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1

Integration of the White Sands Complex into a Wide Area Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA White Sands Complex (WSC) satellite communications facility consists of two main ground stations, an auxiliary ground station, a technical support facility, and a power plant building located on White Sands Missile Range. When constructed, terrestrial communication access to these facilities was limited to copper telephone circuits. There was no local or wide area communications network capability. This project incorporated a baseband local area network (LAN) topology at WSC and connected it to NASA's wide area network using the Program Support Communications Network-Internet (PSCN-I). A campus-style LAN is configured in conformance with the International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect (ISO) model. Ethernet provides the physical and data link layers. Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are used for the network and transport layers. The session, presentation, and application layers employ commercial software packages. Copper-based Ethernet collision domains are constructed in each of the primary facilities and these are interconnected by routers over optical fiber links. The network and each of its collision domains are shown to meet IEEE technical configuration guidelines. The optical fiber links are analyzed for the optical power budget and bandwidth allocation and are found to provide sufficient margin for this application. Personal computers and work stations attached to the LAN communicate with and apply a wide variety of local and remote administrative software tools. The Internet connection provides wide area network (WAN) electronic access to other NASA centers and the world wide web (WWW). The WSC network reduces and simplifies the administrative workload while providing enhanced and advanced inter-communications capabilities among White Sands Complex departments and with other NASA centers.

Boucher, Phillip Larry; Horan, Sheila, B.

1996-01-01

2

A numerical study of turbulent flow over complex aeolian dune fields: the White Sands National Monument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and dynamics of fully-developed turbulent flows responding to aeolian dune fields are studied using large-eddy simulation with an immersed boundary method. An aspect of particular importance in these flows is the downwind migration of coherent motions associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities which originate at the dune crests. These instabilities are responsible for enhanced downward transport of high momentum fluid via the so-called turbulent sweep mechanism. However, the presence of such structures and their role in determining the bulk characteristics of fully developed dune field sublayer aerodynamics has received relatively limited attention. Moreover, many existing studies address mostly symmetric or mildly asymmetric dune forms. The White Sands National Monument is a field of aeolian gypsum sand dunes located in the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico. Aeolian processes at the site result in a complex, anisotropic dune field. In the dune field sublayer, the flow statistics resemble a mixing layer: at approximately the dune crest height, vertical profiles of streamwise velocity exhibit an inflection and turbulent Reynolds stresses are maximum; below this, the streamwise and vertical velocity fluctuations are positively and negatively skewed, respectively. We evaluate the spatial structure of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities present in the dune field sublayer -- shear length, Ls, and vortex spacing, Lambda_x -- and show that Ls = m Lambda_x, where m is approximately 8 in the different sections considered (for turbulent mixing layers, 7 < m < 10, Rogers and Moser, 1994: Phys. Fluids A, 6, 903-922). These results guide discussion on the statistics of aerodynamic drag across the dunes; probability density functions of time-series of aerodynamic drag for the dunes are shown to exhibit skewness and variance much greater than values reported for turbulent boundary layer flow over an homogeneous roughness distribution. Thus, we propose that aeolian processes and dune pattern evolution is strongly influenced by the mixing layer physics in the dune field sublayer, and these physics are different to what would otherwise be predicted when using the equilibrium logarithmic law.

Anderson, W. W.; Chamecki, M.; Kocurek, G.; Mohrig, D. C.

2013-12-01

3

White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast NM (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground.

1973-01-01

4

www.nasa.gov WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE ACCESS CAPABILITIES  

E-print Network

www.nasa.gov WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE ACCESS CAPABILITIES SUMMARY White Sands Test Facility (WSTF David L. Baker, NASA White Sands Test Facility, Chief, Propulsion Test Office david.l.baker@nasa.gov, (575) 524-5605 Robert E. Mitchell, NASA White Sands Test Facility, WSSH Operations Manager robert

5

Early diagenesis of eolian dune and interdune sands at White Sands, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The degree of early diagenesis in eolian dune and interdune sands at White Sands, New Mexico, is largely a function of the relationship between sand location and the water table. Most active and vegetation-stabilized dune sands are in the vadose zone, whereas interdune sands are in the capillary fringe and phreatic zones. Crystallographically controlled dissolution of the framework gypsum grains results in elongate, prismatic etch pits on sand grains from the capillary fringe and phreatic zones, whereas dissolution of sand grains in the vadose zone is slight, causing minute irregularities on grain surfaces. Vadose water percolating through the sand is manifest as meniscus layers. Consequently, dune sands in the vadose zone are cemented mainly by meniscus-shaped gypsum at grain contacts. Pendant cements formed on the lower margins of some sand grains. Cementation in the capillary fringe and the phreatic zone is more extensive than the vadose regardless of strata type. Typically, well-developed gypsum overgrowths form along the entire edge of a grain, or may encompass the entire grain. Complex diagenetic histories are suggested by multiple overgrowths and several episodes of dissolution on single grains, attesting to changing saturation levels with respect to gypsum in the shallow ground water. These changes in saturation are possibly due to periods of dilution by meteoric recharge, alternating with periods of concentration of ions and the formation of cement due to evaporation through the capillary fringe. ?? 1988.

Schenk, C.J.; Fryberger, S.G.

1988-01-01

6

Geology Fieldnotes: White Sands National Monument, New Mexico  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The White Sands National Monument site contains park geology information, maps, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses the park's geologic history, the formation of the gypsum sand dunes, and the four types of dunes found at the White Sands National Monument: dome, barchan, transverse, and parabolic. The park maps section includes a map of the White Sands National Monument and the surrounding area, showing the location of each type of dune.

7

White Sands National Monument: Education Fact Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website contains the following reference sections: Where Does All the Sand Come From?, Animals of the Desert, How Do Sand Dunes Move?, and Plants of the Dune Field. There are recommended reading lists for students from preschool to high school interested in pursuing these topics further.

8

Trends in Gypsiferous Aerosol Downwind of White Sands, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White Sands is a known 'hotspot' of dust emissions in southwestern North America where an active gypsum dunefield abuts erodible playa sediments. Aerosols entrained from White Sands are sometimes visible on satellite images as distinct, light-colored plumes crossing the Sacramento Mountains to the northeast. The U.S. Forest Service operates an aerosol sampler at White Mountain in the lee of the Sacramento range as part of the IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments). In recent years a spring pulse of sulfate aerosol has appeared at White Mountain, eclipsing the regional summer peak attributed to atmospheric reactions of sulfur dioxide emissions. A significant fraction of this spring sulfate is contributed by gypsum and other salts from White Sands, with clearly increased concentrations of calcium, strontium, and chloride. The increase in these species coincides with a drought following a period of above-average precipitation. White Sands and White Mountain thus provide an unusually well-defined natural laboratory: a climatically sensitive dust source that is both well characterized and chemically distinct from its surroundings, with a signature that remains identifiably distinct at a long-term observatory ~100 km downwind. This paper examines the routine PM2.5 (fine-particle, Dp < 2.5 um) composition data available from White Mountain and other regional IMPROVE sites (e.g. Bosque del Apache), supplemented by some elemental analysis of collocated PM10 samples. The ambient data are compared with chemical analyses of surface samples from White Sands, bulk dry dustfall and soil surface composition at White Mountain, satellite observations of dust plumes, and available meteorological records. Together, the observations document significant, episodic aeolian transport of gypsum and other salts across the Sacramento Mountains. Figure 1. Left: Monthly average concentrations of every-third-day 24h samples. Top right: MODIS image, 2/28/2012, http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=77294). Bottom right: Correlation (r) matrix for 2011 daily elemental data from White Mountain (n = 105).

White, W. H.; Trzepla, K.; Yatkin, S.; Gill, T. E.; Jin, L.

2013-12-01

9

Regional transport of a chemically distinctive dust: Gypsum from White Sands, New Mexico (USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The White Sands complex, a National Monument and adjoining Missile Range in southern New Mexico, occupies the dry bed of an ice-age lake where an active gypsum dunefield abuts erodible playa sediments. Aerosols entrained from White Sands are sometimes visible on satellite images as distinct, light-colored plumes crossing the Sacramento Mountains to the east and northeast. The IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) operates long-term aerosol samplers at two sites east of the Sacramento range. In recent years a spring pulse of sulfate aerosol has appeared at these sites, eclipsing the regional summer peak resulting from atmospheric reactions of sulfur dioxide emissions. A significant fraction of this spring sulfate is contributed by gypsum and other salts from White Sands, with much of the sulfur in coarse particles and concentrations of calcium and strontium above regional levels. The increase in these gypsiferous species coincides with a drought following a period of above-average precipitation. White Sands and the IMPROVE samplers together provide a natural laboratory: a climatically sensitive dust source that is both well characterized and chemically distinct from its surroundings, with a signature that remains identifiable at long-term observatories 100-200 km downwind.

White, Warren H.; Hyslop, Nicole P.; Trzepla, Krystyna; Yatkin, Sinan; Rarig, Randy S.; Gill, Thomas E.; Jin, Lixin

2015-03-01

10

Anisotropic Solar Reflectance over White Sand, Snow and Stratus Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated directional reflectances and relative anisotropy were measured over stratus clouds, snow and white gypsum sand using the Nimbus F-3 medium resolution radiometer (MRIR) and a siliconcell pyranometer mounted on a Piper Twin Comanche. Reflectances in the 0.2-4.0 and 0.55-0.85 portions of the solar spectrum were investigated. Eight flights were completed in different geographic areas over stratus clouds of varying

V. V. Salomonson; W. E. Marlatt

1968-01-01

11

Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

2008-09-01

12

Groundwater Remediation and Alternate Energy at White Sands Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

White Sands Test Facility Core Capabilities: a) Remote Hazardous Testing of Reactive, Explosive, and Toxic Materials and Fluids; b) Hypergolic Fluids Materials and Systems Testing; c) Oxygen Materials and System Testing; d) Hypervelocity Impact Testing; e)Flight Hardware Processing; and e) Propulsion Testing. There is no impact to any drinking water well. Includes public wells and the NASA supply well. There is no public exposure. Groundwater is several hundred feet below ground. No air or surface water exposure. Plume is moving very slowly to the west. Plume Front Treatment system will stop this westward movement. NASA performs on-going monitoring. More than 200 wells and zones are routinely sampled. Approx. 850 samples are obtained monthly and analyzed for over 300 different hazardous chemicals.

Fischer, Holger

2008-01-01

13

Hydrologic Modeling of the White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shallow groundwater flow system of White Sands dune field, located within the Tularosa Basin of Southern New Mexico, likely stabilizes the base of the largest gypsum dunefield in the world. Water table geometry and elevation play a critical role in controlling dune thickness, spatial extent, and migration rates. The White Sands National Monument (WHSA) is concerned that lowering the water table may lead to increased scour and migration of the dune field, which could be unfavorable to the preservation of the flora and fauna that have adapted to survive there. In response to projected increases in groundwater pumping in the regional Tularosa Basin groundwater system, changes in surface water use, and the threat of climate change, the WHSA is interested in understanding how these changes on a regional scale may impact the shallow dune aquifer. We have collected hydrological, geochemical, and geophysical data in order to identify the sources of recharge that contribute to the shallow dune aquifer and to assess interactions between this water table aquifer and the basin-scale, regional system. Vertical head gradients, temperature, and water quality data strongly suggest that local precipitation is the primary source of recharge to the dune aquifer today. This suggests that the modern dune system is relatively isolated from the deeper regional system. However, geochemical and electrical resistivity data indicates that the deeper basin groundwater system does contribute to the shallow system and suggests that hydrologic conditions have changed on geologic time scales. We have constructed a preliminary cross-sectional hydrologic model to attempt to characterize the interaction of the shallow dune aquifer with the deeper basin groundwater. The model cross-section extends about 80 km across the Tularosa Basin in a NW-SE direction parallel to the primary flow path. We represented 6 km of Precambrian crystalline basement, Paleozoic sedimentary rocks as well as Pleistocene and Quaternary units. Preliminary results indicate a component of deep groundwater flows to a depth of 5 km and is discharged near Lake Lucero located west of the WHSA. Computed and observed salinity and groundwater residence times are the primary means of model calibration. The results will allow for an improved understanding of the interaction between the basin- and dune-scale groundwater flow systems.

Bourret, S. M.; Newton, B. T.; Person, M. A.

2013-12-01

14

Gypsum Dunes from White Sands National Monument - Potential Analog to North Polar Dunes on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three aspects of White Sands gypsum dunes evolution relating to climate variation are discussed in comparison to Olimpia Undae gypsum-rich dunes on Mars: gypsum source, groundwater discharge into interdunes areas, and desiccation of dunes.

A. Szynkiewicz; L. M. Pratt; M. Glamoclija; D. Bustos

2008-01-01

15

Gypsum Dunes from White Sands National Monument - Potential Analog to North Polar Dunes on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three aspects of White Sands gypsum dunes evolution relating to climate variation are discussed in comparison to Olimpia Undae gypsum-rich dunes on Mars: gypsum source, groundwater discharge into interdunes areas, and desiccation of dunes.

Szynkiewicz, A.; Pratt, L. M.; Glamoclija, M.; Bustos, D.

2008-03-01

16

Artificial Sand Pictures -A Complex Systems Simulation Brad Pearce and Ken Hawick  

E-print Network

Pictures Sand pictures are made from a mix of coloured sands and water or oil sandwiched between two sheets sand picture. The sand picture system is essentially a complex fluid - with a colloidal suspension of sand particles contained in water or oil. Complex Fluids Modelling complex fluids is a challenging

Hawick, Ken

17

Overview of NASA White Sands Test Facility Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation examines the White Sands Test Facility testing of Composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV). A COPV is typically a metallic liner overwrapped with a fiber epoxy matrix. There is a weight advantage over the traditional all metal design. The presentation shows pictures of the facilities at White Sands, and then examines some of the testing performed. The tests include fluids compatibility, and Kevlar COPV. Data for the Kevlar tests are given, and an analysis is reviewed. There is also a comparison between Carbon COPVs and the Kevlar COPVs.

Greene, Nathanael; Saulsberry, Regor; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh

2006-01-01

18

Ka-Band Atmospheric Phase Stability Measurements in Goldstone, CA; White Sands, NM; and Guam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As spacecraft communication links are driven to higher frequencies (e.g. Ka-band) both by spectrum congestion and the appeal of higher data rates, the propagation phenomena at these frequencies must be well characterized for effective system design. In particular, the phase stability of a site at a given frequency will govern whether or not the site is a practical location for an antenna array, particularly if uplink capabilities are desired. Propagation studies to characterize such phenomena must be done on a site-by-site basis due to the wide variety of climates and weather conditions at each ground terminal. Accordingly, in order to statistically characterize the atmospheric effects on Ka-Band links, site test interferometers (STIs) have been deployed at three of NASA's operational sites to directly measure each site's tropospheric phase stability. Using three years of results from these experiments, this paper will statistically characterize the simultaneous atmospheric phase noise measurements recorded by the STIs deployed at the following ground station sites: the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, CA; the White Sands Ground Terminal near Las Cruces, NM; and the Guam Remote Ground Terminal on the island of Guam.

Zemba, Michael J.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Nessel, James A.

2014-01-01

19

Mapping Playa Evaporite Minerals, White Sands, New Mexico Using Landsat ETM+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporite minerals are the main source of several industrial and agricultural minerals important to the U.S. and world economy. Landsat ETM+ data covering the White Sands, New Mexico have been used in this study. The White Sands Dune Field, Lake Lucero, and Alkali Flat have been chosen as target sites. The study aims to determine the number of evaporite mineral endmembers that can be detected and mapped using Landsat ETM+. Furthermore, the study also aims to determine the spatial distribution of fractional abundances of evaporite mineral endmembers assuming a linear mixing model. The Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transform and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were employed to determine a reduced set of noise-free spectral bands. The Pixel Purity Index (PPI) and n-D Visualization (nDV) were conducted on the reduced set of spectral bands to identify spectrally pure evaporite mineral endmembers in the image. Mineral maps of the spatial distribution and relative abundance of evaporite minerals were performed using two different algorithms: Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU). Four evaporite mineral endmembers have been identified using Spectral Angle Mapper. These minerals are gypsum, halite, calcite, and thenardite. The results of Linear Spectral Unmixing showed that the most common and abundant evaporite mineral in the White Sands is gypsum. The results of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) are validated by collecting field samples from different locations within the White Sands. A good match has been determined between results of Landsat ETM+ data and field and laboratory work. Mapping of playa evaporite minerals is of potential importance for the goal of saline soil characterization, regional groundwater hydrology and quality, and mineral resource development.

Ghrefat, H. A.; Goodell, P. C.

2002-12-01

20

Test wells T27 and T28, White Sands Missile Range, Dona Ana County, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two test wells, T27 and T28, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Army in February and March 1983. Test wells T27 and T28 were drilled as observation wells in the vicinity of the Liquid Propellant Storage Area. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs, driller 's logs, and borehole-geophysical logs from the cased wells. (USGS)

Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

1985-01-01

21

Evaluating the Emergency Notification Systems of the NASA White Sands Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem was that the NASA Fire and Emergency Services did not know if the current emergency notification systems on the NASA White Sands Test Facility were appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. The purpose of this Applied Research Project was to determine if the current emergency notification systems of the White Sands Test Facility are appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. This was a descriptive research project. The research questions were: 1) What are similar facilities using to alert the employees of an emergency?; 2) Are the current emergency notification systems suitable for the community hazards on the NASA White Sands Test Facility?; 3) What is the NASA Fire and Emergency Services currently using to measure the effectiveness of the emergency notification systems?; and 4) What are the current training methods used to train personnel to the emergency notification systems at the NASA White Sands Test Facility? The procedures involved were to research other established facilities, research published material from credible sources, survey the facility to determine the facility perception of the emergency notification systems, and evaluate the operating elements of the established emergency notification systems for the facility. The results were that the current systems are suitable for the type of hazards the facility may endure. The emergency notification systems are tested frequently to ensure effectiveness in the event of an emergency. Personnel are trained and participate in a yearly drill to make certain personnel are educated on the established systems. The recommendations based on the results were to operationally improve the existing systems by developing and implementing one system that can overall notify the facility of a hazard. Existing procedures and training should also be improved to ensure that all personnel are educated on what to do when the emergency notification systems are activated.

Chavez, Alfred Paul

2004-01-01

22

The White House & Tar Sands Remarks in front of the White House on 29 August 2011.  

E-print Network

them b. Cheapest because: (1) direct/indirect subsidies, (2) human health costs not paid by fossil fuel Press Club on 29 August 2011. Figure 1. Total conventional fossil fuel emissions (purple) and 50% of unconventional resources (blue) Figure 1 helps make clear why the tar sands and other unconventional fossil fuels

Hansen, James E.

23

Morphology and formation of the upwind margin at White Sands Dune Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remarkable transitional landscape occurs at the upwind margin of White Sands Dune Field. Over the course a few hundred meters the landscape changes from an flat, sand availability-limited playa, to a sand sheet with strong spatial grain-size sorting, to meter high slipfaceless proto-dunes and finally to several meter high dunes with angle-of-repose slip faces. Within one wavelength of the first dune, dunes rise to nearly 10 meters in height above Alkali Flat, the upwind playa that extends for 13 km westward from the dune field. This abrupt rise in topography may perturb the dominant southwesterly wind flow and trigger an internal boundary layer, which causes a spatial decrease in surface wind stress and decline sediment flux, thereby altering the dune dynamics and dune field morphology downwind. Though the emergence of this upwind transition may play a key role in the morphodynamics of the dune field, what are the morphodynamics of the transition? What are the feedbacks between the emerging topography and the wind within the transition? This presentation uses high-resolution aerial photos, time-series airborne LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanning to characterize the transitional morphology the upwind margin of White Sands and discusses these morphologies in the context of the interplay between wind flow and dune field topography. Alkali Flat playa is sparsely sand covered, the amount of which varies temporally. The sparse sand cover occurs as sand patches that form in the lee of bushes or within topographic lows generated by deflated gypsum crust. Adjacent and downwind of the playa is a sand sheet composed of variable wavelength, coarse grained ripples. Ten to thirty meter wide ripple patches organized into a repeating sequence of coarse-grained, > 15 cm wavelength ripples to fine-grained, < 15 cm wavelength ripples occur across the sand sheet. Downwind the ripple patches organize into low-relief protodune hummocks. The protodunes are covered by a range of ripple sizes that are spatially organized similar to the ripple patches within the sand sheet. The coarsest-grained, largest wavelength ripples occur at the protodune crest and fine downwind. The inter-protodune areas are typically free of sand, exposing indurated dune stratigraphy. The protodunes grow in height, but the wavelength remains ~ 70 m downwind until a slipface develops. Rapid growth into 5-10 meter high dunes occurs within one wavelength after slipface development and generates an abrupt topographic increase in topography. Dune migration rates are approximately 6 m/year at the upwind margin and decline to around 3 m/year within a few kilometers of the upwind margin. A generalized model of dune emergence at the upwind margin of dune fields is proposed using examples from other dune fields.

Ewing, R. C.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.; Reitz, M. D.; Phillips, C. B.; Falcini, F.; Masteller, C.

2012-12-01

24

Definition and origin of the dune-field pattern at White Sands, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A LiDAR-derived digital elevation model (DEM) of a representative portion of the White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico, allows for characterization of an unprecedented range of dune-field parameters and serves as a basis for pattern analysis. Dune-field parameters were measured and statistically analyzed for populations of dunes selected at random and occurring along transects. Populations sampled by these two different methods are comparable, but highlight the sensitivity of transect placement in a dune field that has pattern heterogeneity. Based upon coefficients of variation, pattern emerges at White Sands primarily because of a strong fabric of crestline orientation, and secondarily because of the regularity of spacing between dunes of similar shape as defined by sinuosity, height and length. Linear regression of dune parameters shows that dune geometric relationships vary primarily with crestline length, but there is little correlation between other parameters, including dune spacing and height. This result highlights the sensitivity of identifying topographic heterogeneity in a LiDAR-derived DEM, given that mean ratios conform to global averages. Stripping off the dunes in Matlab shows a terraced surface, which is interpreted to represent paleo-shorelines formed during relative still stands in the overall retreat of Lake Otero. Elevated bands of higher, more closely spaced dunes occur just leeward of the paleo-shorelines. A revised model for the White Sands Dune Field consists of the basinward progradation of successive dune-field segments. Each segment is associated with a paleo-shoreline, and consists of an upwind dune ridge, represented by the elevated bands, and a leeward dune field.

Baitis, Elke; Kocurek, Gary; Smith, Virginia; Mohrig, David; Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, A.-P. B.

2014-12-01

25

AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

2014-10-01

26

Complexity and white-dwarf structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the low-mass non-relativistic case to the extreme relativistic limit, the density profile of a white dwarf is used to evaluate the C complexity measure [R. López-Ruiz, H.L. Mancini, X. Calbet, Phys. Lett. A 209 (1995) 321]. Similarly to the recently reported atomic case where, by averaging shell effects, complexity grows with the atomic number [C.P. Panos, K.Ch. Chatzisavvas, Ch.C. Moustakidis, E.G. Kyrkou, Phys. Lett. A 363 (2007) 78; A. Borgoo, F. De Proft, P. Geerlings, K.D. Sen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 444 (2007) 186; J. Sañudo, R. López-Ruiz, Int. Rev. Phys. 2 (2008) 223], here complexity grows as a function of the star mass reaching a maximum finite value in the Chandrasekhar limit.

Sañudo, J.; Pacheco, A. F.

2009-02-01

27

Emplacement and dewatering of the world's largest exposed sand injectite complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandstone injectites form by up or down-section flow of a mobilized sand slurry through fractures in overlying rock. They act as reservoirs and high-permeability conduits through lower permeability rock in hydrocarbon systems. The Yellow Bank Creek Complex, Santa Cruz County, California is the largest known exposure of a sandstone injectite in the world. The complex contains granular textures that record processes of sand slurry flow, multiple pore fluids, and dewatering after emplacement. The injection was initially mobilized from a source containing both water and hydrocarbons. The water-sand slurry reached emplacement depth first, due to lower fluid viscosity. As the sand slurry emplaced, the transition from slurry flow to pore water percolation occurred. This transition resulted in preferred flow channels ˜6 mm wide in which sand grains were weakly aligned (laminae). The hydrocarbon-sand slurry intruded the dewatering sands and locally deformed the laminae. Compaction of the injectite deposit and pore fluid escape caused spaced compaction bands and dewatering pipes which created convolutions of the laminae. The hydrocarbon-rich sand slurry is preserved today as dolomite-cemented sand with oil inclusions. The laminae in this injectite are easily detected due to preferential iron oxide-cementation of the well-aligned sand laminae, and lack of cement in the alternating laminae. Subtle textures like these may develop during sand flow and be present but difficult to detect in other settings. They may explain permeability anisotropy in other sand deposits.

Sherry, Timothy J.; Rowe, Christie D.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Brodsky, Emily E.

2012-08-01

28

Complex resistivity signatures of ethanol in sand-clay mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed complex resistivity (CR) measurements on laboratory columns to investigate changes in electrical properties as a result of varying ethanol (EtOH) concentration (0% to 30% v/v) in a sand-clay (bentonite) matrix. We applied Debye decomposition, a phenomenological model commonly used to fit CR data, to determine model parameters (time constant: ?, chargeability: m, and normalized chargeability: mn). The CR data showed a significant (P ? 0.001) time-dependent variation in the clay driven polarization response (~ 12 mrad) for 0% EtOH concentration. This temporal variation probably results from the clay-water reaction kinetics trending towards equilibrium in the sand-clay-water system. The clay polarization is significantly suppressed (P ? 0.001) for both measured phase (?) and imaginary conductivity (??) with increasing EtOH concentration. Normalized chargeability consistently decreases (by up to a factor of ~ 2) as EtOH concentration increases from 0% to 10% and 10 to 20%, respectively. We propose that such suppression effects are associated with alterations in the electrical double layer (EDL) at the clay-fluid interface due to (a) strong EtOH adsorption on clay, and (b) complex intermolecular EtOH-water interactions and subsequent changes in ionic mobility on the surface in the EDL. Changes in the CR data following a change of the saturating fluid from EtOH 20% to plain water indicate strong hysteresis effects in the electrical response, which we attribute to persistent EtOH adsorption on clay. Our results demonstrate high sensitivity of CR measurements to clay-EtOH interactions in porous media, indicating the potential application of this technique for characterization and monitoring of ethanol contamination in sediments containing clays.

Personna, Yves Robert; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Werkema, Dale; Szabo, Zoltan

2013-06-01

29

Sand remobilization enhanced complexity to mounded geometry, Early Tertiary deep water sand reservoirs, Balder Oil Field North Sea  

SciTech Connect

Sand remobilization played a major role in generating the high relief mounded geometries that trap oil in the early Tertiary reservoirs at Balder Field in Norwegian North Sea blocks 25/10 and 25/11. The thick massive submarine-fan sandstones were shed from the East Shetland Platform and deposited from high density turbidity currents. These thick massive sandstones lie in the distal portions of the fan system on the northwestern margin of the Utsira High. An intricate interaction between deposition and soft sediment deformation processes generated the complex cluster of thick mounded sand geometries comprising the Balder oil field. Slumping, sliding and sand remobilization with associated sand injections into overlying shales were the dominant deformation processes that mainly occurred during the early Eocene. The field is comprised of three reservoirs, the Paleocene Heimdal and Hermod Formations and the Early Eocene Balder Formation. The sandstones, which have excellent reservoir properties, share a common pressure system and oil-water contact. This is probably related to the soft-sediment deformation and associated sand injections establishing cross-stratal communication.

Bergslien, D.; Rye-Larsen, M.; Jenssen, A.I. (Esso Norge AS, Forus (Norway))

1996-01-01

30

Sand remobilization enhanced complexity to mounded geometry, Early Tertiary deep water sand reservoirs, Balder Oil Field North Sea  

SciTech Connect

Sand remobilization played a major role in generating the high relief mounded geometries that trap oil in the early Tertiary reservoirs at Balder Field in Norwegian North Sea blocks 25/10 and 25/11. The thick massive submarine-fan sandstones were shed from the East Shetland Platform and deposited from high density turbidity currents. These thick massive sandstones lie in the distal portions of the fan system on the northwestern margin of the Utsira High. An intricate interaction between deposition and soft sediment deformation processes generated the complex cluster of thick mounded sand geometries comprising the Balder oil field. Slumping, sliding and sand remobilization with associated sand injections into overlying shales were the dominant deformation processes that mainly occurred during the early Eocene. The field is comprised of three reservoirs, the Paleocene Heimdal and Hermod Formations and the Early Eocene Balder Formation. The sandstones, which have excellent reservoir properties, share a common pressure system and oil-water contact. This is probably related to the soft-sediment deformation and associated sand injections establishing cross-stratal communication.

Bergslien, D.; Rye-Larsen, M.; Jenssen, A.I. [Esso Norge AS, Forus (Norway)

1996-12-31

31

Development of CFC-Free Cleaning Processes at the NASA White Sands Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-113- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. The presentation will include the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification processes that are based on a draft of a proposed NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) cleaning procedure. Verification testing with known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils, established correlations between nonvolatile residue and CFC-113. Recoveries ranged from 35 to 60 percent of theoretical. WSTF is also investigating enhancements to aqueous sampling for organics and particulates. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225), tert-butylmethylether, and n-Hexane was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC-113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autoignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

1995-01-01

32

Narrowband Angular Reflectance Properties of the Alkali Flats at White Sands, New Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from helicopter measurements of the angular properties of surface reflectance for the alkali flats regions of the White Sands Missile Range are presented for the wavelength interval of 0.4 to 0.85 microns. This work was performed to allow accurate radiative transfer calculations over the region. Detailed tables and interpolation equations are given that permit other investigators to perform satellite calibrations over the alkali flats site. The effects of wavelength and soil moisture on narrowband angular reflectance are also investigated. Although there is a spectral variation in surface albedo, there is little spectral effect in Anisotropic Factor except in the forward scattering peak at solar zenith angles greater than 60 deg. The magnitude of the forward-scattering peak is also sensitive to soil moisture, with wet conditions causing a larger peak. The significance of this result is that angular reflectance properties at the center of the alkali flats usually will be different than those at the flats edge because moisture differences typically exist.

Whitlock, Charles H.; LeCroy, Stuart R.; Wheeler, Robert J.

1994-01-01

33

Aqueous Cleaning and Validation for Space Shuttle Propulsion Hardware at the White Sands Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has developed an entirely aqueous final cleaning and verification process to replace the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) 113 based process. This process has been accepted for final cleaning and cleanliness verification of WSTF ground support equipment. The aqueous process relies on ultrapure water at 50 C (323 K) and ultrasonic agitation for removal of organic compounds and particulate. The cleanliness is verified bv determining the total organic carbon (TOC) content and filtration with particulate counting. The effectiveness of the aqueous methods for detecting hydrocarbon contamination and particulate was compared to the accepted CFC 113 sampling procedures. Testing with known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and cutting and lubricating oils, to establish a correlation between aqueous TOC and CFC 113 nonvolatile residue (NVR) was performed. Particulate sampling on cleaned batches of hardware that were randomly separated and sampled by the two methods was performed. This paper presents the approach and results, and discusses the issues in establishing the equivalence of aqueous sampling to CFC 113 sampling, while describing the approach for implementing aqueous techniques on Space Shuttle Propulsion hardware.

Hornung, Steven D.; Biesinger, Paul; Kirsch, Mike; Beeson, Harold; Leuders, Kathy

1999-01-01

34

Long term geological record of a global deep subsurface microbial habitat in sand injection complexes  

PubMed Central

There is extensive evidence from drilling into continental margins for microbial colonization of a deep biosphere. However it is difficult to prove deep biosphere activity in the geological record, where evidence for life is dominated by the remains of organic matter buried after deposition at the surface. Nevertheless we propose that natural injections of sand into muddy strata at continental margins represent an excellent habitat opportunity for deep microbial activity down to several kilometres' present day depth. Sulphur isotope data for iron sulphides precipitated soon after injection indicate consistent microbial sulphate reduction through the geological record. The complexes are favourable sites for colonization, because high permeability and extensive sand/mud interface allow ready availability of electron donors and nutrients. The measured examples of iron sulphide in injected sands extend back to the Proterozoic, and show that injected sand complexes have been a long-term environment for deep subsurface microbial colonization. PMID:23681146

Parnell, John; Boyce, Adrian J.; Hurst, Andrew; Davidheiser-Kroll, Brett; Ponicka, Joanna

2013-01-01

35

The Holocene History of the White Sands Dune Field and the influences of Climate on Eolian Deflation and Playa Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White Sands National Monument is the largest gypsum dune field in the world. The dunes have formed downwind of a 20-m-deep, 19-km-wide deflation basin containing large playa lakes. Today, the gypsum sand is derived from the edge of the deflation basin, next to the dune field, rather than the alkali flat and playa lakes where gypsum crystals are forming. Three erosional shorelines mark wetter episodes when playa lakes formed in the deflation basin. The youngest shoreline is forming today around Lake Lucero playa. The oldest shoreline, termed L1 is degraded and probably formed at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Deflation from the L1 to the L2 shoreline cut through Pleistocene bedded evaporites and probably marks initiation of the dune field. This event was before 5,840 years BP, based on radiocarbon in a lake dammed by the dunes. This reinforces an evolving consensus that episodes of deflation have characterized desert basins in the southwestern United States. Regional deflation events have been dated at 7,000 years and 4,000 years BP. The shorelines in the deflation basin imply that the White Sands dune field was created in short episodes and the modern dune field may not represent conditions active during expansion of the dune sea. >http://www.geo.utep.edu/Faculty_Staff/langford.html

Langford, R. P.

2001-12-01

36

Multiscale bed form interactions and their implications for the abruptness and stability of the downwind dune field margin at White Sands, New Mexico, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

downwind margin of White Sands dune field is an abrupt transition from mobile aeolian dunes to a dune-free vegetated surface. This margin is also relatively stable; over the past 60 years it has migrated several times more slowly than the slowest dunes within the dune field, resulting in a zone of dune coalescence, aggradation, and, along most of the margin, development of a dune complex (i.e., dunes superimposed on draas). Repeat terrestrial laser scanning surveys conducted over a 3 month period demonstrate that sediment fluxes within the dune complex decrease on approach to the margin. Computational fluid dynamics modeling indicates that this decrease is due, in part, to a decrease in mean turbulent bed shear stress on the lee side of the dune complex as a result of flow line divergence or sheltering of the lee-side dunes by the stoss side of the dune complex. Conservation of mass demands that this decrease in bed shear stress causes aggradation. We speculate that aggradation on the lee side of the dune complex further enhances the sheltering effect in a positive feedback, contributing to the growth and/or maintenance of the dune complex and a relatively abrupt and stable dune field margin. Our model and data add to a growing body of evidence that aeolian dune field patterns are influenced by feedbacks that occur at scales larger than individual dunes.

Pelletier, Jon D.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

2014-11-01

37

Test wells T21, T22, and T25, White Sands Missile Range, Dona Ana County, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three test wells, T21, T22, and T25, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military program sponsored by the U.S. Army in September 1982. T21 and T22 were drilled as observation wells for two old landfills. T25 was drilled as an exploratory hole to obtain lithologic and borehole-geophysical data in the vicinity of the proposed replacement well for Supply Well 15. Information obtained from these wells includes borehole-geophysical and driller's logs.

Myers, R.G.

1983-01-01

38

Dust Plume Modeling from Ranges and Maneuver Areas on Fort Bliss and the White Sands Missile Range: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The potential for air quality impacts from heavy mechanized vehicles operating on and between the unpaved main supply routes at Fort Bliss and White Sands Missile Range was investigated. This report details efforts by the staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Fort Bliss Directorate of Environment in this investigation. Dust emission and dispersion from typical move-out activities occurring on the installations were simulated using the atmospheric modeling system DUSTRAN. Major assumptions associated with designing the modeling scenarios are summarized and results of simulations conducted under these assumptions are presented for four representative meteorological periods.

Chapman, Elaine G.; Barnard, James C.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Shaw, William J.

2009-05-04

39

6. General view of complex. Sand tower at left (MN99E) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. General view of complex. Sand tower at left (MN-99-E) and oil house (MN-99-C) at right. Machine shop section of roundhouse (Mn-99-A) in background at center. View to west. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

40

Growth of mycorrhizal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings planted in oil sands reclaimed areas.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of ectomycorrhizal inoculation at the tree nursery seedling production stage on growth and survival was examined in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) planted in oil sands reclamation sites. The seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme strain # UAMH 5247, Suillus tomentosus strain # UAMH 6252, and Laccaria bicolor strain # UAMH 8232, as individual pure cultures and in combinations. These treatments were demonstrated to improve salinity resistance and water uptake in conifer seedlings. The field responses of seedlings to ectomycorrhizal inoculation varied between plant species, inoculation treatments, and measured parameters. Seedling inoculation resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal colonization rates compared with non-inoculated control, which had also a relatively small proportion of roots colonized by the nursery contaminant fungi identified as Amphinema byssoides and Thelephora americana. Seedling inoculation had overall a greater effect on relative height growth rates, dry biomass, and stem volumes in jack pine compared with white spruce. However, when examined after two growing seasons, inoculated white spruce seedlings showed up to 75% higher survival rates than non-inoculated controls. The persistence of inoculated fungi in roots of planted seedlings was examined at the end of the second growing season. Although the inoculation with H. crustuliniforme triggered growth responses, the fungus was not found in the roots of seedlings at the end of the second growing season suggesting a possibility that the observed growth-promoting effect of H. crustuliniforme may be transient. The results suggest that the inoculation of conifer seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi could potentially be carried out on a large scale in tree nurseries to benefit postplanting performance in oil sands reclamation sites. However, these practices should take into consideration the differences in responses between the different plant species and fungal strains. PMID:24424508

Onwuchekwa, Nnenna E; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Quoreshi, Ali; Khasa, Damase P

2014-08-01

41

Flow refugia for the zoobenthos of a sand-bed river: the role of physical-habitat complexity  

E-print Network

by hydrologic fluctuations. We worked on and around sandbars in the Kansas River (Kaw), a multithread, sand, Chironomidae, community structure, disturbance, flow pulses, Kansas River, midges. Hydrologic cycles haveFlow refugia for the zoobenthos of a sand-bed river: the role of physical-habitat complexity Brian

Thorp, James H.

42

An investigation of the gaseous character of the atmosphere at the high energy laser test facility HELSTF at the White Sands Missile range (WSMR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the first phase of an investigation to determine the gaseous character of the atmosphere at several sites on the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) are reported. The object of the study is to attain an understanding of gaseous molecular content at WSMR as it will affect high energy laser (HEL) performance in tests planned for the near

W. Flowers; L. Chaney; R. Meredith; D. Woods

1978-01-01

43

The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207801

Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

2011-01-01

44

The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini)  

PubMed Central

Abstract In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenaria sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207800

Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

2011-01-01

45

Session D--Ecology of Fire on White Sands Missile Range--Boykin USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-189 2008. 131  

E-print Network

aspects and the gaps in knowledge for White Sands Missile Range. I analyzed existing data available-desert grasslands and shrublands have evolved with fires caused by lightning strikes (Pyne 1982, Betancourt and others 1990). Fires have maintained grasslands by reducing invading shrubs (Valentine 1971). The impact

Standiford, Richard B.

46

Quantifying wind blown landscapes using time-series airborne LiDAR at White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind blown landscapes are a default geomorphic and sedimentary environment in our solar system. Wind sand dunes are ubiquitous features on the surfaces of Earth, Mars and Titan and prevalent within the aeolian rock records of Earth and Mars. Dunes are sensitive to environmental and climatic changes and a complete understanding of this system promises a unique, robust and quantitative record of paleoclimate extending to the early histories of these worlds. However, our understanding of how aeolian dune landscapes evolve and how the details of the wind are recorded in cross-strata is limited by our lack of understanding of three-dimensional dune morphodynamics related to changing boundary conditions such as wind direction and magnitude and sediment source area. We use airborne LiDAR datasets over 40 km2 of White Sands Dune Field collected from June 2007, June 2008, January 2009, September 2009 and June 2010 to quantify 1) three-dimensional dune geometries, 2) annual and seasonal patterns of erosion and deposition across dune topography, 3) spatial changes in sediment flux related to position within the field, 4) spatial changes in sediment flux across sinuous crestlines and 5) morphologic changes through dune-dune interactions. In addition to measurements, we use the LiDAR data along with wind data from two near-by weather stations to develop a simple model that predicts depositional and stratigraphic patterns on dune lee slopes. Several challenges emerged using time series LiDAR data sets at White Sands Dune Field. The topography upon which the dunes sit is variable and rises by 16 meters over the length of the dune field. In order to compare individual dune geometries across the field and between data sets a base surface was interpolated from local minima and subtracted from the dune topography. Co-registration and error calculation between datasets was done manually using permanent vegetated features within the active dune field and structures built by the national monument as control points. Rapid dune migration rates, particularly at the upwind margin of the field ~6m/yr, result in significant decorrelation between data sets over longer time ranges, which limits the effectiveness of comparing these data sets.

Ewing, R. C.

2011-12-01

47

CYP1A induction and blue sac disease in early life stages of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to oil sands.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of natural oil sands on the early developmental stages of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and to determine whether biochemical responses in this species were similar to native fish caught in the Athabasca Oil Sands area. Early life stage (ELS) sediment toxicity tests were conducted using controls, reference sediments, natural oil sands, and industrially contaminated (wastewater pond) sediments collected from sites along the Athabasca River, Alberta (Canada). Eggs and larvae were observed for mortality, hatching, deformities, growth, and cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) activity using immunohistochemistry. E-Nat-, S-Nat-, and wastewater pond sediment-exposed groups showed significant premature hatching, reduced growth, and exposure-dependent increases in ELS mortality and larval malformations relative to controls. The most common larval deformities included edemas (pericardial, yolk sac, and subepidermal), hemorrhages, and spinal defects. Juveniles exposed to oil sands and wastewater pond sediments (96 h) demonstrated significantly increased 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity (30- to 50-fold) as compared to controls. Reference sediment-exposed groups and water controls demonstrated reliable embryo and larval survival, minimal malformations, and negligible CYP1A staining. These observed signs of blue sac disease (ELS mortality, malformations, growth reductions, CYP1A activity induction) may produce deleterious reproductive effects in natural fish populations exposed to oil sands mixtures. PMID:16728374

Colavecchia, Maria V; Hodson, Peter V; Parrott, Joanne L

2006-05-01

48

Compilation of hydrologic data for White Sands pupfish habitat and nonhabitat areas, northern Tularosa Basin, White Sands Missile Range and Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1911-2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa), listed as threatened by the State of New Mexico and as a Federal species of concern, is endemic to the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Because water quality can affect pupfish and the environmental conditions of their habitat, a comprehensive compilation of hydrologic data for pupfish habitat and nonhabitat areas in the northern Tularosa Basin was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with White Sands Missile Range. The four locations within the Tularosa Basin that are known pupfish habitat areas are the Salt Creek, Malpais Spring and Malpais Salt Marsh, Main Mound Spring, and Lost River habitat areas. Streamflow data from the Salt Creek near Tularosa streamflow-gaging station indicated that the average annual mean streamflow and average annual total streamflow for water years 1995–2008 were 1.35 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) and 983 acre-feet, respectively. Periods of no flow were observed in water years 2002 through 2006. Dissolved-solids concentrations in Salt Creek samples collected from 1911 through 2007 ranged from 2,290 to 66,700 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The average annual mean streamflow and average annual total streamflow at the Malpais Spring near Oscura streamflow-gaging station for water years 2003–8 were 6.81 ft3/s and 584 acre-feet, respectively. Dissolved-solids concentrations for 16 Malpais Spring samples ranged from 3,882 to 5,500 mg/L. Isotopic data for a Malpais Spring near Oscura water sample collected in 1982 indicated that the water was more than 27,900 years old. Streamflow from Main Mound Spring was estimated at 0.007 ft3/s in 1955 and 1957 and ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 ft3/s from 1996 to 2001. Dissolved-solids concentrations in samples collected between 1955 and 2007 ranged from an estimated 3,760 to 4,240 mg/L in the upper pond and 4,840 to 5,120 mg/L in the lower pond. Isotopic data for a Main Mound Spring water sample collected in 1982 indicated that the water was about 19,600 years old. Dissolved-solids concentrations of Lost River samples collected from 1984 to 1999 ranged from 8,930 to 118,000 (estimated) mg/L. Dissolved-solids concentrations in samples from nonhabitat area sites ranged from 1,740 to 54,200 (estimated) mg/L. In general, water collected from pupfish nonhabitat area sites tends to have larger proportions of calcium, magnesium, and sulfate than water from pupfish habitat area sites. Water from springs associated with mounds in pupfish nonhabitat areas was of a similar type (calcium-sulfate) to water associated with mounds in pupfish habitat areas. Alkali Spring had a sodium-chloride water type, but the proportions of sodium-chloride and magnesium-sulfate are unique as compared to samples from other sites.

Naus, C.A.; Myers, R.G.; Saleh, D.K.; Myers, N.C.

2014-01-01

49

Microbial Nitrogen and Sulfur Cycles at the Playa and Playa-lake Deposits of White Sands National Monument, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deflationary basin, Alkali Flat, of White Sands National Monument holds active playas and a playa lake, which allows for an excellent comparison of these different (hyper)saline habitats. Playa lakes are commonly studied as extreme hypersaline environments, however from our data, less studied playa sediments and coarse selenite crystals showed to be more biologically challenging environments. The Flat contains dome structures composed of coarse selenites, an alternative newly discovered microbial habitat. A comparison of environmental physicochemical conditions and molecular biology was used to determine the characteristics of microbial habitats and communities and to decipher nodes of nitrogen and sulfur cycles. On Mars, the presence of sulfate rich playa deposits has been suggested for the deposits discovered by the Opportunity rover at Meridiani Planum. Recently, it has been suggested that the playa settings extended to a larger, Arabia Terra, zone of groundwater upwelling. The study of terrestrial analogue site with playa settings, such as Alkali Flat from New Mexico, provides an analogue system to explore and characterize the proposed habitable zones and their potential biosignatures. At White Sands, playa lake deposits held up to 55wt.% of water within the surface mirabilite crust, bottom layers composed of sulfates, clay, halite, and carbonates had less water. The lake deposits hold the only setting with reducing chemistry that was detected in the layers beneath the crust (with 3.42:1 ammonium (NH4) over nitric oxides (NO)). Playa sediments were 10 times drier than the playa lake deposits and had patchy surface crust of halite and gypsum. Selenite crystals were the driest among studied habitats (0.16wt.% H2O). Playa sediments and selenites contained 9.49 and 3.9 times more NO than NH4, suggesting importance of nitrification processes in these settings. Nitrogen fixation genes were detected only in playa lake deposits. A variety of ammonium oxidation genes (?-, ?-proteobacteria, archaea) were detected in all of the samples, which supports the nitrification hypothesis suggested by nitrogen analyses. Denitrification genes, including anammox bacteria, were detected in all of the settings, showing that microbial organisms from the analyzed habitats do have abilities to complete the nitrogen metabolic circuit. A variety of sulfur bearing minerals provides nutrient compounds necessary for microbial life. Genetic assaying identified the presence of sulfate reducing microbes in all of the samples, as well as anoxyphototrophs and organisms with the APS reductase. The detected organisms have the ability to reduce sulfate and utilize reduced sulfur compounds and to oxidize them back to sulfate. Detected variety of carbonate precipitates associated with biofilms confirms the presence of sulfate reducing microbes in playa lake deposits and selenites. However, absence of carbonates and the presence of Fe and K chlorites at the playa sediments suggest likely stunted microbial sulfate reduction. Indicating microbial response to multiple environmental stress (drought and high salinity) and possible limiting conditions for, at least, microbial sulfate reduction reached in playa surface habitats.

Glamoclija, M.; Fogel, M. L.; Steele, A.

2011-12-01

50

GROWTH AND COMPLEXITY OF WHITE CLOVER STOLONS IN RESPONSE TO BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC STRESS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White clover (Trifolium repens L.) persists in mixed-species swards mainly by clonal growth of stolons. Morphologically complex (i.e., highly branched stolons) plants of white clover generally persist longer. We hypothesized that biotic and abiotic stresses limit white clover production on grazing l...

51

Sand Transport by Wind on Complex Rough Surfaces: Field Studies in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the physics of the movement of sand-sized particles by wind has been extensively studied, significant uncertainties remain in our understanding of the effects of surface roughness on aeolian transport processes. Accounting for the effects of non-erodible, isolated roughness elements on sediment transport by wind is necessary for the development of models that realistically predict rates of transport for complex

N. Lancaster; W. G. Nickling; J. A. Gillies; K. Cupp

2004-01-01

52

Ecological Responses to Hydrogeomorphic Fluctuations in a Sand Bed Prairie River: River Complexity, Habitat Availability, and Benthic Invertebrates  

E-print Network

Ecological Responses to Hydrogeomorphic Fluctuations in a Sand Bed Prairie River: River Complexity, Habitat Availability, and Benthic Invertebrates By Brian J. O’Neill Submitted to the graduate degree program in Ecology and Evolutionary..., Habitat Availability, and Benthic Invertebrates Committee: _____________________________ Chairperson Date Approved_____________________ 3 Abstract Rivers...

O'Neill, Brian James

2010-04-02

53

Analysis of the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Test System for Friction-Ignition of Metallic Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Friction is a known ignition source for metals in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. The test system developed by the NASA White Sands Test Facility in response to ASTM G-94 has been used successfully to determine the relative ignition from friction of numerous metallic materials and metallic materials pairs. These results have been ranked in terms of a pressure-velocity product (PV) as measured under the prescribed test conditions. A high value of 4.1(exp 8) watts per square meter for Inconel MA 754 is used to imply resistance to friction ignition, whereas a low value of 1.04(exp 8) watts per square meter for stainless steel 304 is taken as indicating material susceptible to friction ignition. No attempt has been made to relate PV values to other material properties. This work reports the analysis of the WSTF friction-ignition test system for producing fundamental properties of metallic materials relating to ignition through friction. Three materials, aluminum, titanium, and nickel were tested in the WSTF frictional ignition instrument system under atmospheres of oxygen or nitrogen. Test conditions were modified to reach a steady state of operation, that is applied, the force was reduced and the rotational speed was reduced. Additional temperature measurements were made on the stator sample. The aluminum immediately galled on contact (reproducible) and the test was stopped. Titanium immediately ignited as a result of non-uniform contact of the stator and rotor. This was reproducible. A portion of the stator sampled burned, but the test continued. Temperature measurements on the stator were used to validate the mathematical model used for estimating the interface (stator/rotor) temperature. These interface temperature measurements and the associate thermal flux into the stator were used to distinguish material-phase transitions, chemical reaction, and mechanical work. The mechanical work was used to analyze surface asperities in the materials and to estimate a coefficient of fiction. The coefficient of fiction was analyzed in terms of material properties that is, hardness, Young's modulus and elasticity/plasticity of the material.

Shoffstall, Michael S.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

2000-01-01

54

Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Emissions From the Alberta Oil Sands Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alberta oil sands contain a vast reservoir of fossil hydrocarbons. The extremely viscous bitumen requires significant energy to extract and upgrade to make a fluid product suitable for pipelines and further refinement. The mining and upgrading process constitute a large industrial complex in an otherwise sparsely populated area of Canada. During the ARCTAS project in June/July 2008, while studying forest fire plumes, the NASA DC-8 and P-3B flew through the plume a total of 5 times. Once was a coordinated visit by both aircraft; the other 3 were fortuitous passes downwind. One study has been published about gas emissions from the complex. Here we concentrate on aerosol emissions and aging. As previously reported, there appear to be at least 2 types of plumes produced. One is an industrial-type plume with vast numbers of ultrafine particles, SO2, sulfate, black carbon (BC), CO, and NO2. The other, probably from the mining, has more organic aerosol and BC together with dust-like aerosols at 3 ?m and a 1 ?m mode of unknown origin. The DC-8 crossed the plume about 10 km downwind of the industrial site, giving time for the boundary layer to mix and enabling a very crude flux calculation suggesting that sulfate and organic aerosols were each produced at about 500 g/s (estimated errors are a factor of 2, chiefly due to concerns about vertical mixing). Since this was a single flight during a project dedicated to other purposes and operating conditions and weather may change fluxes considerably, this may not be a typical flux. As the plume progresses downwind, the ultrafine particles grow to sizes effective as cloud condensation nucei (CCN), SO2 is converted to sulfate, and organic aerosol is produced. During fair weather in the summer, as was the case during these flights, cloud convection pumps aerosol above the mixed layer. While the aerosol plume is difficult to detect from space, NO2 is measured by the OMI instrument an the Aura satellite and the oil sands plume often exceeds the detection limit. There is a rough correlation between NO2 and aerosol, so it may be possible to indirectly monitor aerosol production.

Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; McNaughton, C. S.; Freitag, S.

2012-12-01

55

XRD and mineralogical analysis of gypsum dunes at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico and applications to gypsum detection on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field portable X-ray Diffraction (XRD) instrument was used at White Sands National Monument to perform in-situ measurements followed by laboratory analyses of the gypsum-rich dunes and to determine its modal mineralogy. The field instrument is a Terra XRD (Olympus NDT) based on the technology of the CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity which is providing the mineralogical and chemical composition of scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected at Gale Crater [1]. Using Terra at White Sands will contribute to 'ground truth' for gypsum-bearing environments on Mars. Together with data provided by VNIR spectra [2], this study clarifies our understanding of the origin and history of gypsum-rich sand dunes discovered near the northern polar region of Mars [3]. The results obtained from the field analyses performed by XRD and VNIR spectroscopy in four dunes at White Sands revealed the presence of quartz and dolomite. Their relative abundance has been estimated using the Reference Intensity Ratio (RIR) method. For this study, particulate samples of pure natural gypsum, quartz and dolomite were used to prepare calibration mixtures of gypsum-quartz and gypsum-dolomite with the 90-150?m size fractions. All single phases and mixtures were analyzed by XRD and RIR factors were calculated. Using this method, the relative abundance of quartz and dolomite has been estimated from the data collected in the field. Quartz appears to be present in low amounts (2-5 wt.%) while dolomite is present at percentages up to 80 wt.%. Samples from four dunes were collected and prepared for subsequent XRD analysis in the lab to estimate their composition and illustrate the changes in mineralogy with respect to location and grain size. Gypsum-dolomite mixtures: The dolomite XRD pattern is dominated by an intense diffraction peak at 2??36 deg. which overlaps a peak of gypsum, This makes low concentrations of dolomite difficult to quantify in mixtures with high concentration of gypsum. Dolomite has been detected in some locations at dune 3 as high as 80 wt.%. Gypsum-quartz mixtures: The intensity of the main diffraction peak of quartz at 2??31 deg. decreases progressively with the decrease of the amount of quartz in the mixtures. Samples from dune 1 and 2 show quartz abundance at 5.6 and 2.6 wt.% respectively . [1] Blake et al. Space Sci. Rev. (2012). doi:10.1007/s11214-012-9905-1. [2] King et al. (2013) AGU, submitted. [3] Langevin et al. (2005). Science 307, 1584-1586.

Lafuente, B.; Bishop, J. L.; Fenton, L. K.; King, S. J.; Blake, D.; Sarrazin, P.; Downs, R.; Horgan, B. H.

2013-12-01

56

Radiological survey and evaluation of the fallout area from the Trinity test: Chupadera Mesa and White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Current radiological conditions were evaluated for the site of the first nuclear weapons test, the Trinity test, and the associated fallout zone. The test, located on White Sands Missile Range, was conducted as part of the research with nuclear materials for the World War II Manhattan Engineer District atomic bomb project. Some residual radioactivity attributable to the test was found in the soils of Ground Zero on White Sands Missile Range and the areas that received fallout from the test. The study considered relevant information including historical records, environmental data extending back to the 1940s, and new data acquired by field sampling and measurements. Potential exposures to radiation were evaluated for current land uses. Maximum estimated doses on Chupadera Mesa and other uncontrolled areas are less than 3% of the DOE Radiation Protection Standards (RPSs). Radiation exposures during visits to the US Army-controlled Ground Zero area are less than 1 mrem per annual visit or less than 0.2% of the RPS for a member of the public. Detailed data and interpretations are provided in appendixes. 14 figs., 45 tabs.

Hansen, W.R.; Rodgers, J.C.

1985-06-01

57

White-light-emitting Eu(III)-bi-doped macromolecular complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have synthesized heterometallic complexes based on a copolymer of acrylic acid with butyl methacrylate (BMAC) with a composition [Eu x Bi(1 - x)-BMAC]. These complexes have several emission bands in the visible range. At room temperature, in complexes with a content of Eu(III) of 30-40%, intense white luminescence appears.

Mirochnik, A. G.; Petrochenkova, N. V.; Zhikhareva, P. A.

2014-03-01

58

Sexual Dimorphism in the Sceloporus undulatus Species Complex  

E-print Network

, S. cowlesi, S. tristichus) of the S. undulatus complex. Sexual confusion, was recently described in a population of the Sceloporus undulatus complex occurring in White Sands, New Mexico and the behavior is correlated with variation in badge size...

Dittmer, Drew

2012-10-19

59

Test wells T23, T29, and T30, White Sands Missile Range and Fort Bliss Military Reservation, Dona Ana County, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three test wells, T23, T29, and T30, were drilled in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Army in November 1982. Test well T23 was drilled as an exploratory and monitoring well in the proposed Soledad well field at the Fort Bliss Military Reservation. Test wells T29 and T30 were drilled at White Sands Missile Range. Test well T29 was drilled as an observation well in the vicinity of the outfall channel from the sewage treatment plant. Test well T30 was drilled as an observation well for a landfill south of the well site. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs for all wells and borehole-geophysical logs from the cased wells for test wells T29 and T30. (USGS)

Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

1984-01-01

60

Results of calibrations of the NOAA-11 AVHRR made by reference to calibrated SPOT imagery at White Sands, N.M  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calibration method reported here makes use of the reflectances of several large, uniform areas determined from calibrated and atmospherically corrected SPOT Haute Resolution Visible (HRV) scenes of White Sands, New Mexico. These reflectances were used to predict the radiances in the first two channels of the NOAA-11 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The digital counts in the AVHRR image corresponding to these known reflectance areas were determined by the use of two image registration techniques. The plots of digital counts versus pixel radiance provided the calibration gains and offsets for the AVHRR. A reduction in the gains of 4 and 13 percent in channels 1 and 2 respectively was found during the period 1988-11-19 to 1990-6-21. An error budget is presented for the method and is extended to the case of cross-calibrating sensors on the same orbital platform in the Earth Observing System (EOS) era.

Nianzeng, Che; Grant, Barbara G.; Flittner, David E.; Slater, Philip N.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. S.

1991-01-01

61

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1-Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Signaling Determines Brown-to-White Adipocyte Phenotypic Switch.  

PubMed

Interconversion of white and brown adipocytes occurs between anabolic and catabolic states. The molecular mechanism regulating this phenotypic switch remains largely unknown. This study explores the role of tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1)-mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the conversion of brown to white adipose tissue (WAT). A colony of Fabp4-Tsc1(-/-) mice, in which the Tsc1 gene was specifically deleted by the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4)-Cre, was established. Western blotting and immunostaining demonstrated the absence of TSC1 and activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, the downstream target of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, in the brown adipose tissues (BATs) of Fabp4-Tsc1(-/-) mice. Accumulation of lipid droplets in BAT was significantly increased. Levels of brown adipocyte markers were markedly downregulated, while white adipocyte markers were upregulated. Rapamycin reversed the conversion from BAT to WAT in Fabp4-Tsc1(-/-) mice. Deletion of the Tsc1 gene in cultured brown preadipocytes significantly increased the conversion to white adipocytes. FoxC2 mRNA, the transcriptional factor for brown adipocyte determination, was significantly decreased, while mRNAs for retinoblastoma protein, p107 and RIP140, the transcriptional factors for white adipocyte determination, increased in the BAT of Fabp4-Tsc1(-/-) mice. Our study demonstrates that TSC1-mTORC1 signaling contributes to the brown-to-white adipocyte phenotypic switch. PMID:25213336

Xiang, Xinxin; Lan, He; Tang, Hong; Yuan, Fang; Xu, Yanhui; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

2015-02-01

62

Diffusion tensor imaging in studying white matter complexity: A gap junction hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The role of the prefrontal cortex as an executive oversight of posterior brain regions raises the question of the extent to which the anterior regions of the brain interconnect with the posterior regions. The aim of this study is to test the complexity of rostral white matter tracts, which connect anterior and posterior brain regions, in comparison to caudal white matter tracts and the corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a modality that measures fractional anisotropy (FA). Higher white matter complexity could result in a decrease of FA, possibly through denser intersection of fiber tracts. DTI was used to determine regional FA in 9 healthy bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Four regions of interest were included: anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, the occipital lobe white matter, and the corpus callosum. FA of the anterior limbs of the internal capsule was lowest compared to all other regions of interest (Newman-Keuls (N-K); p < 0.0001), whereas FA of the corpus callosum was highest (N-K; p < 0.0001). The posterior limbs of the internal capsule and the occipital white matter were not distinguishable but exhibited intermediate FA in comparison to the former (N-K; p < 0.0001) and the latter (N-K; p < 0.0001). The current study demonstrates that FA, a measure of white matter complexity, can vary markedly as a function of region of interest. Moreover, validation of these findings using neurohistological studies and replication in human samples appears warranted. PMID:20371267

Abdallah, Chadi G.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Martinez, Jose; Hof, Patrick R.; Perera, Tarique D.; Shungu, Dikoma C.; Gorman, Jack M.; Coplan, Jeremy D.

2010-01-01

63

Issues of Indigenous Representation: White Advocacy and the Complexities of Ethical Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the tensions and complexities for two principals as they work towards equity and improved social and educational outcomes for their Indigenous students. Drawing on Foucault's fourfold ethical frame and poststructuralist notions of the subject, this paper presents the different ways the white female principals of Indigenous…

Niesche, Richard; Keddie, Amanda

2014-01-01

64

Occult White Matter Damage Contributes to Intellectual Disability in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) have brain normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) damage and whether such damage contributes to their intellectual disability were examined in 15 TSC patients and 15 gender- and age-matched healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Histogram and region of interest (ROI) analyses of…

Yu, Chunshui; Lin, Fuchun; Zhao, Li; Ye, Jing; Qin, Wen

2009-01-01

65

Drilling, construction, and testing of water-supply wells 21 and 22, White Sands Missle Range, Dona Ana County, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the spring and summer of 1976, two municipal-supply wells (designated as well 21 and well 22 - 2,000 feet apart) were drilled at the Post Headquarters area of White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. The design specifications for both wells called for 24-inch diameter surface casing cemented in place to a depth of about 430 feet, with 16-inch liner and slotted casing from the surface to a depth of about 700 feet. Each well was pumped continuously for 32 hours in a step-drawdown test. This test consisted of four steps, with discharge rates varying from about 500 to 1,150 gallons per minute. The drawdown test for well 21 gave an estimated transmissivity of 17,300 gallons per day per foot, and a final specific capacity of slightly less than 11 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. The step-drawdown test and later drawdown and recovery test on well 22 gave an average transmissivity of 32,600 gallons per day per foot, and a final specific capacity of about 15 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. The data collected indicated that the aquifer in the vicinity of well 22 is more permeable than the aquifer around well 21. Both wells furnish a satisfactory quantity of excellent-quality water. The dissolved-solids content of water from wells 21 and 22 is 232 and 301 mg/liter respectively. (Woodard-USGS)

Wilson, Clyde A.; White, R.R.; Roybal, R.G.; Gonzales, J.L.

1978-01-01

66

SAND REPORT SAND2002xxxx  

E-print Network

SAND REPORT SAND2002­xxxx Unlimited Release August 2002 Discrete Optimization Models for Protein://www.ntis.gov/ordering.htm DEPARTMENTOF ENERGY . . UNITED STATES OF AMERICA #12; SAND2002-xxxx Unlimited Release Printed August 2002

Newman, Alantha

67

Probabilistic characterization of nonlinear systems under ?-stable white noise via complex fractional moments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The probability density function of the response of a nonlinear system under external ?-stable Lévy white noise is ruled by the so called Fractional Fokker-Planck equation. In such equation the diffusive term is the Riesz fractional derivative of the probability density function of the response. The paper deals with the solution of such equation by using the complex fractional moments. The analysis is performed in terms of probability density for a linear and a non-linear half oscillator forced by Lévy white noise with different stability indexes ?. Numerical results are reported for a wide range of non-linearity of the mechanical system and stability index of the Lévy white noise.

Alotta, G.; Di Paola, M.

2015-02-01

68

Mystery Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play with surprising sand that doesn’t get wet! Learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "magic sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "magic sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

2012-06-08

69

2005 annual progress report: elk and bison grazing ecology in the Great Sand Dunes complex of lands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction: In 2000 the U.S. Congress authorized the expansion of the former Great Sand Dunes National Monument by establishing a new Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve in its place, and establishing the Baca National Wildlife Refuge. The establishment of Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and the new Baca National Wildlife Refuge in the San Luis Valley (SLV), Colorado was one of the most significant land conservation actions in the western U.S. in recent years. The action was a result of cooperation between the National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Bureau of Land Management (BLM), U.S. Forest Service (USDA-FS), and The Nature Conservancy (TNC). The new national park, when fully implemented, will consist of 107,265 acres, the new national preserve 41,872 acres, and the new national wildlife refuge (USFWS lands) 92,180 acres (fig. 1). The area encompassed by this designation protects a number of natural wonders and features including a unique ecosystem of natural sand dunes, the entire watershed of surface and groundwaters that are necessary to preserve and recharge the dunes and adjacent wetlands, a unique stunted forest, and other valuable riparian vegetation communities that support a host of associated wildlife and bird species. When the National Park was initially established, there were concerns about over-concentrations and impacts on native plant communities of the unhunted segments of a large and possibly growing elk (Cervus elaphus) population. This led to the designation of the Preserve as a compromise solution, where the elk could be harvested. The Preserve Unit, however, will not address all the ungulate management challenges. In order to reduce the current elk population, harvests of elk may need to be aggressive. But aggressive special hunts of elk to achieve population reductions can result in elk avoidance of certain areas or elk seeking refuge in areas where they cannot be hunted, while removals of whole herd segments and abandonment or alterations of migration routes can occur (Smith and Robbins, 1994; Boyce and others, 1991). Elk may seek refuge from hunting in the newly expanded Park Unit and TNC lands where they might over-concentrate and impact unique vegetation communities. In these sites of refugia, or preferred loafing sites, elk and bison could accelerate a decline in woody riparian shrubs and trees. This decline may also be due to changes in hydrology, climatic, or dunal processes, but ungulate herbivory might exacerbate the effects of those processes. To address the questions and needs of local resource managers, a multi-agency research project was initiated in 2005 to study the ecology, forage relations, and habitat relations of elk and bison in the Great Sand Dunes-Sangre de Cristo-Baca complex of lands. Meetings and discussions of what this research should include were started in 2001 with representatives from NPS, USFWS, TNC, the Colorado Division of Wildlife (CDOW), and USDA-FS/BLM. The final study plan was successfully funded in 2004 with research scheduled to start in 2005. The research was designed to encompass three major study elements: (1) animal movements and population dynamics, (2) vegetation and nutrient effects from ungulate herbivory, and (3) development of ecological models, using empirical data collected from the first two components, that will include estimates of elk carrying capacity and management scenarios for resource managers.

Schoenecker, Kate A.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Mao, Julie

2006-01-01

70

Subduction Complex Provenance redefined: modern sands from the Indo-Burman-Andaman-Nicobar Ridge and Barbados Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subduction complexes large enough to be exposed subaerially and to become significant sources of terrigenous detritus are formed by tectonic accretion above trenches choked with thick sections of remnant-ocean turbidites. They thus need to be connected along strike to a large Alpine-type or Andean-type orogen, where huge volumes of orogenic detritus are produced and conveyed via a major fluvio-deltaic system to the deep sea (Ingersoll et al., 2003). We investigated sediment generation and recycling in the Indo-Burman-Andaman-Nicobar subduction complex, representing the archetype of such settings in the eastern prolongation of the Himalayan collisional system. "Subduction Complex Provenance" is composite, and chiefly consists of detritus recycled from largely turbiditic parent rocks (Recycled Clastic Provenance), with local supply from ultramafic and mafic rocks of forearc lithosphere (Ophiolite Provenance) or recycled paleovolcanic to neovolcanic sources (Volcanic Arc Provenance; Garzanti et al., 2007). In order to specifically investigate the effect of recycling, we characterized the diverse detrital signatures of Cenozoic sandstones deposited during subsequent stages of "soft" and "hard" Himalayan collision and exposed from Bangladesh to the Andaman Islands, and discuss the reasons for compositional discrepancies between parent sandstones and their recycled daughter sands. A companion study was carried out with the same methodologies, rationale and goals on Barbados Island, one of the few other places where a large accretionary prism is subaerially exposed. Also modern Barbados sands are largely multicyclic, reflecting mixing in various proportions of detritus from the basal Scotland Formation (sandstones and mudrocks), their stratigraphic and tectonic cover, the Oceanic Formation (quartzose turbidites and deep-water biogenic oozes including radiolarite), and from the Pleistocene calcarenite and reefal cap, as well as from volcanic layers ultimately derived from the Lesser Antilles. Mixing of detritus recycled from orogen-derived turbidites transported long distance with detritus from oceanic mèlange, pelagic sediments and younger calcareous cap rocks and in addition volcaniclastic products thus redefines the diagnostic mark of Subduction Complex Provenance as quite distinct from the original definition by Dickinson and Suczek (1979). REFERENCES Dickinson, W.R., and Suczek, C.A., 1979, Plate tectonics and sandstone composition: American Association Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 63, 2164-2172. Garzanti, E., Doglioni, C., Vezzoli, G., and Andò, S., 2007, Orogenic belts and orogenic sediment provenances: Journal of Geology, 115, 315-334. Ingersoll, R.V., Dickinson, W.R., and Graham, S.A., 2003, Remnant-ocean submarine fans: largest sedimentary systems on Earth, [in] Chan, M.A., and Archer, A.W., eds., Extreme Depositional Environments: Mega End Members in Geologic Time: Geological Society of America, Special Paper 370, 191-208.

Limonta, Mara; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Bandopadhyay, Pinaki C.; Najman, Yani; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo; Garzanti, Eduardo

2013-04-01

71

Plague in a complex of white-tailed prairie dogs and associated small mammals in Wyoming.  

PubMed

Fleas were collected from white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) and other small mammals trapped on six grids during a field study near Meeteetse (Wyoming, USA) in 1989 and 1990 to investigate the dynamics of plague in this rodent population. Fleas were identified and tested for Yersinia pestis by mouse inoculation. Yersinia pestis-positive fleas were found on prairie dogs and in their burrows. Flea species on prairie dogs changed from spring to late summer. White-tailed prairie dog numbers were significantly lower in the presence of Y. pestis-positive fleas; however, affected populations generally recovered 1 to 2 yr following absence of detectable plague. Grids where recovery occurred had a high proportion of juvenile male prairie dogs. Eighteen flea species were identified on small mammals, six of which were infected with Y. pestis. Some flea species were associated with a particular small mammal species, while others were found on a broad range of host species. Flea species most important in the potential interchange of Y. pestis between associated small mammals and white-tailed prairie dogs were Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris, Oropsylla idahoensis, and Oropsylla labis. Plague cycled through the white-tailed prairie dog complex in an unpredictable manner. Each summer the complex was a mixture of colonies variously impacted by plague: some were declining, some were unaffected by plague, and others were recovering from plague population declines. These data provide insight into the dynamics of plague in white-tailed prairie dog complexes, but predicting movement of plague is not yet possible and the role of associated mammals in maintenance of plague is not understood. PMID:9391955

Anderson, S H; Williams, E S

1997-10-01

72

Infrared Camera Characterization of Bi-Propellant Reaction Control Engines during Auxiliary Propulsion Systems Tests at NASA's White Sands Test Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of a FUR Systems A40M infrared (IR) digital camera for thermal monitoring of a Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Ethanol bi-propellant Reaction Control Engine (RCE) during Auxiliary Propulsion System (APS) testing at the National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Typically, NASA has relied mostly on the use of ThermoCouples (TC) for this type of thermal monitoring due to the variability of constraints required to accurately map rapidly changing temperatures from ambient to glowing hot chamber material. Obtaining accurate real-time temperatures in the JR spectrum is made even more elusive by the changing emissivity of the chamber material as it begins to glow. The parameters evaluated prior to APS testing included: (1) remote operation of the A40M camera using fiber optic Firewire signal sender and receiver units; (2) operation of the camera inside a Pelco explosion proof enclosure with a germanium window; (3) remote analog signal display for real-time monitoring; (4) remote digital data acquisition of the A40M's sensor information using FUR's ThermaCAM Researcher Pro 2.8 software; and (5) overall reliability of the system. An initial characterization report was prepared after the A40M characterization tests at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to document controlled heat source comparisons to calibrated TCs. Summary IR digital data recorded from WSTF's APS testing is included within this document along with findings, lessons learned, and recommendations for further usage as a monitoring tool for the development of rocket engines.

Holleman, Elizabeth; Sharp, David; Sheller, Richard; Styron, Jason

2007-01-01

73

Effect of organic complexing agents on the interactions of Cs(+), Sr(2+) and UO(2)(2+) with silica and natural sand.  

PubMed

Sorption processes play a key role in controlling radionuclide migration through subsurface environments and can be affected by the presence of anthropogenic organic complexing agents found at contaminated sites. The effect of these complexing agents on radionuclide-solid phase interactions is not well known. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine the processes by which EDTA, NTA and picolinate affect the sorption kinetics and equilibria of Cs(+), Sr(2+) and UO2(2+) onto natural sand. The caesium sorption rate and equilibrium were unaffected by the complexing agents. Strontium however showed greater interaction with EDTA and NTA in the presence of desorbed matrix cations than geochemical modelling predicted, with SrNTA(-) enhancing sorption and SrEDTA(2-) showing lower sorption than Sr(2+). Complexing agents reduced UO2(2+) sorption to silica and enhanced the sorption rate in the natural sand system. Elevated concentrations of picolinate reduced the sorption of Sr(2+) and increased the sorption rate of UO2(2+), demonstrating the potential importance of this complexing agent. These experiments provide a direct comparison of the sorption behaviour of Cs(+), Sr(2+) and UO2(2+)onto natural sand and an assessment of the relative effects of EDTA, NTA and picolinate on the selected elements. PMID:23473428

Reinoso-Maset, Estela; Worsfold, Paul J; Keith-Roach, Miranda J

2013-05-01

74

Sand Storage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sand storage silo at Steamtown National Historic Site. Sand was stored in a dome on top of the engine and, as the train traveled the tracks, the sand would be sprinkled down pipes to land on the tracks in front of the wheels. This would aid the wheels in gripping the tracks, especially when the ra...

75

Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Test Results of the RS-18 Lunar Ascent Engine at Simulated Altitude Conditions at NASA White Sands Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted with the RS-18 rocket engine using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4) propellants under simulated altitude conditions at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). This project is part of NASA's Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) project. "Green" propellants, such as LO2/LCH4, offer savings in both performance and safety over equivalently sized hypergolic propulsion systems in spacecraft applications such as ascent engines or service module engines. Altitude simulation was achieved using the WSTF Large Altitude Simulation System, which provided altitude conditions equivalent up to 122,000 ft (37 km). For specific impulse calculations, engine thrust and propellant mass flow rates were measured. LO2 flow ranged from 5.9 - 9.5 lbm/sec (2.7 - 4.3 kg/sec), and LCH4 flow varied from 3.0 - 4.4 lbm/sec (1.4 - 2.0 kg/sec) during the RS-18 hot-fire test series. Propellant flow rate was measured using a coriolis mass-flow meter and compared with a serial turbine-style flow meter. Results showed a significant performance measurement difference during ignition startup due to two-phase flow effects. Subsequent cold-flow testing demonstrated that the propellant manifolds must be adequately flushed in order for the coriolis flow meters to give accurate data. The coriolis flow meters were later shown to provide accurate steady-state data, but the turbine flow meter data should be used in transient phases of operation. Thrust was measured using three load cells in parallel, which also provides the capability to calculate thrust vector alignment. Ignition was demonstrated using a gaseous oxygen/methane spark torch igniter. Test objectives for the RS-18 project are 1) conduct a shakedown of the test stand for LO2/methane lunar ascent engines, 2) obtain vacuum ignition data for the torch and pyrotechnic igniters, and 3) obtain nozzle kinetics data to anchor two-dimensional kinetics codes. All of these objectives were met with the RS-18 data and additional testing data from subsequent LO2/methane test programs in 2009 which included the first simulated-altitude pyrotechnic ignition demonstration of LO2/methane.

Melcher, John C., IV; Allred, Jennifer K.

2009-01-01

76

Measurements of the complex dielectric constant of sand and dust particles at 11 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements are reported of the refractive index (Delta-n) and loss tangent (tan delta) of dust particles in a laboratory-simulated model of dust storms, carried out at 11 GHz utilizing a confocal microwave open-cavity resonator. Four samples were used namely, sandy, silty, clayey silt, and clayey, for concentrations varying from 10-4 to 4 x 10-3 g/cu cm. The particle-size distribution (PSD) of each sample was measured by seiving along with the hydrometer technique. Dielectric-constant measurements were also conducted at bulk concentrations using the standing-wave technique for the dry samples and as a function of volumetric moisture content for up to 0.5 cu cm/cu cm. The complex dielectric constant of the dust particle material was evaluated by two approaches. In one the data for permittivities obtained over the whole range of measured concentrations were extrapolated to the particle densities of the samples. In the other a mixing formula was utilized for the determination of epsilon(s) from permittivities measured at bulk concentrations.

Al-Rizzo, Hussain M.; Al-Hafid, Hafid T.

1988-03-01

77

Morphology, evolution and fill: Implications for sand and mud distribution in filling deep-water canyons and slope channel complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of the northeastern margin of the Rockall Trough on the Irish margin examined the transition from shelf edge to basin floor, in morphology and sedimentary activity, of a deeply incised submarine canyon system, the Donegal Bay submarine canyon. The survey produced superb 3D profiling of the canyon along its entire length, marking a transition from 'cauliflower' shaped head region with numerous tributary gullies feeding into one main canyon, to a single trunk canyon. This canyon, with an initial combined width and depth of > 17 km and > 800 m in the 'cauliflower' head area, decreases rapidly to > 4.5 km wide and > 450 m deep after the zone of tributary confluence. Eighteen kilometers further down dip, the canyon loses topographic expression as it approaches the lower rise and floor of the Rockall Trough. Degrees of recent sedimentary activity are evaluated by comparing side scan sonar systems of different frequency, and thus of different penetration sub sea, and by ground-truthing using drop (gravity) cores. The canyon was a very active system, dominated by sand transportation towards the floor of the Rockall Trough, along the slope as coarse-grained contourite, or as sand spillover from the shelf. Sand was also deposited as overbank deposits outside the main head region of the canyon, presumably by large volume turbidity currents and more active lateral gullies. The head area of the canyon system has been progressively cut off from sand source by progressive sea level rise since the last glaciation. Sand was locally deposited on terraces but not in the overbank area. Less frequent, lower volume and finer grained turbidity currents have become more common in the system. The initial sand and bypass-dominated system with small sediment waves, which may be gravels, has become dominated by muddy debrites in the lower reaches and by slumps in the upper reaches. Slumping in those upper reaches leads to ponding of sand in the head and upper reach areas, with only very occasional turbidity currents transporting sand further down the system in small channels. A model is produced to explain the mechanism and expression of backfilling in a large deep-water canyon system whose hinterland has been flooded back since glacial drawdown of sea level in the eastern Rockall Trough area. This model explains how sand may be trapped in large volumes in the upper reaches of a canyon system, due to slumping from the canyon margins and nearby upper slope regions. The focusing of sand deposition in areas where this is not usually expected will have important implications for hydrocarbon explorationists who wish to map the distribution of potential reservoir sand bodies within large, confined deep-water canyon systems.

Cronin, Bryan T.; Akhmetzhanov, Andrey M.; Mazzini, Adriano; Akhmanov, Grigorii; Ivanov, Michael; Kenyon, Neil H.; TTR-10 Shipboard Scientists

2005-08-01

78

Variability in the numbers of post-settlement King George whiting (Sillaginidae: Sillaginodes punctata, Cuvier) in relation to predation, habitat complexity and artificial cage structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of predation by fish in altering abundances of juvenile King George whiting (Sillaginodes punctata) was examined at multiple locations in Port Phillip Bay, Australia, by manipulating the numbers of piscivorous fish in unvegetated sand and seagrass habitats using cages. Additional information regarding the local abundances of, and habitat use by, the most common piscivorous fish, Western Australian salmon

Jeremy S Hindell; Gregory P Jenkins; Michael J Keough

2002-01-01

79

New heterometallic Ir(iii)2-Eu(iii) complexes: white light emission from a single molecule.  

PubMed

The design of a relatively simple bifunctional ligand led to the obtainment of three new Ir(iii)2-Eu(iii) heterometallic complexes. Variation of the degree of fluorination in the cyclometalating ligands coordinated to the Ir(iii) centres allows tuning of the photophysical properties and pure white light emission from a single complex. PMID:25102831

Baschieri, Andrea; Muzzioli, Sara; Matteucci, Elia; Stagni, Stefano; Massi, Massimiliano; Sambri, Letizia

2015-01-01

80

WIND VELOCITIES AND SAND FLUXES IN MESQUITE DUNE-LANDS IN THE NORTHERN CHIHUAHUAN DESERT: A COMPARISON BETWEEN FIELD MEASUREMENTS AND THE QUIC (QUICK URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX) MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The poster shows comparisons of wind velocities and sand fluxes between field measurements and a computer model, called QUIC (Quick Urban & Industrial Complex). The comparisons were made for a small desert region in New Mexico. ...

81

Sand Volcano Following Earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

1989-01-01

82

Physical interaction between VIVID and white collar complex regulates photoadaptation in Neurospora  

PubMed Central

Photoadaptation, the ability to attenuate a light response on prolonged light exposure while remaining sensitive to escalating changes in light intensity, is essential for organisms to decipher time information appropriately, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In Neurospora crassa, VIVID (VVD), a small LOV domain containing blue-light photoreceptor protein, affects photoadaptation for most if not all light-responsive genes. We report that there is a physical interaction between VVD and the white collar complex (WCC), the primary blue-light photoreceptor and the transcription factor complex that initiates light-regulated transcriptional responses in Neurospora. Using two previously characterized VVD mutants, we show that the level of interaction is correlated with the level of WCC repression in constant light and that even light-insensitive VVD is sufficient partly to regulate photoadaptation in vivo. We provide evidence that a functional GFP-VVD fusion protein accumulates in the nucleus on light induction but that nuclear localization of VVD does not require light. Constitutively expressed VVD alone is sufficient to change the dynamics of photoadaptation. Thus, our results demonstrate a direct molecular connection between two of the most essential light signaling components in Neurospora, VVD and WCC, illuminating a previously uncharacterized process for light-sensitive eukaryotic cells. PMID:20733070

Chen, Chen-Hui; DeMay, Bradley S.; Gladfelter, Amy S.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Loros, Jennifer J.

2010-01-01

83

Tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The four largest oil sand deposits contain over 90% of the world's known heavy oil. The total heavy oil and bitumen in place, estimated at nearly 6 trillion barrels is almost entirely concentrated in western Canada, principally Alberta, and eastern Venezuela. The known tar sand resource in the United States consists of about 550 occurrences located in 22 states. The total oil in place in 39 of these occurrences is estimated to be between 23.7 billion and 32.7 billion barrels. At least 90% of this resource is located in Utah. Other significant deposits are in Texas, New Mexico, California, and Kentucky. Bituminous sand deposits and petroleum-impregnated rocks are found in Malagasy, Albania, Rumania, the USSR, and Trinidad. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

Wennekers, J.H.N.

1981-10-01

84

Investigating the prevalence of complex fiber configurations in white matter tissue with diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

It has long been recognized that the diffusion tensor model is inappropriate to characterize complex fiber architecture, causing tensor-derived measures such as the primary eigenvector and fractional anisotropy to be unreliable or misleading in these regions. There is however still debate about the impact of this problem in practice. A recent study using a Bayesian automatic relevance detection (ARD) multicompartment model suggested that a third of white matter (WM) voxels contain crossing fibers, a value that, whilst already significant, is likely to be an underestimate. The aim of this study is to provide more robust estimates of the proportion of affected voxels, the number of fiber orientations within each WM voxel, and the impact on tensor-derived analyses, using large, high-quality diffusion-weighted data sets, with reconstruction parameters optimized specifically for this task. Two reconstruction algorithms were used: constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD), and the ARD method used in the previous study. We estimate the proportion of WM voxels containing crossing fibers to be ~90% (using CSD) and 63% (using ARD). Both these values are much higher than previously reported, strongly suggesting that the diffusion tensor model is inadequate in the vast majority of WM regions. This has serious implications for downstream processing applications that depend on this model, particularly tractography, and the interpretation of anisotropy and radial/axial diffusivity measures. PMID:22611035

Jeurissen, Ben; Leemans, Alexander; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Jones, Derek K; Sijbers, Jan

2013-11-01

85

Production Mechanisms for the Sand on Titan and the Prospects for a Global Sand Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With ~15% of its surface covered by sand seas, Titan turns out to be the Arrakis of the solar system. How the sand particles that make up the dunes are created, however, remains an outstanding question. Titan's haze particles are organic in composition as required by spectral analysis of dunes, however they have diameters of ~1um, and are 10,000,000 times too small by mass to directly represent the ~200-um sand particles. In addition to previous suggestions that sand could come from sintering of sand particles or by burial, lithification, and subsequent erosion (more like typical sands on Earth), we suggest two new mechanisms for production of sand in association with Titan's liquid reservoirs. Dissolution and reprecipitation as evaporite forms the gypsum dunes of White Sands, NM, USA on Earth, and could play a role on Titan as well. Alternatively, haze particles in the lakes and seas could aggregate into larger particles via flocculation, a mechanism seen to occur on Earth in Morocco. Each of these sand particle production ideas has associated predictions that can be tested by future observations. The lack of evident sand sources in VIMS data implies that Titan's sand seas may be old and their continuous interconnectedness across the Dark Equatorial Belt implies that all of the equatorial dunefields may represent a single compositionally uniform sand sea. We will present possibilities for sands from this sea to bridge the large gap across Xanadu, including barchan chains and fluvial transport.

Barnes, Jason W.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Radebaugh, Jani; Hayes, Alexander G.; MacKenzie, Shannon

2014-11-01

86

Musical Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

MR. CARUS-WILSON'S failure (January 9, p. 222) to obtain sounds, from, ``millet seed'' sand of highly spherical grains puts a difficulty in the way of the suggestion made, in ``Sound'' by Poynting and Thomson, though I do not think that it finally disposes of it.

J. H. Poynting

1908-01-01

87

Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

88

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and brain white matter damage in the preterm infant: a complex relationship.  

PubMed

We analysed the relationship between bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and brain white matter damage (WMD) in very preterm infants, adjusting for common risk factors and confounders. We studied a cohort of infants <32 weeks gestational age (GA) and <1500 g, admitted to 12 hospitals in Northern Italy in 1999-2002. The association between BPD and WMD was estimated by generalised estimating equations and conditional logistic models, adjusting for centre, GA, propensity score for prolonged ventilation and other potential confounders. Directed acyclic graphs (DAG) were used to depict the underlying causal structure and guide analysis. Of the 1209 infants reaching 36 weeks, 192 (15.8%) developed BPD (supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks) and 88 (7.3%) ultrasound-defined WMD (cystic periventricular leukomalacia). In crude analysis, BPD was a strong risk factor for WMD [odds ratio (OR) = 5.9]. With successive adjustments, the OR progressively decreased to 3.88 when adjusting for GA, to 2.72 adding perinatal risk factors, and further down to 2.16 [95% confidence interval 1.1, 3.9] when ventilation was also adjusted for. Postnatal factors did not change the OR. Significant risk factors for WMD, in addition to BPD, were a low GA, a lower Apgar score, a higher illness severity score, ventilation and early-onset sepsis, while antenatal steroids, being small for GA, and surfactant were associated with a reduced risk. In conclusion, our data suggest that BPD is associated with an increased risk of WMD; most of the effect is due to shared risk factors and causal pathways. DAGs helped clarify the complex confounding of this scenario. PMID:19840295

Gagliardi, Luigi; Bellù, Roberto; Zanini, Rinaldo; Dammann, Olaf

2009-11-01

89

Assessing the Martian surface distribution of aeolian sand using a Mars general circulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sand transport model using White's [1979] sand flux equation and the Mars general circulation model [Pollack et al., 1990] was developed to understand the erosional sources, transport pathways, and depositional sinks of windblown sand on Mars. An initially uniform distribution of sand (4 mm over the entire surface) is regionally transported based on wind stress, saltation threshold, and percentage

F. S. Anderson; R. Greeley; P. Xu; E. Lo; D. G. Blumberg; R. M. Haberle; J. R. Murphy

1999-01-01

90

Birthplace of America's Missile and Space Activity White Sands Missile Range is the largest overland military test range in the United  

E-print Network

Directive In addition to improving rocket technology, the military had the foresight to direct that all V-2s, as the place to test rocket technology emerging from World War II. A launch complex, now known as Launch

91

A contrast and surface code explains complex responses to black and white stimuli in V1.  

PubMed

We investigated the cortical mechanisms underlying the visual perception of luminance-defined surfaces and the preference for black over white stimuli in the macaque primary visual cortex, V1. We measured V1 population responses with voltage-sensitive dye imaging in fixating monkeys that were presented with white or black squares of equal contrast around a mid-gray. Regions corresponding to the squares' edges exhibited higher activity than those corresponding to the center. Responses to black were higher than to white, surprisingly to a much greater extent in the representation of the square's center. Additionally, the square-evoked activation patterns exhibited spatial modulations along the edges and corners. A model comprised of neural mechanisms that compute local contrast, local luminance temporal modulations in the black and white directions, and cortical center-surround interactions, could explain the observed population activity patterns in detail. The model captured the weaker contribution of V1 neurons that respond to positive (white) and negative (black) luminance surfaces, and the stronger contribution of V1 neurons that respond to edge contrast. Also, the model demonstrated how the response preference for black could be explained in terms of stronger surface-related activation to negative luminance modulation. The spatial modulations along the edges were accounted for by surround suppression. Overall the results reveal the relative strength of edge contrast and surface signals in the V1 response to visual objects. PMID:25339751

Zurawel, Guy; Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Zweig, Shay; Shapley, Robert; Slovin, Hamutal

2014-10-22

92

Water Cycling in Hydrous Sulfate Sands as a Possible Analog for Dehydration of Meridiani Planum Outcrops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cracks and fins in hydrous sulfate sands at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, demonstrate vapor transport between the atmosphere and subsurface. A similar process may be forming cracks and fins in Meridiani outcrops in the recent past.

Chavdarian, G. V.; Sumner, D. Y.

2007-07-01

93

Northern Sand Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

94

Industrial sand and gravel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2010 was about 26.5 Mt (29.2 million st), a 6-percent increased from 2009. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as sand for container glass, golf course sand, recreational sand, specialty glass and water filtration, showed increased demand in 2010.

Dolley, T.P.

2011-01-01

95

"It's Almost like a White School Now": Racialised Complexities, Indigenous Representation and School Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on a broader study that focused on examining principal leadership for equity and diversity, this paper presents the leadership experiences of "Jane", a White, middle-class principal of a rural Indigenous school. The paper highlights how Jane's leadership is inextricably shaped by her assumptions about race and the political dynamics and…

Keddie, Amanda; Niesche, Richard

2012-01-01

96

Effect of adsorbed metals ions on the transport of Zn- and Ni-EDTA complexes in a sand and gravel aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adsorption, complexation, and dissolution reactions strongly influenced the transport of metal ions complexed with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in a predominantly quartz-sand aquifer during two tracer tests conducted under mildly reducing conditions at pH 5.8 to 6.1. In tracer test M89, EDTA complexes of zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni), along with excess free EDTA, were injected such that the lower portion of the tracer cloud traveled through a region with adsorbed manganese (Mn) and the upper portion of the tracer cloud traveled through a region with adsorbed Zn. In tracer test S89, Ni- and Zn-EDTA complexes, along with excess EDTA complexed with calcium (Ca), were injected into a region with adsorbed Mn. The only discernable chemical reaction between Ni-EDTA and the sediments was a small degree of reversible adsorption leading to minor retardation. In the absence of adsorbed Zn, the injected Zn was displaced from EDTA complexes by iron(III) [Fe(III)] dissolved from the sediments. Displacement of Zn by Fe(III) on EDTA became increasingly thermodynamically favorable with decreasing total EDTA concentration. The reaction was slow compared to the time-scale of transport. Free EDTA rapidly dissolved aluminum (Al) from the sediments, which was subsequently displaced slowly by Fe. In the portion of tracer cloud M89 that traveled through the region contaminated with adsorbed Zn, little displacement of Zn complexed with EDTA was observed, and Al was rapidly displaced from EDTA by Zn desorbed from the sediments, in agreement with equilibrium calculations. In tracer test S89, desorption of Mn dominated over the more thermodynamically favorable dissolution of Al oxyhydroxides. Comparison with results from M89 suggests that dissolution of Al oxyhydroxides in coatings on these sediment grains by Ca-EDTA was rate-limited whereas that by free EDTA reached equilibrium on the time-scale of transport. Rates of desorption are much faster than rates of dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides from sediment-grain surfaces and, therefore, adsorbed metal ions can strongly influence the speciation of ligands like EDTA in soils and sediments, especially over small temporal and spatial scales. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Kent, D.B.; Davis, J.A.; Anderson, L.C.D.; Rea, B.A.; Coston, J.A.

2002-01-01

97

Complex bacterial diversity in the white biofilms of St. Callistus Catacombs in Rome evidenced by different investigation strategies.  

PubMed

Roman Catacombs are affected by different kinds of biofilms that were extensively investigated in the last 14 years. In particular, the areas far from the lamps are often covered by white biofilms of different extension, consistency and nature. The aim of this paper is to describe the profile of the microbial community present in two areas of the Ocean's Cubiculum (CSC13), characterized by similar alterations described as white biofilms, by using a multistep approach that included direct microscopy observations, culture-dependent and culture-independent methodologies through the extraction of DNA and RNA directly from the sampled areas. In addition to this, we extracted the DNA directly from the Petri dishes containing R2A and B4 media after incubation and growth of bacteria. Our results evidenced that a complex bacterial community (mainly constituted by filamentous Actinobacteria, as well as Firmicutes and Proteobacteria) colonizes the two different white biofilms and its detection, quantitative and qualitative, could be revealed only by different approaches, each method gave different information that only partially overlap. PMID:25244154

Krakova, L; De Leo, F; Bruno, L; Pangallo, D; Urzì, C

2014-09-22

98

Tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

1990-01-01

99

Theoretical and functional complexity of white variegation of unripe fleshy fruits  

PubMed Central

In many plant species, the bright colors of ripe fruit serve to attract frugivores to enable efficient seed dispersal. Here I show that the fleshy fruit of several dozens of species originating from Asia (southeastern, eastern and central), the Middle East, Africa, America (South, Central and North), Australia, Polynesia and Micronesia, with fruit usually larger than 1 cm, have white or light green spots while they are still unripe. In many of these species, while the spots are conspicuous, the unripe fruit is known to be poisonous, bitter or sour. I propose that this fruit syndrome may signal frugivores that the fruit is still unripe. Similarly to the succulent leaves of window-plants, these spots form windows that enable light to penetrate deeper into the photosynthetic layers in the developing fruit. This seems to be a solution to overcome the limitations of light harvest because of the high volume to surface ratio of developing fleshy fruits. The white or whitish variegation in these unripe fleshy fruits may serve at least five functions: 1) Windows for photosynthesis, 2) camouflage, 3) signaling to frugivores that they are not ripe (possibly sometimes a type of mutualism with frugivores), 4) signaling to frugivores that they are poisonous - aposematism, and 5) mimicking insect eggs to reduce egg laying. All these functions may be partly or fully simultaneous. Because these white spots appear in plants of diverse geographical and taxonomic origin, it is probably an old adaptation, and such a syndrome has appeared and been selected for many times. PMID:23921545

Lev-Yadun, Simcha

2013-01-01

100

SAND REPORT SAND2003-0112  

E-print Network

SAND REPORT SAND2003-0112 Unlimited Release Printed January 2003 Cold War Context Statement Sandia://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;3 SAND2003-0112 Unlimited Release Printed January 2003 Cold War Context Statement

Fuerschbach, Phillip

101

Sand particle dislodgement in windblown sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incipient motion of sand particle from sand bed plays a very important role in the prediction of windblown sand. In this paper, we proposed a new method for predicting the incipient motion of sand particle based on wind speed fluctuation as follows, when the wind speed is larger than the critical wind speed, if the total impulse on sand particle is larger than the critical impulse, incipient motion of sand particle would take place, otherwise if not. Furthermore, from the analysis of entrainment in the rolling and lifting modes, we come to the following conclusion. When the average wind speed is smaller than the critical wind speed, if the average wind speed is used to judge the incipient motion of sand particle, one will underestimate the number of sand particles jumping from the bed, if the instantaneous wind speed is used to judge incipient motion of sand particle, one will overestimate the number of sand particles jumping from the bed; When the average wind speed is larger than the critical wind speed, either the average or the instantaneous wind speeds is used to judge the incipient motion of sand particles, one will overestimate the number of sand particles jumping from the bed.

Bo, Tian-Li; Li, Zheng; Zheng, Xiao-Jing

2014-12-01

102

Creating Sand Dunes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment demonstrates the formation and movement of sand dunes. Students will simulate the effects of wind using a hair dryer on bare sand, then add stones and grass to observe how the effects are changed. They should be able to explain how sand dunes are formed, what circumstances effect the movement or formation of sand dunes, and relate this information to soil conservation.

1998-01-01

103

Industrial sand and gravel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2011 was about 30 Mt (33 million st), increasing slightly compared with 2010. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

Dolley, T.P.

2012-01-01

104

Industrial sand and gravel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

Dolley, T.P.

2013-01-01

105

Steady-state phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II proteins preserves photosystem I under fluctuating white light.  

PubMed

According to the "state transitions" theory, the light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) phosphorylation in plant chloroplasts is essential to adjust the relative absorption cross section of photosystem II (PSII) and PSI upon changes in light quality. The role of LHCII phosphorylation upon changes in light intensity is less thoroughly investigated, particularly when changes in light intensity are too fast to allow the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes to occur. Here, we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stn7 (for state transition7) mutant, devoid of the STN7 kinase and LHCII phosphorylation, shows a growth penalty only under fluctuating white light due to a low amount of PSI. Under constant growth light conditions, stn7 acquires chloroplast redox homeostasis by increasing the relative amount of PSI centers. Thus, in plant chloroplasts, the steady-state LHCII phosphorylation plays a major role in preserving PSI upon rapid fluctuations in white light intensity. Such protection of PSI results from LHCII phosphorylation-dependent equal distribution of excitation energy to both PSII and PSI from the shared LHCII antenna and occurs in cooperation with nonphotochemical quenching and the proton gradient regulation5-dependent control of electron flow, which are likewise strictly regulated by white light intensity. LHCII phosphorylation is concluded to function both as a stabilizer (in time scales of seconds to minutes) and a dynamic regulator (in time scales from tens of minutes to hours and days) of redox homeostasis in chloroplasts, subject to modifications by both environmental and metabolic cues. Exceeding the capacity of LHCII phosphorylation/dephosphorylation to balance the distribution of excitation energy between PSII and PSI results in readjustment of photosystem stoichiometry. PMID:23033142

Grieco, Michele; Tikkanen, Mikko; Paakkarinen, Virpi; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Aro, Eva-Mari

2012-12-01

106

Population genetic variation, structure, and evolution in Engelmann spruce, white spruce, and their natural hybrid complex in Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation, structure, and evolution of 12 populations of putative Engelmann spruce ( Picea engelmanii Parry), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), and Engelmann - white spruce natural hybrids from the sympatric areas and two populations of white spruce from the allopatric areas in Alberta were examined using 23 allozyme loci coding for 13 enzymes in needles. Although most of

Om P. Rajora; Bruce P. Dancik

2000-01-01

107

Measurements of thermal updraft intensity over complex terrain using American white pelicans and a simple boundary-layer forecast model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An examination of boundary-layer meteorological and avian aerodynamic theories suggests that soaring birds can be used to measure the magnitude of vertical air motions within the boundary layer. These theories are applied to obtain mixed-layer normalized thermal updraft intensity over both flat and complex terrain from the climb rates of soaring American white pelicans and from diagnostic boundary-layer model-produced estimates of the boundary-layer depth zi and the convective velocity scale w*. Comparison of the flatland data with the profiles of normalized updraft velocity obtained from previous studies reveals that the pelican-derived measurements of thermal updraft intensity are in close agreement with those obtained using traditional research aircraft and large eddy simulation (LES) in the height range of 0.2 to 0.8 zi. Given the success of this method, the profiles of thermal vertical velocity over the flatland and the nearby mountains are compared. This comparison shows that these profiles are statistically indistinguishable over this height range, indicating that the profile for thermal updraft intensity varies little over this sample of complex terrain. These observations support the findings of a recent LES study that explored the turbulent structure of the boundary layer using a range of terrain specifications. For terrain similar in scale to that encountered in this study, results of the LES suggest that the terrain caused less than an 11% variation in the standard deviation of vertical velocity.

Shannon, H.D.; Young, G.S.; Yates, M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Seegar, W.

2003-01-01

108

CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND927005  

E-print Network

CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND92­7005 Unlimited Release UC­261 Fatigue of Fiberglass Wind Turbine Blade . #12;Distribution CategoryUC-261 SAND92-7005 UnlimitedRelease PrintedAugust 1992 FATIGUE OF FIBERGLASS

109

Mineral Sands Down Under  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes what mineral sands are, and discusses the heavy, dark-colored minerals that they contain (rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite). A map shows locations of mineral sands deposits in Australia.

110

Exploring Products: Nano Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "nano sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "nano sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

2014-06-16

111

Sand for Traction  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Steam engines used high-grade silica sand for traction on the rails. Sand was stored in a dome on top of the engine and, as the train traveled the tracks, the sand would be sprinkled down pipes to land on the tracks in front of the wheels. This would aid the wheels in gripping the tracks, especially...

112

Wind profiles on the stoss slope of sand dunes: Implications for eolian sand transport  

SciTech Connect

Starting with the work of R.A. Bagnold it has been recognized that the shear stress exerted by the wind on sand grains is the driving force for eolian sand transport. Calculation of accurate rates of sand transport is essential for prediction of migration rates of sand dunes in modern environments as well as reconstructing paleoclimates (wind speed and direction) from eolian deposits. Because a sand dune is a streamlined obstacle in the path of the wind, continuity necessitates that the flow field is compressed over the windward side of a dune and shear stress should progressively increase up the slope as the flow accelerates. However, airflow measurements over 14 dunes (at White Sands, New Mexico; Algodones, CA; and Padre Island, TX) show that compression of the flow field occurs very close to the surface and as a consequence, the overlying flow actually shows an overall decrease in shear stress up the slope. Measurements commonly collected in the overlying zone are not representative of the near-surface, sand-driving wind. Furthermore, near-surface compression of the flow field implies that a pressure gradient exists that would render the current transport models inappropriate for sloping surfaces that dominate natural sandy desert terrains.

Frank, A.; Kocurek, G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1993-04-01

113

Industrial sand and gravel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, domestic production of industrial sand and gravel was about 31 Mt, a 5% increase from 2004. This increase was bouyed by robust construction and petroleum sectors of the US economy. Based on estimated world production figures, the United States was the world's leading producer and consumer of industrial sand and gravel. In the short term, local shortages of industrial sand and gravel will continue to increase.

Dolley, T.P.

2006-01-01

114

Dissection of protein-carbohydrate interactions in mutant hen egg-white lysozyme complexes and their hydrolytic activity.  

PubMed

Trp62 in the binding subsite B of hen egg-white lysozyme shows general features often observed in protein-carbohydrate interactions including a stacking interaction and a hydrogen bonding network with water molecules. A previous report by our group showed that the perturbation of these interactions by substitution of Trp62 with tyrosine or phenylalanine affects the substrate binding modes and also enhances the hydrolytic activity. In order to elucidate the relationship between structural and functional changes of these protein-carbohydrate interactions, the Trp62Tyr and Trp62Phe mutants complexed with the substrate analogue, (GlcNAc)3, were analyzed at 1.8 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. The overall structures of the mutant enzymes are indistinguishable from that of the wild type enzyme. Although the wild-type enzyme binds (GlcNAc)3 in only one binding mode (A-B-C), the Trp62Tyr mutant binds (GlcNAc)3 in two binding modes (A-B-C, B-C-D) and the Trp62Phe mutant has an even weaker binding mode. The aromatic rings of Tyr62 and Phe62 maintain their interactions with the carbohydrate molecules, but make fewer stacking interactions with the GlcNAc in the B site than the wild-type enzyme does. The hydroxyl group of Tyr62 interacts weakly with a water molecule which mediates hydrogen bonding in the GlcNAc residues in the B and C sites. The C-6 hydroxyl group of the GlcNAc residue in the C site rotates around the C-5-C-6 bond to complete the hydrogen bond network in the Trp62Tyr mutant-(GlcNAc)3 complex. On the other hand, this hydrogen bonding network does not form in the Trp62Phe mutant-(GlcNAc)3. In addition to these structural studies, the kinetic parameters of the hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-chitotriose, ((GlcNAc)3-MeU), have been determined in order to further characterize the enzymatic properties of these mutant lysozymes. This demonstrates that the modulation of the hydrogen bonding network, including the flexible part of the carbohydrate and water molecules and/or the slight reduction of stacking interaction in the B site, alters the binding mode toward the carbohydrate and induces an enhancement of the hydrolytic activity. PMID:7707375

Maenaka, K; Matsushima, M; Song, H; Sunada, F; Watanabe, K; Kumagai, I

1995-03-24

115

Investigating the capability to resolve complex white matter structures with high b-value diffusion magnetic resonance imaging on the MGH-USC Connectom scanner.  

PubMed

One of the major goals of the NIH Blueprint Human Connectome Project was to map and quantify the white matter connections in the brain using diffusion tractography. Given the prevalence of complex white matter structures, the capability of resolving local white matter geometries with multiple crossings in the diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data is critical. Increasing b-value has been suggested for delineation of the finer details of the orientation distribution function (ODF). Although increased gradient strength and duration increase sensitivity to highly restricted intra-axonal water, gradient strength limitations require longer echo times (TE) to accommodate the increased diffusion encoding times needed to achieve a higher b-value, exponentially lowering the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquisition. To mitigate this effect, the MGH-USC Connectom scanner was built with 300 mT/m gradients, which can significantly reduce the TE of high b-value diffusion imaging. Here we report comparisons performed across b-values based on q-ball ODF metrics to investigate whether high b-value diffusion imaging on the Connectom scanner can improve resolving complex white matter structures. The q-ball ODF features became sharper as the b-value increased, with increased power fraction in higher order spherical harmonic series of the ODF and increased peak heights relative to the overall size of the ODF. Crossing structures were detected in an increasingly larger fraction of white matter voxels and the spatial distribution of two-way and three-way crossing structures was largely consistent with known anatomy. Results indicate that dMRI with high diffusion encoding on the Connectom system is a promising tool to better characterize, and ultimately understand, the underlying structural organization and motifs in the human brain. PMID:25287963

Fan, Qiuyun; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Witzel, Thomas; Zanzonico, Roberta; Keil, Boris; Cauley, Stephen; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Tisdall, Dylan; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Buckner, Randy L; Wedeen, Van J; Rosen, Bruce R; Wald, Lawrence L

2014-11-01

116

Strength and sintering effects at ejection of explosively driven sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of the response of sand to extreme loads is very important for the evaluation of the sand ejecta impact effects on various targets. Sand is a complex material to simulate because of its porosity where the inter-phase equilibrium is hard to achieve under transient shock wave loading. A previously developed two-phase model with strength has been implemented in CTH and applied to sand. The shock response of the sand, including the Hugoniot abnormality known from the literature for highly porous silica, is adequately described with the material model. The sand unloading effects appearing as the ejecta are observed in the present work using dynamic flash X-ray of an aluminium target plate loaded by limestone sand ejecta from the detonation of a buried high explosive charge. The CTH modelling results compared with the flash X-ray images have demonstrated good agreement, particularly, in the description of momentum transfer to the target.

Resnyansky, A. D.; Weckert, S. A.

2014-05-01

117

Retrieval of sand density from hyperspectral BRDF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In past work, we have shown that density effects in hyperspectral bi-directional reflectance function (BRDF) data are consistent in laboratory goniometer data, field goniometer measurements with the NRL Goniometer for Portable Hyperspectral Earth Reflectance (GOPHER), and airborne CASI-1500 hyperspectral imagery. Density effects in granular materials have been described in radiative transfer models and are known, for example, to influence both the overall level of reflectance as well as the size of specific characteristics such as the width of the opposition effect in the BRDF. However, in mineralogically complex sands, such as coastal sands, the relative change in reflectance with density depends on the composite nature of the sand. This paper examines the use of laboratory and field hyperspectral goniometer data and their utility for retrieving sand density from airborne hyperspectral imagery. We focus on limitations of current models to describe density effects in BRDF data acquired in the field, laboratory setting, and from airborne systems.

Bachmann, Charles M.; Abelev, Andrei; Philpot, William; Doctor, Katarina Z.; Montes, Marcos J.; Fusina, Robert; Li, Rong-Rong; van Roggen, Elena

2014-06-01

118

Analysis of Wind-blown Sand Movement over Transverse Dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification.

Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

2014-12-01

119

Analysis of Wind-blown Sand Movement over Transverse Dunes  

PubMed Central

Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification. PMID:25434372

Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

2014-01-01

120

Permeability of shaly sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The permeability of a sand shale mixture is analyzed as a function of shale fraction and the permeability of the two end-members, i.e., the permeability of a clay-free sand and the permeability of a pure shale. First, we develop a model for the permeability of a clay-free sand as a function of the grain diameter, the porosity, and the electrical cementation exponent. We show that the Kozeny-Carman-type relation can be improved by using electrical parameters which separate pore throat from total porosity and effective from total hydraulic radius. The permeability of a pure shale is derived in a similar way but is strongly dependent on clay mineralogy. For the same porosity, there are 5 orders of magnitude of difference between the permeability of pure kaolinite and the permeability of pure smectite. The separate end-members' permeability models are combined by filling the sand pores progressively with shale and then dispersing the sand grains in shale. The permeability of sand shale mixtures is shown to have a minimum at the critical shale content at which shale just fills the sand pores. Pure shale has a slightly higher permeability. Permeability decreases sharply with shale content as the pores of a sand are filled. The permeability of sand shale mixtures thus has a very strong dependence on shale fraction, and available data confirm this distinctive shale-fraction dependence. In addition, there is agreement (within 1 order of magnitude) between the permeabilities predicted from our model and those measured over 11 orders of magnitude from literature sources. Finally, we apply our model to predict the permeabilities of shaly sand formations in the Gulf Coast. The predictions are compared to a data set of permeability determination made on side-wall cores. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experimental data is very good.

Revil, A.; Cathles, L. M.

1999-03-01

121

High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting.  

PubMed

Combinations of electron-withdrawing and -donating substituents on the 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand of the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq(3)) complexes allow for control of the HOMO and LUMO energies and the HOMO-LUMO gap responsible for emission from the complexes. Here, we present a systematic study on tuning the emission and electroluminescence (EL) from Alq(3) complexes from the green to blue region. In this study, we explored the combination of electron-donating substituents on C4 and C6. Compounds 1-6 displayed the emission tuning between 478 and 526 nm, and fluorescence quantum yield between 0.15 and 0.57. The compounds 2-6 were used as emitters and hosts in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The highest OLED external quantum efficiency (EQE) observed was 4.6%, which is among the highest observed for Alq(3) complexes. Also, the compounds 3-5 were used as hosts for red phosphorescent dopants to obtain white light-emitting diodes (WOLED). The WOLEDs displayed high efficiency (EQE up to 19%) and high white color purity (color rendering index (CRI?85). PMID:21780202

Pérez-Bolívar, César; Takizawa, Shin-ya; Nishimura, Go; Montes, Victor A; Anzenbacher, Pavel

2011-08-01

122

Industrial sand and gravel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2009 was about 27 Mt (30 million st), declining by 10 percent compared with 2008. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as foundry and glassmaking sand, may have declined by a factor greater than 10 percent in 2009. U.S. apparent consumption was 24.7 Mt (27.2 million st) in 2009, down by 10 percent from the previous year, and imports declined to 83 kt (91,000 st).

Dolley, T.P.

2010-01-01

123

Glycemic and glycosuric responses in white sturgeon ( Acipenser transmontanus) after oral administration of simple and complex carbohydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of white sturgeon to utilize different carbohydrates was studied by using a technique combining esophageal intubation, dorsal aorta cannulation, and urinary catheterization. Seven groups of five fish each were intubated with 1 g kg?1 body weight of gelatin (sham), glucose, maltose, corn dextrin, potato dextrin, raw corn starch, or raw potato starch 48 h post-operation. The observed plasma

Dong-Fang Deng; Ståle Refstie; Silas S. O Hung

2001-01-01

124

Hydraulic Fracturing Sand  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Fine-grained silica sand is mixed with chemicals and water before being pumped into rock formations to prevent the newly created artificial fractures from closing after hydraulic fracturing is completed....

125

Sand, Plants and Pants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized particles or coatings can change a bigger materialâs properties. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of plants, nano-fabric pants and magic sand.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Houston, Children'S M.

2014-06-04

126

Sand boils without earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentary deformation caused by liquefaction has become a popular means for inferring prehistoric strong earthquakes. This report describes a new mechanism for generating such features in the absence of earthquakes. Sand boils and a 180-m-long sand dike formed in Fremont Valley, California, when sediment-laden surface runoff was intercepted along the upslope part of a 500-m-long preexisting ground crack, flowed subhorizonally in the crack, and then flowed upward in the downslope part of the crack where it discharged as sand boils on the land surface. If the sand boils and their feeder dike were stratigraphically preserved, they could be misinterpreted as evidence for earthquake-induced liquefaction. -Authors

Holzer, T.L.; Clark, M.M.

1993-01-01

127

Sand on the Move  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Institute (USGS), gives a brief description of how sand dunes form. It describes how dunes will develop over time by repeating the processes of erosion, transportation, and deposition.

128

North Polar Sand Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-417, 10 July 2003

The martian north polar ice cap is surrounded by fields of dark, windblown sand dunes. This March 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dunes near 76.5oN, 264.7oW. The steep dune slip faces indicate wind transport of sand from the lower left toward the upper right. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

2003-01-01

129

Effects of complex radiative and convective environments on the thermal biology of the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii).  

PubMed

The energy budgets of small endotherms are profoundly affected by characteristics of the physical environment such as wind speed, air temperature and solar radiation. Among these, solar radiation represents a potentially very large heat load to small animals and may have an important influence on their thermoregulatory metabolism and heat balance. In this investigation, we examined the interactive effects of wind speed and irradiance on body temperature, thermoregulatory metabolism and heat balance in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). We measured changes in metabolic heat production by exposing birds to different wind speeds (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m s(-1)) and irradiance combinations (<3 W m(-2) and 936+/-11 W m(-2); mean +/- s.d.) at an air temperature of 10 degrees C. Body temperature was not affected by wind speed, but was significantly higher in animals not exposed to simulated solar radiation compared with those exposed at most wind speeds. In the absence of solar radiation, metabolic heat production was strongly affected by wind speed and increased by 30 % from 122 to 159 W m(-2) as wind speed increased from 0.25 to 2.0 m s(-1). Metabolic heat production was even more strongly influenced by wind speed in the presence of simulated solar radiation and increased by 51% from 94 to 142 W m(-2) as wind speed increased from 0.25 to 2. 0 m s(-1). Solar heat gain was negatively correlated with wind speed and declined from 28 to 12 W m(-2) as wind speed increased from 0.25 to 2.0 m s(-1) and, at its maximum, equaled 11% of the radiation intercepted by the animal. The overall thermal impact of the various wind speed and irradiance combinations on the animal's heat balance was examined for each treatment. Under cold conditions, with no solar radiation present, an increase in wind speed from 0.25 to 2.0 m s(-1) was equivalent to a decrease in chamber air temperature of 12.7 degrees C. With simulated solar radiation present, a similar increase in wind speed was equivalent to a decrease in chamber air temperature of 16 degrees C. Overall, shifting environmental conditions from a wind speed of 0.25 m s(-1) and irradiance of 936 W m(-2) to a wind speed of 2.0 m s(-1) with no short-wave radiation present was equivalent to decreasing chamber air temperature by approximately 20 degrees C. The sensitivity to changes in the convective environment, combined with the complex effects of changes in irradiance levels revealed by re-analyzing data published previously, significantly complicates the task of estimating the heat balance of animals in nature. PMID:10648222

Wolf, B O; Wooden, K M; Walsberg, G E

2000-02-01

130

VNIR reflectance spectra of gypsum mixtures for comparison with White Sands National Monument, New Mexico (WSNM) dune samples as an analog study of the Olympia Undae region of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dunes at WSNM are being used as an analog study area for gypsum-rich dunes near the northern polar region of Mars. Samples were collected from 4 dunes at WSNM for this study. In order to determine abundances of the gypsum, quartz and dolomite present in the dune sand, size separates (<45, 45-90, 90-150, 150-250, >250 ?m) were prepared for gypsum, quartz and dolomite, mixtures were prepared using the 90-150 ?m size fraction, and all samples were characterized in the lab. Analyses of the VNIR spectral data are presented here (Figs. 1-2) and analyses of the XRD data are presented in a companion abstract [1]. The majority of the dune sand is dominated by gypsum, while the coarse grains at some ripples are largely dolomite. Mid-IR spectra will be evaluated as well. Gypsum/Dolomite Mixtures (Fig. 1) There is a clear progression of albedo and band strength in these mixture spectra as one mineral is increased and the other decreased. The mixture spectra are dominated by the gypsum bands for mixtures that are gypsum rich (?50wt.% gypsum) including a triplet at 1.446-1.535 ?m, plus bands at 1.749, 1.945, 2.217 and 2.267 ?m. When mixtures become predominantly dolomite (10/90 & 20/80 mixtures), the gypsum bands are significantly weaker, while the dolomite band at 2.322 becomes much more visible. Gypsum/Quartz Mixtures (Fig. 2) The gypsum/quartz mixture spectra are dominated to an even greater extent by gypsum, resulting in readily observable gypsum features for spectra of samples with only 10 wt.% gypsum. [1] Lafuente et al. (2013) AGU, submitted.

King, S. J.; Bishop, J. L.; Fenton, L. K.; Lafuente, B.; Garcia, G. C.; Horgan, B. H.

2013-12-01

131

Pollack Crater's White Rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides.

In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust.

CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also has a higher spatial resolution that enables CRISM to see smaller exposures of these minerals, if they occur. If White Rock is an evaporative lacustrine or lake deposit, CRISM has the best chance of detecting telltale mineralogical signatures. The images above reveal what CRISM found.

The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic of Pollack Crater taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). White Rock actually appears dark in the THEMIS mosaic due to a low daytime temperature, because its light color leads to less heating by the Sun. The middle-left image is an infrared, false color image that reveals White Rock's reddish hue. The middle-right image shows the signatures of different minerals that are present. CRISM found that White Rock is composed of accumulated dust perhaps with some fine-grained olivine (an igneous mineral), surrounded by basaltic sand containing olivine and dark-colored pyroxene. The lower two images were constructed by draping CRISM images over topography and exaggerating the vertical scale to better illustrate White Rock's topography. White Rock still appears not to contain evaporite, but instead to be composed of accumulated dust and sand.

CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

2008-01-01

132

Sand Sheet on Crater Floor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

As with yesterday's image, this dune field is located inside a crater, in this case an unnamed crater at 26 degrees North latitude. In this VIS image the dunes are coalescing into a sand sheet, note the lack of dune forms to the north of the small hills. The presence of ridges and hills in the area is affecting the dune shapes.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 26.4, Longitude 62.7 East (297.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

133

Regulation of the brown and white fat gene programs through a PRDM16\\/CtBP transcriptional complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brown fat is a specialized tissue that can dissipate energy and counteract obesity through a pattern of gene expression that greatly increases mitochondrial content and uncoupled respiration. PRDM16 is a zinc-finger protein that controls brown fat determination by stimulating brown fat-selective gene expression, while suppressing the expression of genes selective for white fat cells. To determine the mechanisms regulating this

Shingo Kajimura; Patrick Seale; Takuya Tomaru; Hediye Erdjument-Bromage; Marcus P. Cooper; Jorge L. Ruas; Sherry Chin; Paul Tempst; Mitchell A. Lazar; Bruce M. Spiegelman

2008-01-01

134

Stratified chaos in a sand pile formation  

E-print Network

Sand pile formation is often used to describe stratified chaos in dynamic systems due to self-emergent and scale invariant behaviour. Cellular automata (Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model) are often used to describe chaotic behaviour, as simulating physical interactions between individual particles is computationally demanding. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art parallel implementation of the discrete element method on the graphical processing unit to simulate sand pile formation. Interactions between individual grains were simulated using a contact model in an Euler integration scheme. Results show non-linear self-emergent behaviour which is in good agreement with experimental results, theoretical work and self organized criticality (SOC) approaches. Moreover, it was found that the fully deterministic model, where the position and forces on every individual particle can be determined every iteration has a brown noise signal in the x and y direction, where the signal is the z direction is closer to a white noise spectrum.

Ate Poortinga; Jan G. Wesseling; Coen J. Ritsema

2014-03-04

135

Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al-Batin fossil alluvial fan or even from Mesozoic sandstones of the Arabian margin accreted to the Cenozoic Zagros orogen. Due to extensive recycling and the fact that zircon is so resistant to weathering and erosion, the U-Pb age signatures are much less powerful a tracer of sedimentary provenance than framework petrography and heavy minerals. Actualistic provenance studies of dune fields at subcontinental scale shed light on the generation and homogenization of aeolian sand, and allow us to trace complex pathways of multistep sediment transport, thus providing crucial independent information for accurate palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions.

Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

2013-05-01

136

Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al-Batin fossil alluvial fan or even from Mesozoic sandstones of the Arabian margin accreted to the Cenozoic Zagros orogen. Due to extensive recycling and the fact that zircon is so resistant to weathering and erosion, the U-Pb age signatures are much less powerful a tracer of sedimentary provenance than framework petrography and heavy minerals. Actualistic provenance studies of dune fields at subcontinental scale shed light on the generation and homogenization of aeolian sand, and allow us to trace complex pathways of multistep sediment transport, thus providing crucial independent information for accurate palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions.

Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid; Al-Juboury, Ali

2013-04-01

137

Frosted Sand Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 22 July 2002) This image, located near 79.6 N and 142.7 E, displays sand dunes covered in CO2 frost. This is a region of Mars that contains circumpolar sand seas. The large sand deposits and the high winds that circulate around the pole allow for the formation of a huge dune field that surrounds the north polar cap. As the northern hemisphere progresses towards winter, CO2 frost condenses out of the atmosphere and covers the dunes. During northern spring, the CO2 sublimates and the dunes are once again uncovered and active. This image was taken as northern spring progresses and the crests of the dunes are just starting to be exposed. The dark dune material absorbs sunlight more efficiently than the brighter frost, aiding in the sublimation of the remaining frost.

2002-01-01

138

Asbestos in play sand  

SciTech Connect

A letter in the New England Journal of Medicine (Oct. 2 issue) stated that a carbonate sand marketed in New Jersey was contaminated with 2 to 4 percent tremolite asbestos. The authors were called on by one of the federal agencies to repeat the analysis of this sand, specifically for its asbestos content. The sand was pulverized and immersed in oils with known refractive indexes, and the predominant amphibole was characterized by polarized light microscopy. The optical characteristics were noted, and the indexes of refraction were measured and found to be consistent with tremolite. On the basis of optical characterization, the authors concluded that all the tremolite visualized with light microscopy consisted of large, single cleavage fragments and was not asbestiform. They used the technique of x-ray diffraction, as did the author of the original report, which showed the presence of an amphibole mineral (probably tremolite) in the carbonate sand. The technique was not used, and cannot be used, to distinguish between the tremolite habits (asbestiform or nonasbestiform). An acid-insoluble residue, recovered from the carbonate sand, was examined by analytic electron microscopy. The tremolite grains were observed to consist of single untwinned, crystalline fragments. Few defects were noted. Selected area electron diffraction nets were indicative of fragments lying near or at the common amphibole cleavage plane. These characteristics are consistent with cleavage fragments and not asbestos. Aspect ratios reflected short particles (less than 5.1). On the basis of their examination of the carbonate play sand, they conclude that it did not contain tremolite asbestos.

Langer, A.M.; Nolan, R.P.

1987-04-02

139

Sand Dunes with Frost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

2004-01-01

140

Windblown Sand in Briault  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

17 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows low, broad sand dunes and sheets in southern Briault Crater near 10.1oS, 270.7oW. In this case, winds have swept up all available sand in Briault Crater, and moved it toward the south side of the basin. The wind streak pattern of these landforms indicates that the dominant winds blow from the north (top) toward the south. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

2004-01-01

141

Sedimentology and reservoir potential of Matilija sandstone: an Eocene sand-rich deep-sea fan and shallow-marine complex, California  

SciTech Connect

A deep-sea fan facies model for the Matilija Sandstone (southern California) regression from turbidite to shallow-marine to brackish deposits are documented. In addition, reservoir characteristics and the diagenetic history of the deep-sea fan complex is discussed. Despite thick, favorable source beds and generally good initial reservoir characteristics, the Matilija Sandstone is not a productive unit of the Ventura basin because of low reservoir permeability and porosity.

Link, M.H. (Cities Service Co. Research, Tulsa, OK); Welton, J.E.

1982-10-01

142

Assessing the Effects of Light on Differentiation and Virulence of the Plant Pathogen Botrytis cinerea: Characterization of the White Collar Complex  

PubMed Central

Organisms are exposed to a tough environment, where acute daily challenges, like light, can strongly affect several aspects of an individual's physiology, including pathogenesis. While several fungal models have been widely employed to understand the physiological and molecular events associated with light perception, various other agricultural-relevant fungi still remain, in terms of their responsiveness to light, in the dark. The fungus Botrytis cinerea is an aggressive pathogen able to cause disease on a wide range of plant species. Natural B. cinerea isolates exhibit a high degree of diversity in their predominant mode of reproduction. Thus, the majority of naturally occurring strains are known to reproduce asexually via conidia and sclerotia, and sexually via apothecia. Studies from the 1970?s reported on specific developmental responses to treatments with near-UV, blue, red and far-red light. To unravel the signaling machinery triggering development – and possibly also connected with virulence – we initiated the functional characterization of the transcription factor/photoreceptor BcWCL1 and its partner BcWCL2, that form the White Collar Complex (WCC) in B. cinerea. Using mutants either abolished in or exhibiting enhanced WCC signaling (overexpression of both bcwcl1 and bcwcl2), we demonstrate that the WCC is an integral part of the mentioned machinery by mediating transcriptional responses to white light and the inhibition of conidiation in response to this stimulus. Furthermore, the WCC is required for coping with excessive light, oxidative stress and also to achieve full virulence. Although several transcriptional responses are abolished in the absence of bcwcl1, the expression of some genes is still light induced and a distinct conidiation pattern in response to daily light oscillations is enhanced, revealing a complex underlying photobiology. Though overlaps with well-studied fungal systems exist, the light-associated machinery of B. cinerea appears more complex than those of Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans. PMID:24391918

Hevia, Montserrat A.; Tudzynski, Paul; Larrondo, Luis F.

2013-01-01

143

Sand Hill Rd. Junipero Serra  

E-print Network

Alpine 280 101 Campus Drive Sand Hill Rd. University Palm StockFarm Junipero Serra Page Mill Oregon Floor, South Wing right next to Peet's Coffee. Directions from 280 North or South - Exit Sand Hill Rd

Stanford University

144

Sand and sandstone  

SciTech Connect

Here is a new, second edition of a classical textbook in sedimentology, petrology, and petrography of sand and sandstones. It has been extensively revised and updated, including: new techniques and their utility; new literature; new illustrations; new, explicitly stated problems for the student; and a wider scope.

Pettijohn, F.J.; Potter, P.E.; Siever, R.

1987-01-01

145

Sound-Producing Sand Avalanches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound-producing sand grains constitute one of nature's more puzzling and least understood physical phenomena. They occur naturally in two distinct types: booming and squeaking sands. Although both varieties of sand produce unexpectedly pure acoustic emissions when sheared, they diΠer in their frequency range and duration of emission, as well as the environment in which they tend to be found.

Paul Sholtz; Michael Bretz; Franco Nori

1996-01-01

146

Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Rigg, Tara D; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C; Bowen, Richard; Zabel, Mark D; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2013-01-01

147

Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Rigg, Tara D.; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C.; Bowen, Richard

2013-01-01

148

Polar Sand Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-495, 26 September 2003

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows windblown sand dunes in Chasma Boreale, a wide trough in the north polar region of Mars. The dunes are shown here in their summertime configuration; that is, they are not covered with seasonal frost. The dunes are dark because the grains that make up these sandy landforms consist of dark minerals and/or fragments of dark-toned rock. The steepest slopes on these dunes, their slipfaces, point toward the top/upper left (northwest), indicating that winds blow the sand from the lower right (southeast). This picture is located near 84.7oN, 359.3oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

2003-01-01

149

Cracks and Fins in Sulfate Sand: Evidence for Recent Mineral-Atmospheric Water Cycling in Meridiani Planum Outcrops?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MER rover Opportunity catalogued polygonal cracks and fins on Meridiani. Similar cracks and fins are documented at White Sands National Monument, NM, providing evidence for recent water cycling between sulfate outcrops and the martian atmosphere.

Chavdarian, G. V.; Sumner, D. Y.

2006-03-01

150

Dark Sand Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

13 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars. The dominant winds responsible for these dunes blew from the lower left (southwest). They are located near 76.6oN, 257.2oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper right.

2005-01-01

151

Moving sand dunes  

E-print Network

In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2011-01-01

152

The Uve1 Endonuclease Is Regulated by the White Collar Complex to Protect Cryptococcus neoformans from UV Damage  

PubMed Central

The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans uses the Bwc1-Bwc2 photoreceptor complex to regulate mating in response to light, virulence and ultraviolet radiation tolerance. How the complex controls these functions is unclear. Here, we identify and characterize a gene in Cryptococcus, UVE1, whose mutation leads to a UV hypersensitive phenotype. The homologous gene in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease acting in the UVDE-dependent excision repair (UVER) pathway. C. neoformans UVE1 complements a S. pombe uvde knockout strain. UVE1 is photoregulated in a Bwc1-dependent manner in Cryptococcus, and in Neurospora crassa and Phycomyces blakesleeanus that are species that represent two other major lineages in the fungi. Overexpression of UVE1 in bwc1 mutants rescues their UV sensitivity phenotype and gel mobility shift experiments show binding of Bwc2 to the UVE1 promoter, indicating that UVE1 is a direct downstream target for the Bwc1-Bwc2 complex. Uve1-GFP fusions localize to the mitochondria. Repair of UV-induced damage to the mitochondria is delayed in the uve1 mutant strain. Thus, in C. neoformans UVE1 is a key gene regulated in response to light that is responsible for tolerance to UV stress for protection of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:24039606

Verma, Surbhi; Idnurm, Alexander

2013-01-01

153

Hot spot computational identification: Application to the complex formed between the hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) and the antibody HyHEL-10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The definition and comprehension of the hot spots in an interface is a subject of primary interest for a variety of fields, including structure-based drug design. Therefore, to achieve an alanine mutagenesis computational approach that is at the same time accurate and predictive, capable of reproducing the experimental mutagenesis values is a major challenge in the computational biochemistry field. Antibody/protein antigen complexes provide one of the greatest models to study protein-protein recognition process because they have three fundamentally features: specificity, high complementary association and a small epitope restricted to the diminutive complementary determining regions (CDR) region, while the remainder of the antibody is largely invariant. Thus, we apply a computational mutational methodological approach to the study of the antigen-antibody complex formed between the hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) and the antibody HyHEL-10. A critical evaluation that focuses essentially on the limitations and advantages between different computational methods for hot spot determination, as well as between experimental and computational methodological approaches, is presented.

Moreira, I. S.; Fernandes, P. A.; Ramos, M. J.

154

Activation of White Phosphorus by Low-Valent Group 5 Complexes: Formation and Reactivity of cyclo-P4 Inverted Sandwich Compounds.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis and comprehensive study of the electronic structure of a unique series of dinuclear group 5 cyclo-tetraphosphide inverted sandwich complexes. White phosphorus (P4) reacts with niobium(III) and tantalum(III) ?-diketiminate (BDI) tert-butylimido complexes to produce the bridging cyclo-P4 phosphide species {[(BDI)(N(t)Bu)M]2(?-?(3):?(3)P4)} (1, M = Nb; 2, M = Ta) in fair yields. 1 is alternatively synthesized upon hydrogenolysis of (BDI)Nb(N(t)Bu)Me2 in the presence of P4. The trinuclear side product {[(BDI)NbN(t)Bu]3(?-P12)} (3) is also identified. Protonation of 1 with [HOEt2][B(C6F5)4] does not occur at the phosphide ring but rather involves the BDI ligand to yield {[(BDI(#))Nb(N(t)Bu)]2(?-?(3):?(3)P4)}[B(C6F5)4]2 (4). The monocation and dication analogues {[(BDI)(N(t)Bu)Nb]2(?-?(3):?(3)P4)}{B(Ar(F))4}n (5, n = 1; 6, n = 2) are both synthesized by oxidation of 1 with AgBAr(F). DFT calculations were used in combination with EPR and UV-visible spectroscopies to probe the nature of the metal-phosphorus bonding. PMID:25469924

Camp, Clément; Maron, Laurent; Bergman, Robert G; Arnold, John

2014-12-17

155

Enhancing Simulation of Sand Behavior through 3D Subdivision Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the use of modern computer graphics, visualization and parallel computation continue to provide academic disciplines with new techniques to work with raw data. This is particularly true in the earth and planetary sciences as many researchers are using graphics hardware to process large amounts of data for analysis. Thus, there is an increasing demand for collaboration between computer graphics and the earth sciences. Recognizing this opportunity, we are collaborating with the Oregon Space Grant and IGERT Ecosystem Informatics programs to investigate new techniques for simulating the behavior of sand. In addition, we are also collaborating with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) DARTS Lab to exchange ideas and gain feedback on our work. The DARTS Lab specializes in planetary vehicle simulation, such as the Mars rovers. This simulation utilizes a virtual "sand box" to test how planetary rovers respond to different terrains while traversing them. Unfortunately, this simulation is unable to fully mimic the harsh, sandy environments of those found on Mars. Ideally, these simulations should allow a rover to interact with the sand beneath it, providing further insight into its performance. In particular, there may be situations where a rover may become stuck in sand due to lack of friction between the sand and wheels. Thus, we have been developing a sand simulation framework to mimic the behavior of sand. Treated naively, this is a computationally complex problem, especially if trying to represent millions or even billions of sand particles interacting with each other. However, we can use graphics processing units (GPUs) on modern graphics hardware to subdivide and parallelize the problem. Basically, our idea is to subdivide regions of sand similar to a Level of Detail (LoD) method. Put another way, the more active the sand is in interacting with outside objects, the smaller the region the sand will be represented in the simulation. For example, let's say there is a planetary rover interacting with our sand simulation. Sand that is actively interacting with a rover wheel will be represented as an individual particle whereas sand that is further under the surface will be represented by a 3D region that represents several particles. As a particle region moves closer to the surface, it subdivides into smaller regions until individual sand particles are left. Our technique uses a variation of a 3D Voronoi decomposition in order to generate regions of sand. However, in our iteration, sand on the surface will be subdivided as particles whereas sand deeper into the earth will be subdivided into subsequently larger regions. By doing this, we can represent many more particles of sand than through traditional means. In addition, we have the added benefit of being able to parallelize the interaction between active particles through the use of the GPU. As such, not only are we able to represent vast amounts of sand, but we can also utilize more individual particles at the interaction source. An enhanced sand model through the use of subdivision techniques and GPUs has great potential for earth science research. Our collaborations with JPL have helped to further refine our simulation framework. As a result, we feel this work could also benefit other earth science fields, such as understanding sinkholes and debris flows.

Clothier, M.; Bailey, M.

2011-12-01

156

Ganges Rocks and Sand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

17 January 2004 The top half of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded remnants of sedimentary rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The lower half shows a thick accumulation of dark, windblown sand. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. These features are located near 7.6oS, 49.4oW.

2005-01-01

157

Sand Dunes in Hellas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-537, 7 November 2003

The smooth, rounded mounds in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture are sand dunes. The scene is located in southern Hellas Planitia and was acquired in mid-southern autumn, the ideal time of year for Hellas imaging. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. These dunes are located near 49.1oS, 292.6oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

2003-01-01

158

Fortune Cookie Sand Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-432, 25 July 2003

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of small barchan sand dunes in the north polar region near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Some of them are shaped like fortune cookies. The message these dunes provide: winds blow through this region from the lower right toward the upper left. The steep slip face slopes of these dunes, which point toward the upper left, indicate the wind direction. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

2003-01-01

159

Martian Sand Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

6 January 2004

The north polar cap of Mars is nearly surrounded by fields of dark, windblown sand dunes. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example located near 73.5oN, 75.0oW. The orientation of these dunes indicate that the dominant winds--particularly those that occur during storms--come from the upper left (northwest). The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across, and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2005-01-01

160

The Chromosomal Polymorphism Linked to Variation in Social Behavior in the White-Throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) Is a Complex Rearrangement and Suppressor of Recombination  

PubMed Central

Variation in social behavior and plumage in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) is linked to an inversion polymorphism on chromosome 2. Here we report the results of our comparative cytogenetic mapping efforts and population genetics studies focused on the genomic characterization of this balanced chromosomal polymorphism. Comparative chromosome painting and cytogenetic mapping of 15 zebra finch BAC clones to the standard (ZAL2) and alternative (ZAL2m) arrangements revealed that this chromosome is orthologous to chicken chromosome 3, and that at a minimum, ZAL2 and ZAL2m differ by a pair of included pericentric inversions that we estimate span at least 98 Mb. Population-based sequencing and genotyping of multiple loci demonstrated that ZAL2m suppresses recombination in the heterokaryotype and is evolving as a rare nonrecombining autosomal segment of the genome. In addition, we estimate that the first inversion within the ZAL2m arrangement originated 2.2 ± 0.3 million years ago. Finally, while previously recognized as a genetic model for the evolution of social behavior, we found that the ZAL2/ZAL2m polymorphism also shares genetic and phenotypic features with the mouse t complex and we further suggest that the ZAL2/ZAL2m polymorphism is a heretofore unrecognized model for the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. PMID:18562641

Thomas, James W.; Cáceres, Mario; Lowman, Joshua J.; Morehouse, Caroline B.; Short, Meghan E.; Baldwin, Erin L.; Maney, Donna L.; Martin, Christa L.

2008-01-01

161

A 550 Mbit/s real-time visible light communication system based on phosphorescent white light LED for practical high-speed low-complexity application.  

PubMed

In this paper, we first experimentally demonstrate a 550 Mbit/s real-time visible light communication (VLC) system based on nonreturn-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) modulation of a commercial phosphorescent white light LED. The 3-dB modulation bandwidth of such devices is only a few megahertz. We proposed an analog pre-emphasis circuit based on NPN transistors and an active post-equalization circuit based on an amplifier to enhance the 3-dB bandwidth of VLC link. Utilizing our proposed pre-emphasis and post-equalization circuits, the 3-dB bandwidth of VLC link could be extended from 3 to 233 MHz with blue-filter, to the best of our knowledge, which is the highest ever achieved in VLC systems reported. The achieved data rate was 550 Mbit/s at the distance of 60 cm and the resultant bit-error-ratio (BER) was 2.6 × 10(-9). When the VLC link operated at 160 cm, the data rate was 480 Mbit/s with 2.3 × 10(-7) of BER. Our proposed VLC system is a good solution for high-speed low-complexity application. PMID:25401871

Li, Honglei; Chen, Xiongbin; Guo, Junqing; Chen, Hongda

2014-11-01

162

The chromosomal polymorphism linked to variation in social behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) is a complex rearrangement and suppressor of recombination.  

PubMed

Variation in social behavior and plumage in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) is linked to an inversion polymorphism on chromosome 2. Here we report the results of our comparative cytogenetic mapping efforts and population genetics studies focused on the genomic characterization of this balanced chromosomal polymorphism. Comparative chromosome painting and cytogenetic mapping of 15 zebra finch BAC clones to the standard (ZAL2) and alternative (ZAL2(m)) arrangements revealed that this chromosome is orthologous to chicken chromosome 3, and that at a minimum, ZAL2 and ZAL2(m) differ by a pair of included pericentric inversions that we estimate span at least 98 Mb. Population-based sequencing and genotyping of multiple loci demonstrated that ZAL2(m) suppresses recombination in the heterokaryotype and is evolving as a rare nonrecombining autosomal segment of the genome. In addition, we estimate that the first inversion within the ZAL2(m) arrangement originated 2.2+/-0.3 million years ago. Finally, while previously recognized as a genetic model for the evolution of social behavior, we found that the ZAL2/ZAL2(m) polymorphism also shares genetic and phenotypic features with the mouse t complex and we further suggest that the ZAL2/ZAL2(m) polymorphism is a heretofore unrecognized model for the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. PMID:18562641

Thomas, James W; Cáceres, Mario; Lowman, Joshua J; Morehouse, Caroline B; Short, Meghan E; Baldwin, Erin L; Maney, Donna L; Martin, Christa L

2008-07-01

163

Paleoenvironment and depositional environment of Miocene Olcese Sand, Bakersfield, California  

SciTech Connect

The Olcese Sand near Bakersfield, California, contains evidence of a range of paleoenvironments including nonmarine, estuarine, and outer shelf depositional settings. Foraminifera from surface and subsurface samples place the Olcese in the Saucesian and Relizian of the California benthic stages. A pumice bed in the Olcese has been dated by fission track methods at 15.5 Ma. The Olcese Sand interfingers with the underlying Freeman Silt and the overlying Round Mountain Silt. In the type area, in Round Mountain oil field, the Olcese is 300-360 m thick. The Olcese is subdivided into three environmental facies. In the Knob Hill Quadrangle, the lower Olcese consists of (1) thinly bedded to blocky white tuffaceous silt and sand, or (2) planar cross-bedded fine to coarse-grained sand with pumice pebbles lining the bedding surfaces. Fossil mollusks and skate teeth indicate a shallow marine environment for the lower Olcese. Although the Olcese is predominantly a marine unit, the middle Olcese is nonmarine, with lenses of marine deposition. The middle Olcese is well exposed in the Knob Hill, Oil Center, and Rio Bravo Ranch Quadrangles, and is characterized by fine to coarse sand with occasional gravel lenses, strong cross-bedding, and a blue-gray color. The upper Olcese is a very fine to medium-grained, marine sand that fines upward into a sandy siltstone southward toward the Kern River. Foraminifera and mollusks from outcrops in the Rio Bravo Ranch Quadrangle indicate outer shelf to estuarine environments for the upper Olcese. The varying environments in the Olcese Sand reflect slight but frequent fluctuations in water depth and can be used to interpret the basin-margin history.

Olson, H.C.

1986-04-01

164

Science Learning in the Sand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities that allow students to think about the Earth in a contextual manner and become familiar with constructive and destructive processes as they relate to sand - its origins, cyclical processes, and yielding of new products. Explores the bigger idea with a developmentally appropriate study of water, rocks, sand, physical phenomena,…

Sexton, Ursula

1997-01-01

165

Introduction Sand sole, Psettichthys melanostictus,  

E-print Network

catches (Kramer et al., 1995). Commercial landings of sand sole in California, Oregon, and Wash- ington.Pearson@noaa. gov); Samuel McNally is at 917 Columbia Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060. ABSTRACT--Sand sole commercial fishery to make an initial determination of popu- lation status. We found that catch per unit

166

Assessing the Martian Surface Distribution of Aeolian Sand using a Mars General Circulation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sand transport model using White's sand flux equation and the Mars beneral circulation model was developed to understand the erosional sources, transport pathways, and depositional sinks of windblown sand on Mars. An initially uniform distribution of sand (4 mm over the entire surface) is reeionally transported based on wind stress, saltation threshold, and percentage of topogaphic trapping. Results are consistsnt with the , observed polar and Hellespontus dunes and Christensen's madeled block size distribution, butonly for an extremely law saltation threshold (0.024 N/sq m): Low thresholds generally result in transport of sand-sized particles originating in the northern mid latitudes to the north pole, and transport from the northern lower latitudes to the southern hemisphere. Our results indicate that the polar dune fields could form in 50,000 years, consistent with the active polar dunes and lack of longitudinal dunes observed on the surface of Mars.

Anderson, F. S.; Greeley, R.; Xu, P.; Lo, E.; Blumberg, D. G.; Haberle, R. M.; Murphy, J. R.

1999-01-01

167

Sand pictures : what's missing?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity opens with pictures of traditional African sand paintings called sonas. A sona is comprised of dots and loops. One design is missing, and students are asked to study the patterns and determine the appearance of the missing design. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 math challenges emphasizing real world math, explains the importance of mathematical patterns in archaeology and cultural anthropology. The Hint suggests that students examine the number and arrangement of dots and their relationship to the loops and squares in the designs. Multiple ways to analyze the pattern are given in the solution. Related questions ask students to develop a mathematical formula to express a pattern of dots and to draw lines to connect dots in an array. Answers to all questions and additional resources are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

2002-01-01

168

Sand swimming lizard: sandfish  

E-print Network

We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

2009-01-01

169

Unchanging Desert Sand Dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deserts are one of the major landforms on earth. They occupy nearly 20% of the total land area but are relatively less studied. With the rise in human population, desert regions are being gradually occupied for settlement posing a management challenge to the concerned authorities. Unrestrained erosion is generally a feature of bare dunes. Stabilized dunes, on the other hand, do not undergo major changes in textures, and can thus facilitate the growth of vegetation. Keeping in view of the above factors, better mapping and monitoring of deserts and particularly of sand dunes is needed. Mapping dunes using field instruments is very arduous and they generate relatively sparse data. In this communication, we present a method of clustering and monitoring sand dunes through imagery captured by remote sensing sensors. Initially Radon spectrum of an area is obtained by decomposition of the image into various projections sampled at finer angular directions. Statistical features such as mode, entropy and standard deviation of Radon spectrum are used in delineation and clustering of regions with different dune orientations. These clustered boundaries are used to detect if there are any changes occurring in the dune regions. In the experiment's, remote sensing data covering various dune regions of the world are observed for possible changes in dune orientations. In all the cases, it is seen that there are no major changes in desert dune orientations. While these findings have implications for understanding of dune geomorphology and changes occurring in dune directions, they also highlight the importance of a wider study of dunes and their evolution both at regional and global scales. Results for Dataset 1 & Dataset 2 Results for Dataset 3

Gadhiraju, S.; Banerjee, B.; Buddhiraju, K.; Shah, V.

2013-12-01

170

Differential splicing of COL4A5 mRNA in kidney and white blood cells: A complex mutation in the COL4A5 gene of an Alport patient deletes the NC1 domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential splicing of COL4A5 mRNA in kidney and white blood cells: A complex mutation in the COL4A5 gene of an Alport patient deletes the NC1 domain. PCR conditions were optimized to amplify the COL4A5 cDNA from lymphoblasts and kidney tissue. Sequencing of the COL4A5 mRNA isolated from the kidney of an Alport syndrome patient revealed two differences with the published

Caiying Guo; Boudewijn Van Damme; Rita Van Damme-Lombaerts; Herman Van den Berghe; Jean-Jacques Cassiman; Peter Marynen

1993-01-01

171

Zeeman tomography of magnetic white dwarfs IV. The complex field structure of the polars EF Eri, BL Hyi, and CP Tuc  

E-print Network

The magnetic fields of the accreting white dwarfs (WDs) in magnetic cataclysmic variables (mCVs) determine the accretion geometries, the emission properties, and the secular evolution of these objects. We determine the structure of the surface magnetic fields of the WDs primaries in magnetic CVs using Zeeman tomography. Our study is based on orbital-phase resolved optical flux and circular polarization spectra of the polars EF Eri, BL Hyi, and CP Tuc obtained with FORS1 at the ESO VLT. An evolutionary algorithm is used to synthesize best fits to these spectra from an extensive database of pre-computed Zeeman spectra. The general approach has been described in previous papers of this series. The results achieved with simple geometries as centered or offset dipoles are not satisfactory. Significantly improved fits are obtained for multipole expansions that are truncated at degree l(max)=3 or 5 and include all tesseral and sectoral components with 0CP Tuc and the ranges of field strength covered are similar for the dipole and multipole models, but only the latter provide access to accreting matter at the right locations on the WD. The results suggest that the field geometries of the WDs in short-period mCVs are quite complex with strong contributions from multipoles higher than the dipole in spite of a typical age of the WDs in CVs in excess of 1 Gyr. It is feasible to derive the surface field structure of an accreting WD from phase-resolved low-state circular spectropolarimetry of sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. The fact that independent information is available on the strength and direction of the field in the accretion spot from high-state observations helps in unraveling the global field structure.

K. Beuermann; F. Euchner; K. Reinsch; S. Jordan; B. T. Gaensicke

2006-10-26

172

Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate and impacting directly upon human health. Research in aeolian transport involves the inter-related fields of fluid dynamics, granular materials and electrification/electrostatics which are in themselves diverse and complex. This review only touches upon this intricacy, but aims to overview the latest work which is expanding our current understanding and outline the areas of advancement needed in the future. Presentation is made of current models for wind driven detachment/entrainment and the transport rates of sand and dust, including the effects of contact induced grain electrification. This ubiquitous phenomenon can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work has implications for the evolution of all terrestrial-like planetary surfaces. Studies in non-terrestrial environments force researchers to be less empirical, ultimately leading to a deeper understanding of these processes.

Merrison, J. P.

2012-06-01

173

Nematodes Infect, But Do Not Manipulate Digging By, Sand Crabs, Lepidopa benedicti  

PubMed Central

We examined sand crabs (Lepidopa benedicti) for endoparasites, and found the only parasite consistently infecting the studied population were small nematodes. Because many nematodes have complex life cycles involving multiple hosts, often strongly manipulating their hosts, we hypothesized that nematodes alter the behavior of their sand crab hosts. We predicted that more heavily infected crabs would spend more time above sand than less heavily infected crabs. Our data indicate infection by nematodes was not correlated with duration of time crabs spent above sand. We also suggest that organisms living in sandy beaches may benefit from relatively low parasite loads due to the low diversity of species in the habitat. PMID:24916475

Joseph, Meera; Faulkes, Zen

2014-01-01

174

Animating Sand as a Fluid Yongning Zhu  

E-print Network

Animating Sand as a Fluid by Yongning Zhu B.Sc., Peking University, 2003 A THESIS SUBMITTED;Abstract My thesis presents a physics-based simulation method for animating sand. To allow for efficiently scaling up to large volumes of sand, we abstract away the individual grains and think of the sand

Bridson, Robert

175

Continuum saltation model for sand dunes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive a phenomenological continuum saltation model for aeolian sand transport that can serve as an efficient tool for geomorphological applications. The coupled differential equations for the average density and velocity of sand in the saltation layer reproduce both the known equilibrium relations for the sand flux and the time evolution of the sand flux as predicted by microscopic saltation

Gerd Sauermann; Klaus Kroy; Hans J. Herrmann

2001-01-01

176

Dating of Sand Dunes Using Cosmogenic Chlorine-36: An Example From the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA  

E-print Network

Dating of Sand Dunes Using Cosmogenic Chlorine-36: An Example From the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA- ing sand dunes based on the accumulation of cosmogenic chlorine-36 in sand grains. The concen- tration of chlorine-36 in a stable sand dune primarily depends on the length of time the dune has been exposed

Zreda, Marek

177

Journal of Environmental Management (1996) 48, 299303 Estimating 24-h Habitat Use Patterns of White-Tailed Deer from  

E-print Network

of White-Tailed Deer from Diurnal Use Brian J. Kernohan, Jonathan A. Jenks, David E. Naugle and Joshua J habitat use patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, habitat use, Odocoileus virginianus, radio telemetry, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. 1. Introduction

178

White Pelican  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American white pelican is still considered endangered in Alberta, Canada, where the population is increasing but fewer than half of the 20 known historic nesting islands are still in use. The site provides information on this magnificent bird: habitat, general biological data, risk factors, and management. External links to Canadian parks, nonprofit groups, and other species profiles also included.

179

White Tern  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The White Tern is one of eight seabird species whose population density and susceptibility to sea-level rise was studied on the French Frigate Shoals' Tern Island by biologists with the USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center's Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Climate Change Project.  ...

180

The Chromosomal Polymorphism Linked to Variation in Social Behavior in the White-Throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) Is a Complex Rearrangement and Suppressor of Recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in social behavior and plumage in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) is linked to an inversion polymorphism on chromosome 2. Here we report the results of our comparative cytogenetic mapping efforts and population genetics studies focused on the genomic characterization of this balanced chromosomal polymorphism. Comparative chromosome painting and cytogenetic mapping of 15 zebra finch BAC clones to the

James W. Thomas; Mario Caceres; Joshua J. Lowman; Caroline B. Morehouse; Meghan E. Short; Erin L. Baldwin; Donna L. Maney; Christa L. Martin

2008-01-01

181

Caryophyllaceae (Pink family) White campion (white cockle)  

E-print Network

Caryophyllaceae (Pink family) White campion (white cockle) Silene latifolia Poir. Life cycle Annual Similar weeds Bladder campion [S. vulgaris (Moench) Garcke] Differs by having a strong perennial nature

182

The role of suspended load transport in the occurrence of tidal sand waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

sand waves are dynamic bed patterns which are formed by the complex interaction between hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and geomorphology. Field data from the southern North Sea reveal that sand waves are absent where suspended load transport is the dominant transport mode. In order to understand the mechanisms responsible for the absence of sand waves, we study the influence of suspended load transport on the formation of tidal sand waves with a numerical process-based geomorphological model (Delft3D). Model simulations are presented in which the vertical eddy viscosity and sediment diffusivity are both spatially and temporally variable (k-? turbulence model). First, it is shown that the preferred wavelength of sand waves for a relatively large grain size increases by the inclusion of suspended sediment, while for a relatively small grain size the flat bed is stable and no sand waves evolve. Second, it is shown that suspended load transport causes the suppression of long sand waves, resulting in a finite range of wavelengths that experience growth. Finally, by varying flow velocity amplitude and grain size, critical conditions for sand wave formation are found, i.e., conditions for which sand waves are marginally generated.

Borsje, B. W.; Kranenburg, W. M.; Roos, P. C.; Matthieu, J.; Hulscher, S. J. M. H.

2014-04-01

183

The binding of platinum hexahalides (Cl, Br and I) to hen egg-white lysozyme and the chemical transformation of the PtI6 octahedral complex to a PtI3 moiety bound to His15  

PubMed Central

This study examines the binding and chemical stability of the platinum hexahalides K2PtCl6, K2PtBr6 and K2PtI6 when soaked into pre-grown hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals as the protein host. Direct comparison of the iodo complex with the chloro and bromo complexes shows that the iodo complex is partly chemically transformed to a square-planar PtI3 complex bound to the N? atom of His15, a chemical behaviour that is not exhibited by the chloro or bromo complexes. Each complex does, however, bind to HEWL in its octahedral form either at one site (PtI6) or at two sites (PtBr6 and PtCl6). As heavy-atom derivatives of a protein, the octahedral shape of the hexahalides could be helpful in cases of difficult-to-interpret electron-density maps as they would be recognisable ‘objects’. PMID:25195880

Tanley, Simon W. M.; Starkey, Laurina-Victoria; Lamplough, Lucinda; Kaenket, Surasek; Helliwell, John R.

2014-01-01

184

Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

2010-12-31

185

Intramural Sports Sand Volleyball League  

E-print Network

Handbook. Insurance The Department of Recreational Sports does not provide health or accident insuranceIntramural Sports Sand Volleyball League Summer 2014 Intramural Sports Calendar of Events Summer 2014 Potential Division Offerings Men's (Tuesdays) Women's (Tuesdays) Co-Rec (Wednesdays) Sports

Escher, Christine

186

The involvement of sand disturbance, cannibalism and intra-guild predation in competitive interactions among pit-building antlion larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition in trap-building predators such as antlion larvae is a complex biotic interaction, potentially involving exploitation competition, sand throwing (i.e., interference competition), cannibalism and intra-guild predation. We investigated the short-term behavioral and developmental responses of the strict sit-and-wait antlion predator Myrmeleon hyalinus to sand disturbance (i.e., quantification of the impact of severe sand throwing), and to con- and hetero-specific competition

Erez D. Barkae; Inon Scharf; Aziz Subach; Ofer Ovadia

2010-01-01

187

Lipid, Fatty Acid and Energy Density Profiles of White Sharks: Insights into the Feeding Ecology and Ecophysiology of a Complex Top Predator  

PubMed Central

Lipids are major sources of metabolic energy in sharks and are closely linked to environmental conditions and biological cycles, such as those related to diet, reproduction and migration. In this study, we report for the first time, the total lipid content, lipid class composition and fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver tissue of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, of various lengths (1.5–3.9 m), sampled at two geographically separate areas off southern and eastern Australia. Muscle tissue was low in total lipid content (<0.9% wet mass, wm) and was dominated by phospholipids (>90% of total lipid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (34±12% of total fatty acids). In contrast, liver was high in total lipid which varied between 51–81% wm and was dominated by triacylglycerols (>93%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (36±12%). With knowledge of total lipid and dry tissue mass, we estimated the energy density of muscle (18.4±0.1 kJ g?1 dm) and liver (34.1±3.2 kJ g?1 dm), demonstrating that white sharks have very high energetic requirements. High among-individual variation in these biochemical parameters and related trophic markers were observed, but were not related to any one biological or environmental factor. Signature fatty acid profiles suggest that white sharks over the size range examined are generalist predators with fish, elasmobranchs and mammalian blubber all contributing to the diet. The ecological applications and physiological influences of lipids in white sharks are discussed along with recommendations for future research, including the use of non-lethal sampling to examine the nutritional condition, energetics and dietary relationships among and between individuals. Such knowledge is fundamental to better understand the implications of environmental perturbations on this iconic and threatened species. PMID:24871223

Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Parrish, Christopher C.; Bruce, Barry D.; Young, Jock W.; Nichols, Peter D.

2014-01-01

188

Cell wall integrity, genotoxic injury and PCD dynamics in alfalfa saponin-treated white poplar cells highlight a complex link between molecule structure and activity.  

PubMed

In the present work, eleven saponins and three sapogenins purified from Medicago sativa were tested for their cytotoxicity against highly proliferating white poplar (Populus alba L.) cell suspension cultures. After preliminary screening, four saponins with different structural features in terms of aglycone moieties and sugar chains (saponin 3, a bidesmoside of hederagenin; saponins 4 and 5, monodesmoside and bidesmoside of medicagenic acid respectively, and saponin 10, a bidesmoside of zanhic acid) and different cytotoxicity were selected and used for further investigation on their structure-activity relationship. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses provided for the first time evidence of the effects exerted by saponins on plant cell wall integrity. Exposure to saponin 3 and saponin 10 resulted into disorganization of the outer wall layer and the effect was even more pronounced in white poplar cells treated with the two medicagenic acid derivatives, saponins 4 and 5. Oxidative burst and nitric oxide accumulation were common hallmarks of the response of white poplar cells to saponins. When DNA damage accumulation and DNA repair profiles were evaluated by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis, induction of single and double strand breaks followed by effective repair was observed within 24h. The reported data are discussed in view of the current issues dealing with saponin structure-activity relationship. PMID:25660272

Paparella, Stefania; Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa; Biazzi, Elisa; Macovei, Anca; Biggiogera, Marco; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

2015-03-01

189

Development of stresses in cohesionless poured sand  

E-print Network

Development of stresses in cohesionless poured sand By M. E. Cates1 , J. P. Wittmer1 , J a conical sandpile, created by pouring sand from a point source onto a rough rigid support, shows) is required for systems with two-dimensional symmetry, such as a wedge of sand; for a three

Claudin, Philippe

190

EFFECTS of OIL MIXED with CARBONIZED SAND  

E-print Network

m #12;#12;EFFECTS of OIL MIXED with CARBONIZED SAND on AQUATIC ANIMALS Marine Biological l SAND ON AOTTATIC ANIMALS By Walter A. Chipman and Paul S. Gaits off. Fishery Research Biologists CONTENT Pago Preface Introduction 1 Injury to aquatic life caused by oil. 2 Amount of carbonized sand

191

Animating Sand as a Fluid Yongning Zhu  

E-print Network

Animating Sand as a Fluid Yongning Zhu University of British Columbia Robert Bridson University of British Columbia Figure 1: The Stanford bunny is simulated as water and as sand. Abstract We present a physics-based simulation method for animating sand. To allow for efficiently scaling up to large volumes

Teschner, Matthias

192

Fluvial sand shapes: effects of tributary mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similarities and differences in gross shapes of fluvial quartz sand grains contain information useful for interpretation of sediment transport history. The shapes of sand grains in a given river depend on the source, or sources, of sand within the drainage basin and on the abrasion and shape sorting that has occurred during transport. It is highly unlikely that 2 major

1985-01-01

193

Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2010-03-09

194

Sand Dome on a Steam Engine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Steam engines used high-grade silica sand for traction on the rails. Sand was stored in a dome on top of the engine and, as the train traveled the tracks, the sand would be sprinkled down pipes to land on the tracks in front of the wheels. This would aid the wheels in gripping the tracks, especially...

195

Induced polarization of clay-sand mixtures. Experiments and modelling.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex conductivity of saturated unconsolidated sand-clay mixtures was experimentally investigated using two types of clay minerals, kaolinite and smectite (mainly Na-Montmorillonite) in the frequency range 1.4 mHz - 12 kHz. The experiments were performed with various clay contents (1, 5, 20, and 100 % in volume of the sand-clay mixture) and salinities (distilled water, 0.1 g/L, 1 g/L, and 10 g/L NaCl solution). Induced polarization measurements were performed with a cylindrical four-electrode sample-holder associated with a SIP-Fuchs II impedance meter and non-polarizing Cu/CuSO4 electrodes. The results illustrate the strong impact of the CEC of the clay minerals upon the complex conductivity. The quadrature conductivity increases steadily with the clay content. We observe that the dependence on frequency of the quadrature conductivity of sand-kaolinite mixtures is more important than for sand-bentonite mixtures. For both types of clay, the quadrature conductivity seems to be fairly independent on the pore fluid salinity except at very low clay contents. The experimental data show good agreement with predicted values given by our SIP model. This complex conductivity model considers the electrochemical polarization of the Stern layer coating the clay particles and the Maxwell-Wagner polarization. We use the differential effective medium theory to calculate the complex conductivity of the porous medium constituted of the grains and the electrolyte. The SIP model includes also the effect of the grain size distribution upon the complex conductivity spectra.

Okay, G.; Leroy, P.

2012-04-01

196

Australian Red Dune Sand: A Potential Martian Regolith Analog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To demonstrate the potential scientific and technical merits of in situ microscopy on Mars, we analyzed a possible Martian regolith analog - an acolian red dune sand from the central Australian desert (near Mt. Olga). This sand was chosen for its ubiquitous red coating and the desert environment in which is it found. Grains of this sand were analyzed using a variety of microanalytical techniques. A database of detailed studies of such terrestrial analogs would assist the study of geological and astrobiological specimens in future missions to Mars. Potential instrument concepts for in situ deployment on Mars include local electrode atom probe nanoanalysis (LEAP), vertical scanning white light interferometry (VSWLI), scanning electron microscopies, energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). While in situ deployment of these techniques is many years away, ground-based studies using these analytical techniques extend our understanding of the data obtained from instruments to be flown in the near future.

Kuhlman, K. R.; Marshall, J.; Evans, N. D.; Luttge, A.

2001-01-01

197

A study of infiltration on three sand capillary barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capillary barrier effect was investigated by conducting infiltration tests on three soil columns of fine sand over medium sand, medium sand over gravelly sand, and fine sand over gravelly sand. The barrier effect was ver- ified in the underlying layer of coarser material, and the water-entry values of the coarser layers were confirmed to be nearly equal to the

Hong Yang; H. Rahardjo; E. C. Leong; D. G. Fredlund

2004-01-01

198

Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

1984-05-01

199

Documentation of Recent Surface Winds on Martian Sand Dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) are of sufficient resolution to record wind ripple patterns on the surfaces of sand dunes present across the surface of Mars. We are in the early stages of an investigation to map the ripple orientations preserved on Martian sand dunes, in order to evaluate the recent wind flow over the dunes, and compare that wind flow pattern to the winds documented over terrestrial sand dunes. HiRISE image ESP_025645_1455 covers a sand dune field on the floor of a 20-km-diameter unnamed impact crater in the Terra Cimmeria region of the southern highlands, east of the Hellas impact basin. This image is centered at 34.23 S latitude, 138.437 E longitude with 25 cm/pixel resolution, and was taken on Jan 25 of 2012 during northern spring (Ls = 57.4). Using ArcGIS, lines were drawn across three ripples perpendicular to the ripple crests, avoiding places where complex ripple patterns suggest more than one recent wind direction. The length of the lines provides a measure of ripple wavelength, and the line orientation gives azimuth (with a 180 degree absolute ambiguity). The barchan-like shape of some dunes, including occasional slip faces, suggest sand driving winds were from the southwest, although dune asymmetries indicate the wind regime likely was much more complex than a unimodal wind. Measurements of ripple orientations are being collected from dune locations across the planet, which should provide new constraints for the modeling of recent Martian winds. This work was supported by NASA MDAP grant NNX12AJ38G.

Zimbelman, J. R.; Johnson, M. B.

2013-12-01

200

Thermal Properties of oil sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

2013-12-01

201

Biographical Sketch DOUGLAS R. WHITE  

E-print Network

.cdlib.org/imbs/socdyn/wp/Standard_Cross-Cultural_Sample/ 2007 Role Models for Complex Networks, Joerg Reichart and Douglas R. White. European Physical Journal B Anthropology BA 1964 University of Minnesota Anthropology PhD 1969 ii. Academic appointments 1982-present Professor, Anthropology, University of California, Irvine 1976-79 Associate Professor, Comparative Culture

White, Douglas R.

202

Ryan White Program  

MedlinePLUS

... and bisexual men. 14 Ryan White Parts, Grantees, & Structure The Ryan White Program consists of several “Parts” ( ... assist in developing a standard electronic client information data system. Ryan White Funding Federal funding for the ...

203

SAMPLING FOR SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) ON RANCHES WITH HISTORIES OF VESICULAR STOMATITIS DISEASE IN NEW MEXICO AND COLORADO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The possible presence of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) among colonies of white-tailed prairie dogs, Cynomys gunnisoni Baird, was investigated on or near ranches with histories of vesicular stomatitis (VS) in domestic livestock in the mid-Rio Grande River Valley, New Mexico and West-slope region...

204

Dominance of Changes in Bed-Sand Grain Size Over Bed-Sand Area in Regulating Suspended-Sand Concentration: Examples From the Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sand transport in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons was naturally limited by the upstream supply of sand. Prior to the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the river exhibited the following four effects of sand supply limitation: (1) hysteresis in suspended-sand concentration, (2) hysteresis in suspended-sand grain size coupled to the hysteresis in suspended-sand concentration, (3) production

D. J. Topping; D. M. Rubin; S. A. Wright; T. S. Melis

2007-01-01

205

Rethinking White Resistance: Exploring the Discursive Practices and Psychical Negotiations of "Whiteness" in Feminist, Anti-Racist Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how under-theorized representations of whiteness in pedagogical literatures have informed simplistic ideas about white resistance among students. It is argued that the performance and practice of discourses of whiteness in pedagogical contexts, and the subjective, psychical and emotional complexities of engaging with…

Ringrose, Jessica

2007-01-01

206

Cadmium selenide nanocrystals as white-light phosphors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there has been great interest in developing direct white-light phosphors for solid state lighting. Current commercial white light emitting diodes (LEDs) rely on complicated fabrication methods to produce white light. Utilizing magic-sized, white-light emitting cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystals as a direct white-light phosphor eliminates the need for complex doping schemes and deposition techniques. Herein we report preliminary data representing the first elementary steps in designing and optimizing device architectures for building high-quality, highly efficient white-light emitting LEDs for solid state lighting.

Gosnell, Jonathan D.; Schreuder, Michael A.; Bowers, Michael J., II; Rosenthal, Sandra J.; Weiss, Sharon M.

2006-08-01

207

76 FR 60557 - Closure of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Two White Flint North Building Entrance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Two White Flint North Building Entrance AGENCY: Nuclear...2011, all visitors to the NRC White Flint Complex headquarters shall be required...through the recently renovated One White Flint North (OWFN) building entrance...

2011-09-29

208

The effect of EDTA, NTA and picolinic acid on Th(IV) mobility in a ternary system with natural sand.  

PubMed

Organic complexing agents, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and picolinic acid, have been widely used at nuclear sites and are therefore found as common co-contaminants in radioactive contaminated land. This study has explored the mechanisms by which these three complexing agents affect the sorption of Th(IV) to pure silica and a natural sand. EDTA, NTA and, to a lesser extent, picolinic acid decreased the sorption of Th to silica, demonstrating the formation and solubility of Th complexes. However, Th sorption to sand was kinetically controlled and complexation enhanced the rate of Th sorption. EDTA and NTA did not sorb significantly to the sand, and metal desorption indicated that the mechanism involved exchange with sand-associated metals. At equilibrium, however, Th sorption was not affected by the presence of the ligands, and modelling suggested that the interaction between Th and the surface binding sites controlled Th sorption thermodynamically. PMID:22243891

Reinoso-Maset, Estela; Worsfold, Paul J; Keith-Roach, Miranda J

2012-03-01

209

A branching process model for sand avalanches  

SciTech Connect

An analytically solvable model for sand avalanches of noninteracting grains of sand, based on the Chapman-Kolmogorov equations, is presented. For a single avalanche, distributions of lifetimes, sizes of overflows and avalanches, and correlation functions are calculated. Some of these are exponentials, some are power laws. Spatially homogeneous distributions of avalanches are also studied. Computer simulations of avalanches of interacting grains of sand are compared to the solutions to the Chapman-Kolmogorov equations. It is found that within the range of parameters explored in the simulation, the approximation of noninteracting grains of sand is a good one. 20 refs., 4 figs.

Garcia-Pelayo, R.; Salazar, I.; Schieve, W.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-07-01

210

Coupled changes in sand grain size and sand transport driven by changes in the upstream supply of sand in the Colorado River: relative importance of changes in bed-sand grain size and bed-sand area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sand transport in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons was naturally limited by the upstream supply of sand. Prior to the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the river exhibited the following four effects of sand supply limitation: (1) hysteresis in sediment concentration, (2) hysteresis in sediment grain size coupled to the hysteresis in sediment concentration, (3) production of inversely graded flood deposits, and (4) development or modification of a lag between the time of a flood peak and the time of either maximum or minimum (depending on reach geometry) bed elevation. Construction and operation of the dam has enhanced the degree to which the first two of these four effects are evident, and has not affected the degree to which the last two effects of sand supply limitation are evident in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons. The first three of the effects involve coupled changes in suspended-sand concentration and grain size that are controlled by changes in the upstream supply of sand. During tributary floods, sand on the bed of the Colorado River fines; this causes the suspended sand to fine and the suspended-sand concentration to increase, even when the discharge of water remains constant. Subsequently, the bed is winnowed of finer sand, the suspended sand coarsens, and the suspended-sand concentration decreases independently of discharge. Also associated with these changes in sand supply are changes in the fraction of the bed that is covered by sand. Thus, suspended-sand concentration in the Colorado River is likely regulated by both changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area. A physically based flow and suspended-sediment transport model is developed, tested, and applied to data from the Colorado River to evaluate the relative importance of changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area in regulating suspended-sand concentration. Although the model was developed using approximations for steady, uniform flow, and other simplifications that are not met in the Colorado River, the results nevertheless support the idea that changes in bed-sand grain size are much more important than changes in bed-sand area in regulating the concentration of suspended sand.

Topping, D.J.; Rubin, D.M.; Melis, T.S.

2007-01-01

211

The White Nile sedimentary system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nile River flows for ~6700 km from south of the Equator to finally reach the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes (Woodward et al. 2007). This is the longest sedimentological laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are investigating changes in sediment composition associated with diverse chemical and physical processes, including weathering and hydraulic sorting. The present study focuses on the southern branch of the Nile across 20° of latitude, from hyperhumid Burundi and Rwanda highlands in central Africa to Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan at the southern edge of the Sahara. Our study of the Kagera basin emphasizes the importance of weathering in soils at the source rather than during stepwise transport, and shows that the transformation of parent rocks into quartzose sand may be completed in one sedimentary cycle (Garzanti et al. 2013a). Micas and heavy minerals, less effectively diluted by recycling than main framework components, offer the best key to identify the original source-rock imprint. The different behaviour of chemical indices such as the CIA (a truer indicator of weathering) and the WIP (markedly affected by quartz dilution) helps us to distinguish strongly weathered first-cycle versus polycyclic quartz sands (Garzanti et al. 2013b). Because sediment is efficiently trapped in East African Rift lakes, the composition of Nile sediments changes repeatedly northwards across Uganda. Downstream of both Lake Kyoga and Lake Albert, quartzose sands are progressively enriched in metamorphiclastic detritus supplied from tributaries draining amphibolite-facies basements. The evolution of White Nile sediments across South Sudan, a scarcely accessible region that suffered decades of civil war, was inferred from the available information (Shukri 1950), integrated by original petrographic, heavy-mineral and geochemical data (Padoan et al. 2011). Mineralogical and isotopic signatures of Bahr-el-Jebel and Sobat sediments, derived respectively from Archean gneisses of Uganda and Neoproterozoic basements of Ethiopia, become gradually homogenized and enriched in quartz, and remain finally unchanged down to Khartoum. This suggests massive sediment dumping in the Sudd and Machar Marshes, and explains why White Nile sediment contribution to the main Nile is negligible (Garzanti et al. 2006). REFERENCES Garzanti E., Andò S., Vezzoli G., Megid A.A.A., El Kammar A., 2006. Petrology of Nile River sands (Ethiopian and Sudan): sediment budgets and erosion patterns. EPSL 252:327-341. Garzanti E., Padoan M., Setti M., Peruta L., Najman Y., Villa I.M., 2013. Weathering geochemistry and Sr-Nd fingerprints of equatorial upper Nile and Congo muds. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14:292-316. Garzanti E., Padoan M., Andò S., Resentini A., Vezzoli G., Lustrino M., 2013. Weathering and relative durability of detrital minerals in equatorial climate: sand petrology and geochemistry in the East African Rift. J.Geol. 121:547-580. Padoan M., Garzanti E., Harlavan Y., Villa I.M., 2011. Tracing Nile sediment sources by Sr and Nd isotope signatures (Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75:3627-3644. Shukri N.M., 1950. The mineralogy of some Nile sediments. Quart. J. Geol. Soc. London 105:511-534. Woodward J.C., Macklin M.G., Krom M.D., Williams M.A.J. 2007. The Nile: Evolution, quaternary river environments and material fluxes. In: Large Rivers, Avijit Gupta (Ed.), Wiley, 261-292.

Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

2014-05-01

212

Coupled changes in sand grain size and sand transport driven by changes in the upstream supply of sand in the Colorado River: Relative importance of changes in bed-sand grain size and bed-sand area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sand transport in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons was naturally limited by the upstream supply of sand. Prior to the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the river exhibited the following four effects of sand supply limitation: (1) hysteresis in sediment concentration, (2) hysteresis in sediment grain size coupled to the hysteresis in sediment concentration, (3) production

D. J. Topping; D. M. Rubin; T. S. Melis

2007-01-01

213

NEARSHORE SAND SOURCES FOR AMERICAN SAMOA: AN ALTERNATIVE TO USING BEACH SAND.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a combination of geophysical techniques, in situ observations, and sampling by scuba divers, we investigated along the south shore of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, for nearshore sand deposits. To minimize the impact of future sand dredging on the island's littoral sediments, the search took place in a narrow zone between the outside of the fringing reef and the 30-m bathymetric contour. Because the sand will be used by the Samoans in a variety of ways, an area high in siliciclastic sand - Nua-Se'etaga Bay - and two areas containing only carbonate sand - Faga'itua Bay and Nafanua Bank - were inspected in detail. Results of the exploration program are discussed.

Dingler, John R.; Reiss, Thomas E.

1987-01-01

214

Elastic properties of unconsolidated porous sand reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of compressive stress and pore fluid properties on elastic properties of unconsolidated sand reservoirs was determined by laboratory velocity and pore volume measurements on two specimens. These consisted of a naturally occurring very fine grained sand and glass beads, each with a porosity of approximately 38 percent. Compressional- and shear-wave velocities and pore compressibility were measured in the

S. N. Domenico

1977-01-01

215

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN SLOW SAND FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), including the Surface Water Treatment Rule, have helped to renew the interest in the use of slow sand filtration (SSF) for treating surface waters for small communities. low sand filtration is not a...

216

Introduction to Exploring Sand and Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What happens when children pour water through a funnel? They begin to understand science and math concepts such as flow, force, gravity, and volume. What happens when children mold sand to create a tunnel? They develop skills in areas such as problem solving and predicting. They also gain knowledge about absorption and the properties of sand and…

Early Childhood Today, 2006

2006-01-01

217

... Forward............. 1 Sand and Salt: A  

E-print Network

Contents The Road ... Forward............. 1 Sand and Salt: A Model for Change... 2 Commonly Used, without Sand and Salt: A Model for Change Duane `Dewey'Amsler, Circuit Rider, Cornell Local Roads Program_and_nibbles The Road ... Forward David P. Orr, PE, Director / Senior Engineer, Cornell Local Roads Program Only you can

Walter, M.Todd

218

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Sand Filters  

E-print Network

: ? Intermittent sand filter, in which wastewater is applied periodically to a 24- to 36-inch- Bruce Lesikar Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer The Texas A&M System Wastewater applied to the sand filter should be pretreated, such as in a septic...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-10-23

219

UMore Park Sand and Gravel Resources Project University of Minnesota  

E-print Network

UMore Park Sand and Gravel Resources Project University of Minnesota Public Comment Forum and Open ­ Steven Lott, Co-project manager, UMore Park Sand and Gravel Resources Project 6:40 The UMore Park Sand

Netoff, Theoden

220

Altitude of the top of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand in three areas of Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand form the second most productive aquifer in Arkansas. The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand range in thick- ness from 0 to 900 feet, consisting of fine- to medium-grained sands interbedded with layers of silt, clay, shale, and minor amounts of lignite. Within the three areas of interest, the top surface of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand dips regionally east and southeast towards the axis of the Mississippi Embayment syncline and Desha Basin. Local variations in the top surface may be attributed to a combination of continued development of structural features, differential compaction, localized faulting, and erosion of the surface prior to subsequent inundation and deposition of younger sediments.

Pugh, Aaron L.; Westerfield, Paul W.; Gonthier, Gerard J.; Poynter, David T.

1998-01-01

221

Intergroup Stereotypes of Working Class Blacks and Whites: Implications for Stereotype Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined stereotypes of urban blacks and whites at a flea market with 68 black respondents, and at another flea market with 20 white respondents. Cluster-analysis results show that blacks have a relatively complex, multidimensional representation of themselves and of whites, while whites seem to have a more simplistic and negative view of blacks.…

Niemann, Yolanda Flores; O'Connor, Elizabeth; McClorie, Randall

1998-01-01

222

Coating of silica sand with aluminosilicate clay.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to coat aluminosilicate clays on an inert silica support, and to characterize the properties and stability of the clay-silica coating. Two polymers, polyacrylamide (PAM) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), were used to bind kaolinite, illite, and smectite onto silica grains. The clay-polymer composites were studied by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, and electrophoretic mobility. Clay coatings on silica grains were characterized by mass coverage, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area, and pH stability. Silica sand was successfully coated with clays by using the two polymers, but with PVA, the clay coating had a greater mass coverage and was more stable against pH variations. Less polymer was needed for the clay coating using PVA as compared to using PAM. Clay-polymer complexes and pure clay minerals had similar cation exchange capacities and electrophoretic mobilities, indicating that overall surface charge of the clays was little affected by the polymers. Some decrease in hydrophilicity was observed for illite and smectite when clays where coated with the polymers. The methodology reported here allows the generation of a clay-based porous matrix, with hydraulic properties that can be varied by adjusting the grain size of the inert silica support. PMID:16085082

Jerez, Jorge; Flury, Markus; Shang, Jianying; Deng, Youjun

2006-02-01

223

Thermoresponsive scattering coating for smart white LEDs.  

PubMed

White light emitting diode (LED) systems, capable of lowering the color temperature of emitted light on dimming, have been reported in the literature. These systems all use multiple color LEDs and complex control circuitry. Here we present a novel responsive lighting system based on a single white light emitting LED and a thermoresponsive scattering coating. The coated LED automatically emits light of lower correlated color temperature (CCT) when the power is reduced. We also present results on the use of multiple phosphors in the white light LED allowing for the emission of warm white light in the range between 2900 K and 4150 K, and with a chromaticity complying with the ANSI standards (C78.377). This responsive warm white light LED-system with close-to-ideal emission characteristics is highly interesting for the lighting industry. PMID:25607501

Bauer, Jurica; Verbunt, Paul P C; Lin, Wan-Yu; Han, Yang; Van, My-Phung; Cornelissen, Hugo J; Yu, Joan J H; Bastiaansen, Cees W M; Broer, Dirk J

2014-12-15

224

Desiccation, cryopreservation and water relations parameters of white spruce (Picea glauca) and interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii complex) somatic embryos.  

PubMed

Effects of drying and cryopreservation on survival of spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss and Picea glauca x engelmannii complex) somatic embryos (SEs) were investigated with the aim of developing simple and robust protocols for embryo storage. Somatic embryos dried over salt solutions of known water potential (Psi) survived removal of virtually all free water, to a relative water content (RWC) of approximately 0.13, a value similar to that for spruce zygotic embryos from dry seed. Desiccated SEs also survived subsequent freezing in liquid nitrogen, without the addition of cryoprotectant or pre-culture steps. Highest survival (> 80%) after freezing in liquid nitrogen was in embryos pre-dried to Psi of -15 to -20 MPa, which yielded RWC close to predicted bound (apoplastic) water values. Low (< 35%) or no survival after freezing was observed in embryos pretreated at higher Psi (above -5 MPa) or at very low Psi (-540 MPa, using silica gel), respectively. PMID:11731340

Percy, R E; Livingston, N J; Moran, J A; Von Aderkas, P

2001-12-01

225

Indications and potential sources of change in sand transport in the Brazos River, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Changes in the capacity of the Brazos River to transport sand can be identified within the context of Lane?s relation through changes in channel geometry, changes in the characteristics of suspended loads, and changes in discharge. The Brazos River channel has been undergoing continual adjustment since the 1940s. For a discharge of 5,000 cubic feet per second, the water-surface altitude has decreased 2 to 4 feet at the Hempstead and Richmond streamflow-gaging stations between 1940 and 1995. The characteristics of suspended-sediment samples at the Richmond streamflow-gaging station have changed between the periods 1969?81 and 1982?95. The amount of sand-size sediment transported in suspension has decreased. The distribution of both daily and annual-peak discharges has changed. However, the computed annual loads of suspended sand indicate no statistically significant change in the median annual load. The transport of sand in the Brazos River depends on a complex set of factors, most of which are continually changing. Potential sources of change in sand transport in the Brazos River include the effects of reservoir construction, changes in land use, and instream sand and gravel mining. Extensive reservoir construction in the Brazos River Basin has reduced sand transport by trapping sediment and by reducing the magnitude of peak discharges. However, reductions in sand transport associated with reservoir construction apparently are compensated for by increases associated with tributary sediment inflow and localized bank erosion. The total area of harvested acres of non-hay crops in the lower Brazos River Basin during 1924?92 decreased more than 75 percent from about 32 percent to about 8 percent of the total area. Correspondingly, erosion potential has decreased substantially. Several sand and gravel mining sites are located on the Brazos River between Hempstead and Rosharon. The quantity of sediment extracted by instream sand and gravel mining operations could represent from 11 to 25 percent of the total sand transported by the Brazos River. The effects of mining on sand transport could not be quantified.

Dunn, David D.; Raines, Timothy H.

2001-01-01

226

Geochemistry of beach sands from Sithonia Peninsula (Chalkidiki, Northern Greece)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty beach sand samples from the granitic shoreline of the Sithonia Plutonic Complex (SPC) were analyzed for their REE and major element contents. The obtained results are compared with the adjacent SPC rock-types, in order to determine any enrichments or depletions. Among the samples enriched in REE, three are seasonal deposits of heavy minerals and their concentrations are controlled by the action of sea-waves. The available geochemical characteristics were also used to confirm the parental rocks of the beach sands, which are the SPC rock-types. The heavy fractions (total, total magnetic and total non-magnetic) of the beach sands were correlated with the REE concentrations, revealing a strong correlation between the heavy non-magnetic fraction and REE content. Among the minerals of the heavy non-magnetic fraction, monazite seems to control the REE content in the heavy mineral-enriched samples, whereas in the rest of the samples allanite, belonging to the heavy magnetic fraction may be the most important REE mineral.

Papadopoulos, A.; Christofides, G.; Pe-Piper, G.; Koroneos, A.; Papadopoulou, L.

2015-02-01

227

8? x 10? black and white photographic print made from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8? x 10? black and white photographic print made from original 1933, 8? x 10? black and white photographic negative. New 4? x 5? archival negative made from print. Original photographer unknown. Original 8? x 10? negative located in the files of the New Orleans Public Belt Railroad administrative offices at 5100 Jefferson Highway, Jefferson, LA 70123. OCTOBER 17, 1933 PHOTOGRAPH NO. 57A OF CONTRACT NO. 3 SHOWING MAIN BRIDGE PLACING OF SAND FILL AT PIER NO. II. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

228

8? x 10? black and white photographic print made from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8? x 10? black and white photographic print made from original 1933, 8? x 10? black and white photographic negative. New 4? x 5? archival negative made from print. Original photographer unknown. Original 8? x 10? negative located in the files of the New Orleans Public Belt Railroad administrative offices at 5100 Jefferson Highway, Jefferson, LA 70123. SEPTEMBER 25, 1933 PHOTOGRAPH NO. 41 OF CONTRACT NO. 3 SHOWING MAIN BRIDGE PLACING SAND ISLAND FILL AT PIER NO. III. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

229

8? x 10? black and white photographic print made from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8? x 10? black and white photographic print made from original 1933, 8? x 10? black and white photographic negative. New 4? x 5? archival negative made from print. Original photographer unknown. Original 8? x 10? negative located in the files of the New Orleans Public Belt Railroad administrative offices at 5100 Jefferson Highway, Jefferson, LA 70123. DECEMBER 18, 1933 PHOTOGRAPH NO. 87 OF CONTRACT NO. 3 SHOWING MAIN BRIDGE SAND ISLAND FILL PIER I. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

230

A comparison of general circulation model predictions to sand drift and dune orientations  

SciTech Connect

The growing concern over climate change and decertification stresses the importance of aeolian process prediction. In this paper the use of a general circulation model to predict current aeolian features is examined. A GCM developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center was used in conjunction with White`s aeolian sand flux model to produce a global potential aeolian transport map. Surface wind shear stress predictions were used from the output of a GCM simulation that was performed as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project on 1979 climate conditions. The spatial resolution of this study (as driven by the GCM) is 4{degrees} X 5{degrees}; instantaneous 6-hourly wind stress data were saved by the GCM and used in this report. A global map showing potential sand transport was compared to drift potential directions as inferred from Landsat images from the 1980s for several sand seas and a coastal dune field. Generally, results show a good correlation between the simulated sand drift direction and the drift direction inferred for dune forms. Discrepancies between the drift potential and the drift inferred from images were found in the North American deserts and the Arabian peninsula. An attempt to predict the type of dune that would be formed in specific regions was not successful. The model could probably be further improved by incorporating soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation information for a better assessment of sand threshold conditions. The correlation may permit use of a GCM to analyze {open_quotes}fossil{close_quotes} dunes or to forecast aeolian processes. 48 refs., 8 figs.

Blumberg, D.G. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Greeley, R. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Shera (Israel)

1996-12-01

231

Critical State of Sand Matrix Soils  

PubMed Central

The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, ?, and ?. The range of the value of M, ?, and ? is 0.803–0.998, 0.144–0.248, and 1.727–2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated. PMID:24757417

Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong

2014-01-01

232

Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beachgoers  

PubMed Central

Background Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. Methods In 2007, visitors at two recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days later, participants answered questions about health symptoms since the visit. F+ coliphage, Enterococcus, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. in wet sand were measured using culture and molecular methods. Results We analyzed 144 wet sand samples and completed 4,999 interviews. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were computed, comparing those in the highest tertile of fecal indicator exposure with those who reported no sand contact. Among those digging in sand compared with those not digging in sand, a molecular measure of Enterococcus spp. (calibrator cell equivalents/g) in sand was positively associated with gastrointestinal (GI) illness (aOR = 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–3.2]) and diarrhea (2.4 [1.4–4.2]). Among those buried in sand, point estimates were greater for GI illness (3.3 [1.3–7.9]) and diarrhea (4.9 [1.8–13]). Positive associations were also observed for culture-based Enterococcus (colony-forming units/g) with GI illness (aOR digging = 1.7 [1.1–2.7]) and diarrhea (2.1 [1.3–3.4]). Associations were not found among non-swimmers with sand exposure. Conclusions We observed a positive relationship between sand contact activities and enteric illness as a function of concentrations of fecal microbial pollution in beach sand. PMID:22157306

Heaney, Christopher D.; Sams, Elizabeth; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

233

Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic soils, and conservation of surrounding sand dune areas.

Kim, Kee Dae

2005-01-01

234

Batch and column studies of adsorption of Li, Ni and Br by a reference sand for contaminant transport experiments  

SciTech Connect

A processed quartz sand (Wedron 510), mined from the St. Peter sandstone, has been characterized by a variety of chemical and physical methods for use as a reference porous media in transport model validation experiments. Wedron 510 sand was used in an intermediate-scale experiment involving migration of Ni, Li and Br through a 6-m high x 3-m diameter caisson. Ni and Li adsorption/desorption, and Li/Ni site-competition experiments yielded information on the importance of the trace mineral phases to adsorption of Li and Ni by the sand. The presence of an iron hydroxide coating similar to goethite on the sand grains is suggested by visual observation and leaching experiments. Kaolinite was identified by SEM and XRD as a significant trace mineral phase in the sand and occurs as small particles coating the sand grains. Quartz, the predominant constituent of the sand by weight, does not appear to contribute significantly to the adsorption properties of the sand. Qualitatively, the adsorption properties of the sand can be adequately modeled as a two-mineral system (goethite and kaolinite). The studies described in this report should provide a basis for understanding transport of Ni, Li and Br through porous media similar to the reference sand. Techniques were developed for obtaining parameter values for surface complexation and kinetic adsorption models for the sand and its mineral components. These constants can be used directly in coupled hydrogeochemical transport codes. The techniques should be useful for characterization of other natural materials and elements in high-level nuclear waste in support of coupled hydrogeochemical transport calculations for Yucca Mountain.

Seigel, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

1995-09-01

235

Skin friction for steel piles in sand  

E-print Network

Skin Friction Versus Pile Movement. Test Pile 1 Loaded in Tension 17 10. Skin Friction-Soil Shear Strength Ratio Versus Pile Movement. Compression Test Pile 1 21 Skin Friction-Soil Sheer Strength Ratio Versus Pile Movement. Tension Test Pile 1 22... Data 35 16. 17. Mohr Envelope for Firm Saturated Sand. Mohr Envelope for Dense Saturated Sand. 37 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Figure Skin Friction-Soil Shear Strength Ratio Versus Pile Movement for Firm Saturated Sand 39 19. Skin F iction...

Sulaiman, Ibrahim Hikmat

2012-06-07

236

White Dwarf Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A white dwarf is a very dense star: The earth-sized remains of a Sun-like star that has burned all of its nuclear fuel. Although it's unable to carry out the workaday activities of a living star, a white dwarf is still an interesting object to astronomers. For one thing, white dwarfs experience \\

Steven Kawaler; Michael Dahlstrom

2000-01-01

237

White dwarf stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations and properties of white-dwarf stars are reviewed. Observational constraints are discussed in terms of methods of discovery, selection effects, white dwarfs in binaries and clusters, stellar colors, spectral types, and kinematic properties. The following stellar and atmospheric parameters are examined: astrometric masses and radii; temperatures, radii, and gravities of DA stars; abundances in white dwarfs with helium atmospheres; and

J. Liebert

1980-01-01

238

Modeling the response of shoreface-connected sand ridges to sand extraction on an inner shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shoreface-connected sand ridges are rhythmic bedforms that occur on many storm-dominated inner shelves. The ridges span several kilometers, are a few meters high, and they evolve on a timescale of centuries. A process-based model is used to gain a fundamental insight into the response of these ridges to extraction of sand. Different scenarios of sand extraction (depth, location, and geometry of the extraction area; multiple sand extractions) are imposed. For each scenario, the response timescale as well as the characteristics of the new equilibrium state are determined. Results show that ridges partially restore after extraction, i.e., the disturbed bathymetry recovers on decadal timescales. However, in the end, the ridge original sand volume is not recovered. Initially, most sand that accomplishes the infill of the pit originates from the area upstream of the extraction, as well as from the areas surrounding the pit. The contribution of the latter strongly decreases in the subsequent time period. Depending on the location of the pit, additional sand sources contribute: First, if the pit is located close to the downstream trough, the pit gains sand by reduction of sand transport from the ridge to this trough. Second, if the pit is located close to the adjacent outer shelf, the ridge recovery is stronger due to an import of sand from that area. Furthermore, pits that are located close to the nearshore zone have a weak recovery, deeper pits have longer recovery timescales, wide and shallow pits recover most sand, while multiple sand pits slow down the recovery process.

Nnafie, A.; de Swart, H. E.; Calvete, D.; Garnier, R.

2014-05-01

239

A Physical Taxonomy of Martian Sand and Dust Grainsat the Phoenix Landing Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative taxonomy of martian sand and dust grains for soil samples at the Phoenix lander site has been developed from the mission’s optical microscope data with a resolution of 4 ?m per pixel. Approx. 3-4000 grains were analyzed for color, hue, size, shape, surface texture, aspect ratio, and optical properties. At least 26 types of sand and dust grains have been identified. Grain colors include black, brown, orange, red, white, and clear. Most grains are opaque, but many are translucent or transparent. Grain shapes range from botryoidal, blackberry-like, bead-like and rounded, to subrounded, elongate, angular, and highly irregular forms. Surface textures range from knobbly, rough, and multifaceted to smooth and polished. Surface reflectivity varied from dull to shiny to specularly reflective. Materials may include augite, pyroxenes, olivine, volcanic glass, hematite, other iron oxides, and salts. Grain size of the sand has a modal value of ~90 ?m, but there is no gradation into dust sizes, indicating a bimodal distribution of the samples. The dust was probably imported into the region from aeolian dust storms. This accords with a mineralogical dissimilarity between the sand and dust grain populations. The sand is dominated by black and brown grains; the dust is dominated by orange grains. The Phoenix site also has centimeter and larger stones in abundance that again have no apparent gradation into the sand size material. Thus, the Phoenix landing site soil appears multimodal. The soil appears to be magnetically susceptible, but it is unclear what the source of magnetism might be. Specific magnetic minerals were not identified in the samples with the possible exception of paramagnetic microbotryoidal hematite. The soil was nevertheless adhesive to the substrates and internally cohesive (forming spherical aggregates) owing to van der Waals forces and possibly salt/moisture bonding.

Marshall, John; Stoker, Carol

2014-11-01

240

Petrophysical Analysis of Oil Sand in Athabasca  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil sands are the major unconventional energy sources which have great reserves in Alberta, Canada. Recovery techniques such as CSS (Cyclic Steam Stimulation) and SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) enabled to develop deeper bitumen about several hundred meter depth. Before applying CSS and SAGD, reservoir heterogeneity of mud barriers or shale breccias should be clarified to establish injection and production wells successfully. We conducted the integrated petro-physical analysis for oil sands deposits in Athabasca by correlating well logs with seismic data. From 33 well logs and 3D seismic, we have made P-wave impedance by recursive inversion. Target formations of our analysis were the top of Wabiskaw member. Using inverted impedance and multi-attributes, porosity volume was derived at a target depth. Porosity of time slice 375 ms ranged 20 ~ 40 % stretching porous sand body from NE to SW direction. Characteristics of porosity distribution may be useful to design optimum oil sands recovery in Athabasca.

cheong, S.; Lee, H.

2013-12-01

241

The day the sands caught fire.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not so long ago a garage-size meteorite slammed into the uninhabited heart of Arabia and flash-cooked the sand into glass. Exploration of the site is a sober reminder of the destructive power of rocks from space.

Wynn, J. C.; Shoemaker, E. M.

1998-11-01

242

New developments in slow sand filtration  

SciTech Connect

Recent regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), including the Surface Water Treatment Rule, have helped to renew the interest in the use of slow sand filtration (SSF) for treating surface waters for small communities. Slow sand filtration is not a new process, but is one that has been used to treat water effectively since the early 1800's. Interest in slow sand filtration in the United States has increased dramatically in the past thirteen years. New analytical techniques, such as particle counting, improved turbidity, improved growth media for microbiological analysis, and advanced techniques for measuring organic constituents allowed for more detailed studies than were possible in the early 1900's. The new work led to the publication of design manuals and task committee reports describing slow sand filtration in detail.

Fox, K.R.

1993-01-01

243

Hydrothermal deformation of granular quartz sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotropic and triaxial compression experiments were performed on porous aggregates of St Peter quartz sand to explore the influence of temperature (to 225°C). During isotropic stressing, samples loaded at elevated temperature exhibit the same sigmoidal stress-strain curves and non-linear acoustic emission rates as have previously been observed from room temperature studies on sands, sandstones, and soils. However, results from our

Stephen L. Karner; Andreas K. Kronenberg; Frederick M. Chester; Judith S. Chester; Andrew Hajash Jr

2008-01-01

244

Methanogenic potential of tailings samples from oil sands extraction plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 20% of Canada's oil supply now comes from the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta. The oil sands are strip-mined, and the bitumen is typically separated from sand and clays by an alkaline hot water extraction process. The rapidly expanding oil sands industry has millions of cubic metres of tailings for disposal and large

Phillip M. Fedorak; Debora L. Coy; Myrna J. Salloum; Marvin J. Dudas

2002-01-01

245

Treatment Efficiencies of Slow Sand Filtration for Landscape Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the slow sand filter was examined using the landscape water with the experimental period of 46 days. The filter installed was similar to the traditional slow sand filter; expect that the top 5-cm sand was changed to the quartz sand. In this study, the variations of the turbidity, COD, BOD and TN were measured based on the

Cui Li; Yifan Wu; Liangbo Zhang; Wen Liu

2010-01-01

246

Slow Sand Filtration: Influences of Selected Process Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological activity within the sand bed had the strongest influence on removal efficiency of total coliform bacteria by slow sand filtration, as determined by six pilot filters (shown above). Temperature, sand bed depth, and sand size also had strong influence. La actividad biológica dentro de la cama de arena ejerce la influencia más grande en la eficiencia de la extracción

William D. Bellamy; David W. Hendricks; Gary S. Logsdon

1985-01-01

247

Morphological characteristics and sand volumes of different coastal dune types in Essaouira Province, Atlantic Morocco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Altogether three coastal dune fields, one located north and two south of the city of Essaouira, Atlantic Morocco, have been investigated to establish the distribution and overall sand volumes of various dune types. The purpose of the study was to characterize and classify the aeolian landforms of the coastal dune belt, to estimate their sand volumes and to assess the effectiveness of coastal dune stabilization measures. The northern dune field is 9 km long and lined by a wide artificial foredune complex fixed by vegetation, fences and branches forming a rectangular grid. Active and ephemeral aklé dunes border the inner backshore, while some intrusive dunes have crossed the foredune belt and are migrating farther inland. The total sand volume of the northern dune belt amounts 13,910,255 m3. The central coastal sector comprises a much smaller dune field located just south of the city. It is only 1.2 km long and, with the exception of intrusive dunes, shows all other dune types. The overall sand volume of the central dune field amounts to about 172,463 m3. The southern dune field is characterized by a narrower foredune belt and overall lower dunes that, in addition, become progressively smaller towards the south. In this sector, embryonic dunes (coppice, shadow dunes), tongue-like and tabular dunes, and sand sheets intrude from the beach, the profile of which has a stepped appearance controlled by irregular outcrops of old aeolianite and beach rock. The total volume of the southern dune field amounts 1,446,389 m3. For the whole study area, i.e. for all three dune fields combined, a sand volume of about 15,529,389 m3 has been estimated. The sand of the dune fields is derived from coastal erosion and especially the Tensift River, which enters the sea at Souira Qedima some 70 km north of Essaouira. After entering the sea, the sand is transported southwards by littoral drift driven by the mainly north-westerly swell climate and the Trade Winds blowing from the NNE. This sand feeds the beaches along the coast, from where it is blown obliquely onshore to generate the dune fields. The maximum sand input occurs in the north, from where it gradually decreases southwards, this being also reflected in the grain size and dune typologies. The study shows that dune stabilization measures have been reasonably effective along most of the coast, with the exception of a large area immediately north of Essaouira where the almost complete destruction of the plant cover has reactivated sand mobility—this may in the future threaten the city.

Flor-Blanco, Germán; Flor, Germán; Lharti, Saadia; Pando, Luis

2013-04-01

248

EPR and FTIR Characterization of Paramagnetic Transition Metal Ions in Fossil Fuels: Tar Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy have been applied to the bitumen and mineral fractions of a tar sand sample originating from Circle Cliffs, Utah to detect and identify paramagnetic transition metal ions present, indicate whether or not they are organically bound, and determine the identities of the complexes in which they occur. An EPR spectrum of the bitumen

Robert Anthony Shepherd

1985-01-01

249

Sorption and filtration of metals using iron-oxide-coated sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron oxides are good adsorbents for uncomplexed metals, some metal-ligand complexes, and many metal oxyanions. However, the adsorbent properties of these oxides are not fully exploited in wastewater treatment operations because of difficulties associated with their separation from the aqueous phase. This paper describes experiments in which iron oxides were coated onto the surface of ordinary filter sand, and this

Mark M. Benjamin; Ronald S. Sletten; Robert P. Bailey; Thomas Bennett

1996-01-01

250

The effect of herbivores and humans on the Sand Forest species of Maputaland, northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sand Forest in the Maputaland region of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa is deemed the most valuable, but also probably the most\\u000a complex vegetation type of this part of the Maputaland–Pondoland–Albany hotspot of biodiversity. However, Sand Forest is under\\u000a threat from the current human population growth in that region as well as from uncontrolled increases in wild herbivore numbers\\u000a in conservation

Jerome Y. Gaugris; Margaretha W. van Rooyen

2011-01-01

251

Tidal sands as biogeochemical reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandy sediments of continental shelves and most beaches are often thought of as geochemical deserts because they are usually poor in organic matter and other reactive substances. The present study focuses on analyses of dissolved biogenic compounds of surface seawater and pore waters of Aquitanian coastal beach sediments. To quantitatively assess the biogeochemical reactions, we collected pore waters at low tide on tidal cross-shore transects unaffected by freshwater inputs. We recorded temperature, salinity, oxygen saturation state, and nutrient concentrations. These parameters were compared to the values recorded in the seawater entering the interstitial environment during floods. Cross-shore topography and position of piezometric level at low tide were obtained from kinematics GPS records. Residence time of pore waters was estimated by a tracer approach, using dissolved silica concentration and kinetics estimate of quartz dissolution with seawater. Kinetics parameters were based on dissolved silica concentration monitoring during 20-day incubations of sediment with seawater. We found that seawater that entered the sediment during flood tides remained up to seven tidal cycles within the interstitial environment. Oxygen saturation of seawater was close to 100%, whereas it was as low as 80% in pore waters. Concentrations of dissolved nutrients were higher in pore waters than in seawater. These results suggest that aerobic respiration occurred in the sands. We propose that mineralised organic matter originated from planktonic material that infiltrated the sediment with water during flood tides. Therefore, the sandy tidal sediment of the Aquitanian coast is a biogeochemical reactor that promotes or accelerates remineralisation of coastal pelagic primary production. Mass balance calculations suggest that this single process supplies about 37 kmol of nitrate and 1.9 kmol of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to the 250-km long Aquitanian coast during each semi-diurnal tidal cycle. It represents about 1.5% of nitrate and 5% of DIP supplied by the nearest estuary.

Anschutz, Pierre; Smith, Thomas; Mouret, Aurélia; Deborde, Jonathan; Bujan, Stéphane; Poirier, Dominique; Lecroart, Pascal

2009-08-01

252

Layers, Landslides, and Sand Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 27 October 2003

This image shows the northern rim of one of the Valles Marineris canyons. Careful inspection shows many interesting features here. Note that the spurs and gullies in the canyon wall disappear some distance below the top of the canyon wall, indicating the presence of some smooth material here that weathers differently from the underlying rocks. On the floor of the canyon, there are remains from a landslide that came hurtling down the canyon wall between two spurs. Riding over the topography of the canyon floor are many large sand dunes, migrating generally from the lower right to upper left.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.1, Longitude 306.7 East (53.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

253

Simulation of wind-blown sand movement and probability density function of liftoff velocities of sand particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurately describing the probability density function (PDF) of liftoff or initial velocities of wind-blown sand ejecting from a sand bed is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of wind-blown sand movement. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of developing the PDF of liftoff velocities based on wind tunnel measurements of sand flux and wind speed profile. On the basis of

Ning Huang; Xiao Jing Zheng; You-He Zhou; R. Scott Van Pelt

2006-01-01

254

Seismites in continental sand sea deposits of the Late Cretaceous Caiuá Desert, Bauru Basin, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two large-scale sediment deformation structures, minor fold occurrences in cross-bedded sand dune deposits and complex convolute folds, are observed in red sandstones, in a zone about 1.5 km long in floodway cuts at the Sérgio Motta/Porto Primavera dam, São Paulo state, Brazil. The most important structures are confined to planar zones, up to 10 m thick, in undeformed dune foreset strata were they can be traced laterally for about 50-60 m. The sandstones are part of the Rio Paraná Formation, Caiuá Group, which accumulated in a great sand sea of about 100,000 km 2. The Caiuá Desert developed during the Late Cretaceous in the southern part of the Bauru Basin, an intracontinental subsiding area in the central-southern part of the South-American Platform. The basin was filled by a sandy sequence about 300 m thick. The sand sea deposits correspond to the Caiuá Group and comprise: a) deposits of dry sand sheets (Santo Anastácio Formation), b) deposits of medium-sized dunes and humid interdunes of the sand sea peripheral zones (Goio Erê Formation), and c) deposits of large-sized complex aeolian dunes and draas, that correspond to the central part of the inland sand sea (Rio Paraná Formation). The deformations in the sediments are attributed to the effects of fluidization, liquefaction and shear stress, which are interpreted as being earthquake-induced structures, mainly because: (1) the deformed horizons are confined between undeformed cross-bedded strata, (2) the complex convolute folds sometimes include nappe-like structures that overlie foreset facies, (3) during the Bauru Basin infilling there was tectonic activity associated with alkaline volcanism on the borders of the basin and related silicification in the central-southern part. The main silicification zones are aligned to regional lineaments that cross the area near the large-scale sedimentary deformation structures.

Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; de Castro, Alice Bonatto; Basilici, Giorgio

2007-07-01

255

Source provenance of carbonate grains in the Wahiba Sand Sea, Oman, using a new LIBS method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wahiba Sand Sea is a large dune system composed of northern and southern zones. The dunes receive sand from multiple sources including two fluvial systems draining mountain basins, older underlying dunes, and a large coastline. Although the sand sea is distinctly divided into geomorphic regions with different dunes types, ages, and bulk mineral compositions, the ubiquitous presence of carbonate grains throughout the dune field has led to models that suggest the coast and shallow shelf is the direct and primary source of sediment for the entire sand sea. This study uses a novel method which couples selective, grain-by-grain analysis using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of a single mineral species with the classification method of Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). The analysis of carbonate grains using the LIBS method reveals that the carbonates are comprised of several sub-populations that are well mixed throughout the dune field. Individual sources of carbonate grains are also composed of multiple sub-populations creating further complexity. Sand in the Northern Wahiba is predominantly, and directly, derived from wadi systems that lie on the west and northeast sides of the dunes and once bordered the southern end of the dunes. The Southern Wahiba is composed of a more complex mixture of sand derived from the coast; however, the coastal sediments themselves were dominantly derived from the fluvial systems in the region, along with sediment of unknown original source. The new LIBS/SIMCA method of grain-by-grain analysis shows promise for unraveling complex mixing patterns in sedimentary deposits.

Pease, Patrick; Tchakerian, Vatche

2014-12-01

256

South America and a Few Grains of Sand. Part 1: Beach Sands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Continental geology and tectonics are explored through this study of modern beach sands of South America. This report assesses how well petrographic studies of sandstones can recreate continental geography. Data on the petrography of 218 modern South American beach sands are presented and analyzed. The five major mineral associations of light…

Potter, Paul Edwin

1986-01-01

257

Threshold for Sand Mobility on Mars Calibrated from Seasonal Variations of Sand Flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sand flux and its seasonal variation at Nili Patera dune field are measured from a time-series of HiRISE images. A threshold for sand mobility is constrained from these measurements and the wind predictions from GCM simulations.

Ayoub, F.; Avouac, J. P.; Newman, C. E.; Richardson, M. I.; Lucas, A.; Leprince, S.; Bridges, N. T.

2014-07-01

258

White matter dementia  

PubMed Central

White matter dementia (WMD) is a syndrome introduced in 1988 to highlight the potential of cerebral white matter disorders to produce cognitive loss of sufficient severity to qualify as dementia. Neurologists have long understood that such a syndrome can occur, but the dominance of gray matter as the locus of higher function has strongly directed neurobehavioral inquiry to the cerebral cortex while white matter has received less attention. Contemporary neuroimaging has been crucial in enabling the recognition of white matter abnormalities in a host of disorders, and the correlation of these changes with cognitive performance. Comprising about half the brain, white matter is prominently or exclusively involved in well over 100 disorders, in each of which white matter dysfunction can potentially cause or contribute to dementia. Neuropsychological findings from ten categories of white matter disorder lead to a convergence of findings that document remarkable neurobehavioral commonality among the dementias produced. More recently, the syndrome of mild cognitive dysfunction (MCD) has been introduced to expand the concept of WMD by proposing a precursor syndrome related to early white matter neuropathology. WMD and MCD inform the understanding of how white matter contributes to normal and abnormal cognition, and the specific neuroanatomic focus of these syndromes may enhance the diagnosis and treatment of many disabling disorders that do not primarily implicate the cerebral cortex. Forming essential connections within widely distributed neural networks, white matter is critical for rapid and efficient information transfer that complements the information processing of gray matter. As neuroimaging continues to advance, further information on white matter structure can be expected, and behavioral neurology will play a central role in elucidating the functional significance of these emerging data. By emphasizing the contribution of myelinated systems to higher function, the study of white matter and cognition represents investigation of the basic neuroscience of human behavior. PMID:22973423

2012-01-01

259

Observations of wind-blown sand under various meteorological conditions at a beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field observations were conducted on a natural, open ocean beach system in Japan to investigate characteristics of wind-blown sand transport under various weather conditions including a storm event. Data sets over periods of several hours included blown sand impact counts, three-dimensional wind conditions, hourly precipitation, and moisture content of the sediment surface. The intermittent blown sand impact data shifted by 1 s ahead of the wind velocity correlated with the wind velocity during a no-rainfall period (for an assumed dry surface) and in the longshore wind direction (for sufficiently long fetch length). The 5-min mean wind velocity/impact counts relationship was well constrained by both second- and third-order polynomial fitting of velocity under similar weather conditions. During a no-rainfall period and in the longshore wind direction, the relationship between the wind velocity and sand flux estimated from the counts coincides with existing studies in wind tunnel experiments. The sand flux, however, decreased by 1 order of magnitude because of a change in the wind direction from longshore to cross-shore and then by more than 1 order of magnitude because of an increase in the moisture content. Threshold wind velocity calculated using the time fraction equivalence method with the impact counts and the horizontal wind velocity in 5-min sampling periods was approximately equal to the value predicted using Bagnold's equation during the no-rainfall period and increased significantly during the rainfall phase. The sand flux sensor has several limitations for complex conditions in the field; however, it provides a number of characteristics of sand transport under various meteorological conditions.

Udo, Keiko; Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Jackson, Derek W. T.

2008-12-01

260

Sand fly fauna (Diptera, pcychodidae, phlebotominae) in different leishmaniasis-endemic areas of ecuador, surveyed using a newly named mini-shannon trap.  

PubMed

To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named "mini-Shannon trap" and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps. PMID:25589880

Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N, Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F, Hipatia; Romero A, Daniel; Gomez L, Eduardo; Martini R, Luiggi; Zambrano C, Flavio; Calvopina H, Manuel; Caceres G, Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

2014-12-01

261

Sand Fly Fauna (Diptera, Pcychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Different Leishmaniasis-Endemic Areas of Ecuador, Surveyed Using a Newly Named Mini-Shannon Trap  

PubMed Central

To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named “mini-Shannon trap” and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps. PMID:25589880

Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N., Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F., Hipatia; Romero A., Daniel; Gomez L., Eduardo; Martini R., Luiggi; Zambrano C., Flavio; Calvopina H., Manuel; Caceres G., Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

2014-01-01

262

Residual diesel measurement in sand columns after surfactant/alcohol washing  

SciTech Connect

A new simple gravimetric technique has been designed to determine residual oil saturation of complex hydrocarbon mixtures (e.g., diesel) in sand column experiments because reliable methods are lacking. The He/N{sub 2} technique is based on drying of sand columns by circulating helium gas to drag oil droplets in a cold trap (liquid nitrogen). With this technique, residual diesel measurement can be performed easily immediately after alcohol/surfactant washing and in the same lab. For high residual diesel content in Ottawa sand (25 to 30 g/kg), the technique is much more accurate ({+-} 2% or 600 mg/kg) than the standard analytical methods for the determination of mineral oil and grease. The average relative error on partial diesel dissolution in sand column estimated after alcohol/surfactant flooding (residual saturation of 10 to 15 g/kg) is as low as 5%. The precision of the He/N{sub 2} technique is adequate to compare relative efficiency of washing solutions when partial extraction of residual oil in Ottawa sand columns is performed. However, this technique is not adapted for determination of traces of oil in sediment or for environmental control of contaminated soils. Each diesel determination by the He/N{sub 2} technique costs less than $8 in chemical products (helium and liquid nitrogen). A simple laboratory drying setup can be built for less than $400 which makes this technique valuable for diesel analyses when a large number of tests are required.

Martel, R.; Gelinas, P.J. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)

1996-01-01

263

Exploring how sand ramps respond to Quaternary environmental change in Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current climate of southern Africa is particularly complex and interesting due to the interaction of several climatic systems. However, reconstructions of how these systems behaved in the past, and how the environment responded, have been hampered by a general paucity of records and poor chronological control. Sand ramps may provide the potential to improve palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of southern Africa (and beyond). Formed against a topographic barrier, sand ramps include a combination of aeolian, fluvial and colluvial deposits in varying proportions. Therefore, they have the potential to record changes in moisture availability, circulation patterns and sediment supply which can be independently dated using luminescence dating. Nevertheless relatively little attention has been paid to these features and thus the environmental controls on their formation are not yet fully understood. In particular, there is debate as to whether they reflect deposition during a 'window of opportunity' in which high-magnitude, low-frequency events are recorded (Bateman et al. 2012) or whether they record more gradual, cyclic climate change (Bertram, 2003) or even if there is a uniform control on their formation. This research aims to investigate how sand ramps respond to environmental change and what they can tell us about the paleoenvironment of southern Africa. This poster displays preliminary results based on initial field investigation. This confirmed sand ramps to be ubiquitous in southern Africa and that they record a complex interaction of aeolian, fluvial and colluvial deposits which appears to differ between sand ramps. Preliminary luminescence dating results and sedimentology are displayed for two sand ramps, one from south west Namibia the other from the Karoo region of South Africa.

Rowell, Alex; Thomas, David; Bailey, Richard

2014-05-01

264

Flocculation settling characteristics of mud: sand mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When natural muds become mixed with sandy sediments in estuaries, it has a direct effect on the flocculation process and resultant sediment transport regime. Much research has been completed on the erosion and consolidation of mud/sand mixtures, but very little is known quantitatively about how mixed sediments interact whilst in suspension, particularly in terms of flocculation. This paper presents the settling velocity findings from a recent laboratory study which examined the flocculation dynamics for three different mud/sand mixtures at different concentrations (0.2-5 g.l-1) and turbulent shear stresses (0.06-0.9 Pa) in a mini-annular flume. The low intrusive video-based Laboratory Spectral Flocculation Characteristics instrument was used to determine floc/aggregate properties (e.g., size, settling velocity, density and mass) for each population. Settling data was assessed in terms of macrofloc (>160 ?m) and microfloc (<160 ?m) settling parameters: Wsmacro and Wsmicro, respectively. For pure muds, the macroflocs are regarded as the most dominant contributors to the total depositional flux. The parameterised settling data indicates that by adding more sand to a mud/sand mixture, the fall velocity of the macrofloc fraction slows and the settling velocity of microflocs quickens. Generally, a mainly sandy suspension comprising 25% mud and 75% sand (25M:75S), will produce resultant Wsmacro which are slower than Wsmicro. The quickest Wsmicro appears to consistently occur at a higher level of turbulent shear stress (? ˜ 0.6 Pa) than both the macrofloc and microfloc fractions from suspensions of pure natural muds. Flocculation within a more cohesively dominant muddy-sand suspension (i.e., 75M:25S) produced macroflocs which fell at similar speeds (±10%) to pure mud suspensions at both low (200 mg l-1) and intermediate (1 g l-1) concentrations at all shear stress increments. Also, low sand content suspensions produced Wsmacro values that were faster than the Wsmicro rates. In summary, the experimental results of the macrofloc and microfloc settling velocities have demonstrated that flocculation is an extremely important factor with regards to the depositional behaviour of mud/sand mixtures, and these factors must be considered when modelling mixed sediment transport in the estuarine or marine environment.

Manning, Andrew J.; Baugh, John V.; Spearman, Jeremy R.; Whitehouse, Richard J. S.

2010-04-01

265

Threshold for sand mobility on Mars calibrated from seasonal variations of sand flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupling between surface winds and saltation is a fundamental factor governing geological activity and climate on Mars. Saltation of sand is crucial for both erosion of the surface and dust lifting into the atmosphere. Wind tunnel experiments along with measurements from surface meteorology stations and modelling of wind speeds suggest that winds should only rarely move sand on Mars. However, evidence for currently active dune migration has recently accumulated. Crucially, the frequency of sand-moving events and the implied threshold wind stresses for saltation have remained unknown. Here we present detailed measurements of Nili Patera dune field based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images, demonstrating that sand motion occurs daily throughout much of the year and that the resulting sand flux is strongly seasonal. Analysis of the seasonal sand flux variation suggests an effective threshold for sand motion for application to large-scale model wind fields (1–100?km scale) of ?s=0.01±0.0015?N?m?2.

Ayoub, F.; Avouac, J.-P.; Newman, C. E.; Richardson, M. I.; Lucas, A.; Leprince, S.; Bridges, N. T.

2014-09-01

266

Standardization and Whiteness: One and the Same?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article "There Is No Culturally Responsive Teaching Spoken Here: A Critical Race Perspective" by Cleveland Hayes and Brenda C. Juarez suggests that the current focus on meeting standards incorporates limited thoughtful discussions related to complex notions of diversity. Our response suggests a strong link between standardization and White

Weilbacher, Gary

2012-01-01

267

1. Elevation from E. White Holly in foreground, with White ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Elevation from E. White Holly in foreground, with White Sage behind. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

268

Connecting onshore and offshore near-surface geology: Delaware's sand inventory project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beginning in 1988, the Delaware Geological Survey began a program to inventory on-land sand resources suitable for beach nourishment. The inventory included an assessment of the native beach textures using existing data and developing parameters of what would be considered suitable sand textures for Delaware's Atlantic beaches. An assessment of the economics of on-land sand resources was also conducted, and it was determined that the cost of the sand was competitive with offshore dredging costs. In addition, the sand resources were put into a geologic context for purposes of predicting which depositional environments and lithostratigraphic units were most likely to produce suitable sand resources. The results of the work identified several suitable on-land sand resource areas in the Omar and Beaverdam formations that were deposited in barrier-tidal delta and fluvial-estuarine environments, respectively. The identified on-land resources areas have not been utilized due to difficulties of truck transport and development pressures in the resource areas. The Delaware Geological Survey's participation in years 8, 9, and 10 of the Continental Margins Program was developed to extend the known resource areas onshore to offshore Delaware in order to determine potential offshore sand resources for beach nourishment. Years 8 and 9 involved primarily the collection of all available data on the offshore geology. These data included all seismic lines, surface grab samples, and cores. The data were filtered for those that had reliable locations and geologic information that could be used for geologic investigations. Year 10 completed the investigations onshore by construction of a geologic cross-section from data along the coast of Delaware from Cape Henlopen to Fenwick. This cross section identified the geologic units and potential sand resource bodies as found immediately along the coast. These units and resources are currently being extended offshore and tied to known and potential sand resources as part of the continuing cooperative effort between the Delaware Geological Survey and the Minerals Management Service's INTERMAR office as sand resources are identified in federal waters off Delaware. Offshore sand resources are found in the Pliocene Beaverdam Formation offshore where overlying Quaternary units have been stripped, in the tidal delta complexes of several Quaternary units likely equivalent to the onshore Omar Formation, and in late Pleistocene- and Holocene-age shoal complexes. Onshore lithostratigraphic units can be traced offshore and show another reason for continued geologic mapping both onshore and offshore.The Delaware Geological Survey's participation in years 8, 9, and 10 of the Continental Margins Program was developed to extend the known resource areas onshore to offshore Delaware in order to determine potential offshore sand resources for beach nourishment. Years 8 and 9 involved primarily the collection of all available data on the offshore geology. These data included all seismic lines, surface grab samples, and cores. The data were filtered for those that had reliable locations and geologic information that could be used for geologic investigations. Year 10 completed the investigations onshore by construction of a geologic cross-section from data along the coast of Delaware from cape Henlopen to Fenwick.

Ramsey, K.W.; Jordan, R.R.; Talley, J.H.

1999-01-01

269

White-Nose Syndrome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Indiana Department of Natural Resource posted cave access restrictions sign at Clifty Falls State Park in southern Indiana in response to the lethal threat posed by White-Nose Syndrome to various cave-inhabiting bat species. White-Nose Syndrome is a bat disease that is still not well understood but is presumptively caused by the associated fungus Geomyces destructans.

Douglas Stemke (University of Indianapolis ;)

2011-04-28

270

Western White Pine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A western white pine (Pinus monticola) in Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., towers over USGS ecologist Nathan Stephenson. Scientists analyzed data from 403 species of trees from around the world -- including western white pine (Pinus monticola), pictured here -- and learned that in general, a tre...

271

Print advertising: White space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of North American ad agency creative directors (n=31) reveals that they use the “white space” executional format in print ads mainly to advertise new brands of products rather than services. Their not necessarily mutually exclusive reasons for designing a predominantly white-space ad are (1) artistic – the ad “looks good,” (2) to increase attention to the ad overall,

G. Douglas Olsen; John W. Pracejus; Thomas C. O'Guinn

2012-01-01

272

Interior of Left Powerhouse showing the Whiting (Company's) "Tiger" crane ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of Left Powerhouse showing the Whiting (Company's) "Tiger" crane with a capacity of 350 tons, looking west. Note the terrazzo floor below depicting a Francis turbine. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam Powerplant Complex, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

273

RESEARCH Open Access Early white matter changes in CADASIL: evidence  

E-print Network

from a complex mix of genetic and cardiovascular risk factors, the most important of which are age- and hypertension-related cognitive decline and disability. Cerebral white matter changes are a consistent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

Ottawa Sand for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What appear to be boulders fresh from a tumble down a mountain are really grains of Ottawa sand, a standard material used in civil engineering tests and also used in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment. The craggy surface shows how sand grans have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even causing sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM uses the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. These images are from an Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) study conducted by Dr. Binayak Panda of IITRI for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). (Credit: NASA/MSFC)

2000-01-01

275

Numerical and analytical modeling of sanding onset prediction  

E-print Network

cavity (e.g. borehole, perforation tunnel) and applying appropriate sand production criterion to predict the fluid pressure or pressure gradient at which sand production occurs. In this work, we present numerical and analytical poroelastoplastic stress...

Yi, Xianjie

2004-09-30

276

Process of microbial extraction of hydrocarbons from oil sands  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the separation of hydrocarbon residues from oil and tar sands by microbiological activity. Hydrocarbon residues are released from the sands by contacting with a suspension of oxidase-synthesizing, hydrocarbonmetabolizing microorganisms.

Rabinovitch, I.; Worne, H.E.

1982-09-14

277

Object technology: A white paper  

SciTech Connect

Object-Oriented Technology (OOT), although not a new paradigm, has recently been prominently featured in the trade press and even general business publications. Indeed, the promises of object technology are alluring: the ability to handle complex design and engineering information through the full manufacturing production life cycle or to manipulate multimedia information, and the ability to improve programmer productivity in creating and maintaining high quality software. Groups at a number of the DOE facilities have been exploring the use of object technology for engineering, business, and other applications. In this white paper, the technology is explored thoroughly and compared with previous means of developing software and storing databases of information. Several specific projects within the DOE Complex are described, and the state of the commercial marketplace is indicated.

Jordan, S.R.; Arrowood, L.F.; Cain, W.D.; Stephens, W.M.; Vickers, B.D.

1992-05-11

278

Building Whales in Sand and Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two-week summer workshops on evolution, adaptation, and behavior of whales, conducted for children by Cold Spring Harbor Whaling Museum (New York), and culminating in creation of life-size sand sculptures of whales. Provides selected list of periodicals, teaching materials, identification guides, records, and societies devoted to whales…

Warner, Carolyn

1980-01-01

279

Hydroponic sand culture systems for mycorrhizal research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Tomato plants were inoculated withGlomus fasciculatus mycorrhizal fungi while growing in sand through which recycled nutrient solution was automatically passed several times daily. Concentration of P and N in the solution were maintained at relatively low levels. Roots of inoculated plants became highly infected with mycorrhizal fungi, and yield parameters were significantly increased with inoculation over uninoculated control plants.

J. C. Ojala; W. M. Jarrell

1980-01-01

280

Anelasticity and dispersion in dry unconsolidated sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory measurements reveal frame modulus dispersion and creeping behavior in room-dry samples of unconsolidated, quartzo-feldspathic Upper Miocene turbidites from the Wilmington Field, CA. A single standard linear solid model predicts both the dispersion and the creep response. Similar behavior is observed in Ottawa sand samples when mixed with wetted Montmorillonite. In this case the magnitude of dispersion and creep increase

Carl Chang; Daniel Moos; Mark D. Zoback

1997-01-01

281

SANDIA REPORT SAND98-2668  

E-print Network

. Veers Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuqtmrque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California and Manufacturing Software Paul S. Veers Wind Energy Technology Sandia National Laboratories P.O. BOX 5800SANDIA REPORT SAND98-2668 Unlimited Release Reprinted December 1998 G. Richard Eisler, Paul S

282

Tar sand evaluation using geophysical well logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical well logging can provide a record of the lithological variations and oil yield of tar sands. Probes lowered into bore holes at the end of insulated cables yield such records as the spontaneous potential log, the focused resistivity log, the gamma-ray log, the acoustic log and the neutron log. The accuracy of correlations between gamma-ray log response and fines

WALTER H. FERTL; GEORGE V. CHILINGARIAN

1978-01-01

283

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: TRANSPORT OF SAND AND GRAVEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the transport of sand and gravel on unpaved roads. The potential environmental effect of this emission source was evaluated using source severity, defined as the ratio of the time-averaged maximum ground level concentrat...

284

Shifting Sands on Mars: 3 Case Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeated HiRISE observations show evidence for sand movement in intracrater dune deposits in the martian tropics, as well as in the north polar erg. These observations suggest that martian dunes are presently active, and not fossil relics of an earlier climatic epoch.

Geissler, P. E.; Stantzos, N. W.; Bridges, N. T.; HiRISE Science Team

2011-03-01

285

Canadian Oil Sands: Canada's Energy Advantage  

E-print Network

crude oil production, global energy demand, the estimated reserves and resources at Syncrude, viewsCanadian Oil Sands: Canada's Energy Advantage 0 #12;Forward looking information 1 In the interest as to the amount of "reserves" remaining globally, the future of Canadian oil and energy supply, the view

Boisvert, Jeff

286

Canadian Oil Sands: Canada An Emerging Energy  

E-print Network

(collectively "statements") with respect to: expectations regarding crude oil production, global energy demand1 Canadian Oil Sands: Canada ­ An Emerging Energy Superpower 0 University of Alberta February 8, the future of Canadian oil and energy supply, the view that the world will need oil for decades to come

Boisvert, Jeff

287

TOXOPLASMOSIS IN SAND FOX (VULPUS RUEPPELLII)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a sand fox (Vulpes rueppelli) from United Arab Emirates. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, pancreas, lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes, and the heart. Ttachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-spe...

288

Andreas Sand Thomas Mailund Christian N. S.  

E-print Network

important problem in molecular docking is to identify low energy binding modes of proteins and a ligands have to be docked against a protein which is time consuming unless expensive computer clusters are used in Bioinformatics ! ! Martin Simonsen1,2, Andreas Sand1,2, Thomas Mailund1 and Christian N.S. Pedersen1,2 ! ! 1

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

289

EXPRESSING SUPPLY LIMITATION IN SAND SALTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Saltation-driven sandblasting is the most effective producer of windblown dust. Modeling of wind-blown dust emissions requires an efficient parameterization of sand flux in the saltating mode. According to the theory of P. R. Owen the horizontal mass flux of saltating uniform p...

290

An added dimension: GC atmospheric pressure chemical ionization FTICR MS and the Athabasca oil sands.  

PubMed

The Athabasca oil sands industry, an alternative source of petroleum, uses large quantities of water during processing of the oil sands. In keeping with Canadian environmental policy, the processed water cannot be released to natural waters and is thus retained on-site in large tailings ponds. There is an increasing need for further development of analytical methods for environmental monitoring. The following details the first example of the application of gas chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FTICR MS) for the study of environmental samples from the Athabasca region of Canada. APCI offers the advantages of reduced fragmentation compared to other ionization methods and is also more amenable to compounds that are inaccessible by electrospray ionization. The combination of GC with ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry can improve the characterization of complex mixtures where components cannot be resolved by GC alone. This, in turn, affords the ability to monitor extracted ion chromatograms for components of the same nominal mass and isomers in the complex mixtures. The proof of concept work described here is based upon the characterization of one oil sands process water sample and two groundwater samples in the area of oil sands activity. Using the new method, the Ox and OxS compound classes predominated, with OxS classes being particularly relevant to the oil sands industry. The potential to resolve retention times for individual components within the complex mixture, highlighting contributions from isomers, and to characterize retention time profiles for homologous series is shown, in addition to the ability to follow profiles of double bond equivalents and carbon number for a compound class as a function of retention time. The method is shown to be well-suited for environmental forensics. PMID:25036898

Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

2014-08-19

291

22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL AND TEST LAB FOR UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC. SAND CASTING TECHNICIAN, ROY BATES, TESTS THE WEIGHT OF THE SAND, DRYS IT, AND WEIGHT IT AGAINST STANDARDS TO CALCULATE THE CORRECT MOISTURE NEEDED FOR DIFFERENT MOLDS. THE SAND MIX VARY WITH THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE CASTING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

292

Impact on demersal fish of a large-scale and deep sand extraction site with ecosystem-based landscaped sandbars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the seaward harbour extension of the Port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, approximately 220 million m3 sand was extracted between 2009 and 2013. In order to decrease the surface area of direct impact, the authorities permitted deep sand extraction, down to 20 m below the seabed. Biological and physical impacts of large-scale and deep sand extraction are still being investigated and largely unknown. For this reason, we investigated the colonization of demersal fish in a deep sand extraction site. Two sandbars were artificially created by selective dredging, copying naturally occurring meso-scale bedforms to increase habitat heterogeneity and increasing post-dredging benthic and demersal fish species richness and biomass. Significant differences in demersal fish species assemblages in the sand extraction site were associated with variables such as water depth, median grain size, fraction of very fine sand, biomass of white furrow shell (Abra alba) and time after the cessation of sand extraction. Large quantities of undigested crushed white furrow shell fragments were found in all stomachs and intestines of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), indicating that it is an important prey item. One and two years after cessation, a significant 20-fold increase in demersal fish biomass was observed in deep parts of the extraction site. In the troughs of a landscaped sandbar however, a significant drop in biomass down to reference levels and a significant change in species assemblage was observed two years after cessation. The fish assemblage at the crests of the sandbars differed significantly from the troughs with tub gurnard (Chelidonichthys lucerna) being a Dufrêne-Legendre indicator species of the crests. This is a first indication of the applicability of landscaping techniques to induce heterogeneity of the seabed although it remains difficult to draw a strong conclusion due the lack of replication in the experiment. A new ecological equilibrium is not reached after 2 years since biotic and abiotic variables are still adapting. To understand the final impact of deep and large-scale sand extraction on demersal fish, we recommend monitoring for a longer period, at least for a period of six years or even longer.

de Jong, Maarten F.; Baptist, Martin J.; van Hal, Ralf; de Boois, Ingeborg J.; Lindeboom, Han J.; Hoekstra, Piet

2014-06-01

293

Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Sand  

SciTech Connect

There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or sand. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in sand or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accomodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in sand as well as in solid objects. Waves as frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through sand toward partially buried objects. The sand container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.

Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall

2003-08-01

294

Drag reduction using superhydrophobic sanded Teflon surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a series of experiments are presented which demonstrate drag reduction for the laminar flow of water through microchannels using superhydrophobic surfaces with random surface microstructure. These superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated with a simple, inexpensive technique of sanding polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with sandpaper having grit sizes between 120- and 600-grit. A microfluidic device was used to measure the pressure drop as a function of the flow rate to determine the drag reduction and slip length of each surface. A maximum pressure drop reduction of 27 % and a maximum apparent slip length of b = 20 ?m were obtained for the superhydrophobic surfaces created by sanding PTFE with a 240-grit sandpaper. The pressure drop reduction and slip length were found to increase with increasing mean particle size of the sandpaper up to 240-grit. Beyond that grit size, increasing the pitch of the surface roughness was found to cause the interface to transition from the Cassie-Baxter state to the Wenzel state. This transition was observed both as an increase in the contact angle hysteresis and simultaneously as a reduction in the pressure drop reduction. For these randomly rough surfaces, a correlation between the slip length and the contact angle hysteresis was found. The surfaces with the smallest contact angle hysteresis were found to also have the largest slip length. Finally, a number of sanding protocols were tested by sanding preferentially along the flow direction, across the flow direction and with a random circular pattern. In all cases, sanding in the flow direction was found to produce the largest pressure drop reduction.

Song, Dong; Daniello, Robert J.; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

2014-08-01

295

Well completion process for formations with unconsolidated sands  

DOEpatents

A method for consolidating sand around a well, involving injecting hot water or steam through well casing perforations in to create a cement-like area around the perforation of sufficient rigidity to prevent sand from flowing into and obstructing the well. The cement area has several wormholes that provide fluid passageways between the well and the formation, while still inhibiting sand inflow.

Davies, David K. (Kingwood, TX); Mondragon, III, Julius J. (Redondo Beach, CA); Hara, Philip Scott (Monterey Park, CA)

2003-04-29

296

BEHAVIOR OF A SAND RIDGE MODEL Juan Mario Restrepo  

E-print Network

BEHAVIOR OF A SAND RIDGE MODEL Juan Mario Restrepo Mathematics Department University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90095 Abstract. A model for the formation and evolution of longshore sand waves, which are represented by wave packets, and a sandy bottom topography, conspire to produce sand

Soatto, Stefano

297

Numerical simulation of wind sand movement in straw checkerboard barriers.  

PubMed

Straw checkerboard barrier (SCB) is the most representative antidesertification measure and plays a significant role in antidesertification projects. Large-eddy simulation and discrete-particle tracing were used to numerically simulate the wind sand movement inside the straw checkerboard barrier (SCB), study the movement characteristics of sand particles, find the transverse velocities of sand particles and flow field, and obtain the contour of the transverse velocity of coupled wind field within the SCB. The results showed that 1) compared with that at the inlet of the SCB, the sand transport rate inside the SCB greatly decreases and the speed of sand grain movement also evidently drops, indicating that the SCB has very good sand movement preventing and fixing function; 2) within the SCB there exists a series of unevenly distributed eddies of wind sand flow, their strength decreases gradually with increasing the transverse distance; 3) affected by eddies or reflux, sand particles carried by the wind sand flow have to drop forward and backward the two interior walls inside the SCB, respectively, forming a v-shaped sand trough; 4) the sand transport rate gradually decreases with increasing number of SCBs, which reveals that the capacity of the wind field to transport sand particles decreases. This research is of significance in sandstorm and land desertification control. PMID:24026396

Huang, Ning; Xia, Xianpan; Tong, Ding

2013-09-01

298

Tar sands program FY80. Annual report, October 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for assisting the Laramie Energy Technology Center's Tar Sands Program in the areas of reservoir access and alternate extraction concepts. Activities in the first area have concentrated on high-temperature packers, insulated injection string installation, steam quality measurements, sand control, and controlled-source audio magnetotelluric surveying. Also, a tar sands permeability enhancement workshop was held, and

J. R. Wayland; A. J. Mulac; R. L. Fox; L. C. Bartel

1981-01-01

299

Plant Availability of Metals in Waste Foundry Sands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foundries in the United States generate several million tons of waste sand each year. These sands are no longer suitable for metalcasting processes, and about 90% are discarded in landfills. However, the majority of these waste foundry sands (WFSs) qualify as non-hazardous industrial waste and the...

300

Design and management of conventional fluidized-sand biofilters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fluidized sand biofilters (FSBs) are relatively compact, efficient, and cost-competitive biofilters, especially in recirculating systems that require maintaining consistently low levels of ammonia and nitrite. Filter sand is low cost (often $70-200/m3 of sand delivered) and has a high specific surf...

301

Supercritical-Fluid Extraction of Oil From Tar Sands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New supercritical solvent mixtures have been laboratory-tested for extraction of oil from tar sands. Mixture is circulated through sand at high pressure and at a temperature above critical point, dissolving organic matter into the compressed gas. Extract is recovered from sand residues. Low-temperature super-critical solvents reduce energy consumption and waste-disposal problems.

Compton, L. E.

1982-01-01

302

Spring 1986 Research Could Help Revegetate Sand Hills  

E-print Network

in the Sand Hills, " said Michael G. Boo salis , UNL plant pathologist. He expl ained that this fungi formed ause they do not have host plants to SUpp0l1 their growth and repro- duction . "This results in bare to the Sand Hills were com pleted , and we foun d that growth of sand bluestem , little bluestern, prairie

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

303

On the size distribution of sand Michael Srensen  

E-print Network

On the size distribution of sand Michael Sørensen Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics is presented of the development of the size distribution of sand while it is transported from a source in unimodal grain size distributions in natural sand deposits, as pointed out by Bagnold. It implies

Sørensen, Michael

304

Physical white chaos generation  

E-print Network

Physical chaos is a fascinating prospect for high-speed data security by serving as a masking carrier or a key source, but suffers from a colored spectrum that divulges system's intrinsic oscillations and degrades randomness. Here, we demonstrate that physical chaos with a white spectrum can be achieved by the optical heterodyning of two delayed-feedback lasers. A white chaotic spectrum with 1-dB fluctuation in a band of 11 GHz is experimentally obtained. The white chaos also has a perfect delta-like autocorrelation function and a high dimensionality of greater than 10, which makes chaos reconstruction extremely difficult and thus improves security.

Anbang Wang; Yuncai Wang; Bingjie Wang; Lei Li; Mingjiang Zhang; Wendong Zhang

2014-01-26

305

White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

2008-01-01

306

Complicated feature of atmospheric aerosols shown in the yellow sand events in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that aerosol has a significant potential to the earth's climate. The aerosol distributions in Asia are very complex due to the increasing emissions of small anthropogenic particles associated with economic growth and large dust particles called yellow sands transported on the westerly wind from the continental desert areas. In this study, aerosol properties in the yellow sand events are focused and analyzed from comprehensive aspects. Yellow sand events have often happened in spring. Therefore they have been called 'spring haze' involving an expectation of coming spring to Japan. However the recent yellow sand events are too heavy and too severe to call 'spring haze' due to the increasing of desert areas and contamination with the anthropogenic emissions. The sun/sky photometry has been undertaken at NASA/AERONET stations in Osaka, Shirahama and Noto in Japan. Suspended particulate matter (PM) and OBC (Optical Black Carbon) have been simultaneously measured there. The simultaneous monitoring of aerosols and PM provides such a relation between them as there is a linear correlation between PM concentrations and AOT, which indicates that AOT can be estimated from PM data, and vice versa. It is found that the value of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) during aerosol event is more than double its usual value, and fine anthropogenic particles dominate even during dust events in Japan. It is of interest to mention that yellow sand events in Japan seem to be caused by a mixture of non-absorbing coarse dust and other small haze particles, especially shown in the event in May 2007. A new instrument of NIES/LIDAR network to be set at AERONET/Osaka station in March 2008 is expected to provide us with the vertical distribution of yellow sand particles. Furthermore the model simulations with SPRINTARS/AGCM/CCSR/NIES/FRCGC and satellite data will be available for our better understanding of the beyond pollution of the atmosphere.

Mukai, Sonoyo; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Makiko

307

The use of stable isotopes ((13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N) to trace exposure to oil sands processed material in the Alberta oil sands region.  

PubMed

Various oil sands reclamation strategies incorporate oil sands processed material (OSPM) such as mature fine tailings (MFT), engineered tailings (consolidated tailings, CT), and tailings pond water (TPW) into reclamation components that need to develop into viable aquatic ecosystems. The OSPM will contain elevated salinity and organics such as naphthenic acids (NA) and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) that can be chronically toxic to aquatic organisms depending upon levels and age. Due to the complexity of the chemical mixtures, analysis of these compounds in exposed organisms can be challenging. In this study, the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of selected invertebrates from various types of oil sands reclamation sites were analyzed to determine whether stable isotopes can be used to trace the exposure of aquatic organisms to organic constituents of OSPM. In a series of experimental reclamation ponds of similar age and size, there were trends of (13)C depletion and (15)N enrichment for benthic invertebrates along a gradient of increased levels of MFT and/or TPW. A survey of 16 sites revealed high delta(15)N values for invertebrates in aquatic systems containing MFT and CT (gypsum-treated mixes of MFT and tailings sand), which was attributed to the presence of NH(4)(+), a process by-product in OSPM. Findings of this study indicate a potential for the use of stable nitrogen isotopes to define exposure of biota to OSPM during environmental effects monitoring programs both in surface waters and in cases where groundwater seepage containing oil sands processed water enters surface receiving environments in the region. PMID:19199145

Farwell, A J; Nero, V; Ganshorn, K; Leonhardt, C; Ciborowski, J; MacKinnon, M; Dixon, D G

2009-01-01

308

Porosity and packing of Holocene river, dune, and beach sands  

SciTech Connect

The porosity and packing of 174 samples of well-sorted surficial and shallowly buried (to 17 m), unconsolidated Holocene sands were determined by point counting the upper surface of thin sections of epoxy-impregnated samples in reflected light. Average depositional porosity for 124 surficial beach sands, river point-bar and braid-bar sands, and eolian dune sands is between 40% and 58%. Beach sands exhibit an average packing value (contact index = CI) of 0.79, river sands an average IC of 0.91, and eolian dune sands an average CI of 1.02. Packing gets tighter with depth, but the authors found no decrease in porosity with depth for river and beach sands buried to 17 m. Thus, packing is more sensitive to small changes in fabric than is porosity. Beach sands typically contain 5.5% oversized pores (OSP), river sands 3.8% OSP, and eolian dune sands 4.0% OSP. Most OSP are packing defects rather than dissolution pores, although trapped air bubbles are common in some beach sands. OSP decrease linearly with depth to 17 m, our deepest sample. Extrapolation of our data indicates that they will be destroyed at a depth less than 100 m. Significant differences in porosity, oversized-pore, and packing values exist between most point-bar and braid-bar deposits and between two heavily sampled point bars, but no significant differences in these values exist when braid-bar sands are compared to other braid-bar sands. Sands form different beaches have significant differences in porosity, oversized pores, and packing. The average porosity is 46% for eolian ripple strata, 50% for grain-fall strata, and 51% for grain-flow strata. Ripple strata are tighter packed than grain-fall and grain-flow strata.

Atkins, J.E. (Conoco, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)); McBride, E.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1991-03-01

309

THE SIMULATION OF WIND-BLOWN SAND MOVEMENT AND PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTION OF LIFT-OFF VELOCITIES OF SAND GRAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurately describing the probability density function (PDF) of lift-off or initial velocities of wind-blown sand ejecting from a sand bed is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of wind-blown sand movement. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of developing the PDF of lift-off veloc...

310

White Blood Cell Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... Lymphocytic Leukocytosis Monocyte Disorders Eosinophilic Disorders Basophilic Disorders Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Blood Disorders > White Blood Cell ...

311

Effects of starvation on protein synthesis and nucleic acid metabolism in the muscle of the barred sand bass Paralabrax nebulifer  

SciTech Connect

Starvation induced different protein synthesis responses in red and white muscle of the barred sand bass Paralabrax nebulifer. Red muscle had /sup 14/C-leucine incorporation rates into total protein which were several times higher than white muscle in both the fed and starved states. Muscle was separated into a myofibrillar fraction consisting of the structural proteins and a sarcoplasmic fraction consisting of soluble proteins. Synthesis of the myofibrillar fraction of white muscle decreased by 90%, while red muscle myofibrillar synthesis remained essentially unchanged. Changes in the labeling of several enzymes purified from the sarcoplasmic fraction were different even though the overall loss of enzyme activity was similar, suggesting that changes in synthesis rates were important in maintaining appropriate relative enzyme concentrations.

Lowery, M.S.

1987-01-01

312

Progenitors of white dwarfs  

SciTech Connect

Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs.

Drilling, J.S.; Schoenberner, D.

1985-01-01

313

White Baneberry and Red Baneberry  

E-print Network

of identifying the two species, since fruit color can be variable. white baneberry typically has white fruit. They are most easily dis- tinguished from one another when in fruit because the leaves and flowers of the two. a fruiting stalk of white baneberry. The white fruit with a dark spot at the apex (a remnant of the stigma

Landweber, Laura

314

A contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice–age deposits were reactivated as drift sand during the Holocene. New insights were obtained in three aspects of drift–sands geomorphology.

P. D. Jungerius; M. J. P. M. Riksen

2010-01-01

315

Three dimensional fabric evolution of sheared sand  

SciTech Connect

Granular particles undergo translation and rolling when they are sheared. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) experimental assessment of fabric evolution of sheared sand at the particle level. F-75 Ottawa sand specimen was tested under an axisymmetric triaxial loading condition. It measured 9.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. The quantitative evaluation was conducted by analyzing 3D high-resolution x-ray synchrotron micro-tomography images of the specimen at eight axial strain levels. The analyses included visualization of particle translation and rotation, and quantification of fabric orientation as shearing continued. Representative individual particles were successfully tracked and visualized to assess the mode of interaction between them. This paper discusses fabric evolution and compares the evolution of particles within and outside the shear band as shearing continues. Changes in particle orientation distributions are presented using fabric histograms and fabric tensor.

Hasan, Alsidqi; Alshibli, Khalid (UWA)

2012-10-24

316

Scaling laws in aeolian sand transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Via wind tunnel experiments on aeolian sand transport, we provide evidences that over an erodible bed the grain velocity in the saltation layer and the saltation length are almost invariant with the wind strength, whereas over a non-erodible bed these quantities vary significantly with the air friction speed. It results that the particle transport rate over an erodible bed does not exhibit a cubic dependence with the air friction speed, as predicted by Bagnold, but a quadratic one. This contrasts with saltation over a non-erodible bed where the cubic Bagnold scaling holds. Our findings emphasize the crucial role of the boundary conditions at the bed and may have important practical consequences for aeolian sand transport in natural environment. Reference: T.D. Ho, A. Valance, P. Dupont and A. Ould El Moctar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 094501 (2011).

Valance, Alexandre; Ho, Tuan Duc; Ould El Moctar, Ahmed; Dupont, Pascal

2013-04-01

317

The importance of bed sediment sand content for the structure of a static armor layer in a gravel bed river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

surface structure of static armor layers generated from water-worked gravel bed channels was investigated with primary focus on the influence of sand content and flow rate. Flume experiments were conducted in which four sediment mixtures with sand contents between 1% and 38% were armored under one of three different flow rates. First- and second-order statistical analyses were applied to digital elevation models of unarmored, armored, and clustered bed surface areas to identify changes in surface structure. Results were combined with data from previous research to create an extended data set of armored bed surfaces. Water-worked, unarmored bed surfaces established under a dynamic equilibrium flow rate impacted the topographic variability and structure of the armored beds. Surface complexity decreased with armor formation as surface grains preferentially aligned with the flow direction. The bed surface became smoother, and where sediment mixture sand content was constant, there was greater smoothing of the surface during higher armoring flows as grains rearranged more easily. As bulk sand content increased, statistical analyses of the expanded data set showed that beds with very little sand content developed static armor layers that remained rough and had greater topographic variability than armor layers from sediments with higher sand contents. The bulk sediment sand content exerted a stronger influence over the change in surface roughness and structure upon armoring than that of the flow rate during armor formation. When combined with the knowledge of the local flow regime, the sand content may aid in predictions related to armored bed surface structure.

Curran, Joanna Crowe; Waters, Kevin A.

2014-07-01

318

Space Radar Image of Namibia Sand Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This spaceborne radar image shows part of the vast Namib Sand Sea on the west coast of southern Africa, just northeast of the city of Luderitz, Namibia. The magenta areas in the image are fields of sand dunes, and the orange area along the bottom of the image is the surface of the South Atlantic Ocean. The region receives only a few centimeters (inches) of rain per year. In most radar images, sandy areas appear dark due to their smooth texture, but in this area the sand is organized into steep dunes, causing bright radar reflections off the dune 'faces.' This effect is especially pronounced in the lower center of the image, where many glints of bright radar reflections are seen. Radar images of this hyper-arid region have been used to image sub-surface features, such as abandoned stream courses. The bright green features in the upper right are rocky hills poking through the sand sea. The peninsula in the lower center, near Hottentott Bay, is Diaz Point; Elizabeth Point is south of Diaz Point. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994. The image is 54.2 kilometers by 82.2 kilometers (33.6 miles by 51.0 miles) and is centered at 26.2 degrees South latitude, 15.1 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

1994-01-01

319

Comparison of SAND-II and FERRET  

SciTech Connect

A comparison was made of the advantages and disadvantages of two codes, SAND-II and FERRET, for determining the neutron flux spectrum and uncertainty from experimental dosimeter measurements as anticipated in the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program. This comparison involved an examination of the methodology and the operational performance of each code. The merits of each code were identified with respect to theoretical basis, directness of method, solution uniqueness, subjective influences, and sensitivity to various input parameters.

Wootan, D.W.; Schmittroth, F.

1981-01-01

320

Fusion of arkosic sand by intrusive andesite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An andesite dike in the Valles Mountains of northern New Mexico has intruded and partly fused arkosic sediments for a distance of 50 feet from its contacts. The dike is semi-circular in form, has a maximum width of about 100 feet, and is about 500 feet long. Small associated arcuate dikes are arranged in spiral fashion around the main dike, suggesting that they were intruded along shear fractures similar to those described by Burbank (1941). The fused rocks surrounding the andesite dike are of three general types: 1) partly fused arkosic sand, 2) fused clay, and 3) hybrid rocks. The fused arkosic sand consists of relict detrital grains of quartz, orthoclose, and plagioclase, imbedded in colorless glass containing microlites of tridymite, cordierite, and magnetite. The relict quartz grains are corroded and embayed by glass; the orthoclase is sanidinized and partly fused; and the plagioclase is inverted to the high temperature form and is partly fused. The fused clay, which was originally a mixture of montmorillonite and hydromica, consists primarily of cordierite but also contains needle-like crystals of sillimanite (?) or mullite (?). The hybrid rocks originated in part by intermixing of fused arkosic sediments and andesitic liquid and in part by diffusion of mafic constituents through the fused sediments. They are rich in cordierite and magnetite and also contain hypersthene, augite, and plagioclase. The composition of pigeonite in the andesite indicates that the temperature of the andesite at the time of intrusion probably did not exceed 1200?C. Samples of arkosic sand were fused in the presence of water in a Morey bomb at 1050?C. Stability relations of certain minerals in the fused sand suggest that fusion may have taken place at a lower temperature, however, and the fluxing action of volatiles from the andesite are thought to have made this possible.

Bailey, Roy A.

1954-01-01

321

Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand  

PubMed Central

Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of P? occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

2012-01-01

322

Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised  

SciTech Connect

This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

Locke, T.K. [ed.

1996-04-01

323

Summertime View of North Polar Sand Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

10 October 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of dunes in one of the several north polar dune fields. The bright surfaces adjacent to some of the dunes are patches of frost. These dunes spend much of the autumn, winter, and spring seasons covered with carbon dioxide frost. Only in late spring and in summer are the dark windblown sands fully exposed.

Over the course of the 9+ years of the MGS mission, the MOC team has sought evidence that sand dunes may be migrating downwind over time. However, no clear examples of the movement of a whole dune have been identified. On Earth, such movement is typically detectable in air photos of the smallest active dunes over periods of a few years. Owing to the fact that the north polar dunes spend much of each martian year under a cover of frost, perhaps these move much more slowly than their frost-free, terrestrial counterparts. The sand may also be somewhat cemented by ice or minerals, likewise preventing vigorous dune migration in the present environment.

This view covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left. The dunes are located near 79.8oN, 127.1oW, and the picture was acquired on 11 September 2006.

2006-01-01

324

Sex Pheromone and Trail Pheromone of the Sand Termite Psammotermes hybostoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the complex network of chemical signals used by termites, trail pheromones and sex pheromones are among the best known.\\u000a Numerous recent papers map the chemical identity and glandular origin of these pheromones in nearly all major isopteran taxa.\\u000a In this study, we aimed to describe the sex pheromone and the trail pheromone of a poorly known sand termite, Psammotermes

David Sillam-Dussès; Robert Hanus; Ashraf Oukasha Abd El-Latif; Pavel Jiroš; Jana Krasulová; Blanka Kalinová; Irena Valterová; Jan Šobotník

2011-01-01

325

Mineralogy of the North Polar Sands of Mars from MGS\\/TES Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The north polar region of Mars has had a complex geologic history, part of which has involved aqueous processes. A major surface unit in this region is a large (4.7 million km2), low albedo area of sand dunes\\/sheets (the north polar erg) spanning the circumpolar plains. We are investigating the mineralogy and geologic history of the erg using a variety

James F. Bell; B. N. H. Horgan; E. Z. Noe Dobrea

2009-01-01

326

Explaining the surprisingly poor correlation between turbulent surface wind and aeolian sand flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing models of aeolian sand transport, derived theoretically and from wind-tunnel experiments, often disagree substantially with field observations. Despite advancements in anemometry and sediment flux detection technologies, even very high-resolution observations of aeolian sand transport show only weak correlation with concurrent surface wind speeds and model predictions. Unlike in experiments and numerical models, winds in natural environments exhibit turbulent fluctuations over a broad range of length scales extending from individual grains to the top of the atmospheric boundary layer and over a similarly large range of time scales. Here, we present simultaneous high-resolution (10 Hz) measurements of surface wind and saltation sand transport over a ~5 m tall barchan dune (median grain diameter = 0.35 mm) collected at White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico, USA. Studying aeolian transport in the field offered a natural experiment for understanding how the rate of aeolian saltation responds to turbulent changes in wind and frequent crossings of the threshold for particle motion. In agreement with past observations, our data indicate that: (1) saltation flux lags wind fluctuations by about 1 second, (2) the threshold for initiation of particle motion ("entrainment") exceeds the threshold for cessation ("distrainment") by about 20%, (3) concurrent instantaneous wind and sediment flux measurements are poorly correlated. Based on our data, we show how lagged transport and threshold hysteresis are related to inertia in the transport system arising from ballistic particle trajectories and non-instantaneous momentum transfers among grains and wind. We argue that this nonlinear and lagged response of saltation to turbulent wind fluctuations accounts for the poor correlation between wind and transport as well as the poor performance of existing saltation models.

Martin, R. L.; Barchyn, T. E.; Hugenholtz, C.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Kok, J. F.

2012-12-01

327

Mesophilic Actinomycetes in the natural and reconstructed sand dune vegetation zones of Fraser Island, Australia.  

PubMed

The natural coastal habitat of Fraser Island located in the State of Queensland, Australia, has been disturbed in the past for mining of the mineral sand ilmenite. Currently, there is no information available on whether these past mining disturbances have affected the distribution, diversity, and survival of beneficial soil microorganisms in the sand dunes of the island. This in turn could deleteriously affect the success of the natural regeneration, plant growth, and establishment on the sand dunes. To support ongoing restoration efforts at sites like these mesophilic actinomycetes were isolated using conventional techniques, with particular emphasis on the taxa previously reported to produce plant-growth-promoting substances and providing support to mycorrhizal fungi, were studied at disturbed sites and compared with natural sites. In the natural sites, foredunes contained higher densities of micromonosporae replaced by increasing numbers of streptomycete species in the successional dune and finally leading to complex actinomycete communities in the mature hind dunes. Whereas in the disturbed zones affected by previous mining activities, which are currently being rehabilitated, no culturable actinomycete communities were detected. These findings suggest that the paucity of beneficial microflora in the rehabilitated sand dunes may be limiting the successful colonization by pioneer plant species. Failure to establish a cover of plant species would result in the mature hind dune plants being exposed to harsh salt and climatic conditions. This could exacerbate the incidence of wind erosion, resulting in the destabilization of well-defined and vegetated successional dunal zones. PMID:17578635

Kurtböke, D I; Neller, R J; Bellgard, S E

2007-08-01

328

A study of morphology, provenance, and movement of desert sand seas in Africa, Asia, and Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Recent acquisition of generally high quality color prints for most of the test sites has enabled this project to make significant advances in preparing mosaics of sand desert areas under study. Computer enhancement of imagery, where details of complex dune forms need to be determined, has been achieved with arrival of computer-compatible ERTS-1 tapes. Further, a comparator, recently received, gives precise visual measurements of width, length, and spacing of sand bodies and so improves comparison of patterns in various test sites. Considerable additional meteorological data recently received on sand-moving winds in China, Pakistan, Libya, and other study areas enabled much progress to be made in developing overlays for the dune mosaics. These data show direction, speed, and frequency of winds. Other new data for use in preparing overlays used with ERTS-1 image mosaics include ground truth on moisture control, geologic settings, and plant distribution. With the addition of visual observation data and prints from hand-held photography now being obtained by the Skylab 4 mission, much progress in interpreting the patterns of sand seas for 17 desert sites is anticipated.

Mckee, E. D. (principal investigator); Breed, C. S.

1974-01-01

329

A study of morphology, provenance, and movement of desert sand seas in Africa, Asia, and Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Recent acquisition of generally high quality color prints for most of the test sites has enabled the project to make significant advances in preparing mosaics of sand desert areas under study. Computer enhancement of imagery of selected sites, where details of complex dune forms need to be determined, has been achieved with arrival of computer-compatible ERTS-1 tapes. Further, a comparator, recently received, gives precise visual measurements of width, length, and spacing of sand bodies and so improves comparison of patterns in various test sites. Considerable additional meteorological data recently received on sand-moving winds in China, Pakistan, Libya and other areas enabled much progress to be made in developing overlays for the dune mosaics. These data show direction, speed, and frequency of winds. Other new data for use in preparing overlays used with ERTS-1 image mosaics include ground truth on moisture control, geologic settings, and plant distribution. With the addition of visual observation data and prints from hand-held photography now being obtained by the Skylab mission, much progress in interpreting the patterns of sand seas for 17 desert sites is anticipated.

Mckee, E. D. (principal investigator); Breed, C. S.

1973-01-01

330

Oil Fingerprinting for Production Allocation: Exploiting the Natural Variations in Fluid Properties Encountered in Heavy Oil and Oil Sand Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ability to allocate oil production along horizontal wells or in commingled production of heavy oilfields to reservoir location takes advantage of the natural variation in fluid composition in heavy oilfields that occurs over vertical and lateral reservoir scales. In the Peace River oil sands, variations in physical and chemical properties have developed via the complex interplay between biodegradation,

Barry Bennett; Jennifer J. Adams; Stephen R. Larter

331

Eolian cover sands: a sedimentologic model and paleoenvironmental implications  

SciTech Connect

In periglacial areas, accumulations of eolian sand commonly form low-relief blankets without well-developed dunes. Internally, these sandsheet deposits exhibit subhorizontal lamination rather than high-angle cross-bedding. Such cover sands of late-Pleistocene age mantle extensive areas in northern Europe, but have been reported more rarely from North America. The processes by which cover sands, as opposed to dunes, accumulate have not yet been determined conclusively. Wind ripples and sand dunes do not form a continuum; flow separation and avalanching and negligible in the former and vital in the latter. Accretion of a sand patch into a mound sufficient to cause flow separation and dune growth requires a consistently available supply of loose sand. In cover-sand areas, sand may be immobilized prior to dune development by several factors: (1) a sparse vegetation cover, (2) moist ground conditions, (3) snow cover, and (4) a shallow permafrost table and/or an ice-cemented active layer. Detailed sedimentologic studies may allow discrimination among these various controls. The importance of the individual controlling factors can vary seasonally in a given deposit, as well as between deposits in different paleogeographic settings. However, all factors imply more mesic conditions than those associated with many dune deposits. The association of cover sands with paraboloid dunes is also consistent with somewhat moist conditions. The relatively mesic nature of cover sands controls their Pleistocene distribution; they become decreasingly important relative to dunes in maritime-to-continental transects across Alaska and northern Europe.

Lea, P.D.

1985-01-01

332

White light emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using blue-emitting GaN LEDs on SiC substrate chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white light emitting diodes (LUCOLEDs). The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta, is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence downconversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic dye molecules and many inorganic phosphors. For white light generation via the LUCOLED principle, the phosphor Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(4f1) is ideally suited. The optical characteristics of Ce3+(4f1) in Y3Al5O12(YAG) are discussed in detail. Possibilities to "tune" the white color by various substitutions in the garnet lattice are shortly outlined.

Baur, J.; Schlotter, P.; Schneider, J.

333

Precessive sand ripples in intense steady shear flows.  

PubMed

We describe experimental observations of fully developed, large-amplitude bars under the action of a shearing fluid. The experiments were performed in an annular tank filled with water and sheared above by a steady motor source. The same steady shearing flow can produce a variety of different erodible bed manifestations: advective or precessive bars, which refer to bar structures with global regularity and a near-steady precession velocity; interactive bars, the structure of which depends on local rearrangements, which are in turn a response to complex background topography; and dispersive bars, which are created when an initially isolated mound of sand evolves into a train of sand ripples. Of these, the most amenable to analysis are the precessive bars. For precession bars, we find that the skin depth, which is the nondimensionalized mean-field transport rate, grows exponentially as a function of the shear velocity. From this, we arrive at an analytical expression that approximates the precession speed of the bars as a function of shear velocity. We use this to obtain a formula for sediment transport rate. However, in intense flows, the bars can get large engendering boundary layer separation, leading to a different dynamic for bar formation and evolution. Numerical flow calculations over an experimentally obtained set of precessive bars are presented and show that classical parametrizations of mass flux in terms of bottom gradients have shortcomings. Within the range of shear rates considered, a quantity that does not change appreciably in time is the aspect ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the average bar amplitude, with respect to a mean depth, to the average bar length. PMID:21517492

Restrepo, Juan M; Moulton, Derek E; Uys, Hermann

2011-03-01

334

White light velocity interferometer  

DOEpatents

The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

Erskine, D.J.

1997-06-24

335

White light velocity interferometer  

DOEpatents

The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

Erskine, David J. (Oakland, CA)

1997-01-01

336

White light velocity interferometer  

DOEpatents

The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

Erskine, David J. (Oakland, CA)

1999-01-01

337

White cell design considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The White cell is a unit-magnification image relay system consisting of three noncoaxial spherical mirrors of equal curvature. The cell is used to provide a long optical path in a relatively small physical space. Multiple reflections are used, in a manner similar to a unstable laser resonator. A particular application is an optical delay line on the input of a streak camera to allow for the finite triggering time of the sweep start. This paper addresses the first- and third-order properties of the White cell. A displacement sensitivity analysis is included.

Hannan, Paul

1989-01-01

338

Combustion of White Phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of white phosphorus with pure oxygen is conveniently and safely demonstrated by carrying out the reaction in a retort that has its open end submerged in water. After filling the retort with oxygen gas, a small amount of white phosphorus is introduced and heated with a hot-plate until it ignites. The spectacular reaction leads to consumption and expulsion of oxygen gas, creation of a partial vacuum in the retort, and back suction of water that extinguishes the combustion. Featured on the Cover

Keiter, Richard L.; Gamage, Chaminda P.

2001-07-01

339

White light velocity interferometer  

DOEpatents

The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

Erskine, D.J.

1999-06-08

340

Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Donald Buckley (Quinnipiac University;Biology)

2006-05-20

341

Environmental impact statement for Manned Spacecraft Center and White Sands Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This environment has not only attracted people and increased payrolls, but has also created a broader base for the local economy. The activity of the center was a catalyst to private enterprise and has led to sizeable residential and commercial developments. Adequate treatment of domestic and industrial waste water was maintained. A feasibility study is now being conducted to establish a plan for a coordinated, centerwide plan for advanced treatment of domestic and industrial waste water.

1971-01-01

342

Preliminary results from the White Sands Missile Range sonic boom propagation experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sonic boom bow shock amplitude and rise time statistics from a recent sonic boom propagation experiment are presented. Distributions of bow shock overpressure and rise time measured under different atmospheric turbulence conditions for the same test aircraft are quite different. The peak overpressure distributions are skewed positively, indicating a tendency for positive deviations from the mean to be larger than negative deviations. Standard deviations of overpressure distributions measured under moderate turbulence were 40 percent larger than those measured under low turbulence. As turbulence increased, the difference between the median and the mean increased, indicating increased positive overpressure deviations. The effect of turbulence was more readily seen in the rise time distributions. Under moderate turbulence conditions, the rise time distribution means were larger by a factor of 4 and the standard deviations were larger by a factor of 3 from the low turbulence values. These distribution changes resulted in a transition from a peaked appearance of the rise time distribution for the morning to a flattened appearance for the afternoon rise time distributions. The sonic boom propagation experiment consisted of flying three types of aircraft supersonically over a ground-based microphone array with concurrent measurements of turbulence and other meteorological data. The test aircraft were a T-38, an F-15, and an F-111, and they were flown at speeds of Mach 1.2 to 1.3, 30,000 feet above a 16 element, linear microphone array with an inter-element spacing of 200 ft. In two weeks of testing, 57 supersonic passes of the test aircraft were flown from early morning to late afternoon.

Willshire, William L., Jr.; Devilbiss, David W.

1992-01-01

343

Hydrogen and Storage Initiatives at the NASA JSC White Sands Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA WSTF Hydrogen Activities: a) Aerospace Test; b) System Certification & Verification; c) Component, System, & Facility Hazard Assessment; d) Safety Training Technical Transfer: a) Development of Voluntary Consensus Standards and Practices; b) Support of National Hydrogen Infrastructure Development.

Maes, Miguel; Woods, Stephen S.

2006-01-01

344

Analysis of reentry into the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) for the LifeSat mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the reentry of the LifeSat vehicles into the WSMR. The LifeSat mission consists of two reusable reentry satellites, each carrying a removable payload module, which scientists will use to study long-term effects of microgravity, Van Allen belt radiation, and galactic cosmic rays on living organisms. A series of missions is planned for both low-Earth circular orbits and

M. Hametz; L. Roszman; F. Snow; J. Cooley

1993-01-01

345

Analysis of reentry into the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) for the LifeSat mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the reentry of the LifeSat vehicles into the WSMR. The LifeSat mission consists of two reusable reentry satellites, each carrying a removable payload module, which scientists will use to study long-term effects of microgravity, Van Allen belt radiation, and galactic cosmic rays on living organisms. A series of missions is planned for both low-Earth circular orbits and highly elliptic orbits. To recover the payload module with the specimens intact, a soft parachute landing and recovery at the WSMR is planned. This analysis examines operational issues surrounding the reentry scenario to assess the feasibility of the reentry.

Hametz, M.; Roszman, L.; Snow, F.; Cooley, J.

1993-02-01

346

Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery in mapping and managing soil and range resources in the Sand Hills Region of Nebraska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interpretations of high altitude photography of test sites in the Sandhills of Nebraska permitted identification of subirrigated range sites as well as complexes of choppy sands and sands range sites, units composing approximately 85% of the Sandhills rangeland. These range sites form the basic units necessary for the interpretation of range condition classes used in grazing management. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery acquired during August, September and October, 1972 indicated potential for the identification of gross differences in forage density within given range sites identified on early season aerial photography.

Seevers, P. M.; Drew, J. V.

1973-01-01

347

Reconstructing the Pore Space of Sand Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the pore space is essential for flow and transport in soils. Size, shape and connectivity of the pores determine the distribution of air and water, pore water velocity and solute mixing. So, for a complete understanding of transport processes in soils, the pore geometry must be known. Some processes, for example the drainage of water, depend on narrow structures with sizes of a few micrometers. For this reason, a technique to measure 3D pore structures with high resolution is needed. This presentation will describe the image processing steps needed to provide a pore space with the highest possible fidelity to the measured sample. The projection data were acquired using an imaging system based on synchrotron radiation. This technique allows us to map the pore structure in the range of 10 microns. To transform the projection data into pore space volumes, a chain of actions involving back projection, the application of various filters to suppress noise and artifacts, and segmentation is needed. During experiments at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) we scanned sand samples with diameter 5 mm containing sand particles ranging from 100 to 300 microns with a voxel size of 3.5 microns. At the Hamburger Synchrotron Laboratory (HASYLAB) sand samples with diameter 15 mm containing particles ranging from 100 to 900 microns were mapped with a voxel size of 11 microns. In addition to the scanning of completely dry samples, we intend to investigate the water and air distribution for different degrees of water saturation. Comparing these measurements with numerical simulations, we hope to understand the processes of air and water distribution in more detail.

Kaestner, A.; Lehmann, P.; Fluehler, H.; Wyss, P.; Beckmann, F.

2003-12-01

348

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01

349

Investigation of sands subjected to dynamic loading  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATION OF SP&NDS SUBJECTED TO DTNAMIC LOADING A Tucsis By Gary N. Reeves Submitted to the Grad ate Coll Ee of the T xas AGM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the deEree of MASTER OF SCIPNCE AuBust 19G7 Major... Subject: Civil EnEineering LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF SANDS SUBJECTED TO DYNAMIC LOADING A Thesis by Gary N. Reeves Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head of Department Membe Me er August 1967 ACIINOWLEDGR&J. 'NTS I...

Reeves, Gary Neil

2012-06-07

350

Sedimentary Rock From Sand: Syringe Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will allow students to simulate the formation of sedimentary rocks by compressing sand, water, and other materials in a syringe. The products are allowed to dry, and students will investigate how the properties of the samples of sedimentary rocks so formed are dependent on the extent of their compaction and cementation. The activity will help to explain that for most sediments to become rocks the grains need to be squeezed together (compacted) and/or glued together (cemented) and that the extent of the compaction and the strength of the cementation affect the properties of sedimentary rocks.

351

Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

2010-01-12

352

Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

2009-12-22

353

Aeolian Sand Transport with Collisional Suspension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeolian transport is an important mechanism for the transport of sand on Earth and on Mars. Dust and sand storms are common occurrences on Mars and windblown sand is responsible for many of the observed surface features, such as dune fields. A better understanding of Aeolian transport could also lead to improvements in pneumatic conveying of materials to be mined for life support on the surface of the Moon and Mars. The usual view of aeolian sand transport is that for mild winds, saltation is the dominant mechanism, with particles in the bed being dislodged by the impact of other saltating particles, but without in-flight collisions. As the wind becomes stronger, turbulent suspension keeps the particles in the air, allowing much longer trajectories, with the corresponding increase in transport rate. We show here that an important regime exists between these two extremes: for strong winds, but before turbulent suspension becomes dominant, there is a regime in which in-flight collisions dominate over turbulence as a suspension mechanism, yielding transport rates much higher than those for saltation. The theory presented is based on granular kinetic theory, and includes both turbulent suspension and particle-particle collisions. The wind strengths for which the calculated transport rates are relevant are beyond the published strengths of current wind tunnel experiments, so these theoretical results are an invitation to do experiments in the strong-wind regime. In order to make a connection between the regime of saltation and the regime of collisional suspension, it is necessary to better understand the interaction between the bed and the particles that collide with it. This interaction depends on the agitation of the particles of the bed. In mild winds, collisions with the bed are relatively infrequent and the local disturbance associated with a collision can relax before the next nearby collision. However, as the wind speed increases, collision become more frequent and the agitation need not decay completely. In the regime of collisional suspension, the particles near the surface of the bed are assumed to be in a state of constant agitation. We indicate the conditions at the bed corresponding to the limits of saltation and collisional suspension and outline experiments, simulations, and modeling that have been undertaken to bridge these limits.

Jenkins, James T.; Pasini, Jose Miguel; Valance, Alexandre

2004-01-01

354

Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes  

E-print Network

Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes and active dunes at high wind power. These results suggest a cross-over between two different forms of desertification.

Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef

2012-01-01

355

Sand erosion performance of CVD boron carbide coated tungsten carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The erosion performance and the interaction between the micro-mechanisms of erosion and the microstructure of a chemical vapour deposited boron carbide coating are presented. Samples were tested using both water–sand slurry and air–sand jet impingements at 90° incidence. Tests used angular quartz sand with a mean diameter between 135 and 235 ?m and jet impingement velocities between 16 and 268

R. J. K Wood; D. W Wheeler; D. C Lejeau; B. G Mellor

1999-01-01

356

Time-Dependent Behaviour and Static Liquefaction Phenomenon of Sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent laboratory and field experiments have confirmed that sand does indeed exhibit time-dependent behaviour. Based on these\\u000a findings, it was considered necessary to revisit some of the published experimental results on the static liquefaction phenomenon\\u000a of loose anisotropic Hostun RF sand. Time-dependency might have had a significant influence on the observed undrained response\\u000a of anisotropic consolidated sand specimens. Specific triaxial

Erdin Ibraim; Herve Di Benedetto; Thiep Doanh

2009-01-01

357

White Institutional Presence: The Impact of Whiteness on Campus Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this conceptual paper, Diane Gusa highlights the salience of race by scrutinizing the culture of Whiteness within predominately White institutions of higher education. Using existing research in higher education retention literature, Gusa examines embedded White cultural ideology in the cultural practices, traditions, and perceptions of…

Gusa, Diane Lynn

2010-01-01

358

White Sea - Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

2002-01-01

359

Snow White 5 Trench  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera on the 35th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 34 (June 29, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White 5.' The trench is 4-to-5 centimeters (about 1.5-to-1.9 inches) deep, 24 centimeters (about 9 inches) wide and 33 centimeters (13 inches) long.

Snow White 5 is Phoenix's current active digging area after additional trenching, grooming, and scraping by Phoenix's Robotic Arm in the last few sols to trenches informally called Snow White 1, 2, 3, and 4. Near the top center of the image is the Robotic Arm's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe.

Snow White 5 is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.'

This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

360

The relationships among CYP1A induction, toxicity, and eye pathology in early life stages of fish exposed to oil sands.  

PubMed

Exposure of the early life stages of fish to oil sands constituents is associated with mortality and larval malformations such as edemas, hemorrhages, and skeletal, craniofacial, and eye defects. In fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) larvae, indices of total eye pathology increased significantly following oil sands exposure. Structural, cytoplasmic, inflammatory, and degenerative eye alterations included poor retinal differentiation, microphthalmia, optic fissures, dysphasic retinas and lenses, inflammatory infiltrates, retinal epithelial lifting, and necrotic foci. Cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) was expressed in ocular (retina, lens) and kidney endothelial tissues, as indicated by immunohistochemistry. Although the kinetics of exposure-response curves for mortality and CYP1A expression were similar in both species, species differences in the magnitude and sensitivity of the responses were observed. Oil sands were twofold more toxic to fathead minnows (TPAH LC50 = 47-330 microg/g) than to white sucker (TPAH LC50 = 95-860 microg/g) larvae. For both species, larval mortality was significantly related to CYP1A protein concentrations in kidneys, and severity of these effects rose with oil sands exposure. The relationships among eye damage, mortality, and CYP1A indices warrants further investigation, and may lead to the use of CYP1A induction as an indicator of adverse effects rather than just contaminant exposure. PMID:17710614

Colavecchia, Maria V; Hodson, Peter V; Parrott, Joanne L

2007-09-01

361

Hand transmitted vibrations caused by orbital hand sanding machines.  

PubMed

The paper reports and analyses results of vibration measurement carried out on orbital hand sanding machines. Vibrations were measured on the front and rear handles of the FESTO LRB-W1 and LRB-T1 orbital hand sanding machines and at two points on the holding handle of the FESTO RTL-F1 hand sanding machine. The measured levels of the weighted vibration accelerations were compared to the daily exposure limits according to ISO 5349, ISO/TC 108/SC4/14 and NF E90-402. Daily exposures for each type of sanding machine were determined according to the same standards. PMID:7575142

Goglia, V; Risovi?, S; Beljo, R

1995-03-01

362

Reuse of waste cutting sand at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined the waste stream from a water jet cutting operation, to evaluate the possible reuse of waste garnet sand. The sand is a cutting agent used to shape a variety of materials, including metals. Nearly 70,000 pounds of waste sand is generated annually by the cutting operation. The Environmental Protection Department evaluated two potential reuses for the spent garnet sand: backfill in utility trenches; and as a concrete constituent. In both applications, garnet waste would replace the sand formerly purchased by LLNL for these purposes. Findings supported the reuse of waste garnet sand in concrete, but disqualified its proposed application as trench backfill. Waste sand stabilized in a concrete matrix appeared to present no metals-leaching hazard; however, unconsolidated sand in trenches could potentially leach metals in concentrations high enough to threaten ground water quality. A technical report submitted to the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board was reviewed and accepted by that body. Reuse of waste garnet cutting sand as a constituent in concrete poured to form walkways and patios at LLNL was approved.

Mathews, S.; Wilson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1998-12-31

363

Numerical modeling of wind-blown sand on Mars.  

PubMed

Recent observation results show that sand ripples and dunes are movable like those on Earth under current Martian climate. And the aeolian process on Mars therefore is re-attracting the eyes of scientific researchers in different fields. In this paper, the spatial and temporal evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars is simulated by the large-eddy simulation method. The simulations are conducted under the conditions of both friction wind speed higher and lower than the "fluid threshold", respectively. The fluid entrainment of the sand particles, the processes among saltation sand particles and sand bed, and the negative feedback of sand movement to flow field are considered. Our results show that the "overshoot" phenomenon also exists in the evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars both temporally and spatially; impact entrainment affects the sand transport rate on Mars when the wind speed is smaller or larger than the fluid threshold; and both the average saltation length and height are one order of magnitudes larger than those on Earth. Eventually, the formulas describing the sand transport rate, average saltation length and height on Mars are given, respectively. PMID:25236498

Huang, HaoJie; Bo, TianLi; Zheng, XiaoJing

2014-09-01

364

Bioclogging and Biocementation in Construction of Water Pond in Sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventionally, compacted bentonite, geosynthetic clay liner or plastic liners are used to seal ponds, channels, and reservoirs in sand. Recently, a new approach to form a low permeability layer of several centimetres thick through the microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) process has been developed (Chu et al., 2012). This method has been adopted to build a laboratory scale water pond model in sand. Calcium solution for bioclogging and biocementation was supplied initially by spaying to form a layer of the clogged sand by precipitation in the pores and then by slow percolation from solution above sand surface, which formed a crust of calcite. This combination of bioclogging and biocementation formed a sand layer of 1 - 3 cm depth with low permeability. The permeability of sand after this treatment was reduced from the order of 10^-4 m/s to 10^-7 m/s when an average 2.1 kg of Ca per m^2 of sand surface was precipitated. The bending strengths of the walls and the base of the model pond were in the range of 90 to 256 kPa. The unconfined compressive strengths obtained from samples from the walls and the base were in the range of 215 to 932 kPa. The graded sand and uniform supply of calcium solution were used for the model pond construction but it was significant spatial three-dimensional heterogeneity of sand bioclogging and biocementation.

Chu, J.; Ivanov, V.; Stabnikov, V.; Li, B.

2012-12-01

365

Reuse of waste cutting sand at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined the waste stream from a water jet cutting operation, to evaluate the possible reuse of waste garnet sand. The sand is a cutting agent used to shape a variety of materials, including metals. Nearly 70,000 pounds of waste sand is generated annually by the cutting operation. The Environmental Protection Department evaluated two potential reuses for the spent garnet sand: backfill in utility trenches; and as a concrete constituent. In both applications, garnet waste would replace the sand formerly purchases by LLNL for these purposes. Findings supported the reuse of waste garnet sand in concrete, but disqualified its proposed application as trench backfill. Waste sand stabilized in ac concrete matrix appeared to present no metals-leaching hazard; however, unconsolidated sand in trenches could potentially leach metals in concentrations high enough to threaten ground water quality. A technical report submitted to the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board was reviewed and accepted by that body. Reuse of waste garnet cutting sand as a constituent in concrete poured to form walkways and patios at LLNL was approved.

Mathews, S., LLNL

1998-02-25

366

Trajectories of saltating sand particles behind a porous fence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trajectories of aeolian sand particles behind a porous wind fence embedded in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer were visualized experimentally, to investigate the shelter effect of the fence on sand saltation. Two sand samples, one collected from a beach (d = 250 ?m) and the other from a desert (d = 100 ?m), were tested in comparison with the previous studies of a 'no-fence' case. A wind fence (? = 38.5%) was installed on a flat sand bed filled with each sand sample. A high-speed photography technique and the particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) method were employed to reconstruct the trajectories of particles saltating behind the fence. The collision processes of these sand particles were analyzed, momentum and kinetic energy transfer between saltating particles and ground surface were also investigated. In the wake region, probability density distributions of the impact velocities agree well with the pattern of no-fence case, and can be explained by a log-normal law. The horizontal component of impact velocity for the beach sand is decreased by about 54%, and about 76% for the desert sand. Vertical restitution coefficients of bouncing particles are smaller than 1.0 due to the presence of the wind fence. The saltating particles lose a large proportion of their energy during the collision process. These results illustrate that the porous wind fence effectively abates the further evolution of saltating sand particles.

Zhang, Ning; Lee, Sang Joon; Chen, Ting-Guo

2015-01-01

367

Storms, shoreface morphodynamics, sand supply, and the accretion and erosion of coastal dune barriers in the southern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coast of the southern North Sea is bound by dune barriers that have developed adjacent to a shallow storm- and tide-dominated shoreface comprising numerous shore-parallel to sub-shore-parallel tidal sand banks. The banks evolve under the joint control of tide-, wave- and wind-induced shore-parallel currents, which tend to ‘stretch' them, eventually leading to bank division, and to shoaling and breaking storm waves, which tend to drive them ashore. The banks, thus, modulate the delivery of storm wave energy to the coast, redirect currents alongshore and are the sand sources for the accretion of coastal dunes. Foredune accretion occurs where major sand banks have migrated shoreward over the last centuries to be finally driven ashore and weld under the impact of storm waves. Morphological changes in the bank field can impact on shoreline stability through dissipation or enhanced shoreward transmission of storm wave energy and effects on radiation stress, particularly when waves are breaking over the banks. Where banks are close to the shore, mitigation of offshore sediment transport, especially during storms, can occur because of gradients in radiation stress generated by the complex 3D bank structure. These macro-scale mechanisms involve embedded meso-scale interactions that revolve around the mobility of sand waves, mobility of beach bars and troughs and foredune mobility, and micro-scale processes of bedform mobility in the subaqueous and intertidal domains, and of swash and aeolian beach-dune sand transport. These embedded interactions and the morphodynamic feedback loops illustrate the importance of synchroneity of sand transport from shoreface to dune on this coast. Large stretches of the foredunes show either signs of stability, or mild but chronic erosion. Furthermore, a demonstrated lack of a clear relationship occurs between storminess and coastal response over the second half of the 20th century. The present situation may be indicative of conditions of rather limited sand supply from offshore, notwithstanding the abundance of sand on the nearby shallow shoreface, except in areas where a nearshore storm-driven tidal sand bank has become shore-attached. Apart from the important influence of shoreface sand banks and of wave-bank interactions, foredune accretion and erosion also depend on various context controls that include individual storm characteristics, wind speed and incidence relative to the shore, tidal stage during storms, and direct human intervention on the shore through foredune and beach management. The bewildering variability inherent in these intricately related parameters may also explain the poor relationship between storminess and barrier shoreline change and will still continue to render unpredictable the response of shores to individual storms.

Anthony, Edward J.

2013-10-01

368

White Dwarf Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White dwarfs are the evolutionary endpoint for nearly 95% of all stars born in our Galaxy, the final stages of evolution of all low- and intermediate mass stars, i.e., main sequence stars with masses below (8.5± 1.5) M_{odot}, depending on metallicity of the progenitor, mass loss and core overshoot. Massive white dwarfs are intrinsically rare objects, tand produce a gap in the determination of the initial vs. final mass relation at the high mass end (e.g. Weidemann 2000 A&A, 363, 647; Kalirai et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, 594; Williams, Bolte & Koester 2009, ApJ, 693, 355). Main sequences stars with higher masses will explode as SNII (Smartt S. 2009 ARA&A, 47, 63), but the limit does depend on the metallicity of the progenitor. Massive white dwarfs are probably SNIa progenitors through accretion or merger. They are rare, being the final product of massive stars (less common) and have smaller radius (less luminous). Kepler et al. 2007 (MNRAS, 375, 1315), Kleinman et al. 2013 (ApJS, 204, 5) estimate only 1-2% white dwarfs have masses above 1 M_{odot}. The final stages of evolution after helium burning are a race between core growth and loss of the H-rich envelope in a stellar wind. When the burning shell is exposed, the star rapidly cools and burning ceases, leaving a white dwarf. As they cool down, the magnetic field freezes in, ranging from a few kilogauss to a gigagauss. Peculiar type Ia SN 2006gz, SN 2007if, SN 2009dc, SN 2003fg suggest progenitors in the range 2.4-2.8 M_{odot}, and Das U. & Mukhopadhyay B. (2012, Phys. Rev. D, 86, 042001) estimate that the Chandrasekhar limit increases to 2.3-2.6 M_{odot} for extremely high magnetic field stars, but differential rotation induced by accretion could also increase it, according to Hachisu I. et al. 2012 (ApJ, 744, 69). García-Berro et al. 2012, ApJ, 749, 25, for example, proposes double degenerate mergers are the progenitors of high-field magnetic white dwarfs. We propose magnetic fields enhance the line broadening in WDs, causing an overestimated surface gravity, and ultimately determine if these magnetic fields are likely developed through the star's own surface convection zone, or inherited from massive Ap/Bp progenitors. We discovered around 20 000 spectroscopic white dwarfs with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), with a corresponding increase in relatively rare varieties of white dwarfs, including the massive ones (Kleinman et al. 2013, ApJS, 204, 5, Kepler et al. 2013, MNRAS, 439, 2934). The mass distributions of the hydrogen-rich (DA) measured from fitting the spectra with model atmospheres calculated using unidimensinal mixing lenght-theory (MLT) shows the average mass (as measured by the surface gravity) increases apparently below 13 000K for DAs (e.g. Bergeron et al. 1991, ApJ, 367, 253; Tremblay et al. 2011, ApJ, 730, 128; Kleinman et al. 2013). Only with the tridimensional (3D) convection calculations of Tremblay et al. 2011 (A&A, 531, L19) and 2013 (A&A, 552, 13; A&A, 557, 7; arXiv 1309.0886) the problem has finally been solved, but the effects of magnetic fields are not included yet in the mass determinations. Pulsating white dwarf stars are used to measure their interior and envelope properties through seismology, and together with the luminosity function of white dwarf stars in clusters and around the Sun are valuable tools for the study of high density physics, and the history of stellar formation.

Kepler, S. O.

2014-10-01

369

SANDIA REPORT SAND 2009-0805  

E-print Network

in Cybersecurity Daniel M. Dunlavy, Bruce Hendrickson, and Tamara G. Kolda Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories in Cybersecurity Daniel M. Dunlavy and Bruce Hendrickson Sandia National Laboratories P.O. Box 5800, Mail Stop 1318 94550 Abstract This white paper is a response to a recent report on cybersecurity submitted to the U

Kolda, Tamara G.

370

White matter of the brain  

MedlinePLUS

White matter is tissue found in the brain. It contains nerve fibers. Many of these nerve fibers (axons) are ... fat called myelin. The myelin gives the white matter it's color. Myelin acts as an insulator. It ...

371

White Professors at Black Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the integration status of college faculty and white control within historically black colleges (HBCs). The role of white professors in HBCs and the existence of discriminatory practices in hiring and promotion decisions are discussed. (GLR)

Slater, Robert Bruce

1993-01-01

372

Characterization of white OLEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White OLEDs (WOLEDs) have attracted much attention for several applications, such as backlights in LCD, full-color OLED display using on-chip color filters, and low cost illumination sources. OLEDs have typically very broad emissions, which makes them uniquely suitable for light source applications. In this paper, some fundamentals of the CIE colorimetry system including the color-rendering index are described. Given the spectral power distribution of WOLED, the parameters of a light source (chromaticity coordinate, CCT, CRI, and the luminous efficacy) can be calculated. A MATLAB program for this purpose is developed in this paper. WOLEDs utilizing two primary-color emitters are fabricated. NPB doped with 2% Rubrene is used as the red-emitting layer and anthracene derivative as the blue-emitting layer. With a structure of ITO/2TNATA(20nm)/NPB(20 nm)/ NPB:rubrene(2%)(10nm)/ anthracene (30 nm)/Alq 3(20nm)LiF(1nm)/Al(100nm), a white light with CIE coordinates of (0.34, 0.37) is generated. The color properties are presented in this paper. The results show that the white color can be created from numerous combinations of different spectra. Based upon this, the characterization of the WOLED is simulated and the design of WOLED for illumination is discussed. In contrary to light source applications where illumination quality white is the most important, all colors are equally important for display applications. The white spectrum of the two-emitter WOLED is transmitted through the typical red, blue and green color filters. The performance of this color display is simulated and the WOLED design for display application is discussed.

Chen, Wenbin; Lu, Lili

2007-11-01

373

Characterization of the L-1 sand using well logs and amplitude attribute analysis  

E-print Network

-T SAN A' 100' TOP OF SAND BASE OF SANO Fig. 5. Cross section (A-A') through inferred channel. The L-1 sand in Wells J and I are both interpreted to be channel sands. WeHs H and F lie outside the channel. The L-1 sand in Well F is interpreted... OF SAND 12 16 GMUP NUMBER F'ig. 13. Decrease in amplitude (dim spot) resulting from an oii-filled sand. The upper figure is a depositional model. The lower figure is the seismic respiinse 26 GAS SAND BRNE SAND '-::::: SHALE TOP OF SAND 12 16...

Ratliff, Thomas Lee

1989-01-01

374

The effect of methane hydrate morphology and water saturation on seismic wave attenuation in sand under shallow sub-seafloor conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of seismic wave attenuation in hydrate-bearing sediments is needed for the improved geophysical quantification of seafloor methane hydrates, important for climate change, geohazard and economic resource assessment. Hence, we conducted a series of small strain (<10-6), seismic frequency (50-550 Hz), laboratory resonant column experiments on synthetic methane hydrate-bearing sands under excess-water seafloor conditions. The results show a complex dependence of P- and S-wave attenuation on hydrate saturation and morphology. P- and S-wave attenuation in excess-water hydrate-bearing sand is much higher than in excess-gas hydrate-bearing sand and increases with hydrate saturation between 0 and 0.44 (the experimental range). Theoretical modelling suggests that load-bearing hydrate is an important cause of heightened attenuation for both P- and S-waves in gas and water saturated sands, while pore-filling hydrate also contributes significantly to P-wave attenuation in water saturated sands. A squirt flow attenuation mechanism, related to microporous hydrate and low aspect ratio pores at the interface between sand grains and hydrate, is thought to be responsible for the heightened levels of attenuation in hydrate-bearing sands at low hydrate saturations (<0.44).

Best, Angus I.; Priest, Jeffrey A.; Clayton, Christopher R. I.; Rees, Emily V. L.

2013-04-01

375

HST and Optical Observations of Three Pulsating Accreting White Dwarfs in Cataclysmic Variables  

E-print Network

Ultraviolet observations using the Solar Blind Channel on the Hubble Space Telescope provide light curves and low resolution spectra of three pulsating white dwarfs in the cataclysmic variables SDSS013132.39-090122.3, SDSSJ161033.64-010223.3 and SDSSJ220553.98+115553.7. The UV light curves show enhanced pulsation amplitudes over those from simultaneous and previous optical photometry, while the UV-optical spectra are fit with white dwarf temperatures near 15,000K. These temperatures place the accreting white dwarfs outside the instability zone for non-interacting DAV white dwarfs and show that the instability strip is complex for accreting white dwarfs.

Paula Szkody; Anjum Mukadam; Boris T. Gaensicke; Patrick A. Woudt; Jan-Erik Solheim; Atsuko Nitta; Edward M. Sion; Brian Warner; D. K. Sahu; T. Prabhu; Arne Henden

2006-12-19

376

HST and Optical Observations of Three Pulsating Accreting White Dwarfs in Cataclysmic Variables  

E-print Network

Ultraviolet observations using the Solar Blind Channel on the Hubble Space Telescope provide light curves and low resolution spectra of three pulsating white dwarfs in the cataclysmic variables SDSS013132.39-090122.3, SDSSJ161033.64-010223.3 and SDSSJ220553.98+115553.7. The UV light curves show enhanced pulsation amplitudes over those from simultaneous and previous optical photometry, while the UV-optical spectra are fit with white dwarf temperatures near 15,000K. These temperatures place the accreting white dwarfs outside the instability zone for non-interacting DAV white dwarfs and show that the instability strip is complex for accreting white dwarfs.

Szkody, P; Gänsicke, B T; Woudt, P A; Solheim, J E; Nitta, A; Sion, E M; Warner, B; Sahu, D K; Prabhu, T; Henden, A; Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum; Gaensicke, Boris T.; Woudt, Patrick A.; Solheim, Jan-Erik; Nitta, Atsuko; Sion, Edward M.; Warner, Brian; Henden, Arne

2006-01-01

377

Are European White Butterflies Aposematic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that the white coloration of Pieridae butterflies is a warning signal and therefore all white Pieridae\\u000a could profit from a mimetic resemblance. We tested whether green-veined white (Pieris napi) and orange-tip (Anthocharis cardamines) butterflies benefit from white coloration. We compared their relative acceptability to wild, adult pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) by offering live A. cardamines and

Anne Lyytinen; Rauno V. Alatalo; Leena Lindström; Johanna Mappes

1999-01-01

378

Behaviour of Sand Reinforced with Fibres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the effects of randomly oriented discrete crimped polypropylene fibres on the mechanical response of very fine sand. Compaction and direct shear tests were performed on sand specimens of different densities unreinforced and reinforced with fibres in different proportions. The presence of reinforcement provides an extra resistance to the compaction, causing a less dense packing as the quantity of fibres is increased. The results of the direct shear tests indicate that inclusion of fibres increases the peak shear strength and the strain required to reach the peak. The post-peak strength at large strains was also higher when fibres were included. The presence of fibres leads to more dilative behaviour. In this study, for the range of the effective normal stresses employed, a linear failure envelope has been recorded for all densities and fibre concentrations. The increase of the peak shear strength was almost linear for all densities at low effective normal stress and approached a limiting value for higher normal stresses. For the loosest specimens reinforced with the highest percentage of fibres that could be employed in the laboratory using a moist tamping fabrication method, the relative increase of the peak shear strength was more than 50%.

Ibraim, Erdin; Fourmont, Stephane

379

Dust control effectiveness of drywall sanding tools.  

PubMed

In this laboratory study, four drywall sanding tools were evaluated in terms of dust generation rates in the respirable and thoracic size classes. In a repeated measures study design, 16 participants performed simulated drywall finishing tasks with each of four tools: (1) ventilated sander, (2) pole sander, (3) block sander, and (4) wet sponge. Dependent variables of interest were thoracic and respirable breathing zone dust concentrations. Analysis by Friedman's Test revealed that the ventilated drywall sanding tool produced significantly less dust, of both size classes, than did the other three tools. The pole and wet sanders produced significantly less dust of both size classes than did the block sander. The block sander, the most commonly used tool in drywall finishing operations, produced significantly more dust of both size classes than did the other three tools. When compared with the block sander, the other tools offer substantial dust reduction. The ventilated tool reduced respirable concentrations by 88% and thoracic concentrations by 85%. The pole sander reduced respirable concentrations by 58% and thoracic by 50%. The wet sander produced reductions of 60% and 47% in the respirable and thoracic classes, respectively. Wet sponge sanders and pole sanders are effective at reducing breathing-zone dust concentrations; however, based on its superior dust control effectiveness, the ventilated sander is the recommended tool for drywall finishing operations. PMID:19367481

Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A

2009-07-01

380

Solvent extraction of bitumen from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the measurement of mass transfer rates for the extraction of bitumen from tar sands using organic solvents. The experiment was carried out in an agitated vessel using a six-blade turbine mixer on a laboratory scale. To facilitate the determination of absolute mass transfer coefficients, tar sands were specially prepared in the form of spherical particles so that mass transfer area can be computed. The variables investigated in the study included: (1) solvent type (kerosene, toluene, benzene), (2) stirrer speed, 25 rpm to 1000 rpm, and (3) particle diameter, 0.4 cm to 1.2 cm. The results indicated that solvency power varied markedly with the various solvents used and that high aromatic content promoted rapid dissolution when compared with paraffinic solvents. The mass transfer rates increased with increasing stirrer speed in accordance with the relationship: k {alpha} N{sup 0.56} where k is the mass transfer coefficient and N the stirrer speed. Increasing particle diameter also resulted in decreased mass transfer rates. The results were satisfactorily correlated in terms of a Frossling type equation, Sh {alpha} Re{sub p}{sup a}Sc{sup b}.

Hoon, A.Y.; Thomas, S. [Univ. of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)

1995-12-31

381

TESTING OF TMR SAND MANTIS FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Screening tests of Sand Mantis candidate materials selected for erosion resistance have been completed. The results of this testing identified that over a relatively short period of operation (<1 hour), measurable erosion will occur in each of the candidate zoom tube materials given equal operating exposure. Additionally, this testing has shown that erosion of the rubber discharge hose directly downstream of the vehicle could be expected to limit the service life of the discharge hose. On the basis of these test results, SRNL recommends the following; {lg_bullet} redesign of critical system components (e.g., zoom tube, discharge hose) should be conducted to improve system characteristics relative to erosion and capitalize on the results of this testing, {lg_bullet} continued efforts to deploy the Sand Mantis should include testing to better define and optimize operating parameters, and gain an understanding of system dynamics, {lg_bullet} discontinue wear testing with the selected materials pending redesign of critical system components (1st recommendation) and inclusion of other candidate materials. The final selection of additional candidate materials should be made following design changes, but might include a Stellite alloy or zirconia.

Krementz, D; William Daugherty, W

2007-06-12

382

Microstructural characterization of a Canadian oil sand  

E-print Network

The microstructure of oil sand samples extracted at a depth of 75 m from the estuarine Middle McMurray formation (Alberta, Canada) has been investigated by using high resolution 3D X-Ray microtomography ($\\mu$CT) and Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy (CryoSEM). $\\mu$CT images evidenced some dense areas composed of highly angular grains surrounded by fluids that are separated by larger pores full of gas. 3D Image analysis provided in dense areas porosity values compatible with in-situ log data and macroscopic laboratory determinations, showing that they are representative of intact states. $\\mu$CT hence provided some information on the morphology of the cracks and disturbance created by gas expansion. The CryoSEM technique, in which the sample is freeze fractured within the SEM chamber prior to observation, provided pictures in which the (frozen) bitumen clearly appears between the sand grains. No evidence of the existence of a thin connate water layer between grains and the bitumen, frequently mentioned in th...

Dinh, Hong Doan; Nauroy, Jean-François; Tang, Anh-Minh; Souhail, Youssef; 10.1139/T2012-072

2013-01-01

383

Autumn Frost, North Polar Sand Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autumn in the martian northern hemisphere began around August 1, 1999. Almost as soon as northern fall began, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) started documenting the arrival of autumn frost--a precursor to the cold winter that will arrive in late December 1999. The first features to become covered by frost were the sand dunes that surround the north polar ice cap. The dunes seen here would normally appear very dark--almost black--except when covered by frost. Why the dunes begin to frost sooner than the surrounding surfaces is a mystery: perhaps the dunes contain water vapor that emerges from the sand during the day and condenses again at night. This picture shows dunes near 74.7oN, 61.4oW at a resolution of about 7.3 meters (24 feet) per pixel. The area covered is about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the upper right. The picture appears to be somewhat fuzzy and grainy because the dunes here are seen through the thin haze of the gathering north polar winter hood (i.e., clouds).

1999-01-01

384

Three-link Swimming in Sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many animals move within in granular media such as desert sand. Recent biological experiments have revealed that the sandfish lizard uses an undulatory gait to swim within sand. Models reveal that swimming occurs in a frictional fluid in which inertial effects are small and kinematics dominate. To understand the fundamental mechanics of swimming in granular media (GM), we examine a model system that has been well-studied in Newtonian fluids: the three-link swimmer. We create a physical model driven by two servo-motors, and a discrete element simulation of the swimmer. To predict optimal gaits we use a recent geometric mechanics theory combined with empirically determined resistive force laws for GM. We develop a kinematic relationship between the swimmer's shape and position velocities and construct connection vector field and constraint curvature function visualizations of the system dynamics. From these we predict optimal gaits for forward, lateral and rotational motion. Experiment and simulation are in accord with the theoretical predictions; thus geometric tools can be used to study locomotion in GM.

Hatton, R. L.; Ding, Yang; Masse, Andrew; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel

2011-11-01

385

Direct numerical simulations of aeolian sand ripples.  

PubMed

Aeolian sand beds exhibit regular patterns of ripples resulting from the interaction between topography and sediment transport. Their characteristics have been so far related to reptation transport caused by the impacts on the ground of grains entrained by the wind into saltation. By means of direct numerical simulations of grains interacting with a wind flow, we show that the instability turns out to be driven by resonant grain trajectories, whose length is close to a ripple wavelength and whose splash leads to a mass displacement toward the ripple crests. The pattern selection results from a compromise between this destabilizing mechanism and a diffusive downslope transport which stabilizes small wavelengths. The initial wavelength is set by the ratio of the sediment flux and the erosion/deposition rate, a ratio which increases linearly with the wind velocity. We show that this scaling law, in agreement with experiments, originates from an interfacial layer separating the saltation zone from the static sand bed, where momentum transfers are dominated by midair collisions. Finally, we provide quantitative support for the use of the propagation of these ripples as a proxy for remote measurements of sediment transport. PMID:25331873

Durán, Orencio; Claudin, Philippe; Andreotti, Bruno

2014-11-01

386

Aeolian sand transport: Experiment and Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on aeolian sand transport were carried out in a wind tunnel at the University of Aarhus in Denmark for a wide range of wind speeds. The saltating particles were analyzed using imaging techniques (PIV and PTV). Vertical profiles of particle concentration and velocity were extracted. The particle concentration was found to decrease exponentially with the height above the bed and the characteristic decay height was independent of the wind speed (Creyssels et al., 2009). In contrast with the logarithmic profile of the wind speed, the particle velocity was found to vary linearly with the height. In addition, the particle slip velocity is finite and invariant with the wind speed. These results are shown to be closely related to the features of the splash function that characterizes the impact of the saltating particles onto a sand bed. A numerical simulation was developed that explicitly incorporates low velocity moments of the splash function in a calculation of the boundary conditions that apply at the bed (Creyssels et al., 2009). The overall features of the experimental measurements are well reproduced by the simulation. Reference: M. Creyssels, P. Dupont, A. Ould el Moctar, A. Valance, I. Cantat, J. T. Jenkins, J. M. Pasini and K. R. Rasmussen, J. Fluid Mech. 625, 47 (2009).

Valance, A.; Ould Eld Moctar, A.; Dupont, P.; Cantat, I.; Jenkins, J.

2010-05-01

387

The flux profile of a blowing sand cloud: a wind tunnel investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flux profile of a blowing sand cloud, or the variation of blown sand flux with height, is the reflection of blown sand particles that move in different trajectories, and also the basis for checking drifting sand. Here we report the wind tunnel results of systematic tests of the flux profiles of different sized sands at different free-stream wind velocities.

Zhibao Dong; Xiaoping Liu; Hongtao Wang; Aiguo Zhao; Xunming Wang

2003-01-01

388

CURRICULUM VITAE EASTON R. WHITE  

E-print Network

1 CURRICULUM VITAE EASTON R. WHITE University Drive and Mill Avenue Tempe, Arizona 85287 (480) 203-7931 cell easton.white@asu.edu eastonwhite08@yahoo.com EDUCATION Institution Degree (s fundraising and education sessions #12;2 PUBLICATIONS Gerber, Leah R. and Easton R. White. 2013. Males

Gerber, Leah R.

389

CURRICULUM VITAE EASTON R. WHITE  

E-print Network

1 CURRICULUM VITAE EASTON R. WHITE University Drive and Mill Avenue Tempe, Arizona 85287 (480) 203-7931 easton.white@asu.edu eastonrwhite@gmail.com EDUCATION Institution Degree (s) Expected patterns, network theory PUBLICATIONS Gerber, Leah R. and Easton R. White. 2013. Males Matter: Frequency

Gerber, Leah R.

390

Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

Hansen, Carl J.

1997-01-01

391

Egg White Phantoms for HIFU  

SciTech Connect

We used fresh egg white and polyacrylamide to create a transparent tissue mimicking phantom. Heating of phantoms by HIFU leads to egg white protein denaturation and creation of visible white lesions. We measured the acoustical and thermal properties and investigated the possibility to use such phantoms to study the lesion formation during the HIFU therapy.

Divkovic, Gabriela; Jenne, Juergen W. [German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2005-03-28

392

White Ranch Wetlands Biological Survey  

E-print Network

White Ranch Wetlands Biological Survey and Permanent Vegetation Monitoring Plots Prepared for: U Services Building Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523 March 1998 #12;WHITE RANCH WETLANDS assessment of the White Ranch wetlands. In addition we set up permanent plots along transects to collect

393

Remote sensing observations of sand movement in the Bahariya Depression, Western Egypt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerial photographs taken in the 1940's have been used in combination with recent Landsat MSS and TM data to study dune movement in the Western Desert of Egypt. The El-Ghorabi dunes track northwest to southeast along the eastern edge of the Bahariya Depression. These dunes are of complex longitudinal form with well-defined, lag-covered interdune corridors. Studies using both aerial coverage and multitemporal MSS and TM image data reveal little or no net southward extension or movement of the seifs, although field measurements and remote sensing data indicate small-scale lateral migration of dune crests and interdune corridors through time. The primary process of sand transport for these dunes seems to be in response to seasonal shifts in dominant wind direction, as reflected in the development and rapid response of sand shadows leeward of the main dune masses.

Maxwell, Ted A.; Jacobberger, Patricia A.

1987-01-01

394

Postmortem analysis of sand grain crushing from pile interface using X-ray tomography  

SciTech Connect

Pile foundations of offshore platforms, wind and water turbines are typically subjected to a variety of cyclic loading paths due to their complex environment. While many studies focus on global pile behaviour, the soil-pile interface is explored here by a micromechanical study of the soil layer in contact with the pile surface. This work is devoted to the analysis of frozen post-mortem silica sand samples recovered at the pile interface following installation and cyclic loading tests in a calibration chamber using x-ray tomography. An experimental procedure developed for three dimensional (3D) snow imaging was adapted for the recovery of the in-situ sand samples to preserve their structure during tomography scans. 3D images at a pixel size of 7 {mu}m were then obtained using a cryogenic cell. Results confirm the presence of a shear band at the pile surface as well as void ratios changes in the direction of the pile's radius.

Silva, I. Matias; Combe, Gaeel; Foray, Pierre; Flin, Frederic; Lesaffre, Bernard [Universite de Grenoble, 3SR Lab, UMR 5521 Grenoble-INP, UJF-Grenoble 1, CNRS, Grenoble, France CEN, CNRM-GAME UMR 3589, Meteo France - CNRS, Grenoble (France)

2013-06-18

395

Postmortem analysis of sand grain crushing from pile interface using X-ray tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pile foundations of offshore platforms, wind and water turbines are typically subjected to a variety of cyclic loading paths due to their complex environment. While many studies focus on global pile behaviour, the soil-pile interface is explored here by a micromechanical study of the soil layer in contact with the pile surface. This work is devoted to the analysis of frozen post-mortem silica sand samples recovered at the pile interface following installation and cyclic loading tests in a calibration chamber using x-ray tomography. An experimental procedure developed for three dimensional (3D) snow imaging was adapted for the recovery of the in-situ sand samples to preserve their structure during tomography scans. 3D images at a pixel size of 7 ?m were then obtained using a cryogenic cell. Results confirm the presence of a shear band at the pile surface as well as void ratios changes in the direction of the pile's radius.

Silva, I. Matías; Combe, Gaël; Foray, Pierre; Flin, Frédéric; Lesaffre, Bernard

2013-06-01

396

A study of morphology, provenance, and movement of desert sand seas in Africa, Asia, and Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant result to date is recongition that complexes are indeed visible on ERTS-1 images, and that the extent and nature of dune fields in many remote areas of the world can, for the first time, be observed almost simultaneously and directly compared. The primary scientific problem is to determine accurately the relationships among certain patterns, trends, and boundaries clearly revealed on ERTS-1 imagery to true surface configurations of desert landforms, and further, to relate the defined features to controlling factors such as wind direction and intensity, moisture in the air and on the ground and barriers to sand movement. It is hoped to produce, by photographic and cartographic extraction from ERTS-1 images, a set of thematic maps that will illustrate the relationships of optical appearance of various materials and effects of the color of various sand bodies upon ERTS-1 images.

Mckee, E. D. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

397

Faecal indicator bacteria enumeration in beach sand: a comparison study of extraction methods in medium to coarse sands  

PubMed Central

Aims The absence of standardized methods for quantifying faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in sand hinders comparison of results across studies. The purpose of the study was to compare methods for extraction of faecal bacteria from sands and recommend a standardized extraction technique. Methods and Results Twenty-two methods of extracting enterococci and Escherichia coli from sand were evaluated, including multiple permutations of hand shaking, mechanical shaking, blending, sonication, number of rinses, settling time, eluant-to-sand ratio, eluant composition, prefiltration and type of decantation. Tests were performed on sands from California, Florida and Lake Michigan. Most extraction parameters did not significantly affect bacterial enumeration. anova revealed significant effects of eluant composition and blending; with both sodium metaphosphate buffer and blending producing reduced counts. Conclusions The simplest extraction method that produced the highest FIB recoveries consisted of 2 min of hand shaking in phosphate-buffered saline or deionized water, a 30-s settling time, one-rinse step and a 10 : 1 eluant volume to sand weight ratio. This result was consistent across the sand compositions tested in this study but could vary for other sand types. Significance and Impact of the Study Method standardization will improve the understanding of how sands affect surface water quality. PMID:19659700

Boehm, A.B.; Griffith, J.; McGee, C.; Edge, T.A.; Solo-Gabriele, H.M.; Whitman, R.; Cao, Y.; Getrich, M.; Jay, J.A.; Ferguson, D.; Goodwin, K.D.; Lee, C.M.; Madison, M.; Weisberg, S.B.

2009-01-01

398

Accumulation and soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in the Nile Delta coastal black sand habitats.  

PubMed

The radionuclide content was estimated in the soil of three black sand habitats in the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, namely, sand mounds and coastal sand planes and dunes. In addition, a total of 14 heavy minerals found in the soils were characterized. The soil to plant transfer of uranium and thorium was tested on three black sand species, namely, Cakile maritima Scop., Senecio glaucus L. and Rumex Pictus Forssk. The transfer of thorium and uranium radionuclides from the soil to plant is complex process that is subjected to many variables; among which are the organic matter and clay content of the soil, the type of radionuclides and plant species. The study revealed a strong negative relationship between uranium and thorium uptake by S. glaucus and R. pictus and the clay and organic matter content of soil. Concentration of thorium in the soil has a negative correlation with soil-to-plant transfer factor. The study results suggest the possibility of using black sand species for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radioactive elements. The potentiality of S. glaucus as phytoremediator of radionuclides polluted soils is greater than R. pictus which in turn outweigh C. maritima. PMID:21598782

Hegazy, A K; Emam, M H

2011-02-01

399

Brown DwarfBrown Dwarf Brown Dwarf White Dwarf White Dwarf White Dwarf  

E-print Network

Brown DwarfBrown Dwarf Brown Dwarf White Dwarf White Dwarf White Dwarf Yellow Dwarf Yellow Dwarf Yellow Dwarf Small dim barely detectable ball of gas. When brown dwarf stars form they do not have of gas. Brown dwarfs look more red than brown and are often found near larger and brighter companion

Bechtold, Jill

400

White-coat hypertension.  

PubMed

1. Numerous studies have examined whether white-coat hypertension (WCHT) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but with definitions of WCHT that were not sufficiently robust, results have been inconsistent. The aim of the present review was to standardize the evidence by only including studies that used a definition of WCHT consistent with international guidelines. 2. Published studies were reviewed for data on vascular dysfunction, target organ damage, risk of future sustained hypertension and cardiovascular events. 3. White-coat hypertension has a population prevalence of approximately 15% and is associated with non-smoking and slightly elevated clinic blood pressure. Compared with normotensives, subjects with WCHT are at increased cardiovascular risk due to a higher prevalence of glucose dysregulation, increased left ventricular mass index and increased risk of future diabetes and hypertension. 4. In conclusion, management of a patient with WCHT should focus on cardiovascular risk factors, particularly glucose intolerance, not blood pressure alone. PMID:23682974

Martin, Catherine A; McGrath, Barry P

2014-01-01

401

Saturn's Great White Spots  

SciTech Connect

The history of observations of the Great White Spots on Saturn is reviewed, incluing the 1876, 1903, 1933, and 1960 outbreaks. The spots have been used to trace zonal winds on Saturn, showing longitudinal expansion spot velocities of 30 to 45 m/s and north-south expansion velocities of about 3 m/s. The relationship between spot activity and the Saturnian atmosphere is discussed. A graph of insolation at the top of Saturn's atmosphere during Great White Spot activity and photographs of the 1933 and 1960 spots are presented. Because the trends in spot activity show a recurrence time of about one Saturnian year (29.51 yrs), it is suggested that spot activity may occur in 1989 or 1990.

Sanchez-Lavega, A. (Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain))

1989-08-01

402

A Mystery Unraveled: Booming Sand Dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Booming" sand dunes have intrigued travelers and scientist for centuries. These dunes emit a persistent, low-frequency sound during a slumping event or a natural avalanche on the leeward face of the dune. The sound can last for several minutes and be audible from miles away. The resulting acoustic emission is characterized by a dominant audible frequency (70 - 105 Hz) and several higher harmonics. In the work of Vriend et al. (2007), seismic refraction experiments proved the existence of a multi-layer internal structure in the dune that acts as a waveguide for the acoustic energy. Constructive interference between the reflecting waves enables the amplification and sets the frequency of each boom. A relationship was established that correctly predicts the measured frequency in terms of the thickness (~ 2.0 m) and the seismic body wave velocity of the loose, dry surficial layer (~ 240 m/s) and the substrate half-space (~ 350 m/s). The current work highlights additional measurements and simulations supporting the waveguide model for booming sand dunes. Experiments with ground penetrating radar continuously display the subsurface features which confirm the layered subsurface structure within the dune. Cross-correlation analysis shows that the booming sound propagates at speeds close to the measured body wave velocity. Squeaking sounds, which are generated during the onset of the slide and precede the sustained booming emission, have been found to have distinctly different characteristics. These short bursts of sound are emitted at a lower frequency (50 - 65 Hz) and propagate at a lower propagation speed (125 m/s) than the booming emission. The acoustic and elastic wave propagation in the dune has been simulated with a finite difference code. The interaction between the air and the ground produces a coupling wave along the surface. The reflections in the surficial layer propagate in a dispersive band at a group velocity that is slower than the phase velocity of the layer. Different source mechanisms are used in order to simulate the squeaking and booming emission within the dune. špace{.1in} {\\footnotesize Vriend, N. M., M. L. Hunt, R. W. Clayton, C E. Brennen, K. S. Brantley, and A. Ruiz-Angulo (2007), Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16306, doi:10.1029/2007GL030276.}

Vriend, N. M.; Hunt, M. L.; Clayton, R. W.

2007-12-01

403

Properties of Desert Sand and CMAS Glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As-received desert sand from a Middle East country has been characterized for its phase composition and thermal stability. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), and NaAlSi3O8 phases in as-received desert sand and showed weight loss of approx. 35 percent due to decomposition of CaCO3 and CaSO4.2H2O when heated to 1400 C. A batch of as-received desert sand was melted into calcium magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass at approx. 1500 C. From inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, chemical composition of the CMAS glass was analyzed to be 27.8CaO-4MgO-5Al2O3-61.6SiO2-0.6Fe2O3-1K2O (mole percent). Various physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the glass have been evaluated. Bulk density of CMAS glass was 2.69 g/cc, Young's modulus 92 GPa, Shear modulus 36 GPa, Poisson's ratio 0.28, dilatometric glass transition temperature (T (sub g)) 706 C, softening point (T (sub d)) 764 C, Vickers microhardness 6.3 +/- 0.4 GPa, indentation fracture toughness 0.75 +/- 0.15 MPa.m (sup 1/2), and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) 9.8 x 10 (exp -6)/degC in the temperature range 25 to 700 C. Temperature dependence of viscosity has also been estimated from various reference points of the CMAS glass using the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. The glass remained amorphous after heat treating at 850 C for 10 hr but crystallized into CaSiO3 and Ca-Mg-Al silicate phases at 900 C or higher temperatures. Crystallization kinetics of the CMAS glass has also been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Activation energies for the crystallization of two different phases in the glass were calculated to be 403 and 483 kJ/mol, respectively.

Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

2014-01-01

404

Odyssey/White Rock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These Mars Odyssey images show the 'White Rock' feature on Mars in both infrared (left) and visible (right) wavelengths. The images were acquired simultaneously on March 11, 2002. The box shows where the visible image is located in the infrared image. 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform that was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. The variations in brightness in the infrared image are due to differences in surface temperature, where dark is cool and bright is warm. The dramatic differences between the infrared and visible views of White Rock are the result of solar heating. The relatively bright surfaces observed at visible wavelengths reflect more solar energy than the darker surfaces, allowing them to stay cooler and thus they appear dark in the infrared image. The new thermal emission imaging system data will help to address the long standing question of whether the White Rock deposit was produced in an ancient crater lake or by dry processes of volcanic or wind deposition. The infrared image has a resolution of 100 meters (328 feet) per pixel and is 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide. The visible image has a resolution of 18 meters per pixel and is approximately 18 kilometers (11 miles) wide. The images are centered at 8.2 degrees south latitude and 24.9 degrees east longitude.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

405

Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

406

Channel bed evolution and sediment transport under declining sand inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled field and laboratory investigations explore links between bed surface structure development and sediment transport as sand inputs decline. On the Pasig-Potrero River, we investigated channel recovery following emplacement of sand-rich pyroclastic deposits in the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. As sediment inputs declined from 1996 to 2003, surface grain size increased, clast structures formed, and sediment mobility and

Karen B. Gran; David R. Montgomery; Diane G. Sutherland

2006-01-01

407

An outbreak of sand impaction in postpartum dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Twenty-two cases of indigestion occurred in a 650-cow herd. Five cows had severe sand abomasal impaction, diagnosed by laparotomy. The pH of prepartum cows’ urine was < 6.0 and of sand 8.0. Feed showed a dietary cation-anion difference ? ?110 mEq/kg. After feeding management corrections, no more cases were diagnosed. PMID:17987969

Melendez, Pedro; Krueger, Traci; Benzaquen, Mauricio; Risco, Carlos

2007-01-01

408

Study of properties of sand asphalt using a torsional rheometer  

E-print Network

. In this work we have used the same Torsional Rheometer with some minor modifications in the design to measure some general properties of Sand Asphalt mixtures. Sand Asphalt mixtures, due to their non-linear viscoelastic character, exhibit `normal stress effects...

Kasula, Lavan Kumar Reddy

2004-11-15

409

Coastal Sand Dune Plant Ecology: Field Phenomena and Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of selecting coastal sand dunes as the location for field ecology studies. Presents a descriptive zonal model for seaboard sand dune plant communities, suggestions concerning possible observations and activities relevant to interpreting phenomena associated with these forms of vegetation, and additional…

McDonald, K.

1973-01-01

410

TECHNICAL NOTE Centrifuge cone penetration tests in sand  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL NOTE Centrifuge cone penetration tests in sand M. D. BOLTON,Ã? M. W. GUI,Ã? J. GARNIER,{ J. F. CORTE,{ G. BAGGE,{ J. LAUE} and R. RENZIk KEYWORDS: centrifuge modelling; in-situ testing; laboratory tests; piles; sands. INTRODUCTION Centrifuges have been widely adopted in modelling geotechnical

Bolton, Malcolm

411

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

412

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

413

Oil sands tailings sludge solidification and bitumen recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada is a forerunner in the development of oil sands mining and processing technology. At present two commercial plants, both of them surface mining operations are producing approximately 200,000 of syncrude per day. At both of these plants a hot water separation process is used.The vast amounts of tailings, consisting of bitumen, sand, fines and water, generated from the hot

B. D. Prasad Head

1988-01-01

414

31. PETIBONE SAND THROWING MACHINE BOX FLOOR GREY IRON FOUNDRY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. PETIBONE SAND THROWING MACHINE BOX FLOOR GREY IRON FOUNDRY FORCES CONDITIONED MOLDING SAND, AT HIGH VELOCITY, INTO MOLDS TOO BIG TO BE MADE ON ONE OF THE CONVEYOR SYSTEMS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

415

Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting  

E-print Network

deoxidation inclusions (for which buoyancy is negligible) in continuous casting (rather than in shape castingModelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting A. J. Melendez, K. D. Carlson pouring, as well as their final locations on the surface of steel sand castings. Inclusions originate

Beckermann, Christoph

416

BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE NONHISTORIC CHEMICAL BUILDING IS SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

417

PREEMERGENCE-APPLIED HERBICIDES AID SAND BLUESTEM ESTABLISHMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Controlling plant competition is critical to successful perennial grass establishment. Our objective was to determine the potential of several preemergence-applied herbicides to control annual weeds and aid sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) establishment. Sand bluestem was seeded at the end ...

418

Sand impactions in a Saskatchewan beef cow-calf herd  

PubMed Central

Forty beef cows were reported to show signs of abdominal pain and discomfort over a period of 1 wk. Two of the affected animals died and on postmortem examination were found to be impacted with sand in their abomasum and small intestines. Sand-laden barley silage was found to be the cause of these impactions. PMID:21461212

Erickson, Nathan; Hendrick, Steven

2011-01-01

419

Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all).

R. Young; A. Griffith

2009-01-01

420

The Unified Gravel-Sand (TUGS) Model: Simulating the Transport of Gravel-Sand Mixtures in Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TUGS Model was developed by employing the surface-based bedload equation of Wilcock and Crowe (2003) and linking grain size distributions in the bedload, surface layer, and subsurface sediment deposit with the gravel transfer function of Hoey and Ferguson (1994) and Toro-Escobar et al. (1996), and a hypothetical sand transfer function. The unmodified model was applied to simulate the sedimentation process in Marmot Reservoir, Sandy River, Oregon and produced similar stratified sediment deposit as observed through coring exercises. The model was also examined with three runs of large-scale flume experiments conducted at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) by Seal et al. (1995). With a very minor modification to Wilcock and Crowe (2003) equation, the model excellently reproduced the longitudinal profiles, gravel grain size distributions and sand fractions in the deposits for all the three SAFL runs. Following its examination, TUGS model was applied to simulate the sediment transport dynamics in the Sandy River, Oregon under a few hypothetical scenarios, focusing on the dynamics of sand fractions in gravel-bedded channel deposits. Results of the exploratory runs on the Sandy River indicate that (a) surface and subsurface sand fractions generally increase in the downstream direction, similar to observed in the field; (b) sand fraction in the deposit is positively correlated with sand supply as expected; (c) extremely high sand supply under similar gravel supply and hydrologic conditions can transform the river into predominantly sand-bedded; (d) increased discharge under the same sand and gravel supply conditions results in decreased sand fraction in the deposit as expected; and (e) there can be significant increase in surface and subsurface sand fractions in the backwater zones near the mouth of the river as expected.

Cui, Y.

2006-12-01

421

40 CFR 436.40 - Applicability; description of the industrial sand subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the industrial sand subcategory. 436.40 Section 436...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Industrial Sand Subcategory § 436.40 Applicability; description of the industrial sand subcategory. The provisions of...

2014-07-01

422

40 CFR 436.30 - Applicability; description of the construction sand and gravel subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the construction sand and gravel subcategory. 436.30 Section...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Construction Sand and Gravel Subcategory § 436.30 Applicability; description of the construction sand and gravel subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

423

Process and apparatus for recovery of oil from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

A crude oil product is extracted from a tar sand by first crushing the tar sand as mined and then fine grinding the crushed material in a grinding mill in the presence of a cleansing liquid, such as an aqueous solution of a caustic. The resulting slurry is passed into suitable extractor-classifier equipment, such as that shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,814,336, in which a body of cleansing liquid is maintained. Agitation of the slurry in such maintained body of cleansing liquid substantially completes removal of the bituminous matter from the sand, and the resulting crude oil and cleansing liquid phase is discharged separately from the sand solid phase. The liquid phase is treated for the removal of residual sand particles and for the separation of residual cleansing liquid from the crude oil. The cleansing liquid so recovered is recycled and the crude oil is passed to further processing or for use as such.

Brewer, J.C.

1982-11-30

424

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

425

The effects of psammophilous plants on sand dune dynamics  

E-print Network

Psammophilous plants are special plants that flourish in sand moving environments. There are two main mechanisms by which the wind affects these plants: (i) sand drift exposes roots and covers branches--the exposed roots turn into new plants and the covered branches turn into new roots; both mechanisms result in an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes; (ii) strong winds, often associated with sand movement, tear branches and seed them in nearby locations, resulting in new plants and an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes. Despite their important role in dune dynamics, to our knowledge, psammophilous plants have never been incorporated into mathematical models of sand dunes. Here, we attempt to model the effects of these plants on sand dune dynamics. We construct a set of three ordinary differential equations for the fractions of surface cover of regular vegetation, biogenic soil crust and psammophilous plants. The latter reach their optimal growth u...

Bel, Golan

2013-01-01

426

Mapping sand and gravel pits in the Patuxent River watershed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT data from July 1973 and June 1978 for the Patuxent River Watershed of Maryland were processed in an effort to devise an economical method of monitoring the reclamation of sand and gravel pits. ASTEP-II and IDIMS software were utilized to derive signatures for sand and gravel pits and other land use/land cover types. Both unsupervised and supervised classifications of the two data sets were produced. Resultant statistics and color output products were compared in order to determine the extent of reclamation and expansion of sand and gravel pits over the five-year time span and to check the locations of more recent sand and gravel pits. Preliminary results indicate that, for a selected northern sub-acre, signatures derived for sand and gravel pits were nearly 90 percent accurate.

Schmidt, T. J.; Witt, R. G.

1981-01-01

427

Direct Production of Silicones From Sand  

SciTech Connect

Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

2001-09-30

428

RETRACTED: The influence of sand diameter and wind velocity on sand particle lift-off and incident angles in the windblown sand flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy) This article has been retracted at the request of This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors-in-Chief. This article also contains significant similarity with parts of text, written by the same author(s), that have appeared in Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, The influence of wind velocity and sand grain diameter on the falling velocities of sand particles, Powder Technology, Volume 241, June 2013, Pages 158-165. Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, Analysis of sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities in wind-blown sand flux, Acta Mechanica Sinica, April 2013, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 158-165. Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, Influence of sand grain diameter and wind velocity on lift-off velocities of sand particles, The European Physical Journal E, May 2013, 36:50. Tian-Li Bo, Shao-Zhen Duan, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Yi-Rui Liang, The influence of sand bed temperature on lift-off and falling parameters in windblown sand flux, Geomorphology, Volume 204, 1 January 2014, Pages 477-484. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

Bo, Tian-Li; Zheng, Xiao-Jing; Duan, Shao-Zhen; Liang, Yi-Rui

2013-05-01

429

Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.  

PubMed

Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in this vastly under-studied area. PMID:25383070

Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

2014-09-01

430

Virus retention and transport through Al-oxide coated sand columns: effects of ionic strength and composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the factors that influence the fate and transport of viruses in porous media is very important for accurately determining groundwater vulnerability and for developing protective regulations. In this study, six saturated sand column experiments were performed to examine the effects of a positively charged Al-oxide, which was coated on sand particles, on the retention and transport of viruses (?X174 and MS-2) in background solutions of different ionic strength and composition. We found that the Al-oxide coating on sand significantly removed viruses during their transport in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. Mass balance calculations showed that 34% of the input MS-2 was inactivated/irreversibly sorbed on the surface of Al-oxide coated sand whereas 100% of ?X174 was recovered. Results from this study also indicated that higher ionic strength facilitated the transport of both ?X174 and MS-2 through the Al-oxide coated sand. This was attributed to the effect of ion shielding, which at higher ionic strength decreased the electrostatic attraction between the viral particles and the sand surface and consequently decreased virus sorption. Strong effect of the ionic strength indicates that an outer-sphere complexation mechanism was responsible for the virus sorption on the Al-oxide coated sand. Ion composition of the background solutions was also found to be a significant factor in influencing virus retention and transport. Virus transport was enhanced in the presence of phosphate (HPO 42-) as compared to bicarbonate (HCO 3-), and the effect of HPO 42- was more significant on MS-2 than on ?X174. The presence of bivalent cations (Ca 2+ and Mg 2+) increased virus transport because the cations partially screened the negative charges on the viruses therefore decreased the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged sand surface and the negatively charged viruses. Mass recovery data indicated that bivalent cations gave rise to a certain degree of inactivation/irreversibly sorption of ?X174 on the surface of Al-oxide coated sand. On the contrary, the bivalent cations appeared to have protected MS-2 from inactivation/irreversibly sorption. This study provides some insights into the mechanisms responsible for virus retention and transport in porous media.

Zhuang, Jie; Jin, Yan

2003-02-01

431

Virus retention and transport through Al-oxide coated sand columns: effects of ionic strength and composition.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the factors that influence the fate and transport of viruses in porous media is very important for accurately determining groundwater vulnerability and for developing protective regulations. In this study, six saturated sand column experiments were performed to examine the effects of a positively charged Al-oxide, which was coated on sand particles, on the retention and transport of viruses (phiX174 and MS-2) in background solutions of different ionic strength and composition. We found that the Al-oxide coating on sand significantly removed viruses during their transport in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. Mass balance calculations showed that 34% of the input MS-2 was inactivated/irreversibly sorbed on the surface of Al-oxide coated sand whereas 100% of phiX174 was recovered. Results from this study also indicated that higher ionic strength facilitated the transport of both phiX174 and MS-2 through the Al-oxide coated sand. This was attributed to the effect of ion shielding, which at higher ionic strength decreased the electrostatic attraction between the viral particles and the sand surface and consequently decreased virus sorption. Strong effect of the ionic strength indicates that an outer-sphere complexation mechanism was responsible for the virus sorption on the Al-oxide coated sand. Ion composition of the background solutions was also found to be a significant factor in influencing virus retention and transport. Virus transport was enhanced in the presence of phosphate (HPO(4)(2-)) as compared to bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)), and the effect of HPO(4)(2-) was more significant on MS-2 than on phiX174. The presence of bivalent cations (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) increased virus transport because the cations partially screened the negative charges on the viruses therefore decreased the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged sand surface and the negatively charged viruses. Mass recovery data indicated that bivalent cations gave rise to a certain degree of inactivation/irreversibly sorption of phiX174 on the surface of Al-oxide coated sand. On the contrary, the bivalent cations appeared to have protected MS-2 from inactivation/irreversibly sorption. This study provides some insights into the mechanisms responsible for virus retention and transport in porous media. PMID:12504359

Zhuang, Jie; Jin, Yan

2003-02-01

432

Sand waves, bars, and wind-blown sands of the Rio Orinoco, Venezuela and Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During March 1982, a reconnaissance study was carried out along a reach of the Rio Orinoco between Puerto Ayacucho and Ciudad Bolivar. This was the low-flow season. Samples of bed material and suspended sediments were collected, sonic records of the bed were obtained at several locations, and the exposed bars and sand waves were studied at four locations. Sounding records were obtained at two of these locations during June and November when flow covered the bars, and additional studies were made on the ground at some of these same sites during March 1983. The bed of the river is mostly sand with small quantities, about 5 percent by weight on average, of gravel. Suspended- sediment concentrations were low, ranging between 20 milligrams per liter above Rio Apure to almost 40 milligrams per liter below its confluence with the Rio Orinoco. The annual sediment load is estimated to be 240x10 6 megagrams per year. During the dry season, 35 percent or more of the bed is exposed in the form of large bars composed of many sand waves. Trade winds blow upriver and there is substantial upriver transport of river sediments by the wind. If the bars contain very coarse sands and fine gravel, deflation forms a lag deposit that armors the bar surface and prevents further erosion. Theoretical calculations show that the lower limit for the fraction of the bed that needs to be covered with nonmoving particles to prevent further erosion and the smallest size of the armor particles depend only on wind speed. Calculations of bed-material transport were made for a typical wide and narrow section of the river; the annual load, excluding the wash load, is about 30 x 10 6 megagrams per year. A new definition for wash load is proposed; it is material that can be suspended as soon as its motion is initiated. For the Rio Orinoco, this is material finer than 0.1 millimeters.

Nordin, Carl F.; Perez-Hernandez, David

1989-01-01

433

Mathematics Written in Sand Version of 22 Nov. 1983 File MathSand.pdf January 9, 2001 8:40 am Page 1 /49  

E-print Network

Mathematics Written in Sand Version of 22 Nov. 1983 File MathSand.pdf January 9, 2001 8:40 am Page 1 /49 MATHEMATICS WRITTEN IN SAND - the hp-15C, Intel 8087, etc. W. Kahan, University of California;Mathematics Written in Sand Version of 22 Nov. 1983 File MathSand.pdf January 9, 2001 8:40 am Page 2 /49 Three

California at Irvine, University of

434

The fluctuation property of blown sand particles and the wind-sand flow evolution studied by numerical method.  

PubMed

Sand particles blown by wind cause serious environmental problems and many researchers are trying to understand the dynamic properties of blown sand better. But the existing numerical approaches have not been able to simulate many important characteristics of wind-sand flow. In this paper, the evolution and fluctuation properties of blown sand at a dynamic steady state are investigated by using a more effective method. Using the LES (large eddy simulation) method for air phase movement and the DEM (discrete element method) for solid phase movement along with the existing particle-bed splashing function, we have characterized the whole movement property of the wind-sand system. The results indicate that the saturation time decreases with the inlet friction velocity, and it gradually reaches the shortest saturation time of about 1s; the saturation length, which is about 14 m at the usual wind velocity, first increases with wind velocity and then reaches a plateau; within the saturation length, the sand transport rate at different positions varies with time; the sand transport rate of the stable wind-sand flow is non-uniform with distance downwind and time, and has a notable correlation with the inflow friction velocity. PMID:21626346

Ma, G S; Zheng, X J

2011-05-01

435

Wind tunnel measurements of adobe abrasion by blown sand: profile characteristics in relation to wind velocity and sand flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blown sand causes various damages, such as extensive abrasion to crops, structural wear of facilities and buildings, and abrasion of soil clods and clayey materials generating fine particulate matter. In this study, experiments conducted in a straight-line blowing wind tunnel confirmed field observations and provided useful information for understanding abrasion profiles created by sand drift. Abrasion rates of 20 adobe

Liu Lian-You; Gao Shang-Yu; Shi Pei-Jun; Li Xiao-Yan; Dong Zhi-Bao

2003-01-01

436

Laboratory monitoring of P-waves in partially saturated sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic data depends on a variety of hydrogeological properties of the prospected porous media such as porosity, permeability and fluid saturation. We have performed a laboratory experiment in the kiloHertz range in order to analyze the role of partial saturation on direct propagating P-waves phase velocity and attenuation. The experiment consists of a sand-filled tank 107 cm x 34 cm x 35cm equipped with accelerometers and water capacitance probes. The P-waves seismic propagation is generated by hitting a steel ball on a granite plate on the one lateral side of the container. Several imbibition/drainage cycles are performed between the water residual saturation and the gas residual saturation. The laboratory seismic data are processed by two Continuous Wavelet Transforms using one real mother wavelet (Mexican hat) and one complex (Morlet) to recover velocity and attenuation as a function of frequency. Phase velocity of direct P-wave decreases with an increase of water content and is quite consistent with the low frequency limit of the Biot's theory both for imbibition and drainage. The interpretation of the P-waves attenuation needs to go beyond the macroscopic fluid flow of Biot's theory and to introduce a viscoelastic contribution linked to the grain to grain overall losses which are described by a constant Q-model. A strong hysteresis between imbibition and drainage is observed and explained by introducing an effective permeability depending on water and gas relative permeabilities (Van Genuchten model).

Barrière, J.; Bordes, C.; Brito, D.; Sénéchal, P.; Perroud, H.

2011-12-01

437

Effects of chitin amendment of soil on microorganisms, nematodes, and growth of white clover ( Trifolium repens L.) and perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of soil amendment with crabshell chitin on the growth of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and on populations of soil bacteria, fungi, and plant-parasitic and free-living nematodes were investigated in a pot trial. Five soil samples were collected from Te Puke (Paengaroa Shallow Sand, a Typic Hapludand) and five from Hamilton (Bruntwood silt

S. U. Sarathchandra; R. N. Watson; N. R. Cox; M. E. Menna; J. A. Brown; G. Burch; F. J. Neville

1996-01-01

438

Effect of bacterial adsorption on low frequency electrical properties of clean quartz sands and iron-oxide coated sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low frequency electrical measurements (0.1-1000 Hz) were conducted to investigate the adsorption effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells onto clean quartz sands and iron-oxide coated sands. The clean quartz sands showed a gradual increase in the microbial adsorption to mineral grains, concurrent with an increase of 13% in the imaginary conductivity component (?''). However, iron-oxide coated sands (20-100% by weight) showed a rapid increase in microbial adsorption with ?'' reaching a maximum of 37 % for the 80-100% iron coated sands. No significant changes were observed in the real conductivity component (?') due to microbial adsorption. A power law dependency was observed between the adsorbed cells and ?''. We suggest that the polarization results from the increase in the surface roughness and surface area of the grain due to bacteria sorption. These results suggest that low frequency electrical measurements can play an important role in assessing microbial transport in subsurface environments.

Abdel Aal, Gamal; Atekwana, Estella; Radzikowski, Sylvia; Rossbach, Silvia

2009-02-01

439

Diamonds in the rough: identification of individual naphthenic acids in oil sands process water.  

PubMed

Expansion of the oil sands industry of Canada has seen a concomitant increase in the amount of process water produced and stored in large lagoons known as tailings ponds. Concerns have been raised, particularly about the toxic complex mixtures of water-soluble naphthenic acids (NA) in the process water. To date, no individual NA have been identified, despite numerous attempts, and while the toxicity of broad classes of acids is of interest, toxicity is often structure-specific, so identification of individual acids may also be very important. Here we describe the chromatographic resolution and mass spectral identification of some individual NA from oil sands process water. We conclude that the presence of tricyclic diamondoid acids, never before even considered as NA, suggests an unprecedented degree of biodegradation of some of the oil in the oil sands. The identifications reported should now be followed by quantitative studies, and these used to direct toxicity assays of relevant NA and the method used to identify further NA to establish which, or whether all NA, are toxic. The two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method described may also be important for helping to better focus reclamation/remediation strategies for NA as well as in facilitating the identification of the sources of NA in contaminated surface waters. PMID:21391632

Rowland, Steven J; Scarlett, Alan G; Jones, David; West, Charles E; Frank, Richard A

2011-04-01

440

Computational fluid dynamics simulation of transport and retention of nanoparticle in saturated sand filters.  

PubMed

Experimental and computational investigation of the transport parameters of nanoparticles (NPs) flowing through porous media has been made. This work intends to develop a simulation applicable to the transport and retention of NPs in saturated porous media for investigating the effect of process conditions and operating parameters such, as ion strength, and filtration efficiency. Experimental data obtained from tracer and nano-ceria, CeO(2), breakthrough studies were used to characterize dispersion of nanoparticle with the flow and their interaction with sand packed columns with different heights. Nanoparticle transport and concentration dynamics were solved using the Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver ANSYS/FLUENT(®) based on a scaled down flow model. A numerical study using the Navier-Stokes equation with second order interaction terms was used to simulate the process. Parameters were estimated by fitting tracer, experimental NP transport data, and interaction of NP with the sand media. The model considers different concentrations of steady state inflow of NPs and different amounts of spike concentrations. Results suggest that steady state flow of dispersant-coated NPs would not be retained by a sand filter, while spike concentrations could be dampened effectively. Unlike analytical solutions, the CFD allows estimating flow profiles for structures with complex irregular geometry and uneven packing. PMID:23270949

Hassan, Ashraf Aly; Li, Zhen; Sahle-Demessie, Endalkachew; Sorial, George A

2013-01-15