 NaCl equiv. wt %. Fluid inclusion studies indicate that the Tennant Creek ironstones were formed from a relatively low temperature and moderately saline fluid, where as gold and copper mineralization was deposited from later hydrothermal fluids of higher temperature and salin ity. Gas analysis indicates the presence of N2 and CO2, with very minor CH4 in Types II inclusions but no N2 or CH4 gases in Type I inclusions. Microprobe analysis of the fluid inclusion decrepitates indicates that the inclusions from Tennant Creek contain sodium and calcium as dominant cations and potassium in a subordinate amount. The high temperatures (? 350 C), high salinities (? 35 NaCl equiv. wt. %) and cation composition of the Tennant Creek ore fluids suggest that the ore fluids were derived from upward migrating heated basinal brines, although contribution from a magmatic source cannot be ruled out. Close association of vapour-rich Type IIb and salt-rich Type III inclusions in the mineralized ironstones (e.g. Juno, White Devil, Eldorado, TC8 and Gecko K-44) indicates heterogeneous trapping of ore fluids. This heterogeneous trapping is interpreted to be due to unmixing (exsolution) of a gas-rich (e.g. N2) fluid during the upward migration of the metal bearing brines and/or due to degassing caused by reaction of oxidized ore fluids and host ironstones. Fluid inclusion data have important implications regarding the deposition of gold in the ironstones, and may have application in discriminating fertile from barren ironstones.

Zaw, Khin; Huston, D. L.; Large, R. R.; Mernagh, T.; Hoffmann, C. F.

1994-07-01

160

The geology and mechanics of formation of the Fort Rock Dome, Yavapai County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Fort Rock Dome, a craterlike structure in northern Arizona, is the erosional product of a circular domal uplift associated with a Precambrian shear zone exposed within the crater and with Tertiary volcanism. A section of Precambrian to Quaternary rocks is described, and two Tertiary units, the Crater Pasture Formation and the Fort Rock Creek Rhyodacite, are named. A mathematical model of the doming process is developed that is consistent with the history of the Fort Rock Dome.

Fuis, Gary S.

1996-01-01

161

OXYGEN AERATION AT NEWTOWN CREEK  

EPA Science Inventory

A successful initial feasibility investigation of oxygen aeration at the 0.11-cu m/sec (2.5-mgd) municipal wastewater treatment plant in Batavia, New York, prompted a larger demonstration at New York City's 13.6-cu m/sec (310-mgd) Newtown Creek Plant. A 34-mo evaluation was perfo...

162

Oxygen Aeration at Newtown Creek.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A successful initial feasibility investigation of oxygen aeration at the 0.11-cu m/sec (2.5-mgd) municipal wastewater treatment plant in Batavia, New York, prompted a larger demonstration at New York City's 13.6-cu m/sec (310-mgd) Newtown Creek Plant. A 3...

N. Nash W. B. Pressman P. J. Krasnoff

1979-01-01

163

Telogia Creek Conservation Tillage Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Best Management Practice demonstration project on crop and pasture land in the Telogia Creek Watershed was conducted by making reduced tillage equipment available to farmers, establishing on-farm demonstration plots, and holding field days to demonstrate and evaluate reduced tillage, new conservation tillage and new subsoil tillage technology. An evaluation of a Dyna Drive, a new rotary surface ground driven

B. F. Castro; B. R Durden; H. G. Grant

164

Clayton Lake, Jackfork Creek, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed Clayton damsite is located at mile 2.8 on Jackfork Creek in Pushmataha County, Oklahoma, about 6 miles northwest of Clayton. The project consists of construction of a flood control, water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife lake located...

1971-01-01

165

ROCKing the JAKs  

PubMed Central

The endocrine cytokine leptin is mainly secreted by white adipose tissue and plasma leptin levels positively correlate with body fat mass. Via its action on neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), leptin regulates body weight by stimulating energy expenditure and inhibiting food intake. The main signaling pathway of the leptin receptor is the JAK2-STAT3 pathway. A recent publication of Huang et al. in Nature Neuroscience shows that leptins hypothalamic signaling via JAK2 requires the kinase ROCK1 (Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1). ROCK1 directly phosphorylates JAK2, and this phosphorylation is required for the JAK2-STAT3 pathway of the leptin receptor. Gene deletion of ROCK1 in ARC neurons targeted by leptin makes these neurons less sensitive to leptin. This is reflected by a pronounced weight gain with hyperphagia, reduced locomotor activity, and increased fat accumulation. In this article we comment on the article of Huang et al. While the mechanism of ROCK1 activation in the neurons remains uncharacterized for the moment, a literature survey suggests that the interplay between ROCK1 and a JAK kinase may be a common theme for receptors that function via a JAK2 and even for other members of the JAK kinase family.

Peelman, Frank; Tavernier, Jan

2013-01-01

166

Earth Rocks!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the basic elements of our Earth's crust: rocks, soils and minerals. They learn how we categorize rocks, soils and minerals and how they are literally the foundation for our civilization. Students also explore how engineers use rocks, soils and minerals to create the buildings, roads, vehicles, electronics, chemicals, and other objects we use to enhance our lives.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

167

Age of Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado and Utah  

SciTech Connect

Isopach mapping and stratigraphic studies in the Douglas Creek arch area, a north-south-trending structure that separates the Uinta basin of Utah from the Piceance Creek basin of Colorado, indicate that the arch was formed largely during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous, late Campanian through Eocene). Formation was contemporaneous with the formation of the Uinta and Piceance Creek basins, but may have been present as a very broad, low-amplitude structure earlier during the Sevier orogeny. Recent paleogeographic reconstructions by other workers, however, suggest that the Douglas Creek arch was largely pre-Laramide. The Dakota to Castlegate Sandstone interval, which predates the Laramide orogeny, thickness toward the northwest on the west flank of the arch and toward the northeast on the east flank. This thickenings roughly outlines the arch, but is much broader, and more closely parallels the Uncompahgre uplift south of the arch. The thickness of the Castlegate to Cretaceous-Tertiary unconformity interval, which brackets the early stages of the Laramide orogeny, is nearly uniform west of the arch, but thickens abruptly east of the crest of the arch. This interval has been modified by an unknown amount of erosion during the following hiatus. Upper Paleocene rocks above the unconformity lap out toward the arch from both directions, indicating that the arch was rising during the hiatus. The intervals from the Cretaceous-Tertiary unconformity to the lower Eocene Long Point bed and from the Long Point bed to the middle Eocene Mahogany bed thicken away from the arch, indicating that the arch was active during early to middle Eocene. A structure contour map of the top of the Mahogany bed indicates considerable post-Mahogany movement as well. The arch was therefore largely if not totally a Laramide structure.

Johnson, R.C.; Finn, T.M.

1985-02-01

168

Sampling Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn about sampling through an investigation of rocks found in the schoolyard. This will provide a start to understanding everyday statistics. They will first collect and analyze a sample of rocks from the schoolyard and array the collected rocks by characteristics such as size, weight, and color, to see if any generalizations can be made about the types of rocks that can be found in the schoolyard. Students will then be introduced to the notion of a sample and how the size and method of collection of a sample can bias findings.

169

Stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Date Creek Basin, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Results of the Date Creek Basin detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are reported for 239 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Based on stream sediment geochemical data, significant concentrations of uranium are restricted to the Anderson Mine area. The 84th percentile concentrations of U-FL, U-NT, and U-FL/U-NT combined with low thorium/U-NT values reflect increased mobility and enrichment of uranium in the carbonate host rocks of that area. Elements characteristically associated with the uranium mineralization include lithium and arsenic. No well defined diffusion halos suggesting outliers of similar uranium mineralization were observed from the stream sediment data in other areas of the Date Creek Basin. Significant concentrations of U-FL or U-NT found outside the mine area are generally coincident with low U-FL/U-NT values and high concentrations of zirconium, titanium, and phosphorus. This suggests that the uranium is related to a resistate mineral assemblage derived from surrounding crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks.

Butz, T.R.; Tieman, D.J.; Grimes, J.G.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Pritz, P.M.

1980-06-30

170

Analyses and description of geochemical samples, Mill Creek Wilderness Study Area, Giles County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses for 64 elements on 62 stream sediment and 71 rock samples from Mill Creek Wilderness Study area, Giles County, Virginia, are reported here in detail. Locations for all samples are given in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Brief descriptions of rock samples are also included. Rocks analysed are mostly sandstone. Samples of hematitic sandstone of the Rose Hill Formation and limonite-cemented sandstone of the Rocky Gap Sandstone contain high values of iron; these rocks are submarginal iron resources. Some of the same iron-rich samples have a little more barium, copper, cobalt, lead, silver, and/or zinc then is in average sandstone, but they do not suggest the presence of economic deposits of these metals. No other obviously anomalous values related to mineralized rock are present in the data.

Mei, Leung; Lesure, Frank Gardner

1978-01-01

171

Otter Creek Wilderness, West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

A mineral-resource survey of the Otter Creek Wilderness conducted in 1978 resulted in the determination of demonstrated coal resources estimated to total about 24 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick and an additional 62 million short tons of coal in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick. There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or other energy resources in the area.

Warlow, R.C.; Behum, P.T.

1984-01-01

172

Graham Creek Roadless Area, Texas  

SciTech Connect

A geologic and geochemical investigation of the Graham Creek Roadless Area, Texas was conducted in 1981-1982. The area has a probable mineral-resource potential for oil and gas. The roadless are contains a deposit of kaolinite clay similar to deposits being mined west of the area; the southeast part of the roadless area has a substantiated kaolinite clay resource potential. Smectite clay and sand deposits also are present in the area but these resources are relatively abundant throughout the region.

Houser, B.B.; Ryan, G.S.

1984-01-01

173

Reservoir performance in Ordovician Red River Formation, Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields, Bowman County, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The contiguous Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields produce oil from the Ordovician Red River Formation's 'D' zone (equal to the 'C' Burrowed Member). These fields produce from dolomite reservoirs at depths of about 9000 ft (3000 m) in the southern Williston basin on the northeastern flank of the southern end of the Cedar Creek anticline. Gentle ({lt}1{degree}) northeast regional dip allows oil entrapment in both areas of updip porosity pinch-out and small ({lt}2 km diameter), low-relief ({lt}30 m) structural closures. Reservoir rocks in both types of traps are burrowed dolomitized carbonate mudstones and wackestones deposited in open to restricted shelf environments. The best reservoir rocks occur where up to 25% porosity is present between completely dolomitized burrow fills. Reservoir-quality porosity is mainly intercrystalline and vuggy in finely crystalline dolomites, but even in the most porous intervals, permeability only locally exceeds 30 md. Amounts of porosity in wells producing from the 'D' zone can be used to estimate a well's ultimate oil recovery when integrated with data on structural position, thickness of porous dolomite, and the nature of the fluid saturation (best indicated by bulk volume water values). Production in the structurally trapped 'D' zone oil pools in each field, where initial water saturation was 22%, will average about 625 thousand bbl of oil/well with initially negligible water, but with increasing watercut through time. The stratigraphically trapped oil pools in the fields, where initial water saturations ranged from 32 to 66%, will average 237 thousand bbl of oil/well with higher initial watercuts, but little increase in watercut through time.

Longman, M.W. (Consulting Geologist, Lakewood, CO (United States)); Fertal, T.G. (Samuel Gary, Jr. and Associates, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)); Stell, J.R. (Snyder Oil Corp., Denver, CO (United States))

1992-04-01

174

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rock Cycle Mineralogy 4 Kids Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Rock Cycle Map Rocks and Minerals Rocks and Minerals Pictures Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Earth Science Earth Science Uses for Minerals Metamorphic Rock Forming Sedimentary Rocks Observation ...

Richrigby

2010-02-23

175

Environmental Assessment ID230-2007-EA-3432 for Rough Creek, Roanhide and Ear Creek Allotments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The action being analyzed is a renewal of the livestock grazing permits in the Rough Creek, Roanhide and Ear Creek Allotments in accordance with the Fundamentals of Rangeland Health (43 CFR Subpart 4180). Through this environmental analysis, a final decis...

2007-01-01

176

Traveltime Characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to present traveltime and longitudinal-dispersion characteristics for 11 stream reaches in Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek. The results of the traveltime measurements were used to estimate the traveltime of potential contamin...

J. J. Gurdak N. E. Spahr R. J. Szmajter

2002-01-01

177

Quality of water and time-of-travel in Bakers Creek near Clinton, Mississippi. [Bakers Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short-term intensive quality-of-water study was conducted during a period of generally low streamflow in Bakers Creek and its tributary, Lindsey Creek, near Clinton, Mississippi. During the September 15-18, 1980 study, dissolved oxygen concentrations in Bakers Creek were less than 5 milligrams per liter. The specific conductance, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, nutrient concentrations, and bacteria densities in Bakers Creek decreased

Kalkhoff

1982-01-01

178

Shallow-level, late-stage gold mineralisation in Sawyers Creek, Shotover valley, northwest Otago, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of mainly west and northwest striking normal faults in Sawyers Creek, Shotover valley, crosscuts post-Oligocene Moonlight Generation structures. These faults have provided access for hydrothermal fluids to shallow crustal levels. Silicification and carbonate alteration of breccias and wall rock has occurred, to form reef zones up to 3 m wide. Gold is found with pyrite and arscnopyrite within

D. Craw

1989-01-01

179

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON A URNAIUM OCCURRENCE AND REGIONAL GEOLOGY IN THE CHERRY CREEK AREA, GILA COUNTY, ARIZONA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Brush uranium claims in the Cherry Creek area, Gila Co., ; Ariz., are approximately 36 miles north of Globe, Ariz. The area is underlain by ; essentiaily flatlying sedimentary rocks of the Precambrian Apache group which ; have been block faulted and intruded by diabase of possible Tertiary age. ; Uranium occurs in the upper member of the

Sharp

1956-01-01

180

Moropus merriamiin the Early Barstovian Lower Snake Creek Fauna of Nebraska, with Comments on Biogeography of North American Chalicotheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moropus merriami Holland and Peterson (1914), an early Barstovian schizotheriine chali- cothere from North America, is rediagnosed and redescribed on the basis of additional material. While originally recognized from the Virgin Valley and High Rock Canyon local faunas of northwest Nevada, M. merriami can also be identified from the Lower Snake Creek fauna preserved in the Olcott Formation of northwest

MARGERY C. COOMBS

181

DEEP CREEK AND MUD CREEK, TWIN FALLS, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Deep Creek and Mud Creek are located in Twin Falls County near Buhl, Idaho (17040212). From April through October, these creeks convey irrigation drainage water from the western part of the Twin Falls irrigation tract to the Snake River. During 1986, water quality surveys were ...

182

Art Rocks with Rock Art!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals

Bickett, Marianne

2011-01-01

183

122. Credit JE. Millseat Creek above the intake of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

122. Credit JE. Millseat Creek above the intake of the ditch leading to the Volta forebay. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 233). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

184

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lobos Creek Inlet Structure, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

185

Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

186

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

187

Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

188

Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

189

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

190

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

191

Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

192

2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING SIMPSON CREEK BRIDGE WITH BRIDGEPORT LAMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING SIMPSON CREEK BRIDGE WITH BRIDGEPORT LAMP AND CHIMNEY COMPANY IN BACKGROUND. - Bridgeport Lamp Chimney Company, Simpson Creek Bridge, Spanning Simpson Creek, State Route 58 vicinity, Bridgeport, Harrison County, WV

193

59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

194

Perspective view showing 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view showing 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

195

Detail view of 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

196

Coop Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Co-op Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, no date, Zion National Park collection - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Co-op Creek Bridge, Spanning Co-op Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

197

3. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF PICNIC AREA WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF PICNIC AREA WITH COMMUNITY KITCHEN IN BACKGROUND. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

198

8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, 1928' - Harp Creek Bridge, Spans Harp Creek at State Highway 7, Harrison, Boone County, AR

199

Bureau of Indian Affairs Safety of Dams Program. 1996 Initial SEED Examination Report, Window Rock Dam, Navajo Indian Reservation, Arizona Bureau of Indian Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Window Rock Dam is located on an unnamed tributary to Black Creek within the Navajo Indian Reservation about one-half mile east of the Navajo Headquarters in Window Rock, Arizona. This report is the product of a formal onsite examination of Window Rock Da...

K. Gagner

1997-01-01

200

Rock Shots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently debuted on Adam Curry's METAVERSE site is Rock Shots, the first exclusive gallery of Rock 'n Roll photography on the Web by photographer Niels Van Iperen. Niels has been shooting musicians, fans and festivals for over 12 years in Europe and the U.S. His clients include the magazines Rolling Stone, Musician, Metal Hammer, OOR and Guitar World . Rock Shots brings you face to face with Aerosmith live in Brazil, Pearl Jam in their dressing room, the Red Hot Chili Peppers in a swimming pool and more ... on stage, backstage and audience rage. Portraits are viewed in Rock Shots through a custom-made search engine and is updated weekly with new artists.

Iperen, Niels V.

1995-01-01

201

Stratigraphy and depositional history of Coyote Creek-Miller Creek Trend, Lower Cretaceous Fall River formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend produces high-gravity, low-sulfur oil from a series of Fall River fields in an area generally characterized by west-southwestward monoclinal dip. The trend includes, from south to north, the Coyote Creek South, Coyote Creek, Donkey Creek, Kummerfeld, and Miller Creek fields. The Wood and West Moorcroft fields produce oil from very similar Fall River traps located

T. A. Ryer; E. R. Gustason

1985-01-01

202

Should We Dam Nanticoke Creek?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this decision-making exercise, students investigate what would occur if a dam were built along Nanticoke Creek, a real stream just north of West Corners near the Village of Endicott, New York. They will use topographic maps to determine how much area would be flooded by the new reservoir, to study river drainages, and to consider the impacts of dams on a region. They must also consider rivers in the context of their relation to humankind. The exercise can be extended to other, more local locations having similar topography.

Childs, Philip

203

Goldsborough Creek Smolt Trapping Study, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is in the process of removing the severely deteriorating Goldsborough Dam on Goldsborough Creek. The purpose of this project is to restore creek conditions to pre-dam status and to restore fish passage into the upper reach...

B. Missildine

2001-01-01

204

33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of the State highway bridge, mile...

2013-07-01

205

33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spa Creek. 117.571 Section 117.571 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at Annapolis,...

2010-07-01

206

33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Spa Creek. 117.571 Section 117.571 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at Annapolis,...

2009-07-01

207

33 CFR 117.185 - Pacheco Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacheco Creek. 117.185 Section 117.185 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.185 Pacheco Creek. The draw of the Contra Costa County...

2010-07-01

208

33 CFR 117.185 - Pacheco Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Pacheco Creek. 117.185 Section 117.185 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.185 Pacheco Creek. The draw of the Contra Costa County...

2009-07-01

209

Wilson's Creek Staff Ride and Battlefield Tour.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Armies of the North and South fought the Battle of Wilson's Creek about 10 miles southwest of Springfield, Missouri, on Saturday, 10 August 1861. Like most battles, Wilson's Creek provides fertile ground for studying military art and science. It is partic...

G. E. Knapp

1993-01-01

210

Eagle Creek Lake, Kentucky River Basin, Kentucky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eagle Creek Lake is a multipurpose reservoir project for flood control, recreation, and water supply. The dam will be located in Grant County, Kentucky, at mile 43.6 on Eagle Creek. The flood control pool will extend upstream into Owen County, with the up...

1973-01-01

211

The Patroon Creek Contamination Migration Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shaw performed a Site Investigation (SI) for sediment within the Unnamed Tributary of the Patroon Creek, a section of the Patroon Creek, and the Three Mile Reservoir as part of the overall contract with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to remediate the Colonie Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The Unnamed Tributary formerly flowed through

K. Dufek; A. Zafran; J. T. Moore

2006-01-01

212

Twelvemile Creek Niagara County, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

The east branch of Twelvemile Creek (69 mi2) flows through northern Niagara County to its mouth at Lake Ontario 12 miles east of the Niagara River, near the village of Wilson, New York. From fall through spring, good runs of steelhead and brown trout with the occasional Chinook and Coho salmon occur into the creek. Agriculture, especially row crop farming,

Joseph C. Makarewicz; Matthew J. Nowak

2010-01-01

213

Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

Berry, Mark E.

2003-02-01

214

Start a Rock Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners follow a three-step process to start their own rock collection. Learners will collect rocks, record information about each rock on a Rock Chart, observe and sort their rocks, and create a rock display. This activity also includes a book list with resources for rock classification.

History, American M.

2012-06-26

215

Experimental evidence for costs of parasitism for a threatened species, White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. We used field and experimental data to test if white grub parasites (Diplostomatidae) are costly to White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa), a threatened species restricted to four sites in the Chihuahuan desert, New Mexico. 2. Of the four populations of C. tularosa, two are native and two are introduced. The two native populations (Malpais Spring and Salt Creek)

MICHAEL L. COLLYER; CRAIG A. STOCKWELL

2004-01-01

216

Wilson Creek Field - U. S. A. : Piceance basin, northern Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Silson Creek field is located along the north edge of Rio Blanco County along the southeastern culmination of the northwest-trending Danforth Hills anticline. This paper describes the history of the oil field, including the discovery and production history. From here the paper emphasizes the geologic structure, tectonic history, and stratigraphy of the oil field. It provides seismic profiles to familiarize the reader with these structural and stratigraphic traps, and describes the reservoir rock types. The primary reservoirs are the Jurassic Salt Wash Member sandstones, Jurassic Entrada sandstones, and the Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation. The paper finishes with a description of the hydrodynamics of the different oil pools and how these all apply to exploration techniques.

Stone, D.S. (Independent Geologist, Littleton, CO (United States))

1991-01-01

217

3. OVERVIEW CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BIG CREEK NO. 3 COMPLEX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. OVERVIEW CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BIG CREEK NO. 3 COMPLEX SHOWING SWITCHRACKS AND SUPPORT BUILDINGS TO PHOTO RIGHT OF POWERHOUSE, SAN JOAQUIN RIVER FLOWING IN PHOTO CENTER TO LOWER RIGHT, AND PENSTOCKS AND STANDPIPES IN BACKGROUND ABOVE POWERHOUSE. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

218

2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN FROM SAME ANGLE AS CA-167-X-1. THREE ORIGINAL PENSTOCKS PLUS FOURTH AND FIFTH PENSTOCKS (VISIBLE TO LEFT OF ORIGINAL THREE), AND THREE ORIGINAL STANDPIPES COUPLED TO FOURTH STANDPIPE SHOWN BEHIND AND ABOVE POWERHOUSE BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

219

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT (TAILRACE IN FOREGROUND), BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT ABOVE AND BEHIND BUILDING 106. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

220

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND TREE. RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

221

Petroleum geology and geochemistry of middle Proterozoic McArthur basin, northern Australia II: Assessment of source rock potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five potential source rocks have been discovered in the middle Proterozoic of the McArthur basin. The lacustrine Barney Creek Formation (McArthur Group) and the marine Velkerri Formation (Roper Group) compare favorably in thickness and potential with demonstrated petroleum source rocks in the Phanerozoic. The former contains up to 7% total organic carbon (TOC) and kerogen types I and II. TOC

I. H. Crick; C. J. Boreham; A. C. Cook; T. G. Powell

1988-01-01

222

Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987  

SciTech Connect

Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

1988-03-01

223

Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

Reiser, Dudley W.

1986-01-01

224

Classic Rock  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While "early college" programs designed for high-school-age students are beginning to proliferate nationwide, a small New England school has been successfully educating teens for nearly four decades. In this article, the author features Simon's Rock, a small liberal arts college located in the Great Barrington, Massachusetts, that has been

Beem, Edgar Allen

2004-01-01

225

Rock Censorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the issue of censorship of rock music as it pertains to both collectors and directors of libraries interested in popular music collections. It offers both a brief history of recent censorial events, and factual information regarding the censorship issue. It offers suggestions as to what issues those involved need to be familiar with, what the legal issues

James R. McDonald

1994-01-01

226

Rock Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this one-page article Steven Strogatz explains how representing numbers with concrete objects can make calculations less confusing. By using images of rocks, he demystifies concepts such as square numbers, parity, primes, and sums of consecutive numbers. This is the second in Steven's series of 15 articles on the Elements of Math (home page cataloged separately).

Strogatz, Steven

2010-02-07

227

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020{degree}F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

Virr, M.J.

1992-11-01

228

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020[degree]F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

Virr, M.J.

1992-01-01

229

Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

1992-04-01

230

The Tallahala Creek Complex, Smith County, Mississippi: The crest is not always the best  

SciTech Connect

The Tallahala Creek complex, comprising both Tallahala Creek and East Tallahala Creek fields, is a salt-induced anticline transacted by two down-to-the-north fault systems. Since 1967, the upper portion of the Jurassic Smackover Formation has yielded almost 15 million bbl of oil and 20 billion ft{sup 3} of gas, or 75% and 64% of the total oil and gas, respectively, produced from the fields. Contemporaneous sediment accumulation and structural growth have created various lithofacies in the upper Smackover, thereby significantly affecting reservoir heterogeneity. These lithofacies can be delineated by their structural position on the anticline. On the most downdip and downthrown portions of the structure, the Lipper Smackover consists of a series of gray, fine to medium-grained sandstones separated by limestones. These sandstones generally exhibit both high porosity and permeability, and have thus contributed over 95% of the total Smackover production. Updip the upper Smackover becomes increasingly calcareous, finally grading into a sandy, occasionally dolomitic, limestone on the crest and southern upthrown flank of the anticline. This limestone lithofacies has been noncommercial as a reservoir rock, as evidenced by the less than 7000 bbl of oil cumulatively produced from the Smackover in two of the structurally highest wells, the Shell 2 E. M. Lane and the Shell 1 F. James. Structural and stratigraphic relationships discovered through field development of the Tallahala Creek complex have significantly altered the conventional idea that {open_quotes}the crest is always the best.{close_quotes}

Sticker, E.E. [Mississippi Office of Geology, Jackson, MS (United States)

1994-09-01

231

27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Swan Creek viticultural area are three United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1:100,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 1984, photoinspected...

2013-04-01

232

33 CFR 117.555 - College Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.555 College Creek. The draws of the Naval Academy highway bridge, mile 0.3 at Annapolis, and the Maryland highway bridge, mile 0.4 at Annapolis, need not be...

2013-07-01

233

33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the Peninsula Parkway Bridge, mile 2.1, between Dundalk and...

2013-07-01

234

33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 0.4, at Annapolis, Maryland: (a) From May 1 to October 31, Monday through Friday, except...

2013-07-01

235

33 CFR 117.577 - Weems Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.577 Weems Creek. The draw of the S437 bridge, mile 0.7 at West Annapolis, shall open on signal from...

2013-07-01

236

Reconnaissance Report on Papillion Creek Reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this reconnaissance report is to evaluate the potential problems associated with establishing recreational facilities at the proposed Papillion Creek Reservoirs near Omaha, Nebraska. Data on the limnology of existing reservoirs in eastern N...

E. O. Gangstad

1981-01-01

237

Cherry Creek Reservoir: Clean Lakes Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the present and future water quality conditions of Cherry Creek Reservoir, with emphasis on eutrophication, phosphorus and chlorophyll a. Methods to control the eutrophication process are discussed and costs to control the process are...

1984-01-01

238

Sope Creek Drainage Area, Cobb County, Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The amendment provides additional information about the proposed interceptor sewer system's environmental impact on the Sope Creek watershed in Cobb County, and elaborates on the steps that have been taken to preserve the historical and scenic aspects of ...

1973-01-01

239

Sope Creek Drainage Area, Cobb County, Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sope Creek Interceptor Sewer System is a part of Cobb County's overall program for providing regionalized wastewater collection and treatment. The primary long-term beneficial impact will be the elimination of a source of contamination upstream from A...

1973-01-01

240

Wallace Creek Interpretive Trail: A Geologic Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of guides covers the geology, seismology, hydrology, and physical geography of the San Andreas Fault in the area of Wallace Creek in San Luis Obispo County, California. Materials available here include a downloadable trail guide for Wallace Creek; an interactive guide with information on the earthquakes, the fault, and plate tectonics; a downloadable guide from the Geologic Society of America (GSA); and a downloadable self-guided automobile tour for the Carrizo Plain. There are also field exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site, and a link to a bulletin from the GSA that explores the research done at Wallace Creek and explains how the slip rate for the San Andreas fault was measured.

Meltzner, Aron

241

Armells Creek Prescribed Fire Demonstration Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hazardous fuel reduction project planned for Dry Armells Creek within the Missouri Breaks National Monument, Montana was modified to test the effects of prescribed fire on various ecological processes within the dry, prairie savanna forest types common ...

C. Wood C. B. Marlow J. Walker R. Tucker V. Shea

2002-01-01

242

33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels....

2013-07-01

243

33 CFR 117.197 - Sonoma Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...Section 117.197 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.197 Sonoma Creek....

2013-07-01

244

Tritium at the Steel Creek Landing  

SciTech Connect

In December 1997 and January 1998, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) collected routine weekly grab samples from the Savannah River near the Steel Creek Boat Landing.

Arnett, M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Heffner, J.D.; Fledderman, P.D.; Littrell, J.W.; Hayes, D.W.; Dodgen, M.S.

1998-01-01

245

Isoseismal Map: 1988 Tennant Creek Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This isoseismal map shows the distribution of Modified Mercalli values compiled from questionnaires distributed after the largest shock of the January 1988 Tennant Creek earthquake, which occurred in Northern Territory, Australia.

246

Cultural Resource Survey for Euclid Creek, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of a Cultural Resource Survey for the Euclid Creek Local Flood Control Project, Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Review of the historical literature, manuscript and map sources, and interviews fail to indicate the presence of any kn...

J. E. Blank

1980-01-01

247

Mechanical Properties of Rocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Method of determining the strength of rocks under uniaxial compression; Prophilographic investigations and correct data on mechanical properties of rocks; Methods of determining the shearing strength of rocks; Effect of rock-specimen size on mec...

M. M. Protodyakonov M. I. Koifman

1968-01-01

248

Depositional setting and diagenetic evolution of some Tertiary unconventional reservoir rocks, Uinta Basin, Utah.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Douglas Creek Member of the Tertiary Green River Formation underlies much of the Uinta basin, Utah, and contains large volumes of oil and gas trapped in a complex of fractured low-permeability sandstone reservoirs. In the SE part of the basin at Pariette Bench, the Eocene Douglas Creek Member is a thick sequence of fine- grained alluvial sandstone complexly intercalated with lacustrine claystone and carbonate rock. Sediments were deposited in a subsiding intermontane basin along the shallow fluctuating margin of ancient Lake Uinta. Although the Uinta basin has undergone postdepositional uplift and erosion, the deepest cored rocks at Pariette Bench have never been buried more than 3000m.-from Authors

Pitman, J. K.; Fouch, T. D.; Goldhaber, M. B.

1982-01-01

249

Stratigraphy and petroleum potential of Trout Creek and Twentymile sandstones (Upper Cretaceous), Sand Wash Basin, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Trout Creek and Twentymile Sandstones (Mesaverde Group) in Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado, are thick, upward-coarsening sequences that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior basin during Campanian time. These units trend northeast-southwest and undergo a facies change to coal-bearing strata on the northwest. Surface data collected along the southeastern rim of the Sand Wash basin were combined with well-log data from approximately 100 drill holes that have penetrated the Trout Creek or Twentymile in the subsurface. The sandstones exhibit distinctive vertical profiles with regard to grain size, sedimentary structures, and biogenic structures. A depositional model that incorporates the key elements of the modern Nile River (northeast Africa) and Nayarit (west-central Mexico) coastal systems is proposed for the Trout Creek and Twentymile sandstones and associated strata. The model depicts a wave-dominated deltaic, strand-plain, and barrier-island system. Depositional cycles are asymmetrical in cross section as they are largely progradational and lack significant transgressive deposits. Source rock-reservoir rock relationships are ideal as marine shales underlie, and coal-bearing strata overlie sheetlike reservoir sandstones. Humic coal, the dominant source of Mesaverde gas, generates major quantities of methane upon reaching thermal maturity. Existing Mesaverde gas fields are largely structural traps, but stratigraphic and combination traps may prove to be equally important. The sparsely drilled deeper part of the basin warrants testing as large, overpressured-gas accumulations in tight-sandstone reservoirs are likely to be found.

Siepman, B.R.

1985-05-01

250

Boulder Creek: A Virtual Field Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a field lesson that is designed to enhance classroom education about urban resource management issues. The lesson consists of web materials and a self-guided field study of Boulder Creek, located in Boulder, Colorado. By completing this field lesson, students can learn about the tremendous benefits and dangers posed by an important urban-aquatic resource (Boulder Creek). The field study of Boulder Creek has three objectives: to study human-environment interactions in Boulder, CO, to learn basic techniques of fieldwork in geography, and to understand how natural hazards affect life in Boulder, CO. Although the lesson is built around a field excursion to the Boulder Creek area, the information contained in the preview link could stand on its own as an educational tool. Additionally, the information in the preview section includes questions that students can answer without going into the field. For those who are in the Boulder area and can travel to Boulder Creek, twelve stops have been chosen to supplement the online preview material. A map and questions are available for this field excursion. The web site also provides a forum for students to discuss their opinions on human-environment interactions pertaining to the Boulder Creek area.

Hill, A.; Solem, Michael

251

Application of the Basin Characterization Model to Estimate In-Place Recharge and Runoff Potential in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A regional-scale water-balance model was used to estimate recharge and runoff potential and support U.S. Geological Survey efforts to develop a better understanding of water availability for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study...

A. L. Flint L. E. Flint

2007-01-01

252

Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computati...

J. H. Curran

2006-01-01

253

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hoe Creek, Wyoming underground coal gasification site and comparison with the Hanna, Wyoming site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978 the third test (Hoe Creek III) in a series of underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments was completed at a site south of Gillette, Wyoming. The post-burn study of the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock of the two coal seams affected by the experiment is based on the study of fifteen cores. The primary purpose of the

F. C. Ethridge; L. K. Burns; W. G. Alexander; G. N. II Craig; A. D. Youngberg

1983-01-01

254

In stream habitat and stock restoration for salmon otter creek barrier bypass subproject. Restoration project 94139-b1. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, two barrier falls on Otter Creek, Bay of Isles, Knight Island, Prince William Sound were modified to provide upstream passage to adult pink salmon (Onchorhynchus gorbuscha). The falls were modified by using wire basket gabions, rock drills and wooden weir structures. In addition, an existing set of Alaska steeppasses were maintained and slightly modified for efficient passage of salmon.

Wedemeyer, K.; Gillikin, D.

1995-05-01

255

Rock mechanics. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

Rock Mechanics, 2nd Edition deals with rock as an engineering construction material-a material with which, upon which, and within which civil engineers build structures. It thus pertains to hydraulic structures engineering; to highway, railway, canal, foundation, and tunnel engineering; and to all kinds of rock earthworks and to substructures in rock. Major changes in this new edition include: rock classification, rock types and description, rock testing equipment, rock properties, stability effects of discontinuity and gouge, grouting, gunite and shotcrete, and Lugeon's water test. This new edition also covers rock bolting and prestressing, pressure-grouted soil anchors, and rock slope stabilization.

Jumikis, A.R.

1983-01-01

256

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

White, Jim

2004-02-01

257

Rock cycle in chocolate lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab students receive two small blocks (1 cm3) of chocolate (white and dark), and follow it through the entire rock cycle. The chocolate blocks are melted on a hot plate, with different melting temperatures and rheologies due to compositional differences. The "magma" is then cooled either slowly or quickly, and the resulting textures are examined and compared to granite and basalt hand samples. The "igneous" chocolate is then ground and abraded to show erosion, and the eroded material is pressure-lithified to form "sedimentary" chocolate. The sedimentary chocolate then undergoes greater pressure to mimic metamorphism, and additional heat re-melts the chocolate back into magma. Students compare the chocolate "rocks" in each of these stages with real rock samples. The final assignment is to describe the "life story" of complex conglomerate rock sample. The lab is a bit messy and takes a bit of preparation, but students come away with a significantly better understanding of the rock cycle as a whole and each of its component parts.

Stelling, Pete

258

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Calispell Creek Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.  

SciTech Connect

On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Calispell Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in February 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Calispell Creek Project provides a total of 138.17 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 5.16 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Grassland provides 132.02 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 0.99 HUs for yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Calispell Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

Entz, Ray

2005-02-01

259

Swift Creek Hydroelectric Project rehabilitation, Swift Creek Power Company, Inc  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to re-evaluate and update the original environmental analysis of the Swift Crook Hydroelectric Project rehabilitation. That analysis and the decision to allow the proponent toproceed with the project as described in the EA alternatives 3, 4, and 5 was completed an May 8, 1981. Since that decision, no action has been taken and no special-use permit has ever been issued. The Bridger-Trton National Forest completed a Forest Plan in March of 1990 which sets current direction for all lands within the Forest and new and significant issues pertaining to the amount of water to be bypassed have been raised by the public in response to this proposed project. The original proponent, Lower Valley Power and Light, sold the project and existing facilities to Swift Crack Power Company Inc. in 1984. Swift Crock Power Company has submitted a proposal to rehabilitate the existing power generation facility in Swift Creek Canyon, which will involve some significant construction and alteration of the river corridor. Theyhave also submitted an application for relicense to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission who has asked for the Forest Service to comment on the application and to submit recommended conditions for approval (4e requirements). The proposed rehabilitation of existing facilities includes replacement of the existing damaged penstock (pipe) with a new, larger one; dredging two existing reservoirs and removal, refurbishment, and reinstallation of the turbines and generators in the two powerhouses with relocation and reconstruction of the lower powerhouse that is located on privately owned land below the Forest boundary.

Not Available

1992-10-01

260

Edible Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson has been designed as a comfortable introduction to describing meteorites. It helps students become better observers by making a connection between the familiar (candy bars) and the unfamiliar (meteorites). Edible "rocks" are used in a scientific context, showing students the importance of observation, teamwork and communication skills. In everyday terms, students draw and describe the food. They pair their observations with short descriptions that are in geologic "Field Note" style. As the teacher and class review, appropriate geologic terminology may be substituted by the teacher and subsequently embraced by even very young students.

Lindstrom, Marilyn

261

Rock Showdown  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Service learning is a pedagogy that has the potential to connect young adolescents with their community in authentic situations where they can initiate projects that address real needs. The use of the "community" as a context for service and learning has long been explored in science education. There are many examples of service learning initiatives which generally fall under the heading of community-based education . In most cases, students carry out service projects for the community, and along the way may learn some science. By contrast, seventh-grade students from Philippine Science High School created the Rock Showdown as a model of service learning in partnership with the community.

Laroder, Aris; Tippins, Deborah; Morano, Lourdes; Handa, Vicente

2007-03-01

262

The thermal responses of rock art pigments: Implications for rock art weathering in southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San rock art of southern Africa is an international heritage subject to degradation and loss resulting from weathering. The paintings occur within rock shelters, where many are exposed to direct solar radiation for varying periods, rather than occurring in dark caves. As part of a study on the factors thought to be impacting weathering, data were collected pertaining to rock and pigment temperatures as well as humidity within the rock shelters. In addition, XRD analyses were undertaken on pigment samples, and the pigment to rock and pigment to pigment contacts were investigated by means of SEM. Pigments were found to be composed of ferric oxide (the ochre) and a gypsum-clay mix (the white) and to occur as a layer on top of, rather than penetrating into, the sandstone. Noncontact infrared sensors were used to monitor the temperatures of the actual pigments while micro-thermocouples to monitor the surrounding (nonpainted) rock surfaces. Thermal data show that there are significant differences between the white and the ochre pigments, both in terms of actual temperatures and short-term thermal responses. Noticeably, the white paint exhibits (relatively) large thermal fluctuations, as compared to the ochre or the rock, over the 20-s to 1-min timescale; these thermal variations may induce pigment-to-pigment stresses within the painting. The pigmented areas also exhibit different temperatures to the surrounding paint-free rock, suggesting that there may be both within-painting and between painting and rock (including the rock beneath the painting) stresses that can lead to degradation. Humidity data were found to be inadequate for any meaningful evaluation of the moisture conditions.

Hall, Kevin; Meiklejohn, Ian; Arocena, Joselito

2007-10-01

263

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Tacoma Creek South Project, Technical Report 2003-2005.  

SciTech Connect

On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Tacoma Creek South property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in June 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Tacoma Creek South Project provides a total of 190.79 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetlands provide 20.51 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Grassland provides 1.65 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 11.76 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 139.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forest also provides 19.15 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Tacoma Creek South Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

Entz, Ray

2005-02-01

264

Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

2006-01-01

265

FIDDLER CREEK POLYMER AUGMENTATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Fiddler Creek field is in Weston County, Wyoming, and was discovered in 1948. Secondary waterflooding recovery was started in 1955 and terminated in the mid-1980s with a fieldwide recovery of approximately 40%. The West Fiddler Creek Unit, the focus of this project, had a lower recovery and therefore has the most remaining oil. Before the project this unit was producing approximately 85 bbl of oil per day from 20 pumping wells and 17 swab wells. The recovery process planned for this project involved adapting two independent processes, the injection of polymer as a channel blocker or as a deep-penetrating permeability modifier, and the stabilization of clays and reduction of the residual oil saturation in the near-wellbore area around the injection wells. Clay stabilization was not conducted because long-term fresh water injection had not severely reduced the injectivity. It was determined that future polymer injection would not be affected by the clay. For the project, two adjoining project patterns were selected on the basis of prior reservoir studies and current well availability and production. The primary injection well of Pattern 1 was treated with a small batch of MARCIT gel to create channel blocking. The long-term test was designed for three phases: (1) 77 days of injection of a 300-mg/l cationic polyacrylamide, (2) 15 days of injection of a 300-mg/l anionic polymer to ensure injectivity of the polymer, and (3) 369 days of injection of the 300-mg/l anionic polymer and a 30:1 mix of the crosslinker. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted as planned. Phase 3 was started in late March 1999 and terminated in May 2001. In this phase, a crosslinker was added with the anionic polymer. Total injection for Phase 3 was 709,064 bbl. To maintain the desired injection rate, the injection pressure was slowly increased from 1,400 psig to 2,100 psig. Early in the application of the polymer, it appeared that the sweep improvement program was having a positive effect on Pattern 1 with lesser effects in Pattern 2. These early observations did not continue to develop. The oil production for both patterns remained fairly constant to the rates established by the restart of waterflooding. The water production declined but stabilized in both patterns. The stabilization of the oil at prepolymer rates and water production at the lower rates can be attributed to the polymer injection, but the effect was not as great as originally predicted. The sweep improvement for the patterns appeared to be negatively impacted by extended shutdowns in the injection and production systems. Such problems as those experienced in this project can be expected when long-term polymer injection is started in old waterflood fields. To prevent these problems, new injection and production tubulars and pumps would be required at a cost prohibitive to the present, independent operators. Unless the future results from the continued waterflood show positive effects of the long-term polymer injection, it appears that the batch-type polymer treatment may have more promise than the long-term treatment and should be more cost effective.

Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

2001-10-31

266

Eccentricity and precession forced cyclicity in the Upper Silurian Williamsport Sandstone Member of the Wills Creek Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Williamsport Sandstone Member, located at the base of the Wills Creek Formation, contains a complete 5th order sequence, traceable for more than 100 kilometers. This 5th order sequence is initiated with a massive iron-rich sandstone unit. The upper iron-rich sand of the Williamsport Member marks the beginning of the next 5th order sequence. The first 5th order rock cycle,

S. D. Shelton; E. J. Anderson

1993-01-01

267

External Resource: Rock Cycle Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This cutaway view of Earth shows where some common rock-forming processes occur. Embedded animations will illustrate the path of a rock moving through the rock cycle. Topics include: rock cycle, magma chamber, magma, igneous rock, sedimentary rock, erosio

1900-01-01

268

6. VIEW OF BAMBOO GATE LEADING INTO WHITE GRAVEL AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF BAMBOO GATE LEADING INTO WHITE GRAVEL AND ROCK CLUSTER GARDEN REMINISCENT OF RYOAN-JI TEMPLE GARDEN IN KYOTO - Kykuit, Japanese Gardens, 200 Lake Road, Pocantico Hills, Westchester County, NY

269

14. VIEW OF CEDAR MILL CREEK TRESTLE FROM TRESTLE OVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF CEDAR MILL CREEK TRESTLE FROM TRESTLE OVER CEDAR MILL CREEK ON SPUR LINE, FACING SOUTHWEST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Between Watson & 185th Avenues, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

270

13. VIEW FROM CEDAR MILL CREEK TRESTLE NEAR MERLO ROAD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW FROM CEDAR MILL CREEK TRESTLE NEAR MERLO ROAD TOWARD TRESTLE ON SPUR TRACK OVER CEDAR MILL CREEK, FACING NORTHEAST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Between Watson & 185th Avenues, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

271

4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of the dam/bridge looking east - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

272

12. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast across marsh, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast across marsh, with canal in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

273

14. View of Sterling Creek Marsh east across the marsh, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. View of Sterling Creek Marsh east across the marsh, with canal in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

274

20. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest with oyster ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest with oyster house in the tree line - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

275

10. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking south with house ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking south with house in the background and marsh in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

276

17. View from Sterling Creek Marsh looking west, with berm ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. View from Sterling Creek Marsh looking west, with berm to the left and Henry Ford Mansion in the far background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

277

9. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest, with the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest, with the marsh in the background and the berm in the foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

278

3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of dam/bridge looking southwest - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

279

13. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast; looking at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast; looking at canal going to the tree line - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

280

8. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking northeast across the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking northeast across the berm with the marsh to the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

281

4. Footbridge across Big Creek at Brookside Park (July 1905). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Footbridge across Big Creek at Brookside Park (July 1905). This drawing is for the 1905 footbridge, now demolished. Drawing courtesy of the Parks Department, City of Cleveland. - Brookside Park Bridge, Spanning Big Creek & Cleveland Metroparks, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

282

Water-quality appraisal, Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, Mono County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A late summer reconnaissance in 1981 and a spring high-flow sampling in 1982 of Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, located in the Mammoth crest area of the Sierra Nevada, indicated that mineralization, eutrophication, sedimentation, and limited areas of fecal contamination were occurring. Mineralization, indicated by a downstream increase in dissolved-solids concentration, was due primarily to geothermal springs that gradually decreased in the percentage of calcium, increased in the percentage of magnesium and sodium, and caused fluctuating, but overall increasing percentage of fluoride, sulfate, and chloride. Resulting water quality in Mammoth Creek was similar to that of the springs forming Hot Creek. Eutrophication was observed in Twin Lakes and the reach of Hot Creek below the fish hatchery. Twin Lakes had floating mats of algae and a high dissolved-oxygen saturation of 147 percent at a pH of 9.2. Hot Creek had excessive aquatic vascular plant and algae growth, dissolved-oxygen saturations ranging from 65 to 200 percent, algal growth potential of 30 milligrams per liter, and nitrates and phosphates of 0.44 and 0.157 milligrams per liter. Sedimentation was noted in observations of bed-material composition showing the presence of fine material beginning at Sherwin Creek Road. Fecal contamination was indicated by fecal coliform counts of 250 colonies per 100 milliliters and fecal streptococcal counts greater than 1,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. (USGS)

Setmire, J. G.

1984-01-01

283

Steel Creek water quality: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet envirorunental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Kretchmer, D.W.; Chimney, M.J. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

1992-04-01

284

Microcracks in lunar rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lunar samples contain abundant open microcracks that have closure characteristics completely unlike any shocked terrestrial rock; however, the microcracks present in the lunar rocks before the rocks reached the surface of the moon were likely similar to the microcracks in the shocked terrestrial rocks. Because the microcracks present in the lunar rocks in situ inside the moon were different, radically

G. Simmons

1979-01-01

285

Water-quality appraisal. Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, Mono County, California  

SciTech Connect

A late summer reconnaissance in 1981 and a spring high-flow sampling in 1982 of Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, located in the Mammoth crest area of the Sierra Nevada, indicated that three water-quality processes were occurring: (1) mineralization; (2) eutrophication; and (3) sedimentation. Limited areas of fecal contamination were also observed. Mineralization due primarily to geothermal springs increased dissolved-solids concentration downstream, which changed the chemical composition of the water. The percentage of calcium decreased gradually, the percentage of magnesium and sodium increased, and the percentage of fluoride, sulfate, and chloride fluctuated, but increased overall. These changes produced water quality in Mammoth Creek similar to that of the springs forming Hot Creek. Twin Lakes and the reach of Hot Creek below the fish hatchery showed evidence of eutrophication. Twin Lakes had floating mats of algae and a high dissolved-oxygen saturation of 147% at a pH of 9.2. Hot Creek had abundant growth of aquatic vascular plants and algae, dissolved-oxygen saturations ranging from 65% to 200%, algal growth potential of 30 milligrams per liter, nitrate concentration of 0.44 milligram per liter, and phosphate concentration of 0.157 milligram per liter. Sediment deposition was determined from detailed observations of bed-material composition, which showed that fine material was deposited at Sherwin Creek Road and downstream. Fecal contamination was indicated by fecal-coliform bacteria counts of 250 colonies per 100 milliliters and fecal-streptococcal bacteria counts greater than 1000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Although bacterial sampling was sporadic and incomplete, it did indicate adverse effects on water quality for the following beneficial uses that have been identified for Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek: (1) municipal supply; (2) cold-water habitat; and (3) contact and noncontact water recreation. 6 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

Setmire, J.G.

1984-06-01

286

Quality of water and time-of-travel in Bakers Creek near Clinton, Mississippi. [Bakers Creek  

SciTech Connect

A short-term intensive quality-of-water study was conducted during a period of generally low streamflow in Bakers Creek and its tributary, Lindsey Creek, near Clinton, Mississippi. During the September 15-18, 1980 study, dissolved oxygen concentrations in Bakers Creek were less than 5 milligrams per liter. The specific conductance, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, nutrient concentrations, and bacteria densities in Bakers Creek decreased downstream through the study reach. The mean specific conductance decreased from 670 to 306 microhms per centimeter. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand decreased from 19 to 2.8 milligrams per liter. The mean total nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations decreased from 10 and 7.1 to 1.0 and 0.87 milligram per litter, respectively. The maximum fecal bacteria decreased from 7200 to 400 colonies per 100 milliliter. The concentrations of mercury, iron, and manganese in a sample collected at the downstream site exceeded recommended limits. Diazinon and 2,4-D were also present in the water. A bottom material sample contained DDD (2.5 micrograms per kilogram), DDE (2.7 micrograms per kilogram), and DDT (.3 micrograms per kilogram). The tributary inflow from Lindsey Creek did not improve the water quality of Bakers Creek. The dissolved oxygen concentrations were generally less than 5.0 milligrams per liter at the sampling site on Lindsey Creek. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, the mean specific conductance, and fecal coliform densities were greater in the tributary than at the downstream site on Bakers Creek. The average rate of travel through a 1.8-mile reach of Bakers Creek was 0.06 foot per second or 0.04 miles per hour. 6 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

Kalkhoff, S.J.

1982-01-01

287

1. OVERVIEW OF EXTREME EAST END OF BIG CREEK TOWN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERVIEW OF EXTREME EAST END OF BIG CREEK TOWN ACROSS POWERHOUSE NO. 2 FOREBAY (POWERHOUSE NO. 1 AFTERBAY). TOWER CARRYING TRANSMISSION LINES FROM POWERHOUSE NO. 1 IS AT PHOTO CENTER. BEHIND TOWER IS BUILDING 103. TO PHOTO LEFT OF BUILDING 103 IS BUILDING 105. VIEW TO NORTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

288

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT, BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO CENTER, BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT, AND BUILDING 104 ABOVE BUILDING 106 PARTIALLY OBSCURED BEHIND TREE AT UPPER PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

289

L-Lake/Steel Creek data base  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the data collected from the L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program from November 1985 through December 1988. The data base is comprised of information to evaluate the major biotic components of L Lake, Steel Creek, and portions of the Savannah River swamp. Data were collected in lake, stream, and wetlands areas that are potentially affected by the discharge of heated effluents from L-Reactor. Biological data consist of measurements of composition, abundance, distribution, and selected functional attributes of the algae, macrophyte, zooplankton, macroinvertebrate, and fish populations. Water chemistry data consist of measurements of concentration for numerous chemical parameters and other limnological parameters.

Dicks, A.S.

1988-10-01

290

2. EXTERIOR BACK (NORTHEAST) SIDE OF BUILDING 102. BISHOP CREEK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR BACK (NORTHEAST) SIDE OF BUILDING 102. BISHOP CREEK TRANSMISSION LINES PASS DIRECTLY OVERHEAD. 1953 FLAT-ROOFED ADDITION CONSTITUTES CORNER OF THE HOUSE IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

291

View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at left center of frame. Bridge in foreground is west entrance to abandoned Phoenix iron works. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

292

Age of Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado and Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isopach mapping and stratigraphic studies in the Douglas Creek arch area, a north-south-trending structure that separates the Uinta basin of Utah from the Piceance Creek basin of Colorado, indicate that the arch was formed largely during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous, late Campanian through Eocene). Formation was contemporaneous with the formation of the Uinta and Piceance Creek basins, but may

R. C. Johnson; T. M. Finn

1985-01-01

293

Hoopa Valley Tribe. Pine Creek Sediment Monitoring Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pine Creek is a tributary to the lower Klamath River. The 49 sq. mile watershed has been heavily logged. Bulk sediment samples were collected with a McNeil sampler over a three-year period of 7 stations in Pine Creek and a one in Little Pine Creek. The sa...

1997-01-01

294

Nutrient limitation and algal blooms in urbanizing tidal creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal creeks are commonly found in low energy systems on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States, and are often subject to intense watershed human development. Many of these creeks are receiving urban and suburban runoff containing nutrients, among other pollutants. During the period 19932001, we studied three tidal creeks located in southeastern North Carolina, a rapidly urbanizing

Michael A. Mallin; Douglas C. Parsons; Virginia L. Johnson; Matthew R. McIver; Heather A. CoVan

2004-01-01

295

View of north elevation of bridge over little Pine Creek ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of north elevation of bridge over little Pine Creek (S.R. 1026, section 002 bridge) looking south - Bridge over Little Pine Creek, State Route 1026 over Little Pine Creek, 2.01 kilometers (1.25 miles) East of Bendertown, Jonestown, Columbia County, PA

296

View of south elevation of bridge over little Pine Creek ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of south elevation of bridge over little Pine Creek (S.R. 1026, section 002 bridge), showing substructure, looking northeast - Bridge over Little Pine Creek, State Route 1026 over Little Pine Creek, 2.01 kilometers (1.25 miles) East of Bendertown, Jonestown, Columbia County, PA

297

View of west abutment of bridge over little Pine Creek ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of west abutment of bridge over little Pine Creek (S.R. 1026, section 002 bridge), showing substructure and wingwalls, looking southwest - Bridge over Little Pine Creek, State Route 1026 over Little Pine Creek, 2.01 kilometers (1.25 miles) East of Bendertown, Jonestown, Columbia County, PA

298

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. BUILDING 113 IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT PHOTO CENTER. PLANT 5 INTAKE DAM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

299

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. BUILDING 122 IS VISIBLE AT PHOTO CENTER. PLANT 5 INTAKE DAM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

300

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ROOF OF BUILDING 105 IS VISIBLE IN UPPER PHOTO CENTER. PLANT 5 INTAKE DAM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

301

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND SWITCHRACKS AND TREE. POWERHOUSE IS AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

302

Byron Creek begins expansion of Coal Mountain Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Byron Creek coal mine in the southeast corner of British Columbia is expanding. Japan is judged to be the best market for Byron Creek coal. Esso Resources Canada Ltd. is managing the coal production. Byron Creek and its expansion are discussed.

Ridley

1983-01-01

303

A sedimentological model for the Loves Creek Member of the Bitter Springs Formation, northern Amadeus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments of the Loves Creek Member of the Bitter Springs Formation comprise the transgressive and highstand systems tracts of a stratigraphic sequence. The member is bounded top and bottom by disconformity surfaces and is divisible into three sedimentary packages referred to as units. Each unit represents a series of depositional environments related to each other by position on a large-scale sea-level cycle. The uppermost redbed and dolomitic limestone/dolostone unit provides evidence for continued regression and progradation as the underlying marine sediments are succeeded by carbonate rocks and redbeds deposited in lacustrine and terrestrial environments respectively.

Southgate, P. N.

304

Stratigraphy and uranium potential of early proterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Medicine Bow Mountains of southeastern Wyoming contain an eight mile (13 km) thick section of Early Proterozoic (2500 to 1700 My b.p.) metasedimentary rocks which is subdivided into three successions: the Phantom Lake Metamorphic Suite (oldest), Deep Lake Group, and Libby Creek Group. The most promising units are the basal conglomerate of the upper Phantom Lake Suite, which appears

K. E. Karlstrom; R. S. Houston

1979-01-01

305

Race & Rock & Roll: A Visual Analysis of Rolling Stone Cover Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

If African Americans heavily influenced the development of rock & roll as a musical genre, why do we picture rock stars as white men with guitars? In this project I examine, with a particular focus on race, how the the visual culture surrounding rock music evolved to where it is today. To do this, I performed a close visual analysis

Erica D. Block

2010-01-01

306

Wallace Creek Interpretive Trail: A Geologic Guide to the San Andreas Fault at Wallace Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These guides cover the geology, seismology, hydrology, and physical geography of the San Andreas Fault in the area of Wallace Creek in San Luis Obispo County, California. Materials available here include a downloadable trail guide for Wallace Creek; an interactive guide with information on the earthquakes,the fault, and plate tectonics; a downloadable guide from the Geologic Society of America (GSA); and a downloadable self-guided automobile tour for the Carrizo Plain. A bulletin from the GSA is available to explore some of the research done at Wallace Creek and explain in depth how the slip rate for the San Andreas fault was determined for the area. It is intended for those with some geological background and describes details not mentioned in the Interpretive Trail guide. There is also a section featuring field exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site.

307

Sedimentology and depositional environments of part of the Walden Creek Group, central east Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Recent questions concerning the age of the Walden Creek Group (WCG), Ocoee Supergroup have increased interest in the depositional history of these rocks. This study focuses on the sedimentology and local stratigraphy of rocks in exposures of the lithologically diverse late Precambrian and/or lower Paleozoic WCG occurring within the Kinzel Springs and Wear Cove quadrangles. Units exposed in the structurally complex Alleghenian thrust setting include the Licklog, Shields, and Wilhite formations. These rocks are divided into twelve lithofacies composed of shale, siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate and carbonate rock. The lithofacies are grouped into seven facies associations indicating deposition below storm wave base in a deep-water, probably marine, environment. Within the study area, rocks of the Wilhite Formation represent deposition in basin plain, lower slope, slope, base of slope, and sandy channel environments. Rocks of the Shields Formation are coarse channel and related overbank deposits of the inner to middle parts of a deep water fan environment. The Licklog Formation contains rocks deposited as lobe and outer-fan or fan-fringe deposits in a middle- to lower-fan environment. These formations can be placed within a single depositional system composed of a submarine slope transitional with a basin plain, and of proximal channels and distal lobes in a sand-rich submarine fan system. Inferred depositional components (associations) compare well with general models of deep-water deposits associated with high gradient fan-delta-fed margins. The basin was bounded by an uplifted, most likely block faulted, margin composed of crystalline basement located to the northwest. Local sedimentologic and stratigraphic relationships suggest an overall progradational sequence during the deposition of these rocks.

Lewis, R.F. III (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Miller, J.M.G. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

308

Water-quality appraisal. Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, Mono County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A late summer reconnaissance in 1981 and a spring high-flow sampling in 1982 of Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, located in the Mammoth crest area of the Sierra Nevada, indicated that three water-quality processes were occurring: (1) mineralization; (2) eutrophication; and (3) sedimentation. Limited areas of fecal contamination were also observed. Mineralization due primarily to geothermal springs increased dissolved-solids concentration

Setmire

1984-01-01

309

Cripple Creek and other alkaline-related gold deposits in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA: Influence of regional tectonics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alkaline-related epithermal vein, breccia, disseminated, skarn, and porphyry gold deposits form a belt in the southern Rocky Mountains along the eastern edge of the North American Cordillera. Alkaline igneous rocks and associated hydrothermal deposits formed at two times. The first was during the Laramide orogeny (about 70-40 Ma), with deposits restricted spatially to the Colorado mineral belt (CMB). Other alkaline igneous rocks and associated gold deposits formed later, during the transition from a compressional to an extensional regime (about 35-27 Ma). These younger rocks and associated deposits are more widespread, following the Rocky Mountain front southward, from Cripple Creek in Colorado through New Mexico. All of these deposits are on the eastern margin of the Cordillera, with voluminous calc-alkaline rocks to the west. The largest deposits in the belt include Cripple Creek and those in the CMB. The most important factor in the formation of all of the gold deposits was the near-surface emplacement of relatively oxidized volatile-rich alkaline magmas. Strontium and lead isotope compositions suggest that the source of the magmas was subduction-modified subcontinental lithosphere. However, Cripple Creek alkaline rocks and older Laramide alkaline rocks in the CMB that were emplaced through hydrously altered LREE-enriched rocks of the Colorado (Yavapai) province have 208Pb/204Pb ratios that suggest these magmas assimilated and mixed with significant amounts of lower crust. The anomalously hot, thick, and light crust beneath Colorado may have been a catalyst for large-scale transfer of volatiles and crustal melting. Increased dissolved H2O (and CO2, F, Cl) of these magmas may have resulted in more productive gold deposits due to more efficient magmatic-hydrothermal systems. High volatile contents may also have promoted Te and V enrichment, explaining the presence of fluorite, roscoelite (vanadium-rich mica) and tellurides in the CMB deposits and Cripple Creek as opposed to deposits to the south. Deep-seated structures of regional extent that formed during the Proterozoic allowed the magmas to rise to shallow crustal levels. Proterozoic sites of intrusions at 1.65, 1.4, and 1.1 Ga were also important precursors to alkaline-related gold deposits. Many of the larger gold deposits are located at sites of Proterozoic intrusions, and are localized at the intersection of northeast-trending ductile shear zones formed during Mesoproterozoic deformation, and an important north-trending fault formed during 1.1 Ga rifting.

Kelley, K. D.; Ludington, S.

2002-01-01

310

The Crabtree Creek pluton: A deformed Mid-Paleozoic( ) stitching pluton on the west flank of the Raleigh metamorphic belt  

SciTech Connect

Crystalline rocks on the west flank of the Alleghanian-aged Raleigh metamorphic belt are subdivided into four west-dipping lithotectonic terranes in the Falls Lake and north Raleigh areas. The rocks of these terranes are separated from east to west on the basis of bulk rock composition, metamorphic textural characteristics, and discrete structural discontinuities into the Raleigh terrane (RT), Crabtree terrane (CT), Falls Lake melange (FLM), and the volcanogenic Carolina slate belt (CSB). The RT and CT are separated by the dextral shear Nutbush Creek fault zone, while the Falls Lake thrust juxtaposes the CT and FLM. The structural character of the discontinuity separating the FLM and the CSB is unclear, although thrusting has been proposed. The results of geologic mapping in the Raleigh West 7.5[prime] quadrangle for the NC Geological Survey's COGEOMAP project in the Raleigh 1[degree] sheet indicate that only the CSB and CT are exposed west of I-440 between US 70 and I-40. This confirms the mapping results of Horton and others that the melange pinches out in north Raleigh just north of US 70. South of US 70, a large orthogneiss body, the Crabtree Creek composite granitic pluton, occupies the same relative position as the melange, separating mafic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks of the CSB from nonlineated and lineated interlayered schists and gneisses of the CT. The pluton is subdivided into a foliated leucocratic, medium grained muscovite granitic orthogneiss, and a foliated leucocratic to mesocratic medium to coarse grained muscovite [plus minus] biotite granitic orthogneiss containing abundant porphyroclastic disks, rods, and knobs of quartz. Because its lobes locally display intrusive contacts with metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of both terranes, the Crabtree Creek pluton represents an intrusion that stitched the two terranes together.

Blake, E.F. (Univ. of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Stoddard, E.F. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of MEAS)

1993-03-01

311

27 CFR 9.163 - Salado Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the Salado Creek viticultural area are two 1:24,000 Scale USGS topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Patterson, California...Follow Marshall Road straight west 1.1 miles, crossing onto the USGS Patterson map, to its intersection with Ward Avenue in...

2013-04-01

312

Tributary Fluxes into Brush Creek Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements in a tributary to Brush Creek Valley during the September and October 1984 ASCOT campaign with laser anemometers, tethersondes, a minisodar, and smoke release were used to calculate the contribution by tributaries to nocturnal drainage flow from the main valley. Four experimental nights with different mesoscale wind regimes were used in the study. It was found that a simple

R. L. Coulter; Monte Orgill; William Porch

1989-01-01

313

33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695 bridge...open on signal if at least a one-hour notice is given to the Maryland Transportation Authority in Baltimore. [CGD...

2013-07-01

314

REGISTRATION OF FISH CREEK BOTTLEBRUSH SQUIRRELTAIL GERMPLASM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fish Creek bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides [Raf.] Swezey ssp. elymoides) germplasm (Reg. no. , PI 633741) was released as a selected class of Certified seed (natural track). This class of pre-cultivar germplasm is eligible for seed certification under guidelines develo...

315

Hillsdale Lake, Big Bull Creek, Kansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hillsdale Lake would be located on Big Bull Creek in Miami County about 2-1/2 miles west of Hillsdale and 5 miles northwest of Paola, Kansas. The impacts include: Stream control and flow alteration; Temporary soil erosion, turbidity, noise during construc...

1971-01-01

316

The Secret of Bog Creek Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fictional story about a real Superfund site is available in English or Spanish. The Secret of Bog Creek Farm is a story about a real Superfund site where children learn through the eyes of local residents. The story explains how soil can become polluted and how it can be cleaned up by incineration.

317

Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-12-31

318

Geology and Development of Washita Creek Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Washita Creek gas field is located in SE. Hemphill County, Texas, approx. 20 miles southeast of the town of Canadian. The field is located in the deep W. sector of the Anadarko Basin and north of the synclinal axis. The producing area is on a dome-shaped anticlinal feature slightly elongate in a NW.-SE. direction. The deepest test well in

William Tutten

1972-01-01

319

Reservoir description, Walker Creek field, Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary reservoir description of Walker Creek field in southern Arkansas was conducted to evaluate the field's potential and determine the best method of increasing recovery. The reservoir is within a 100-ft-thick section of the ooid grainstone facies of the Jurassic Smackover Formation. The reservoir is currently under partial pressure maintenance by reinjection of produced gas at the crest of

D. M. Bliefnick; K. M. Frey; Thu-Thuy Dang; S. M. Bissmeyer

1990-01-01

320

Murphy Creek Flood and Scour Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large flood occurred on Murphy Creek, in Wyoming, on August 27, 2002. Using the 1987 U.S. Geological Survey regression equations, the 100-year flood for the study site was estimated by WYDOT to be 6,750 cubic feet per second (cfs), and the 500-year floo...

A. Molinas W. Bailey

2004-01-01

321

Bereavement Rituals in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body

Walker, Andrea C.; Balk, David E.

2007-01-01

322

OROFINO CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Orofino Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present condition of the stream and to assess the impact of point and nonpoint sources. The study involved approximately bi-monthly monitoring for the...

323

2007 Nason Creek Floodplain Vegetation Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the 2007 riparian vegetation assessment is to provide an understanding of the present vegetation conditions to be utilized for U.S. Bureau of Reclamations Nason Creek tributary- and reach-scale assessments. A team of ecologist conducted f...

D. Callahan D. Sisneros J. Boutwell

2010-01-01

324

Mormon Creek Bridge: Performance After Three Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mormon Creek Bridge is an experimental parallel-chord, stress-laminated deck design. It is the first of its kind and has been in service for more than 3 years. The structural performance and experimental features of the bridge have been monitored cont...

W. J. McCutcheon

1992-01-01

325

Mapping Magnetic Fields from Hat Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near the end of its days, the 85-foot telescope at Hat Creek had gotten so good at H I Zeeman observing that one might even say the spectra were being ``mass-produced.'' In a typical integration time of 10 hours, it was possible to measure fields on the order of 5 to 10 mu G in a broad range of interstellar

A. Goodman; C. Heiles; P. Myers; R. G. Usten

1993-01-01

326

Habitat Projects Completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, 1998 Completion Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred forty-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1998. Fifty-nine of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1998 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; one hundred thirty-nine pools were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as fencing, vegetative plantings, and noxious weed control. Two alternative water developments were completed, providing off-stream-watering sources for livestock. 20,500 ft of upland terrace construction, seven sediment basin construction, one hundred eighty-seven acres of grass seeding, eight hundred fifty acres of direct seeding and eighteen sediment basin cleanouts were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed.

Johnson, Bradley J.

1999-11-01

327

Habitat Projects Completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999 Completion Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority in southeastern WA. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1999. Twenty of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1999 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; thirty-eight were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as vegetative plantings (17,000 trees and shrubs) and noxious weed control. Two sediment basin constructions, 67 acres of grass seeding, and seven hundred forty-five acres of minimum till were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed.

Johnson, Bradley J.

2000-01-01

328

Geologic characteristics and movement of the Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex, western Kane County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex in western Kane County, Utah, is about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) wide and 1.3 miles (2.1 km) long and contains six smaller historical slides. The upper part of the Meadow Creek landslide is gently sloping and consists of displaced and back-rotated blocks of Cretaceous Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations that form northeast- to locally east-trending ridges that are separated by sediment-filled half-grabens. The lower part of the landslide is gently to moderately sloping, locally incised, and consists of heterogeneous debris that overrides the Jurassic Carmel Formation near Meadow Creek. Monitoring using a survey-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument detected movement of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide between October 2005 and October 2008, including movement of two of the historical slides-landslides 1 and 2. The most movement during the measurement period occurred within the limits of persistently moving landslide 1 and ranged from about 24 to 64 inches (61-163 cm). Movement of the abutting southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide ranged from approximately 6 to 10 inches (15-25 cm). State Route 9 crosses over approximately a mile (1.6 km) of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide, including landslide 1. The highway and its predecessor (State Route 15) have been periodically displaced and damaged by persistent movement of landslide 1. Most of the landslide characteristics, particularly its size, probable depth, and the inferred weak strength and low permeability of clay-rich gouge derived from the Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations, are adverse to and pose significant challenges to landslide stabilization. Secondary hazards include piping-induced sinkholes along scarps and ground cracks, and debris flows and rock falls from the main-scarp escarpment.

Ashland, Francis X.; McDonald, Greg N.

2010-01-01

329

White Power music and the mobilization of racist social movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of the 1970s a racist rock music movement known as White Power music emerged in Great Britain in connection with political parties of the extreme right and remains a vibrant force in racist social movements today. Throughout the 1990s, White Power music expanded significantly from its origins in a clandestine network of punk-inspired live shows and record

UGO CORTE; BOB EDWARDS

2008-01-01

330

Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

Berry, Mark E.

2001-11-01

331

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hoe Creek, Wyoming underground coal gasification site and comparison with the Hanna, Wyoming site  

SciTech Connect

In 1978 the third test (Hoe Creek III) in a series of underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments was completed at a site south of Gillette, Wyoming. The post-burn study of the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock of the two coal seams affected by the experiment is based on the study of fifteen cores. The primary purpose of the study was to characterize the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock and to determine and evaluate the mineralogical and textural changes that were imposed by the experiment. Within the burn cavity the various sedimentary units have been brecciated and thermally altered to form several pyrometamorphic rock types of paralava rock, paralava breccia, buchite, buchite breccia and hornfels. High temperature minerals of mullite, cordierite, oligo-clase-andesine, tridymite, cristobalite, clinopyroxenes, and magnetite are common in the pyrometamorphic rocks. The habit of these minerals indicates that they crystallized from a melt. These minerals and textures suggest that the rocks were formed at temperatures between 1200/sup 0/ and 1400/sup 0/C. A comparison of geologic and geological-technological factors between the Hoe Creek III site, which experienced substantial roof collapse, and the Hanna II site, which had only moderate roof collapse, indicates that overburden thickness relative to coal seam thickness, degree of induration of overburden rock, injection-production well spacing, and ultimate cavity size are important controls of roof collapse in the structural setting of the two sites.

Ethridge, F.C.; Burns, L.K.; Alexander, W.G.; Craig, G.N. II; Youngberg, A.D.

1983-01-01

332

Water resources and potential effects of ground-water development in Maggie, Marys, and Susie Creek basins, Elko and Eureka counties, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The basins of Maggie, Marys, and Susie Creeks in northeastern Nevada are along the Carline trend, an area of large, low-grade gold deposits. Pumping of ground water, mostly for pit dewatering at one of the mines, will reach maximum rates of about 70,000 acre-ft/yr (acre-feet per year) around the year 2000. This pumping is expected to affect ground-water levels, streamflow, and possibly the flow of Carlin spring, which is the water supply for the town of Carlin, Nev. Ground water in the upper Maggie Creek Basin moves from recharge areas in mountain ranges toward the basin axis and discharges as evapotranspiration and as inflow to the stream channel. Ground water in the lower Maggie, Marys, and Susie Creek Basins moves southward from recharge areas in mountain ranges and along the channel of lower Maggie Creek to the discharge area along the Humboldt River. Ground-water underflow between basins is through permeable bedrock of Schroeder Mountain from the upper Maggie Creek Basin to the lower Maggie Creek Basin and through permeable volcanic rocks from lower Maggie Creek to Carlin spring in the Marys Creek Basin. The only source of water to the combined area of the three basins is an estimated 420,000 acre-ft/yr of precipitation. Water leaves as runoff (38,000 acre-ft/yr) and evapotranspiration of soil moisture and ground water (380,000 acre-ft/yr). A small part of annual precipitation (about 25,000 acre-ft/yr) infiltrates the soil zone and becomes ground-water recharge. This ground water eventually is discharged as evapotranspiration (11,000 acre-ft/yr) and as inflow to the Humboldt River channel and nearby springflow (7,000 acre-ft/yr). Total discharge is estimated to be 18,000 acre-ft/yr.

Plume, R. W.

1995-01-01

333

77 FR 22551 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Crescent Creek, Crescent Lake, Diru Creek, Diru Creek...Spanaway Creek, Swan Creek, Wapato Creek I, Wapato Creek...Spanaway Creek, Swan Creek, Wapato Creek I, Wapato Creek II, and White River...Town Center), Crescent Lake, Diru Creek,...

2012-04-16

334

Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biologicai Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the compiex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC, These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumuiation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macro invertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five sites, although sites maybe excluded and/or others added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), iocated off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and limited light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1 ). Other sampling sites on EFPC are utilized as appropriate for individual tasks. Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasional 1 y used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Einory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

1998-10-15

335

Genetic implications of minor-element and Sr-isotope geochemistry of alkaline rock complexes in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of Rb, Sr, and REE (rare earth elements), and Sr-isotopic ratios in rocks of the Cambrian alkaline complexes in the Wet Mountains area, Colorado, show that rocks formed as end-products of a variety of magmas generated from different source materials. The complexes generally contain a bimodal suite of cumulus mafic-ultramafic rocks and younger leucocratic rocks that include nepheline syenite and hornblende-biotite syenite in the McClure Mountain Complex, nepheline syenite pegmatite in the Gem Park Complex, and quartz syenite in the complex at Democrat Creek. The nepheline syenite and hornblende-biotite syenite at McClure Mountain (535??5m.y.) are older than the syenitic rocks at Democrat Creek (511??8m.y.). REE concentrations indicate that the nepheline syenite at McClure Mountain cannot be derived from the hornblende-biotite syenite, which it intrudes, or from the associated mafic-ultramafic rocks. REE also indicate that mafic-ultramafic rocks at McClure Mountain have a source distinct from that of the mafic-ultramafic rocks at Democrat Creek. In the McClure Mountain Complex, initial87Sr/86Sr ratios for mafic-ultramafic rocks (0.7046??0.0002) are similar to those of hornblende-biotite syenite (0.7045??0.0002), suggesting a similar magmatic source, whereas ratios for carbonatites (0.7038??0.0002) are similar to those of nepheline syenite (0.7038??0.0002). At Democrat Creek, initial ratios of syenitic rocks (0.7032??0.0002) and mafic-ultramafic rocks (0.7028??0.0002) are different from those of corresponding rocks at McClure Mountain. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag.

Armbrustmacher, T. J.; Hedge, C. E.

1982-01-01

336

Become A Rock Expert!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocks are the most common material on earth. But how do we identify and classify rocks? Your mission is to become an amateur geologist by exploring the different types of rocks; sorting them by color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size; and discussing with your classmates what you learned! Rockin Rocks, Ms. Andersen's site about the Big6. Rock Expert Webquest INTRODUCTION The Museum of Natural History is creating a new exhibit on rocks and minerals. They are looking for expert knowledge to share with museum visitors. They need your help, Rock Expert! MISSION You will work as an Amateur Geologist for the Museum of Natural ...

Andersen, Ms.

2010-11-13

337

Multidisciplinary approach (geology, geomorphology, geomechanics, geomatics) for the characterization of the Blais Creek DsGSD (Monashee Mountains, BC, Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field investigations, including detailed geological and geomorphological mapping have been coupled with stratigraphic and structural studies of the Blais Creek Deep-seated Gravitational Slope Deformations (DsGSD), Monashee Mountains, British Columbia (BC). To reconstruct the DsGSD evolutionary stages and to evaluate its controlling factors, a complex methodology has been applied, integrating orthophotos, stereo models and 3D models of the DsGSD with field and literature data concerning tectonic and glacial history of the Seymour Valley. General geomechanical properties of the deforming rock mass has been then evaluated for using in numerical models of the failure mechanism at Blais Creek and to define a broad geomechanical characterization of different portions of the DsGSD. The combination between the aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry was appropriate in terms of the quality of the information obtained more than the quantitative information. Several Ground Control Points (GCPs) and Tie Points (TPs) were selected from the original DEM received by the BC Government. The use of a multitemporal aerial triangulation gave the possibility to minimize the error relative to every single block of images. Couples of oriented photos were used to create stereoscopic models. Multitemporal variations of the Blais Creek slope were observed and compared to the actual situation of the slope. The use of terrestrial photogrammetry through Adamtech software confirmed some of the qualitative data obtained from aerial interpretation and from field survey. The limited use of terrestrial photogrammetry was due to the impossibility of orienting the 3D terrestrial models. Anyway these models were also useful to confirm one of the possible mechanisms used to describe the evolution of Blais Creek. Geomechanical analysis was performed through field work and laboratory tests to characterize the entire slope and to produce some of the values useful for a possible numerical analysis of Blais Creek. It showed interesting differences in geomechanical properties between the calc-silicate and quartzite/gneiss. The kinematic analysis showed very the different instability areas along the slope, even if variations in landforms and rock masses volume weren't widespread along Blais Creek slope during the time span covered by aerial photographs (1973-2007). Indeed, the multitemporal analysis outlined very active instability along the large upper trench and the lateral active slopes of Blais Creek. Even without significant level of risks in the area, considering the remote area involved in this instability, some relevant hazards could occur, related to the possible collapse of SE side of Blais Creek DsGSD. Regarding the long term evolution of the DsGSD, the extensive network of linear features at Blais Creek is of a large deforming rock mass. Movement probably began with the retreat of valley glaciers during deglaciation when the oversteepened valley sides were debuttressed. By these evidences it is possible to theorize that the post-glacial retreat of the rock face and removal of the ice buttress from both the Seymour and the Blais Creeek Valleys lowered the factor of stability of the mass as a whole, allowing a deep-seated shear surface to develop gradually over time by progressive creep.

Moretti, Danilo; Giardino, Marco; Stead, Doug; Clague, John; Gibson, Dan; Ghirotti, Monica; Perotti, Luigi

2013-04-01

338

Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - Libby Creek (Lower Cleveland) Stabilization Project  

SciTech Connect

This project is follow-up to stream stabilization activities on Libby Creek that were initiated on the Upper Cleveland reach of Libby Creek 2 years ago. BPA now proposes to fund FWP to complete channel stabilization activities on the Lower Cleveland reach of Libby Creek, reduce sediment sources, convert overwidened portions of the stream into self-maintaining channel types, use natural stream stabilization techniques, and improve wildlife migratory corridors. This lower reach is about one river mile below the upper Cleveland Reach and the proposed activities are very similar to those conducted before. The current work would be constructed in two additional phases. The first phase of the Lower Cleveland project would be completed in the fall of 2004 (9/1/04--12/31/04), to include the upper 3,100 feet. The second phase will be constructed in the fall of 2005 (9/1/05--12/31/05), to include stabilizing the remaining 6,200 feet of stream. The Cleveland reaches are a spawning and rearing tributary for resident redband trout, and resident and fluvial bull trout migrating from the Kootenai River. The planned work at the two remaining phases calls for shaping cut banks; installing root wads and tree revetments; installing channel grade control structures; planting native vegetation; and installing cross vanes constructed from rock and trees to control channel gradient. In the past, this reach of Libby Creek has been degraded by past management practices, including road building, hydraulic and dredge mining, and riparian logging. This past activity has resulted in accelerated bank erosion along a number of meander bends, resulting in channel degradation and poor fish habitat. Currently the stream channel is over-widened and shallow having limited pool habitat. The current stream channel is over-widened and shallow, having limited pool habitat.

N /A

2004-07-29

339

Hydrologic assessment of a riparian section along Boulder Creek near Boulder, Colorado, September 1989-September 1991  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Native woody riparian species, primarily plains cottonwood (Populus fremontii), are regenerating at less than historical rates along Boulder Creek, a regulated stream near Boulder, Colorado. Loss of native riparian habitats might cause a decline in numbers of some native wildlife species. Previous studies have indicated that streamflow regulation can adversely affect native riparian vegetation reproduction. Surface- and ground-water data were collected from September 1989 to September 1991 along a riparian section of Boulder Creek to assist ecologists in assessing woody plant-recruitment characteristics. Annual mean streamflows in Boulder Creek at Cottonwood Grove of 34.5 cubic feet per second for water year 1990 (October 1, 1989- September 30, 1990) and 34.1 cubic feet per second for water year 1991 were 53 percent less than a site on Boulder Creek about 5 miles upstream from the study area. Diversions dating from 1882 caused most of the decrease. The alluvial aquifer in the study area averaged 5 feet in thickness and consisted of gravel- to cobble-size particles derived from crystalline rock of Precambrian age. The direction of ground-water movement was similar to the direction of streamflow. Ground-water movement in the northeastern part of the grove was affected by a pond constructed at a lower elevation than the stream channel. Water levels in the alluvial aquifer adjacent to the stream pre- dominantly were affected by stream stage, whereas farther from the channel, ground-water levels were affected by other processes such as evapotrans- piration, infiltration, and recharge from urban runoff.

Kimbrough, Robert

1995-01-01

340

Metamorphic Rock Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students develop skill in the visual identification of metamorphic rock species and conceptualize the relationships between non-metamorphosed species and their metamorphic counterparts. Students will use a hand lens to examine metamorphic rocks and make observations about grain size, foliation, and other characteristics. Then, using this data, they identify the rocks with the classification sheet included with the student worksheet. They will then match the metamorphic rock with its parent rock.

341

Age of Walden Creek Group: Can it be demonstrated--Biostratigraphically  

SciTech Connect

The Walden Creek Group (WCG) is a lithologically heterogeneous succession of sedimentary rocks exposed in the western Blue Ridge of the southern Appalachians. Carbonate rocks of the WCG occur as bedded limestone in the Sandsuck Formation and subjacent Wilhite and as limestone clasts in polymict conglomerate bodies within the Sandsuck, Wilhite, and the underlying Shields Formation. Petrographically, these carbonate rocks exhibit a shallow marine aspect. Locally abundant pisoids, ooids and peloids occur in a preservational continuum ranging from well-preserved internal fabrics to relict spar-filled micrite envelopes. Pisoids, occurring in grainstone and wackestone fabrics, resemble oversized marine ooids characteristic of Upper Proterozoic carbonated rocks of Greenland and Spitzbergen. Recent reports of metazoan and foraminiferal fossils from the Wilhite Formation have cast doubt on its long-regarded Late Proterozoic age. The fossils the authors have observed include algal oncolites, minute fecal pellets, and extremely rare cyanobacterial filament sheaths and skeletal fragments of uncertain biological affinity. Good quality preservation of allochems in WCG carbonate rocks is important in evaluating the absence of undoubted Paleozoic fossils. Dominant components of Paleozoic biotas: crinoids, brachiopods, and bryozoans would be recognizable, even as tiny fragments. The absence of conodonts further suggests that carbonate rocks of the WCG predate the appearance of abundant skeletonized biota and are probably Late Proterozoic. The authors propose that both bedded carbonate rocks and carbonate clasts of the WCG are essentially contemporaneous with each other and reflect carbonate bank conditions that developed toward the end of Late Proterozoic clastic deposition, which filled rift basins that formed along the southeastern Laurentian margin. Episodic reactivation accounts for the occurrence of carbonate clasts in several parts of the WCG and Snowbird Group.

Broadhead, T.W.; Hatcher, R.D. Jr.; Walker, K.R.; Carter, M.W.; Adefuin, J.Y. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Lewis, R.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

342

Phosphoria reservoir facies exposed in the northeast Bighorn basin - an exhumed Cottonwood Creek oil field  

SciTech Connect

Detailed stratigraphic correlations between well-exposed outcrops and nearby oil wells permit the delineation of porous carbonate reservoir facies within the Phosphoria Formation (Guadalupian) in the northeastern part of the Bighorn basin. The most significant petroleum reservoirs in this area occur in two depositional facies defined by faunas and vertical sequences of sedimentary and biogenic structures. Effective porosity development in the peritidal facies occurs in intraclast-pellet, dolomite packstone/grainstone, and irregularly laminated, fenestral algal-boundstone. In the restricted-marine facies, reservoir development occurred in bioturbated, dolomite mudstone-wackestone, and phylloid-algal and mollusk dolomite wackestone-packstone. Based on regional analysis, fenestral algal-boundstone pods are thought to have evolved as peninsula-island complexes paralleling reactivated northwest-southeast-trending faults on the east side of the Bighorn basin. In the northeastern Bighorn basin, peninsula-island complexes accumulated on the Bighorn and Sheep Mountain paleohighs. They defined an embayment in which restricted marine rocks were deposited. Porous peritidal rocks appear to have been concentrated along the seaward flanks of the thickest algal-boundstone pods, which grade laterally into porous restricted-marine lithologies. The geologic setting of exposed peritidal and restricted-marine reservoirs in the northeastern Bighorn basin appears to be similar to that of Cottonwood Creek field. An understanding of facies relationships may be useful in the further development of Cottonwood Creek field and for exploration for similar types of carbonate stratigraphic traps along the eastern margin of the Bighorn basin.

Sturm, S.D.; Inden, R.F.; Dean, J.S.

1986-08-01

343

Rock preconditioning to prevent rock bursts  

SciTech Connect

A US Bureau of Mines method to precondition rocks to prevent rock bursts is presented. The approach uses deep drill holes from a mine opening in a radial pattern in the vein and load and blast to fracture the rock prior to production mining. The method was successfully tested on a sphalerite-galena vein in a hard gangue of quartz and quartzite at the 7700 level of the Hecla Mining Company's Star Mine in Burke, Idaho. (JMT)

Not Available

1981-05-01

344

Compositional gradients in large reservoirs of silicic magma as evidenced by ignimbrites versus Taylor Creek Rhyolite lava domes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico consists of 20 lava domes and flows that were emplaced during a period of a few thousand years or less in late Oligocene time. Including genetically associated pyroclastic deposits, which are about as voluminous as the lava domes and flows, the Taylor Creek Rhyolite represents roughly 100 km3 of magma erupted from vents distributed throughout an area of several hundred square kilometers. Major-element composition is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous high-silica rhyolite and is nearly constant throughout the lava field. The magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was vertically zoned in trace elements, 87Sr/86Sr, and phenocryst abundance and size. Mean trace-element concentrations, ranges in concentrations, and element-pair correlations are similar to many subalkaline silicic ignimbrites. However, the polarity of the zonation was opposite that in reservoirs for ignimbrites, for most constituents. For example, compared to the Bishop Tuff, only 87Sr/86Sr and Sc increased upward in both reservoirs. Quite likely, a dominant but nonerupted volume of the magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was zoned like that for the Bishop Tuff, whereas an erupted, few-hundred-meter-thick cap on the magma body was variably contaminated by roof rocks whose contribution to this part of the magma system moderated relatively extreme trace-element concentrations of uncontaminated Taylor Creek Rhyolite but did not change the sense of correlation for most element pairs. The contaminant probably was a Precambrian rock of broadly granitic composition and with very high 87Sr/86Sr. Although examples apparently are not yet reported in the literature, evidence for a similar thin contaminated cap on reservoirs for large-volume silicic ignimbrites may exist in the bottom few meters of ignimbrites or perhaps only in the pumice fallout that normally immediately precedes ignimbrite emplacement. 87Sr/86Sr in sanidine phenocrysts of the Taylor Creek Rhyolite is higher than that of their host whole rocks. Covariation of this isotope ratio with sanidine abundance and size indicates positive correlations for all three features with decreasing distance to the roof of the magma reservoir. The sanidine probably is more radiogenic than host whole rock because growing phenocrysts partly incorporated Sr from the first partial melt of roof rocks, which contained the highly radiogenic Sr of Precambrian biotite ?? hornblende, whereas diffusion was too slow for sanidine to incorporate much of the Sr from subsequently produced less radiogenic partial melt of roof rocks, before eruption quenched the magma system. Disequilibrium between feldspar phenocrysts and host groundmass is fairly common for ignimbrites, and a process of contamination similar to that for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite may help explain some of these situations. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

Duffield, W. A.; Ruiz, J.

1992-01-01

345

Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

Rus, David, L.; Soenksen, Philip, J.

1998-01-01

346

Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

1992-02-01

347

GEOLOGY AND MINERALIZATION OF THE LIMOUSINE BUTTE GOLD DEPOSITS, WHITE PINE COUNTY, NEVADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nevada Pacific Gold's Limousine Butte Project is located in the unsurveyed Townships of 22 and 23 North, Range 61 East, on the west flank of the Cherry Creek Range, White Pine County, Nevada. Throughout the last forty years multiple exploration companies have explored and drilled several zones of low-grade gold and copper mineralization in the project area. Nevada Pacific Gold

Curt Everson

2004-01-01

348

Quantifying Hyporheic Exchange at Sagehen Creek, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying heat and water exchange at the hyporheic zone is an important basis for understanding stream ecology and biogeochemistry. Unfortunately, at many streams the nature and extent of hyporheic exchange between surface water and shallow groundwater is unknown. In this study we use both field observations and model simulations to better understand the hyporheic exchange at Sagehen Creek, an alpine stream located in the Central Sierra Nevada, California. Three transects, each containing shallow peizometers and a stream gage, were established at Sagehen Creek, each fitted with pressure and temperature loggers to continuously monitor the head and temperature of both surface streamflow and near surface groundwater during the late summer and fall of 2011. These observations are then used with a model to simulate hyporheic water and heat exchange direction and magnitude. The results of this studyallow us to quantify how the hyporheic exchange differs between snowmelt dominated high flow periods and groundwater dominated low flow periods. The 2011 water year in the Sierra Nevada was unusual in that there was higher than average snowfall, late snowfall, and late snowmelt, resulting in streams such as Sagehen Creek having a later peak discharge date than average. Therefore, trends observed this year as to how groundwater drains or contributes to streamflow may provide a basis for examining how abnormally late snowmelt influences stream water quality, nutrient dynamics, and water sourcing and availability.

Heslop, J.; Boyle, D. P.

2011-12-01

349

Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

2009-01-01

350

Lower Paleozoic Through Archean Detrital Zircon Ages From Metasedimentary Rocks of the Nome Group, Seward Peninsula, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamorphic rocks of Seward Peninsula have been divided into two groups based on their metamorphic grade and history: The Nome Group and the Kigluaik Group. Although it is sometime been assumed that the higher structural position of the Nome Group versus the Kigluaik Group indicates the Kigluaik Group is older, this relationship and the age of the protoliths of these rocks has never been well-established. The Nome Group includes (delete the) lower grade blueschist and greenschist facies rocks which are widespread across the Seward Peninsula (delete) Rock types include pelitic schist, more mafic chlorite-white mica-albite schist, marble, quartzite, and metabasite. An early metamorphic event (pre-120 Ma) occurred at high pressure and relatively low temperature, and is everywhere overprinted by younger deformation and greenschist facies Rare eclogite facies assemblages are preserved in metabasites, and garnet-glaucophane in some of the pelitic schists. The Kigluaik Group includes upper greenschist to granulite facies rocks that are exposed in the core of a gneiss dome. They record a younger event (~91 Ma) that occurred at higher temperatures and resulted in partial thermal overprinting of the Nome Group and upper greenschist to granulite facies assemblages forming in the Kigluaik Group. The Kigluaik Group and equivalent rocks in the Bendeleben and Darby Mountains represent at least in part similar protoliths to many of the units in the Nome Group (Till and Dumoulin, 1994). The boundary between the rocks of the Nome Group and those clearly affected by the second metamorphic event is placed arbitrarily at the "Biotite-in" isograd along the flanks of the gneiss dome. In order to assess the protolith ages and source rock ages for these units, detrital zircon ages were obtained from three samples from the Nome Group, with Kigluaik Group ages forthcoming. LA-MC-ICPMS U/Pb isotope analysis was used for dating. Two samples were collected from the western Kigluaik Mountains near Eldorado Creek and one further south along the Feather River. Each sample yielded 90-105 analyses and all uncertainties are 1 sigma. Chlorite schist MC-74 has a range of ages from the two youngest grains at 484 +/- 18 Ma and 510 +/- 7 Ma to 2984 +/- 2 Ma. Chlorite schist LMC-30 has a youngest grain at 521 +/- 2 Ma and an oldest grain of 2027 +/- 12. Quartz-mica schist LMC-58 also has a youngest grain at 521 +/- 2 Ma and an oldest grain of 2655 +/- 7 Ma. All three therefore have lower Paleozoic zircons, suggesting Lower Cambrian or younger depositional ages. Combining the data from all three rocks results in peaks on a cumulative probability plot at (in descending order of importance): 600 Ma, 683 Ma, 1593 Ma, 522 Ma, and 2985 Ma, with several smaller peaks between 774-1540 Ma and 1685-1960 Ma. Published ages from Nome Group orthogneisses are 680 Ma, suggesting the samples so far analyzed are likely in part sourced from local basement rocks that were eroded to provide ~680 Ma detrital zircons to sedimentary protoliths of part of the Nome Group.

Amato, J. M.; Miller, E. L.; Gehrels, G.

2003-12-01

351

Bioassessment of Hollis Creek, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Physical, chemical and biological components at five stations on Hollis Creek, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi were evaluated using Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP) and the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) on August 24-26, 1999, in order to assess potential biological impacts from the Starkville Waste Water Treatment Facility (WWTF) on downstream resources. Two stations were selected above the WWTF and three below. The WWTF discharges treated effluent into Hollis Creek, but during storm events raw sewage may be released. Hollis Creek is a tributary of the Noxubee River that traverses the northern portion of Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, which is managed as bottomland hardwood forest land for the protection of fish and wildlife resources. Hollis Creek was channelized throughout most of its length, resulting in high, unstable banks, degraded stream channel and unstable substratum. The RBP scores for the habitat evaluations from each station indicated that Stations 1 and 2 had degraded habitat compared to the reference site, Station 5. Benthic macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages also indicated that the biological integrity at Stations 1 and 2 was less than that of the downstream stations. The SQT showed that Stations 1 and 2 were degraded and the most likely causes of the impairment were the elevated concentrations of polycylclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals in the sediments; Hyalella azteca survival in pore water and growth in solid-phase sediment exposures were reduced at these upstream sites. The source of contaminants to the upper reaches appears to be storm-water runoff. The close concordance between the RBP and SQT in identifying site degradation provided a preponderance of evidence indicating that the upper reaches (Stations 1 and 2) of Hollis Creek were impacted. Biological conditions improved downstream of the WWTF, even though physical degradation steinming from channelization activities were still evident. The increased discharge and stabilized base flow provided by the WWTF appeared to benefit the physically-altered stream system. Impairment attributable to releases from the WWTF on downstream biological resources was not evident from this evaluation, and the potential for degradation in the Noxubee River and National Wildlife Refuge appears minimal.

Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; Bogenrieder, K.J.

2000-01-01

352

The Patroon Creek Contamination Migration Investigation  

SciTech Connect

Shaw performed a Site Investigation (SI) for sediment within the Unnamed Tributary of the Patroon Creek, a section of the Patroon Creek, and the Three Mile Reservoir as part of the overall contract with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to remediate the Colonie Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The Unnamed Tributary formerly flowed through the former Patroon Lake, which was located on the main site property and was used as a landfill for radiological and chemical wastes. The objective of the investigation was to determine the absence/presence of radioactive contamination within the three Areas of Concern (AOC). In order to accomplish this objective, Shaw assembled a team to produce a Technical Memorandum that provided an in-depth understanding of the environmental conditions related to the Patroon Creek. Upon completion and analysis of the Technical Memorandum, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was constructed and a Technical Planning Program (TPP) was held to develop a Sediment Investigation Work Plan and Sediment Investigation Sampling and Analysis Plan. A total of 32 sample locations were analyzed using on-site direct gamma scans with a Pancake Geiger-Mueller (PGM) instrument for screening purposes and samples were analyzed at on-site and off-site laboratories. The highest interval from each core scan was selected for on-site analysis utilizing a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Eight of these samples were sent off-site for gamma/alpha spectroscopy confirmation. The data collected during the SI indicated that the U-238 cleanup criterion was exceeded in sediment samples collected from two locations within the Unnamed Tributary but not in downstream sections of Patroon Creek or Three Mile Reservoir. Future actions for impacted sediment in the Unnamed Tributary will be further evaluated. Concentrations of U-238 and Th-232 in all other off-site sediment samples collected from the Unnamed Tributary, Patroon Creek, and the Three Mile Reservoir indicate that no further action is required in these areas. The data was also compared to ecological screening criteria. None of the contaminants of concern (U-238, Th-232, and U-235) had concentrations exceeding the screening values. The evaluation indicates no adverse impacts to ecological receptors. (authors)

Dufek, K.; Zafran, A. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Colonie FUSRAP Site, 1130 Central Avenue, Colonie, New York 12205 (United States); Moore, J.T. [United States Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, 26 Federal Plaza, Room 1811, New York, NY 10278-0090 (United States)

2006-07-01

353

NORTH HILL CREEK 3-D SEISMIC EXPLORATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

Wind River Resources Corporation (WRRC) received a DOE grant in support of its proposal to acquire, process and interpret fifteen square miles of high-quality 3-D seismic data on non-allotted trust lands of the Uintah and Ouray (Ute) Indian Reservation, northeastern Utah, in 2000. Subsequent to receiving notice that its proposal would be funded, WRRC was able to add ten square miles of adjacent state and federal mineral acreage underlying tribal surface lands by arrangement with the operator of the Flat Rock Field. The twenty-five square mile 3-D seismic survey was conducted during the fall of 2000. The data were processed through the winter of 2000-2001, and initial interpretation took place during the spring of 2001. The initial interpretation identified multiple attractive drilling prospects, two of which were staked and permitted during the summer of 2001. The two initial wells were drilled in September and October of 2001. A deeper test was drilled in June of 2002. Subsequently a ten-well deep drilling evaluation program was conducted from October of 2002 through March 2004. The present report discusses the background of the project; design and execution of the 3-D seismic survey; processing and interpretation of the data; and drilling, completion and production results of a sample of the wells drilled on the basis of the interpreted survey. Fifteen wells have been drilled to test targets identified on the North Hill Creek 3-D Seismic Survey. None of these wildcat exploratory wells has been a dry hole, and several are among the best gas producers in Utah. The quality of the data produced by this first significant exploratory 3-D survey in the Uinta Basin has encouraged other operators to employ this technology. At least two additional 3-D seismic surveys have been completed in the vicinity of the North Hill Creek Survey, and five additional surveys are being planned for the 2004 field season. This project was successful in finding commercial oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids production on a remote part of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation. Much of the natural gas and natural gas liquids are being produced from the Wingate Formation, which to our knowledge has never produced commercially anywhere. Another large percentage of the natural gas is being produced from the Entrada Formation which has not previously produced in this part of the Uinta Basin. In all, at least nine geologic formations are contributing hydrocarbons to these wells. This survey has clearly established the fact that high-quality data can be obtained in this area, despite the known obstacles.

Marc T. Eckels; David H. Suek; Denise H. Harrison; Paul J. Harrison

2004-05-06

354

Timing and nature of tertiary plutonism and extension in the Grouse Creek Mountains, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Grouse Creek-Albion-Raft River metamorphic core complex in northwestern Utah and southern Idaho is characterized by several Tertiary plutons with a range of ages and crosscutting relations that help constrain the timing of extensional deformation. In the Grouse Creek Mountains, at least three distinct, superimposed, extension-related Tertiary deformational events are bracketed by intrusive rocks, followed by a fourth event: motion on range-bounding faults. The Emigrant Pass plutonic complex was emplaced at depths of less than 10 km into Permianage rocks. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon analysis indicates a three-stage intrusion of the complex at 41.3 ?? 0.3 Ma, 36.1 ?? 0.2 Ma, and 34.3 ?? 0.3 Ma. The two youngest phases represent distinctly younger intrusive event(s) than the oldest phase, separated by more than 5 m.y. The oldest phase cuts several metamorphosed and deformed younger-on-older faults, providing a pre-41 Ma age bracket for oldest extension-related deformation in the region. The youngest phase(s) are interpreted to have been intruded during delelopment of a map-scale. N-S-trending recumbent fold, the Bovine Mountain fold, formed during vertical shortening of roof rocks during intrusion. This second event folded older normal faults that are likely pre-41 Ma. Zircons from the youngest part of the pluton show inheritance from Archean basement (???2.5 Ga) and from its Proterozoic sedimentary cover (???1.65 Ga). The Red Butte pluton, emplaced at 15-20 km depth, intruded highly metamorphosed Archean orthogneiss at 25.3 ?? 0.5 Ma; cores of some zircons yield latest Archean ages of 2.55 Ga. The pluton is interpreted to have been intruded during a third deformational and metamorphic event that resulted in vertical flattening fabrics formed during NW to EW stretching, ultimately leading to thinning of cover and top-to-the west motion on the Ingham Pass fault. The Ingham Pass fault represents an important structure in the Grouse Creek Mountains, as it juxtaposes two parts of the crust that apparently resided as much as 10 km apart (in depth) at times as young as the Miocene. The varied structural, metamorphic, and intrusive relations obsreved in the Grouse Creek Mountains reflect their formation at different levels within the crust. Data from these various levels argue that plutonism has been a key mechanism far transferring heat into the middle and upper crust, and localizing strain during regional extension. Interestingly, events documented here correlate in a broad way with cooling events documented in the Raft River Mountains, although plutons are not exposed there. Major and trace element geochemistry imply a crustal component in all of the studied plutons, indicating significant degrees of crustal melting at depth during extension, and point to mantle heat sources during the timespan of Basin and Range extension as the cause of melting. Basin and Range faulting and final uplift of the range is recorded by apatite fission track ages, averaging 13.4 Ma, and deposition of about 2 km of syn-faulting basin fill deposits along the Grouse Creek fault mapped along the western flank of the range. Similar apatite ages from the Albion Mountains to the north indicate that the western side of the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek core complex behaved as a single rigid crustal block at this time.

Egger, A. E.; Dumitru, T. A.; Miller, E. L.; Savage, C. F. I.; Wooden, J. L.

2003-01-01

355

Interaction of acid mine drainage with waters and sediments of West Squaw Creek in the West Shasta Mining District, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acid mine drainage has acidified large volumes of water and added high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals to West Squaw Creek, a California stream draining igneous rocks of low acid-neutralizing capacity. During mixing of the acid sulfate stream waters in the South Fork of West Squaw Creek with an almost equal volume of dilute uncontaminated water, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Al remained in solution rather than precipitating or adsorbing on solid phases. Changes in the concentration of these generally conservative metals could be used to determine relative flow volumes of acid tributaries and the main stream. An amorphous orange precipitate (probably ferric hydroxides or a mixture of ferric hydroxides and jarosite) was ubiquitous in the acid stream beds and was intimately associated with algae at the most acid sites. Relative sorption of cations decreased with decreasing water pH. However, arsenic was almost completely scavenged from solution within a short distance from the sulfide sources.

Filipek, L. H.; Kirk, Nordstrom, D.; Ficklin, W. H.

1987-01-01

356

Northeast and northwest elevations. View to south Flint Creek ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Northeast and northwest elevations. View to south - Flint Creek Hydroelectric Project, Powerhouse, Approximately 3 miles southeast of Porters Corner on Powerhouse Road, Philipsburg, Granite County, MT

357

76 FR 79227 - Exemption Request Submitted by Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exelon Generation Company...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0287] Exemption Request Submitted by Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exelon Generation...LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (Oyster Creek), located in Ocean County, New...

2011-12-21

358

78 FR 26771 - Otter Creek Solar LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket Nos. EL13-60-000; QF13-402-001] Otter Creek Solar LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement Take notice that on May 1, 2013, Otter Creek Solar LLC (Otter Creek) filed a Petition for Enforcement,...

2013-05-08

359

75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills...Greenpoint Avenue Bridge across Newtown Creek, mile 1.3, New York. This...Greenpoint Avenue Bridge, across Newtown Creek at mile 1.3, at New...

2010-06-01

360

75 FR 59983 - National Priorities List, Final Rule-Newtown Creek  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Priorities List, Final Rule--Newtown Creek AGENCY: Environmental Protection...appropriate. This rule adds the Newtown Creek site, located in Brooklyn/Queens...the NPL This final rule adds the Newtown Creek site, located in Brooklyn/...

2010-09-29

361

75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills...Greenpoint Avenue Bridge across Newtown Creek, mile 1.3, New York. The...Greenpoint Avenue Bridge, across Newtown Creek at mile 1.3, at New...

2010-10-12

362

75 FR 68780 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. RC11-1-000] Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing November 2, 2010. Take notice that on October 27, 2010, Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC (Cedar Creek) filed an appeal with the...

2010-11-09

363

Paleomagnetic Results From the Mid-Tertiary Cripple Creek Diatreme Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cripple Creek diatreme complex, located about 30 km southwest of Pikes Peak, Colorado, is host to gold and high grade telluride deposits associated with mid-Tertiary alkaline magmatism. Formation of the diatreme took place between about 32.5 and 28.7 Ma, based on previously reported ArAr age determinations. The complex consists of breccia (the primary rock type), that was subsequently intruded by aphanitic phonolite, porphyritic phonolite, phonotephrite, and finally lamprophyre. Rocks presently at the surface were emplaced within a few kilometers of the paleosurface, followed by hydrothermal activity resulting in pervasive K metasomatism and gold mineralization. Mineralized deposits within the diatreme are currently being mined in an open pit fashion allowing for fresh three dimensional exposures of all representative rock types in the district. The Front Fange of Colorado, since cessation of northeast-directed Laramide compression, is characterized by east-west Rio Grande rift extension. Determining Laramide and younger deformation in the Front Range of Colorado is diffucult due to the dominance of Laramide structures and exposed Precambrian rocks with complex structural histories. Structures that affect the Cripple Creek diatreme complex and host Precambrian crystalline rocks clearly were active after intrusive activity and therefore reflect tectonism in the Front Range since early diatreme formation. Over 100 sites have been collected from all representative rock types in the district, with eight to ten oriented samples per site. Results indicate that the materials are capable of carrying geologically stable magnetizations and generally reveal excellent magnetization behavior using both AF and thermal methods. Many sites are associated with contact and breccia tests. Site mean directions are of both normal (D = 5.0 , I = 67.5 , ? 95 = 6.4, ? = 89.2), N = 7 and reverse polarity (D = 162.2 , I = -67.3 , ? 95 = 4.2, ? = 61.1) N =13; with site mean directions steeper than the expected mid-Tertiary polarity direction. Also, some sites exhibit multiple component behavior with both normal and reverse polarity magnetizations that are well defined (D = 29.7 , I = 72.5 , ? 95 = 9.2, ? = 28.4) N = 10 and (D = 173.6 , I = -64.1 , ? 95 = 3.1, ? = 594.8) N = 5, in aphanitic phonolite site CC89. We interpret these results to indicate that diatreme formation took place over at least one magnetic reversal and that the diatreme was modestly deformed resulting in north-side down tilting.

Rampe, J. S.; Geissman, J. W.; Melker, M.

2001-12-01

364

Unveiling White Privilege.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Racism, discrimination, and prejudice are typically viewed from the perspective of the disadvantaged ethnic minority, but another approach is to address the advantages of whites. There is one culture that is usually invisible to whites, and that is "whiteness." To grow up white is to be the focal point from which others differ. Whites grapple with

Pappas, Georgia

1995-01-01

365

Happy Birthday White House!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An integrated elementary teaching package offers interesting facts about presidents and the White House. Cross-curricular activities focus on architecture, presidential birthplaces, portraits, communications, science, technology, touring the White House, children in the White House, a day in the life of the White House, and a White House birthday

Dillon, Doris; And Others

1992-01-01

366

Rocks and Minerals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

367

Rock drilling, cooling liquids  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Rock drilling, cooling liquids Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : October 23 ... impacts that could accrue from the use of cooling liquids during rock drilling. Our discussion of ...

368

Rocks in Our Pockets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To introduce students to rocks and their characteristics, teacher can begin rock units with the activities described in this article. Students need the ability to make simple observations using their senses and simple tools.|

Plummer, Donna; Kuhlman, Wilma

2005-01-01

369

Rock Drillability Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the 'Rock Drillability Study' project, started in the Laboratory of Mining Engineering in 1982, was to develope a simple and fast laboratory method of determining the drillability of rock using the smallest possible samples. Field and laborator...

P. Salminen R. Viitala

1985-01-01

370

Online Field Journal: Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online activity is part of the museum's Online Field Journal Web site, where young children can explore the wonders of nature with the help of an adult. The challenge here is to take a closer look at three rocks. On the opening page, there are side-by-side photos of the three rocks; students are asked to describe each rock Clicking a rock's photo takes students to a magnified view of the rock that also asks students two additional questions. When students click on the magnified rock photo, they get a fun fact. The site also includes links to a Tips for Adult Helpers page and to a printable Rocks Field Journal page that has instructions for using it on a "rock hunt."

371

The Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Satellite Geodesy describes the rock cycle, and quantitative ways to estimate how long geological features took to form. Popcorn is used to demonstrate half-life and radio-active decay, which is used to date rocks.

Tauxe, Lisa; Geodesy, Satellite

372

The Rock Cycle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)|

Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

1977-01-01

373

Metamorphic Rock Pancakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students identify the properties of metamorphic rocks and learn that they are formed by heat and pressure. Using a griddle and pancake batter, they will make metamorphic "rocks" and eat them.

1998-01-01

374

Paleomagnetic Constraints on Terrane Translation: the Churn Creek Succession in South Central British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental controversy in Cordilleran tectonics concerns the timing and magnitude of terrane displacement in the Cretaceous to Tertiary evolution of the North American continental margin. Paleomagnetic data from stratified and plutonic rocks in the Canadian Cordillera suggest large-scale northward translation of these rocks relative to the North American craton between ca. 90-55 Ma. Previous paleomagnetic interpretation predicted the existence of a major fault separating the Intermontane Superterrane, which was displaced ~1000 km northward during this period, from the Insular Superterrane, which was displaced ~3000 km northward during the same time interval. Geologic data, including structural, stratigraphic and sedimentologic studies, suggest less than a few hundred km motion between the superterranes, and less than 1000 km with respect to the craton. The conflicting data sets have generated intense debate between proponents of two fundamentally opposed tectonic models, one proposing major latitudinal displacement during Late Cretaceous to Eocene time, and one arguing for terrane accretion at or slightly south of the present latitude in mid-Cretaceous time. Stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data from Churn Creek, in south-central British Columbia document widely disparate terrane displacement values within a single stratigraphic section. Upper Cretaceous strata exposed in Churn Creek comprise two rock packages: a lower package of Albian volcanic and minor volcaniclastic rocks, and a disconformably overlying upper package of Albian to Santonian polymict conglomerate and associated clastic strata. Paleomagnetic data suggest the lower package formed 700 +/- 600 km to the south of its present position at ~100-105 Ma, tying it to other Intermontane Superterrane results. The disconformably overlying upper package was deposited 3000 +/- 450 km to the south at between ~92-83 Ma, confirming the important Mount Tatlow result for the Insular Superterrane. Thus we demonstrate that there can be no "Baja BC fault" separating the Insular and Intermontane superterranes within this region. The large magnitude multi-stage 'yo-yo' translation required by these geophysical data are complex and geologically unreasonable under our current understanding of Late Cretaceous terrane displacement and oceanic plate trajectories. This is an important conclusion, as the Churn Creek data set is a microcosm of the Baja BC controversy, independent of disagreements about the validity of terrane linkages or other geologic data. If one assumes that the 'yo-yo' tectonics required by the Churn Creek data set are implausible, then one is forced to investigate other potential explanations for the observed data. Solutions to the conundrum may potentially exist in: 1) effect of differential compaction shallowing between the upper and lower packages in Churn Creek 2) the inevitability of initial dip in stratigraphic successions 3) the reliability of the Late Cretaceous reference pole 4) concordance of problematic paleomagnetic data with the Late Cretaceous Long Normal SuperChron 5) a rapid polar wander (TPW) episode in the Late Cretaceous 6) the hot spot reference frame, used to reconstruct Mesozoic plate motions, is inaccurate, and our understanding ocean plate trajectories is incomplete.

Mahoney, J. B.; Enkin, R. J.; Haskin, M.

2001-12-01

375

Recrystallization and anatexis along the plutonic-volcanic contact of the Turkey Creek caldera, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unusual geologic and geochemical relations are preserved along the contact between intracaldera tuff and a resurgent intrusion within the 26.9 Ma Turkey Creek caldera of southeast Arizona. Thick intracaldera tuff is weakly argillically altered throughout, except in zones within several hundred meters of its contact with the resurgent intrusion, where the groundmass of the tuff has been variably converted to granophyre and unaltered sanidine phenocrysts are present. Dikes of similarly granophyric material originate at the tuff-resurgent intrusion contact and intrude overlying intracaldera megabreccia and tuff. Field relations indicate that the resurgent intrusion is a laccolith and that it caused local partial melting of adjacent intracaldera tuff. Geochemical and petrographic relations indicate that small volumes of partially melted intracaldera tuff assimilated and mixed with dacite of the resurgent intrusion along their contact, resulting in rocks that have petrographic and compositional characteristics transitional between those of tuff and dacite. Some of this variably contaminated, second-generation magma coalesced, was mobilized, and was intruded into overlying intracaldera rocks. Interpretation of the resurgent intrusion in the Turkey Creek and other calderas as intracaldera laccoliths suggests that intrusions of this type may be a common, but often unrecognized, feature of calderas. Development of granophyric and anatectic features such as those described here may be equally common in other calderas. The observations and previously undocumented processes described here can be applied to identification and interpretation of similarly enigmatic relations and rocks in other caldera systems. Integration of large-scale field mapping with detailed petrographic and chemical data has resulted in an understanding of otherwise intractable but petrologically important caldera-related features.

Du, Bray, E. A.; Pallister, J. S.

1999-01-01

376

Hydrologic analysis of Steel Creek and L Lake and the effects of flow reduction on Steel Creek habitat  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to support a proposal to eliminate the EIS mandated spring flow requirements in Steel Creek below L Lake. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake was estimated using historical data. The water balance of L Lake was studied to evaluate the effects of flow reduction on the Steel Creek hydrologic system. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake is estimated as 0.28 cms (10 cfs). A reduction in L Lake discharge to 0.28 cms will result in a fish community similar to the one that existed before the impoundment of L Lake.

del Carmen, B.R.; Paller, M.H.

1993-12-31

377

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This description of rocks and minerals includes representatives of all three major groups: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Users can access introductory information about the three major rock types and the minerals that form them. A simple rock classification chart is included, with embedded links to a glossary and more detailed material for advanced learners.

378

Rho Kinase (ROCK) Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The Rho kinase (ROCK) isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, were initially discovered as downstream targets of the small GTP-binding protein Rho. Because ROCKs mediate various important cellular functions such as cell shape, motility, secretion, proliferation, and gene expression, it is likely that this pathway will intersect with other signaling pathways known to contribute to cardiovascular disease. Indeed, ROCKs have already been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone, proliferation, inflammation, and oxidative stress. However, it is not entirely clear how ROCKs are regulated, what some of their downstream targets are, and whether ROCK1 and ROCK2 mediate different cellular functions. Clinically, inhibition of ROCK pathway is believed to contribute to some of the cardiovascular benefits of statin therapy that are independent of lipid lowering (ie, pleiotropic effects). To what extent ROCK activity is inhibited in patients on statin therapy is not known, but it may have important clinical implications. Indeed, several pharmaceutical companies are already actively engaged in the development of ROCK inhibitors as the next generation of therapeutic agents for cardiovascular disease because evidence from animal studies suggests the potential involvement of ROCK in hypertension and atherosclerosis.

Liao, James K.; Seto, Minoru; Noma, Kensuke

2008-01-01

379

Igneous Rock Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page presents a classification system used for igneous rocks. The system consists of a matrix which divides rocks on the basis of their texture (in rows) and their chemical composition (in columns). Links are provided to photographs of each rock type, and an explanation of the terms used in the classification.

Celestian, Stan

380

Rock Cycle Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The rock cycle is an ongoing process in which rock, driven by tectonic processes such as volcanoes and earthquakes, the surface processes of weathering and erosion, and compaction, is created, destroyed, and recycled. This interactive feature introduces viewers to the processes which come into play as rock proceeds through the various portions of the cycle.

2011-06-22

381

Textural characterisation of rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textural characteristics are a major factor in determining the mechanical behaviour of rocks and in the prediction of performance of rock cutting and drilling equipment. The principal textural characteristics of rocks are grain size, grain shape, grain orientation, relative proportion of grains and matrix material which were herein quantitatively measured using a modern image analysis system. These features resulted in

A. Ersoy; M. D. Waller

1995-01-01

382

Piling in rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piles are usually used to bypass soft formations incapable of supporting shallow foundations. Piling in rock is, for economic reasons, interesting as well. For typical conditions, piling in rock leads to considerable savings in terms of construction duration, labor, concrete, steel and energy. Topics covered in this book include the following: rocks and their properties; site investigations; experience with piling

Amir

1985-01-01

383

Soft rock pillars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft rock pillars can be designed by several methods available in the mining literature. All of these methods include the effect of shape, or geometry, on the average strength of specimens and pillars. All of the pillar design methods include some measurement of the strength of specimens of the pillar rock. The most common rock specimen strength property measured is

J. F. Abel

1988-01-01

384

My Pet Rock  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.

Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

2008-01-01

385

Igneous Rocks Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this section, see close-up pictures of the major rock types and learn about where different types of igneous rocks are formed, what style of magmatic activity is associated with each type of magma, and what rock types are melted to form each of these magma compositions.

2002-01-01

386

Geochemical evolution of solutions derived from experimental weathering of sulfide-bearing rocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chemical composition of natural waters is affected by the weathering of geologic materials at or near the surface of the Earth. Laboratory weathering experiments of whole-rock sulfide rocks from the Shoe-Basin Mine (SBM) and the Pennsylvania Mine (PM) from the Peru Creek Basin, Summit County, Colorado, indicate that the mineral composition of the sulfide rocks, changes in pH, the duration of the experiment, and the formation of sorbents such as Fe and Al oxyhydroxides affect the chemical composition of the resulting solution. Carbonate minerals in the rock from SBM provide buffering capacity to the solution, contribute to increases in the pH and enhance the formation of Fe and Al oxyhydroxides, which sorb cations from solution. The final solution pH obtained in the experiments was similar to those measured in the field (i.e., 2.8 for PM and 5.0 for SBM). At PM, acidic, metal-rich mine effluent is discharged into Peru Creek where it mixes with stream water. As a result, the pH of the effluent increases causing Fe and Al oxyhydroxide and schwertmannite to precipitate. The resulting solids sorb metal cations from the water thereby improving the quality of the water in Peru Creek. ?? 2006.

Munk, L.; Faure, G.; Koski, R.

2006-01-01

387

Dry Creek Joint Elementary School District. Educational Specifications: Dry Creek Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An Educational Specification Committee was convened to determine the design specifications required for a new K-5 (and temporarily 6-8 grade) elementary school in Roseville, California's Dry Creek District. This report, the result of the committee's efforts, examines school room specifications for each grade level and administrative area.

Dry Creek Joint Elementary School District, Roseville, CA.

388

Dry Creek Joint Elementary School District. Educational Specifications: Dry Creek Middle School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An Educational Specification Committee was convened to determine the design specifications required for a new middle school in Roseville, California's Dry Creek District. This report presents revisions to an earlier document that examined school room specifications for each grade level and administrative area. Specification considerations are

Dry Creek Joint Elementary School District, Roseville, CA.

389

Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.  

SciTech Connect

He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe then used data collected from the District's stream assessment and inventory, utilizing the Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (SVAP), to determine treatment necessary to bring 90% of reaches ranked Poor or Fair through the SVAP up to good or excellent. In 10 year's time, all reaches that were previously evaluated with SVAP will be reevaluated to determine progress and to adapt methods for continued success. Over 400 miles of stream need treatment in order to meet identified restoration goals. Treatments include practices which result in riparian habitat improvements, nutrient reductions, channel condition improvements, fish habitat improvements, invasive species control, water withdrawal reductions, improved hydrologic alterations, upland sediment reductions, and passage barrier removal. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management Watershed Division (Tribe) developed this document to guide restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed for the period of 2008-2018. This plan was created to demonstrate the ongoing need and potential for anadromous fish habitat restoration within the watershed and to ensure continued implementation of restoration actions and activities. It was developed not only to guide the District and the Tribe, but also to encourage cooperation among all stakeholders, including landowners, government agencies, private organizations, tribal governments, and elected officials. Through sharing information, skills, and resources in an active, cooperative relationships, all concerned parties will have the opportunity to join together to strengthen and maintain a sustainable natural resource base for present and future generations within the watershed. The primary goal of the strategy is to address aquatic habitat restoration needs on a watershed level for resident and anadromous fish species, promoting quality habitat within a self-sustaining watershed. Seven objectives have been developed to support this goal: (1) Identify factors limiting quality

Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

2007-10-01

390

Surface waters of North Boggy Creek basin in the Muddy Boggy Creek basin in Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of short-term streamflow data in North Boggy Creek basin indicates that the average runoff in this region is substantial. The streamflow is highly variable from year to year and from month to month. The estimated total yield from the North Boggy Creek watershed of 231 square miles averages 155,000 acre-feet annually, equivalent to an average runoff depth of 12 1/2 inches. Almost a fourth of the annual volume is contributed by Chickasaw Creek basin, where about 35,000 acre-feet runs off from 46 square miles. Two years of records show a variation in runoff for the calendar year 1957 in comparison to 1956 in a ratio of 13 to 1 for the station on North Boggy Creek and a ratio of 18 to 1 for the station on Chickasaw Creek. In a longer-term record downstream on Muddy Boggy Creek near Farris, the corresponding range was 17 to 1, while the calendar years 1945 and 1956 show a 20-fold variation in runoff. Within a year the higher runoff tends to occur in the spring months, April to June, a 3-month period that, on the average, accounts for at least half of the annual flow. High runoff may occur during any month in the year, but in general, the streamflow is relatively small in the summer. Records for the gaging stations noted indicate that there is little or no base flow in the summer, and thus there will be periods of no flow at times in most years. The variation in runoff during a year is suggested by a frequency analysis of low flows at the reference station on Muddy Boggy Creek near Farris. Although the mean flow at that site is 955 cfs (cubic feet per second), the median daily flow is only 59 cfs and the lowest 30-day flow in a year will average less than 1 cfs in 4 out of 10 years on the average. The estimated mean flow on North Boggy Creek near Stringtown is 124 cfs, but the estimated median daily flow is only 3 1/2 cfs. Because of the high variability in streamflow, development of storage by impoundment will be necessary to attain maximum utilization of the available water supplies in this region. The surface waters of the North Boggy Creek basin are of excellent quality, being suitable for municipal, agricultural and most industrial uses. The concentration of the dissolved mineral content is usually about 75 ppm (parts per million) and the hardness about 50 ppm. The water is slightly acidic, with a range of pH values from 6.5 to 7.0. This report gives the estimated average discharge at gaging stations and 3 selected other sites in the basin for the 16-year period October 1938 to September 1954, used as a base period in this report. Duration-of-flow data for selected percentages of the time are shown for the period of observed record on North Boggy and Chickasaw Creeks; similar data are estimated for the base period 1938-54. The basic records in the basin are presented on a monthly and annual basis (through March 1958). For other sites at which discharge measurements have been made, a tabulation of observed discharge is given. These data have been correlated to obtain information on the low-water portion of the duration curves at 2 of the sites. (available as photostat copy only)

Laine, L. L.

1958-01-01

391

Igneous Rock Crystallization Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation contains three separate movies, each exhibiting the formation of an igneous rocks in a different environment: a) rocks forming from a deep magma chamber where the slow cooling of magma results in large interlocking crystals; b) rocks forming from a pyroclastic flow with a combination of large and small crystals; and c) rocks with small crystals created from a fast cooling lava. The rock is further modified by bubbles from dissolved gases resulting in vesicles. Each movie concludes with a view of a hand specimen representative of each environment. The animation can be paused and rewound to stress important points.

Armstrong, Lenni; Earth, Exploring

392

Remote sensor application studies report, July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969: Remote sensing reconnaissance, Mill creek area, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Remote Sensor Application Studies program, infrared images and several kinds of photographs were obtained on reconnaissance flights over two areas in the Arbuckle Mountains near Mill Creek, Oklahoma. These data were used in a preliminary investigation (1) to determine the diagnostic reflection and emission characteristics of various rock types, and (2) io evaluate the perturbing influence of atmospheric conditions, surface coatings, rock texture, and topography on the observed reflected and emitted energy in the thermal infrared (8-14?) part of the spectrum

Rowan, L.C.; Offield, T. W.; Watson, Kenneth; Cannon, P. J.; Watson, R.D.

1970-01-01

393

PSC 424: Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a webpage designed to give students access to basic information about rocks and minerals. Rocks and Minerals Introduction Video Basic Definitions- Mineral: a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence Rock: a mixture of minerals Ways to identify a mineral: Hardness Luster (metallic/nonmetallic) Streak Color Rock Song Three basic rock types: Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary Rock Cycle Animation ...

Graham, Ms.

2011-10-13

394

Do Rocks Last Forever?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about chemical and mechanical weathering in rocks. From the background material, they will learn that the change that takes place in rocks is called weathering and that this term refers to the destructive processes that change the character of rock at or near the Earth's surface. Processes of mechanical weathering (or physical disintegration) break rock into smaller pieces but do not change its chemical composition; processes of chemical weathering (or rock decomposition) transform rocks and minerals exposed to water and atmospheric gases into new chemical compounds (different rocks and minerals), some of which can be dissolved away. Four experiments that illustrate the effects of mechanical and chemical weathering are provided.

395

Recovery of a PCB-Contaminated Creek Fish Community  

EPA Science Inventory

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek until the early 1990s. PCB concentrations in fish in this creek have remained elevated: levels in six target fish species are still a...

396

RILEY CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1975-1976  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents a review of Riley Creek, Idaho (17040212) water quality data collected from September 1975 through September 1976. The creek meets all water quality standards except for total and fecal coliform bacteria. Sources of coliform bacteria include fish hatcheries,...

397

Mercury accumulation in biota of Thunder Creek, Saskatchewan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thunder Creek is a typical prairie stream which flows through the city of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan where it discharges into the Moose Jaw River (Figure I). Dredging of the Moose Jaw River and the confluence area of Thunder Creek to increase channel capacity began in October, 1978 as part of a Federal-Provinci al Agreement. Due to the concern that dredging

D. J. Munro; W. D. Gummer

1980-01-01

398

33 CFR 117.719 - Glimmer Glass (Debbie's Creek).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glimmer Glass (Debbie's Creek). 117.719 Section 117.719 Navigation... Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.719 Glimmer Glass (Debbie's Creek). (a) The draw of the Monmouth...

2013-07-01

399

PARADISE CREEK USE ATTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO, 1994  

EPA Science Inventory

Paradise Creek (17060108) is located in Latah County, Idaho and Whitman County, Washington. The water quality is influenced by both point and nonpoint sources of pollution. In 1980, Paradise Creek was listed as protected for agricultural water supply and secondary contact recre...

400

Arctic Creek facies, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic Creek section is dissimilar to the typical Cretaceous section exposed elsewhere in Ignek Valley. The more typical Ignek Valley sequence consists of Kingak Shale (Jurassic to Neocomian), Kemik Sandstone (Hauterivian), Pebble Shale (Hauterivian-Barremian), Hue Shale (Aptian.to Santonian), and turbidites of the Canning Formation (Campanian to Paleocene). The two main differences that distinguish the Arctic Creek section from the

J. Decker; W. Camber; M. A. Vandergon; R. K. Crowder

1988-01-01

401

5. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing the lining of the bottom of the marsh, with dam in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

402

33 CFR 117.149 - China Basin, Mission Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false China Basin, Mission Creek. 117.149 Section 117.149 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.149 China Basin, Mission Creek. The draws of the 3rd Street...

2013-07-01

403

3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE POWERHOUSE AT NEWHALEM. J.D. ROSS HAD THE GROUNDS LANDSCAPED AND PLANTED WITH EXOTIC FLOWERS AND VEGETATION DURING THE 1930S AS AN ADDITIONAL TOURIST ATTRACTION, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Skagit River & Newhalem Creek Hydroelectric Project, On Skagit River, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

404

Geology of the Lower Yellow Creek Area, Northwestern Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lower Yellow Creek area is located in Rio Blanco and Moffat Counties of northwestern Colorado, about midway between the towns of Rangely and Meeker. The study area is in the northwestern part of the Piceance Creek basin, a very deep structural and sed...

W. J. Hail

1990-01-01

405

1. Threefourths view showing relation of span to creek with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Three-fourths view showing relation of span to creek with timber trestle approaches. North approach on timber piling, south approach on concrete bents. Note stone piers - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

406

33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the S634 bridge, mile 0.3 at...

2013-07-01

407

2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This is an oblique aerial view to the north, looking over the flooded fields between Chino Creek and the Santa Ana River, just upstream of the Prado Dam site. File number written on negative: R & H 80 024. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

408

Final Environmental Assessment: Rifle Creek Fish Screen Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Colorado Division of Wildlife (CDOW) is proposing to construct and operate a fish screen in Rifle Creek to prevent or minimize non-native fish from Rifle Gap Reservoir from entering the downstream Colorado River via Rifle Creek. The Bureau of Reclamat...

2011-01-01

409

76 FR 3837 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chickasaw Creek, AL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...from the regulation governing the operation of the CSX Railroad Swing Span Bridge across Chickasaw Creek, mile 0.0, in Mobile...requested a temporary deviation from the operating schedule for the Swing Span Bridge across Chickasaw Creek, mile 0.0, in...

2011-01-21

410

76 FR 9968 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chickasaw Creek, AL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...from the regulation governing the operation of the CSX Railroad Swing Span Bridge across Chickasaw Creek, mile 0.0, in Mobile...requested a temporary deviation from the operating schedule for the Swing Span Bridge across Chickasaw Creek, mile 0.0, in...

2011-02-23

411

76 FR 60732 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chickasaw Creek, AL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...from the regulation governing the operation of the CSX Railroad Swing Span Bridge across Chickasaw Creek, mile 0.0, at Mobile...requested a temporary deviation from the operating schedule for the Swing Span Bridge across Chickasaw Creek, mile 0.0, in...

2011-09-30

412

Vulcan aids terrace mining at Leigh Creek  

SciTech Connect

For over 100 yr, the Leigh Creek coalfield has been gradually exposing its secrets. Hard brown coal was first discovered near Copley in the north of South Australia in 1888; subsequent drilling outlined four main basins. Attempts were made to mine by underground methods, but not until World War II did the Mines Department prove that enough coal existed to make surface mining feasible. Mining started in 1943, and since then the Leigh Creek coalfield has continued to expand. Having supplied coal for many years to the Electricity Trust of South Australia (ETSA), it currently provides coal that produces about 30% of the state's power requirements. The planning requirements of terrace mining include having up-to-date information and a knowledge of the three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of both the coal and overburden. The vast amounts of data collected over the years have not simplified the situation, and the new mining method requires rapid assimilation of all available information to allow correct decisions to be made by the planning team.

Not Available

1993-04-01

413

Hoe Creek 1990 quarterly sampling cumulative report  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for benzene and for total phenols three times during 1990. This report summarizes the results of these sampling events and compares the results with those obtained in previous years. Possible further options for remediation of the Hoe Creek site was addressed. Three underground coal gasification (UCG) burns were performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy in 1976, 1977, and 1979 at the Hoe Creek site, which is about 20 miles south of Gillette, Wyoming. As a result of these burns, there has been considerable contamination of groundwater by various organic compounds. There have been three efforts at remediating this situation. In 1986 and again in 1987, contaminated water was pumped out, treated, and reinjected. In 1989, the water was pumped, treated, and sprayed into the atmosphere. Benzene and total phenols have been monitored at various monitoring wells as the site during 1990. The highest detected benzene concentration in 1990 was 220 {mu}g/L, and the highest total phenols concentration was 430 {mu}g/L. It is apparent that contamination is still above baseline levels, although the concentration of total phenols is far less than immediately after the burns. The burned coal seams are still releasing organic compounds into the groundwater that passes through them.

Crader, S.E.; Huntington, G.S.

1991-03-01

414

Wolf Creek quality trend analysis program  

SciTech Connect

The Wolf Creek quality trend analysis program has been designed with three primary objectives in mind: (1) to provide a statistically relevant diagnostic and trend identification tool to improve plant availability and reliability; (2) to communicate clearly and concisely need-to-know information to management personnel; and (3) to provide an additional method of obtaining corrective actions to significant quality issues. The analysis methodology uses a relatively sophisticated computer program to continuously evaluate a large data base of current, significant problems. The evaluation process groups similar problems according to their alphanumeric codes and highlights these problems whenever they exceed an established statistical control limit. A root cause analysis is performed by quality department personnel who then combine the various computer-generated graphical summaries into a short, concise trend analysis report. Other essential features of the program include measures for following identified adverse trends and implementing formal corrective actions when necessary. The results of diagnostic and trend analysis graphical summaries are considered important additions to the corrective action program at Wolf Creek. The report provides all levels of management with concise and easily interpreted information concerning quality indicators and trends.

Rudolph, W.J. II; Lindsay, W.M.

1987-01-01

415

Facies relationships and reservoir potential of the Ohio Creek interval across the Piceance Creek basin, northwestern Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ohio Creek Member of the Mesaverde Group, of Late Cretaceous age, grades from a fluvial to a paralic facies from the southern to the central parts of the Piceance Creek basin, and is a facies equivalent of the Lewis transgression\\/Fox Hills regression to the north. Evidence of marine influence in the east-central part of the basin includes: (1) zones

J. C. Lorenz; A. K. Rutledge

1985-01-01

416

Squaw Creek Culvert Fish Passage Improvement Project. Squaw Creek, Little Salmon River Subbasin North Central Idaho. Completion Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Squaw Creek culvert fish passage improvement project replaced a perched corrugated metal pipe culvert that was impeding fish passage in Squaw Creek, a tributary to the Little Salmon River, with a bottomless arch culvert. The project was approved and i...

2008-01-01

417

33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.240 Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen...point on the easterly shore of the Potomac River at latitude 38°3600, longitude...

2009-07-01

418

33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.240 Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen...point on the easterly shore of the Potomac River at latitude 38°3600, longitude...

2010-07-01

419

33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.240 Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen...point on the easterly shore of the Potomac River at latitude 38°3600, longitude...

2013-07-01

420

Construction and Evolution of the Mount St. Helens Magmatic System During the Swift Creek Eruptive Stage (16-9 ka) Revealed by Zircon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U-series geochronology and trace element analyses of zircon record the evolution and construction of the sub- volcanic magmatic system of Mount St. Helens during its Swift Creek eruptive stage (16-9 ka). This timeframe was characterized by episodic eruptions of relatively cool, wet, and evolved lavas and tephras followed by emplacement of hotter, drier, and less evolved eruptive products. These fluctuations between magma types potentially represent the first evidence of well-developed magmatic cycles within the Mount St. Helens plumbing system (Clynne et al., in press). We compare the geochronology and geochemistry of zircons from Swift Creek rock samples to those from samples that span the rest of the eruptive history (Claiborne et al., 2008). U-Th age spectra demonstrate that zircon within Swift Creek rocks predominantly crystallized between 20 and 80 ka (70% of analyses), with crystallization peaks at 30 and 55 ka. Minor populations of ages are also present at 105, 160, 210, and 250 ka (25% of analyses). Most crystallization ages range from tens to hundreds of thousands of years before eruption, indicating that Swift Creek magmas extracted crystals from previous episodes of crystallization. However, some zircon analyses (<10%) yield U-Th ages within error of eruption age, potentially allowing us to track Swift Creek magmatic evolution from its incipient stages to eruption. Both of these observations are consistent with previously documented zircon populations from samples spanning the eruptive history of the volcano (Claiborne et al., 2008). Although some age populations observed in zircons from early (300-250 ka) and late (160-35 ka) Ape Canyon eruptive stage rock samples reappear in zircons from Swift Creek samples, the major populations from these earlier eruptive episodes are absent or sparse. Conversely, zircons from the Cougar stage (28-18 ka) exhibit comparable age peaks to Swift Creek zircons. These observations suggest that Swift Creek and Cougar magmas sampled similar crystal reservoirs and had little, if any, interaction with reservoirs affected by Ape Canyon magmatism. Preliminary application of the Ti-in-zircon thermometer (Ferry and Watson, 2007) yields zircon crystallization temperatures below the eruption temperatures of the final host magmas for reasonable SiO2 and TiO2 activity values. Each rock sample also exhibits wide ranges in zircon trace element concentrations (Hf, U, Th, and REEs) that strongly overlap with those of all other samples. Similar compositional ranges are observed between chemical zones of individual zircons. These findings are consistent with previous geochemical results and, together with U-Th age spectra, point to repeated intrusion of new magma batches, cooling, and production of crystal reservoirs beneath the volcano. They suggest that Swift Creek zircons have grown from magmas of variable composition that repeatedly recycle crystals from existing reservoirs. Furthermore, several potential fractionation indicators suggest that older zircon populations grew from more evolved melts than later populations. In comparison to the 105, 160, 210, and 250 ka crystal populations, the 30 and 55 ka populations have lower Hf, higher Th/U, and lower Yb/Gd. This decreasing fractionation with time suggests that the onset of well-developed magmatic cycles at Mount St. Helens during the Swift Creek stage coincides with input of less evolved melt into the magmatic system.

Flanagan, D. M.; Claiborne, L. L.; Miller, C. F.; Clynne, M. A.; Wooden, J. L.

2009-05-01

421

Geohydrology of the Furnace Creek basin and vicinity, Berks, Lancaster, and Lebanon counties, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Furnace Creek basin is an area of 8.95 square miles, about three- fourths of which is underlain by metamorphic rocks of low permeability. Reported yields for 14 wells in these rocks range from 1 to 60 gal/min (gallons per minute), with a median of 7.5 gal/min. The northern part of the study area consists of highly permeable carbonate rocks. Nondomestic wells in these rocks typically yield from 200 to 300 gal/min and one well yields 1,200 gal/min. Ground-water discharge from a 4.18-square-mile drainage area underlain by Precambrian granitic and hornblende gneiss averaged 868,000 gallons per day per square mile from October 1983 through September 1985. Thus, as much as 3,630,000 gallons per day could be pumped from wells in this area on a sustained basis. However, pumping this amount would have major adverse effects on streamflow. A water-budget analysis for March 1984 to February 1985 showed that precipitation was 52.16 inches, streamflow was 26.38 inches, evapotranspiration was 29.29 inches, ground-water storage decreased by 5.94 inches and diversions made by Womelsdorf-Robesonia Joint Authority for water supply totaled 2.43 inches. Precipitation during this period was above normal. Four of 18 wells sampled for water quality had iron, manganese, or nitrate concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limits. The crystalline rocks in the study area yield soft to moderately hard water that is generally acidic.

Cecil, L. D.

1988-01-01

422

Sediment Dynamics and Southern Steelhead Habitat (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Matilija Creek Watershed, Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matilija Creek, one of two principal forks of the Ventura River, drains 142 km2 in the Transverse Ranges of southern California. Thanks to rapid tectonic uplift and weak clastic rocks, sediment yields exceed 1200 m3/km2 annually. Matilija Dam was built in 1947 with an initial capacity of 8 million m3 and is now nearly full of sediment. The dam is structurally unsafe, blocks anadromous fish migration, and is being considered for removal. The Ventura River has one of the southernmost runs of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with an average of approximately 2,500 annually migrating up Matilija Creek before the dam was built. The high sediment yields and highly variable flow regime have raised questions about the interactions among high flows, sediment transfer from lower order tributaries to the third order channels used by the fish, and fish life history. Previous studies in Southern California have documented sediment yields (especially following debris flows and fires, and mostly in the San Gabriel Mountains), but the interaction of geomorphic processes and aquatic habitat in this highly episodic environment is not well understood. We used a combination of mapping and survey techniques, sediment traps, grain size analysis, lithologic analysis and scour rods to study intra-annual geomorphic processes and sediment dynamics affecting Southern Steelhead habitat in the Matilija Creek area in 16 study pools over the 2002 and 2003 flow seasons (dry and "normal", respectively) and found little sediment was deposited or scoured from pools. However, other processes not previously recognized significantly affected the steelhead habitat in the study pools including tufa cementation (carbonate deposition) and alder root growth in spawning gravels, as well as seasonal desiccation of some reaches. Removal of Matilija Dam will reopen suitable habitat to steelhead trout, but managers should recognize that habitat quality is likely to vary considerably from year-to-year, especially in response to episodic events.

Minear, J. T.; Kondolf, G. M.

2003-12-01

423

Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

Garcia, Ana Maria

2009-01-01

424

Model evaluation of the hydrogeology of the Cypress Creek well field : in west-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cypress Creek well field is being developed to help supply a rapidly growing population in west-central Florida. The ground-water system in the Cypress Creek well-field area consists of a surficial sand aquifer, a semiconfining clay layer ranging from 2 to 25 feet in thickness, and a sequence of carbonate rocks, approximately 1,000 feet thick, called the Floridan aquifer. All recharge to the Floridan aquifer in the local area is derived from the overlying surficial sand aquifer by downward percolation through the semiconfining clay bed. The major proportion of water supplied to municipal wells open to the Floridan aquifer comes from a dolomitic section of the Avon Park Limestone containing two major cavernous zones. The hydrogeology of the well-field area was evaluated by digital model simulation. Model runs were made to analyze sensitivity of the model to variations in selected hydrologic parameters. The model was tested further by attempting to simulate the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer under actual pumping stresses during the January 1976 dry period. (Woodard-USGS).

Ryder, Paul D.

1978-01-01

425

Rock Cycle Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, sudents write a series of three stories that explain and/or illustrate rock-forming processes. As an alternative, they may write a single story that addresses the rock cycle. Describing these processes at a level appropriate for their target audience (second graders) requires an adequate understanding of the geologic processes involved and can reveal problems or misconceptions in the students' ideas of how rocks are formed. Teacher's notes and rubrics for teacher and peer review are provided.

Ebert, James

426

Friction of rocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stress the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface roughness. At high normal stress that effect is diminished and the friction is nearly independent of rock type. If the sliding surfaces are separated by gouge composed of Montmorillonite or vermiculite the friction can be very low. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.

Byerlee, J.

1978-01-01

427

Hot Science: Hot rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explores two kinds of igneous rock, pumice and granite. Pumice is an example of extrusive igneous rock, while granite is an example of intrusive igneous rock. Intrusive indicates that the magma was forced close to the surface, but then cooled more slowly underneath the surface. The question, "How hot is Lava?" is linked to an explanation of the heat of lava, why it must be sampled when it is very hot, and how the samples are taken.

428

Images, Dialogue, and Aesthetic Education: Arendt's Response to the Little Rock Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On September 4, 1957, a crisis occurred at Little Rock Central High School in which a mob of white citizens followed, taunted, and harassed a black student, Elizabeth Eckford, who was attempting to register for classes at the newly desegregated school. In 1959, Hannah Arendt published "Reflections on Little Rock." She argued that children should

Pickett, Adrienne

2009-01-01

429

Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

Shama, Ayman A.

2011-03-01

430

Acculturation into the Creek Traditions: Growing in Depth and Breadth of Understanding within the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is in part, a reflective analysis of 15 years living with the state-recognized Florida Creek Indians of the Central Florida Muskogee Creek Tribe and the Pasco Band of Creek Indians, formally of Lacoochee, FL and currently in Brooksville, FL, respectively. It addresses the power structures within tribal organizations. Selected Creek

Bogan, Margaret B.

2011-01-01

431

Environmental evaluation and restoration plan of the Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site, Wyoming: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments were conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at the Hoe Creek Site, Wyoming; the Hoe Creek I experiment was conducted in 1976, the Hoe Creek II experiment in 1977, and the Hoe Creek III experiment in 1979. These experiments have had an impact on the land and groundwater quality at the site, and

W. L. Barteaux; G. L. Berdan; J. Lawrence

1986-01-01

432

FLORAL AND FAUNAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FRAGMENTED AND UNFRAGMENTED BAHAMIAN TIDAL CREEKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized biota in two unfragmented and two fragmented mangrove-lined tidal creeks on Andros Island, Bahamas, in May 2003, to examine particular effects of tidal creek fragmentation by road blockage. Total number of plant and fish species was significantly different between fragmented and unfragmented creeks, and species composition was significantly different both between unfragmented and fragmented creeks, and between downstream

Lori Valentine-Rose; Julia A. Cherry; J. Jacob Culp; Kathryn E. Perez; Jeff B. Pollock; D. Albrey Arrington; Craig A. Layman

2007-01-01

433

SF6 Tracer Release Study: A Contaminant Fate Study in Newtown Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newtown Creek is a 5.5km creek that discharges into the East River, a 25km strait connecting Long Island Sound to the north and the New York Harbor to the south. Surface runoff dominates the freshwater input into the creek, for natural tributaries no longer exist. The areas directly adjacent to the creek are highly industrialized, and New York City's largest

P. J. Schmieder; D. T. Ho; S. Peter; H. J. Simpson; S. Flores; W. A. Dugan

2004-01-01

434

Validity of Effluent and Ambient Toxicity Tests for Predicting Biological Impact, Skeleton Creek, Enid, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Skeleton Creek was studied in August, 1983 and was the fourth site study. A small creek, Boggy Creek receives discharges from both an oil refinery and a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) prior to its confluence with Skeleton Creek. A fertilizer proces...

T. J. Norberg-King D. I. Mount

1986-01-01

435

VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT, SKELETON CREEK, ENID, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

Skeleton Creek was studied in August, 1983 and was the fourth site study. A small creek, Boggy Creek receives discharges from both an oil refinery and a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) prior to its confluence with Skeleton Creek. A fertilizer processing plant discharge is l...

436

Natural acid rock drainage associated with black shale in the Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated herein are water and sediment geochemistry, and metal attenuation processes associated with natural acid rock drainage originating from black shale formations in the Macmillan Pass area, Clear Lake prospect and Engineer Creek by the Dempster Highway in the Yukon Territory, Canada. The most metalliferous water having pH 3.0, 150mg\\/L Zn, 39mg\\/L Ni, 2.8mg\\/L Cu and 9.1mg\\/L As was found

Y. T. John Kwong; Gerry Whitley; Patrick Roach

2009-01-01

437

Opaque rock fragments  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a new, rare, but petrogenetically significant variety of rock fragments from Holocene detrital sediments. Approximately 50% of the opaque heavy mineral concentrates from Holocene siliciclastic sands are polymineralic-Fe-Ti oxide particles, i.e., they are opaque rock fragments. About 40% to 70% of these rock fragments show intergrowth of hm + il, mt + il, and mt + hm +/- il. Modal analysis of 23,282 opaque particles in 117 polished thin sections of granitic and metamorphic parent rocks and their daughter sands from semi-arid and humid climates show the following relative abundances. The data show that opaque rock fragments are more common in sands from igneous source rocks and that hm + il fragments are more durable. They assume that equilibrium conditions existed in parent rocks during the growth of these paired minerals, and that the Ti/Fe ratio did not change during oxidation of mt to hm. Geothermometric determinations using electron probe microanalysis of opaque rock fragments in sand samples from Lake Erie and the Adriatic Sea suggest that these rock fragments may have equilibrated at approximately 900/sup 0/ and 525/sup 0/C, respectively.

Abhijit, B.; Molinaroli, E.; Olsen, J.

1987-05-01

438

Metamorphic Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of important metamorphic rocks and minerals. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of metamorphic rocks and minerals and record their physical properties, composition, and habit. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences and identify the rock samples and minerals they contain. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

Perkins, Dexter

439

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides younger students with an introduction to rocks and minerals. Topics include the definition of a mineral, the physical properties of minerals and how they are measured, and a discussion of quartz, the most basic silicate mineral and one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth's crust. The discussion on rocks includes the rock cycle, the three rock types (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic), and how they are formed. There is also a vocabulary list and downloadable, printable worksheets for each major topic.

Medina, Philip

2010-09-08

440

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides younger students with an introduction to rocks and minerals. Topics include the definition of a mineral, the physical properties of minerals and how they are measured, and a discussion of quartz, the most basic silicate mineral and one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth's crust. The discussion on rocks includes the rock cycle, the three rock types (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic), and how they are formed. There is also a vocabulary list and downloadable, printable worksheets for each major topic.

Medina, Philip

441

My Pet Rock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster. While this type of lesson is concise and direct, the authors have found a new way of targeting the same Earth science benchmarks for upper elementary students. Their inquiry-based approach allows students to discover geologic properties as they befriend their pet rocks.

Lark, Adam; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie; Kramp, Robyne

2008-01-01

442

3D simulation of tidal creek in Jiangsu coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional shape of tidal creek widely distributed in the tidal flat of Jiangsu coast was simulated in this paper. Water lines of tidal creek were extracted from high spatial resolution remotely sensed data and used to derive the centerlines of tidal creek by the method of Thiessen polygon. From downstream to upstream, the profile shape of centerlines presents piecewise linear increase based on the intersect points of tidal branch in one tidal basin. So on basis of known elevation of intersect points, we calculated to gain 3D shape of centerline. And last, using step by step expansion simulated the whole 3D shape of tidal creek. The error analysis showed that the 95% error was between +/- 0.3m. This study realized the 3D simulation of tidal creek. The result demonstrated that from point to line to body (2D- 3D) conversion was realized during this modeling process and 3D simulation method is effective. Due to complex natural condition and the lack of bathymetry data, terrain of tidal creek is difficult to obtain. So through this method we can only use a small number of measure points to easily obtain the 3D shape of tidal creek. It is very useful in topographic survey especially in Jiangsu coast where bathymetry is hard to carry out.

Kang, Yanyan; Ding, Xianrong

443

Chemical composition of precipitation and watershed samples collected at Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County, Maryland. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the four-year study was to determine if acid deposition and acid stream drainage pose a significant threat to Deep Creek Lake, Maryland. The chemical composition of rain in the fourth year did not vary significantly from previous years. The annual volume-weighted mean pH of rain at the site is 3.9 - 4.0. Concentrations of hydrogen and sulfate ions are higher in summer rain, particularly for storms characterized by northwesterly winds. Summertime rain produces about 60 percent of the annual sulfate and hydrogen ion deposition at the site. The average lake water pH has remained stable during the four-year study. Acid input from Cherry Creek, impacted by geological acids, was about equal to the acid deposited directly on the lake surface by rain. During most of the year neutralization of geologic acid drainage by the bottom sediments of Cherry Creek Cove is rapid. A USGS investigation of the geology in the area found extensive alkaline rock outcroppings in the basin and underlaying the lake. It appears that concerns about rapid acidification of the lake are not well founded.

Campbell, S.

1985-10-01

444

Rock Art Research, Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Southeastern Colorado, 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1989, archaeological research in the Pinon Canon Maneuver Site included documentation of four rock art sites, 5LA4404, 5LA5563, 5LA5569, and 5LA5593, through black and white and color photography, scale drawings, and panel data forms. Test excavations ...

D. D. Kuehn L. L. Loendorf

1991-01-01

445

The 1997 floods of Bozeman Creek, Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The winter of 1996-7 generated an exceptional snowpack - twice the longterm normals for the region. Bozeman Creek through town had not experienced significant flooding (except for high-risk localities) for decades. This seemed like a good opportunity to involve students with a real and identifiable issue of hazard. So, I identified a series of activities through the spring semester to assess the hazard and to mitigate it through community activities. Students signed up for the different activities and, with my active oversight, completed both the science (research, data collection, and analysis) and the outreach before the end of the semester. The actual high water occurred just after graduation. The project was assessed in terms of public perception (before we knew the outcome) and students' (and my) opinion of their, their teammates', and their teams' work.

Locke, Bill

446

Tributary fluxes into Brush Creek Valley  

SciTech Connect

Measurements in a tributary to Brush Creek Valley during the September and October 1984 ASCOT campaign with laser anemometers, tethersondes, a minisodar, and smoke releases were used to calculate the contribution by tributaries to nocturnal drainage flow from the main valley. Four experimental nights with different mesoscale wind regimes were used in the study. It was found that a simple picture of mass flux proportional to drainage area is not sufficient to predict the relative contributions of drainage basins. The exposure of the slopes within the tributaries to the external wind regime was found to be a significant factor in the contribution of the upper regions of the tributary; but drainage from the well-protected lower region was found to irection than when the external wind was along the drainage direction. A circulation cell that introduces mass into the tributary system both from the main canyon flow and from the side opposite the main canyon flow is proposed to explain this effect.

Coulter, R. L.; Orgill, M.; Porch, W.

1989-07-01

447

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

2000-07-18

448

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

2000-10-18

449

Geochemistry and shock petrography of the Crow Creek Member, South Dakota, USA: Ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Crow Creek Member is one of several marl units recognized within the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale Formation of eastern South Dakota and northeastern Nebraska, but it is the only unit that contains shock-metamorphosed minerals. The shocked minerals represent impact ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure (MIS). This study was aimed at determining the bulk chemical compositions and analysis of planar deformation features (PDFs) of shocked quartz; for the basal and marly units of the Crow Creek Member. We studied samples from the Gregory 84-21 core, Iroquois core and Wakonda lime quarry. Contents of siderophile elements are generally high, but due to uncertainties in the determination of Ir and uncertainties in compositional sources for Cr, Co, and Ni, we could not confirm an extraterrestrial component in the Crow Creek Member. We recovered several shocked quartz grains from basal-unit samples, mainly from the Gregory 84-21 core, and results of PDF measurements indicate shock pressures of at least 15 GPa. All the samples are composed chiefly of SiO2, (29-58 wt%), Al2O3 (6-14 wt%), and CaO (7-30 wt%). When compared to the composition of North American Shale Composite, the samples are significantly enriched in CaO, P2O5, Mn, Sr, Y, U, Cr, and Ni. The contents of rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE), Cr, Co, Sc, and their ratios and chemical weathering trends, reflect both felsic and basic sources for the Crow Creek Member, an inference, which is consistent with the lithological compositions in the environs of the MIS. The high chemical indices of alteration and weathering (CIA' and CIW': 75-99), coupled with the Al2O3-(CaO*,+Na2O -K2O (A-CN'-K) ratios, indicate that the Crow Creek Member and source rocks had undergone high degrees of chemical weathering. The expected ejecta thicknesses at the sampled locations (409 to 219 km from Manson) were calculated to range from about 1.9 to 12.2 cm (for the present-day crater radius of Manson), or 0.4 to 2.4 cm (for the estimated transient cavity radius). The trend agrees with the observed thicknesses of the basal unit of the Crow Creek Member, but the actually observed thicknesses are larger than the calculated ones, indicating that not all of the basal unit comprises impact ejecta. ?? Meteoritical Society, 2004.

Katongo, C.; Koeberl, C.; Witzke, B. J.; Hammond, R. H.; Anderson, R. R.

2004-01-01

450

RockOnTV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

RockOnTV attempts to keep track of all television shows that may be of interest to fans of popular music. The particular focus is rock music and live performances, but they include other shows from time to time that are noteworthy. Music related shows are listed in a weekly schedule.

1999-01-01

451

Rock engineering applications, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book demonstrates how to apply the theories and principles of rock engineering to actual engineering and construction tasks. It features insights on geology for mining and tunnelling applications. It is practical resource that focuses on the latest technological innovation and examines up-to-date procedures used by engineers for coping with complex rock conditions. The authors also discuss question related to

J. A. Franklin; M. B. Dusseault

1991-01-01

452

Deformation of Rock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Stephen Nelson of Tulane University created this resource on rock deformation. A synopsis and overview of principles associated with physical rock deformation is provided. Nelson also briefly touches on stress/strain, folds, deformation (Ducile/Brittle), faulting, and the earth's crust.

Nelson, Stephen A.

2008-04-25

453

If Rocks Could Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they meet an Earth scientist at the AMNH, who explains the differences between the three rock groups (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic) and introduces students to six rocks in the museum's collection.

454

Rocks & Mineral Solitaire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a solitaire game designed to help students identify rocks and minerals. The card game would be used by the students after class discussions about rock/mineral categories and classifications. Several sets of the card game, managed by the teacher, would be available for the students. The cards could be used both during and after class.

Catania, Andrea J.; Education, San D.

455

The Oldest Moon Rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorthosites, rocks composed almost entirely of plagioclase feldspar, are the oldest rocks on the Moon. They appear to have formed when feldspar crystallized and floated to the top of a global magma ocean that surrounded the Moon soon after it formed. Not all ages determined for anorthosites, however, are as old as we expected--one appeared to be only 4.29 billion

M. Norman

2004-01-01

456

Session: Hard Rock Penetration  

SciTech Connect

This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

1992-01-01

457

Quantification of metal loads by tracer injection and synoptic sampling in Daisy Creek and the Stillwater River, Park County, Montana, August 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A metal-loading study using tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling methods was conducted in Daisy Creek and a short reach of the Stillwater River during baseflow in August 1999 to quantify the metal inputs from acid rock drainage in the New World Mining District near Yellowstone National Park and to examine the downstream transport of these metals into the Stillwater River. Loads were calculated for many mainstem and inflow sites by combining streamflow determined using the tracer-injection method with concentrations of major ions and metals that were determined in synoptic water-quality samples. Water quality and aquatic habitat in Daisy Creek have been affected adversely by drainage derived from waste rock and adit discharge at the McLaren Mine as well as from natural weathering of pyrite-rich mineralized rock that comprises and surrounds the ore zones. However, the specific sources and transport pathways are not well understood. Knowledge of the main sources and transport pathways of metals and acid can aid resource managers in planning and conducting effective and cost-efficient remediation activities. The metals cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc occur at concentrations that are sufficiently elevated to be potentially lethal to aquatic life in Daisy Creek and to pose a toxicity risk in part of the Stillwater River. Copper is of most concern in Daisy Creek because it occurs at higher concentrations than the other metals. Acidic surface inflows had dissolved concentrations as high as 20.6 micrograms per liter (?g/L) cadmium, 26,900 ?g/L copper, 76.4 ?g/L lead, and 3,000 ?g/L zinc. These inflows resulted in maximum dissolved concentrations in Daisy Creek of 5.8 ?g/L cadmium, 5,790 ?g/L copper, 3.8 ?g/L lead, and 848 ?g/L zinc. Significant copper loading to Daisy Creek occurred only in the upper half of the stream. Sources included subsurface inflow and right-bank (mined side) surface inflows. Copper loads in left-bank (unmined side) surface inflows were negligible. Most (71 percent) of the total copper loading in the study reach occurred along a 341-foot reach near the stream?s headwaters. About 53 percent of the total copper load was contributed by five surface inflows that drain a manganese bog and the southern part of the McLaren Mine. Copper loading from subsurface inflow was substantial, contributing 46 percent of the total dissolved copper load to Daisy Creek. More than half of this subsurface copper loading occurred downstream from the reaches that received significant surface loading. Flow through the shallow subsurface appears to be the main copper-transport pathway from the McLaren Mine and surrounding altered and mineralized bedrock to Daisy Creek during base-flow conditions. Little is known about the source of acid and copper in this subsurface flow. However, possible sources include the mineralized rocks of Fisher Mountain upgradient of the McLaren Mine area, the surficial waste rock at the mine, and the underlying pyritic bedrock.

Nimick, David A.; Cleasby, Thomas E.

2001-01-01

458

Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 2000: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 2000-2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artifi...

J. Gebhards M. Daniel R. Hill

2003-01-01

459

Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artifi...

J. Gebhards M. Daniel

2003-01-01

460

33 CFR 207.170d - Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation...S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee, Fla.; use,...

2009-07-01

461

33 CFR 207.170d - Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation...S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee, Fla.; use,...

2010-07-01

462

Geophysical Investigations at the Sand Creek Massacre Site, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From May 18 to May 26, the National Park Service conducted an archeological investigation of Sand Creek Massacre site in Kiowa County, Colorado. In addition to the metal detector reconnaissace survey of the project area, geophysical investigations were co...

S. L. De Vore

1999-01-01

463

Sources of Coal Mine Drainage Pollution Wheeling Creek Watershed, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In August 1966, the Wheeling Field Station, Ohio Basin Region, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, was contacted by Washington, D.C. Headquarters concerning the matter of pollution of Wheeling Creek, Belmont County, Ohio. The document contains...

1968-01-01

464

3. VIEW OF WILLOW CREEK TRESTLE FROM CORNER BASELINE AVENUE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF WILLOW CREEK TRESTLE FROM CORNER BASELINE AVENUE AND 185TH AVENUE, FACING NORTHEAST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Between Watson & 185th Avenues, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

465

Northeast Creek Bridge. North East, Cecil Co., MD. Sec. 1201, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Northeast Creek Bridge. North East, Cecil Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 51.03. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD