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1

Impact of Urbanization on Storm Response of White Rock Creek, Dallas, Texas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study documents hydrological changes resulting from urbanization of the upper sub-basin of White Rock Creek watershed in Collin and Dallas counties, Texas. The 66.4 square mile watershed was transformed from 87% rural in 1961 to 95% urban in 2002, following construction of the Dallas suburbs of Richardson, Addison, Plano and Frisco. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in the storm response of White Rock Creek in terms of peak storm flow, storm flow volume and lag time. The approach employed to compare pre- and post-urbanization hydrology was to develop average unit hydrographs for each time period and use them to generate the creek's storm flow response to a set of six hypothetical precipitation events. The results suggest that substantial hydrological changes have occurred. The average infiltration capacity of the watershed was reduced by about 60%, so that storm flow was generated at lower precipitation intensities in the post-urbanization period. Storm flow peak discharge and volume were more than doubled for a hypothetical 10-year precipitation event. Average lag time was about 45 minutes faster in the post-urbanization period. It was concluded that urbanization has significantly impacted the storm response of the creek and increased the potential for flooding. It is anticipated that similar hydrological changes will occur in other rapidly urbanizing watersheds in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan region.

Williams, H.; Groening-Vicars, J.

2005-12-01

2

Restoring Lower Rock Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video describes how Lower Rock Creek’s location between two National Wild and Scenic Rivers caused Kentucky environmentalists to choose the creek as a target for acid mine drainage remediation.

Ket

2011-01-11

3

Chemical and Ecological Health of White Sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003-04  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded threshold or chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

Miller, Cherie V.; Weyers, Holly S.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Freeman, Mary E.

2006-01-01

4

Chemical and ecological health of white sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003?04  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded thresholdor chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

Miller, C.V.; Weyers, H.S..; Blazer, V.S.; Freeman, M.E.

2006-01-01

5

White Rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can't see . . . things like information about what kinds of minerals make up the landforms. Mars scientists once thought, for instance, that these unusual features might be vast hills of salt, the dried up remains of a long-ago, evaporated lake. Not so, said an instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, which revealed that the bright material is probably made up of volcanic ash or windblown dust instead. And talk about a cyclical 'ashes to ashes, dust to dust' story! Particles of this material fell and fell until they built up quite a sedimentary deposit, which was then only eroded away again by the wind over time, leaving the spiky terrain seen today. It looks white, but its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the surrounding material is so dark. Of course, good eyesight always helps in understanding. A camera on Mars Global Surveyor with close-up capabilities revealed that sand dunes are responsible for the smudgy dark material in the bright sediment and around it. But that's not all. The THEMIS camera on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft that took this image reveals that this ashy or dusty deposit once covered a much larger area than it does today. Look yourself for two small dots of white material on the floor of a small crater nearby (center right in this image). They preserve a record that this bright deposit once reached much farther. Since so little of it remains, you can figure that the material probably isn't very hard, and simply blows away. One thing's for sure. No one looking at this image could ever think that Mars is a boring place. With all of its bright and dark contrasts, this picture would be perfect for anyone who loves Ansel Adams and his black-and-white photography.

2002-01-01

6

White Rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

14 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the famous 'White Rock' feature in Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. The light-toned rock is not really white, but its light tone caught the eye of Mars geologists as far back as 1972, when it was first spotted in images acquired by Mariner 9. The light-toned materials are probably the remains of a suite of layered sediments that once spread completely across the interior of Pollack Crater. Dark materials in this image include sand dunes and large ripples.

Location near: 8.1oS, 335.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

2005-01-01

7

20. DISTANT HELICOPTER VIEW TO SOUTHEAST UP LITTLE ROCK CREEK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. DISTANT HELICOPTER VIEW TO SOUTHEAST UP LITTLE ROCK CREEK CANYON, WITH DAM AND RESERVOIR AT RIGHT CENTER. PALMDALE-LITTLEROCK DITCH, MARKED BY DENSE VEGETATION, CROSSES ROAD AT LOWER CENTER - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

8

115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF SIPHON CROSSING ROCK CREEK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

9

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1970-1984  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was designed to determine the characteristics and amounts of industrial and municipal wastes discharged to Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) and subsequently into the Snake River and to evaluate the effects of these wastes on the biota and water quality of Rock Creek. Indus...

10

Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.

Not Available

1991-07-01

11

3. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY RAMP. VIEW TAKEN FROM NORTHERN RAILING OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Boundary Channel Extension, Spanning Mount Vernon Memorial Highway & Boundary Channel, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

12

THE FISHES OF ROCK CREEK, SHARP COUNTY, ARKANSAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the fishes of RockCreek in northcentral Arkansaswas made on 9-10 November, 1978,and 15-16 March, 1979.Fieldcollections were made using a minnow seine and backpack shocker. The creek system was inhabited by 28 species of fish representing eight families. Fish collections were typical of a small Ozarkstream. The most abundant species were: Campos- toma oligolepis Hubbs and Greene, largescale

F. ALLEN CARTER; JOHN K. BEADLES

1980-01-01

13

76 FR 10938 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Actions on Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction: Clackamas County, OR...project, Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction, Clackamas County, Oregon...587-4716. The Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction Final Environmental...

2011-02-28

14

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM TEN YEAR REPORT. 1981-1991  

EPA Science Inventory

Prior to this program, water quality of Rock Creek, Idaho (170040212) was severely impacted by irrigated agriculture. Impairments included phosphate, organic nitrogen, suspended solids, turbidity, bacteria, and toxic chemicals. The uses of Rock Creek for recreation, drinking wa...

15

110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

16

93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL NORTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

17

113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF INLET SIDE OF SIPHON, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

18

114. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

114. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW, WEST OF INLET SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

19

116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET, DIVERSION SPILL IN BACKGROUND, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

20

112. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

112. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

21

111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF SIPHON, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

22

75 FR 55539 - Crooked Creek Reservoir Repair; White River National Forest, Eagle County, CO  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Crooked Creek Reservoir Repair; White River National Forest, Eagle County, CO AGENCY...environmental impact statement (ElS) for the Crooked Creek Reservoir Repair project on the Sopris Ranger District of the...

2010-09-13

23

White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure design and construction  

SciTech Connect

White Oak Creek is the major surface water drainage throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium 137 and lower level of Cobalt 60 in near surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBs. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) agreed to initiate a time critical removal action in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent the transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work.

Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmell, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Page, D.G.; Wilkerson, R.B. [MK-Ferguson of Oak Ridge Co., TN (United States); Hudson, G.R. [USDOE Oak Ridge Field Office, TN (United States); Kauschinger, J.L. [Ground Engineering Services, Alpharetta, GA (United States); Zocolla, M. [Nashville District, US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville, TN (United States)

1994-12-31

24

Forecasting contaminant concentrations: Spills in the White Oak Creek Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (SSARR) model has been installed and sufficiently calibrated for use in managing accidental release of contaminants in surface waters of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed at ORNL. The model employs existing watershed conditions, hydrologic parameters representing basin response to precipitation, and a Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) to predict variable flow conditions throughout the basin. Natural runoff from each of the hydrologically distinct subbasins is simulated and added to specified plant and process water discharges. The resulting flows are then routed through stream reaches and eventually to White Oak Lake (WOL), which is the outlet from the WOC drainage basin. In addition, the SSARR model is being used to simulate change in storage volumes and pool levels in WOL, and most recently, routing characteristics of contaminant spills through WOC and WOL. 10 figs.

Borders, D.M.; Hyndman, D.W.; Huff, D.D.

1987-01-01

25

Rock Creek Methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project: Rock Creek Coalbed Methane Completion Project Data Summary Update. Topical Report, December 1990-February 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a summary of the data collected from 12 production wells and 17 monitor wells that were present at the Rock Creek Project. Well testing, reservoir evaluation, experimental fracturing treatments, diagnostic testing, and production testi...

J. Ellard J. L. Saulsberry L. A. Litzinger M. W. Conway P. F. Steidl S. W. Lambert

1995-01-01

26

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM, 1987 ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Goals of the Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) Rural Clean Water Program are to significantly reduce the amount of sediment, sediment related pollutants, and animal waste discharging into Rock Creek. Weekly water quality sampling was done through the irrigation season (April - Octobe...

27

33 CFR 208.29 - Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla...REGULATIONS § 208.29 Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles, Rock Creek, Okla...agent, shall operate the Arbuckle Dam and Lake of the Arbuckles in the interest of...

2013-07-01

28

White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed [sup 137]Cs concentrations [> 10[sup 6] Bq/kg dry wt (> 10[sup 4] pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of [sup 137]Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h[sup 1] 1 m above the soil surface.

Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

1993-01-01

29

Influence of rock strength on the valley morphometry of Big Creek, central Idaho, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of valley morphometry and bedrock strength along Big Creek, central Idaho, shows that valley floor width is strongly controlled by bedrock. We performed statistical analysis of Schmidt hammer rock strength as a function of lithology and aspect and of valley morphometry as a function of rock strength. Rock strength is significantly greater on the south side of the valley

Zachery M. Lifton; Glenn D. Thackray; Robert Van Kirk; Nancy F. Glenn

2009-01-01

30

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM COMPREHENSIVE WATER QUALITY MONITORING ANNUAL REPORT 1989  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents progress on for the Rock Creek Rural Clean Water Program, Twin Falls County, Idaho (17040212), initiated in 1981. Results through 1988 suggest that Best Management Practices (BMPs) implemented under the program have improved water quality in the creek. BMP...

31

Fracturing Experience at the Rock Creek Multiple Coal Seams Project. Topical Report, January 1986-December 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to summarize knowledge gained from stimulating multiple thin coal seams during research at the Rock Creek Project. This report provides background information, the rationale for simulation design, and results of diagnostics i...

S. W. Lambert J. L. Saulsberry P. F. Steidl M. W. Conway S. D. Spafford

1995-01-01

32

Association of Radionuclides with Streambed Sediments in White Oak Creek Watershed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radionuclides are found in much higher concentrations on streambed sediment than in the water of White Oak Creek. Selective extraction of sediments demonstrates that exp 60 Co is immobilized in a nonexchangeable form in the ferromanganese hydrous oxide co...

B. P. Spalding T. E. Cerling

1979-01-01

33

Simulation of contaminated sediment transport in White Oak Creek basin  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a systematic approach to management of the contaminated sediments in the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The primary contaminant of concern is radioactive cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), which binds to soil and sediment particles. The key components in the approach include an intensive sampling and monitoring system for flood events; modeling of hydrological processes, sediment transport, and contaminant flux movement; and a decision framework with a detailed human health risk analysis. Emphasis is placed on modeling of watershed rainfall-runoff and contaminated sediment transport during flooding periods using the Hydrologic Simulation Program- Fortran (HSPF) model. Because a large number of parameters are required in HSPF modeling, the major effort in the modeling process is the calibration of model parameters to make simulation results and measured values agree as closely as possible. An optimization model incorporating the concepts of an expert system was developed to improve calibration results and efficiency. Over a five-year simulation period, the simulated flows match the observed values well. Simulated total amount of sediment loads at various locations during storms match with the observed values within a factor of 1.5. Simulated annual releases of {sup 137}Cs off-site locations match the data within a factor of 2 for the five-year period. The comprehensive modeling approach can provide a valuable tool for decision makers to quantitatively analyze sediment erosion, deposition, and transport; exposure risk related to radionuclides in contaminated sediment; and various management strategies.

Bao, Y.; Clapp, R.B.; Brenkert, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moore, T.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fontaine, T.A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)

1995-12-31

34

Portland Community College, Rock Creek: A Community Based Educational Shopping Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is presented of Portland Community College's plans to create the Rock Creek campus, scheduled to open in January 1976. The physical environment is considered to be an important factor in a student's cultural and aesthetic experience, and all facilities have been designed with this in mind. The philosophy guiding campus planning is one…

De Bernardis, Amo

35

ROCK CREEK RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM, COMPREHENSIVE WATER QUALITY MONITORING REPORT, 1981-1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality monitoring for the Rock Creek (17040212) rural clean water program was initiated by the ID Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environment in 1981. Weekly sampling is done through the irrigation season (April - October) on the subbasin drains for suspende...

36

ROCK CREEK RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM, COMPREHENSIVE WATER QUALITY MONITORING, ANNUAL REPORT, 1988.  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality monitoring for the Rock Creek (17040212) rural clean water program was initiated by the ID Department of health and Welfare, Division of Environment in 1981. The results to date suggest that Best Management Practices (BMPs) implemented in the project area have impr...

37

ROCK CREEK, IDAHO RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM, COMPREHENSIVE WATER QUALITY MONITORING ANNUAL REPORT, 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality monitoring for the Rock Creek (17040212) Rural Clean Water Program was initiated by the ID Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environment in 1981. Suspended sediment, the key parameter examined, has shown a significant decrease in 5 of the 6 subbasins st...

38

WATER QUALITY RELATED PUBLICATIONS FOR ROCK CREEK, IDAHO. REFERENCES THROUGH 1991  

EPA Science Inventory

This bibliography contains citations and abstracts for 626 water quality and water resource related publications for Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) through 1991. Clark, W.H. 1991.Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Divison of Environmental Quality, Boise, ID. 167 pp....

39

UPPER ROCK CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1976-1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality samples were collected monthly at 2 stations on Upper Rock Creek in Twin Falls and Cassia Counties, Idaho (17040212) from July 1975 through August 1977. Most parameters were within Idaho Water Quality Standards at the Sawtooth Forest Service boundary wIth the excep...

40

Alteration of melanocytes by DNA in White Plymouth Rock chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINCE 1944 when it was first demonstrated that the pneumococcal transforming principle was DNA1, several investigators have reported evidence suggesting genetic alteration of warmblooded animal cells by DNA-mediated transformations2-7. Attempts to transform the plumage coloration characters in White Plymouth Rock embryos have been unsuccessful8. The genetically lethal melanocytes in the White Plymouth Rock chicken do not appear abundantly or thrive

Robert P. Lanza

1974-01-01

41

Altered tuffaceous rocks of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 50 ash-fall tuff beds which have altered to analcitized or feldspathized rocks have been found in the upper 500-600 feet of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin of northwestern Colorado. Similarly altered water-washed tuff occurs as tongues in the uppermost part of this member, and forms most of the lower 400-600 feet of the overlying Evacuation Creek Member of the Green River Formation. 'The altered ash-fall beds of the Parachute Creek Member are all thin and show a characteristic pattern of alteration. Most beds range in thickness from a fraction of an inch to a few inches. One bed reaches a maximum thickness of 5 feet, and, unlike the other beds, is composed of several successive ash falls. The pattern of alteration changes from the outer part to the center of the basin. Most beds in the outer part of the basin contain about 50 to 65 percent analcite,with the interstices between the crystals filled mainly by microlites of feldspar, opal, and quartz, and small amounts of carbonate. At the center of the basin .essentially all the beds -are composed of microlites of feldspar, opal, and quartz, and small amounts of carbonate. The tongues of water-washed tuff in the uppermost part of the Parachute Creek Member and the similar rocks composing the lower 400-600 feet of the Evacuation Creek Mewber are feldspathized rocks composed mainly of microlites of feldspar, opal, and quartz, varying amounts of carbonate, and in some specimens tiny subrounded crystals of analcite. The general trend in alteration of the tuffaceous rocks from analcitization near the margin to feidspathization near the center of the Piceance Creek Basin is believed to have taken place at shallow depth during diagenesis , as indicated by field observations and laboratory work. It is believed that during sedimentation and diagenesis the waters of the central part of the basin were more alkaline and following the breakdown of the original tuffaceous glass to a colloidal gel during diagenesis analcitized rocks crystallized near the basin margin and feldspathized rocks crystallized near the center of the basin.

Griggs, Roy Lee

1968-01-01

42

Sampling and Analysis Plan for White Oak Creek Watershed Remedial Investigation supplemental sampling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Sampling and Analysis (SAP) presents the project requirements for proposed soil sampling to support the White Oak Creek Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During the Data Quality Objectives process for the proj...

1996-01-01

43

Adoption in rock and white-tailed ptarmigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reports of adoption in birds are widespread, but few studies report rates of adoption or possible mechanisms for this phenomenon, particularly in the Order Galliformes. We report incidents of adoption in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. leucura) from two sites in western Canada. Adoption rates for White-tailed Ptarmigan on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Ruby Ranges, Yukon Territory were 13% (n = 16 broods) and 4% (n = 27), respectively, while rates for Rock Ptarmigan were 14% (n = 29) in the Ruby Ranges. Low brood densities may result in lower rates of adoption for ptarmigan. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

Wong, M. M. L.; Fedy, B. C.; Wilson, S.; Martin, K. M.

2009-01-01

44

Multidimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Dispersion of White Oak Creek Contaminants in the Clinch River  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the simulation of the dispersion and dilution of dissolved or finely suspended contaminants entering the Clinch river from White Oak Creek. The work is accomplished through the application of a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. This study assumes that contaminants originating in the White Oak Creed watershed, which drains Oak Ridge National Laboratory, will eventually reach the mouth of White Oak Creek and be discharged into the clinch River. The numerical model was developed to support the analysis of the off-site consequences of releases from the ORNL liquid low-level waste system. The system contains storage tanks and transfer lines in Bethel Valley and Melton Valley. Under certain failure modes, liquid low-level waste could be released to White Oak Creek or Melton Branch to White Oak Creek and eventually be discharged to the Clinch River. Since the Clinch River has unrestricted access by the public and water usage from the Clinch River is not controlled by the Department of Energy, such a liquid low-level waste spill would create the possibility of public exposure to the contaminant. This study is limited to the dispersion of the contaminants downstream of the confluence of White Oak Creek.

Platfoot, J.H.; Wendel, M.W.; Williams, P.T.

1996-10-01

45

White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure: The Oak Ridge model in action  

SciTech Connect

White Oak Creek is the major surface-water drainage through the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium-137, and lower levels of Cobalt-60 in near-surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBS. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) agreed to initiate a time-critical removal action in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work.

Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmel, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Page, D.G.; Hudson, G.R. [USDOE Oak Ridge Field Office, TN (United States); Wilkerson, R.B. [MK-Ferguson Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zocolla, M. [Corps of Engineers, Nashville, TN (United States). Nashville District; Kauschinger, J.L. [Ground Engineering Services, Manchester, NH (United States)

1992-12-01

46

White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure: The Oak Ridge model in action  

SciTech Connect

White Oak Creek is the major surface-water drainage through the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium-137, and lower levels of Cobalt-60 in near-surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBS. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) agreed to initiate a time-critical removal action in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work.

Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmel, B.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Page, D.G.; Hudson, G.R. (USDOE Oak Ridge Field Office, TN (United States)); Wilkerson, R.B. (MK-Ferguson Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Zocolla, M. (Corps of Engineers, Nashville, TN (United States). Nashville District); Kauschinger, J.L. (Ground Engineering Services, Manchester, NH (United States))

1992-01-01

47

Occurrence and Distribution of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2007-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Park Service Police Aviation Group, conducted a high-resolution, low-altitude aerial thermal infrared survey of the Washington, D.C. section of Rock Creek Basin within the Park boundaries to identify specific locations where warm water was discharging from seeps or pipes to the creek. Twenty-three stream sites in Rock Creek Park were selected based on the thermal infrared images. Sites were sampled during the summers of 2007 and 2008 for the analysis of organic wastewater compounds to verify potential sources of sewage and other anthropogenic wastewater. Two sets of stormwater samples were collected, on June 27-28 and September 6, 2008, at the Rock Creek at Joyce Road water-quality station using an automated sampler that began sampling when a specified stage threshold value was exceeded. Passive-sampler devices that accumulate organic chemicals over the duration of deployment were placed in July 2008 at the five locations that had the greatest number of detections of organic wastewater compounds from the June 2007 base-flow sampling. During the 2007 base-flow synoptic sampling, there were ubiquitous low-level detections of dissolved organic wastewater indicator compounds such as DEET, caffeine, HHCB, and organophosphate flame retardants at more than half of the 23 sites sampled in Rock Creek Park. Concentrations of DEET and caffeine in the tributaries to Rock Creek were variable, but in the main stem of Rock Creek, the concentrations were constant throughout the length of the creek, which likely reflects a distributed source. Organophosphate flame retardants in the main stem of Rock Creek were detected at estimated concentrations of 0.2 micrograms per liter or less, and generally did not increase with distance downstream. Overall, concentrations of most wastewater indicators in whole-water samples in the Park were similar to the concentrations found at the upstream sampling station at the Maryland/District of Columbia boundary. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the dominant organic compounds found in the stormwater samples at the Joyce Road station. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were consistently found in higher concentrations either in sediment or in whole-water samples than in the dissolved samples collected during base-flow conditions at the 23 synoptic sites, or in the Joyce Road station stormwater samples.

Phelan, Daniel J.; Miller, Cherie V.

2010-01-01

48

A PRELIMINARY APPRAISAL OF THE BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF THE EAST FORK WHITE LICK CREEK IN THE WEST FORK WHITE RIVER WATERSHED USING FISH COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biological community assessment conducted during July 1997 in response to requests by IDEM's Permits and Modeling Sections in the Office of Water Management to assess potential or existing impacts that may have occurred or may now be occurring in the East Fork White Lick Creek Basin due to run-off of deicing agents used at the Indianapolis International Airport (IIAP).

James R. Stahl; Thomas P. Simon; Eric O. Edberg

1997-01-01

49

Occurrence of uranium in rocks of the intrusive complex at Ekiek Creek, western Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Uranium in the Ekiek Creek Complex of western Alaska is related to a niobium-rich pyrochlore in the nepheline syenite of the complex. The complex consists of an aegirine-phlogopite pyroxenite that has been intruded and partly replaced by nepheline syenite. The contact zone between the two igneous units varies from a sharp contact to a diffuse zone where the pyroxenite has been metasomatically replaced by the syenite. The entire complex was intruded into an older Cretaceous monzonite. The pyrochlore occurs as an accessory mineral in the syenite, and is visible in rocks containing over 50 ppm uranium. Chemical analyses indicate that, in all samples of syenite, there is a positive correlation between uranium and niobium; this suggests that the uranium-pyrochlore association persists even when pyrochlore is not readily visible in thin section. The small amount of pyrochlore, and its refractory nature, make the complex an unfavorable source for secondary uranium leaching or heavy-mineral concentration.

Wallace, Alan R.

1979-01-01

50

White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed {sup 137}Cs concentrations [> 10{sup 6} Bq/kg dry wt (> 10{sup 4} pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of {sup 137}Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h{sup 1} 1 m above the soil surface.

Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

1993-01-01

51

Surface radiological investigations at two creek receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

A surface radiological investigation was conducted intermittently from August 1992 July 1993 at two creeks receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard. In this report, the two creeks (both unnamed tributaries of Bear Creek) are, referred to as the east creek and the west creek based on their respective locations relative to White Wing Scrap Yard. The radiological survey of accessible areas at the east creek revealed no detectable gamma exposure rates above typical background levels (8 to 12 {mu}R/h). The very slight elevations in gamma and beta-gamma levels found along the creek were generally associated with outcroppings of shale and typical of naturally occurring radionuclides present in such material. No radiological anomalies were associated with an oily sheen observed on the water at three locations, three 55-gal metal drums in or near the creek, a small pile of metal debris near the creek, or several enclosures used in a 1969 study of animal excretion rates. Radionuclide analysis of three soil samples collected at the east creek demonstrated typical of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, and {sup 40}K.

Uziel, M.S.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

1994-02-01

52

Effective porosity and density of carbonate rocks (Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite) within Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation based on modern petrophysical techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative data on effective porosity of carbonate rock from the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite within Bear Creek Valley based on modern petrophysical techniques. The data will be useful for grou...

J. Dorsch

1997-01-01

53

Interrelationships between shell quality and egg production and egg and shell weights in white leghorn and white rock hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrelationships between shell quality, production rate, egg and shell weights in relation to seasonal changes were compared in White Leghorn (WL) and White Rock (WR) hens. An increase in the average egg weight was observed in both breeds during the hot summer months. The weight and quality of the shell decreased gradually in eggs laid by WL hens, but increased

M. Perek; N. Snapir

1970-01-01

54

Rock-Eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance results from the Sheep Creek 1 well, Susitna basin, south-central Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used Rock-Eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance to examine the petroleum source potential of rock samples from the Sheep Creek 1 well in the Susitna basin of south-central Alaska. The results show that Miocene nonmarine coal, carbonaceous shale, and mudstone are potential sources of hydrocarbons and are thermally immature with respect to the oil window. In the samples that we studied, coals are more organic-rich and more oil-prone than carbonaceous shales and silty mudstones, which appear to be potential sources of natural gas. Lithologically similar rocks may be present in the deeper parts of the subsurface Susitna basin located west of the Sheep Creek 1 well, where they may have been buried deeply enough to generate oil and (or) gas. The Susitna basin is sparsely drilled and mostly unexplored, and no commercial production of hydrocarbons has been obtained. However, the existence of potential source rocks of oil and gas, as shown by our Rock-Eval results, suggests that undiscovered petroleum accumulations may be present in the Susitna basin.

Stanley, Richard G.; Lillis, Paul G.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Haeussler, Peter J.

2014-01-01

55

Food of white perch, rock bass and yellow perch in eastern Lake Ontario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contents of stomachs from 1,485 white perch, 218 rock bass and 1,399 yellow perch collected in eastern Lake Ontario from May to October in 1972 and in May 1973 were examined. All three species fed primarily on amphipods, but they also ate chironomids and trichopterans regularly. Rock bass ate more trichopterans than chironomids, whereas white perch and yellow perch ate more chironomids. Snails and crayfish were significant items in the diet of rock bass, but occurred infrequently in stomachs of white perch and yellow perch. White perch and yellow perch frequently ate fish eggs during early summer, but rock bass seldom ate fish eggs. Fish were important in the diets of white perch longer than 300 millimeters and rock bass and yellow perch longer than 200 millimeters. Similarities in the diets of fish 1 year old or older suggest that the potential for competition between white perch and yellow perch is greater than that between rock bass and either white perch or yellow perch.

Elrod, Joseph H.; Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.; Griswold, Bernard L.; Schneider, Clifford P.; Wolfert, David R.

1981-01-01

56

Selenium and Other Elements in Water and Adjacent Rock and Sediment of Toll Gate Creek, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, December 2003 through March 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streamwater and solid samples (rock, unconsolidated sediment, stream sediment, and efflorescent material) in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Colorado, were collected and analyzed for major and trace elements to determine trace-element concentrations and stream loads from December 2003 through March 2004, a period of seasonally low flow. Special emphasis was given to selenium (Se) concentrations because historic Se concentrations exceeded current (2004) stream standards. The goal of the project was to assess the distribution of Se concentration and loads in Toll Gate Creek and to determine the potential for rock and unconsolidated sediment in the basin to be sources of Se to the streamwater. Streamwater samples and discharge measurements were collected during December 2003 and March 2004 along Toll Gate Creek and its two primary tributaries - West Toll Gate Creek and East Toll Gate Creek. During both sampling periods, discharge ranged from 2.5 liters per second to 138 liters per second in the watershed. Discharge was greater in March 2004 than December 2003, but both periods represent low flow in Toll Gate Creek, and results of this study should not be extended to periods of higher flow. Discharge decreased moving downstream in East Toll Gate Creek but increased moving downstream along West Toll Gate Creek and the main stem of Toll Gate Creek, indicating that these two streams gain flow from ground water. Se concentrations in streamwater samples ranged from 7 to 70 micrograms per liter, were elevated in the upstream-most samples, and were greater than the State stream standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter. Se loads ranged from 6 grams per day to 250 grams per day, decreased in a downstream direction along East Toll Gate Creek, and increased in a downstream direction along West Toll Gate Creek and Toll Gate Creek. The largest Se-load increases occurred between two sampling locations on West Toll Gate Creek during both sampling periods and between the two sampling locations on the main stem of Toll Gate Creek during the December 2003 sampling. These load increases may indicate that sources of Se exist between these two locations; however, Se loading along West Toll Gate Creek and Toll Gate Creek primarily was characterized by gradual downstream increases in load. Linear regressions between Se load and discharge for both sampling periods had large, significant values of r2 (r2 > 0.96, p < 0.0001) because increases in Se load (per unit of flow increase) were generally constant. This relation is evidence for a constant addition of water having a relatively constant Se concentration over much of the length of Toll Gate Creek, a result which is consistent with a ground-water source for the Se loads. Rock outcroppings along the stream were highly weathered, and Se concentrations in rock and other solid samples ranged from below detection (1 part per million) to 25 parts per million. One sample of efflorescence (a surface encrustation produced by evaporation) had the greatest selenium concentration of all solid samples, was composed of thenardite (sodium sulfate), gypsum (calcium sulfate) and minor halite (sodium chloride), and released all of its Se during a 30-minute water-leaching procedure. Calculations indicate there was an insufficient amount of this material present throughout the watershed to account for the observed Se load in the stream. However, this material likely indicates zones of ground-water discharge that contain Se. This report did not identify an unequivocal source of Se in Toll Gate Creek. However, multiple lines of evidence indicate that ground-water discharge supplies Se to Toll Gate Creek: (1) the occurrence of elevated Se concentrations in the stream throughout the watershed and in the headwater regions, upstream from industrial sources; (2) the progressive increase in Se loads moving downstream, which indicates a continuous input of Se along the stream rather than input from point sources; (3) the occurr

Herring, J. R.; Walton-Day, Katherine

2007-01-01

57

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River  

SciTech Connect

On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

1991-09-01

58

Mars' "White Rock" feature lacks evidence of an aqueous origin: Results from Mars Global Surveyor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The "White Rock" feature on Mars has long been viewed as a type example for a Martian playa largely because of its apparent high albedo along with its location in a topographic basin (a crater). Data from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) demonstrate that White Rock is not anomalously bright relative to other Martian bright regions, reducing the significance of its albedo and weakening the analogy to terrestrial playas. Its thermal inertia value indicates that it is not mantled by a layer of loose dust, nor is it bedrock. The thermal infrared spectrum of White Rock shows no obvious features of carbonates or sulfates and is, in fact, spectrally flat. Images from the Mars Orbiter Camera show that the White Rock massifs are consolidated enough to retain slopes and allow the passage of saltating grains over their surfaces. Material appears to be shed from the massifs and is concentrated at the crests of nearby bedforms. One explanation for these observations is that White Rock is an eroded accumulation of compacted or weakly cemented aeolian sediment. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

Ruff, S. W.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, R. N.; Kieffer, H. H.; Malin, M. C.; Bandfield, J. L.; Jakosky, B. M.; Lane, M. D.; Mellon, M. T.; Presley, M. A.

2001-01-01

59

Overview of shallow gas production from Eagle-equipment rocks south and east of Cedar Creek Anticline  

SciTech Connect

Shallow gas has been produced for more than fifty years from Eagle-equivalent Cretaceous sandstones on Cedar Creek Anticline in eastern Montana. In the last two decades four fields have been developed off the south and east flanks of the anticline: (1) West Short Pine Hills and (2) Cady Creek in Harding County, SD; (3) Gaslight in Fallon County, MT; and (4) Little Missouri in Bowman County, ND. Paleogeographic reconstructions indicate that the reservoir rocks in all four fields were deposited near an outer shelf margin more than 200 mi (322 km) east of the strandline. West Short Pine Hills and Cady Creek Fields are located within a sandstone sheet up to 15 ft (4.6 m) thick. Gaslight Field is near the margin of the sheet and has thinner sandstones. In Little Missouri Field the reservoir is primarily interbedded siltstone and shale. Regional lineament zones mapped on satellite images influenced Cretaceous deposition and were also the sites of post-depositional deformation. The South Dakota gas fields are located within a tectonic block well away from bounding lineament zones. Gaslight is within a northeast-trending lineament zone and Little Missouri is at the intersection of lineament zones trending north-east and northwest. Production in Little Missouri Field is clearly influenced by structure. Values of initial production and marker-bed elevation show a strong correlation. Wells with large IP values are found along the crest of a small anticline and show steeper decline curves than wells with small IP values at the margins of the structure. In contrast, IP values show little correlation with structural altitude in the gas fields of South Dakota and Montana.

Shurr, G.W. [St. Cloud State Univ., MN (United States)

1996-06-01

60

Sampling and Analysis Plan for White Oak Creek Watershed Remedial Investigation supplemental sampling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis (SAP) presents the project requirements for proposed soil sampling to support the White Oak Creek Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During the Data Quality Objectives process for the project, it was determined that limited surface soils sampling is need to supplement the historical environmental characterization database. The primary driver for the additional sampling is the need to identify potential human health and ecological risks at various sites that have not yet proceeded through a remedial investigation. These sites include Waste Area Grouping (WAG)3, WAG 4, WAG 7, and WAG 9. WAG 4 efforts are limited to nonradiological characterization since recent seep characterization activities at the WAG have defined the radiological problem there.

NONE

1996-05-01

61

Upper Snake Rock Watershed Management Plan-Modification. A Modification of Mid-Snake TMDL and Upper Snake Rock TDML to Account for the Aquaculture Wasteload Allocation. Part One: Fish Production Facilities and Conservation Hatcheries; Part Two: Fish Processors; and Part Three: Billingsley Creek Facilties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the modification of three total maximum daily loads (TMDLs): the Middle Snake River Watershed Management Plan (or Mid-Snake TMDL), the Upper Snake Rock Watershed Management Plan (or Upper Snake Rock TMDL), and the Billingsley Creek...

2005-01-01

62

68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

63

Geochemical and stable isotope variations in baseflow from an urbanized watershed: White Rock Creek, Dallas, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Public concerns about surface water quality and its impact on health issues have put a premium on the ability to predict surface and groundwater quality in urban areas. The movement of toxins and nutrients in urban areas is largely controlled by interactions with soil and aquifer minerals along hydrologic pathways. Despite progress in theoretical modeling of the effects of these interactions on water chemistry, it is presently impossible to predict overall trends in urban water quality. Determining the controls on stream water chemistry is problematic due to the interplay between different hydrologic reservoirs which cannot be easily observed or measured. Natural tracers, such as dissolved ions and isotopes, provide an indirect method for observing subsurface interactions and are useful for time series analysis of stream water composition. Ionic species are generally nonconservative components because of chemical reactions and are thus useful for discerning the overall discharge chemistry affected by the relationship.

Hercod, D.J.; Gregory, R.T. [State Medical Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Brady, P.V. [State Medical Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-03-01

64

Analytical results for 56 rock, 46 stream-sediment and soil, and 22 panned-concentrate samples from the Welcome Creek Wilderness Study Area, Granite County, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty-six rock, 46 stream-sediment, and 22 panned-concentrate samples were collected from the Welcome Creek Wilderness, Granite County, Montana, during the summers of 1979 and 1980. All samples were analyzed for 31 elements by a six-step semiquantitative emission spectrographic method (Grimes and Marranzino, 1968). All panned concentrate and other selected samples were analyzed for gold by an atomic absorption procedure (Thompson and others, 1968). All rock and stream-sediment samples were also analyzed for Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn by a partial-digestion procedure (Viets and others, 1979). Sample analyses and locations are presented in this report.

Campbell, W. L.; Lee, G. K.; Antweiler, J. C.; Hopkins, R. T.

1983-01-01

65

White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C  

SciTech Connect

This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy`s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings.

NONE

1996-11-01

66

Geology of the lower Yellow Creek Area, Northwestern Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The lower Yellow Creek area is located in Rio Blanco and Moffat Counties of northwestern Colorado, about midway between the towns of Rangely and Meeker. The study area is in the northwestern part of the Piceance Creek basin, a very deep structural and sedimentary basin that formed during the Laramide orogeny. Potentially important resources in the area are oil shale and related minerals, oil and gas, coal, and uranium. Topics discussed in the report include: Stratigraphy (Subsurface rocks, Cretaceous rocks, Tertiary rocks, and Quaternary deposits); Structure (Midland anticline, graben at Pinyon Ridge, and Crooked Wash syncline, Folds and faults in the vicinity of the White River, Red Wash syncline and central graben zone, Yellow Creek anticlinal nose); Economic geology (Oil shale and associated minerals, Coal, Oil and gas, Uranium, Gravel).

Hail, W.J.

1990-01-01

67

Stoping & Screen Formation In The Wooley Creek Batholith And Andalshatten Pluton: Complex Pluton - Host Rock Interactions During Magma Emplacement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of xenoliths in plutons is often assumed to either be due to stoping or the formation of screens. Stoped blocks are defined as having undergone significant translation, rotation, and/or internal deformation while incorporated in the magma, while screens are considered to be relatively in situ. However, there remains much controversy as to 1) the relative spatial distribution of xenoliths/screens in plutons; 2) the degree to which xenoliths/screens may or may not have moved within the magma; 3) the extent of melting and assimilation xenoliths undergo; and 4) the mechanism by which xenoliths and screens are incorporated into plutons. We describe field and structural relations from the tilted Wooley Creek batholith (WCb) and the mid-crustal Andalshatten pluton (AHp). Both intrusions preserve xenoliths/screens of a variety of lithologies that correspond to the host rocks. The WCb is a 158-155 MA tilted intrusion emplaced into a series of accreted terranes in the Marble Mountains Wilderness, Klamath Mountains, CA. Previous work has demonstrated that the WCb is complexly zoned, and can be divided into three distinct structural units: a structurally deep unit ranging from gabbro to tonalite, a structurally shallow unit ranging from diorite to granite, and an intermediate unit of intensely deformed quartz diorite and tonalite. Numerous xenoliths of metric to centimetric scale occur in this intermediate zone, as well as in proximity to the pluton roof as exposed along the southern contact. While many of these xenoliths have internal structures that are discordant to those found in the host rock, others seem to maintain concordance with the regional bedding, and are identified as screens. In nearly all cases, xenoliths appear partially migmatitic, and veining of the host magma into them is common. The 442 Ma AHp is a large, predominantly granodioritic pluton in the Bindal Batholith. It intrudes four lithologically distinct and structurally complex nappes of the Helgeland Nappe Complex in Norway. Although fairly homogeneous, the pluton consists of at least four distinct pulses of magma including gneissic granodiorite, megacrystic granodiorite, diorite, and leucogranite. The spatial distribution of the xenoliths/screens is systematic and coincident with west-to-east lithologic and structural variation in the host rocks. Kilometer-scale screens show no evidence of deformation within the magma, while subkilometric xenoliths contain internal fabric which is oblique or orthogonal to fabrics in the large screens and surrounding host rocks and commonly display plastic deformation. Extensive mapping of the pluton indicates that: 1) magma was emplaced in sheet-like pulses that may have been several kilometers wide; 2) emplacement of sheets isolated the largest screens from the host rocks; 3) stoping and lateral/downward ductile displacement of host rocks occurred to facilitate space for the pluton; 4) magmatic fabric formation likely occurred after emplacement of the diorite, relatively late in the emplacement process.

Yoshinobu, A. S.; Hargrove, B.

2010-12-01

68

Overview of shallow gas production from Eagle-equipment rocks south and east of Cedar Creek Anticline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow gas has been produced for more than fifty years from Eagle-equivalent Cretaceous sandstones on Cedar Creek Anticline in eastern Montana. In the last two decades four fields have been developed off the south and east flanks of the anticline: (1) West Short Pine Hills and (2) Cady Creek in Harding County, SD; (3) Gaslight in Fallon County, MT; and

Shurr

1996-01-01

69

Pesticides in groundwater in the Anacostia River and Rock Creek watersheds in Washington, D.C., 2005 and 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the District Department of the Environment, conducted a groundwater-quality investigation to (a) determine the presence, concentrations, and distribution of selected pesticides in groundwater, and (b) assess the presence of pesticides in groundwater in relation to selected landscape, hydrogeologic, and groundwater-quality characteristics in the shallow groundwater underlying the Anacostia River and Rock Creek watersheds in Washington, D.C. With one exception, well depths were 100 feet or less below land surface. The USGS obtained or compiled ancillary data and information on land use (2001), subsurface sediments, and groundwater samples from 17 wells in the lower Anacostia River watershed from September through December 2005, and from 14 wells in the lower Anacostia River and lower Rock Creek watersheds from August through September 2008. Twenty-seven pesticide compounds, reflecting at least 19 different types of pesticides, were detected in the groundwater samples obtained in 2005 and 2008. No fungicides were detected. In relation to the pesticides detected, degradate compounds were as or more likely to be detected than applied (parent) compounds. The detected pesticides chiefly reflected herbicides commonly used in urban settings for non-specific weed control or insecticides used for nonspecific haustellate insects (insects with specialized mouthparts for sucking liquid) or termite-specific control. Detected pesticides included a combination of pesticides currently (2008) in use, banned or under highly restricted use, and some that had replaced the banned or restricted-use pesticides. The presence of banned and restricted-use pesticides illustrates their continued persistence and resistance to complete degradation in the environment. The presence of the replacement pesticides indicates the susceptibility of the surficial aquifer to contamination irrespective of the changes in the pesticides used. A preliminary review of the data collected in 2005 and 2008 indicated that differences in the surficial geology, land use (as a surrogate for pesticide use), and above-average precipitation for most of 2004 through 2008, as well as differences in the number and performance of USGS laboratory methods used, could have led to more pesticides detected in groundwater samples collected in 2008 than in groundwater samples collected in 2005. Thus, although data from both years of collection were used for interpretive analysis, emphasis was placed on the analysis of the data obtained in 2008. The presence of pesticides in shallow groundwater (less than approximately 100 ft (feet), or 30 m (meters), below land surface) indicated at least the upper surficial aquifer in Washington, D.C. was susceptible to contamination. One or more herbicides or insecticides were detected in groundwater samples collected from 50 percent of the shallow wells sampled in 2005, and from 62 percent of the shallow wells sampled in 2008. Differences among types of pesticides in shallow groundwater were apparent. The most frequently detected class of herbicides was the s-triazine compounds-atrazine, simazine, or prometon, or the atrazine-degradate compounds-2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (desethylatrazine or CIAT) and 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (hydroxyatrazine or OIET). The next most frequently detected classes of herbicides were the chloroacetanilides, including metolachlor and acetochlor, and the ureic herbicides, including diuron (and degradate, 3,4-dichloroaniline), fluometuron, metsulfuron methyl, sulfameturon, bromacil, and tebuthiuron. Insecticides also were detected, but less frequently than herbicides, with one or more insecticides present in groundwater samples from 38 percent of shallow wells sampled in 2008. Detected insecticides included parent or degradate compounds commonly used for either nonspecific or haustellate (sucking) insects, including chlorpyri

Koterba, Michael T.; Dieter, Cheryl A.; Miller, Cherie V.

2010-01-01

70

Long-term water quality and biological responses to multiple best management practices in Rock Creek, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality and macroinvertebrate assemblage data from 1981 to 2005 were assessed to evaluate the water quality and biological responses of a western trout stream to the implementation of multiple best management practices (BMPs) on irrigated cropland. Data from Rock Creek near Twin Falls, Idaho, a long-term monitoring site, were assembled from state and federal sources to provide the evaluation. Seasonal loads of the nonpoint source pollutants suspended sediment (SS), total phosphorus (TP), and nitrate-nitrite (NN) were estimated using a regression model with time-series streamflow data and constituent concentrations. Trends in the macroinvertebrate assemblages were evaluated using a number of biological metrics and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination. Regression analysis found significant annual decreases in TP and SS flow-adjusted concentrations during the BMP implementation period from 1983 to 1990 of about 7 and 10%, respectively. These results are coincident with the implementation of multiple BMPs on about 75% of the irrigated cropland in the watershed. Macroinvertebrate assemblages during this time also responded with a change in taxa composition resulting in improved biotic index scores. Taxon specific TP and SS optima, empirically derived from a large national dataset, predicted a decrease in SS concentrations of about 37% (52 to 33 mg/l) and a decrease in TP concentrations of about 50% (0.20 to 0.10 mg/l) from 1981 to 1987. Decreasing trends in TP, SS, and NN pollutant loads were primarily the result of naturally low streamflow conditions during the BMP post-implementation period from 1993 to 2005. Trends in macroinvertebrate responses during 1993 to 2005 were confounded by the introduction of the New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which approached densities of 100,000 per m 2 in riffle habitat. The occurrence of this invasive species appears to have caused a major shift in composition and function of the macroinvertebrate assemblages. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

Maret, T. R.; MacCoy, D. E.; Carlisle, D. M.

2008-01-01

71

Rotation of Plio-Pleistocene Sedimentary Rocks in the Fish Creek Vallecito Basin, Western Salton Trough, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of paleomagnetism to the study of vertical axis rotations in deformed regions can be used to test estimates of block rotation derived from other methods, such as GPS, with many implications for our understanding of crustal deformation and seismic hazard. We present results of a study that compares magnetization directions obtained by a combination of low-temperature and thermal demagnetization experiments that is inspired by the work of David Dunlop and his colleagues. The magnetostratigraphy of Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin (FCVB), southern California, is well documented (Opdyke et al., 1977; Johnson et al., 1983), who found these rocks to contain a complete record of geomagnetic field reversals spanning Plio-Pleistocene time. Johnson et al. (1983) also concluded that the FCVB had undergone 35° of CW rotation during the past 0.9 Ma. We resampled and reanalyzed their section in order to better document the amount of vertical axis rotation recorded by these rocks. Initial results from 29 sites have well-defined magnetizations with two components. Low temperature (77 K) demagnetization produced 5 to 15% drops in NRM intensity. The first removed component in all samples is unblocked between 90 and 220 °C, and the second-removed components are unblocked between 300 and 590 °C. These two components have sharp and well-defined LT-HT junctions in most samples, indicating SD-like magnetizations. We thus interpret the first-removed component to represent a thermo-viscous magnetization acquired during the past 500-700 ka. The mean of this component is D = 358.4, I = 56.8, k =111, ?95 = 2.6°, N = 29. The second-removed components have either normal or reverse polarity. Due to gentle and mostly homoclinal bedding dips, paleomagnetic fold tests are statistically inconclusive, but do show stratigraphic variation in degree of maximum clustering as a function of tilting. Sites from the upper portion of the section have directions that are best clustered at 0-40% untilting, and sites from the base of the section have directions that are best-clustered at 80-100% untilting. For this initial interpretation, results are tilt-corrected for maximum degree of clustering. Sites from near the base of the section (Diablo Fm) are predominately reverse and have a mean of D = 204, I = -48.3, k = 37, ?95 = 12.7°, N = 5. Sites from the middle of the section (Olla and Tapiado Fms) are predominantly normal and have a mean of D = 8.1, I = 48, k = 32, ?95 = 8.7°, N = 10. Sites from the upper portion of the section (Hueso Fm) have predominately reverse polarity with means of D = 179.6, I = -43.4, k = 82, ?95 = 10.2°, N = 4. Based on these results and correlations between the magnetostratigraphy of this section with the polarity timescale we tentatively conclude that little or no CW rotation has occurred in the FCVB during the past 2 Ma. Larger (24° CW) rotations are recorded by the 3-4 Ma rocks of the Diablo Fm, indicating that significant rotation occurred between 2 and 3 Ma. We tentatively ascribe slowing of the rotation rate in the FCVB to still poorly understood evolution of the west Salton detachment fault system. The relative lack of rotation since 2 Ma suggests that younger, post-detachment strike-slip faulting has not produced significant CW rotation between the San Jacinto and Elsinore faults.

Housen, B. A.; Dorsey, R. J.; Janecke, S. U.; Axen, G. J.

2005-12-01

72

Landslides and other mass movements near TA-33, northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Massive slump complexes and at least two rock avalanches flank the eastern rim of the Pajarito Plateau along northern White Rock Canyon, north of TA-33. Landslides failed along mechanically weak rocks in the Santa Fe Group, within the Puye Formation, or in Pliocene alluvial and lacustrine units. The landslides are mainly of early or middle Pleistocene age. The toe area of at least,one slump complex has been active in the late Pleistocene, damming White Rock Canyon near the mouth of Water Canyon. Lacustrine sediment that filled this lake, or series of lakes, to an elevation of at least 1710 m is preserved at a number of upstream sites, including a deposit near the Buckman townsite that exposes 30 m of lacustrine sediment. Charcoal collected at several sites has been submitted for {sup 14}C dating. Landslides, however, probably do not represent a significant short-term threat to the material disposal areas at TA-33. Bedrock that lies beneath the TA-33 mesa is relatively stable, the mesa shows no signs of incipient failure, and past periods of slide activity were responses to rapid downcutting of the Rio Grande and climate change, probably over periods of several decades, at least. Rockfall and headward erosion of gullies do not represent significant decadal hazards on canyon rims near TA-33. Gully migration near MDA-K is a potential threat, but the gullies were not examined in detail. A system of north-trending faults, at least one of which displays Pleistocene activity, bisects the TA-33 mesa. If these faults are capable of producing significant seismic shaking, generalizations about landslide and rockfall hazards must be reevaluated.

Dethier, D.P.

1993-09-01

73

Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year we are going to learn about rocks. Do you like to collect rocks? Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. So you want to learn about rocks? Go to Intro to Rocks for some fascinating facts about rocks! Now lets learn about some of the different kinds of rocks. Igneous Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Click here to see the differences between the types of rocks that you have learned about What Type Of Rock Do I Have?. After doing all the activities above, ...

Woodruff, Mrs.

2010-06-21

74

2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY AND WHITE MOUNTAINS IN BACKGROUND, SOUTH LAKE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

75

Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River  

SciTech Connect

In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

Loar, J.M. [ed.] [ed.

1994-04-01

76

A first look at Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data in an area of altered volcanic rocks and carbonate formations, Hot Creek Range, south central Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three flight lines of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected in 128 bands between 1.2 and 2.4 microns in the Hot Creek Range, Nevada on July 25, 1984. The flight lines are underlain by hydrothermally altered and unaltered Paleozoic carbonates and Tertiary rhyolitic to latitic volcanics in the Tybo mining district. The original project objectives were to discriminate carbonate rocks from other rock types, to distinguish limestone from dolomite, and to discriminate carbonate units from each other using AIS imagery. Because of high cloud cover over the prime carbonate flight line and because of the acquisition of another flight line in altered and unaltered volcanics, the study has been extended to the discrimination of alteration products. In an area of altered and unaltered rhyolites and latites in Red Rock Canyon, altered and unaltered rock could be discriminated from each other using spectral features in the 1.16 to 2.34 micron range. The altered spectral signatures resembled montmorillonite and kaolinite. Field samples were gathered and the presence of montmorillonite was confirmed by X-ray analysis.

Feldman, S. C.; Taranik, J. V.; Mouat, D. A.

1985-01-01

77

Audiomagnetotelluric data to characterize the Revett-type copper-silver deposits at Rock Creek in the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Revett-type deposits at Rock Creek are part of the concealed stratabound copper-silver deposits located in the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness of Montana. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources data are being evaluated with existing and new mineral deposit models to predict the possibility and probability of undiscovered deposits in covered terranes. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and depth of the mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional southwest-northeast audiomagnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. Further studies will attempt to determine if induced polarization parameters can be extracted from the magnetotelluric data to determine the size of the mineralized area. The purpose of this report is to release the audiomagnetotelluric sounding data collected along that southwest-northeast profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

2011-01-01

78

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes, for the 12-month period January through December 1994, the available dynamic hydrologic data collected on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed as well as information collected on surface flow systems in the surrounding vicinity that may affect the quality or quantity of surface water in the watershed. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to characterize the quantity and quality of water in the surface flow system, assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities, provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance of these data, and support long-term measures of contaminant fluxes at a spatial scale to provide a comprehensive picture of watershed performance that is commensurate with future remedial actions.

Borders, D.M.; Ziegler, K.S.; Reece, D.K.; Watts, J.A.; Frederick, B.J.; McCalla, W.L.; Pridmore, D.J.

1995-08-01

79

Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive lesson about rocks that are found on Earth starts with a discussion of the lithosphere, granite rock and soil formation and then unifies this information with the rock cycle and the system of rock classification. Granite rock and some of its minerals, milky quartz, pink feldspar, hornblende, and biotite mica are then discussed. The site contains a review and a quiz and there are instructions for a hands on activity if the rocks and minerals are available.

80

Multifractal magnetic susceptibility distribution models of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Needle Creek Igneous Center of the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Magnetic susceptibility was measured for 700 samples of drill core from thirteen drill holes in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit of the Stinkingwater mining district in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. The magnetic susceptibility measurements, chemical analyses, and alteration class provided a database for study of magnetic susceptibility in these altered rocks. The distribution of the magnetic susceptibilities for all samples is multi-modal, with overlapping peaked distributions for samples in the propylitic and phyllic alteration class, a tail of higher susceptibilities for potassic alteration, and an approximately uniform distribution over a narrow range at the highest susceptibilities for unaltered rocks. Samples from all alteration and mineralization classes show susceptibilities across a wide range of values. Samples with secondary (supergene) alteration due to oxidation or enrichment show lower susceptibilities than primary (hypogene) alteration rock. Observed magnetic susceptibility variations and the monolithological character of the host rock suggest that the variations are due to varying degrees of alteration of blocks of rock between fractures that conducted hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of rock from the fractures inward progressively reduces the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the rock. The model introduced in this paper consists of a simulation of the fracture pattern and a simulation of the alteration of the rock between fractures. A multifractal model generated from multiplicative cascades with unequal ratios produces distributions statistically similar to the observed distributions. The reduction in susceptibility in the altered rocks was modelled as a diffusion process operating on the fracture distribution support. The average magnetic susceptibility was then computed for each block. For the purpose of comparing the model results with observation, the simulated magnetic susceptibilities were then averaged over the same interval as the measured data. Comparisons of the model and data from drillholes show good but not perfect agreement. ?? 2005 Author(s). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.

Gettings, M. E.

2005-01-01

81

Lateral variability in the Corcoran and Cozzette blanket sandstone and associated Mesaverde rocks, Piceance Creek Basin, northwestern Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread sandstone members of the Lower Mesaverde Group (the Iles Formation) in the Piceance Creek basin have significant laterial variability within an overall blanket morphology. This variability is seen in the Corcoran and Cozzette Sandstone members in the closely-spaced Multi-Well Experiment (MWX) wells, and is interpreted from nearby outcrops along the Grand Hogback. Much of the lateral variability consists of thickness changes of both the sandstones and the interbedded lithologies. The locations of the thickest blanket deposits (the best potential reservoirs) may be a function of the locations of principal distributary systems. For the delta plain deposits, the main source of natural gas is the interbedded coals which should be thickest where distributaries were least abundant.

Lorenz, J. C.

82

Effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on semen quality and serum total cholesterol content in White Plymouth Rock-mini cocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribulus terrestris extract was added to the water of 10 cocks from the population White Plymouth Rock - mini cocks once daily in dose 10mg\\/kg body weight for a period of 11weeks. The trial lasted 20 weeks-1week preparatory and 19 weeks experimental period. Eight weeks of the experimental period were intended to measure the aftereffect of the tested product. It

S. Grigorova; B. Kashamov; V. Sredkova; S. Surdjiiska; H. Zlatev

2008-01-01

83

Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water-quality characteristics of streams in the western part of the Snake River headwaters area were compared to water-quality characteristics of streams sampled in 2002 in the eastern part of the headwaters area. The median dissolved-solids concentration (55 milligrams per liter) for samples collected from western streams was smaller than the median dissolved-solids concentration (125 milligrams per liter) for samples collected from eastern streams. The small dissolved-solids concentrations in the western streams are a result of the large areas underlain by resistant Precambrian-era rocks that compose the Teton Range compared to the more erodable Mesozoic-era sedimentary rocks that compose the mountains in the eastern part of the headwaters area. The Teton Range also receives higher annual precipitation than the mountains in the east. The median total-nitrogen concentration (0.17 milligram per liter) in samples collected from streams in the western part of the Snake River headwaters area was larger than the median concentration (0.10 milligram per liter) for samples collected from streams in the eastern part of the headwaters area, in part because of larger dissolved-nitrate concentrations in samples from the western streams compared to the eastern streams. In contrast, total-phosphorus concentrations generally were larger for samples collected from eastern streams. Large total-phosphorus concentrations in the eastern streams were associated with large suspended-sediment concentrations. The source of the phosphorus and sediment probably is Mesozoic-era sedimentary rocks of marine origin that underlie parts of the eastern drainage basins.

Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

2007-01-01

84

40Ar/39Ar Data for White Mica, Biotite, and K-Feldspar Samples from Low-Grade Metamorphic Rocks in the Westminster Terrane and Adjacent Rocks, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains reduced 40Ar/39Ar data of white mica and K-feldspar mineral separates and matrix of a whole rock phyllite, all from low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Westminster terrane and adjacent strata in central Maryland. This report presents these data in a preliminary form, but in more detail than can be accommodated in todays professional journals. Also included in this report is information on the location of the samples and a brief description of the samples. The data contained herein are not interpreted in a geological context, and care should be taken by readers unfamiliar with argon isotopic data in the use of these results; many of the individual apparent ages are not geologically meaningful. This report is primarily a detailed source document for subsequent publications that will integrate these data into a geological context.

Kunk, Michael J.; McAleer, Ryan

2008-01-01

85

77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...herd by either sharpshooting or capture and euthanasia of individual deer. Capture and euthanasia of individual deer would be an approach...include both sharpshooting and capture/euthanasia and would be taken initially to...

2012-01-11

86

Annual hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek Watershed: Water Year 1990 (October 1989--September 1990)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes, for the Water Year 1990 (October 1989-- September 1990), the dynamic hydrologic data collected on the Whiteoak Creek (WOC) Watershed's surface and subsurface flow systems. These systems affect the quality or quantity of surface water and groundwater. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to 1. characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow system, 2. plan and assess remedial action activities, and 3. provide long-term availability of data and assure quality. Characterizing the hydrology of the WOC watershed provides a better understanding of the processes which drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identifying of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. Hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. The majority of the data summarized in this report are available from the Remedial Action Programs Data and Information Management System data base. Surface water data available within the WOC flow system include discharge and runoff, surface water quality, radiological and chemical contamination of sediments, and descriptions of the outfalls to the WOC flow system. Climatological data available for the Oak Ridge area include precipitation, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction. Information on groundwater levels, aquifer characteristics, and groundwater quality are presented. Anomalies in the data and problems with monitoring and accuracy are discussed. 58 refs., 54 figs., 15 tabs.

Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Moore, G.K.; Watts, J.A.; Broders, C.C.; Bednarek, A.T.

1991-09-01

87

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (January--December 1993)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes, for the 12-month period (January through December 1993), the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily, on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed along with information collected on the surface flow systems which affect the quality or quantity of surface water. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data, an activity that contributes to the Site Investigations (SI) component of the ERP. This report provides and describes sources of hydrologic data for Environmental Restoration activities that use monitoring data to quantify and assess the impact from releases of contaminants from ORNL WAGs.

Borders, D.M.; Frederick, B.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Reece, D.K.; McCalla, W.L. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watts, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Ziegler, K.S. [Midwest Technical, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-10-01

88

White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 1 Main Text  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Remedial Investigation (RI) report is to present an analysis of the Melton Valley portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of cost-effective remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. In this RI existing levels of contamination and radiological exposure are compared to levels acceptable for future industrial and potential recreational use levels at the site. This comparison provides a perspective for the magnitude of remedial actions required to achieve a site condition compatible with relaxed access restrictions over existing conditions. Ecological risk will be assessed to evaluate measures required for ecological receptor protection. For each subbasin, this report will provide site-specific analyses of the physical setting including identification of contaminant source areas, description of contaminant transport pathways, identification of release mechanisms, analysis of contaminant source interactions with groundwater, identification of secondary contaminated media associated with the source and seepage pathways, assessment of potential human health and ecological risks from exposure to contaminants, ranking of each source area within the subwatershed, and outline the conditions that remedial technologies must address to stop present and future contaminant releases, prevent the spread of contamination and achieve the goal of limiting environmental contamination to be consistent with a potential recreational use of the site.

NONE

1996-11-01

89

Polymorphobacter multimanifer gen. nov., sp. nov., a polymorphic bacterium isolated from antarctic white rock.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, aerobic, oligotrophic bacterium (strain 262-7(T)) was isolated from a crack of white rock collected in the Skallen region of Antarctica. Strain 262-7(T) grew at temperatures between -4 and 30 °C, with optimal growth at 25 °C. The pH range for growth was between pH 6.0 and 9.0, with optimal growth at approximately pH 7.0. The NaCl concentration range allowing growth was between 0.0 and 1.0?%, with an optimum of 0.5?%. Strain 262-7(T) showed an unprecedented range of morphological diversity in response to growth conditions. Cells grown in liquid medium were circular or ovoid with smooth surfaces in the lag phase. In the exponential phase, ovoid cells with short projections were observed. Cells in the stationary phase possessed long tentacle-like projections intertwined intricately. By contrast, cells grown on agar plate medium or in liquid media containing organic compounds at low concentration exhibited short- and long-rod-shaped morphology. These projections and morphological variations clearly differ from those of previously described bacteria. Ubiquinone 10 was the major respiratory quinone. The major fatty acids were C17?:?1?6c (28.2?%), C16?:?1?7c (22.6?%), C18?:?1?7c (12.9?%) and C15?:?0 2-OH (12.3?%). The G+C content of genomic DNA was 68.0 mol%. Carotenoids were detected from the cells. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 262-7(T) belongs to the family Sphingomonadaceae, and that 262-7(T) should be distinguished from known genera in the family Sphingomonadaceae. According to the phylogenetic position, physiological characteristics and unique morphology variations, strain 262-7(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel genus of the family Sphingomonadaceae. Here, a novel genus and species with the name Polymorphobacter multimanifer gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed (type strain 262-7(T)?=?JCM 18140(T)?=?ATCC BAA-2413(T)). The novel species was named after its morphological diversity and formation of unique projections. PMID:24651306

Fukuda, Wakao; Chino, Yohzo; Araki, Shigeo; Kondo, Yuka; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Kanai, Tamotsu; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

2014-06-01

90

Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide explores rocks, from processes that can change them (such as weathering), to what can happen to them as they move through the rock cycle. Using this guide, teachers of middle school students will focus on the tangible process of sedimentary roc

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2009-07-01

91

Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will use sample sets of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks to learn how to identify the major rock types. They will write the key characteristics that would help them identify each of the rocks on the list. They will find and copy an image of each from the "Volcano World" slide show and answer the questions at the end of this activity. As a result of this lesson students will learn how to identify major rock types through their characteristic properties, especially through the Earth Science Reference Table identification charts, and understand how to find out what types of rocks can be found in a particular area using geologic maps, especially the one in the Earth Science Reference Table.

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, The E.

92

Rb?Sr systematics of the Claret Creek Ring Complex and their bearing on the origin of upper Palaeozoic igneous rocks in northeast Queensland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Claret Creek Ring Complex forms a minor part of the extensive Upper Palaeozoic calcalkaline province of northeast Queensland. Although the Claret Creek Ring Complex contains 10 mappable units, it was formed about 300 m.y. ago over a time interval no greater than 10 m.y. This interval is short compared with the overall duration of Upper Palaeozoic igneous activity, which

L. P. Black

1980-01-01

93

A Peek into 'Alamogordo Creek'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3

On its 825th Martian day (May 20, 2006), NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity stopped for the weekend to place its instrument arm onto the soil target pictured here, dubbed 'Alamogordo Creek.' Two views from the panoramic camera, acquired at about noon local solar time, are at the top. Below them is a close-up view from the microscopic imager.

At upper left, a false-color view emphasizes differences among materials in rocks and soil. It combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. At upper right is an approximately true-color rendering made with the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters. The microscopic-imager frame covers the area outlined by the white boxes in the panoramic-camera views, a rectangle 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

As Opportunity traverses to the south, it is analyzing soil and rocks along the way for differences from those seen earlier. At this site, the soil contains abundant small spherical fragments, thought to be hematite-rich concretions, plus finer-grained basaltic sand. Most of the spherical fragments seen in the microscopic image are smaller than those first seen at the rover's landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' some five kilometers (3.1 miles) to the north. However, a few larger spherical fragments and other rock fragments can also be seen in the panoramic-camera images.

2006-01-01

94

Development of a large volume of eruptible mush in the upper Wooley Creek batholith, Klamath Mountains, California: evidence from bulk rock, mineral analyses and textural observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modalities of development of large volumes of mush in the middle to upper crust capable of erupting have been debated over the past few years. The existence of crystal-rich ignimbrites in the volcanic record indicate that eruptive products do not necessarily correspond to evacuation of the residual magma but that the mush itself can be drained during eruptive events. In this study we present a plutonic example of a large magma batch that evolved by fractional crystallization at a hundred km3 scale: the upper zone of the Wooley Creek batholith (WCb). The WCb is an intrusive complex emplaced over less than 3 m.y. (Kevin Chamberlain, personal communication). The upper zone grades upward from quartz diorite (53 wt% SiO2) to granite (70 wt% SiO2). Hornblende from the central and upper zone have rare earth element patterns that are parallel to one another and with REE concentrations and negative Eu anomalies that decrease from core to rim. The similarities of hornblende REE patterns throughout both the central and upper zones of the system (160 km2 of exposed area) suggest that hornblende crystallized from a magma batch of fairly homogeneous composition. Thus, upward changes in bulk composition between rocks at the bottom and the top of this unit result from varying mineral proportions, with more subhedral plagioclase and hornblende at the bottom and more anhedral to euhedral quartz and interstitial to poikilitic K-feldspar at the top. Two possible explanations are considered: 1) more felsic batches of magma were emplaced at the top of the system and more mafic ones were restricted to the bottom, 2) the upper zone acquired its upward compositional zoning through melt percolation, with the less dense felsic melt ponding at the roof of the system. In the first case, the similarity of hornblende REE patterns throughout the upper zone cannot be explained. Therefore, we favor the second explanation, which is also supported by the lack of sharp contacts in the upper zone. Individual magma batches in the central zone contain hornblende of similar composition as in the upper zone and are interpreted as a preserved part of the feeder system of the latter. Therefore the magma in both the central and upper WCb was already fairly homogeneous when it arrived at the level of emplacement. Dacitic to rhyodacitic roof dikes with30-40% phenocrysts of hornblende and plagioclase with compositions similar to those found in the central and upper zones indicate that the mush was once eruptible. The presence of quartz phenocrysts, which are only found in the uppermost portion of the upper zone, show that 'eruption' occurred after the development of the broad zoning of the upper zone and after more evolved melt had collected at the top of an underlying mush. This study introduces new tools to study magmatic reservoir evolution. The combination of bulk rock and mineral data allows assessment of the extent of mineral-melt separation and identification of the composition of a potential parental magma(s). These data can ideally be used to delimit the size of magma batches and constrain the scale of their chemical/physical connectivity.

Coint, N.; Barnes, C. G.; Barnes, M. A.; Yoshinobu, A. S.

2012-12-01

95

Metamorphic Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive lesson on metamorphic rocks starts with a review of the rock cycle and goes on to describe the relationship between metamorphic rocks and their parent rock. The lesson then describes the agents of metamorphism (temperature, pressure, and chemical change) and moves into a discussion on contact, regional, and dynamic metamorphism. The remainder of the lesson consists of descriptions of foliated rocks such as slate, schist, and gneiss, and the non-foliates exemplified by quartzite and white marble.

96

GEE CREEK WILDERNESS, TENNESSEE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mine and prospect surveys, it was determined that the Gee Creek Wilderness, Tennessee has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Iron ore was formerly mined, but the deposits are small, have a high phosphorous content, and are inaccessible. Shale, suitable for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, which could be utilized for crushed stone or sand, are found in the area, but are also found in areas closer to potential markets. The geologic setting precludes the presence of oil and gas resources in the surface rocks, but the possibility of finding natural gas at depth below the rocks exposed in the area cannot be discounted. Geophysical exploration would be necessary to define the local structure in rocks at depth to properly evaluate the potential of the area for gas.

Epstein, Jack, B.; Gazdik, Gertrude, C.

1984-01-01

97

Thermochronology of fault rocks from the mid-Miocene South Virgin-White Hills detachment, Arizona and Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most prominent low-angle normal fault systems in the Basin and Range province of the western U.S. is the ~100 km-long South Virgin-White Hills detachment. Multiple low-temperature thermochronometers have been used to document rapid Miocene exhumation of the footwall of this detachment, most notably within the Gold Butte block of southern Nevada. Less attention has been paid to the actual faults that comprise the detachment system, one of which (the Salt Spring fault) is very well-exposed over an along-strike distance of about 5 km just south of Lake Mead. In this location, the fault dips ~25° and separates Proterozoic crystalline rocks in the footwall from Tertiary gravels and volcanic rocks in the hanging wall. At one exceptional outcrop, the fault consists of a 9 m-thick stratified zone of brecciated granite in a clay matrix (fault breccia), overlain by a relatively thin (<1 m) layer of finer-grained, foliated, clay-rich fault gouge that is in direct contact with overlying Tertiary gravels. Clay minerals are a minor constituent of the crystalline footwall rocks but are abundant in the fault zone. We utilized apatite fission track and illite/muscovite 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology to investigate the thermal evolution of the fault gouge. Apatite grains entrained in the gouge have fission track ages of ~15 Ma, comparable to previously published apatite fission track ages from structurally deep parts of the Gold Butte block and the immediate footwall of the Salt Spring fault, near the fault rock sampling site. Encapsulated 40Ar/39Ar data from micron-scale size fractions of the gouge yield staircase-shaped step-heating spectra that reach maximum ages of 80 to 110 Ma. The primary K-bearing phases in these size fractions are illite and muscovite. In structurally deep parts of the Gold Butte block, previously published muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages are ~90 Ma. We interpret the staircase-shaped 40Ar/39Ar spectra of the fault gouge 1) to indicate the presence of retentive muscovite Ar domains with Late Cretaceous apparent ages, and 2) to result from the degassing of smaller, less retentive muscovite domains and/or mixing with younger, possibly less retentive illite formed authigenically in the fault zone. These 40Ar/39Ar and apatite fission track results suggest that along this particular segment of a major extensional system, mineral grains in fault gouge preserve thermochronological data that reflect the exhumation history of the footwall.

Verdel, C.; van der Pluijm, B. A.; Niemi, N. A.

2009-12-01

98

When did movement begin on the Furnace Creek fault zone  

SciTech Connect

About 50 km of post-Jurassic right-lateral slip has occurred on the northern part of the Furnace Creek fault zone (FCFZ). The sedimentology, stratigraphy, and structure of Tertiary rocks suggest that movement on the fault began no earlier than 12--8 Ma and possibly as late as 5--4 Ma. Large remnants of erosion surfaces occur on both sides of the FCFZ in the southern White Mountains and Fish Lake Valley and are buried by rhyolite and basalt, mostly 12--10 Ma; the ash flows and welded tuffs were likely erupted from sources at least 40 km to the east. Thus, the area probably had gentle topography, suggesting a lengthy period of pre-late Miocene tectonic stability. On the west side of the FCFZ, Cambrian sedimentary rocks are buried by a fanglomerate with an [sup [minus

Reheis, M. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-04-01

99

Exploratory electromyography in the study of vibration-induced white finger in rock drillers.  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological observations made in the hands of a group of 16 rock-drillers were compared with 15 controls. Motor and sensory conduction velocities in the median and ulnar nerves together with the latency, duration, and amplitude of the evoked action potentials were measured. The differences between the groups were statistically significant mainly in latency, duration, and amplitude, especially of the sensory action potentials. Measurement of the conduction velocities, in general, proved to be less sensitive, and the only significant change observed was in the sensory conduction velocity in the median nerve when the first digit in the right hand was stimulated. The most interesting result was evidence of an increased prevalence of possible carpal tunnel syndrome in the exposed (44% compared with 7% in the control group). A similar set of data, but exclusively sensory and not standardised for age and sex, was obtained from 25 university students for comparison with the assigned groups. The results showed that apart from sensory duration the control group had values that were closest to the students while the vibration group had values furthest away.

Chatterjee, D S; Barwick, D D; Petrie, A

1982-01-01

100

A land-use and water-quality history of White Rock Lake Reservoir, Dallas, Texas, based on paleolimnological analyses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White Rock Lake reservoir in Dallas, Texas contains a 150-cm sediment record of silty clay that documents land-use changes since its construction in 1912. Pollen analysis corroborates historical evidence that between 1912 and 1950 the watershed was primarily agricultural. Land disturbance by plowing coupled with strong and variable spring precipitation caused large amounts of sediment to enter the lake during this period. Diatoms were not preserved at this time probably because of low productivity compared to diatom dissolution by warm, alkaline water prior to burial in the sediments. After 1956, the watershed became progressively urbanized. Erosion decreased, land stabilized, and pollen of riparian trees increased as the lake water became somewhat less turbid. By 1986 the sediment record indicates that diatom productivity had increased beyond rates of diatom destruction. Neither increased nutrients nor reduced pesticides can account for increased diatom productivity, but grain size studies imply that before 1986 diatoms were light limited by high levels of turbidity. This study documents how reservoirs may relate to land-use practices and how watershed management could extend reservoir life and improve water quality.

Platt, Bradbury, J.; Van Metre, P. C.

1997-01-01

101

Sailing to White Boat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a composite red-green-blue image of the rock called White Boat. It is the first rock target that Spirit drove to after finishing a series of investigations on the rock Adirondack. White Boat stood out to scientists due to its light color and more tabular shape compared to the dark, rounded rocks that surround it.

2004-01-01

102

A multi-isotope approach to understanding the evolution of Cenozoic magmatism in the northeastern Basin and Range: Results from igneous rocks in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep crustal rocks exposed by extensional processes in metamorphic core complexes provide a unique opportunity to address the magmatic and isotopic evolution of the crust and assess the relative crust versus mantle contributions in Cenozoic igneous rocks exposed in the complexes. The Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex exposes mid-crustal rocks that resided at depths of ~15-20 km before the onset of Cenozoic extension. Three major Cenozoic magmatic events are represented in the complex and have been studied using multiple isotopic systems (whole rock Sr and Nd coupled with the Oxygen isotopes in zircon). These three major events are: (1) 42-31 Ma intrusion of a composite plutonic complex of calc-alkaline composition that intrudes both upper crustal rocks (~5-10 km depth) and deeper rocks. (2) A 32-25 Ma plutonic complex, with evolved calc-alkaline composition that intruded in the middle crust (~12-15 km depth), and (3) A 10-8 Ma bimodal (basalt-rhyolite) suite of volcanic rocks that contain high-T anhydrous mineral assemblages erupted across the complex. The pre-extensional crust consisted of an upper crust composed primarily of Neoproterozoic through Triassic metasedimentary rocks (schist and quartzite at its base and limestone at its top). The middle crust consists of late Archean orthogneiss with evolved composition (metamorphosed peraluminous granite) with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.800, ?Nd40~ -43.4 and ?18Ozirc ~5.7‰. The lower crust is inferred to have been composed of Precambrian intermediate composition igneous rocks with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.750, ?Nd40~ -37.5 and ?18Ozirc ~5.9‰, and Precambrian mafic rocks with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.717, ?Nd40~ -25 and ?18Ozirc ~7.0‰. Existing and new data indicate that the 42-31 Ma upper crustal plutonic complex ranges in isotopic composition from 87Sr/86Sri=0.709-0.712, ?Ndi=-15 to -25 and ?18Ozirc 4.7-6.5‰. The composition of the 32-25 Ma middle crustal plutonic complex ranges from 87Sr/86Sri=0.711-0.716, ?Ndi=-25 to -36 and ?18Ozirc 4.8-6.2‰. The collective data from the 42-25 Ma magmas indicate that they represent a protracted, genetically related magmatic event that progressively assimilated larger amounts of both middle and lower crust through time. New data from the Miocene (10-8 Ma) bimodal volcanic rocks indicate that their isotopic composition ranges from 87Sr/86Sri=0.706-0.714, ?Ndi=-3 to -8 and ?18Ozirc 0-5‰, most of the ?18Ozirc analyses are in the range of 1-3‰. These results indicate that the Miocene magmas assimilated variable amounts of hydrothermally altered crust that has been "averaged" in isotopic composition by the earlier Eocene-Oligocene magmatism. These new data from the igneous rocks exposed within and around the ARG, indicate that during the Cenozoic a large volume of new mafic magmas were added to the middle and lower crust. These magmas were responsible for reworking, heating and weakening the continental crust, allowing it to flow in a ductile fashion. The sum of the magmatic and extensional processes in the region resulted in present day configuration of the crust with uniform ~30-35 km thickness and sub-horizontal lower crustal seismic reflectivity.

Konstantinou, A.; Strickland, A.; Miller, E. L.

2012-12-01

103

Geologic Map of the Upper Wolf Island Creek Watershed, Reidsville Area, Rockingham County, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This geologic map provides a foundation for hydrogeologic investigations in the Reidsville area of Rockingham County, north-central North Carolina. The 16-mi2 area within the Southeast Eden and Reidsville 7.5-min quadrangles includes the watershed of Wolf Island Creek and its tributary, Carroll Creek, upstream of their confluence. Layered metamorphic rocks in this area of the Milton terrane, here informally named the Chinqua-Penn metamorphic suite, include a heterogeneous mica gneiss and schist unit that contains interlayers and lenses of white-mica schist, felsic gneiss, amphibolite, and ultramafic rock; a felsic gneiss that contains interlayers of amphibolite, white-mica schist, and minor ultramafic lenses; and a migmatitic biotite gneiss. Crushed stone is produced from an active quarry in the felsic gneiss. Igneous intrusive rocks include a mafic-ultramafic assemblage that may have originated as mafic intrusive bodies containing ultramafic cumulates, a foliated two-mica granite informally named the granite of Reidsville, and unmetamorphosed Jurassic diabase dikes. The newly recognized Carroll Creek shear zone strikes roughly east-west and separates heterogeneous mica gneiss and schist to the north from structurally overlying felsic gneiss to the south. Regional amphibolite-facies metamorphism accompanied polyphase ductile deformation in the metamorphic rocks. Two phases of isoclinal to tight folding and related penetrative deformation, described as D1 and D2, were followed by phases of high-strain mylonitic deformation in shear zones and late gentle to open folding. Later brittle deformation produced minor faults, steep joints, foliation-parallel parting, and sheeting joints. The metamorphic and igneous rocks are mantled by saprolite and residual soil derived from weathering of the underlying bedrock, and unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium occupies the flood plains of Wolf Island Creek and its tributaries. The geologic map delineates lithologic and structural features that may act as barriers or conduits for ground-water flow. It provides a hydrogeologic framework for the upper Wolf Island Creek drainage basin, including coreholes and ground-water monitoring wells along two transects. Collaborative hydrogeologic investigations by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey are in progress to increase understanding of the influence of geological features on ground-water quality, availability, and transport in an area representative of large areas in the west-central Piedmont.

Horton, J. Wright., Jr.; Geddes, Donald J., Jr.

2006-01-01

104

Rocks, Rocks, Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students test rocks to identify their physical properties (such as luster, hardness, color, etc.) and classify them as igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary. They complete a worksheet table to record all of the rock properties, and then answer worksheet questions to deepen their understanding of rock properties and relate them to the cavern design problem.

Adventure Engineering

105

Rocks, Rocks, Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Continuing the Asteroid Impact challenge, student teams test rocks to identify their physical properties (such as luster, hardness, color, etc.) and classify them as igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary. They complete a worksheet table to record all of the rock properties, and then answer worksheet questions to deepen their understanding of rock properties and relate them to the cavern design problem.

Adventure Engineering

106

Science Rocks!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?" asked another. At this moment, a…

Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

2010-01-01

107

Water quality in the Anacostia River, Maryland and Rock Creek, Washington, D.C.: Continuous and discrete monitoring with simulations to estimate concentrations and yields of nutrients, suspended sediment, and bacteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations and loading estimates for nutrients, suspended sediment, and E. coli bacteria were summarized for three water-quality monitoring stations on the Anacostia River in Maryland and one station on Rock Creek in Washington, D.C. Both streams are tributaries to the Potomac River in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area and contribute to the Chesapeake Bay estuary. Two stations on the Anacostia River, Northeast Branch at Riverdale, Maryland and Northwest Branch near Hyattsville, Maryland, have been monitored for water quality during the study period from 2003 to 2011 and are located near the shift from nontidal to tidal conditions near Bladensburg, Maryland. A station on Paint Branch is nested above the station on the Northeast Branch Anacostia River, and has slightly less developed land cover than the Northeast and Northwest Branch stations. The Rock Creek station is located in Rock Creek Park, but the land cover in the watershed surrounding the park is urbanized. Stepwise log-linear regression models were developed to estimate the concentrations of suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and E. coli bacteria from continuous field monitors. Turbidity was the strongest predictor variable for all water-quality parameters. For bacteria, water temperature improved the models enough to be included as a second predictor variable due to the strong dependence of stream metabolism on temperature. Coefficients of determination (R2) for the models were highest for log concentrations of suspended sediment (0.9) and total phosphorus (0.8 to 0.9), followed by E. coli bacteria (0.75 to 0.8), and total nitrogen (0.6). Water-quality data provided baselines for conditions prior to accelerated implementation of multiple stormwater controls in the watersheds. Counties are currently in the process of enhancing stormwater controls in both watersheds. Annual yields were estimated for suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and E. coli bacteria using the U.S. Geological Survey model LOADEST with hourly time steps of turbidity, flow, and time. Yields of all four parameters were within ranges found in other urbanized watersheds in Chesapeake Bay. Annual yields for all four watersheds over the period of study were estimated for suspended sediment (65,500 – 166,000 kilograms per year per square kilometer; kg/yr/km2), total nitrogen (465 - 911 kg/yr/km2), total phosphorus (36 - 113 kg/yr/km2), and E. coli bacteria (6.0 – 38 x 1012 colony forming units/yr/km2). The length of record was not sufficient to determine trends for any of the water-quality parameters; within confidence intervals of the models, results were similar to loads determined by previous studies for the Northeast and Northwest Branch stations of the Anacostia River.

Miller, Cherie V.; Chanat, Jeffrey G.; Bell, Joseph M.

2013-01-01

108

Archean rock homologs in the Kola superdeep borehole section in the northern part of the White Sea mobile belt, Voche-Lambina test site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archean Complex homologs of the Kola superdeep borehole (SG-3) were identified in the northern part of the White Sea mobile belt. Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneisses of the Voche-Lambina test site and metavolcanic dacite-rhyodacite rocks of the borehole SG-3 were formed at the stages of 2.97-2.82, ˜2.81, and 2.78-2.79 Ga. The Sm-Nd model ages of the studied rocks do not exceed 3.1 Ga, and their positive ?Nd(t) values vary from +0.5 to +3.34. They are characterized by Mg# = 0.20-0.44, similar concentrations (HFSE) of Zr, Nb, Y, and also Rb, Cr, and Ni, and sharply differentiated spectra of the REE distribution (Ce/Sm = 3.2-5.8; Gd/Yb = 2.6-7.1). Primary melts were formed in balance with garnetamphibole restite under P ? 15-16 kbar.

Morozova, L. N.; Mitrofanov, F. P.; Bayanova, T. B.; Vetrin, V. R.; Serov, P. A.

2012-01-01

109

76 FR 4860 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Marks Creek Allotment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and/or rock structures, would take place on Reach 1 of Cornez Creek, ``No Name'' Creek off of Forest Road 27, and McGinnis Creek. Wood material may come from on-site. One existing water development would be reconstructed. Wildcat...

2011-01-27

110

Comparative analysis of precipitating antibodies in White Rock and Fayoumi hens injected with bovine serum albumin or crude mite extract with resulting effects on northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae) population densities.  

PubMed

Precipitating antibody concentration responses to crude northern fowl mite extract (CME) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) injections were compared in White Rock and Fayoumi hens with two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis and rocket electrophoresis. The effect of CME injections on northern fowl mite population development was also determined. White Rock and Fayoumi hens developed similar antibody concentrations in response to intramuscular injections of BSA according to serum samples analyzed with two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis. Rocket electrophoresis analyses of pooled serum samples showed significant differences between slopes of White Rock and Fayoumi pools for CME and BSA injections, suggesting differences in antibody-antigen interactions. Fayoumi hens injected with CME, 78, 50, and 14 days prior to experimental infestation with 2,000 northern fowl mites/bird supported significantly fewer mites than BSA-injected hens, although mite populations were low on both treatment groups. Injections of CME had no effect on mite population development on White Rock hens, even though CME-specific antibodies were detected. Although White Rock hens supported significantly greater mite numbers than Fayoumi hens, the difference was not attributed to anti-CME antibody activity alone. PMID:3222187

Burg, J G; Collison, C H; Mastro, A M

1988-07-01

111

RICHLAND CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, ARKANSAS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Richland Creek Wilderness Study Area covers an area of about 5 sq mi in parts of Newton and Searcy Counties, Arkansas. Geochemical studies of the outcropping rocks and stream sediments in the study area indicate that these rocks have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. There is little promise for the occurrence of natural gas within the area because the Pennsylvanian age rocks have been breached by erosion and the other potential reservoir rocks were reported as dry. Some of the sandstone and limestone could be used for commercial purposes.

Haley, Boyd, R.; Stroud, Raymond, B.

1984-01-01

112

77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 9690-109] Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources...2012. d. Applicants: Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC; Eagle Creek Land Resources...President-- Operations, Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Water...

2012-07-20

113

Restoring Fossil Creek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

2004-01-01

114

Reconstruction of pluton assembly using trace elements in rock-forming minerals: a LA ICP-MS study of augite and hornblende in the Wooley Creek batholith, Klamath Mountains, California.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of interconnected melt capable of chemically and physically interacting within batholiths emplaced in the middle to upper crust is still debated. In this study, we take an alternative and/or complementary approach to geochronology and use the trace element record in minerals crystallizing early in magmatic systems to reconstruct the assembly history of a batholith. The Wooley Creek batholith (WCb) is a tilted calc-alkaline pluton situated in the Klamath Mountains, northern California, USA. The intrusion can be divided in three main units. The lower WCb ranges from two pyroxene biotite hornblende diorite to quartz-diorite. Trace elements in augite suggest that each sample analyzed belongs to a different magma batch and that individual batches underwent various extents of fractional crystallization. The upper WCb (80km2), ranging from hornblende biotite tonalite to granite, is zoned upward with more felsic rocks toward the structurally highest levels. The REE patterns of hornblende from samples that range from tonalite to granite are essentially identical and their REE abundances vary by a factor ? 3. Dacitic dikes that crop out along the structurally highest, southwestern contact of the intrusion contain hornblende crystals identical in composition to those from the upper part of the batholith, illustrating that the upper WCb was once eruptible. The central part of the WCb displays intermediate characteristics, with rocks ranging from hornblende biotite quartz-diorite to tonalite. Pyroxene is present only as relict inclusions in hornblende. Swarms of partially mingled Mafic Magmatic Enclaves (MME) and syn-plutonic dikes are locally common. The REE compositions of hornblende cores are similar to the hornblende found in the upper WCb, whereas the rims contain lower REE abundances and display no negative Eu anomaly, suggesting that they crystallized from a more mafic magma. This zoning pattern is interpreted as evidence of mixing in the central WCb, and specifically in the boundary zone that separates the upper and lower parts of the system. This zoning evidence is consistent with field relations that indicate mingling of the upper and lower units. We conclude that trace element compositions of minerals provide a useful tool to reconstruct and understand pluton assembly. In the case of the WCb, the lower part is constituted of numerous batches of magma, whereas the upper WCb crystallized from a large volume of chemically interconnected magma. The arrival of mafic magma in the central area provided heat, allowing the upper part of the system to mobilize and homogenize (Burgisser and Bergantz , 2011; Nature). CA-TIMS geochronology is in progress and will give absolute dates for the various part of the intrusion.

Coint, N.; Barnes, C. G.; Yoshinobu, A. S.; Barnes, M. A.; Chamberlain, K. R.

2012-04-01

115

Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit, Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1996, a memorandum of understanding was signed by representatives of the U.S. Geological Survey and Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to initiate a cooperative applied research project focused on the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit in southeastern Alaska. The goals of the project were consistent with the mandate of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to maintain a leading role in national mineral deposits research and with the need of Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to further development of the Greens Creek deposit and similar deposits in Alaska and elsewhere. The memorandum enumerated four main research priorities: (1) characterization of protoliths for the wall rocks, and elucidation of their alteration histories, (2) determination of the ore mineralogy and paragenesis, including metal residences and metal zonation within the deposit, (3) determination of the ages of events important to ore formation using both geochronology and paleontology, and (4) development of computer models that would allow the deposit and its host rocks to be examined in detail in three dimensions. The work was carried out by numerous scientists of diverse expertise over a period of several years. The written results, which are contained in this Professional Paper, are presented by 21 authors: 13 from the U.S. Geological Survey, 4 from Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company, 2 from academia, and 2 from consultants. The Greens Creek deposit (global resource of 24.2 million tons at an average grade of 13.9 percent zinc, 5.1 percent lead, 0.15 troy ounce per ton gold, and 19.2 troy ounces per ton silver at zero cutoff) formed in latest Triassic time during a brief period of rifting of the Alexander terrane. The deposit exhibits a range of syngenetic, diagenetic, and epigenetic features that are typical of volcanogenic (VMS), sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), and Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) genetic models. In the earliest stages of rifting, formation of precious-metal-rich silica-barite-carbonate white ores began at low temperature in a shallow, subaqueous setting, probably a thin carbonate shelf on the flanks of the Alexander landmass. Epigenetic carbonate replacement textures in the footwall dolostones are overlain by stratiform silica-carbonate-barite-rich ores and indicate that early mineralization formed at and just beneath the paleo sea floor by mixing of a reduced, precious-metal-rich, base-metal-poor hydrothermal fluid with oxygenated seawater. As rifting intensified, the shelf was downfaulted and isolated as a graben. Isolation of the basin and onset of starved-basin shale sedimentation was concurrent with emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusives at shallow levels in the rift, resulting in an increasingly higher temperature and progressively more anoxic ore-forming environment. The formation of the main stage of massive sulfide ores began as the supply of bacterially reduced sulfur increased in the accumulating shales. As the main-stage mineralization intensified, shale sedimentation inundated the hydrothermal system, eventually forming a cap. Biogenic sulfate reduction supplied reduced sulfur to the base of the shales where mixing occurred with hot, base-metal-rich hydrothermal fluids. Ore deposition continued by destruction and epigenetic replacement of the early white ores in proximal areas and by inflation and diagenetic replacement of unlithified shale at the interface between the white ores and the base of the shale cap. Ore deposition waned as the shales became lithified and as the supply of bacterially reduced sulfur to the site of ore deposition ceased. The final stages of rifting resulted in the emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks into the Greens Creek system and extrusion of voluminous basaltic flows at the top of the Triassic section. Greenschist facies metamorphism during the Jurassic-Cretaceous accretion of the Alexander terrane to the continental margin resulted in recrystalli

Taylor, Cliff D.; Johnson, Craig A.

2010-01-01

116

Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 301(e) of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004; PL108-424) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins are the subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas are the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

Edited by Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.; Knochenmus, Lari A.

2008-01-01

117

Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah - Draft Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary of Major Findings This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 131 of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins represent subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas represent the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

Edited by Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.

2007-01-01

118

5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. Great ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

119

11. SIDE VIEW OF ROCK FENCE LINE AND ASSOCIATED THREESTRAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SIDE VIEW OF ROCK FENCE LINE AND ASSOCIATED THREE-STRAND BARBED WIRE FENCE; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

120

Clear Creek Gambusia Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Clear Creek gambusia (Gambusia heterochir) is a small, stocky species in the Poeciliidae. A series of interconnected springs on the Wilkinson Clear Creek Ranch comprise the known range of the Clear Creek gambusia. Competition (genetic and environmenta...

1980-01-01

121

Ductile shear in granitic gneisses adjacent to the Beaver Creek fault zone, northwest lowlands, New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenville-age rocks are exposed in the Beaver Creek area in the Northwest Lowlands of New York State. The prominent structural grain in the area strikes approximately N40E and is defined by a series of metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks elongate parallel to the Beaver Creek Fault Zone. A series of 7 granitic augen gneiss bodies lies to the west of the

Marcoline

1993-01-01

122

Guardians of Tradition and Handmaidens to Change: Women's Roles in Creek Economic and Social Life during the Eighteenth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that, during the eighteenth century, Creek women were central elements in both cultural preservation and adaptation to white ways. Discusses the deerskin trade, matrilineal customs, male and female roles, sexuality, marriage, intermarriage between Creek women and white traders, and the role of mixed bloods as cultural intermediaries. (SV)

Braund, Kathryn E. Holland

1990-01-01

123

Shell Creek Summers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-01-01

124

Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky, was studied in 1980 by the USGS and USBM. Coal is the most important mineral resource in the Beaver Creek Wilderness. The coal is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A bituminous, and like coal of this rank in nearby mining areas, it is primarily suitable for use as steam coal. The coal resources are estimated to

K. J. Englund; R. W. Hammack

1984-01-01

125

Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the Mahanoy Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The Mahanoy Creek Basin encompasses an area of 157 square miles (407 square kilometers) including approximately 42 square miles (109 square kilometers) underlain by the Western Middle Anthracite Field. As a result of more than 150 years of anthracite mining in the basin, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments have been adversely affected. Leakage from streams to underground mines and elevated concentrations (above background levels) of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) degrade the aquatic ecosystem and impair uses of the main stem of Mahanoy Creek from its headwaters to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. Various tributaries also are affected, including North Mahanoy Creek, Waste House Run, Shenandoah Creek, Zerbe Run, and two unnamed tributaries locally called Big Mine Run and Big Run. The Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are the only major tributaries not affected by mining. To assess the current hydrological and chemical characteristics of the AMD and its effect on receiving streams, and to identify possible remedial alternatives, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2001, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Schuylkill Conservation District. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the USGS at five stream sites during low base-flow conditions in October 2001. Twenty species of fish were identified in Schwaben Creek near Red Cross, which drains an unmined area of 22.7 square miles (58.8 square kilometers) in the lower part of the Mahanoy Creek Basin. In contrast, 14 species of fish were identified in Mahanoy Creek near its mouth at Kneass, below Schwaben Creek. The diversity and abundance of fish species in Mahanoy Creek decreased progressively upstream from 13 species at Gowen City to only 2 species each at Ashland and Girardville. White sucker (Catostomus commersoni), a pollution-tolerant species, was present at each of the surveyed reaches. The presence of fish at Girardville was unexpected because of the poor water quality and iron-encrusted streambed at this location. Generally, macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance at these sites were diminished compared to Schwaben Creek and other tributaries draining unmined basins, consistent with the observed quality of streamwater and streambed sediment. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 35 AMD sources and 31 stream sites throughout the Mahanoy Creek Basin were collected by the USGS during high base-flow conditions in March 2001 and low base-flow conditions in August 2001. A majority of the base-flow streamwater samples met water-quality standards for pH (6.0 to 9.0); however, few samples downstream from AMD sources met criteria for acidity less than alkalinity (net alkalinity = 20 milligrams per liter as CaCO3) and concentrations of dissolved iron (0.3 milligram per liter) and total manganese (1.0 milligram per liter). Iron, aluminum, and various trace elements including cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, were present in many streamwater samples at concentrations at which continuous exposure can not be tolerated by aquatic organisms without an unacceptable effect. Furthermore, concentrations of sulfate, iron, manganese, aluminum, and (or) beryllium in some samples exceeded drinking-water standards. Other trace elements, including antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, selenium, silver, and thallium, did not exceed water-quality criteria for protection of aquatic organisms or human health. Nevertheless, when considered together, concentrations of iron, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in a majority of the streambed sediment samples from Mahanoy Creek and

Cravotta, Charles A., III

2004-01-01

126

Age of Walden Creek Group: Can it be demonstrated--Biostratigraphically  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Walden Creek Group (WCG) is a lithologically heterogeneous succession of sedimentary rocks exposed in the western Blue Ridge of the southern Appalachians. Carbonate rocks of the WCG occur as bedded limestone in the Sandsuck Formation and subjacent Wilhite and as limestone clasts in polymict conglomerate bodies within the Sandsuck, Wilhite, and the underlying Shields Formation. Petrographically, these carbonate rocks

T. W. Broadhead; R. D. Jr. Hatcher; K. R. Walker; M. W. Carter; J. Y. Adefuin; R. F. Lewis

1993-01-01

127

Tonto Creek: Backwater Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Reclamation studied backwater and sediment deposition effects at Tonto Creek resulting from the recent modifications to Theodore Roosevelt Dam. The top of active conservation pool at Theodore Roosevelt Reservoir will be raised from 2,136 fee...

L. Lest

1997-01-01

128

Indian Creek uranium prospects, Beaver County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The secondary uranium minerals metatorbernite (?) and autunite (?) were discovered at Indian Creek in the spring of 1950. The deposits, in sec. 26, T. 27 S., R. 6 T., Beaver County, Utah, are 20 miles west of Marysvale, and about three-eighths of a mile east of a quartz monzonite stock. The uranium minerals are sparsely disseminated in argillized and silicified earlier Tertiary Bullion Canyon latite and related volcanic rock beneart, but close to, the contact of the overlying later Tertiary Mount Belknap gray rhyolite. The prospects are in a landslide area where exposures are scarce. Therefore, trend and possible continuity of the altered and the uraniferous zones cannot be established definitely. The occurrence of secondary uranium minerals in beidellite-montmorillonite rock, formed by alteration of earlier Tertiary rocks near a quartz monzonite stock, is similar to that in some of the deposits in the Marysvale uranium district.

Wyant, Donald G.; Stugard, Frederick, Jr.

1951-01-01

129

Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Beaver Creek Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beaver Creek Field produces from an anticlinal structure being waterflooded in the Richfield interval. It produces from one lensic rock unit whose permeability and porosity are relatively uniform throughout the field. Orderly development and prudent operating procedures have allowed the field to surpass its original primary production estimates by over 3,000,000 barrels of oil. 4 figures, 2 tables.

R. J. Pollom; F. L. Layton; J. S. Lorenz; A. D. Matzkanin; S. E. Wilson

1976-01-01

130

Prophet of War: Josiah Francis and the Creek War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chronicles the life of Josiah Francis, renowned Creek Prophet and leader. Describes his rise to power in the War of 1812 and his subsequent history as ardent advocate of war against the White man. Characterizes him as a charismatic and intelligent, if sometimes foolish, leader. (JHZ)

Owsley, Frank L., Jr.

1985-01-01

131

Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky, was studied in 1980 by the USGS and USBM. Coal is the most important mineral resource in the Beaver Creek Wilderness. The coal is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A bituminous, and like coal of this rank in nearby mining areas, it is primarily suitable for use as steam coal. The coal resources are estimated to total 8.31 million short tons in beds greater than 14 in. thick. Nonmetallic minerals present in the Wilderness include limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone; these commodities are abundant outside the wilderness. The information available is not adequate for the assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the Beaver Creek Wilderness. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources.

Englund, K.J.; Hammack, R.W.

1984-01-01

132

Salmon Falls Creek Fish Inventory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Salmon Falls Creek fisheries and instream habitat was investigated between Lily Grade and Salmon Falls Creek Dam in 1994. This reach of Salmon Falls Creek is within a remote, narrow steep canyon with limited access. The source of most of the water within ...

C. D. Warren F. E. Partridge

1995-01-01

133

The Crosswicks Creek Caper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based "caper," students designed and conducted experiments to find answers to their questions related to "mystery rock." Through this investigation, the children learned that rocks and minerals have unique physical and chemical properties

Levine, Ilene J.

2000-01-01

134

Early riparian wells along Oil Creek, Northwest Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect

The early oil booms beginning in the 1860`s in Northwest Pennsylvania saw a multitude of derricks crowding the narrow flats of Oil Creek between Titusville and Oil City. Oil Creek is a shallow watercourse with gravel bars and islands. At low water one can wade it without wetting the kneecaps. In wet seasons the stream can quickly become a torrent, flooding its banks. In winter it can pile high with jagged ice blocks creating crystal mountains, especially at its mouth where it empties into the Allegheny River at Oil City. Well spacing in the bottoms finally became so close that some oil men headed for the gravel bars an small islands. Others drilled directly in the creek. The objectives were the Upper Devonian Venango Group sandstones, particularly the Third sand, at depths of only 450-550 feet (137-168 m). Early initial production rates of the best wells were 1000, 3000, even 4000 barrels per day. This was the incentive. Piles of rocks and logs were made for some wells on floodable land along Oil Creek. The jacks and well heads stood high above the flats on these artificial mounds. Protective V walls of wood or concrete were made for creek and bank wells. The V pointed upstream and the wooden separator tank was nuzzled inside it. Another approach was a pier built out into the creek to support drilling. Some of these silent reminders of earlier days are still out there.

Pees, S.T. [Samuel T. Pees and Associates, Meadville, PA (United States)

1995-09-01

135

Radioactivity at the Copper Creek copper lode prospect, Eagle district, east-central Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Investigation of radioactivity anomalies at the Copper Creek copper lode prospect, Eagle district, east-central Alaska, during 1949 disclosed that the radioactivity is associated with copper mineralization in highly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These rocks are a roof pendant in the Mesozoic "Charley River" batholith. The radioactivity is probably all due to uranium associated with bornite and malachite.

Wedow, Helmuth; Tolbert, Gene Edward

1952-01-01

136

Death in Indiana: "The Massacre at Fall Creek" by Jessamyn West.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpreted is the novel, "The Massacre at Fall Creek," that dramatizes an event that occurred in Indiana in 1824 in which White men killed unarmed Seneca Indians. The Whites were brought to trial, convicted, and hanged. The novel demonstrates the moral ambiguity that often characterizes responses toward crime and punishment. (RM)

Rout, Kathleen

1985-01-01

137

Mineralogy and diagenesis of low-permeability sandstones of Late Cretaceous age, Piceance Creek Basin, northwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents preliminary results of a mineralogic and diagenetic study of some low-permeability sandstones from measured surface sections and cores obtained from drill holes in the Piceance Creek Basin of northwestern Colorado. A documentation of the mineralogy and diagenetic history will aid in the exploration for natural gas and in the development of recovery technology in these low-permability sandstones. These sandstones are in the nonmarine upper part of the Mesaverde Formation (or Group) of Late Cretaceous age and are separated from overlying lower Tertiary rocks by a major regional unconformity. Attention is focused on the sandstone units of the Ohio Creek Member, which directly underlies the unconformity; however, comparisons between the mineralogy of the Ohio Creek strata and that of the underlying sandstone units are made whenever possible. The Ohio Creek is a member of the Hunter Canyon Formation (Mesaverde Group) in the southwestern part of the basin, and the Mesaverde Formation in the southern and central parts of the basin. The detrital mineralogy is fairly constant throughout all of these nonrnarine Cretaceous sandstone units; however, in the southeastern part of the basin, there is an increase in percentage of feldspar, quartzite, and igneous rock fragments in sandstones of the Ohio Creek Member directly underlying the unconformity. In the southwestern part of the basin, sandstones of the Ohio Creek Member are very weathered and are almost-entirely comprised of quartz, chert, and kaolinite. A complex diagenetic history, partly related to the overlying unconformity, appears to be responsible for transforming these sandstones into potential gas reservoirs. The general diagenetic sequence for the entire Upper Cretaceous interval studied is interpreted to be (early to late): early(?) calcite cement, chlorite, quartz overgrowths, calcite cement, secondary porosity, analcime (surface only), kaolinite and illite, and late carbonate cements. Authigenic high-iron chlorite, which occurs on grain rims and in pore throats, is primarily responsible for the low-permeability of the subsurface sandstones of the Ohio Creek Member in the center of the basin. Kaolinite is the most abundant pore-filling authigenic clay in these sandstones, from the southwestern part of the basin and is responsible for their distinctive white-weathering color in outcrop. In the sandstones below the Ohio Creek Member, however, chlorite and kaolinite occur locally, and authigenic calcite and illite are more abundant. The occurrence and distribution of secondary porosity is one of the most important aspects of the diagenetic history of these sandstones. It is present as moldic intra- and intergranular porosity, as well as microporosity among authigenic clay pariicles. Although present locally in most sandstone units, secondary porosity is particularly common in the uppermost sandstone units and is interpreted to have formed primarily asa result ofweathering during the time represented by the Cretaceous-Tertiary unconformity.

Hansley, Paula L.; Johnson, Ronald C.

1980-01-01

138

Basal Ottawa Limestone, Chattanooga Shale, Floyd Shale, Porters Creek Clay, and Yazoo Clay in Parts of Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee as Potential Host Rocks for Underground Emplacement of Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Impermeable rock units, preferably at least 500 feet thick and lying 1000 to 3000 feet below land surface, were sought in the region consisting roughly of the western exp 3 / sub 5 ths of Tennessee and the northern exp 3 / sub 5 ths of Alabama and Mississ...

F. F. Mellen

1976-01-01

139

Restoring Fossil Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of an ongoing environmental project and partnership with a local university, high school students monitor changes to Fossil Creek in Arizona. Components of the project include fish behavior studies, responses to fishing, water chemistry measurements, aquatic invertebrate studies, photographic recording, riparian habitat transects, and small mammal trapping transects. The data collected will ultimately provide an invaluable annual record for students, working scientists, and the wider community as changes are monitored over time.

Leroy, Carri J.; Marks, Jane C.; Vlieg, Julie; Flaccus, Kathleen

2004-07-01

140

Geochemical Data for Stream-Sediment, Surface-Water, Rock, and Vegetation Samples from Red Mountain (Dry Creek), an Unmined Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit in the Bonnifield District, Alaska Range, East-Central Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

North-central and northeast Nevada contains numerous large plutons and smaller stocks but also contains many small, shallowly emplaced intrusive bodies, including dikes, sills, and intrusive lava dome complexes. Decades of geologic investigations in the study area demonstrate that many ore deposits, representing diverse ore deposit types, are spatially, and probably temporally and genetically, associated with these igneous intrusions. However, despite the number and importance of igneous instrusions in the study area, no synthesis of geochemical data available for these rocks has been completed. This report presents a synthesis of composition and age data for these rocks. The product represents the first phases of an effort to evaluate the time-space-compositional evolution of Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatism in the study area and identify genetic associations between magmatism and mineralizing processes in this region.

Giles, Stuart A.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Granitto, Matthew; Zelenak, Philip P.; Adams, Monique G.; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Gough, Larry P.; Hageman, Philip L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Horton, John D.; Sutley, Stephan J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Wolf, Ruth E.

2007-01-01

141

Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Archaean LCT pegmatite deposit Cattlin Creek, Ravensthorpe, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LCT (lithium-cesium-tantalum) pegmatite Cattlin Creek is located about 550 km ESE of Perth, Western Australia. The complex-type, rare-element pegmatite is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Archaean Ravensthorpe greenstone belt, which constitutes of the southern edge of the Southern Cross Terranes of the Yilgarn Craton. The deposit is currently mined for both lithium and tantalum by Galaxy Resources Limited since 2010. The pegmatitic melt intruded in a weak structural zone of crossing thrust faults and formed several pegmatite sills, of which the surface nearest mineralized pegmatite body is up to 21 m thick. The Cattlin Creek pegmatite is characterized by an extreme fractionation that resulted in the enrichment of rare elements like Li, Cs, Rb, Sn and Ta, as well as the formation of a vertical zonation expressed by distinct mineral assemblages. The border zone comprises a fine-grained mineral assemblage consisting of albite, quartz, muscovite that merges into a medium-grained wall zone and pegmatitic-textured intermediate zones. Those zones are manifested by the occurrence of megacrystic spodumene crystals with grain sizes ranging from a couple of centimeters up to several metres. The core zone represents the most fractionated part of the pegmatite and consists of lepidolite, cleavelandite, and quartz. It also exhibits the highest concentrations of Cs (0.5 wt.%), Li (0.4 wt.%), Rb (3 wt.%), Ta (0.3 wt.%) and F (4 wt.%). This zone was probably formed in the very last crystallization stage of the pegmatite and its minerals replaced earlier crystallized mineral assemblages. Moreover, the core zone hosts subordinate extremely Cs-enriched (up to 13 wt.% Cs2O) mineral species of beryl. The chemical composition of this beryl resamples that of the extreme rare beryl-variety pezzotaite. Other observed subordinate, minor and accessory minerals comprise tourmaline, garnet, cassiterite, apatite, (mangano-) columbite, tantalite, microlite (Bi-bearing), gahnite, fluorite, sphalerite, zircon, and uranitnite. The mineral composition of micas and the Nb-Ta minerals columbite and tantalite where also used to determine the degree of fractionation within the different zones of the Cattlin Creek pegmatite. The mineral composition of white micas clearly points out a fractionation trend from lithian muscovite composition within the border zone via mixed composition in the intermediate zone towards lepidolite and polylithionite composition within the core zone. A similar trend is shown by the Nb-Ta mineral compositions, the border and intermediate zone is dominated by ferrocolumbite and manganocolumbite, whereas in the core zone only manganotantalite is present. Further geochronological and isotopical investigations studies will help to understand the regional geological framework and provenance history of the Cattlin Creek pegmatite in more detail.

Bauer, Matthias; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

2014-05-01

142

Mapping Evapotranspiration Units in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate estimates of ground-water discharge are crucial in the development of a water budget for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system study area. One common method used throughout the southwestern United States is to estimate ground-water di...

J. LaRue Smith M. T. Moreo R. J. Laczniak T. L. Welborn

2007-01-01

143

Santa Paula Creek Channel, Ventura County, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is proposed to initiate construction of: two debris basins, one each on Santa Paula and Mud Creeks; and concrete channel improvements along both creeks. Recreation would be developed at Santa Paula Creek Debris Basin and channel. The improvements would...

1972-01-01

144

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2013-07-01

145

33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida,...

2009-07-01

146

Rad Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why do we have rocks? How are rocks formed? Why do we have rock cycles? There are all differnt kinds of rocks. What parts make up rocks? Can you sort rocks based on color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size? How do the things rocks are made of determine how people use them? Organize rocks by color, weight, shape, and sizes. Click here to find out the basics about ...

2010-04-26

147

40Ar/39Ar age-spectrum data for hornblende, biotite, white mica, and K-feldspar samples from metamorphic rocks in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains reduced 40Ar/39Ar data of hornblende, biotite, white mica and (or) sericite, and potassium-feldspar mineral separates and phyllite groundmass samples from metamorphic rocks of the Great Smoky Mountains in North Carolina and Tennessee. Included in this report are information on the location of the samples and a brief description of the samples. The data contained herein are not interpreted in a geological context, and care should be taken by users unfamiliar with argon isotopic data in the use of these results. No geological meaning is implied for any of the apparent ages presented below, and many of the individual apparent ages are not geologically meaningful. This report is primarily a detailed source document for subsequent publications that will integrate these data into a geological context. All the samples in this report were collected in and around the Great Smoky Mountain National Park in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee.

Kunk, Michael J.; McAleer, Ryan

2011-01-01

148

Wallace Creek Field Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains model class exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site. These exercises are designed for college-level students who have had some background in geology and a general background of fault mechanics and earthquake geology. Particular questions in these exercises requires the students to conduct certain exercises or participate in appropriate discussions regarding geomorphology and slip rates. Five figures necessary to complete certain parts of the exercises are available for downloading.

149

Shell Creek Summers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would motivate high school students to donate valuable summer vacation time to do science research?--the opportunity to make a difference! The Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group (SCWIG) was formed to identify and promote needed conservation practices within a local watershed, and turned to the high school science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality. Since 2002, for the past three summers, in this ongoing project, students collect water quality data and report their findings to the three involved community organizations.

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-04-01

150

Line Creek improves efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Boosting coal recovery rate by 8% and reducing fuel expense $18,000 annually by replacing two tractors, are two tangible benefits that Crows Nest Resources of British Columbia has achieved since overseas coal markets weakened in 1985. Though coal production at the 4-million tpy Line Creek open pit mine has been cut 25% from its 1984 level, morale among the pit crew remains high. More efficient pit equipment, innovative use of existing equipment, and encouragement of multiple skill development among workers - so people can be assigned to different jobs in the operation as situations demand - contribute to a successful operation.

Harder, P.

1988-04-01

151

Creek schism: Seminole genesis revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reevaluates commonly accepted interpretations of Seminole ethnogenesis in light of recent scholarship and previously ignored sources from the Spanish archives. It argues that Seminole formation was largely a bi-product of a struggle between two opposing Lower Creek factions: the Creek \\

Philip C Hawkins

2009-01-01

152

Kiowa Creek Switching Station  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-03-01

153

Ship Creek bioassessment investigations  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

1995-06-01

154

Coyote Creek Geologic Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are required to make field observations, collect data and then create a detailed geologic map and report for a small area (approximately 1 sq. mile) on the edge of the Tularosa Basin in south central New Mexico. The study area is located within the Tularosa NE quadrangle, but maps from the Cat Mountain quadrangle to the East are also useful. Gently dipping carbonate and siliciclastic beds, igneous intrusions, bioherms and a normal fault are present in the study area along Coyote Creek, a few miles north of Tularosa, NM. The creek generally runs parallel to dip, allowing relatively easy access to inclined strata. Bioherm(s) are present in the lower section. Several dikes are present running both parallel and perpendicular to sedimentary bed strike. One is very non-resistant to weathering, creating unusual troughs as it passes through the carbonate bioherms. A sill is present in the upper section and a N/S trending normal fault roughly parallels strike of sedimentary beds.

Walsh, Timothy R.

155

Rock strength reductions during incipient weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patrick Kelly, Suzanne Anderson, Alex Blum In rock below the surface, temperature swings are damped, water flow is limited, and biota are few. Yet rock weathers, presumably driven by these environmental parameters. We use rock strength as an indicator of rock weathering in Gordon Gulch in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory, a watershed at 2500 m underlain by Proterozoic gneiss intruded by the Boulder Creek granodiorite. Fresh rock is found at depths of 8-30 m in this area, and the thickness of the weathered rock zone imaged with shallow seismic refraction is greater on N-facing slopes than S-facing slopes (Befus et al., 2011, Vadose Zone J.). We use the Brazilian splitting test to determine tensile strength of cores collected with a portable drilling rig. Spatial variations in rock strength that we measure in the top 2 m of the weathered rock mantle can be connected to two specific environmental variables: slope aspect and the presence of a soil mantle. We find weaker rock on N-facing slopes and under soil. There is no clear correlation between rock strength and the degree of chemical alteration in these minimally weathered rocks. Denudation rates of 20-30 microns/yr imply residence times of 105-106 years within the weathered rock layers of the critical zone. Given these timescales, rock weathering is more likely to have occurred under glacial climate conditions, when periglacial processes prevailed in this non-glaciated watershed. Incipient weathering of rock appears to be controlled by water and frost cracking in Gordon Gulch. Water is more effectively delivered to the subsurface on N-facing slopes, and is more likely held against rock surfaces under soil than on outcrops. These moisture conditions, and the lower surface temperatures that prevail on N-facing slopes also favor frost cracking as an important weathering process.

Kelly, P. J.; Anderson, S. P.; Blum, A.

2012-12-01

156

Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in the Peninsular Ranges, Southern California. [including San Diego River, Otay Mts., Japatul Valley, Barrett Lake, Horsethief Canyon, Pine Valley Creek, Pine Creek, and Mojave Desert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Thin sections of rock exposed along the San Diego River linear were prepared and determined to be fault breccia. Single band and ratio images of the western Mojave Desert were prepared from the multispectral scanner digital tapes. Subtle differences in color of soil and rock are enhanced on the ratio images. Two north-northeast trending linears (Horsethief Canyon and Pine Valley Creek) and an east-west linear (Pine Creek) were concluded to have resulted from erosion along well-developed foliation in crystalline basement rocks.

Merifield, P. M. (principal investigator)

1975-01-01

157

Evidence for the importance of ductile shear in regional fabric development in Grenville-age gneisses of the Beaver Creek region, Northwest Lowlands, New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Beaver Creek region of the Northwest Lowlands, Brown (1989) has described Grenville-age metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks as showing a prominent regional foliation, early southeastward emplacement of a nappe complex (the North Gouverneur Nappe), 2 subsequent generations of folds, and late regional faulting along the Beaver Creek, Pleasant Lake, and Hickory-Mud Lakes faults. The authors examined a variety of

B. Tewksbury; H. Culbertson; J. Marcoline; M. Walvoord

1993-01-01

158

78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 3730-005] Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption...filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that...

2013-10-22

159

Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash animation about the rock cycle is suitable for a review or overview in an introductory level Physical Geology class. It includes animations, photos, and descriptions involving rock types and processes in the rock cycle.

Smoothstone; Company, Houghton M.

160

Underside of span over Pickering Creek, showing highly skewed piers, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Underside of span over Pickering Creek, showing highly skewed piers, looking south. - Pennsylvania Railroad, Pickering Creek Trestle, Spanning Pickering Creek, south of Buckwalter Road, Pickering, Chester County, PA

161

Water flow statistics: SRP creeks  

SciTech Connect

For a number of environmental studies it is necessary to know the water flow rates and variations in the SRP streams. The objective of this memorandum is to pull together and present a number of statistical analyses for Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek and Lower Three Runs Creek. The data basis covers 8 USGS stream gage stations for the years 1972 - 1981. The average flow rates over a ten-year period along Upper Three Runs Creek were determined to be 114 cfs at US Route 278, 193 cfs at Road C, and 265 cfs at Road A. Along Four Mile Creek the average flow rates over a ten-year period doubled from 9 cfs prior to F-Area discharges to 18 cfs prior to cooling water discharges from C-Area Reactor. Finally, average flow rates along Lower Three Runs Creek over a ten-year period tripled from 32 cfs at Par Pond to 96 cfs near Snelling, South Carolina. 1 figure, 9 tables.

Lower, M.W.

1982-08-26

162

Metals in Devonian kerogenous marine strata at Gibellini and Bisoni properties in southern Fish Creek Range, Eureka County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A kerogen-rich sequence of siliceous mudstone, siltstone, and chert as much as 60 m thick on ridge 7129 in the southern Fish Creek Range, referred to as Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation, has been evaluated on the surface and in drill holes principally for its potential resources of vanadium, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, and syncrude oil content. The strata are part of a strongly deformed allochthonous mass of eugeosynclinal Devonian marine rocks that overlie deformed allochthonous Mississippian siliceous rocks and relatively undeformed autochthonous Mississippian Antler flysch at this locality. The vanadium in fresh black rocks obtained from drill holes and fresh exposures in trenches and roadcuts occurs chiefly in organic matter. Concentrations of vanadium oxide (V2O5) in unoxidized samples range from 3,000 to 7,000 ppm. In oxidized and bleached rock that is prevalent at the surface, concentrations of vanadium oxide range from 6,000 to 8,000 ppm, suggesting a tendency toward enrichment due to surficial weathering and ground-water movement. Zinc occurs in sphalerite, and selenium occurs in organic matter; molybdenum appears to occur both in molybdenite and in organic matter. Concentrations of zinc in unoxidized rock range from 4,000 to 18,000 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 100 ppm, showing strong depletion due to weathering. Concentrations of selenium in unoxidized rock range from 30 to 200 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 200 to 400 ppm, indicating some enrichment upon weathering. Concentrations of molybdenum in unoxidized rock range from 70 to 960 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 80 ppm, indicating strong depletion upon weathering. Most fresh black rock is low-grade oil shale, and yields as much as 12 gallons/short ton of syncrude oil. Metahewettite is the principal vanadium mineral in the oxidized zone, but it also occurs sparsely as small nodules and fillings of microfractures in unweathered strata. In fresh rock, bluish-white opaline-like silica (chalcedonic quartz) fills microfractures, and is believed to have originated by diagenetic mobilization of opaline silica from radiolarian tests and sponge spicules. As revealed by microscopic study, the Gibellini facies originally consisted of siliceous muds, slimes, and oozes high in organic constituents. The organic matter is amorphous flaky and stringy sapropel, and probably includes remains of bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and minor higher plants. Recognizable organic remnants include radiolarian tests, sponge spicules, conodonts, brachiopod shells, algae, and humic debris. Diagnostic radiolarians indicate a Late Devonian age for the Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation. Some pyrite is disseminated through the rock and may be primary (syngenetic) but significant pyrite and marcasite occur in chalcedonic quartz veinlets and appear to be diagenetic. In fresh rock, black solid bitumen and liquid oil fill voids and microfractures. These early phase hydrocarbons probably were released during diagenesis from complex nonhydrocarbon molecular structures originating from living organisms, and formed without any major thermal degradation of the kerogen. Gas chromatographic analysis of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction indicates a very complex mixture dominated by branched and cyclic compounds. Conodont and palynomorph color alteration, vitrinite reflectance, and other organic geochemical data suggest that the organic matter in the rock is thermally immature and has not been subjected to temperatures greater than 60?C since deposition in Devonian time. All of these characteristics are consistent with the interpretation of a relatively low temperature and a shallow-burial history for the Gibellini facies on ridge 7129.

Desborough, George A.; Poole, F. G.; Hose, R. K.; Radtke, A. S.

1979-01-01

163

Biostratigraphy of Blancan and Irvingtonian mammals in the Fish Creek-Vallecito section, southern California, and a review of the Blancan–Irvingtonian boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rocks of the Palm Spring and uppermost Imperial formations in the Fish Creek-Vallecito Creek area of southern California preserve diverse Blancan and Irvingtonian land mammal faunas in stratigraphie superposition. The 4,300 m section of predominantly clastic rocks spans about 3.6 Ma, preserves a continuous paleomagnetostratigraphic record, and documents the local stratigraphic ranges of terrestrial mammals during the Blancan and Irvingtonian.

Michael L. Cassiliano

1999-01-01

164

Ground-water geology and pump irrigation in Frenchman Creek Basin above Palisade, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the geography, geology, and ground-water resources of that part of the Frenchman Creek basin upstream from Palisade, Nebr., an area of about 4,900 square miles. The basin includes all of Phillips County, Colo., and Chase County, Nebr., and parts of Logan, Sedgwick, Washington, and Yuma Counties, Colo., and Dundy, Hayes, Hitchcock, and Perkins Counties, Nebr. The land surface ranges from nearly flat to rolling; choppy hills and interdune saddles are common in the areas of dune sand, and steep bluffs and gullies cut the edges of the relatively flat loess plateaus. Most of the basin is drained by tributaries of Frenchman Creek, but parts of the sandhills are undrained. Farming and livestock raising are the principal industries. Irrigation with ground water has expanded rapidly since 1934. The rocks exposed in the basin are largely unconsolidated and range in age from Pliocene to Recent. They comprise the Ogallala formation (Pliocene), the Sanborn formation (Pleistocene and Recent?), dune sand (Pleistocene and Recent), and alluvium (Recent). The rocks underlying the Ogallala are the Pierre shale (Late Cretaceous) and the White River group (Oligocene). The Pierre shale is relatively impermeable and yields little or no water to wells. The White River group also is relatively impermeable and yields little or no water to wells; however, small to moderate quantities of water possibly may be obtained from wells that penetrate fractured or 'porous' zones in the upper part of the White River group or permeable channel deposits within the group. The Ogallala formation is the main aquifer in the basin and yields moderate to large quantities of water to wells. The Sanborn formation and the dune sand generally lie above the water table, but in areas of high water table the dune sand yields small quantities of water to wells for domestic and stock supplies. The alluvium, which includes the low terrace deposits bordering the major streams, yields small to large quantities of water to wells. The ground-water reservoir is recharged only from precipitation on the basin. Of the average annual precipitation of 19.5 inches, about 0.9 inch infiltrates to the water table, thereby contributing about 220,000 acre-feet of water annually to the ground-water reservoir. About 81 million acre-feet of water that could drain under gravity, and thus theoretically is available to wells, is held in groundwater storage in the basin. Water is discharged from the ground-water reservoir by wells, evaporation and transpiration, springs, seepage into streams, and movement into adjacent areas to the east and southeast. Most of the domestic, stock, and irrigation water supplies and all the public supplies are pumped from wells. During 1953, 96 wells were used to irrigate 10,000 acres of land with 19,000 acre-feet of water. About 34,000 acre-feet of water is evaporated and transpired annually in the valleys of the main streams and in areas of shallow water table in the sandhills. From the projection of base-flow measurements made during 1952, it was estimated that the average annual flow of Frenchman Creek into the reservoir above Enders Dam is about 57,000 acre-feet. By similar determinations, the average annual flow of Frenchman Creek at the gaging station at Palisade, Nebr., about 22 miles downstream from Enders Dam, is about 76,000 acre-feet, and the flow of Stinking Water Creek at the gaging station near Palisade is about 22,000 acre-feet. The combined flow of Frenchman and Stinking Water Creeks at their confluence near Palisade thus is about 98,000 acre-feet per year. About 90,000 acre-feet of ground water is estimated to move eastward each year across the Colorado-Nebraska State line within the basin. Additional irrigation wells that will tap the Ogallala formation and the alluvium in the major valleys undoubtedly will be drilled. On the basis of current estimates of future irrigation.withdrawals, it is concluded that by the

Cardwell, W. D. E.; Jenkins, Edward D.

1963-01-01

165

Rock fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

1976-01-01

166

Rock engineering  

SciTech Connect

This book explores the fundamentals of applied geology and rock behavior. Topics range from geotechnical design techniques to the nature of rocks and rock masses. It also covers procedures such as rock blasting, drilling, cutting, and grouting. Includes references, case histories, and problems with solutions.

Franklin, J.A.; Dusseault, M.B.

1988-01-01

167

Rocking Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this earth science activity, learners conduct a series of short experiments to explore how rocks change. Learners will examine the components of the rock cycle as well as how rocks can change over time due to weathering, erosion, pressure and heat. In particular, learners will model igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

Workshop, Mission S.

2013-01-01

168

Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

1982-03-01

169

Igneous Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explores igneous rocks in-depth through descriptions and pictures. The formation and distribution of this rock type are covered, as well as magma types associated with them (mafic to felsic). Classification of igneous rocks covers their texture and composition, including the difference between intrusive and extrusive. An alphabetical listing of rocks connects the user with a description, picture, tectonic association, and mineral composition of the rock. Bowens Reaction Series is covered as well, with associated rock types. A self-test allows the user to identify rocks by picture alone. Links are provided to sites with further information.

2007-12-12

170

rock properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. Lets review: What do you already know about rocks? Please write down your thoughts on a piece of paper. Now, click on the link below to find out what the definition of a rock is. *Intro to Rocks Please answer the questions below in complete sentences on your paper. 1. Rocks are made up of several particles. ...

Krystal

2009-12-14

171

77 FR 73650 - Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 14446-001] Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...November 30, 2012, Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC (Peabody) filed an application...feasibility of the Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir Hydroelectric Project (Trout Creek...

2012-12-11

172

Investigaing Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your mission is to look at different types of rocks and be able to sort them based on color, feel, hardness, texture, layering they may have, and particle size they are made of. Identify how the properties of rocks determine how people use them. Click below to find out more about different kinds of rocks there are: Types of Rocks Now, Start Your Rock Collection! It's a race against time! Can you do it? Identify Rock Types How are rocks made? Check out: The Rock Cycle Now take the quiz: Diagram the rock cycle quiz Next, click the link to view the Virtual Quarry website. Here, you will be able to look at different rock ...

Lindsey, Tiffany A.

2010-06-21

173

Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary in the Berry Creek Quadrangle, northwestern Sierra Nevada, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Structural and petrologic studies in the Berry Creek quadrangle at the north end of the western metamorphic belt of the Sierra Nevada have yielded new information that helps in distinguishing between the chemically similar Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks. The distinguishing features are structural and textural and result from different degrees of deformation. Most Paleozoic rocks are strongly deformed and thoroughly recrystallized. Phenocrysts in meta volcanic rocks are granulated and drawn out into lenses that have sutured outlines. In contrast, the phenocrysts in the Mesozoic metavolcanic rocks show well-preserved straight crystal faces, are only slightly or not at all granulated, and contain fewer mineral inclusions than do those in the Paleozoic rocks. The groundmass in the Paleozoic rocks is recrystallized to a fairly coarse grained albite-epidote-amphibole-chlorite rock, whereas in the Mesozoic rocks the groundmass is a very fine grained feltlike mesh with only spotty occurrence of well-recrystallized finegrained albite-epidote-chlorite-actinolite rock. Primary minerals, such as augite, are locally preserved in the Mesozoic rocks but are altered to a mixture of amphibole, chlorite, and epidote in the Paleozoic rocks. In the contact aureoles of the plutons, and within the Big Bend fault zone, which crosses the area parallel to the structural trends, all rocks are thoroughly recrystallized and strongly deformed. Identification of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in these parts of the area was based on the continuity of the rock units in the field and on gradual changes in microscopic textures toward the plutons.

Hietanen, Anna Martta

1977-01-01

174

Rock Solid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocks cover the earth's surface, including what is below or near human-made structures. With rocks everywhere, breaking rocks can be hazardous and potentially disastrous to people. Students are introduced to three types of material stress related to rocks: compressional, torsional and shear. They learn about rock types (sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic), and about the occurrence of stresses and weathering in nature, including physical, chemical and biological weathering.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

175

Archeological Reconnaissance of Two Possible Sites of the Sand Creek Massacre of 1864.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to report the efforts to establish the location of the Sand Creek Massacre. It was one of the most significant events in Colorado history and is one of the most important events in the history o Indian/White relations on th...

D. D. Scott A. W. Bond R. Ellis W. B. Lees

1998-01-01

176

Microthermometry and geochemistry of fluid inclusions from the Tennant Creek gold-copper deposits: implications for ore deposition and exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold-copper-bismuth mineralization in the Tennant Creek goldfield of the Northern Territory occurs in pipe-like, ellipsoidal, or lensoidal lodes of magnetite ± hematite ironstones which are hosted in turbiditic sedimentary rocks of Proterozoic age. Fluid inclusion studies have revealed four major inclusion types in quartz associated with mineralized and barren ironstones at Ten nant Creek; (1) liquid-vapour inclusions with low liquid\\/vapour

Khin Zaw; D. L. Huston; R. R. Large; T. Mernagh; C. F. Hoffmann

1994-01-01

177

Geology of the Cottonwood Creek field, Carter County, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

In late 1987, the Cottonwood Creek field, Carter County, Oklahoma, was heralded by flows of nearly 4,000 BOPD and 3 MMCFGD from the upper Arbuckle Group. The field structure is part of the buried Criner uplift along the southwest flank of the Ardmore basin. The uplift formed during a Late Mississippian/Early Pennsylvanian episode of bidirectional thrusting (northeast and southwest) probably related to convergent strike-slip faulting. The basic field structure formed as a northeast-directed thrust plate, cored with Arbuckle Group carbonates and cut by a backthrust. The Cottonwood Creek anticline was near the crest of the uplift. It was erosionally denuded of its Simpson through Caney cover and karsted to depths of at least 1,600 ft. Subthrust strata include the Woodford source rocks. In the Middle to Late Pennsylvanian the uplift was buried by clastics (about 8,000 ft thick over cottonwood Creek). Culminating in the late Pennsylvanian, a second episode of wrench faulting sliced through the Criner uplift. About 3 mi of left-lateral slip occurred on this Criner-Healdton fault, which also dropped the anticline about 3,000 ft relative to the block to the south, completing the trap at Cottonwood Creek field. Fourteen wells have found oil in the anticline over an approximately 2.5 by 0.5-mi area. The oil column is at least 900 ft thick. Eight of the wells tested for 1,200-3,700 BOPD plus associated gas from a complex of fractures, Brown Zone dolomite, and karst-enhanced porosity in the West Spring Creek and Kindblade formations.

Roberts, M.T.; Read, D.L. (CNG Producing Co., Denver, CO (USA))

1990-05-01

178

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c ...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2010-07-01

179

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c ...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2009-07-01

180

33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. The area within the...

2013-07-01

181

Shallow Early Cretaceous oil production in Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Over 1.5 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Early Cretaceous Fall River and Lakota Formations on the east side of the Powder River basin in the Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming. Producing depths range from 42 ft at the Barton Ranch field to over 2528 ft at an unnamed field. The gravity of the gas-free oil ranges from 17/sup 0/ API at Barton Ranch to over 49/sup 0/ API in the deeper reservoir rocks located at an unnamed oil field. Oil has been trapped in Lakota channel sandstones and Fall River nearshore sandstones on the Black Hills monocline within a catchment area located on the northeast side of the large northeast-southwest-trending Gillette arch. Currently, the oldest producible oil on or east of the central Black Hills monocline is Early Cretaceous in age. This oil is the highest structural, active, primary production along the west-central flank of the Black Hills uplift. Two Permian-Pennsylvanian fields are located structurally higher, but one is a thermal tertiary project and the other has been abandoned.

Randall, A.G.

1986-08-01

182

Nekton use of intertidal creek edges in low salinity salt marshes of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-vegetated creek edges were investigated to explore spatial nekton use patterns in a low salinity intertidal salt marsh creek network of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient with four creek orders. Non-vegetated creek edges were arbitrarily defined as the approximately 3 m extending from the creek bank (the marsh-creek interface) into open water. Nekton was sampled using seine nets during daytime high slack water during spring tides for two or three days each in May through July 2008. Twenty-three nekton species (16 fishes and 7 crustaceans) were caught during the study. Fishes were dominated by gobies ( Mugilogobius abei, Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus, Periophthalmus modestus, Synechogobius ommaturus), mullets ( Chelon haematocheilus, Liza affinis) and Chinese sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus). Crustaceans were dominated by mud crab ( Helice tientsinensis) and white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda). Rank abundance curves revealed higher evenness of nekton assemblages in lower-order creeks compared to higher-order creeks. Fish abundance tended to increase with increasing creek order. Crustacean abundance was higher in the first-third order creeks than in the fourth-order creek. Dominant nekton species displayed various trends in abundance and length-frequency distributions along the stream-order gradient. The spatial separation of nekton assemblages between the first-third order creeks and the fourth-order creek could be attributed to geomorphological factors (distance to mouth and cross-sectional area). These findings indicate that both lower- and higher-order creek edges play important yet different roles for nekton species and life history stages in salt marshes.

Jin, Binsong; Qin, Haiming; Xu, Wang; Wu, Jihua; Zhong, Junsheng; Lei, Guangchun; Chen, Jiakuan; Fu, Cuizhang

2010-07-01

183

Petrography and geochemistry of selected lignite beds in the Gibbons Creek mine (Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Paleocene) of east-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examined the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of two lignite beds (3500 and 4500 beds, Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Eocene) that are mined at the Gibbons Creek mine in east-central Texas. The purpose of the study was to identify the relations among sample ash yield, coal petrography, and trace-element concentrations in lignite and adjoining rock layers of the Gibbons Creek mine. Particular interest was given to the distribution of 12 environmentally sensitive trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U) that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Eleven lignite, floor, and rock parting samples were collected from incremental channel samples of the 3500 and 4500 beds that were exposed in a highwall of pit A3 at the Gibbons Creek mine. Short proximate and ultimate and forms of sulfur analyses were performed on all lignite samples, and lignite and rock samples were analyzed for 60 major, minor and trace elements. Representative splits of all lignite samples were ground and cast into pellets, and polished for petrographic analyses in blue-light fluorescence and reflected white light to determine liptinite, inertinite, and huminite maceral group percentages. The following observations summarize our results and conclusions about the geochemistry, petrography, and sedimentology of the 3500 and 4500 beds of the Gibbons Creek lignite deposit: (1) Weighted average dry (db) ash yield for the two beds is 29.7%, average total sulfur content is 2.6%, and average calorific value is 7832 Btu (18.22 MJ/kg). Ash yields are greatest in the lower bench (59.33% db) of the 3500 bed and in the upper bench of the 4500 bed (74.61% db). (2) For lignite samples (on a whole-coal basis), the distributions of two of the HAPs (Pb and Sb) are positively related to ash yield, probably indicating an inorganic affinity for these elements. By using cluster analysis we found that Be and Cd were poorly associated with ash yield, indicating a possible organic affinity, and that Ni, Se, Hg, U, and Pb cluster with most of the rare-earth elements. (3) The dominance of the crypto-eugelinite maceral subgroup over the crypto-humotelinite subgroup suggests that all Gibbons Creek lignites were subjected to peat-forming conditions (either biogenic or chemical) conducive to the degradation of wood cellular material into matrix gels, or that original plant material was not very woody and was prone to formation of matrix gels. The latter idea is supported by pollen studies of Gibbons Creek lignite beds; results indicate that the peat was derived in part from marsh plants low in wood tissue. (4) The occurrence of siliceous sponge spicules in the lower benches of the 3500 bed suggests the original peat in this part of the bed was deposited in standing, fresh water. (5) The petrographic data indicate that the upper sample interval of the 3500 bed contains more inertinite (3%) than the other samples studied. Increases in inertinite content in the upper part of the 3500 bed may have been associated with alteration of the peat by acids derived from the volcanic ash or could have been caused by fire, oxidation and drying, or biologic alteration of the peat in the paleo-mire. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

Warwick, P. D.; Crowley, S. S.; Ruppert, L. F.; Pontolillo, J.

1997-01-01

184

This Rock is Your Rock, This Rock is My Rock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students discover that the types and relative proportion of minerals that occur together in a rock tell scientists the story of how that rock was formed. They also learn that rocks are named based on how they formed and by the types, amounts, and sizes of minerals in the rocks. Students will realize that one of the most important skills a geologist needs when studying a rock is the ability to observe and describe what he or she sees. As a result of this activity students will improve their observational skills and learn that rocks are made up of one or more minerals.

185

Paleomagnetism of the Miocene intrusive suite of Kidd Creek: Timing of deformation in the Cascade arc, southern Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paleomagnetic study of the intrusive suite of Kidd Creek in the southern Washington Cascades (23 sites in dikes and sills) was undertaken to help determine if these rocks are comagmatic and whether they postdate regional folding of the volcanic arc. Fission track and 40Ar-39Ar age determinations indicate an age of ???12.7 Ma (middle Miocene) for these rocks. The similarity of normal-polarity characteristic directions for most samples corroborate the available geochemical data indicating that these rocks are most likely comagmatic. Reversed-polarity directions for samples from four sites, however, show that emplacement of Kidd Creek intrusions spanned at least one reversal of the geomagnetic field. The paleomagnetic directions for the dikes and sills fail a fold test at the 99% confidence level indicating that the Kidd Creek rocks postdate regional folding. The mean in situ direction also indicates that the Kidd Creek and older rocks have been rotated 22?? ?? 6?? clockwise about a vertical or near-vertical axis from the expected Miocene direction. Compression and regional folding of the Cascade arc in southern Washington therefore had ended by ???12 Ma prior to the onset of deformation resulting in rotation of these rocks.

Hagstrum, J. T.; Swanson, D. A.; Snee, L. W.

1998-01-01

186

Monument Creek hydraulics project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given some general questions (file "IntroQuestions_07.pdf") related to project design during the class session before the main project is handed out. They need to use their textbook and/or other class resources to attempt to answer these questions and to prepare to discuss them the next class session. These questions concern field reconstruction of flood hydraulics, specifically. of bankfull flow. At this next class session we discuss their answers to the preliminary questions. Students are then given the main project handout (Monument_Ck_Problem_07.pdf). This gives them the general questions to be answered in the project. After reading it, students brainstorm again as a class about how to go about answering the questions. Students then divide themselves into research of three. These teams will synthesize data together and ultimately write up the project together. Each team then sends one member to join members of other teams to do one of the three main aspects of the field or computer work (1) field identification of the bankfull channel and measurement of bankfull channel geometry, (2) field determination of modern channel roughness from modern stream hydraulics (Manning's n is back-calculated from present channel geometry and flow), (3) development of a flood-frequency curve for this reach of Monument Creek from USGS discharge data. These working groups (with one member from each research team) work initially independently in the field and subsequently doing calculations in the lab, or on the computer. Once each working group has completed what it can do on its own, these groups split up and each member of each group carries the groups results back to his/her research team, and explains to the other members of the research team what he/she has done to this point and what results he/she has for the team. The team then works to synthesize he results into an overall answer to the questions posed at the beginning of the lab (confusing enough for you?). Each research team then writes up the results, sometimes (as in 2007) as a lab write up, in other years in scientific paper format. Whether the project is turned in simply as a lab write up or as a scientific paper, students are always asked to assess sources of error and how they might affect the results. Key words: Fluvial geomorphology, fluvial hydraulics, bankfull discharge, flood-frequency analysis Designed for a geomorphology course

Leonard, Eric

187

Sedimentary Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash animation provides an overview of sedimentary rocks for introductory level high school or undergraduate Earth science or physical geology courses. It includes pictures and supplementary information about sedimentary rock formation and erosion.

Smoothstone; Company, Houghton M.

188

Rock Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands-on activity covers the basics of rock identification. After a brief discussion of the terms 'rock' and 'mineral', students will study the characteristics and classifications of the three major rock groups (igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary). Using an online tutorial to test their knowledge and to learn more about rocks, they will identify 10 different specimens, record their observations, and provide a name for each.

Pratte, John

189

Rock Jeopardy!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students reinforce their understanding of rocks, the rock cycle, and geotechnical engineering by playing a trivia game. They work in groups to prepare Jeopardy-type trivia questions (answers) and compete against each other to demonstrate their knowledge of rocks and engineering.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

190

Sedimentary Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create a poster about sedimentary rocks! Directions: Make a poster about sedimentary rocks. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about sedimentary rocks. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster ...

Walls, Mrs.

2011-01-30

191

Rock Finding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

2006-01-01

192

Rock Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

Henn, Cynthia A.

2004-01-01

193

Rock Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school children are given cards containing specific criteria for doing one or two tasks: sorting or arranging rocks. Sorting tasks involve children in picking out rocks with particular characteristics, such as color or shape. In the arranging tasks children are asked to arrange rocks according to size or value. (RM)

Topal, Cathy Weisman

1985-01-01

194

Water Flow Statistics: SRP Creeks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For a number of environmental studies it is necessary to know the water flow rates and variations in the SRP streams. The objective of this memorandum is to pull together and present a number of statistical analyses for Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile C...

M. W. Lower

1982-01-01

195

OXYGEN AERATION AT NEWTOWN CREEK  

EPA Science Inventory

A successful initial feasibility investigation of oxygen aeration at the 0.11-cu m/sec (2.5-mgd) municipal wastewater treatment plant in Batavia, New York, prompted a larger demonstration at New York City's 13.6-cu m/sec (310-mgd) Newtown Creek Plant. A 34-mo evaluation was perfo...

196

Sandy Creek Reservoir Infiltration Gallery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Long Lake Water District No. 2 is supplied by a surface reservoir impoundment known as Sandy Creek. A series of diatomaceous earth (DE) filters were installed between the intake and the distribution system. The DE filters have provided effective treat...

1999-01-01

197

TMDL for Turbidity for White Oak Creek, AR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act requires states to identify waterbodies that are not meeting water quality standards and to develop total maximum daily pollutant loads for those waterbodies. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) is the amount of...

2006-01-01

198

Application of the Basin Characterization Model to Estimate In-Place Recharge and Runoff Potential in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A regional-scale water-balance model was used to estimate recharge and runoff potential and support U.S. Geological Survey efforts to develop a better understanding of water availability for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah. The water-balance model, or Basin Characterization Model (BCM), was used to estimate regional ground-water recharge for the 13 hydrographic areas in the study area. The BCM calculates recharge by using a distributed-parameter, water-balance method and monthly climatic boundary conditions. The BCM requires geographic information system coverages of soil, geology, and topographic information with monthly time-varying climatic conditions of air temperature and precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration, snow accumulation, and snowmelt are distributed spatially with process models. When combined with surface properties of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of bedrock and alluvium, the potential water available for in-place recharge and runoff is calculated using monthly time steps using a grid scale of 866 feet (270 meters). The BCM was used with monthly climatic inputs from 1970 to 2004, and results were averaged to provide an estimate of the average annual recharge for the BARCAS study area. The model estimates 526,000 acre-feet of potential in-place recharge and approximately 398,000 acre-feet of potential runoff. Assuming 15 percent of the runoff becomes recharge, the model estimates average annual ground-water recharge for the BARCAS area of about 586,000 acre-feet. When precipitation is extrapolated to the long-term climatic record (1895-2006), average annual recharge is estimated to be 530,000 acre-feet, or about 9 percent less than the recharge estimated for 1970-2004.

Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.

2007-01-01

199

Geologic controls of uranium mineralization in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two important orebodies have been defined by drilling in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado, namely the Hansen and the Picnic Tree. Host rocks are respectively the upper Eocene Echo park Alluvium, and the lower Oligocene Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate. Average ore grade is about 0.08% U3O8. The principal source rock is the lower Oligocene Wall Mountain Tuff. Leaching and transportation of the uranium occurred in alkaline oxidizing ground water that developed during alteration of the ash in a semi-arid environment. The uranium was transported in the groundwater and deposited in a reducing environment controlled by carbonaceous material and associated pyrite. Localization of the ore was controlled by groundwater flow conditions and by the distribution of organic matter in the host rock. -from Author

Dickinson, K. A.

1981-01-01

200

CLOUD PEAK CONTIGUOUS, ROCK CREEK, PINEY CREEK, AND LITTLE GOOSE ROADLESS AREAS, WYOMING.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of mineral surveys, study areas surrounding the Cloud Peak Primitive Area in northern Wyoming offer little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. The geologic setting precludes the existence of deposits of organic fuels. Nonmetallic commodities, such as feldspar, limestone, building stone, clay, sand, and gravel are present, but these materials are readily available nearby in large quantities in more accessible areas.

Segerstrom, Kenneth; Brown, Don, S.

1984-01-01

201

Rock and the Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive rock cycle shows students how all rock types are recycled into other types, and how the cycle progresses. Materials include the definitions of each rock type (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic), how they change over time, and how tectonic movements help to drive the process.

202

Geology of the Roc Creek quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Roc Creek quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan mineral belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary in sandstones of favorable composition.

Shoemaker, E.M.

1954-01-01

203

The geology and mechanics of formation of the Fort Rock Dome, Yavapai County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Fort Rock Dome, a craterlike structure in northern Arizona, is the erosional product of a circular domal uplift associated with a Precambrian shear zone exposed within the crater and with Tertiary volcanism. A section of Precambrian to Quaternary rocks is described, and two Tertiary units, the Crater Pasture Formation and the Fort Rock Creek Rhyodacite, are named. A mathematical model of the doming process is developed that is consistent with the history of the Fort Rock Dome.

Fuis, Gary S.

1996-01-01

204

'Escher' Rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water.

Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend.

These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

2004-01-01

205

Age of Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado and Utah  

SciTech Connect

Isopach mapping and stratigraphic studies in the Douglas Creek arch area, a north-south-trending structure that separates the Uinta basin of Utah from the Piceance Creek basin of Colorado, indicate that the arch was formed largely during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous, late Campanian through Eocene). Formation was contemporaneous with the formation of the Uinta and Piceance Creek basins, but may have been present as a very broad, low-amplitude structure earlier during the Sevier orogeny. Recent paleogeographic reconstructions by other workers, however, suggest that the Douglas Creek arch was largely pre-Laramide. The Dakota to Castlegate Sandstone interval, which predates the Laramide orogeny, thickness toward the northwest on the west flank of the arch and toward the northeast on the east flank. This thickenings roughly outlines the arch, but is much broader, and more closely parallels the Uncompahgre uplift south of the arch. The thickness of the Castlegate to Cretaceous-Tertiary unconformity interval, which brackets the early stages of the Laramide orogeny, is nearly uniform west of the arch, but thickens abruptly east of the crest of the arch. This interval has been modified by an unknown amount of erosion during the following hiatus. Upper Paleocene rocks above the unconformity lap out toward the arch from both directions, indicating that the arch was rising during the hiatus. The intervals from the Cretaceous-Tertiary unconformity to the lower Eocene Long Point bed and from the Long Point bed to the middle Eocene Mahogany bed thicken away from the arch, indicating that the arch was active during early to middle Eocene. A structure contour map of the top of the Mahogany bed indicates considerable post-Mahogany movement as well. The arch was therefore largely if not totally a Laramide structure.

Johnson, R.C.; Finn, T.M.

1985-02-01

206

Little Rock Split as Historic Date Nears  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty years ago, nine black students walked through the doors of Little Rock Central High School, guarded by U.S. Army and National Guard troops dispatched to protect them from angry white residents protesting integration. Now, Arkansas is inviting the world to turn its eyes to Little Rock--this time, to see how far the city has come since those…

Samuels, Christina A.

2007-01-01

207

'Earhart' Rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

2004-01-01

208

"Sweet Little (White) Girls"? Sex and Fantasy across the Color Line and the Contestation of Patriarchal White Supremacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presence of the Little Rock Nine at Little Rock's Central High in September 1957 as a result of "Brown vs. the Board of Education" evoked anger, fear, and even panic among some parts of the white community, and many white women and girls responded with near hysteria. This article seeks to answer why. What was it about integration that provoked…

Godfrey, Phoebe

2004-01-01

209

Reaping Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about collecting, describing and classifying terrestrial and lunar rocks. Learners will collect and describe rocks of varying texture, color and shapes. Descriptors will include color, presence or absence of grains and grain size, textures, banding and other patterns. From the descriptions, learners will classify their collected rocks and extend their knowledge to classify lunar rocks. This activity is in Unit 1 of the Exploring the Moon teacher's guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

210

Rock flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.

Matveyev, S. N.

1986-01-01

211

Sedimentary Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This in-depth description of sedimentary rocks covers their classification as clastic, carbonate, or chemical/biochemical as well as their depositional environments, known as long and short clastic systems and carbonate depositional environments. It also presents a discussion of sedimentary rock evolution with an evolutionary diagram and a section on tectonics and sedimentary rocks. An alphabetical list of rocks with photograph, quartz-feldspar-lithic (QFL) composition, description, tectonic association, and formation and environments is given. Identification keys, both basic and QFL are also provided.

Fichter, Lynn

212

Reservoir performance in Ordovician Red River Formation, Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields, Bowman County, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The contiguous Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields produce oil from the Ordovician Red River Formation's 'D' zone (equal to the 'C' Burrowed Member). These fields produce from dolomite reservoirs at depths of about 9000 ft (3000 m) in the southern Williston basin on the northeastern flank of the southern end of the Cedar Creek anticline. Gentle ({lt}1{degree}) northeast regional dip allows oil entrapment in both areas of updip porosity pinch-out and small ({lt}2 km diameter), low-relief ({lt}30 m) structural closures. Reservoir rocks in both types of traps are burrowed dolomitized carbonate mudstones and wackestones deposited in open to restricted shelf environments. The best reservoir rocks occur where up to 25% porosity is present between completely dolomitized burrow fills. Reservoir-quality porosity is mainly intercrystalline and vuggy in finely crystalline dolomites, but even in the most porous intervals, permeability only locally exceeds 30 md. Amounts of porosity in wells producing from the 'D' zone can be used to estimate a well's ultimate oil recovery when integrated with data on structural position, thickness of porous dolomite, and the nature of the fluid saturation (best indicated by bulk volume water values). Production in the structurally trapped 'D' zone oil pools in each field, where initial water saturation was 22%, will average about 625 thousand bbl of oil/well with initially negligible water, but with increasing watercut through time. The stratigraphically trapped oil pools in the fields, where initial water saturations ranged from 32 to 66%, will average 237 thousand bbl of oil/well with higher initial watercuts, but little increase in watercut through time.

Longman, M.W. (Consulting Geologist, Lakewood, CO (United States)); Fertal, T.G. (Samuel Gary, Jr. and Associates, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)); Stell, J.R. (Snyder Oil Corp., Denver, CO (United States))

1992-04-01

213

Rock glacier dynamics and paleoclimatic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many rock glaciers contain massive ice that may be useful in paleoclimate studies. Interpreting geochemical ice-core records from rock glaciers requires a thorough understanding of rock glacier structure and dynamics. High-precision surface-velocity data were obtained for the Galena Creek rock glacier, Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. Surface velocities range from 0 to 1.00 m/yr and vary across the rock glacier in a manner similar to true glaciers. We used Glen's flow law to calculate the thickness of the deforming ice layer. The modeled ice thickness ranges from 0 to 50 m, and is confirmed by direct observations. This agreement shows that rock glacier movement can be entirely explained by deformation of massive ice within the rock glacier; neither basal sliding nor deformation of basal debris is necessary. Recovered ice cores (to depths of 25 m) contain thin debris layers associated with summer ablation in the accumulation zone. The ages of four samples of organic material removed from several debris layers inthe southern half of the rock glacier range from 200 ± 40 to 2250 ± 35 14C yr B.P., demonstrating that the rock glacier formed well before the Little Ice Age and may contain ice dating to the middle Holocene or earlier.

Konrad, S. K.; Humphrey, N. F.; Steig, E. J.; Clark, D. H.; Potter, N., Jr.; Pfeffer, W. T.

1999-12-01

214

Analyses and description of geochemical samples, Mill Creek Wilderness Study Area, Giles County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses for 64 elements on 62 stream sediment and 71 rock samples from Mill Creek Wilderness Study area, Giles County, Virginia, are reported here in detail. Locations for all samples are given in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Brief descriptions of rock samples are also included. Rocks analysed are mostly sandstone. Samples of hematitic sandstone of the Rose Hill Formation and limonite-cemented sandstone of the Rocky Gap Sandstone contain high values of iron; these rocks are submarginal iron resources. Some of the same iron-rich samples have a little more barium, copper, cobalt, lead, silver, and/or zinc then is in average sandstone, but they do not suggest the presence of economic deposits of these metals. No other obviously anomalous values related to mineralized rock are present in the data.

Mei, Leung; Lesure, Frank Gardner

1978-01-01

215

LIGHTNING CREEK, PACK RIVER, AND SAND CREEK, BONNER COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY SUMMARY, 1978  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1978, water quality studies were conducted on Lightning Creek, Pack River, and Sand Creek in Bonner County, Idaho (17010214, 17010213) to determine the present status of the streams. Water quality in Lightning Creek was generally very high. No violations of standa...

216

DEEP CREEK AND MUD CREEK, TWIN FALLS, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Deep Creek and Mud Creek are located in Twin Falls County near Buhl, Idaho (17040212). From April through October, these creeks convey irrigation drainage water from the western part of the Twin Falls irrigation tract to the Snake River. During 1986, water quality surveys were ...

217

Rockin' Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's use the Big6 to help us today! Today we are going to learn about different ways that we can classify and identify rocks! Mr. Williams has given you the task of becoming rock experts. In order to do that, we need to review some skills for research which we learned about a few weeks ago. This should look familiar: ...

Andersen, Ms.

2010-11-13

218

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

219

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

220

121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water to the Keswick ditch, supplying Volta powerhouse. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 235). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

221

Detail view of 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

222

Perspective view showing 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view showing 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

223

77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2012-0047] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...from the regulation governing the operation of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek, in Islamorada, Florida. The...

2012-02-24

224

59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

225

General perspective view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Marion Creek Bridge, Spanning Marion Creek at Milepoint 66.42 on North Santiam Highway (OR-22), Marion Forks, Linn County, OR

226

Topographic view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking westbound ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Topographic view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking westbound on the Santiam Highway. - Marion Creek Bridge, Spanning Marion Creek at Milepoint 66.42 on North Santiam Highway (OR-22), Marion Forks, Linn County, OR

227

General perspective view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking southwest. - Marion Creek Bridge, Spanning Marion Creek at Milepoint 66.42 on North Santiam Highway (OR-22), Marion Forks, Linn County, OR

228

MDAG.com Internet Case Study 27 Highway 97C Road-Cut Environmental Prosecution Near Pennask Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1980's, Highway 97C (the Coquihalla Connector) was built in southern British Columbia, Canada. A relatively small amount of rock was excavated near Unnamed Tributary, which drained into fish-bearing Pennask Creek and Pennask Lake. This activity produced \\

K. A. Morin; N. M. Hutt

229

2. EASTERN VIEW OF WATERGATE AT CENTER AND THE ROCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EASTERN VIEW OF WATERGATE AT CENTER AND THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY RAMP AT LEFT. VIEW TAKEN FROM NORTHERN RAILING OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Boundary Channel Extension, Spanning Mount Vernon Memorial Highway & Boundary Channel, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

230

Development of Rock Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter describes the development of rock engineering and provides introductory descriptions of the following concepts: rockbursts and elastic theory, discontinuous rock masses, engineering rock mechanics, geological data collection, laboratory testing of rock, rock mass classification, rock mass strength, in situ stress measurements, groundwater problems, rock reinforcement, excavation methods in rock, and analytical tools used in rock engineering.

2008-08-21

231

2. CONTEXTUAL ELEVATION VIEW OF BRIDGE OVERLOOKING PLEASANTS VALLEY CREEK; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEXTUAL ELEVATION VIEW OF BRIDGE OVERLOOKING PLEASANTS VALLEY CREEK; VIEW TO EAST. - Pleasants Valley Road Bridge, Spanning Pleasants Creek at Pleasants Valley Road, Vacaville, Solano County, CA

232

Hydrology of upper Black Earth Creek basin, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The upper Black Earth Creek drainage basin has an area of 46 square miles and is in Dane County in south-central Wisconsin. The oldest rock exposed in the valley walls is the sandstone of Late Cambrian age. Dolomite of the Prairie du Chien Group of Ordovician age overlies the sandstone and forms the. resistant cap on the hills. The St. Peter Sandstone, Platteville and Decorah Formations, and Galena Dolomite, all Ordovician in age, form a narrow belt along the southern boundary of the area. Outwash and alluvium of Pleistocene and Recent age fill the valleys. The eastern half of the area was glaciated and is covered with till. The sandstone of Late Cambrian age and the sand and gravel of the outwash deposits are hydraulically connected. Ground water occurs under unconfined (water-table) conditions in the western unglaciated part of the basin and under artesian conditions beneath the till locally in the eastern part. The source of most of the ground water is direct infiltration of precipitation; however, some ground water enters the area as underflow from the south. About 7 inches of the 30 inches of average annual precipitation recharges the ground-water reservoir. The ground water generally moves toward Black Earth Creek where it is discharged. Some ground water moves out of the basin as underflow beneath the valley of Black Earth Creek, and some is discharged by evapotranspiration or is withdrawn by pumping from wells. Water levels in shallow nonartesian wells respond rapidly to precipitation. The effect of precipitation on water levels in artesian wells is slower and more subdued. Water levels are generally highest in spring and lowest in fall and winter. The flow of upper Black Earth Creek is derived mostly from ground-water discharge, except during short periods of and immediately after precipitation when most of the flow is derived from surface runoff. The runoff from upper Black Earth Creek basin decreased from an average of 8.72 inches per square mile of drainage area in 1955 to 5.55 inches in 1958; the decrease reflects the generally decreasing precipitation and declining water levels in the basin during that period. On July 10, 1958, the discharge from the basin was 0.367 cubic feet per second per square mile, and the greatest discharge was 0.84 cubic feet per second per square mile from the southwest subbasin. The ground water has an average temperature of about 50?F. It is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type water and is very hard.

Cline, Denzel R.; Busby, Mark W.

1963-01-01

233

Should We Dam Nanticoke Creek?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this decision-making exercise, students investigate what would occur if a dam were built along Nanticoke Creek, a real stream just north of West Corners near the Village of Endicott, New York. They will use topographic maps to determine how much area would be flooded by the new reservoir, to study river drainages, and to consider the impacts of dams on a region. They must also consider rivers in the context of their relation to humankind. The exercise can be extended to other, more local locations having similar topography.

Childs, Philip

234

Big Hill Lake, Big Hill Creek, Kansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is located in Labette County, Kansas, on Big Hill Creek. Action consists of the construction of a lake for flood control, water supply, and recreation. Damages resulting from flooding in the creek below the dam will largely be eliminated and a...

1972-01-01

235

Alturas Lake Creek Flow Augmentation: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two alternatives were outlined in the first statement of work as possibilities for flow augmentation in Alturas Lake Creek. The alternatives were to raise the level of Alturas Lake and to acquire necessary water rights in Alturas Lake Creek. The first alt...

L. Everson

1987-01-01

236

33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of the US30 bridge,...

2013-07-01

237

33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133 Bridge, mile...

2010-07-01

238

33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133 Bridge, mile...

2009-07-01

239

Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

Berry, Mark E.

2003-02-01

240

TOXICITY PERSISTENCE IN PRICKLY PEAR CREEK, MONTANA  

EPA Science Inventory

Instream toxicity tests using the larval fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata were conducted on Prickly Pear Creek, Montana waters to study toxicity persistence in a stream. The toxicity source was Spring Creek, a tributary of Prickly Pear...

241

Igneous Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash page provides information about the formation and crystallization of igneous rocks. It includes pictures and animations with supplementary information and is suitable for high school or introductory level undergraduate physical geology courses.

Smoothstone; Company, Houghton M.

242

Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through five lessons, students are introduced to all facets of the rock cycle. Topics include rock and mineral types, material stresses and weathering, geologic time and fossil formation, the Earth's crust and tectonic plates, and soil formation and composition. Lessons are presented in the context of the related impact on humans in the form of roadway and tunnel design and construction, natural disasters, environmental site assessment for building structures, and measurement instrumentation and tools. Hands-on activities include experiencing tensional, compressional and shear material stress by using only hand force to break bars of soap; preparing Jeopardy-type trivia questions/answers for a class game that reinforces students' understanding of rocks and the rock cycle; creating "fossils" using melted chocolate; working within design constraints to design and build a model tunnel through a clay mountain; and soil sampling by creating tools, obtaining soil cores, documenting a soil profile log, and analyzing the findings to make engineering predictions.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

243

Match Rock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners try to figure out who has their matching rock type by reading a description of their rock (no talking!). This activity can be used in a variety of ways: to introduce students to each other (icebreaker), to improve communication and writing skills, to introduce classification schemes and taxonomy, and to show how scientists use observations and descriptions to draw links between others' data and interpretations.

Muller, Eric

2003-01-01

244

Buck Creek River Flow Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of Buck Creek using topographical and flow data provided by the Geology Department of Wittenberg University. The flow is analyzed using Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS). As the first step a model of the river near Snyder Park has been created with the current structure in place for validation purposes. Afterwards the low-head dam is replaced with four drop structures with V-notch overflow gates. The river bed is altered to reflect plunge pools after each drop structure. This analysis will provide insight to how the flow is going to behave after the changes are made. In addition a sediment transport analysis is also being conducted to provide information about the stability of these structures.

Dhanapala, Yasas; George, Elizabeth; Ritter, John

2009-04-01

245

White Toenails  

MedlinePLUS

... on a toenail, often causes bleeding under the nail because of blood vessels being broken. This would ... vessels, a white spot may appear under the nail. The spot will slowly grow out with the ...

246

White Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is based on the Proceedings of the 9th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, the most recent in a series of meetings which have become the most important events in this field. Many of the contributions, however, have been expanded considerably by the authors to include introductory material. This makes this volume a useful, up-to-date introduction into the present status of observations and theory of white dwarf stars.

Koester, Detlev; Werner, Klaus

247

Implications of U-Pb zircon ages for the tectonic settings of the Smartville and Slate Creek complexes, northern Sierra Nevada, California  

SciTech Connect

U-Pb zircon ages combined with stratigraphic and structural data indicate that ca. 160 Ma arc rocks of the Smartville Complex were constructed across ca. 200 Ma arc rocks of the Slate Creek Complex, which were already juxtaposed against more easterly units in the northern Sierra Nevada. The Slate Creek Complex, an ophiolitic thrust sheet east of the Smartville Complex, is 200-210 Ma, which precludes previous correlations with ca. 160 Ma rocks of the Smartville Complex. The Slate Creek Complex tectonically overlies chert-rich Paleozoic-early Mesozoic units along a low-angle fault that is cut by 163-168 Ma and 158-161 Ma plutons. Seven new ages of 160-163 Ma for plutonic rocks in the Smartville Complex agree with previous ages from Smartville volcanic rocks, sheeted dikes, and other plutons. In addition, one tonalite is 198 Ma and is cut by a 163 Ma dike, thus providing the first evidence of the basement of the ca. 160 Ma rocks. The 198 Ma tonalitic basement is probably correlative with the Slate Creek Complex, which contains the only other ca. 200 Ma tonalite in the northern Sierra Nevada. Thrust emplacement of the Slate Creek Complex between 200 and 163 Ma was followed by locally extensional arc magmatism in the Smartville Complex at about 160 Ma, then by Nevadan contractional deformation, a sequence of Jurassic deformation similar to that in the Klamath Mountains. Nevadan deformation could be part of a noncollisional deformation or a long-lived arc (Slate Creek Complex) collision.

Day, H.W.; Edelman, S.H. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA)); Bickford, M.E. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (USA))

1989-11-01

248

3. OVERVIEW CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BIG CREEK NO. 3 COMPLEX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. OVERVIEW CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BIG CREEK NO. 3 COMPLEX SHOWING SWITCHRACKS AND SUPPORT BUILDINGS TO PHOTO RIGHT OF POWERHOUSE, SAN JOAQUIN RIVER FLOWING IN PHOTO CENTER TO LOWER RIGHT, AND PENSTOCKS AND STANDPIPES IN BACKGROUND ABOVE POWERHOUSE. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

249

2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN FROM SAME ANGLE AS CA-167-X-1. THREE ORIGINAL PENSTOCKS PLUS FOURTH AND FIFTH PENSTOCKS (VISIBLE TO LEFT OF ORIGINAL THREE), AND THREE ORIGINAL STANDPIPES COUPLED TO FOURTH STANDPIPE SHOWN BEHIND AND ABOVE POWERHOUSE BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

250

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND TREE. RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

251

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT (TAILRACE IN FOREGROUND), BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT ABOVE AND BEHIND BUILDING 106. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

252

A Reexamination of Creek Indian Population Trends: 1738-1832.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides evidence that the Creek Nation's population increased during the late eighteenth century following a low point about 1750. Uses linear regression to project the Creek Indian population before the 1813-14 Creek War. Suggests that basic demographic factors may have played an important role in precipitating the Creek War. (SB)

Paredes, J. Anthony; Plante, Kenneth J.

1982-01-01

253

'Wopmay' Rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This approximate true-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an unusual, lumpy rock informally named 'Wopmay' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the Canadian bush pilot Wilfrid Reid 'Wop' May. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe the lumps in Wopmay may be related to cracking and alteration processes, possibly caused by exposure to water. The area between intersecting sets of cracks eroded in a way that created the lumpy appearance. Rover team members plan to drive Opportunity over to Wopmay for a closer look in coming sols. This image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 248 (Oct. 4, 2004), using its 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

2004-01-01

254

Jacobs Creek bioaccumulation report, 1979 and 1980  

SciTech Connect

In conjunction with TVA's monitoring of biota in Jacobs Creek (TVA 1981), which receives fly ash pond effluent from Paradise Steam-Electric Plant and is a tributary to the Green River, fish flesh samples were collected for metals analyses. Following pH adjustment of the Paradise fly ash pond, it was anticipated aquatic communities in the lower portion of Jacobs Creek would begin to recover. Development of a fishery in this area was expected as recovery progressed. A potential avenue for metals transfer to humans would be established through consumption of fish from Jacobs Creek. Therefore, concentrations of metals in fish flesh were analyzed.

Koch, L.M.; Harned, R.D.

1981-04-01

255

Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987  

SciTech Connect

Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

1988-03-01

256

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020{degree}F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

Virr, M.J.

1992-11-01

257

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020[degree]F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

Virr, M.J.

1992-01-01

258

Beaver Creek and Clear Creek Reservoirs. Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Beaver Creek and Clear Creek Reservoirs Land Management Plan is a study of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)-managed public land surrounding Beaver Creek and Clear Creek reservoirs. It is one of five reservoir land management plans (RLMPs) associat...

2010-01-01

259

Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

1992-04-01

260

33 CFR 334.480 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot...zone on Archers Creek (between the Broad River and Beaufort River), Ribbon Creek,...

2012-07-01

261

Research Rocks  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dr. Alex Andronikov, a geologist from the University of Michigan Department of Geological Science, and Kelley Brumley, a geologist from Stanford University, sort through rocks that were dredged from the Arctic Ocean floor Sept. 9, 2009, aboard the Coast Guard Cutter Healy.The dredging is part of the...

2010-02-19

262

Rock Paintings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

Jones, Julienne Edwards

1998-01-01

263

Rock Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this one-page article Steven Strogatz explains how representing numbers with concrete objects can make calculations less confusing. By using images of rocks, he demystifies concepts such as square numbers, parity, primes, and sums of consecutive numbers. This is the second in Steven's series of 15 articles on the Elements of Math (home page cataloged separately).

Strogatz, Steven

2010-02-07

264

Stillwater Rocks  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Rocks from the Stillwater Mine are brought to the USGS in Denver, Colorado, where they are ground before entering the plasma melter at Zybek Advanced Products. __________ The USGS has created man-made moon dirt, or regolith, to help NASA prepare for upcoming moon explorations. Four tons of the sim...

2009-05-26

265

Rock Grinding  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Rocks from the Stillwater Mine are brought to the USGS in Denver, Colorado, where they are sledged and ground before entering the plasma melter at Zybek Advanced Products. __________ The USGS has created man-made moon dirt, or regolith, to help NASA prepare for upcoming moon explorations. Four ton...

2009-05-26

266

Isoseismal Map: 1988 Tennant Creek Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This isoseismal map shows the distribution of Modified Mercalli values compiled from questionnaires distributed after the largest shock of the January 1988 Tennant Creek earthquake, which occurred in Northern Territory, Australia.

267

33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile 0.3 at Okeechobee, shall open on signal if at least...

2013-07-01

268

33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile 0.8, in Putnam County, shall open on signal...

2013-07-01

269

33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile 0.9 near Satsuma, shall open on signal if at least...

2013-07-01

270

33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State Road 80 bridge at Fort Myers need not be opened for the...

2013-07-01

271

Pillar Creek Hatchery Annual Management Plan, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Annual management plan of the Pillar Creek Hatchery (PCH), which was constructed in 1990 as a cooperative project between the Alaska Department of Fish and Game and the Kodiak Regional Aquaculture Association. The purpose of this annual management plan is...

G. Byrne H. Finkle

2010-01-01

272

Wolf Creek VI Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sixth Wolf-Creek Conference was held at the Ritz Carlton Hotel in Rancho Mirage from June 4, 2001 to June 7, 2001. Approximately 70 internationally renown experts on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation attended the Conference and presented their most recent...

M. Weil

2001-01-01

273

Silver Creek Watershed, Minnehaha County, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Silver Creek Watershed for flood prevention plan includes land treatment, 6 floodwater retarding structures, and about 15 miles of channel improvement. The 6 floodwater retarding structures and the essential land treatment above these structures have ...

1973-01-01

274

White Pelican  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American white pelican is still considered endangered in Alberta, Canada, where the population is increasing but fewer than half of the 20 known historic nesting islands are still in use. The site provides information on this magnificent bird: habitat, general biological data, risk factors, and management. External links to Canadian parks, nonprofit groups, and other species profiles also included.

Rasmussen, Ray

2011-02-03

275

Rock Classification and Rock Property Listing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines conducted a project for the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Rock Mechanics and Rapid Excavation program to investigate rock classification as one means to improve rapid excavation technology. A standard rock suite was establis...

W. W. Krech

1973-01-01

276

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

White, Jim

2004-02-01

277

Stratigraphy and petroleum potential of Trout Creek and Twentymile sandstones (Upper Cretaceous), Sand Wash Basin, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Trout Creek and Twentymile Sandstones (Mesaverde Group) in Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado, are thick, upward-coarsening sequences that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior basin during Campanian time. These units trend northeast-southwest and undergo a facies change to coal-bearing strata on the northwest. Surface data collected along the southeastern rim of the Sand Wash basin were combined with well-log data from approximately 100 drill holes that have penetrated the Trout Creek or Twentymile in the subsurface. The sandstones exhibit distinctive vertical profiles with regard to grain size, sedimentary structures, and biogenic structures. A depositional model that incorporates the key elements of the modern Nile River (northeast Africa) and Nayarit (west-central Mexico) coastal systems is proposed for the Trout Creek and Twentymile sandstones and associated strata. The model depicts a wave-dominated deltaic, strand-plain, and barrier-island system. Depositional cycles are asymmetrical in cross section as they are largely progradational and lack significant transgressive deposits. Source rock-reservoir rock relationships are ideal as marine shales underlie, and coal-bearing strata overlie sheetlike reservoir sandstones. Humic coal, the dominant source of Mesaverde gas, generates major quantities of methane upon reaching thermal maturity. Existing Mesaverde gas fields are largely structural traps, but stratigraphic and combination traps may prove to be equally important. The sparsely drilled deeper part of the basin warrants testing as large, overpressured-gas accumulations in tight-sandstone reservoirs are likely to be found.

Siepman, B.R.

1985-05-01

278

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Calispell Creek Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.  

SciTech Connect

On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Calispell Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in February 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Calispell Creek Project provides a total of 138.17 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 5.16 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Grassland provides 132.02 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 0.99 HUs for yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Calispell Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

Entz, Ray

2005-02-01

279

6. VIEW OF BAMBOO GATE LEADING INTO WHITE GRAVEL AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF BAMBOO GATE LEADING INTO WHITE GRAVEL AND ROCK CLUSTER GARDEN REMINISCENT OF RYOAN-JI TEMPLE GARDEN IN KYOTO - Kykuit, Japanese Gardens, 200 Lake Road, Pocantico Hills, Westchester County, NY

280

Depositional setting and diagenetic evolution of some Tertiary unconventional reservoir rocks, Uinta Basin, Utah.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Douglas Creek Member of the Tertiary Green River Formation underlies much of the Uinta basin, Utah, and contains large volumes of oil and gas trapped in a complex of fractured low-permeability sandstone reservoirs. In the SE part of the basin at Pariette Bench, the Eocene Douglas Creek Member is a thick sequence of fine- grained alluvial sandstone complexly intercalated with lacustrine claystone and carbonate rock. Sediments were deposited in a subsiding intermontane basin along the shallow fluctuating margin of ancient Lake Uinta. Although the Uinta basin has undergone postdepositional uplift and erosion, the deepest cored rocks at Pariette Bench have never been buried more than 3000m.-from Authors

Pitman, J. K.; Fouch, T. D.; Goldhaber, M. B.

1982-01-01

281

Meridiani Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

16 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the complex surfaces of some of the light- and intermediate-toned sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in eastern Sinus Meridiani. Similar rocks occur at the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, site, but they are largely covered by windblown sand and granules. The dark feature with a rayed pattern is the product of a meteor impact.

Location near: 0.8oN, 355.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

2005-01-01

282

4. O'BRIAN CANAL/SECOND CREEK INTERSECTION Second Creek is in the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. O'BRIAN CANAL/SECOND CREEK INTERSECTION Second Creek is in the foreground; the O'Brian Canal is in the background; vicinity of East 112th Avenue and Potomac Road in Adams County - O'Brian Canal, South Platte River Drainage Area Northest of Denver, Brighton, Adams County, CO

283

Water Quality in Gaines Creek and Gaines Creek Arm of Eufaula Lake, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on samples collected from May 1978 to May 1980 and analyzed for major anions, nitrogen, trace elements, phytoplankton, and bacteria, the water in Gaines Creek and the Gaines Creek arm of Eufaula Lake was similar with respect to suitability for munic...

J. K. Kurklin

1990-01-01

284

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

In response to the PON, 33 proposals were received by DOE in May 1991. One of the nine is a project proposed by Tampella Power Corporation (Tampella) and Coastal Power Production Company (Coastal) for the design, construction, and operation of a pressurized, air-blown, fluidized-bed, integrated gasification, combined-cycle, (IGCC) demonstration project. The project, entitled the Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project, will consume 430 tons per day of bituminous coal and generate 55 megawatts (MK) of power for the electric grid and steam for use in a nearby coal preparation plant. The project site is located near Coeburn in Wise County, Virginia. The project, including the demonstration phase, will last 99 months at a total cost of $196,570,000. DOE'S share of the project cost will be 48.3%, or $95,000,000. The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate an advanced IGCC system based upon the air-blown, pressurized fluidized-bed U-Gas gasifier developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with in-bed desulfurization using a calcium-based sorbent and an external zinc titanate sulfur removal system.

Not Available

1992-09-01

285

Post-Supereruption (18-19 Ma) Magmatic Reactivation Beneath the Silver Creek Caldera, Black Mountains, AZ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Silver Creek caldera, southern Black Mountains, AZ, is the source of the supereruption that produced the Miocene (18.8 Ma) Peach Spring Tuff (PST), an extensive ignimbrite found throughout much of northwestern Arizona, southern Nevada, and southeastern California. The caldera's eastern margin is intruded by a slightly younger (18.5 +/- 0.5 Ma), ~30 km2 complex of epizonal, intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks. Because it is the largest known suite of intrusive rocks associated with the Peach Spring supereruption and contiguous (~19.5-17.5 Ma) volcanic activity in the Black Mountains, the Silver Creek intrusive complex provides a valuable record of processes operating in the shallow crust in the aftermath of a major eruption and during a period of intense volcanic activity. Rocks in the Silver Creek intrusive complex have historically been divided into two units, the Moss porphyry and the Times porphyry, though the complex exhibits textural and compositional complexity that belies a simple two-unit classification scheme. Field observations and geochemical analysis indicate that the northern portion of the Silver Creek suite comprises porphyries and coarse-grained rocks with ~62 to ~68 wt. % SiO2 ("Moss porphyry"). Rounded, 2-10 cm enclaves (59 wt. % SiO2) with crenulate margins are sparse overall but locally abundant in this portion of the complex. The southern part of the complex consists of leucogranitic porphyry and coarse-grained granite with >70 wt. % SiO2 ("Times porphyry"). At the east/west-trending Times/Moss contact zone along Silver Creek, the coarse-grained component of the Times contains < 0.5-2 m-diameter, fine-grained enclaves with crenulate margins and compositions similar to that of the intermediate Moss to the north. Mafic, intermediate, and felsic porphyritic dikes crosscut the entire complex. Major and trace element compositions of the Silver Creek intrusive complex define a coherent and continuous array extending from the most mafic enclaves to the most silicic Times, consistent with their representing a broadly cogenetic suite. Our preliminary data reveal that the Times units are geochemically similar to rhyolitic pumice in PST outflow, while the Moss is geochemically comparable to voluminous trachydacite lava and tuff that erupted shortly before the PST. The geochemical and age data, combined with field evidence for mafic reheating and magma mixing, suggest that the Silver Creek intrusive complex records rapid reinvigoration of the magmatic system that fed the PST supereruption and its volcanic predecessors in the Black Mountains.

Mcdowell, S.; Miller, C. F.; Ferguson, C.

2011-12-01

286

Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

2004-01-01

287

Distribution of gold, tellurium, silver, and mercury in part of the Cripple Creek district, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical exploration studies were undertaken in the Cripple Creek district to test the possibility that large low-grade gold deposits might be found. Surface rock samples taken throughout the district indicate that the volcanic rocks between the productive veins contain an average of about 0.6 ppm (part per million) gold. In an area above 3,800 feet long and 500 feet wide near the Cresson mine in the south-central part of the district, scattered surface samples show that the rocks contain an average of 2.5 ppm gold, equivalent to $2.50 per ton. Inasmuch as veins that contain more than 2.5 ppm may also exist in the area, systematic sampling by trenching and drilling is warranted.

Gott, Garland Bayard; McCarthy, J. H.; Van Sickle, G. H.; McHugh, J. B.

1967-01-01

288

77 FR 21722 - Gore Creek Restoration Project; Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Gore Creek Restoration Project; Intent To Prepare an Environmental...Service, USDA. Project: Gore Creek Restoration Project. ACTION: Notice of intent...consequences of the proposed Gore Creek Restoration Project (Gore Creek). The Gore...

2012-04-11

289

Multispectral analysis of limestone, dolomite, and granite, Mill Creek, Oklahoma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral reflectance and thermal emission data were collected at the Mill Creek, Oklahoma test site during NASA missions 132 and 133 in June 1970. The data were collected by three aircraft flown several times during the diurnal cycle at altitudes of 150 to 17,000 m above mean terrain. Reflectance of the main rock types (limestone, dolomite, and granite) was determined from the data collected using a 12-channel multispectral scanner during mission 133 and from thermal infrared images recorded during mission 132 on an RS-7 scanner from 17,000 m above terrain. A preliminary rock recognition map was generated automatically using data collected from 900 m above terrain. The discrimination provided by the map is reasonably accurate. Misidentification occurred in areas of unusually high dolomite reflectivity. High altitude thermal infrared (10 to 12 micrometers) images show regional folds and faults distinguished by the presence of thermally contrasting materials. Linear and curvilinear structural features two to three times smaller than the nominal 17 m resolution could be detected.

Rowan, L. C.; Watson, K.

1970-01-01

290

In Stream Habitat and Stock Restoration for Salmon Otter Creek Barrier Bypass Subproject. Restoration Project 94139-B1. EXXON VALDEZ Oil Spill Restoration Project Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1994, two barrier falls on Otter Creek, Bay of Isles, Knight Island, Prince William Sound were modified to provide upstream passage to adult pink salmon (Onchorhynchus gorbuscha). The falls were modified by using wire basket gabions, rock drills and wo...

K. Wedemeyer D. Gillikin

1995-01-01

291

Rock cycle in chocolate lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab students receive two small blocks (1 cm3) of chocolate (white and dark), and follow it through the entire rock cycle. The chocolate blocks are melted on a hot plate, with different melting temperatures and rheologies due to compositional differences. The "magma" is then cooled either slowly or quickly, and the resulting textures are examined and compared to granite and basalt hand samples. The "igneous" chocolate is then ground and abraded to show erosion, and the eroded material is pressure-lithified to form "sedimentary" chocolate. The sedimentary chocolate then undergoes greater pressure to mimic metamorphism, and additional heat re-melts the chocolate back into magma. Students compare the chocolate "rocks" in each of these stages with real rock samples. The final assignment is to describe the "life story" of complex conglomerate rock sample. The lab is a bit messy and takes a bit of preparation, but students come away with a significantly better understanding of the rock cycle as a whole and each of its component parts.

Stelling, Pete

292

THE SOILS DEVELOPED ON WISCONSIN AND ILLINOIAN- AGE GLACIAL OUTWASH TERRACES ALONG LITTLE BEAVER CREEK AND THE ADJOINING UPPER OHIO VALLEY, COLUMBIANA COUNTY, OHIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the progress of the soil survey in Columbiana County, Ohio, two glacial outwash terrace levels were traced from gravelly kame areas in the Wisconsin and Illinoian glacial till plains (White, 1951) along Little Beaver Creek, to the Ohio River (fig. 1). The lower terrace originates in the Wisconsin till plain and is presumed to be Wisconsin glacial outwash. The

HEBER D. LESSIG

293

Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

2006-01-01

294

Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

2001-01-01

295

An investigation of carbon dynamics in Beaver Creek, Alaska, using in-situ sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (pCO2), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and water-quality sensors were deployed at two remote sites on sub-arctic Beaver Creek, Alaska, to characterize carbon dynamics during the open water season of 2010. Beaver Creek is a tributary of the Yukon River, with nearly half of its 300 mile length classified as a national Wild and Scenic River. Beaver Creek above Victoria Creek (BCV) drains 3315 km2, and receives water inputs primarily from the White Mountains and other headwater catchments. Beaver Creek near Michel Lake (BCM) drains 6164 km2, and is located 180 km downriver from BCV in the Yukon Flats. The location of the sites permitted the study of lake and wetland inputs between the sites. Seasonal pCO2 ranged from ~1000 to 2200 ppm at BCV and from ~600 to 1200 ppm at BCM. Diel pCO2 variations were as high as 500 ppm at BCV and 200 ppm at BCM. Both sites were supersaturated in pCO2 with respect to atmospheric levels for the entire open water season. CO2 fluxes from water to atmosphere at each site will be presented. CDOM, pH, and O2 were used to further characterize river carbon dynamics. While rapidly changing river levels resulted in sensors being exposed to the atmosphere for varying periods of time, the use of these in-situ sensors provided a means to explore C dynamics on scales that would be impossible to investigate with random discreet sampling in this remote area of Alaska.

Dornblaser, M.; Striegl, R. G.

2010-12-01

296

Classifying Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants and animals are usually organized by their family tree (origin) and by their physical and genetic characteristics. This activity helps to demonstrate to students that geologists do the same with rocks, which are usually organized by their origin and by their physical and chemical characteristics. To have a better understanding of nature and as one of the initial steps of scientific understanding, it is important for humans to organize nature into groups. This site has a list of materials, background information, a detailed procedure, and a suggestion for assessment.

297

Sedimentary Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

6 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of sedimentary rocks in a crater located just north of the Sinus Meridiani region. Perhaps the crater was once the site of a martian lake.

Location near: 2.9oN, 359.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

2005-01-01

298

Rock Showdown  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Service learning is a pedagogy that has the potential to connect young adolescents with their community in authentic situations where they can initiate projects that address real needs. The use of the "community" as a context for service and learning has long been explored in science education. There are many examples of service learning initiatives which generally fall under the heading of community-based education . In most cases, students carry out service projects for the community, and along the way may learn some science. By contrast, seventh-grade students from Philippine Science High School created the Rock Showdown as a model of service learning in partnership with the community.

Laroder, Aris; Tippins, Deborah; Morano, Lourdes; Handa, Vicente

2007-03-01

299

Lithofacies, Age, and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group in the Skimo Creek Area, Central Brooks Range  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lisburne Group, a mainly Carboniferous carbonate succession that is widely distributed across northern Alaska, contains notable amounts of oil and gas at Prudhoe Bay. Detailed studies of the Lisburne in the Skimo Creek area, central Brooks Range, delineate its lithofacies, age, conodont biofacies, depositional environments, and sequence stratigraphy and provide new data on its hydrocarbon source-rock and reservoir potential, as well as its thermal history, in this area. We have studied the Lisburne Group in two thrust sheets of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, herein called the Skimo and Tiglukpuk thrust sheets. The southern, Skimo Creek section, which is >900 m thick, is composed largely of even-bedded to nodular lime mudstone and wackestone intercalated with intervals of thin- to thick-bedded bioclastic packstone and grainstone. Some parts of the section are partially to completely dolomitized and (or) replaced by chert. A distinctive, 30-m-thick zone of black, organic-rich shale, lime mudstone, and phosphorite is exposed 170 m below the top of the Lisburne. The uppermost 40 m of section is also distinctive and made up of dark shale, lime mudstone, spiculite, and glauconitic grainstone. The northern, Tiglukpuk Creek section, which is similar to the Skimo Creek section but only ~760 m thick, includes more packstone and grainstone and less organic-rich shale. Analyses of conodonts and foraminifers indicate that both sections range in age from late Early Mississippian (Osagean) through Early Pennsylvanian (early Morrowan) and document a hiatus of at least 15 m.y. at the contact between the Lisburne and the overlying Siksikpuk Formation. No evidence of subaerial exposure was observed along this contact, which may represent a submarine erosional surface. Lithofacies and biofacies imply that the Lisburne Group in the study area was deposited mainly in midramp to outer-ramp settings. Deepest water strata are mud rich and formed below storm or fair-weather wave base on the outer ramp to outer midramp; shallowest facies are storm, sand-wave, and shoal deposits of the inner midramp to inner ramp. A relatively diverse, open-marine fauna occurs throughout much of the Lisburne in the study area, but some beds also contain clasts typical of more restricted, shallow-water environments that were likely transported seaward by storms and currents. Radiolarians are abundant in the shale and phosphorite unit at Skimo Creek and also occur in equivalent strata at Tiglukpuk Creek; high gamma-ray response and elevated total organic-carbon contents (max 5?8 weight percent) also characterize this unit at Skimo Creek. Lithologic, faunal, and geochemical data all suggest that these rocks formed mainly in an outer-ramp to basinal setting with low sedimentation rates, high productivity, and poorly oxygenated bottom water. Shale and mudstone at the top of the Lisburne Group accumulated in a similarly sediment starved, mainly outer ramp environment but lack comparable evidence for high nutrient and low oxygen levels during deposition. Vertical shifts in rock types and faunas delineate numerous parasequences and six probable third-order sequences in the study area; the same sequences are also recognized in the Lisburne Group to the east. Transgressive-system tracts in these sequences generally fine upward, whereas highstand-system tracts coarsen upward. Sequences in the Tiglukpuk Creek section are mostly thinner, contain thinner and more numerous parasequences, and accumulated in somewhat shallower settings than those in the Skimo Creek section. These differences reflect the more seaward position and, thus, increased accommodation space of the Skimo Creek section relative to the Tiglukpuk Creek section during deposition. Organic-rich calcareous shale in the shale and phosphorite unit has a cumulative thickness of at least 15 m and a lateral extent of >50 km; this lithology is the best potential hydrocarbon source rock in the Lisburne Group

Dumoulin, Julie A.; Whalen, Michael T.; Harris, Anita G.

2008-01-01

300

All About Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will be learning about different types of rocks today.This project will teach you how to sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. We will even see a video of new rocks being formed! Visit this link to read an intro about rocks. Intro to Rocks Then visit these three links 1) Metamorphic Rocks 2) Igneous Rocks 3) Sedimentary Rocks Now answer these questions: 1) What types of rocks do you think you would find in your backyard? 2)Compare and contrast 2 of the 3 different types of rocks. 3)What is your favorite ...

Heffernan, Laura

2010-06-21

301

Diverging Histories of the Liberty Creek and Iceberg Lake Blueschist Bodies, south central Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New studies of the Liberty Creek and Iceberg Lake blueschist bodies of south central Alaska indicate that despite structural similarities, these blueschist bodies are derived from a different protolith and were metamorphosed to blueschist facies at distinctly different times. Both blueschists are located just south of the Border Ranges Fault (BRF) within outcrop belts of the McHugh Complex, a low-grade mélange assemblage that is now known from detrital zircon studies to consist of two distinct assemblages: a Jurassic to Earliest Cretaceous assemblage and a Late Cretaceous assemblage. The BRF is a megathrust system that represents the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic initiation of southern Alaskan subduction. Large scale (1:24,000) mapping revealed similar fabric overprint histories, epitomized by a previously undescribed youngest vertical N-S trending crenulation cleavage in both blueschist bodies which implies a structural correlation despite their separation of ~100 kilometers along strike. Despite structural similarities detrital zircon studies show that the Liberty Creek and Iceberg Lake blueschists do not have a similar maximum age of deposition. Thirteen samples from the Iceberg Lake blueschist were processed, none of which produced detrital zircons. Samples from the McHugh Complex greenschists that surround the Iceberg Lake blueschist produced numerous zircons indicating a Late Jurassic (~160 Ma) maximum age of deposition. Three out of sixteen samples from the Liberty creek blueschist produced detrital zircons indicating maximum depositional ages ranging from Late Jurassic (~160.1 Ma, n=64 grains; ~152.25 Ma, n=68 grains) to Early Cretaceous (~137.1 Ma, n=95 grains). The Late Jurassic dates are consistent with maximum depositional ages determined by Amato and Pavlis (2010) for McHugh Complex rocks along Turnagain Arm near Anchorage, AK. Sisson and Onstott (1986) reported a metamorphic cooling age of 185 Ma for the Iceberg Lake blueschist, thus, although no depostitional age constraints were obtained for the Iceberg Lake body, its metamorphic cooling age is far older than the younger depositional ages of the Liberty Creek blueschists indicating these areas record two different blueschist facies metamorphic assemblages. Work in progress on cooling ages from the Liberty Creek rocks should clarify the age of this younger metamorphism. Although these assemblages record different metamorphic events, the similar overprint history may indicate that the Liberty Creek and Iceberg Lake blueschists were subjected to the same, younger deformation series, possibly Cenozoic strike-slip related deformation.

Day, E. M.; Pavlis, T. L.; Amato, J. M.

2011-12-01

302

4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of the dam/bridge looking east - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

303

3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of dam/bridge looking southwest - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

304

DISTANT ELEVATION, NOTE CREEK BRIDGE FOREGROUND, COVERED BRIDGE OVER DIFFERENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DISTANT ELEVATION, NOTE CREEK BRIDGE FOREGROUND, COVERED BRIDGE OVER DIFFERENT STREAM IN THE BACKGROUND, NORTHEAST PORTAL - Larwood Bridge, Spanning Crabtree Creek, Fish Hatchery Road (CR 648), Lacomb, Linn County, OR

305

13. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast; looking at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast; looking at canal going to the tree line - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

306

14. View of Sterling Creek Marsh east across the marsh, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. View of Sterling Creek Marsh east across the marsh, with canal in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

307

12. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast across marsh, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast across marsh, with canal in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

308

8. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking northeast across the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking northeast across the berm with the marsh to the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

309

20. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest with oyster ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest with oyster house in the tree line - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

310

9. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest, with the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest, with the marsh in the background and the berm in the foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

311

17. View from Sterling Creek Marsh looking west, with berm ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. View from Sterling Creek Marsh looking west, with berm to the left and Henry Ford Mansion in the far background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

312

10. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking south with house ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking south with house in the background and marsh in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

313

8. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking WSW. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking WSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

314

1. View of Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and cliff ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. View of Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and cliff looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

315

9. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking ENE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

316

7. Elevation of single arch stone bridge on Laurel Creek ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Elevation of single arch stone bridge on Laurel Creek Road looking N. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

317

Reconnaissance Feasibility Study Hydroelectric Potential on Lowell Creek.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of hydroelectric power development on Lowell Creek near Seward was investigated at a reconnaissance level. The study was conducted because the physical characteristics of the creek and surrounding terrain initially appeared suitable for hy...

1979-01-01

318

Steel Creek water quality: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet envirorunental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Kretchmer, D.W.; Chimney, M.J. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

1992-04-01

319

Rock Driller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next series of planetary exploration missions require a method of extracting rock and soil core samples. Therefore a prototype ultrasonic core driller (UTCD) was developed to meet the constraints of Small Bodies Exploration and Mars Sample Return Missions. The constraints in the design are size, weight, power, and axial loading. The ultrasonic transducer requires a relatively low axial load, which is one of the reasons this technology was chosen. The ultrasonic generator breadboard section can be contained within the 5x5x3 limits and weighs less than two pounds. Based on results attained the objectives for the first phase were achieved. A number of transducer probes were made and tested. One version only drills, and the other will actually provide a small core from a rock. Because of a more efficient transducer/probe, it will run at very low power (less than 5 Watts) and still drill/core. The prototype generator was built to allow for variation of all the performance-effecting elements of the transducer/probe/end effector, i.e., pulse, duty cycle, frequency, etc. The heart of the circuitry is what will be converted to a surface mounted board for the next phase, after all the parameters have been optimized and the microprocessor feedback can be installed.

Peterson, Thomas M.

2001-01-01

320

Geochemistry of the Birch Creek Drainage Basin, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting studies to describe the chemical character of ground water that moves as underflow from drainage basins into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) system at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the effects of these recharge waters on the geochemistry of the ESRPA system. Each of these recharge waters has a hydrochemical character related to geochemical processes, especially water-rock interactions, that occur during migration to the ESRPA. Results of these studies will benefit ongoing and planned geochemical modeling of the ESRPA at the INEEL by providing model input on the hydrochemical character of water from each drainage basin. During 2000, water samples were collected from five wells and one surface-water site in the Birch Creek drainage basin and analyzed for selected inorganic constituents, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, tritium, measurements of gross alpha and beta radioactivity, and stable isotopes. Four duplicate samples also were collected for quality assurance. Results, which include analyses of samples previously collected from four other sites, in the basin, show that most water from the Birch Creek drainage basin has a calcium-magnesium bicarbonate character. The Birch Creek Valley can be divided roughly into three hydrologic areas. In the northern part, ground water is forced to the surface by a basalt barrier and the sampling sites were either surface water or shallow wells. Water chemistry in this area was characterized by simple evaporation models, simple calcite-carbon dioxide models, or complex models involving carbonate and silicate minerals. The central part of the valley is filled by sedimentary material and the sampling sites were wells that are deeper than those in the northern part. Water chemistry in this area was characterized by simple calcite-dolomite-carbon dioxide models. In the southern part, ground water enters the ESRPA. In this area, the sampling sites were wells with depths and water levels much deeper than those in the northern and central parts of the valley. The calcium and carbon water chemistry in this area was characterized by a simple calcite-carbon dioxide model, but complex calcite-silicate models more accurately accounted for mass transfer in these areas. Throughout the geochemical system, calcite precipitated if it was an active phase in the models. Carbon dioxide either precipitated (outgassed) or dissolved depending on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in water from the modeled sites. Dolomite was an active phase only in models from the central part of the system. Generally the entire geochemical system could be modeled with either evaporative models, carbonate models, or carbonate-silicate models. In both of the latter types of models, a significant amount of calcite precipitated relative to the mass transfer to and from the other active phases. The amount of calcite precipitated in the more complex models was consistent with the amount of calcite precipitated in the simpler models. This consistency suggests that, although the simpler models can predict calcium and carbon concentrations in Birch Creek Valley ground and surface water, silicate-mineral-based models are required to account for the other constituents. The amount of mass transfer to and from the silicate mineral phases was generally small compared with that in the carbonate phases. It appears that the water chemistry of well USGS 126B represents the chemistry of water recharging the ESRPA by means of underflow from the Birch Creek Valley.

Swanson, Shawn A.; Rosentreter, Jeffrey J.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Knobel, LeRoy L.

2003-01-01

321

Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

Curran, Janet H.

2007-01-01

322

Hydrothermal alteration of oxygen isotope ratios in quartz phenocrysts, Kidd Creek mine, Ontario: Magmatic values are preserved in zircon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zircons from rhyolites hosting the Kidd Creek volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit preserve magmatic oxygen isotope ratios (delta18O = 5.40\\/00 ± 0.30\\/00, n = 11) that are indistinguishable from average values of other plutonic and volcanic rocks of the Superior Province. Oxygen isotope ratios of petrographically pristine, primary quartz phenocrysts, however, are greatly elevated in delta18O and heterogeneous (delta18O = 14.20\\/00

Elizabeth M. King; C. Tucker Barrie; John W. Valley

1997-01-01

323

Eccentricity and precession forced cyclicity in the Upper Silurian Williamsport Sandstone Member of the Wills Creek Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Williamsport Sandstone Member, located at the base of the Wills Creek Formation, contains a complete 5th order sequence, traceable for more than 100 kilometers. This 5th order sequence is initiated with a massive iron-rich sandstone unit. The upper iron-rich sand of the Williamsport Member marks the beginning of the next 5th order sequence. The first 5th order rock cycle,

S. D. Shelton; E. J. Anderson

1993-01-01

324

1. OVERVIEW OF EXTREME EAST END OF BIG CREEK TOWN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERVIEW OF EXTREME EAST END OF BIG CREEK TOWN ACROSS POWERHOUSE NO. 2 FOREBAY (POWERHOUSE NO. 1 AFTERBAY). TOWER CARRYING TRANSMISSION LINES FROM POWERHOUSE NO. 1 IS AT PHOTO CENTER. BEHIND TOWER IS BUILDING 103. TO PHOTO LEFT OF BUILDING 103 IS BUILDING 105. VIEW TO NORTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

325

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT, BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO CENTER, BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT, AND BUILDING 104 ABOVE BUILDING 106 PARTIALLY OBSCURED BEHIND TREE AT UPPER PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

326

Ground-water reconnaissance of the Sailor Creek area, Owyhee, Elmore, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This reports evaluates the ground-water resources of about 1,000 square miles in the semiarid uplands south of the Snake River between Bruneau River and Salmon Falls Creek. The outcropping rocks are the Idavada Volcanics of Pliocene age, and the Idaho Group of Pliocene and Plieistocene age, consisting of the Banbury Basalt of middle Pliocene age and overlying predominantly sedimentary deposits of middle Pliocene through middle Pleistocene age. These rocks dip gently northward. The volcanic rocks are the best aquifers, but the yield of water from the sedimentary deposits is adequate for domestic and stock use. About 6,000 acre-feet of water is withdrawn annually from the Idavada Volcanics by 9 irrigation wells to irrigate about 3,000 acres. Only a few tends of acre-feet of water withdrawn from the other formations. The regional dip of the rocks induces weak artesian conditions in the volcanic rocks and somewhat higher artesian head in the sedimentary rocks. Estimated depth to water ranges from less than 250 feet to more than 750 feet, as shown in an accompanying map. The eastern part of the area appears to be more favorable for the development of ground water for irrigation than the western part because of better aquifers at shallower depth.

Crosthwaite, E. G.

1962-01-01

327

Sedimentation in Hot Creek in vicinity of Hot Creek Fish Hatchery, Mono County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An accumulation of fine-grained sediment in Hot Creek downstream from Hot Creek Fish Hatchery, Mono County, Calif., created concern that the site may be deteriorating as a habitat for trout. The accumulation is a phenomenon that probably occurs naturally in the problem reach. Fluctuation in the weather probably is the basic cause of the deposition of fine-grained sediment that has occurred since about 1970. Man 's activities and the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery may have contributed to the problem; the significance of these factors, however, probably was magnified because of drought conditions in 1975-77. (Woodard-USGS)

Burkham, D. E.

1978-01-01

328

77 FR 73967 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard...County highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk and...entitled ``Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD'' in the...

2012-12-12

329

77 FR 5201 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard...County highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk and...County highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4 between Dundalk...

2012-02-02

330

Photocopy: Map of canal crossing Schoharie Creek, 1834 from Holmes ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy: Map of canal crossing Schoharie Creek, 1834 from Holmes Hutchinson MS Vol. 9, Plate 39. Manuscript and History Section, New York State Library, Albany, New York. - Erie Canal (Enlarged), Schoharie Creek Aqueduct, Spanning Schoharie Creek, Fort Hunter, Montgomery County, NY

331

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND SWITCHRACKS AND TREE. POWERHOUSE IS AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

332

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. BUILDING 122 IS VISIBLE AT PHOTO CENTER. PLANT 5 INTAKE DAM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

333

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ROOF OF BUILDING 105 IS VISIBLE IN UPPER PHOTO CENTER. PLANT 5 INTAKE DAM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

334

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. BUILDING 113 IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT PHOTO CENTER. PLANT 5 INTAKE DAM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

335

2. EXTERIOR BACK (NORTHEAST) SIDE OF BUILDING 102. BISHOP CREEK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR BACK (NORTHEAST) SIDE OF BUILDING 102. BISHOP CREEK TRANSMISSION LINES PASS DIRECTLY OVERHEAD. 1953 FLAT-ROOFED ADDITION CONSTITUTES CORNER OF THE HOUSE IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

336

Sand Creek Massacre Project. Volume 1. Site Location Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In May 1999, the Sand Creek Massacre Project Team completed its successful search for the site of the Sand Creek Massacre. On the banks of Sand Creek in Kiowa County, Colorado, an archeological team that included tribal members, National Park Service staf...

2000-01-01

337

Nutrient limitation and algal blooms in urbanizing tidal creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal creeks are commonly found in low energy systems on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States, and are often subject to intense watershed human development. Many of these creeks are receiving urban and suburban runoff containing nutrients, among other pollutants. During the period 1993–2001, we studied three tidal creeks located in southeastern North Carolina, a rapidly urbanizing

Michael A. Mallin; Douglas C. Parsons; Virginia L. Johnson; Matthew R. McIver; Heather A. CoVan

2004-01-01

338

View of south elevation of bridge over little Pine Creek ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of south elevation of bridge over little Pine Creek (S.R. 1026, section 002 bridge), showing substructure, looking northeast - Bridge over Little Pine Creek, State Route 1026 over Little Pine Creek, 2.01 kilometers (1.25 miles) East of Bendertown, Jonestown, Columbia County, PA

339

View of west abutment of bridge over little Pine Creek ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of west abutment of bridge over little Pine Creek (S.R. 1026, section 002 bridge), showing substructure and wingwalls, looking southwest - Bridge over Little Pine Creek, State Route 1026 over Little Pine Creek, 2.01 kilometers (1.25 miles) East of Bendertown, Jonestown, Columbia County, PA

340

View of north elevation of bridge over little Pine Creek ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of north elevation of bridge over little Pine Creek (S.R. 1026, section 002 bridge) looking south - Bridge over Little Pine Creek, State Route 1026 over Little Pine Creek, 2.01 kilometers (1.25 miles) East of Bendertown, Jonestown, Columbia County, PA

341

Age of Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado and Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isopach mapping and stratigraphic studies in the Douglas Creek arch area, a north-south-trending structure that separates the Uinta basin of Utah from the Piceance Creek basin of Colorado, indicate that the arch was formed largely during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous, late Campanian through Eocene). Formation was contemporaneous with the formation of the Uinta and Piceance Creek basins, but may

R. C. Johnson; T. M. Finn

1985-01-01

342

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page offers a simple illustrated guide to the three rock types- igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic; and the most common rock-forming mineral groups: quartz, plagioclase feldspars, potassium feldspars, micas, amphiboles, olivine, and calcite. The rock types include extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks, clastic, biologic, and chemical sedimentary rocks, and both foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rocks. A section is included on naming igneous rocks. The igneous rocks tuff and basalt are also discussed, as is sediment. Users are directed to related resources and may print out a simplified rock classification chart.

343

External Resource: Rock Cycle Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This cutaway view of Earth shows where some common rock-forming processes occur. Embedded animations will illustrate the path of a rock moving through the rock cycle. Topics include: rock cycle, magma chamber, magma, igneous rock, sedimentary rock, erosio

1900-01-01

344

Reservoir performance in Ordovician Red River Formation, Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields, Bowman County, North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contiguous Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields produce oil from the Ordovician Red River Formation's 'D' zone (equal to the 'C' Burrowed Member). These fields produce from dolomite reservoirs at depths of about 9000 ft (3000 m) in the southern Williston basin on the northeastern flank of the southern end of the Cedar Creek anticline. Gentle (>1°) northeast

M. W. Longman; T. G. Fertal; J. R. Stell

1992-01-01

345

Evidence for the importance of ductile shear in regional fabric development in Grenville-age gneisses of the Beaver Creek region, Northwest Lowlands, New York State  

SciTech Connect

In the Beaver Creek region of the Northwest Lowlands, Brown (1989) has described Grenville-age metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks as showing a prominent regional foliation, early southeastward emplacement of a nappe complex (the North Gouverneur Nappe), 2 subsequent generations of folds, and late regional faulting along the Beaver Creek, Pleasant Lake, and Hickory-Mud Lakes faults. The authors examined a variety of units across the Beaver Creek region, including a granitic augen gneiss immediately west of the Beaver Creek Fault Zone, an alaskitic gneiss immediately below Brown's (1989) North Gouverneur Nappe Sole Fault, a biotitic granitic gneiss within the body of Brown's North Gouverneur Nappe, and hornblende augen gneisses and metasediments adjacent to the granitic gneisses. Each of the granitic units has moderately well-developed to extremely well-developed quartz ribbon lineations, and all show at least 2 ductile shear fabrics. Shear fabrics are present as well in the hornblende augen gneisses but are essentially absent in most of the metasedimentary lithologies, even those immediately adjacent to well-lineated, sheared granitic gneiss. The earliest shear fabrics exhibit spectacular quartz ribbon lineations, sigma grains, and, in the hornblende augen gneiss, shear bands. Granitic gneisses in the Beaver Creek Region show shear fabrics in addition to the main fabric in the rock. A second, variably-recovered shear fabric with quartz ribbons and well-developed sigma grains with core and mantle structure overprints the main shear fabric and shows largely the same sense of shear. The authors suggest further that a regional kinematic model for the Beaver Creek region must take into account significant, protracted regional shear, perhaps including formation of sheath folds, as in the Hyde School Gneiss at Payne Lake and Dobbs Creek.

Tewksbury, B.; Culbertson, H.; Marcoline, J.; Walvoord, M. (Hamilton Coll., Clinton, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

346

Big Hill Lake, Big Hill Creek, Kansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed project is located in Labette County about 4.5 miles east of Cherryvale, Kansas, on Big Hill Creek about 33 miles above its confluence with the Verdigris River. Action consists of the construction of a lake for flood control, water supply, an...

1973-01-01

347

Washed Out Bridge, Snake Creek Near Whitesburg  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Tributary to Snake Creek, near Whitesburg, Georgia, showing a washed out bridge. When bridges such as this one collapse during a flood, it is rarely the pressure of the rushing water against the bridge that causes the bridge to fail. Rather, the rushing water erodes the ground underneath and surroun...

2009-10-01

348

McKinney Creek Fish Screen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the project was to implement a fish screen on McKinney Creek, a tributary to the Klamath River. The project supports a continuing effort by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) to reduce m...

1999-01-01

349

Bereavement Rituals in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone…

Walker, Andrea C.; Balk, David E.

2007-01-01

350

Grieving in the Muscogee Creek Tribe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative, collective case study explores grieving in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, reveal tendencies in patterns of grieving. Commonalities include (a) individual strength and certainty of recovery; (b) focus on giving to others in the family and coping as a family unit;…

Walker, Andrea C.

2008-01-01

351

DEARY CREEK STUDY, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Mount Deary Creek in Latah County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present water quality of the stream and to obtain background information to determine effluent limitations for the City of Deary. The survey involved t...

352

ELK CREEK STUDY, IDAHO COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, the American River, the Red River, and Elk Creek in Idaho County (17060305) were studied to determine their present water quality and to obtain background information on effluent limitations development for the Elk City sewage treatment plant. Quarterly monit...

353

OROFINO CREEK STUDY, CLEARWATER COUNTY IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Orofino Creek in Clearwater County, Idaho (17060306) to determine the present condition of the stream and to assess the impact of point and nonpoint sources. The study involved approximately bi-monthly monitoring for the...

354

Mormon Creek Bridge: Performance After Three Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mormon Creek Bridge is an experimental parallel-chord, stress-laminated deck design. It is the first of its kind and has been in service for more than 3 years. The structural performance and experimental features of the bridge have been monitored cont...

W. J. McCutcheon

1992-01-01

355

Jacobs Creek Bioaccumulation Report, 1979 and 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In conjunction with TVA's monitoring of biota in Jacobs Creek (TVA 1981), which receives fly ash pond effluent from Paradise Steam-Electric Plant and is a tributary to the Green River, fish flesh samples were collected for metals analyses. Following pH ad...

L. M. Koch R. D. Harned

1981-01-01

356

CAMAS CREEK STUDY, CAMAS COUNTY, IDAHO. 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Eutrophication Survey on Magic Reservoir determined that Camas Creek in Camas County, Idaho (17040220) contributed roughly 45% of the total phosphorus load and 34% of the total nitrogen load into Magic Reservoir. From this finding, a water quality study was conducte...

357

MORES CREEK STUDY, BOISE COUNTY, IDAHO, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on Mores Creek in Boise County, Idaho (17050112) to determine the present water quality of the stream and obtain background information on effluent limitations development for Idaho City. The study was designed for approxim...

358

Hydrologic Data for Soldier Creek Basin, Kansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selected hydrologic data collected in Soldier Creek Basin, Kansas, are available on magnetic tape in card-image format. Data on the tape includes water discharge in fifteen-minute and daily time intervals; rainfall in fifteen-minute and daily time interva...

W. J. Carswell M. E. Wildgen

1976-01-01

359

Determination of Heavy Metals on the Rock River through the Analysis of Sediments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Neutron activation analysis has been used to analyze sediment cores from the Rock River and two branches of Kent Creek, one of its tributaries, to determine the concentrations of thirteen heavy metals (Ti, Cu, V, Mn, As, Sb, Se, Cr, Ni, Sc, Fe, Zn, and Co...

S. Landsberger P. K. Hopke B. Golchert

1990-01-01

360

Image Archive: Sedimentary Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This archive provides descriptions and photos of the several types of sedimentary rocks. A definition of sedimentary rocks and overview of the basic classification is provided. Links to additional examples of chemical and clastic rocks are also included.

Celestian, Stan

361

Adhesion in Rocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to ascertain the magnitude of forces responsible for coherency of rock by quantifying the strength of the attractive forces operating between minerals in rock. These forces oppose stresses set up in various rock gragmentation processes, ...

G. A. Savanick D. I. Johnson

1973-01-01

362

GEOLOGY AND MINERALIZATION OF THE LIMOUSINE BUTTE GOLD DEPOSITS, WHITE PINE COUNTY, NEVADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nevada Pacific Gold's Limousine Butte Project is located in the unsurveyed Townships of 22 and 23 North, Range 61 East, on the west flank of the Cherry Creek Range, White Pine County, Nevada. Throughout the last forty years multiple exploration companies have explored and drilled several zones of low-grade gold and copper mineralization in the project area. Nevada Pacific Gold

Curt Everson

2004-01-01

363

Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

Berry, Mark E.

2001-11-01

364

Geologic characteristics and movement of the Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex, western Kane County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex in western Kane County, Utah, is about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) wide and 1.3 miles (2.1 km) long and contains six smaller historical slides. The upper part of the Meadow Creek landslide is gently sloping and consists of displaced and back-rotated blocks of Cretaceous Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations that form northeast- to locally east-trending ridges that are separated by sediment-filled half-grabens. The lower part of the landslide is gently to moderately sloping, locally incised, and consists of heterogeneous debris that overrides the Jurassic Carmel Formation near Meadow Creek. Monitoring using a survey-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument detected movement of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide between October 2005 and October 2008, including movement of two of the historical slides-landslides 1 and 2. The most movement during the measurement period occurred within the limits of persistently moving landslide 1 and ranged from about 24 to 64 inches (61-163 cm). Movement of the abutting southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide ranged from approximately 6 to 10 inches (15-25 cm). State Route 9 crosses over approximately a mile (1.6 km) of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide, including landslide 1. The highway and its predecessor (State Route 15) have been periodically displaced and damaged by persistent movement of landslide 1. Most of the landslide characteristics, particularly its size, probable depth, and the inferred weak strength and low permeability of clay-rich gouge derived from the Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations, are adverse to and pose significant challenges to landslide stabilization. Secondary hazards include piping-induced sinkholes along scarps and ground cracks, and debris flows and rock falls from the main-scarp escarpment.

Ashland, Francis X.; McDonald, Greg N.

2010-01-01

365

Cripple Creek and other alkaline-related gold deposits in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA: Influence of regional tectonics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alkaline-related epithermal vein, breccia, disseminated, skarn, and porphyry gold deposits form a belt in the southern Rocky Mountains along the eastern edge of the North American Cordillera. Alkaline igneous rocks and associated hydrothermal deposits formed at two times. The first was during the Laramide orogeny (about 70-40 Ma), with deposits restricted spatially to the Colorado mineral belt (CMB). Other alkaline igneous rocks and associated gold deposits formed later, during the transition from a compressional to an extensional regime (about 35-27 Ma). These younger rocks and associated deposits are more widespread, following the Rocky Mountain front southward, from Cripple Creek in Colorado through New Mexico. All of these deposits are on the eastern margin of the Cordillera, with voluminous calc-alkaline rocks to the west. The largest deposits in the belt include Cripple Creek and those in the CMB. The most important factor in the formation of all of the gold deposits was the near-surface emplacement of relatively oxidized volatile-rich alkaline magmas. Strontium and lead isotope compositions suggest that the source of the magmas was subduction-modified subcontinental lithosphere. However, Cripple Creek alkaline rocks and older Laramide alkaline rocks in the CMB that were emplaced through hydrously altered LREE-enriched rocks of the Colorado (Yavapai) province have 208Pb/204Pb ratios that suggest these magmas assimilated and mixed with significant amounts of lower crust. The anomalously hot, thick, and light crust beneath Colorado may have been a catalyst for large-scale transfer of volatiles and crustal melting. Increased dissolved H2O (and CO2, F, Cl) of these magmas may have resulted in more productive gold deposits due to more efficient magmatic-hydrothermal systems. High volatile contents may also have promoted Te and V enrichment, explaining the presence of fluorite, roscoelite (vanadium-rich mica) and tellurides in the CMB deposits and Cripple Creek as opposed to deposits to the south. Deep-seated structures of regional extent that formed during the Proterozoic allowed the magmas to rise to shallow crustal levels. Proterozoic sites of intrusions at 1.65, 1.4, and 1.1 Ga were also important precursors to alkaline-related gold deposits. Many of the larger gold deposits are located at sites of Proterozoic intrusions, and are localized at the intersection of northeast-trending ductile shear zones formed during Mesoproterozoic deformation, and an important north-trending fault formed during 1.1 Ga rifting.

Kelley, K. D.; Ludington, S.

2002-01-01

366

Rocks are fun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. Click on each of the links below to learn about the main types of rocks and then answer the questions that follow. *Igneous Rocks 1. In your own words, explain the TWO ways in which an igneous rock can be formed. 2. Please illustrate ONE of the ways an igneous rock is formed. *Metamorphic Rocks 1. Why ...

Peterson, Lori

2009-12-14

367

Sedimentology and depositional environments of part of the Walden Creek Group, central east Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Recent questions concerning the age of the Walden Creek Group (WCG), Ocoee Supergroup have increased interest in the depositional history of these rocks. This study focuses on the sedimentology and local stratigraphy of rocks in exposures of the lithologically diverse late Precambrian and/or lower Paleozoic WCG occurring within the Kinzel Springs and Wear Cove quadrangles. Units exposed in the structurally complex Alleghenian thrust setting include the Licklog, Shields, and Wilhite formations. These rocks are divided into twelve lithofacies composed of shale, siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate and carbonate rock. The lithofacies are grouped into seven facies associations indicating deposition below storm wave base in a deep-water, probably marine, environment. Within the study area, rocks of the Wilhite Formation represent deposition in basin plain, lower slope, slope, base of slope, and sandy channel environments. Rocks of the Shields Formation are coarse channel and related overbank deposits of the inner to middle parts of a deep water fan environment. The Licklog Formation contains rocks deposited as lobe and outer-fan or fan-fringe deposits in a middle- to lower-fan environment. These formations can be placed within a single depositional system composed of a submarine slope transitional with a basin plain, and of proximal channels and distal lobes in a sand-rich submarine fan system. Inferred depositional components (associations) compare well with general models of deep-water deposits associated with high gradient fan-delta-fed margins. The basin was bounded by an uplifted, most likely block faulted, margin composed of crystalline basement located to the northwest. Local sedimentologic and stratigraphic relationships suggest an overall progradational sequence during the deposition of these rocks.

Lewis, R.F. III (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Miller, J.M.G. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

368

Water resources and potential effects of ground-water development in Maggie, Marys, and Susie Creek basins, Elko and Eureka counties, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The basins of Maggie, Marys, and Susie Creeks in northeastern Nevada are along the Carline trend, an area of large, low-grade gold deposits. Pumping of ground water, mostly for pit dewatering at one of the mines, will reach maximum rates of about 70,000 acre-ft/yr (acre-feet per year) around the year 2000. This pumping is expected to affect ground-water levels, streamflow, and possibly the flow of Carlin spring, which is the water supply for the town of Carlin, Nev. Ground water in the upper Maggie Creek Basin moves from recharge areas in mountain ranges toward the basin axis and discharges as evapotranspiration and as inflow to the stream channel. Ground water in the lower Maggie, Marys, and Susie Creek Basins moves southward from recharge areas in mountain ranges and along the channel of lower Maggie Creek to the discharge area along the Humboldt River. Ground-water underflow between basins is through permeable bedrock of Schroeder Mountain from the upper Maggie Creek Basin to the lower Maggie Creek Basin and through permeable volcanic rocks from lower Maggie Creek to Carlin spring in the Marys Creek Basin. The only source of water to the combined area of the three basins is an estimated 420,000 acre-ft/yr of precipitation. Water leaves as runoff (38,000 acre-ft/yr) and evapotranspiration of soil moisture and ground water (380,000 acre-ft/yr). A small part of annual precipitation (about 25,000 acre-ft/yr) infiltrates the soil zone and becomes ground-water recharge. This ground water eventually is discharged as evapotranspiration (11,000 acre-ft/yr) and as inflow to the Humboldt River channel and nearby springflow (7,000 acre-ft/yr). Total discharge is estimated to be 18,000 acre-ft/yr.

Plume, R. W.

1995-01-01

369

The relationship of geophysical measurements to engineering and construction parameters in the Straight Creek Tunnel pilot bore, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic-refraction and electrical-resistivity measurements made along the walls of the Straight Creek Tunnel pilot bore indicate that both a low-velocity and a high-resistivity layer exist in the disturbed rock surrounding the excavation. Seismic measurements were analyzed to obtain the thickness and seismic velocity of rock in the low-velocity layer, the velocity of rock behind the layer and the amplitude of seismic energy received at the detectors. Electrical-resistivity measurements were analyzed to obtain the thickness and electrical resistivity of the high-resistivity layer and the resistivity of rock behind the layer. The electrical resistivity and the seismic velocity of rock at depth, the thickness of rock in the low-velocity layer, and the relative amplitude of seismic energy were correlated against the following parameters, all of which are important in tunnel construction: height of the tension arch, stable vertical rock load, rock quality, rate of construction and cost per foot, percentage of lagging and blocking, set spacing, and type and amount of steel support required, The correlations were statistically meaningful, having correlation coefficients ranging in absolute value from about 0??7 to nearly 1??0. This finding suggests the possibility of predicting parameters of interest in tunnel construction from geophysical measurements made in feeler holes drilled ahead of a working face. Predictions might be based on correlations established either during the early stages of construction or from geophysical surveys in other tunnels of similar design in similar geologic environments. ?? 1968.

Scott, J. H.; Lee, F. T.; Carroll, R. D.; Robinson, C. S.

1968-01-01

370

Geologic map of the Fish Creek Reservoir 7.5' quadrangle, Blaine County, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Fish Creek Reservoir quadrangle in south-central Idaho lies on the north-central margin of the Cenozoic Snake River Plain at the southern end of the Pioneer Mountains. Rocks exposed in the quadrangle range in age from Paleozoic through Cenozoic. Mesozoic rocks are absent. Though Triassic and Jurassic sedimentary rocks may have been deposited in this area, they have been removed by erosion following uplift and thrusting of the Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary Sevier orogeny. The Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Antler orogeny preceded the Sevier. Ordovician through Devonian rocks of western-derived shale and sandstone facies and eastern carbonate shelf facies are unconformably overlain respectively by Pennsylvanian-Permian Wood River and Mississippian Copper Basin Formations. These two sequences are exposed in structural windows juxtaposed by the Sevier-age Pioneer thrust fault. Interpretive cross-sections accompany the map. Volcanic rocks of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group, Miocene Idavada Volcanics, and Pleistocene Snake River Group cover parts of the area that remains tectonically active.

Skipp, Betty; Brandt, Theodore R.

2012-01-01

371

Geochemical Indicators of Urban Development in Tributaries and Springs along the Bull Creek Watershed, Austin, TX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization can cause significant changes to both flow and water quality in streams and tributaries. In the Austin, Texas, area, previous studies have demonstrated that streamwater strontium isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr) correlate with measures of urbanization when comparing non-urbanized streams to their urban counterparts. The inclusion of municipal water into natural surface water is inferred from the mean 87Sr/86Sr value found in urbanized streams, which falls between the high value in treated municipal water and the lower values found in local surface streams sourcing from non-urbanized catchments. Fluoride is added to municipal tap water in the treatment process, and a correlation between 87Sr/86Sr and fluoride is observed in streamwater sampled from the watersheds around Austin. These relationships represent some of the principal findings reported in Christian et al. (2011). Current research is testing the hypothesis that municipal water influx in urban areas is a primary modifier of stream- and spring-water chemistry in a single watershed that contains a strong gradient in land use. We compare 87Sr/86Sr and other chemical constituents with potential contributing endmembers, such as municipal tap water and wastewater, local soil and rock leachates, and land use within the Bull Creek watershed. As a consequence of the history of land development, some Bull Creek tributaries are sourced and flow almost entirely in fully-developed areas, whereas others are located in protected natural areas. Thirteen tributaries were monitored and classified as either urbanized or non-urbanized based upon land use within the tributary catchment. Springs in the Bull Creek watershed were also sampled and are similarly classified. The Bull Creek watershed is composed of Lower Cretaceous limestone with significantly lower 87Sr/86Sr than that of municipal water taken from the Lower Colorado River, which is underlain in part by Precambrian rocks upstream of Austin. There are notable differences in urbanized vs. non-urbanized watersheds in mean concentrations of fluoride (urbanized: 0.27 ± 0.08 vs. non-urbanized: 0.19 ± 0.01 ppm), sodium (34.7 ± 17.3 vs. 8.4 ± 1.0 ppm), and potassium (2.9 ± 0.8 vs. 1.2 ± 0.2 ppm), consistent with higher concentrations in municipal water contributing to the urbanized tributaries. Springwater demonstrates similar divergences for these ions. 87Sr/86Sr for the springs falls within a narrow range for non-urbanized springs (0.7079-0.7081), similar to Cretaceous limestone values, whereas urbanized springs contain a larger range (0.7077-0.7087). These results are consistent with urbanization effects in the Bull Creek watershed.

Senison, J. J.; Banner, J. L.; Reyes, D.; Sharp, J. M.

2012-12-01

372

Geology of the Deep Creek area, Washington, and its regional significance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, although primarily concerned with the stratigraphy and structure of a lead-zinc mining district in northern Stevens County, Washington, discusses and integrates the geology of the region about the Deep Creek area. Although the study centers in an area of about 200 square miles immediately south of the International Boundary, the regional background comes from: (1)the previously undescribed Northport quadrangle to the west, (2) published reports and reconnaissance of the Metaline quadrangle to the east, and (3) from published reports and maps of a 16 mile wide area that lies to the north adjacent to these three quadrangles in British Columbia. The report is divided into three parts: (1) descriptions of rocks and structures of the Deep Creek area, (2) descriptions of the regional setting of the Deep Creek area, and (3) an analysis and interpretation of the depositional and tectonic events that produced the geologic features exposed today. In the Deep Creek area surficial deposits of sand and gravel of glacial origin cover much of the consolidated rocks, which range in age from greenschist of the late Precambrlan to albite granite of the Eocene. Three broad divisions of depositional history are represented: (1) Precambrian, (2) lower Paleozoic and (3) upper Paleozoic; the record of the Mesozoic and Eocene is fragmentary. The lower Paleozoic division is the only fossil-controlled sequence; the age of the other two divisions were established by less direct methods. Both Precambrian and upper Paleozoic sequences are dominated by fine-grained detrital sediments, the Precambrian tending towards the alumina-rich and the upper Paleozoic tending towards the black shale facies with high silica. Neither sequence has more than trivial amounts of coarse clastics. Both include limestones, but in minor abundance. The lower Paleozoic sequence, on the other hand, represents a progressive change in deposition. The sequence began during the very late Precambrian with the deposition of clean quartz sand. This was followed by the accumulation of a comparatively thin limestone unit succeeded by a thick shale. The shale grades into a thick carbonate unit which in turn is overlain by black graptolitic slates (Ordovician). This general order of deposition holds for the Cambro-Ordovician throughout the area. Precambrian rocks indigenous to the Deep Creek area, have undergone at least six tectonic events of greatly different intensities. The first three of these events are epeirogentic, the fourth involves intense folding, the fifth, crossfolding, and the sixth, block faulting without folding. These events are dated with varying degrees of precision. The two epeirogentic events of the Precambrian, one gentle folding at the beginning of Windermere time and the other high angle faulting and volcanism in mid-Windermere time, did little to deform or metamorphose the rocks. The third event consists of uplift of northern Idaho and adjacent Montana and westward decollement thrusting of essentially unfolded lower Paleozoic rocks. The decollement faulting is inferred to explain anomalous rock distribution and cannot be accurately dated. It occurred sometime after the Devonian and before the Jurassic. A late Paleozoic age is favored.

Yates, Robert Giertz

1976-01-01

373

Interactive Rock Cycle Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly simplified Flash animation displays some of the most common rock-forming processes. Embedded animations include crystallization of magma to form igneous rock, rock erosion to create sediment, transportation of sediment, deposition of sediment to create sedimentary rock, and creation of a metamorphic rock in a subduction zone. The neat feature of this animation is that each step in the sequence above is linked to other animations in the Exploring Earth collection, providing a fairly in depth exposure to the processes involved in the rock cycle. Caution students against the oversimplified linear pattern of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock formation. In reality, there are many interconnections in the cycle with, for example, sedimentary rocks being eroded and becoming transformed to a different sedimentary rock type without being metamorphosed or, as another example, igneous rocks never being reduced to sediment, and instead directly evolving to metamorphic rocks. The animation can be paused and rewound to stress important points.

Armstrong, Lenni; Earth, Exploring

374

Benthic macroinvertebrate richness along Sausal Creek, Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sausal Creek, 5.0 km long, is one of the principal watercourses in Oakland, California. The headwaters of Sausal Creek arise in the Oakland Hills and the creek flows southwestward through the city, discharging into the tidal canal that separates the island of Alameda from Oakland; the creek ultimately flows into San Francisco Bay. Due to the presence of rainbow trout, the stream health of Sausal Creek is a local conservation priority. In the present study, a survey of benthic macroinvertebrates in the creek was conducted and possible correlations between environmental variables and taxonomic richness were analyzed. Three stations along the creek were sampled using a 30.5cm 500 micron aquatic d-net, and temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels were measured in creek samples obtained at each station. Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels remained constant along the creek. Taxonomic richness was highest at the upstream site of Palo Seco, located in an eastern section of the creek, and furthest downstream at Dimond Park, in the western portion of the creek. The Monterrey site, just west of Palo Seco was found to be significantly low in benthic macroinvertebrates. The Palo Seco and Monterrey sites are separated by Highway 13 and storm drain inputs may bring contaminants into the creek at this site. At the Monterrey site Sausal Creek follows the Hayward Fault, gas emissions or change in substrate may also affect the local population of benthic invertebrates. Further research will be conducted to determine what factors are contributing to this local anomaly.

Lara, D.; Ahumada, E.; Leon, Y.; Bracho, H.; Telles, C.

2012-12-01

375

Multiple Magmatic Events Over 40 Ma in the Fish Creek Mountains, North-central Great Basin, Nevada, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fish Creek Mountains, located in north-central Nevada south of Battle Mountain, is a site of multiple igneous events ranging from ca. 35 Ma to 1 Ma, covering most of the igneous history of the Great Basin of the western United States. Such extended volcanic activity allows for documentation of mantle sources and petrogenetic processes over time. Beginning approximately 50 Ma, the Great Basin experienced a magmatic front that began migrating southwestward across southern Idaho, central Oregon and into northern Nevada and Utah. Intermediate, "arc-like" andesite and dacite dominated volcanic activity in northeastern Nevada between about 45 and 36 Ma. By 34 Ma, a northwest-trending belt of rhyolitic ash-flow calderas began to develop through central Nevada, the "ignimbrite flare-up". Volcanism then migrated westwards towards the Sierra Nevada. In north-central Nevada, the oldest lavas are ca. 35 Ma basaltic andesites through rhyolites that are exposed in the western Shoshone Range, the eastern Tobin Range, and the northern and eastern Fish Creek Mountains. Plagioclase-rich andesites, dacite intrusions, and volcanic breccias occur in a belt along the western side of the Fish Creek Mountains. The bulk of the Fish Creek Mountains is composed of the 24.7 Ma Fish Creek Mountains rhyolitic tuff that is largely confined to an undeformed caldera structure. The caldera and tuff are anomalously young compared to nearby felsic centers such as the Caetano caldera (33.8Ma) and Shoshone Range (39-35 Ma) and relative to the southwest to west magmatic migration. The basal tuff is unwelded, with abundant pumice and lithic (primarily volcanic) fragments but only rare crystals. Sanidine and smoky quartz phenocrysts become more abundant upsection and glassy fiamme (hydrated to devitrified) are common, but the abundance of lithic fragments diminishes. 16-15 Ma volcanic rocks of the Northern Nevada Rift are exposed in the Battle Mountain area, ranging in composition from subalkaine basalt to rhyolite and rare trachyte. These rocks are linked to the Columbia River flood basalt event. Along the northwestern margin of the Fish Creek Mountains and in the center of the caldera complex are exposed late Pliocene to Quaternary lava flows and cinder cones of the Buffalo Valley volcanic field. The Buffalo Valley volcanic rocks are alkalic basalts that are locally vesicular, with rare plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts as well as plagioclase megacrysts up to several centimeters in size. Trace element and isotopic characteristics are similar to those of the Pliocene-Pleistocene Lunar Craters volcanic field in central Nevada. Ongoing geochemical analyses will outline variations in mantle sources and post-melting processes in the multiple volcanic systems of north-central Nevada.

Cousens, B.; Henry, C. D.; Stevens, C.; Varve, S.

2011-12-01

376

Identifying and Classifying Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we identify and classify rocks? In this lesson, we are going to learn about different ways that we classify and identify rocks! There are three types of rocks. Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous As we are learning about the three types of rocks, print out this chart and use it to write down what you learn about each type of ...

Owen, Elisabeth

2010-11-03

377

Everybody Find a Rock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, younger students will learn to recognize the properties of selected rocks. After participating in a read-aloud, the students will examine a variety of polished rocks, and take a walk outside to find their own rocks. As a closure activity, they are directed to explore other unique rocks at home and bring them in for class discussion and sorting.

378

Rollerjaw Rock Crusher  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

2009-01-01

379

Ichthyofautial Diversification and Distribution In The Big Creek Watershed, Craighead and Greene Counties, Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big Creek is a relatively small deltaic stream, in northeastern Arkansas, in an area of intense cultivation. Re- cently it has been dredged in the interest of flood control. Lost Creek and Mud Creek are the major tributaries of Big Creek and collectively drain the Big Creek watershed. The streams werefound to have relatively low alkalinity, mod- erate carbon dioxide,

James T. Jenkins; George L Harp

1971-01-01

380

Elementary GLOBE Unit: Discoveries at Willow Creek  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, the GLOBE Kids, on their second visit to Willow Creek, discover why the creek looks different. They learn about making observations, measuring water temperature and speed, and looking for critters in the water. In Activity 1, 'Magnify That', students will be able to identify a magnifying lens and its purpose. They will be able to explain how the same object looks different when using the unaided eye and then using a magnifying lens. In Activity 2, 'Measure Up', students will learn how to make nonstandard and standard linear measurements. They will test their estimates and record their results. In Activity 3, 'Water Wonders', students will have an understanding of what aquatic macroinvertebrates are, what kinds of adaptations they have for their environment, and why scientists study them.

2006-01-01

381

What makes a rock?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. Lets review: What do you already know about rocks? Please write down your thoughts on a piece of paper. Now, click on the link below to find out what the definition of a rock is. *Intro to Rocks Please answer the questions below in complete sentences on your paper. 1. Rocks are made up of several particles. ...

Christen

2010-06-21

382

All About Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocks are the most common material on earth. We will learn about the parts that make up the rocks and sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size. Lets review: What do you already know about rocks? Please write down your thoughts on a piece of paper. Now, click on the link below to find out what the definition of a rock is. *Intro to Rocks Please answer the questions below in complete sentences on your paper. 1. Rocks are made up of several particles. ...

Frankovic, Whitney

2009-09-28

383

Active channel for Fanno Creek, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff and shows characteristic flashy streamflow and poor water quality commonly associated with urban streams. This data set represents the active, wetted channel as derived from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and aerial photographic imagery. The wetted channel boundary is equivalent to the extent of water observed during a 2-yr high flow event.

Sobieszczyk, Steven

2011-01-01

384

DRY CREEK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, ARKANSAS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dry Creek Wilderness Study Area covers an area of about 10 sq mi in parts of Logan, Scott, and Yell Counties, Arkansas. A mineral evaluation study of the area indicated that the area has a probable resource potential for natural gas and little promise for the occurrence of other mineral commodities. Less than 100,000 cu ft/day of natural gas is being produced from one well about 4 mi north of the area.

Haley, Boyd, R.; Stroud, Raymond, B.

1984-01-01

385

Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

1992-02-01

386

Genetic implications of minor-element and Sr-isotope geochemistry of alkaline rock complexes in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of Rb, Sr, and REE (rare earth elements), and Sr-isotopic ratios in rocks of the Cambrian alkaline complexes in the Wet Mountains area, Colorado, show that rocks formed as end-products of a variety of magmas generated from different source materials. The complexes generally contain a bimodal suite of cumulus mafic-ultramafic rocks and younger leucocratic rocks that include nepheline syenite and hornblende-biotite syenite in the McClure Mountain Complex, nepheline syenite pegmatite in the Gem Park Complex, and quartz syenite in the complex at Democrat Creek. The nepheline syenite and hornblende-biotite syenite at McClure Mountain (535??5m.y.) are older than the syenitic rocks at Democrat Creek (511??8m.y.). REE concentrations indicate that the nepheline syenite at McClure Mountain cannot be derived from the hornblende-biotite syenite, which it intrudes, or from the associated mafic-ultramafic rocks. REE also indicate that mafic-ultramafic rocks at McClure Mountain have a source distinct from that of the mafic-ultramafic rocks at Democrat Creek. In the McClure Mountain Complex, initial87Sr/86Sr ratios for mafic-ultramafic rocks (0.7046??0.0002) are similar to those of hornblende-biotite syenite (0.7045??0.0002), suggesting a similar magmatic source, whereas ratios for carbonatites (0.7038??0.0002) are similar to those of nepheline syenite (0.7038??0.0002). At Democrat Creek, initial ratios of syenitic rocks (0.7032??0.0002) and mafic-ultramafic rocks (0.7028??0.0002) are different from those of corresponding rocks at McClure Mountain. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag.

Armbrustmacher, T. J.; Hedge, C. E.

1982-01-01

387

Stratigraphic and structural implications of conodont and detrital zircon U-Pb ages from metamorphic rocks of the Coldfoot terrane, Brooks Range, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New paleontologic and isotopic data from the Emma Creek and Marion Creek schists of the Coldfoot terrane, Arctic Alaska superterrane, central Brooks Range, suggest Devonian and possibly younger ages of deposition for their sedimentary protoliths. Conodonts from marble of the Emma Creek schist, intruded by a roughly 392 Ma orthogneiss, are late Lochkovian (early Early Devonian, between about 408 and 396 Ma) and Silurian to Devonian at two other locations. Spherical to oblong detrital zircons from quartz-mica schist of the overlying Marion Creek schist yield mostly discordant U-Pb data suggestive of provenance ages of 3.0, 2.0-1.8, and 1.5-1.4 Ga; however, several euhedral grains of zircon from Marion Creek quartz-mica schist have concordant U-Pb ages from 370 to 360 Ma. The Marion Creek schist in our study area therefore is at least 26 m.y. younger than the Emma Creek schist. The age data imply that the protolith of the Emma Creek schist is age correlative with Devonian carbonate rocks in the Hammond and North Slope terranes, whereas the Marion Creek schist is age correlative with Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian clastic sedimentary rocks of the Endicott Group in the Endicott Mountains terrane and shale and carbonate units in the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes. Consequently, tectonic models restoring the entire Coldfoot terrane beneath partly or wholly coeval rocks of the Hammond, Endicott Mountains, De Long Mountains, and Sheenjek River terranes of the Arctic Alaska superterrane require revision. Alternative reconstructions, including restoration of the Coldfoot terrane inboard of the Endicott Mountains terrane or outboard of the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes are plausible but require either larger amounts of shortening than previously suggested or indicate problematic facies relations. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

Moore, T. E.; Aleinikoff, J. N.; Harris, A. G.

1997-01-01

388

Age of Walden Creek Group: Can it be demonstrated--Biostratigraphically  

SciTech Connect

The Walden Creek Group (WCG) is a lithologically heterogeneous succession of sedimentary rocks exposed in the western Blue Ridge of the southern Appalachians. Carbonate rocks of the WCG occur as bedded limestone in the Sandsuck Formation and subjacent Wilhite and as limestone clasts in polymict conglomerate bodies within the Sandsuck, Wilhite, and the underlying Shields Formation. Petrographically, these carbonate rocks exhibit a shallow marine aspect. Locally abundant pisoids, ooids and peloids occur in a preservational continuum ranging from well-preserved internal fabrics to relict spar-filled micrite envelopes. Pisoids, occurring in grainstone and wackestone fabrics, resemble oversized marine ooids characteristic of Upper Proterozoic carbonated rocks of Greenland and Spitzbergen. Recent reports of metazoan and foraminiferal fossils from the Wilhite Formation have cast doubt on its long-regarded Late Proterozoic age. The fossils the authors have observed include algal oncolites, minute fecal pellets, and extremely rare cyanobacterial filament sheaths and skeletal fragments of uncertain biological affinity. Good quality preservation of allochems in WCG carbonate rocks is important in evaluating the absence of undoubted Paleozoic fossils. Dominant components of Paleozoic biotas: crinoids, brachiopods, and bryozoans would be recognizable, even as tiny fragments. The absence of conodonts further suggests that carbonate rocks of the WCG predate the appearance of abundant skeletonized biota and are probably Late Proterozoic. The authors propose that both bedded carbonate rocks and carbonate clasts of the WCG are essentially contemporaneous with each other and reflect carbonate bank conditions that developed toward the end of Late Proterozoic clastic deposition, which filled rift basins that formed along the southeastern Laurentian margin. Episodic reactivation accounts for the occurrence of carbonate clasts in several parts of the WCG and Snowbird Group.

Broadhead, T.W.; Hatcher, R.D. Jr.; Walker, K.R.; Carter, M.W.; Adefuin, J.Y. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Lewis, R.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

389

White Light Interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

White light interferometry is an extremely powerful tool for optical measurements. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of white light interferometry compared to laser light interferometry. Three different white light interferometers are discussed; 1. diffraction grating interferometers, 2. vertical scanning or coherence probe interferometers, and 3. white light scatterplate interferometers.

James C. Wyant

2002-01-01

390

Compositional gradients in large reservoirs of silicic magma as evidenced by ignimbrites versus Taylor Creek Rhyolite lava domes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico consists of 20 lava domes and flows that were emplaced during a period of a few thousand years or less in late Oligocene time. Including genetically associated pyroclastic deposits, which are about as voluminous as the lava domes and flows, the Taylor Creek Rhyolite represents roughly 100 km3 of magma erupted from vents distributed throughout an area of several hundred square kilometers. Major-element composition is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous high-silica rhyolite and is nearly constant throughout the lava field. The magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was vertically zoned in trace elements, 87Sr/86Sr, and phenocryst abundance and size. Mean trace-element concentrations, ranges in concentrations, and element-pair correlations are similar to many subalkaline silicic ignimbrites. However, the polarity of the zonation was opposite that in reservoirs for ignimbrites, for most constituents. For example, compared to the Bishop Tuff, only 87Sr/86Sr and Sc increased upward in both reservoirs. Quite likely, a dominant but nonerupted volume of the magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was zoned like that for the Bishop Tuff, whereas an erupted, few-hundred-meter-thick cap on the magma body was variably contaminated by roof rocks whose contribution to this part of the magma system moderated relatively extreme trace-element concentrations of uncontaminated Taylor Creek Rhyolite but did not change the sense of correlation for most element pairs. The contaminant probably was a Precambrian rock of broadly granitic composition and with very high 87Sr/86Sr. Although examples apparently are not yet reported in the literature, evidence for a similar thin contaminated cap on reservoirs for large-volume silicic ignimbrites may exist in the bottom few meters of ignimbrites or perhaps only in the pumice fallout that normally immediately precedes ignimbrite emplacement. 87Sr/86Sr in sanidine phenocrysts of the Taylor Creek Rhyolite is higher than that of their host whole rocks. Covariation of this isotope ratio with sanidine abundance and size indicates positive correlations for all three features with decreasing distance to the roof of the magma reservoir. The sanidine probably is more radiogenic than host whole rock because growing phenocrysts partly incorporated Sr from the first partial melt of roof rocks, which contained the highly radiogenic Sr of Precambrian biotite ?? hornblende, whereas diffusion was too slow for sanidine to incorporate much of the Sr from subsequently produced less radiogenic partial melt of roof rocks, before eruption quenched the magma system. Disequilibrium between feldspar phenocrysts and host groundmass is fairly common for ignimbrites, and a process of contamination similar to that for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite may help explain some of these situations. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

Duffield, W. A.; Ruiz, J.

1992-01-01

391

Steel Creek habitat formers: L Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987  

SciTech Connect

This portion of the L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program evaluated the impact of L-Reactor operations on the floodplain communities and channel habitat structure in the Steel Creek-Meyer's Branch system in 1986 and 1987. The floodplain community was evaluated quarterly along two transects at each of the 12 Steel Creek sites, and the one site on Meyer's Branch. These sites fell into four broad groups of floodplain habitat: mixed deciduous forests that were inundated periodically (downstream channel and Meyer's Branch); forested wetlands (corridor sites and delta Station 295); mixed forested/scrub-shrub nonpersistent wetlands (Stations 300, 310, 320 and 330); and mixed deciduous swamp forests (Stations 340 and 350). The extent of floodplain inundation at the forested wetland sites was influenced by L-Lake discharges and varied greatly throughout this study. During high discharge periods, the corridor floodplain became part of the stream channel. 79 refs., 21 figs., 39 tabs.

Firth, P.; Breiner, M.S.; Hammond-Beyer, C.D.; Hooker, K.L.; Stiner, S.A.

1988-03-01

392

Steel creek macroinvertebrates: L Lake/steel creek biological monitoring program January 1986--December 1987  

SciTech Connect

The macroinvertebrate community in Steel Creek was monitored at 13 sampling stations from January 1986 to December 1987 to assess the effects of L-Lake impoundment on the biological community downstream from the dam. The benthic macroinvertebrate communities were sampled monthly at 13 stations in Steel Creek using artificial substrates. Macroinvertebrates suspended in the water column were collected monthly at seven stations using drift nets. Emerging aquatic insects were sampled monthly at seven stations with floating emergence traps. Invertebrates on natural substrates (bottom sediments, snags, and macrophytes) were collected at seven stations in May and September in both 1986 and 1987. Macroinvertebrates were collected in February and August of 1986 and 1987 at 13 stations in Steel Creek using dip nets. 61 refs., 79 figs., 18 tabs.

O'Hop, J.R.; Lauritsen, D.; Magoulik, D.

1988-04-01

393

Cedar Creek - significant paleotectonic feature of Williston basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 327 million bbl of oil have been produced from Paleozoic carbonate reservoirs in 15 fields along the Cedar Creek anticline. Four major periods of tectonism from early Paleozoic through mid-Tertiary are documentable in the Cedar Creek area. Post-Silurian to pre-Middle Devonian: uplift and fault movement accompanied north and east tilting of the main Cedar Creek block. Several hundreds

1985-01-01

394

The Patroon Creek Contamination Migration Investigation  

SciTech Connect

Shaw performed a Site Investigation (SI) for sediment within the Unnamed Tributary of the Patroon Creek, a section of the Patroon Creek, and the Three Mile Reservoir as part of the overall contract with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to remediate the Colonie Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The Unnamed Tributary formerly flowed through the former Patroon Lake, which was located on the main site property and was used as a landfill for radiological and chemical wastes. The objective of the investigation was to determine the absence/presence of radioactive contamination within the three Areas of Concern (AOC). In order to accomplish this objective, Shaw assembled a team to produce a Technical Memorandum that provided an in-depth understanding of the environmental conditions related to the Patroon Creek. Upon completion and analysis of the Technical Memorandum, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was constructed and a Technical Planning Program (TPP) was held to develop a Sediment Investigation Work Plan and Sediment Investigation Sampling and Analysis Plan. A total of 32 sample locations were analyzed using on-site direct gamma scans with a Pancake Geiger-Mueller (PGM) instrument for screening purposes and samples were analyzed at on-site and off-site laboratories. The highest interval from each core scan was selected for on-site analysis utilizing a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Eight of these samples were sent off-site for gamma/alpha spectroscopy confirmation. The data collected during the SI indicated that the U-238 cleanup criterion was exceeded in sediment samples collected from two locations within the Unnamed Tributary but not in downstream sections of Patroon Creek or Three Mile Reservoir. Future actions for impacted sediment in the Unnamed Tributary will be further evaluated. Concentrations of U-238 and Th-232 in all other off-site sediment samples collected from the Unnamed Tributary, Patroon Creek, and the Three Mile Reservoir indicate that no further action is required in these areas. The data was also compared to ecological screening criteria. None of the contaminants of concern (U-238, Th-232, and U-235) had concentrations exceeding the screening values. The evaluation indicates no adverse impacts to ecological receptors. (authors)

Dufek, K.; Zafran, A. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Colonie FUSRAP Site, 1130 Central Avenue, Colonie, New York 12205 (United States); Moore, J.T. [United States Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, 26 Federal Plaza, Room 1811, New York, NY 10278-0090 (United States)

2006-07-01

395

Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

2009-01-01

396

Mercury distribution in Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the lithium-isotope separation process used in the production of thermonuclear fusion weapons during the mid-1950s and early 1960s. 150 t of mercury were released into Poplar Creek (via East Fork Poplar Creek) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. This project was performed as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation to define the nature and extent of mercury contamination in Poplar Creek. Ultraclean sampling techniques and ultrasensitive analytical methods were used to determine methylmercury and inorganic mercury concentrations in surface water, sediment, and pore water from Poplar Creek. Total methylmercury and inorganic mercury concentrations in surface water from reaches downstream from the East Fork Poplar Creek confluence were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the upstream reference reach. Concentrations in surface water increased with distance downstream from the source (East Fork Poplar Creek), which was opposite of expected results. Sediment methylmercury and inorganic mercury concentrations also increased with the distance downstream from the source and were highest near the mouth of Poplar Creek (1.0--12 ng/g and 630--140,000 ng/g, respectively). High concentrations in surface water and sediment near the mouth of Poplar Creek appear to be a result of sediment deposition and resuspension, apparently caused by the stronger Clinch River current acting as a barrier and its backflow into Poplar Creek as a result of hydropower operations.

Campbell, K.R. [SENES Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis; Ford, C.J. [Highlands Soil and Water Conservation District, Sebring, FL (United States); Levine, D.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-07-01

397

Characterization of Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2004-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 15 river miles long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson (fig. 1). Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, began studying Fish Creek in 2004 to describe the hydrology of the creek and later (2007?08) to characterize the water quality and the biological communities. The purpose of this fact sheet is to summarize the study results from 2004 to 2008.

Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

398

Rock Cycle Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This rock cycle unit was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. From this module, students learn to distinguish between minerals and rocks, how rocks are classified, and how rocks are constantly recycled providing raw materials for other rocks. Igneous rocks are discussed on the basis of being intrusive or extrusive, sedimentary rocks are divided into clastic and non-clastic, while the metamorphic rocks are described as being foliated or non-foliated and common examples are cited for each classification. The processes and conditions of rock formation are also discussed. The module contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions, and a practice quiz. One feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

Haberlin, Rita

399

75 FR 25198 - Intermountain Region, Boise National Forest, Emmett Ranger District; Idaho Scriver Creek...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...District; Idaho Scriver Creek Integrated Restoration Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA...statement (EIS) for the integrated restoration project in the Scriver Creek subwatershed...Idaho. The Scriver Creek Integrated Restoration Project proposes to undertake...

2010-05-07

400

78 FR 9029 - Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests; ID; Clear Creek Integrated Restoration Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forests; ID; Clear Creek Integrated Restoration Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA...actions in the Clear Creek Integrated Restoration Draft Environmental Impact Statement...standard for the Clear Creek Integrated Restoration project area. The original notice...

2013-02-07

401

78 FR 26063 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Final Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the proposed East Hobble Creek Restoration Project. The Final...on a portion of lower Hobble Creek, near Springville, Utah...several existing barriers to fish passage, use of the Utah Lake System Hobble Creek Valve Station for...

2013-05-03

402

78 FR 25434 - Henwood Associates, Inc.; Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Transfer of Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Henwood Associates, Inc.; Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Transfer of Exemption...Associates, Inc. and Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that...from licensing for the Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 3730,...

2013-05-01

403

Northeastern Florida Bay estuarine creek data, water years 1996-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1995 to September 2000 (water years 1996-2000), continuous 15-minute stage, water velocity, salinity, and water temperature data were collected at seven estuarine creeks that flow into northeastern Florida Bay. These creeks include West Highway Creek, Stillwater Creek, Trout Creek, Mud Creek, Taylor River, Upstream Taylor River, and McCormick Creek. Discharge was computed at 15-minute intervals using mean water velocity and the cross-sectional area of the channel. Fifteen-minute unit values are presented for comparison of the quantity, quality, timing, and distribution of flows through the creeks. Revised discharge estimation formulas are presented for three noninstrumented sites (East Highway Creek, Oregon Creek and Stillwater Creek) that utilize an improved West Highway discharge rating. Stillwater Creek and Upstream Taylor River were originally noninstrumented sites; both were fully instrumented in 1999. Discharge rating equations are presented for these sites and were developed using a simple linear regression.

Hittle, Clinton D.; Zucker, Mark A.

2004-01-01

404

75 FR 22724 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA, Schedule Change  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA, Schedule Change...Northern Santa Fe Railroad Bridge across Chambers Creek, mile 0.0, at Steilacoom...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA, Schedule...

2010-04-30

405

Interactives: The Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much do you know about rocks? Well, if you are a bit unsure about distinguishing an igneous rock from a sedimentary rock you'll certainly be on solid ground after taking a tour through this feature created by Annenberg Media. Visitors can make their way through graphically-enhanced sections that include "Types of Rocks", "How Rocks Change", and "The Rock Cycle Diagram". In the "Types of Rocks" area visitors will learn about the basic types of rocks and they can even check out a handy chart that will give them some of the finer points of rock identification. The "How Rocks Change" area provides a basic overview of the processes involved with rock creation and transformation through a heady blend of Flash animations and straight-forward prose. Finally, the "Rock Cycle Diagram" provides an illustration of rock transformation over time. This site will be quite useful to educators and anyone who has peered at a rock and wondered: "How did you come to be?"

2008-04-11

406

Return Spawning\\/Rearing Habitat to Anadromous\\/Resident Fish within the Fishing Creek to Legendary Bear Creek Analysis Area Watersheds; 2002-2003 Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is a critical component of currently on-going watershed restoration effort in the Lochsa River Drainage, including the Fishing (Squaw) Creek to Legendary Bear (Papoose) Creek Watersheds Analysis Area. In addition, funding for this project allowed expansion of the project into Pete King Creek and Cabin Creek. The goal of this project is working towards the re-establishment of healthy

Emmit E

2004-01-01

407

Lateral continuity of the Blarney Creek Thrust, Doonerak Windown, Central Brooks Range, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

The contact between Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic rocks, exposed along the northern margin of the Doonerak window in the central Brooks Range, is a major thrust fault called the Blarney Creek thrust (BCT). The BCT has been traced over a distance of 25 km, from Falsoola Mountain to Wien Mountain. The tectonic nature of this contact is demonstrated by: (1) omission of stratigraphic units above and below the BCT; (2) large angular discordance in orientation of first-generation cleavage at the BCT; (3) numerous thrust imbricates developed in the upper-plate Carboniferous section that sole into the BCT; and (4) truncation of an upper-plate graben structure at the BCT. Lack of evidence for pre-Carboniferous deformation in the lower plate casts doubt on the interpretation of the contact as an angular unconformity. However, the localized presence below the BCT of Mississippian Kekiktuk Conglomerate and Kayak Shale, in apparent depositional contact with lower Paleozoic rocks, suggests that the BCT follows an originally disconformable contact between the Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic rocks. The juxtaposition of younger over older rocks at the BCT is explained by calling upon the BCT to act as the upper detachment surface of a duplex structure. Duplex development involves initial imbrication of the Carboniferous section using the BCT as a basal decollement, followed by formation of deeper thrusts in the lower Paleozoic section, which ramp up and merge into the BCT.

Seidensticker, C.M.; Julian, F.E.; Phelps, J.C.; Oldow, J.S.; Avellemant, H.G.

1985-04-01

408

Geology and hydrostratigraphy of Guadalupe River State Park and Honey Creek State Natural Area, Kendall and Comal Counties, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeologic mapping and descriptions of the lithostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of Guadalupe River State Park and Honey Creek State Natural Area, Kendall and Comal Counties, Texas, are presented in this first detailed 1:24,000 geologic map, along with proposed names and descriptions of the hydrostratigraphic units in the study area. Variations in the amount and type of porosity of the lithostratigraphic unit, which vary depending on the depositional environment, lithology, structural history and diagenesis support the resulting hydrostratigraphy proposed herein. Rocks exposed in the study area consist of Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks that are assigned to the Trinity Group. The lithostratigraphy includes the Hammett Shale, Cow Creek Limestone, Hensell Sand Members of the Pearsall Formation, and the lower member of the Glen Rose Limestone. These lithologic units contain shale, grainstone, sandstone, and fossiliferous limestone, alternating and interfingering with mudstone, wackestone, packstone, and grainstone. The Trinity aquifer hydrostratigraphic units shown on the map and described herein are characterized by their porosity types. Porosity types were first determined from an analysis of two boreholes conducted in comparison with 143 geophysical logs from northern Bexar County, Texas. The cores and geophysical log comparison resulted in division of the lower member of the Glen Rose Limestone into six hydrostratigraphic units, designated A through F. Of those six units, only three remain in the study area because of erosion. The proposed naming of these three hydrostratigraphic units is based on topographic or historical features that occur in the outcrop area of those units. Hydrostratigraphic units that correlate with the boundaries of the formation have been given formational names excluding the lithologic modifier. The Doeppenschmidt hydrostratigraphic unit is stratigraphically the highest interval in the study area, characterized by interparticle, moldic, burrowed, bedding plane, fracture, and cave porosity. The underlying Rust hydrostratigraphic unit appears to be a confining unit with springs/seeps issuing near the contact with the overlying Doeppenschmidt unit. The Rust unit has interparticle, fracture, and cave porosity with cave porosity primarily associated with faulting. The Honey Creek hydrostratigraphic unit is an aquifer in the subsurface and exhibits extremely, well developed porosity and permeability including— interparticle, moldic, burrowed, bedding plane, fracture, channel, and cave porosity. This unit is named for Honey Creek Cave, which discharges water into Honey Creek. The Hensell hydrostratigraphic unit contains primarily interparticle porosity, but also exhibits some moldic and cave porosity in its upper parts. The Cow Creek hydrostratigraphic unit contains interparticle, moldic, vug, burrowed, fracture, bedding plane, channel, and cave porosity. The Cow Creek hydrostratigraphic unit is an aquifer in the subsurface and is the primary target for water-well drillers in the area. The Hammett hydrostratigraphic unit is not exposed in the study area but is thought to underlie parts of the Guadalupe River, based on mapping of the overlying units and comparisons with subsurface thicknesses obtained from the geophysical log. The Hammett unit restricts the downward migration of groundwater, resulting in springs that discharge at the base of the Cow Creek unit. These springs also create some base flow to the Guadalupe River during periods of extreme drought. The faulting and fracturing in the study area are part of the Miocene Balcones Fault Zone, which is an extensional system of faults that generally trend southwest to northeast in south-central Texas. An igneous dike, containing aphanitic texture, cuts through the center of the study area near the confluence of Honey Creek and the Guadalupe River. The dike penetrates the Cow Creek Limestone and the lower part of the Hensell Sand, which outcrops at three locations.

Clark, Allan K.; Blome, Charles D.; Morris, Robert R.

2014-01-01

409

Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

Portner, R. A.; Hendrix, M. S.; Stalker, J. C.; Miggins, D. P.; Sheriff, S. D.

2011-01-01

410

Hydrologic analysis of Steel Creek and L Lake and the effects of flow reduction on Steel Creek habitat  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to support a proposal to eliminate the EIS mandated spring flow requirements in Steel Creek below L Lake. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake was estimated using historical data. The water balance of L Lake was studied to evaluate the effects of flow reduction on the Steel Creek hydrologic system. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake is estimated as 0.28 cms (10 cfs). A reduction in L Lake discharge to 0.28 cms will result in a fish community similar to the one that existed before the impoundment of L Lake.

del Carmen, B.R.; Paller, M.H.

1993-12-31

411

Seepage study of McLeod Creek and East Canyon Creek near Park City, Summit County, Utah, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seepage investigations on McLeod Creek downstream of U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station McLeod Creek near Park City, Utah, and its confluence with Kimball Creek during the summer of 2004 indicate that this section of the creek is a gaining reach. The total seepage gains ranged from 1.8 to 2.7 cubic feet per second, or a 32 to 55 percent gain. The apparent average total seepage gain was 2.2 cubic feet per second, or an average 42 percent gain. Seepage investigations from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station at East Canyon Creek below I-80 Rest Stop near Park City, Utah, to the station at East Canyon Creek near Jeremy Ranch, Utah, indicate that this section of East Canyon Creek is a slightly losing reach. The total seepage losses ranged from -1.2 to -2.0 cubic feet per second. This is a loss of between -18 and -27 percent from discharge measured at the upstream gaging station. The apparent average total seepage loss for the reach was -1.0 cubic feet per second, or -18 percent. Seepage information also was obtained along East Canyon Creek by using water-temperature data recorded in three shallow streambed piezometers. Surface-water temperature also was recorded at these locations. These water-temperature profiles indicate a seepage loss at all three locations along East Canyon Creek. This seepage loss appears to decrease in September and October.

Wilkowske, C. D.

2005-01-01

412

Significance of brittle deformation in the footwall of the Alpine Fault, New Zealand: Smithy Creek Fault zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Smithy Creek Fault represents a rare exposure of a brittle fault zone within Australian Plate rocks that constitute the footwall of the Alpine Fault zone in Westland, New Zealand. Outcrop mapping and paleostress analysis of the Smithy Creek Fault were conducted to characterize deformation and mineralization in the footwall of the nearby Alpine Fault, and the timing of these processes relative to the modern tectonic regime. While unfavorably oriented, the dextral oblique Smithy Creek thrust has kinematics compatible with slip in the current stress regime and offsets a basement unconformity beneath Holocene glaciofluvial sediments. A greater than 100 m wide damage zone and more than 8 m wide, extensively fractured fault core are consistent with total displacement on the kilometer scale. Based on our observations we propose that an asymmetric damage zone containing quartz-carbonate-chlorite-epidote veins is focused in the footwall. Damage zone asymmetry likely resulted from the fact that the hanging wall was mostly deformed at greater depth than the footwall, rather than resulting from material contrasts across the fault plane. Kinematic inversions on mineralized fractures within the damage zone suggest veins formed in the current stress regime, from fluids comparable to those now circulating in the footwall. The Smithy Creek Fault zone is therefore a rare exhumed example of the modern footwall hydrothermal system, and of a structure actively accommodating footwall deformation near the Alpine Fault zone. Two significantly less mature, subvertical faults having narrow (20 cm or less) damage zones and similar orientations to nearby strike-slip segments of the Alpine Fault crosscut the mineralized zone at Smithy Creek. We envisage that hydrothermal mineralization strengthened the fault core, causing it to widen as later slip was partitioned into the (now) weaker surrounding damage zone. With progressive alteration, formation of favorably oriented faults became preferable to reactivation of the existing structure.

Lund Snee, J.-E.; Toy, V. G.; Gessner, K.

2014-07-01

413

Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.  

SciTech Connect

He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe then used data collected from the District's stream assessment and inventory, utilizing the Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (SVAP), to determine treatment necessary to bring 90% of reaches ranked Poor or Fair through the SVAP up to good or excellent. In 10 year's time, all reaches that were previously evaluated with SVAP will be reevaluated to determine progress and to adapt methods for continued success. Over 400 miles of stream need treatment in order to meet identified restoration goals. Treatments include practices which result in riparian habitat improvements, nutrient reductions, channel condition improvements, fish habitat improvements, invasive species control, water withdrawal reductions, improved hydrologic alterations, upland sediment reductions, and passage barrier removal. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management Watershed Division (Tribe) developed this document to guide restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed for the period of 2008-2018. This plan was created to demonstrate the ongoing need and potential for anadromous fish habitat restoration within the watershed and to ensure continued implementation of restoration actions and activities. It was developed not only to guide the District and the Tribe, but also to encourage cooperation among all stakeholders, including landowners, government agencies, private organizations, tribal governments, and elected officials. Through sharing information, skills, and resources in an active, cooperative relationships, all concerned parties will have the opportunity to join together to strengthen and maintain a sustainable natural resource base for present and future generations within the watershed. The primary goal of the strategy is to address aquatic habitat restoration needs on a watershed level for resident and anadromous fish species, promoting quality habitat within a self-sustaining watershed. Seven objectives have been developed to support this goal: (1) Identify factors limiting quality

Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

2007-10-01

414

78 FR 54674 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Gold Rock Mine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Gold Rock Mine Project, White Pine County...You may submit comments related to the Gold Rock Mine Project by any of the following... Email: BLM_NV_EYDO_Midway_Gold_Rock_EIS@blm.gov Fax:...

2013-09-05

415

Recrystallization and anatexis along the plutonic-volcanic contact of the Turkey Creek caldera, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unusual geologic and geochemical relations are preserved along the contact between intracaldera tuff and a resurgent intrusion within the 26.9 Ma Turkey Creek caldera of southeast Arizona. Thick intracaldera tuff is weakly argillically altered throughout, except in zones within several hundred meters of its contact with the resurgent intrusion, where the groundmass of the tuff has been variably converted to granophyre and unaltered sanidine phenocrysts are present. Dikes of similarly granophyric material originate at the tuff-resurgent intrusion contact and intrude overlying intracaldera megabreccia and tuff. Field relations indicate that the resurgent intrusion is a laccolith and that it caused local partial melting of adjacent intracaldera tuff. Geochemical and petrographic relations indicate that small volumes of partially melted intracaldera tuff assimilated and mixed with dacite of the resurgent intrusion along their contact, resulting in rocks that have petrographic and compositional characteristics transitional between those of tuff and dacite. Some of this variably contaminated, second-generation magma coalesced, was mobilized, and was intruded into overlying intracaldera rocks. Interpretation of the resurgent intrusion in the Turkey Creek and other calderas as intracaldera laccoliths suggests that intrusions of this type may be a common, but often unrecognized, feature of calderas. Development of granophyric and anatectic features such as those described here may be equally common in other calderas. The observations and previously undocumented processes described here can be applied to identification and interpretation of similarly enigmatic relations and rocks in other caldera systems. Integration of large-scale field mapping with detailed petrographic and chemical data has resulted in an understanding of otherwise intractable but petrologically important caldera-related features.

Du, Bray, E. A.; Pallister, J. S.

1999-01-01

416

Characterization and mapping of the Browns Creek rhyolite: Western Snake River Plain, ID, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to map and characterize the geologic units that comprise the Brown's Creek region of the western Snake River Plain, with a focus on the eruptive behavior and physical characteristics of the exposed rhyolite. Located near Oreana ID, southeast of the Owyhee Front, the rhyolite in Browns Creek and adjacent rocks has never been mapped in detail. The volcanics in the Browns Creek area are predominantly comprised of low to high silica rhyolite (73%-78% SiO2), and a previously published 40Ar/39Ar date returned an age of 11.20 ± .02 Ma. The rhyolites have phenocryst assemblages of Na-plagioclase, quartz, K-feldspar, pyroxene, oxides, and zircon. Both phenocryst content and crystal size vary widely from approximately 15-50% and 1-10 mm respectively. The rhyolite in the Browns Creek region has a ?18O value of 8.5‰ and marks a very sharp boundary (<10 km) between normal ?18O rhyolites of the Western Snake River plain to the northwest, and the roughly contemporaneous and much more voluminous low-?18O rhyolites of the Central Snake River Plain to the southeast. The earliest, large scale mapping suggested that the rhyolite in the Browns Creek region was a rheomorphic ignimbrite, sourced from the North, while later workers proposed that the unit was composed of an early, small, non-welded ignimbrite, followed by two separate lava flows. Detailed field work and sample collection from this study indicates that the outcrops of rhyolite lava display a continuum of phenocryst contents and structural features, consistent with a single evolving magma which effused from multiple vent areas. Steeply dipping flow features are pervasive, basal and marginal breccias are common, and the unit rarely displays the lower aspect ratio outcrops typical of other large lava flows in the region. Currently, our preferred explanation for these observations is that of a single magma showing an evolutionary trend of crystallization and fractionation, with periodic effusion from multiple vent locations, until crystal content exceeds the possibility of eruption. This interpretation is broadly consistent with geochemical data, which displays continuous evolutionary trends in trace elements, and little or no evidence for discrete magma batches. These characteristics are unusual when compared to other roughly contemporaneous rhyolites throughout southern Idaho, and may represent a fundamental change in the source region and/or tectonics between the low-?18O rhyolites of the Central Snake River Plain and the normal ?18O rhyolites of the Owyhee Front.

Clippinger, D. T.; Boroughs, S.; Bonnichsen, B.

2012-12-01

417

Effectiveness of a Redesigned Water Diversion Using Rock Vortex Weirs to Enhance Longitudinal Connectivity for Small Salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

For nearly 100 years, water diversions have affected fish passage in Beaver Creek, a tributary of the lower Methow River in north-central Washington State. From 2000 to 2004, four dam-style water diversions were replaced with a series of rock vortex weirs (RVWs). The weirs were designed to allow fish passage while maintaining the ability to divert water into irrigation canals.

Kyle D. Martens; Patrick J. Connolly

2010-01-01

418

Theory of wing rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wing rock is one type of lateral-directional instabilities at high angles of attack. To predict wing rock characteristics and to design airplanes to avoid wing rock, parameters affecting wing rock characteristics must be known. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model is developed to investigate the main aerodynamic nonlinearities causing wing rock. In the present theory, the Beecham-Titchener asymptotic method is used to derive expressions for the limit-cycle amplitude and frequency of wing rock from nonlinear flight dynamics equations. The resulting expressions are capable of explaining the existence of wing rock for all types of aircraft. Wing rock is developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

Hsu, C.-H.; Lan, C. E.

1985-01-01

419

Hard Rock Penetration Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: 'Hard Rock Penetration - Summary' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; 'Overview - Hard Rock Penetration' by James C. Dunn; 'An Overvi...

2005-01-01

420

The Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Satellite Geodesy describes the rock cycle, and quantitative ways to estimate how long geological features took to form. Popcorn is used to demonstrate half-life and radio-active decay, which is used to date rocks.

Tauxe, Lisa; Geodesy, Satellite

421

Igneous Rock Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a simple Flash roll over, view hand specimens of different igneous rocks classified according by texture and chemical composition. There are also views of the more common rock forming minerals. Expect long loading times.

Wiley

422

Accelerated Weathering of Rocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project concerns correlation between weathering indices obtained from samples of one type of sedimentary rock (graywacke) and those obtained after laboratory agency tests of the same rocks. Study is made of the process of natural alteration in three s...

L. Aires-Barros

1977-01-01

423

Rock Cycle Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many people might know about the life cycle of a rock, but it can be a process that is hard to understand without a handy visual aid. Just such a series of aids can be found right here, courtesy of Mark Francek of Central Michigan University. These rock cycle animations display some of the most common rock-forming processes, including the crystallization of magma to form igneous rock, rock erosion to create sediment, and several others. That's not all, as visitors can also examine a comprehensive Flash animation which contains three separate movies, each of which looks at the formation of igneous rocks in environments that include a deep magma chamber and rocks forming from a pyroclastic flow. The site is rounded out by an interactive igneous rocks classification chart, arranged by texture and chemical composition.

424

Rocks in Our Pockets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To introduce students to rocks and their characteristics, teacher can begin rock units with the activities described in this article. Students need the ability to make simple observations using their senses and simple tools.

Plummer, Donna; Kuhlman, Wilma

2005-01-01

425

5. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing the lining of the bottom of the marsh, with dam in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

426

33 CFR 117.149 - China Basin, Mission Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false China Basin, Mission Creek. 117.149 Section 117.149 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.149 China Basin, Mission Creek. The draws of the 3rd Street...

2013-07-01

427

33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and...Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the Ocean County bridge,...

2013-07-01

428

PARADISE CREEK USE ATTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO, 1994  

EPA Science Inventory

Paradise Creek (17060108) is located in Latah County, Idaho and Whitman County, Washington. The water quality is influenced by both point and nonpoint sources of pollution. In 1980, Paradise Creek was listed as protected for agricultural water supply and secondary contact recre...

429

Fast-growing willow shrub named `Fish Creek`  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distinct male cultivar of Salix purpurea named `Fish Creek`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 30% more woody biomass than either of its parents (`94001` and `94006`) and 20% more biomass than a current production cultivar (`SV1`). `Fish Creek` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be

Lawrence P. Abrahamson; Richard F. Kopp; Lawrence B. Smart; Timothy A. Volk

2007-01-01

430

Recovery of a PCB-Contaminated Creek Fish Community  

EPA Science Inventory

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek until the early 1990s. PCB concentrations in fish in this creek have remained elevated: levels in six target fish species are still a...

431

78 FR 76750 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Chambers Creek Railway Bridge across Chambers...locking out the power to the drive system while the work...Chambers Creek Railway Bridge across Chambers...bearing in the lift system, replacing lower...locking out the power to the drive...

2013-12-19

432

33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the S634 bridge, mile 0.3 at...

2013-07-01

433

33 CFR 117.800 - Mill Neck Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Mill Neck Creek. 117.800 Section 117.800 Navigation...Requirements New York § 117.800 Mill Neck Creek. The draw of the Bayville Bridge, mile 0.1, at Oyster Bay, New York, shall open on...

2009-07-01

434

33 CFR 117.800 - Mill Neck Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mill Neck Creek. 117.800 Section 117.800 Navigation...Requirements New York § 117.800 Mill Neck Creek. The draw of the Bayville Bridge, mile 0.1, at Oyster Bay, New York, shall open on...

2010-07-01

435

103. DRY CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

103. DRY CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; INLET SIDE TO DRY CREEK, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

436

121. MCMULLEN CREEK DRAW, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

121. MCMULLEN CREEK DRAW, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CREEK, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

437

122. MCMULLEN CREEK, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

122. MCMULLEN CREEK, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF THE CREEK, ENTRANCE INTO THE HIGH LINE CANAL, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

438

101. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

101. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; NORTHEAST VIEW OF DRY CREEK OUTLET. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

439

119. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

119. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF COTTONWOOD CREEK, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

440

123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF THE CREEK EMPTYING INTO THE HIGH LINE CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

441

2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This is an oblique aerial view to the north, looking over the flooded fields between Chino Creek and the Santa Ana River, just upstream of the Prado Dam site. File number written on negative: R & H 80 024. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

442

DRY CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1976-1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality samples were collected monthly at one station in Water Year 1977 to determine the water quality status of Dry Creek in Twin Falls and Cassia Counties, Idaho (17040212). The stream was sampled near the mouth upstream from Murtaugh Lake. The section of Dry Creek abo...

443

2. Rear view of upper dam with Millstone Creek flowing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Rear view of upper dam with Millstone Creek flowing over overspill. Photograph taken from west bank of Millstone Creek. VIEW SOUTHEAST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

444

RILEY CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1975-1976  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents a review of Riley Creek, Idaho (17040212) water quality data collected from September 1975 through September 1976. The creek meets all water quality standards except for total and fecal coliform bacteria. Sources of coliform bacteria include fish hatcheries,...

445

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, VINYARD CREEK, JEROME COUNTY, IDAHO. 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

During 1986, a survey was done on Vinyard Creek (17040212) to assess water quality conditions and beneficial use impairment due to agricultural pollutants. During the 1986 irrigation season, Vinyard Creek transported an estimated 780 tons of sediment to the Snake River. Most of...

446

Economics, Politics and the Subjugation of the Creek Indians.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study attempts to identify and delineate the underlying dynamics of change affecting and course of Creek Indian history during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, with particular reference to the Creek War of 1813-14. The analysis is based...

J. A. Paredes K. J. Plante

1975-01-01

447

31. Construction Drawing: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. Construction Drawing: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, Emergency Power Building, Floor Plans and Details, USACOE, no date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

448

30. Construction Drawing: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Construction Drawing: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, Emergency Power Building, Sections and Elevations, USACOE, no date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

449

31. Photocopy of postcard titled 'Newberry Bridge, Lycoming Creek, Williamsport, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. Photocopy of postcard titled 'Newberry Bridge, Lycoming Creek, Williamsport, PA' (original in Postcard Collection of the Division of Archives and Manuscripts, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, MG-21 3, Box 24, Lycoming County), postmarked October 4, 1908 LOOKING NORTH (BEFORE CENTER PIER INSTALLATION) - Memorial Avenue Bridge, Spanning Lycoming Creek, Williamsport, Lycoming County, PA

450

MIDDLE POTLATCH CREEK, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO - PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION REPORT, 1993  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1992 Idaho Water Quality Status Report listed the Middle Potlatch Creek (17060306) as an Idaho Impaired Stream Segment Requiring Further Assessment and listed the creek as a water body not fully supporting at least one beneficial use. This preliminary resource assessment foc...

451

Copper mobility in the Eastern Creek Volcanics, Mount Isa, Australia: evidence from laser ablation ICP-MS of iron-titanium oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Palaeoproterozoic Eastern Creek Volcanics are a series of copper-rich tholeiitic basalts which occur adjacent to the giant sediment-hosted Mount Isa copper deposit in Queensland, Australia. The volcanic rocks are often cited as the source of metals for the deposit. New laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of iron–titanium oxides from the basalts provide evidence for the local mobilisation of copper during

Melissa J. Gregory

2006-01-01

452

Copper mobility in the Eastern Creek Volcanics, Mount Isa, Australia: evidence from laser ablation ICP-MS of iron-titanium oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Palaeoproterozoic Eastern Creek Volcanics are a series of copper-rich tholeiitic basalts which occur adjacent to the giant sediment-hosted Mount Isa copper deposit in Queensland, Australia. The volcanic rocks are often cited as the source of metals for the deposit. New laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of iron-titanium oxides from the basalts provide evidence for the local mobilisation of copper during

Melissa J. Gregory

2006-01-01

453

Everybody Needs a Rock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to properties of rocks, specifically weight and density. They will select a rock, make a list of words to describe it, estimate its mass and use a balance to check their estimates, write a story about what they have learned, and group or classify the rocks according to what they have learned.

454

The Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create a poster about the rock cycle! Directions: Make a poster about the rock cycle. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about the rock cycle. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster ...

Walls, Mrs.

2011-01-30

455

Metamorphic Rocks Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students each obtain 2 rock samples from a collection of 20 for the lab. Students complete a data form for observations concerning metamorphic features. Each student identifies the 2 samples and describes the metamorphic parent rock. When everyone in the lab has finished, the group matches all the non-metamorphic samples to the metamorphic samples in a large rock cycle puzzle.

Hadley, Ann C.

456

Igneous Rocks Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this section, see close-up pictures of the major rock types and learn about where different types of igneous rocks are formed, what style of magmatic activity is associated with each type of magma, and what rock types are melted to form each of these magma compositions.

2002-01-01

457