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Sample records for white sands complex

  1. Integration of the White Sands Complex into a Wide Area Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucher, Phillip Larry; Horan, Sheila, B.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Complex (WSC) satellite communications facility consists of two main ground stations, an auxiliary ground station, a technical support facility, and a power plant building located on White Sands Missile Range. When constructed, terrestrial communication access to these facilities was limited to copper telephone circuits. There was no local or wide area communications network capability. This project incorporated a baseband local area network (LAN) topology at WSC and connected it to NASA's wide area network using the Program Support Communications Network-Internet (PSCN-I). A campus-style LAN is configured in conformance with the International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect (ISO) model. Ethernet provides the physical and data link layers. Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are used for the network and transport layers. The session, presentation, and application layers employ commercial software packages. Copper-based Ethernet collision domains are constructed in each of the primary facilities and these are interconnected by routers over optical fiber links. The network and each of its collision domains are shown to meet IEEE technical configuration guidelines. The optical fiber links are analyzed for the optical power budget and bandwidth allocation and are found to provide sufficient margin for this application. Personal computers and work stations attached to the LAN communicate with and apply a wide variety of local and remote administrative software tools. The Internet connection provides wide area network (WAN) electronic access to other NASA centers and the world wide web (WWW). The WSC network reduces and simplifies the administrative workload while providing enhanced and advanced inter-communications capabilities among White Sands Complex departments and with other NASA centers.

  2. Numerical study of turbulent flow over complex aeolian dune fields: the White Sands National Monument.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William; Chamecki, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of fully developed turbulent flows responding to aeolian dune fields are studied using large-eddy simulation with an immersed boundary method. An aspect of particular importance in these flows is the downwind migration of coherent motions associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities that originate at the dune crests. These instabilities are responsible for enhanced downward transport of high-momentum fluid via the so-called turbulent sweep mechanism. However, the presence of such structures and their role in determining the bulk characteristics of fully developed dune field sublayer aerodynamics have received relatively limited attention. Moreover, many existing studies address mostly symmetric or mildly asymmetric dune forms. The White Sands National Monument is a field of aeolian gypsum sand dunes located in the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico. Aeolian processes at the site result in a complex, anisotropic dune field. In the dune field sublayer, the flow statistics resemble a mixing layer: At approximately the dune crest height, vertical profiles of streamwise velocity exhibit an inflection and turbulent Reynolds stresses are maximum; below this, the streamwise and vertical velocity fluctuations are positively and negatively skewed, respectively. We evaluate the spatial structure of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities present in the dune field sublayer (shear length L(s) and vortex spacing Λ(x)) and show that Λ(x)=m(dune)L(s), where m(dune)≈7.2 in the different sections considered (for turbulent mixing layers, 7

  3. About White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Information on the White Sands Missile Range is given in viewgraph form. Navy programs, test sites, rocket programs, research rockets' booster capacity, current boost capabilities, ordnance and payload assembly areas, commercial space launch history and agreements, and lead times are among the topics covered.

  4. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast NM (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground.

  5. Ecological release in White Sands lizards

    PubMed Central

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B

    2011-01-01

    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems. PMID:22393523

  6. Early diagenesis of eolian dune and interdune sands at White Sands, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.; Fryberger, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    The degree of early diagenesis in eolian dune and interdune sands at White Sands, New Mexico, is largely a function of the relationship between sand location and the water table. Most active and vegetation-stabilized dune sands are in the vadose zone, whereas interdune sands are in the capillary fringe and phreatic zones. Crystallographically controlled dissolution of the framework gypsum grains results in elongate, prismatic etch pits on sand grains from the capillary fringe and phreatic zones, whereas dissolution of sand grains in the vadose zone is slight, causing minute irregularities on grain surfaces. Vadose water percolating through the sand is manifest as meniscus layers. Consequently, dune sands in the vadose zone are cemented mainly by meniscus-shaped gypsum at grain contacts. Pendant cements formed on the lower margins of some sand grains. Cementation in the capillary fringe and the phreatic zone is more extensive than the vadose regardless of strata type. Typically, well-developed gypsum overgrowths form along the entire edge of a grain, or may encompass the entire grain. Complex diagenetic histories are suggested by multiple overgrowths and several episodes of dissolution on single grains, attesting to changing saturation levels with respect to gypsum in the shallow ground water. These changes in saturation are possibly due to periods of dilution by meteoric recharge, alternating with periods of concentration of ions and the formation of cement due to evaporation through the capillary fringe. ?? 1988.

  7. NASA White Sands Test Facility Remote Hypervelocity Test Laboratory

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tour the NASA White Sands Test Facility's Remote Hypervelocity Test Laboratory in Las Cruces, New Mexico. To learn more about White Sands Test Facility, go to http://www.nasa.gov/centers/wstf/home/...

  8. White Sands, New Mexico as seen from STS-60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    White Sands National Monument (Park) is easily recognized in the center of this near-vertical color photograph. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field. It represents an alabaster sea that covers nearly 300 square miles. At the southwest corner of the White Sands is dry lake, Lucero. In terms of cultural features the city of Alamogordo and Holloman Air Force Base can be seen with great clarity on this photograph.

  9. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing Ground Stations, 1,500' to the south of the north end of Runway 17/35; 1,500' to the west of the east end of Runway 23/05; and 1,500' southwest of the northeast end of Runway 20/02., White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  10. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range: 1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1972-01-01

    This report presents water-resource information that was collected at White Sands Missile Range during 1971 and early 1972 by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. Data on ground-water pumpage and resulting water-level fluctuation, chemical quality, percipitation, and surface-water runoff are summarized in the report. The data were obtained as a result of the continuing water-resources basic-data collection program sponsored by the Facilities Engineering Directorate, White Sands Missile Range.

  11. Trends in Gypsiferous Aerosol Downwind of White Sands, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W. H.; Trzepla, K.; Yatkin, S.; Gill, T. E.; Jin, L.

    2013-12-01

    White Sands is a known 'hotspot' of dust emissions in southwestern North America where an active gypsum dunefield abuts erodible playa sediments. Aerosols entrained from White Sands are sometimes visible on satellite images as distinct, light-colored plumes crossing the Sacramento Mountains to the northeast. The U.S. Forest Service operates an aerosol sampler at White Mountain in the lee of the Sacramento range as part of the IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments). In recent years a spring pulse of sulfate aerosol has appeared at White Mountain, eclipsing the regional summer peak attributed to atmospheric reactions of sulfur dioxide emissions. A significant fraction of this spring sulfate is contributed by gypsum and other salts from White Sands, with clearly increased concentrations of calcium, strontium, and chloride. The increase in these species coincides with a drought following a period of above-average precipitation. White Sands and White Mountain thus provide an unusually well-defined natural laboratory: a climatically sensitive dust source that is both well characterized and chemically distinct from its surroundings, with a signature that remains identifiably distinct at a long-term observatory ~100 km downwind. This paper examines the routine PM2.5 (fine-particle, Dp < 2.5 um) composition data available from White Mountain and other regional IMPROVE sites (e.g. Bosque del Apache), supplemented by some elemental analysis of collocated PM10 samples. The ambient data are compared with chemical analyses of surface samples from White Sands, bulk dry dustfall and soil surface composition at White Mountain, satellite observations of dust plumes, and available meteorological records. Together, the observations document significant, episodic aeolian transport of gypsum and other salts across the Sacramento Mountains. Figure 1. Left: Monthly average concentrations of every-third-day 24h samples. Top right: MODIS image, 2

  12. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Runway 17/35, Extending 35,000 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Runway 17/35, Extending 35,000 feet north from Range Road 10, beginning approximately 4.2 miles northeast of intersection with Range Road 7, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  13. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Crash/Rescue Standby Support GPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Crash/Rescue Standby Support GPS Buildings, East side of Runway 17/35, approximately 2,650 feet north of intersection with Runway 23/05, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  14. NASA Johnson Space Center: White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin; Kowalski, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing facilities and laboratories available at the White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). The mission of WSTF is to provide the expertise and infrastructure to test and evaluate spacecraft materials, components and propulsion systems that enable the safe exploration and use of space. There are nine rocket test stands in two major test areas, six altitude test stands, three ambient test stands,

  15. Regional transport of a chemically distinctive dust: Gypsum from White Sands, New Mexico (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Warren H.; Hyslop, Nicole P.; Trzepla, Krystyna; Yatkin, Sinan; Rarig, Randy S.; Gill, Thomas E.; Jin, Lixin

    2015-03-01

    The White Sands complex, a National Monument and adjoining Missile Range in southern New Mexico, occupies the dry bed of an ice-age lake where an active gypsum dunefield abuts erodible playa sediments. Aerosols entrained from White Sands are sometimes visible on satellite images as distinct, light-colored plumes crossing the Sacramento Mountains to the east and northeast. The IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) operates long-term aerosol samplers at two sites east of the Sacramento range. In recent years a spring pulse of sulfate aerosol has appeared at these sites, eclipsing the regional summer peak resulting from atmospheric reactions of sulfur dioxide emissions. A significant fraction of this spring sulfate is contributed by gypsum and other salts from White Sands, with much of the sulfur in coarse particles and concentrations of calcium and strontium above regional levels. The increase in these gypsiferous species coincides with a drought following a period of above-average precipitation. White Sands and the IMPROVE samplers together provide a natural laboratory: a climatically sensitive dust source that is both well characterized and chemically distinct from its surroundings, with a signature that remains identifiable at long-term observatories 100-200 km downwind.

  16. Springtime Dust Aerosols at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, C. F.; Yee, Y.; Gill, T. E.; Ruiz, A.; Emmert, S. P.; Cahill, T. A.; Wilson, F.; Ellison, E.

    2005-12-01

    Windblown dust can reduce visibility and create a health hazard. Current dust models, such as CARMA, are used to predict the atmospheric dust aerosol loading during dust storms. However, size-fractionated aerosol measurements are needed to improve and validate the aerosol generation portions of the models. Therefore, from April 19 through May 23, 2005, two size-fractionated (8 size bins between 10 and 0.07 microns in aerodynamic diameter) drum aerosol impactors were deployed on and downwind of a playa at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico to collect aerosol samples to help determine the size and amount of dust particles generated as a function of wind speed. The aerosol samplers were co-located with meteorological sensors and passive blowing dust/sand collectors. The meteorological data for the sampling period, including wind speed and direction, were provided by the Meteorological Division of the White Sands Missile Range. The mass, elemental composition and optical absorption of the aerosols collected during the study are correlated with wind speed and other meteorological parameters to determine the emission, as a function of size, of dust aerosols at different wind speeds. This data will be used to initialize and/or validate dust models, calculate the visibility degradation associated with a given aerosol loading, and help predict the effects of dust aerosols on humans.

  17. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH, SAND DRAINING & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH, SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (right) AND SAND-SORTING BUILDING (left) - Mill "C" Complex, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  18. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX FROM SANDPIT LOOKING NORTHEAST, SAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX FROM SANDPIT LOOKING NORTHEAST, SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (left) AND SAND-SORTING BUILDING (right) - Mill "C" Complex, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  19. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX FROM SANDPIT LOOKING NORTHEAST, SAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX FROM SANDPIT LOOKING NORTHEAST, SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (left) AND SAND-SORTING BUILDING (right) - Mill "C" Complex, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  20. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-09-01

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  1. Two-Phase Abrasion in Eolian Transport of Gypsum Sand, White Sands NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, S.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Miller, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Downstream rounding of grains is consistently observed in natural sediment transport settings. A recent theory put forth by Domokos et al. (2014) attributes particle rounding and size reduction to a geometric curvature-driven abrasion process. This process occurs in two phases, in which irregularly shaped or angular particles round to convex shapes with negligible change in axis dimension, then slowly reduce in particle diameter. Miller et al (in review) establish the existence of two-phase abrasion in the natural setting of a fluvial gravel stream. This study examines field samples from White Sands, NM to investigate the presence of two-phase abrasion in a different, non-idealized natural environment - a high-energy, eolian gypsum dunefield. Analysis of grain shapes from White Sands confirms the two-phase abrasion process, dependent upon mode of sediment transport. We find that large sand grains carried in saltation bed load transport exhibit shape change indicative of two-phase abrasion, while smaller particles carried in suspension do not. We observe rapid shape change in bed load particles approaching a convex shape, followed by slower reduction in grain axis dimensions. Confirmation of this process in a natural, non-idealized setting establishes two-phase abrasion as a general application for bed load transport.

  2. Injecting polyacrylamide into Gulf Coast sands: The White Castle Q sand polymer-injectivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, G.T.; Thigpen, D.R.

    1996-08-01

    A polymer-injectivity test designed to control mobility in cosurfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding was performed in the Q sand of the White Castle field, LA. Analysis of test data indicates that a polymer bank with an average viscosity of 4 cp was propagated as far as 90 ft into the reservoir with no measurable sign of degradation. It is estimated from pilot and laboratory data that injection of 500 ppm polyacrylamide through perforations at a rate of at least 32 B-D/in{sup 2} of perforation into gulf coast sands is feasible. Monitoring of backproduced reservoir samples indicates that, to date, no detectable change in viscosity has occurred over a 2-year period.

  3. When Field Experiments Yield Unexpected Results: Lessons Learned from Measuring Selection in White Sands Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, Kayla M.; Harmon, Luke J.; Hardwick, Scott D.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2015-01-01

    Determining the adaptive significance of phenotypic traits is key for understanding evolution and diversification in natural populations. However, evolutionary biologists have an incomplete understanding of how specific traits affect fitness in most populations. The White Sands system provides an opportunity to study the adaptive significance of traits in an experimental context. Blanched color evolved recently in three species of lizards inhabiting the gypsum dunes of White Sands and is likely an adaptation to avoid predation. To determine whether there is a relationship between color and susceptibility to predation in White Sands lizards, we conducted enclosure experiments, quantifying survivorship of Holbrookia maculate exhibiting substrate-matched and substrate-mismatched phenotypes. Lizards in our study experienced strong predation. Color did not have a significant effect on survival, but we found several unexpected relationships including variation in predation over small spatial and temporal scales. In addition, we detected a marginally significant interaction between sex and color, suggesting selection for substrate matching may be stronger for males than females. We use our results as a case study to examine six major challenges frequently encountered in field-based studies of natural selection, and suggest that insight into the complexities of selection often results when experiments turn out differently than expected. PMID:25714838

  4. Sublethal effects of aged oil sands-affected water on white sucker (Catostomus commersonii).

    PubMed

    Arens, Collin J; Hogan, Natacha S; Kavanagh, Richard J; Mercer, Angella G; Kraak, Glen J Van Der; van den Heuvel, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    To investigate impacts of proposed oil sands aquatic reclamation techniques on benthic fish, white sucker (Catostomus commersonii Lacépède, 1803) were stocked in 2 experimental ponds-Demonstration Pond, containing aged fine tailings capped with fresh water, consistent with proposed end-pit lake designs, and South Bison Pond, containing aged unextracted oil sands material-to examine the effects of unmodified hydrocarbons. White sucker were stocked from a nearby reservoir at both sites in May 2010 and sampled 4 mo later to measure indicators of energy storage and utilization. Comparisons were then made with the source population and 2 reference lakes in the region. After exposure to aged tailings, white sucker had smaller testes and ovaries and reduced growth compared with the source population. Fish introduced to aged unextracted oil sands material showed an increase in growth over the same period. Limited available energy, endocrine disruption, and chronic stress likely contributed to the effects observed, corresponding to elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids, aromatic compounds in bile, and increased CYP1A activity. Because of the chemical and biological complexity of these systems, direct cause-effect relationships could not be identified; however, effects were associated with naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ammonia, and high pH. Impacts on growth have not been previously observed in pelagic fishes examined in these systems, and may be related to differences in sediment interaction. PMID:25545538

  5. Molecular and functional basis of phenotypic convergence in white lizards at White Sands.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Römpler, Holger; Schöneberg, Torsten; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2010-02-01

    There are many striking examples of phenotypic convergence in nature, in some cases associated with changes in the same genes. But even mutations in the same gene may have different biochemical properties and thus different evolutionary consequences. Here we dissect the molecular mechanism of convergent evolution in three lizard species with blanched coloration on the gypsum dunes of White Sands, New Mexico. These White Sands forms have rapidly evolved cryptic coloration in the last few thousand years, presumably to avoid predation. We use cell-based assays to demonstrate that independent mutations in the same gene underlie the convergent blanched phenotypes in two of the three species. Although the same gene contributes to light phenotypes in these White Sands populations, the specific molecular mechanisms leading to reduced melanin production are different. In one case, mutations affect receptor signaling and in the other, the ability of the receptor to integrate into the melanocyte membrane. These functional differences have important ramifications at the organismal level. Derived alleles in the two species show opposite dominance patterns, which in turn affect their visibility to selection and the spatial distribution of alleles across habitats. Our results demonstrate that even when the same gene is responsible for phenotypic convergence, differences in molecular mechanism can have dramatic consequences on trait expression and ultimately the adaptive trajectory. PMID:20080544

  6. Standards Development Activities at White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. L.; Beeson, H. D.; Saulsberry, R. L.; Julien, H. L.; Woods, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    The development of standards and standard activities at the JSC White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has been expanded to include the transfer of technology and standards to voluntary consensus organizations in five technical areas of importance to NASA. This effort is in direct response to the National Technology Transfer Act designed to accelerate transfer of technology to industry and promote government-industry partnerships. Technology transfer is especially important for WSTF, whose longterm mission has been to develop and provide vital propellant safety and hazards information to aerospace designers, operations personnel, and safety personnel. Meeting this mission is being accomplished through the preparation of consensus guidelines and standards, propellant hazards analysis protocols, and safety courses for the propellant use of hydrogen, oxygen, and hypergols, as well as the design and inspection of spacecraft pressure vessels and the use of pyrovalves in spacecraft propulsion systems. The overall WSTF technology transfer program is described and the current status of technology transfer activities are summarized.

  7. Groundwater Remediation and Alternate Energy at White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Holger

    2008-01-01

    White Sands Test Facility Core Capabilities: a) Remote Hazardous Testing of Reactive, Explosive, and Toxic Materials and Fluids; b) Hypergolic Fluids Materials and Systems Testing; c) Oxygen Materials and System Testing; d) Hypervelocity Impact Testing; e)Flight Hardware Processing; and e) Propulsion Testing. There is no impact to any drinking water well. Includes public wells and the NASA supply well. There is no public exposure. Groundwater is several hundred feet below ground. No air or surface water exposure. Plume is moving very slowly to the west. Plume Front Treatment system will stop this westward movement. NASA performs on-going monitoring. More than 200 wells and zones are routinely sampled. Approx. 850 samples are obtained monthly and analyzed for over 300 different hazardous chemicals.

  8. Simultaneous Ka-Band Site Characterization: Goldstone, CA, White Sands, NM, and Guam, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Morabito, David; Caroglanian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    To statistically characterize atmospheric effects on Ka-band links at NASA operational sites, NASA has constructed site test interferometers (STI s) which directly measure the tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These instruments observe an unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2) and measure the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas and its signal attenuation. Three STI s have been deployed so far: the first one at the NASA Deep Space Network Tracking Complex in Goldstone, California (May 2007); the second at the NASA White Sands Complex, in Las Cruses, New Mexico (February 2009); and the third at the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) complex in Guam (May 2010). Two station-years of simultaneous atmospheric phase fluctuation data have been collected at Goldstone and White Sands, while one year of data has been collected in Guam. With identical instruments operating simultaneously, we can directly compare the phase stability and rain attenuation at the three sites. Phase stability is analyzed statistically in terms of the root-mean-square (rms) of the tropospheric induced time delay fluctuations over 10 minute blocks. For two years, the time delay fluctuations at the DSN site in Goldstone, CA, have been better than 2.5 picoseconds (ps) for 90% of the time (with reference to zenith), meanwhile at the White Sands, New Mexico site, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 2.2 ps with reference to zenith) for 90% of time. For Guam, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 12 ps (reference to zenith) at 90% of the time, the higher fluctuations are as expected from a high humidity tropical rain zone. This type of data analysis, as well as many other site quality characteristics (e.g., rain attenuation, infrastructure, etc.) will be used to determine the suitability of all the sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-band.

  9. Wagon loads of sand blows in White County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Bilham, R.; Mueller, K.; Stephenson, W.; Williams, R.; Odum, J.

    2005-01-01

    Several anecdotal accounts provide compelling evidence that liquefaction occurred at several sites in Illinois during the 1811-1812 New Madrid sequence, as much as 250 km north of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). At one Wabash Valley location, sand blows are still evident near Big Prairie, Illinois, a location described in a particularly detailed and precise historic account. This account includes descriptions of substantial liquefaction (sand blows) as well as a two-mile-long east-west-trending "crack" along which two feet of south-side-down displacement occurred. An offset can no longer be seen at this location, which has been extensively farmed and plowed for decades. Field reconnaissance verifies many of the details provided in the account, however. We conducted a seismic-reflection experiment at this location and observed a modest offset in the Paleozoic strata at this location. The offset is opposite to that described in the historic account, consistent with the hypothesis that large midcontinent earthquakes occur on faults reactivated in a Holocene stress regime different from the one in which they were formed. Only two explanations can account for these observations: Either large NMSZ events triggered substantial liquefaction at distances greater than hitherto realized, or at least one large "New Madrid" event occurred significantly north of the NMSZ. We explore these possibilities and conclude that, while neither one can be ruled out, several disparate lines of evidence suggest that the 23 January 1812 "New Madrid mainshock" occurred in White County, Illinois, near the location of the mb 5.5 1968 southern Illinois earthquake and recent microearthquake activity.

  10. Annual water resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1980 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. The total water pumped at White Sands Missile Range in 1980 was 725,053,000 gallons, which was 32.5 million gallons more than in 1979. The Post Headquarters well field, which produces more than 98 percent of the water used at White Sands Missile Range, pumped 712,909,000 gallons, which was 31.1 million gallons more in 1980 than in 1979. Data were collected for specific Range areas north of the Post Headquarters area that might have potential for future water-supply development. (USGS)

  11. ICESat Elevation Validation at the White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, C. E.; Urban, T. J.; Neuenschwander, A. L.; Magruder, L. A.; Schutz, B. E.

    2005-12-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on-board the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) has been shown to produce range measurements with a precision of 2-3 centimeters, depending on the surface characteristics within the illuminated laser footprint. These measurements are combined with knowledge of the position and orientation of the GLAS instrument, obtained through precision orbit and attitude determination, to yield geodetic elevations. These results are examined at the White Sands Missile Range, in New Mexico, which serves as a principal calibration/validation site for ICESat. In addition to hosting arrays of passive retro-reflectors and active detectors that provide horizontal position and timing information for the laser footprints, this site was surveyed early in the mission with the Airborne Laser Topographic Mapper (ALTM). ICESat-derived elevations from this area are compared to those that make up this independent, high-resolution topographic data set. Examples from several laser campaigns, at various off-nadir pointing angles, are shown, and the observed differences are discussed relative to the larger context of assessing ICESat elevation accuracy.

  12. NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp

    NASA Video Gallery

    The White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp prepares students to deal with normal propellant operations, emergency events, and pre-operation planning by engaging studen...

  13. NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp

    NASA Video Gallery

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp prepares students to deal with normal propellant operations, emergency events, and pre-operation planning by engaging s...

  14. Rescue Simulation - NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp

    NASA Video Gallery

    The White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp prepares students to deal with normal propellant operations, emergency events, and pre-operation planning by engaging studen...

  15. Formational Mechanisms and Morphology of Windblown Coarse-Grained Sand Ripples at White Sands, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glade, R.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Pelletier, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Coarse-grained ripples, also known as "megaripples," are large sand ripples found in both aeolian and aquatic environments on Earth, and are common on Mars. The formation and morphology of coarse-grained ripples are not as well understood as more common splash ripples. Current understanding suggests that formative wind speeds are above the saltation threshold for the fine grains, but below this threshold for coarse grains found on the crests, such that they creep. Based on this idea, we hypothesize that wind speeds above this coarse-grain saltation threshold will destroy the ripples. We further hypothesize that these ripples do not have an equilibrium size; rather, their size is related to the persistence of formative winds in a given direction. To test this model, we studied windblown coarse-grained ripples in White Sands, New Mexico. Terrestrial LiDAR was used to obtain high resolution ripple morphology and migration over a three month period. Wind velocity profiles and concurrent saltating grain size data were collected during a wind storm to directly relate modes of transport to particle size and wind stress. These local data were used to calibrate wind records from a nearby meteorological station to estimate local fluid stress using a long-term record. LiDAR data indicate that these ripples were destroyed and reoriented between March and June 2013, while the wind record shows that the coarse-grain saltation threshold was indeed exceeded during this time. Morphological analysis indicates that the lee slope of these ripples is set by saltation impact - similar to splash ripples - but that height, wavelength and stoss slope are not related to instantaneous transport conditions. The historical wind record also shows that the range of wind directions decreases rapidly with increasing speed, restricting strong winds to a narrow range of direction. From these results we explore the idea that coarse-grained ripples are typically larger and less frequently destroyed

  16. Morphology and stratigraphic evolution of aeolian protodunes at White Sands Dune Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, R. C.; Weymer, B. A.; Barrineaux, P.

    2014-12-01

    Protodunes are low-relief, slipfaceless migrating bed forms thought to represent fundamental emergent bed forms that develop from a flat bed of sand and evolve into dunes. Protodunes at White Sands Dune Field in New Mexico are found at the upwind margin of the field, on dune stoss slopes and in interdune areas. Here we used time-series aerial photos from 1996, 2003, 2005 and 2012 and digital elevation models from 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 in conjunction with ground penetrating radar (GPR) to characterize the morphodynamics of protodunes and the stratigraphy generated by protodune migration. Protodunes at the upwind margin of the dune field are larger in wavelength and amplitude and coarser grained than those in the interior of the field. Wind ripples cover protodunes in all areas of the field, but the protodunes at the upwind margin are covered by coarse grained ripples. A consistent progression of ripple patterns occurs over protodunes in which ripples coarsen in wavelength and grain size toward the protodune crest and then decrease in wavelength and grain size toward the troughs. Ripple migration across the protodunes appears to the primary mode by which the protodunes migrate. Trenching and GPR data show low-angle cross-stratification generated by wind ripples migrating down the protodune lee slope of the protodunes. Internal bounding surfaces within the protodunes likely arise from laterally migration and lee slope reactivation in response to the complex wind regime and dune-modified secondary flow within the dune field at White Sands. Understanding the morphology, distribution and genesis of protodunes in dune fields provides a basis to evaluate the significance of protodune strata in the rock record.

  17. El Paso and White Sands area as seen from the Apollo 6 unmanned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The El Paso and White Sands area are photographed from the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission three hours and eight minutes after liftoff. North is toward top of picture. Near bottom center of picture is the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez, Mexico metropolitan area. At the top is the White Sands National Monument area. Note Rio Grande River on left side of picture. The snow-covered Sacremento Mountains are seen in the upper right corner. The altitude of the spacecraft when this photograph was taken was 115 nautical miles.

  18. Overview of NASA White Sands Test Facility Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Nathanael; Saulsberry, Regor; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines the White Sands Test Facility testing of Composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV). A COPV is typically a metallic liner overwrapped with a fiber epoxy matrix. There is a weight advantage over the traditional all metal design. The presentation shows pictures of the facilities at White Sands, and then examines some of the testing performed. The tests include fluids compatibility, and Kevlar COPV. Data for the Kevlar tests are given, and an analysis is reviewed. There is also a comparison between Carbon COPVs and the Kevlar COPVs.

  19. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1982 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. Depth-to-water measurements in the Post Headquarters supply wells continued to show seasonal declines. Test wells east of the Headquarters well field continue to show long-term declines as well as seasonal fluctuations. The total amount of water pumped from White Sands Missile Range supply wells was 66,226,600 gallons more in 1982 than in 1981. The difference in the specific-conductance values of the water samples collected from the Post Headquarters supply wells in the winter and summer increased in 1982. (USGS)

  20. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected at White Sands Missile Range in 1984. The total groundwater withdrawal in 1984 was 685,275,000 gallons. The Post Headquarters well field produced 650,821,000 gallons in 1984. Six new wells were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in 1984. Nineteen water samples were collected for major chemical-constituent, trace-element, or radiochemical analysis in 1984. Depth-to-water measurements in the Post Headquarters supply wells showed seasonal fluctuations as well as continued long-term declines. (USGS)

  1. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1981 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. The total amount of water pumped at White Sands Missile Range was approximately 59 million gallons less than in 1980; however the five supply wells in the Range areas adjacent to the Post Headquarters area produced approximately 16.2 million gallons more in 1981 than in 1980. Depth-to-water measurements in the Post Headquarters supply wells continued to show seasonal declines. (USGS)

  2. Annual water-resources review White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1979 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. Total ground-water pumpage from the Post Headquarters well field, which produces more than 98% of the water used at White Sands Missile Range, was 1.4 million gallons more in 1979 than in 1978. The most significant seasonal water-level declines observed in 1979 were in supply well 22 (36.35 feet) and test well T-7 (15.98 feet). The chemical quality of water samples collected in 1979 was similar to that collected at comparable depths and periods in 1978. (USGS)

  3. Techniques employed by the NASA White Sands Test Facility to ensure oxygen system component safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stradling, J. S.; Pippen, D. L.; Frye, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of ascertaining the safety and suitability of a variety of oxygen system components are discussed. Additionally, qualification and batch control requirements for soft goods in oxygen systems are presented. Current oxygen system component qualification test activities in progress at White Sands Test Facility are described.

  4. Meso-scale cooling effects of high albedo surfaces: Analysis of meteorological data from White Sands National Monument and White Sands Missile Range

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, B.; Taha, H.; Akbari, H.

    1994-05-20

    Urban summer daytime temperatures often exceed those of the surrounding rural areas. Summer ``urban heat islands`` are caused by dark roofs and paved surfaces as well as the lack of vegetation. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are interested in studying the effects of increasing the albedo of roof tops and paved surfaces in order to reduce the impacts of summer urban heat islands. Increasing the albedo of urban surfaces may reduce this heat island effect in two ways, directly and indirectly. The direct effect involves reducing surface temperature and, therefore, heat conduction through the building envelope. This effect of surface albedo on surface temperatures is better understood and has been quantified in several studies. The indirect effect is the impact of high albedo surfaces on the near surface air temperatures. Although the indirect effect has been modeled for the Los Angeles basin by Sailor, direct field observations are required. The objective of this report is to investigate the meso-scale climate of a large high albedo area and identify the effects of albedo on the near surface air temperature. To accomplish this task, data from several surface weather stations at White Sands, New Mexico were analyzed. This report is organized into six sections in addition to this introduction. The first gives the general geological, topographic, and meteorological background of White Sands. The second is a discussion of the basic surface meteorology of the White Sands region. This section is followed by a general discussion of the instrumentation and available data. The fourth section is a description of the method used for data analyis. The fifth section which presents the results of this analysis. Finally, the last section is the summary and conclusion, where a discussion of the results is presented.

  5. Two Years of Simultaneous K(sub a)-Band Measurements: Goldstone, CA; White Sands, NM; and Guam, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Zemba, M.; Morse, J.; Nessel, J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to statistically characterize the effect of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka-Band links, site test interferometers (STIs) have been deployed at three of NASA s operational sites to directly measure each site's tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These STIs are composed of two antennas on a short baseline (less than 1km) that observe the same unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2). The STIs are used to measure the differential phase between the two received signals as well as the individual signal attenuation at each terminal. There are currently three NASA sites utilizing STIs; the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, California; the White Sands Complex in Las Cruces, New Mexico; and the Guam Remote Ground Terminal on the island of Guam. The first two sites are both located in desert regions that have highly similar climates in terms of their seasonal temperatures, average humidity, and annual rain fall (the primary factors in determining phase stability). In contrast, Guam is in a tropical region with drastically higher annual rainfall and humidity. Five station years of data have been collected in Goldstone, three in White Sands, and two in Guam, yielding two years of simultaneous data collection across all three sites. During this period of simultaneous data collection, the root-mean-square (RMS) of the time delay fluctuations stayed under 2.40 picoseconds for 90% of the time in Goldstone, under 2.07 picoseconds for 90% of the time in White Sands, and under 10.13 picoseconds for 90% of the time in Guam. For the 99th percentile, the statistics were 6.32 ps, 6.03 ps, and 24.85 ps, respectively. These values, as well as various other site quality characteristics, will be used to determine the suitability of these sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-Band.

  6. Ka-Band Atmospheric Phase Stability Measurements in Goldstone, CA; White Sands, NM; and Guam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemba, Michael J.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Nessel, James A.

    2014-01-01

    As spacecraft communication links are driven to higher frequencies (e.g. Ka-band) both by spectrum congestion and the appeal of higher data rates, the propagation phenomena at these frequencies must be well characterized for effective system design. In particular, the phase stability of a site at a given frequency will govern whether or not the site is a practical location for an antenna array, particularly if uplink capabilities are desired. Propagation studies to characterize such phenomena must be done on a site-by-site basis due to the wide variety of climates and weather conditions at each ground terminal. Accordingly, in order to statistically characterize the atmospheric effects on Ka-Band links, site test interferometers (STIs) have been deployed at three of NASA's operational sites to directly measure each site's tropospheric phase stability. Using three years of results from these experiments, this paper will statistically characterize the simultaneous atmospheric phase noise measurements recorded by the STIs deployed at the following ground station sites: the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, CA; the White Sands Ground Terminal near Las Cruces, NM; and the Guam Remote Ground Terminal on the island of Guam.

  7. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected at White Sands Missile Range in 1983. The total amount of water pumped from White Sands Missile Range supply wells in 1983 was 713,557,500 gallons. The Post Headquarters well field accounted for 686,499,200 gallons of the total. Seasonal water-level fluctuations in the supply wells ranged from a 3.00-foot rise in Stallion Range Well-2 (SRC-2) to a 51.00 foot decline in Post headquarters supply well 11 (SW-11). All of the test wells and observation wells up to 2 miles east of the Post Headquarters well field showed a decline for the period 1973-1983. Only one test well and one borehole west of the Post Headquarters well field showed a decline in water level; the other five showed a rise in water level for the period 1973-1983. (USGS)

  8. Mapping Playa Evaporite Minerals, White Sands, New Mexico Using Landsat ETM+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghrefat, H. A.; Goodell, P. C.

    2002-12-01

    Evaporite minerals are the main source of several industrial and agricultural minerals important to the U.S. and world economy. Landsat ETM+ data covering the White Sands, New Mexico have been used in this study. The White Sands Dune Field, Lake Lucero, and Alkali Flat have been chosen as target sites. The study aims to determine the number of evaporite mineral endmembers that can be detected and mapped using Landsat ETM+. Furthermore, the study also aims to determine the spatial distribution of fractional abundances of evaporite mineral endmembers assuming a linear mixing model. The Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transform and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were employed to determine a reduced set of noise-free spectral bands. The Pixel Purity Index (PPI) and n-D Visualization (nDV) were conducted on the reduced set of spectral bands to identify spectrally pure evaporite mineral endmembers in the image. Mineral maps of the spatial distribution and relative abundance of evaporite minerals were performed using two different algorithms: Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU). Four evaporite mineral endmembers have been identified using Spectral Angle Mapper. These minerals are gypsum, halite, calcite, and thenardite. The results of Linear Spectral Unmixing showed that the most common and abundant evaporite mineral in the White Sands is gypsum. The results of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) are validated by collecting field samples from different locations within the White Sands. A good match has been determined between results of Landsat ETM+ data and field and laboratory work. Mapping of playa evaporite minerals is of potential importance for the goal of saline soil characterization, regional groundwater hydrology and quality, and mineral resource development.

  9. Test wells T27 and T28, White Sands Missile Range, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Two test wells, T27 and T28, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Army in February and March 1983. Test wells T27 and T28 were drilled as observation wells in the vicinity of the Liquid Propellant Storage Area. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs, driller 's logs, and borehole-geophysical logs from the cased wells. (USGS)

  10. The population genomics of rapid adaptation: disentangling signatures of selection and demography in white sands lizards.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stefan; Pfeifer, Susanne P; Settles, Matthew L; Hunter, Samuel S; Hardwick, Kayla M; Ormond, Louise; Sousa, Vitor C; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the process of adaptation during rapid environmental change remains one of the central focal points of evolutionary biology. The recently formed White Sands system of southern New Mexico offers an outstanding example of rapid adaptation, with a variety of species having rapidly evolved blanched forms on the dunes that contrast with their close relatives in the surrounding dark soil habitat. In this study, we focus on two of the White Sands lizard species, Sceloporus cowlesi and Aspidoscelis inornata, for which previous research has linked mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (Mc1r) to blanched coloration. We sampled populations both on and off the dunes and used a custom sequence capture assay based on probed fosmid libraries to obtain >50 kb of sequence around Mc1r and hundreds of other random genomic locations. We then used model-based statistical inference methods to describe the demographic and adaptive history characterizing the colonization of White Sands. We identified a number of similarities between the two focal species, including strong evidence of selection in the blanched populations in the Mc1r region. We also found important differences between the species, suggesting different colonization times, different genetic architecture underlying the blanched phenotype and different ages of the beneficial alleles. Finally, the beneficial allele is dominant in S. cowlesi and recessive in A. inornata, allowing for a rare empirical test of theoretically expected patterns of selective sweeps under these differing models. PMID:26363411

  11. A seismic search for the paleoshorelines of Lake Otero beneath White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, P. F.; Reece, R.; Ewing, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Tularosa Basin, which now houses White Sands Dune Field, was once occupied by Pleistocene Lake Otero. Several paleoshorelines of Lake Otero have been identified throughout the basin by field surveys and remote sensing using digital elevation models. Up to four shorelines may be buried beneath White Sands Dune Field and it has been posited that the current upwind margin of White Sands coincides with a one of these shorelines. Here we employ a novel geophysical instrument and method to image the subsurface: the seismic land streamer. The land streamer utilizes weighted base plates and one-component vertical geophones in a towed array. With a seisgun acoustic source, we imaged in the Alkali Flats area near the upwind margin, one potential location of paleoshorelines, as well as the Film Lot closer to the center of the dune field. Surfaces in both locations are indurated gypsum playa, which made seismic imaging possible and successful. We collected one SW-NE trending seismic line at each location, which matches the dominant wind and dune migration directions. Based on initial data analysis we find some subsurface structure that may coincide with the paleo lake bed of Lake Otero. The successful demonstration of this new method provides the foundation for an expanded regional subsurface study to image the strata and structure of the Tularosa Basin.

  12. Analysis of the Dryden Wet Bulb GLobe Temperature Algorithm for White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaQuay, Ryan Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In locations where workforce is exposed to high relative humidity and light winds, heat stress is a significant concern. Such is the case at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Heat stress is depicted by the wet bulb globe temperature, which is the official measurement used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The wet bulb globe temperature is measured by an instrument which was designed to be portable and needing routine maintenance. As an alternative form for measuring the wet bulb globe temperature, algorithms have been created to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature from basic meteorological observations. The algorithms are location dependent; therefore a specific algorithm is usually not suitable for multiple locations. Due to climatology similarities, the algorithm developed for use at the Dryden Flight Research Center was applied to data from the White Sands Missile Range. A study was performed that compared a wet bulb globe instrument to data from two Surface Atmospheric Measurement Systems that was applied to the Dryden wet bulb globe temperature algorithm. The period of study was from June to September of2009, with focus being applied from 0900 to 1800, local time. Analysis showed that the algorithm worked well, with a few exceptions. The algorithm becomes less accurate to the measurement when the dew point temperature is over 10 Celsius. Cloud cover also has a significant effect on the measured wet bulb globe temperature. The algorithm does not show red and black heat stress flags well due to shorter time scales of such events. The results of this study show that it is plausible that the Dryden Flight Research wet bulb globe temperature algorithm is compatible with the White Sands Missile Range, except for when there are increased dew point temperatures and cloud cover or precipitation. During such occasions, the wet bulb globe temperature instrument would be the preferred method of measurement. Out of the 30

  13. Definition and origin of the dune-field pattern at White Sands, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baitis, Elke; Kocurek, Gary; Smith, Virginia; Mohrig, David; Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, A.-P. B.

    2014-12-01

    A LiDAR-derived digital elevation model (DEM) of a representative portion of the White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico, allows for characterization of an unprecedented range of dune-field parameters and serves as a basis for pattern analysis. Dune-field parameters were measured and statistically analyzed for populations of dunes selected at random and occurring along transects. Populations sampled by these two different methods are comparable, but highlight the sensitivity of transect placement in a dune field that has pattern heterogeneity. Based upon coefficients of variation, pattern emerges at White Sands primarily because of a strong fabric of crestline orientation, and secondarily because of the regularity of spacing between dunes of similar shape as defined by sinuosity, height and length. Linear regression of dune parameters shows that dune geometric relationships vary primarily with crestline length, but there is little correlation between other parameters, including dune spacing and height. This result highlights the sensitivity of identifying topographic heterogeneity in a LiDAR-derived DEM, given that mean ratios conform to global averages. Stripping off the dunes in Matlab shows a terraced surface, which is interpreted to represent paleo-shorelines formed during relative still stands in the overall retreat of Lake Otero. Elevated bands of higher, more closely spaced dunes occur just leeward of the paleo-shorelines. A revised model for the White Sands Dune Field consists of the basinward progradation of successive dune-field segments. Each segment is associated with a paleo-shoreline, and consists of an upwind dune ridge, represented by the elevated bands, and a leeward dune field.

  14. Investigation of earth's albedo using Skylab data. [White Sands, New Mexico and Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Specific test sites in the White Sands, New Mexico and Lake Michigan areas were chosen because of their stability and known reflectances. Skylab S192 multispectral data and ERIM aircraft multispectral data were collected for these sites and were compared with results of atmospheric radiative transfer calculations in order to determine the aerosol content of the atmosphere. The spectral shape of the Skylab data compared quite favorably with the nearly simultaneous spectral character of the aircraft data. Although there were difficulties in the calibration of the S192 instrument which remain unresolved, interesting mathematical and physical relationships were discovered.

  15. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  16. Summary of ground-water data, Post Headquarters and adjacent areas, White Sands Missile Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, T.E.

    1973-01-01

    Geohydrologic data have been obtained from more than 100 wells and test holes that have been drilled in the Post Headquarters and adjacent areas of White Sands Missile Range. Observation-well data show that, in general, a continuous decline of the water table has occurred in the vicinity of the well field since production began in 1949. Approximately 40,000 acre-feet of water has been produced from the aquifer to date (1972). A series of maps are presented which show the changes that have occurred in the well field as the result of development.

  17. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, 1976: a basic-data report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    Information is presented on the water resources of the White Sands Missile Range, N. Mex., that was collected during the period December 1975 to December 1976 by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. Data on ground-water pumpage and resulting water-level fluctuation, chemical quality and precipitation, and miscellaneous items of interest are summarized. Water-level observations were made in 63 borehole, supply, test, and observation wells on the Range. Water samples were collected and analyzed for chemical quality from 8 test wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1978 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. Total ground-water pumpage in 1978 was 692,045,700 gallons or 7,248,300 less than in 1977. Wells at the Post Headquarters produced 98 percent of the total volume. Water levels in test wells around the Post Headquarters well field show seasonal declines ranging from 14.78 feet to 0.71 feet. The water samples collected from the supply wells show that the chemical quality of the water is slightly better during the period of greatest declines. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Complexity and white-dwarf structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañudo, J.; Pacheco, A. F.

    2009-02-01

    From the low-mass non-relativistic case to the extreme relativistic limit, the density profile of a white dwarf is used to evaluate the C complexity measure [R. López-Ruiz, H.L. Mancini, X. Calbet, Phys. Lett. A 209 (1995) 321]. Similarly to the recently reported atomic case where, by averaging shell effects, complexity grows with the atomic number [C.P. Panos, K.Ch. Chatzisavvas, Ch.C. Moustakidis, E.G. Kyrkou, Phys. Lett. A 363 (2007) 78; A. Borgoo, F. De Proft, P. Geerlings, K.D. Sen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 444 (2007) 186; J. Sañudo, R. López-Ruiz, Int. Rev. Phys. 2 (2008) 223], here complexity grows as a function of the star mass reaching a maximum finite value in the Chandrasekhar limit.

  20. Transport and mixing of eolian sand from local sources resulting in variations in grain size in a gypsum dune field, White Sands, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Richard P.; Gill, Thomas E.; Jones, Slade B.

    2016-03-01

    The White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico (USA), provides a unique opportunity to study sources and eolian transport of sand. End member mixing analysis provides unbiased correlation of the grain size distributions of populations that mix sands from four different local source surface types. Textural differences between sources allow local transport paths to be deduced. In total, 1214 surface samples from 10 dunes and 2 downwind-oriented transects were collected. Neither elevation on the dune, lee or stoss location nor distance downwind correlated with mean grain size, coarsest 10% (D90), or sorting. Instead, grain size distributions are controlled by mixing of locally sourced sand populations. Adjacent dunes can have different mean grain sizes, resulting from different local source populations. Local within-dune and between-dune variability resulting from different sand sources dominates any larger-scale trends across and within dunes. Four sand populations are identified, based on microscopically observable differences in grain size, shape and angularity. Each correlates with high loading of a different statistical factor, derived from End Member Mixing Analysis. End Member 1 (EM1) correlates with well-sorted populations of finer-grained, equant, rounded sands. EM2 correlates with samples that contain moderately sorted populations containing angular blades and crystal aggregates associated with erosional interdunes. EM3 is associated with samples of moderately to poorly sorted fine-grained sand containing fine sand-sized gypsum needles collected from areas of vegetated interdunes, and EM4 is associated with moderately well sorted coarse- and very coarse-grained sands collected from granule ripples. These results suggest that downwind mixing of different populations and segregation by different depositional processes influence grain size distributions in the dune field, rather than by dune-scale or erg-scale transport and sorting.

  1. Complex resistivity signatures of ethanol in sand-clay mixtures.

    PubMed

    Personna, Yves Robert; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Werkema, Dale; Szabo, Zoltan

    2013-06-01

    We performed complex resistivity (CR) measurements on laboratory columns to investigate changes in electrical properties as a result of varying ethanol (EtOH) concentration (0% to 30% v/v) in a sand-clay (bentonite) matrix. We applied Debye decomposition, a phenomenological model commonly used to fit CR data, to determine model parameters (time constant: τ, chargeability: m, and normalized chargeability: mn). The CR data showed a significant (P≤0.001) time-dependent variation in the clay driven polarization response (~12 mrad) for 0% EtOH concentration. This temporal variation probably results from the clay-water reaction kinetics trending towards equilibrium in the sand-clay-water system. The clay polarization is significantly suppressed (P≤0.001) for both measured phase (ϕ) and imaginary conductivity (σ″) with increasing EtOH concentration. Normalized chargeability consistently decreases (by up to a factor of ~2) as EtOH concentration increases from 0% to 10% and 10 to 20%, respectively. We propose that such suppression effects are associated with alterations in the electrical double layer (EDL) at the clay-fluid interface due to (a) strong EtOH adsorption on clay, and (b) complex intermolecular EtOH-water interactions and subsequent changes in ionic mobility on the surface in the EDL. Changes in the CR data following a change of the saturating fluid from EtOH 20% to plain water indicate strong hysteresis effects in the electrical response, which we attribute to persistent EtOH adsorption on clay. Our results demonstrate high sensitivity of CR measurements to clay-EtOH interactions in porous media, indicating the potential application of this technique for characterization and monitoring of ethanol contamination in sediments containing clays. PMID:23603518

  2. Test wells TW1 and TW2, and TW3, White Sands Missile Range, Otero County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Three test wells, TW1, TW2, and TW3, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico in July, August, and October 1983 as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Navy and U.S. Army in July, August, and October 1983. The test wells were drilled as exploratory and monitoring wells for the toxic waste storage facility at White Sands Missile Range. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs for all wells and borehole-geophysical logs for the cased wells. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1977; a hydrologic-data report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1977 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. Near the Post Headquarters water-level declines for the period 1968-77 declined about 20 feet. Total ground-water pumpage at White Sands Missile Range for 1977 was 2,146 acre-feet, 93 acre-feet more than in 1976. Wells at the Post Headquarters produced 2,112 acre-feet of the total volume. Specific conductance of ground water ranged from 277 to 2,410 micromhos per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius for wells T-4 and T-14 respectively at Post Headquarters. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Emplacement and dewatering of the world's largest exposed sand injectite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, Timothy J.; Rowe, Christie D.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2012-08-01

    Sandstone injectites form by up or down-section flow of a mobilized sand slurry through fractures in overlying rock. They act as reservoirs and high-permeability conduits through lower permeability rock in hydrocarbon systems. The Yellow Bank Creek Complex, Santa Cruz County, California is the largest known exposure of a sandstone injectite in the world. The complex contains granular textures that record processes of sand slurry flow, multiple pore fluids, and dewatering after emplacement. The injection was initially mobilized from a source containing both water and hydrocarbons. The water-sand slurry reached emplacement depth first, due to lower fluid viscosity. As the sand slurry emplaced, the transition from slurry flow to pore water percolation occurred. This transition resulted in preferred flow channels ˜6 mm wide in which sand grains were weakly aligned (laminae). The hydrocarbon-sand slurry intruded the dewatering sands and locally deformed the laminae. Compaction of the injectite deposit and pore fluid escape caused spaced compaction bands and dewatering pipes which created convolutions of the laminae. The hydrocarbon-rich sand slurry is preserved today as dolomite-cemented sand with oil inclusions. The laminae in this injectite are easily detected due to preferential iron oxide-cementation of the well-aligned sand laminae, and lack of cement in the alternating laminae. Subtle textures like these may develop during sand flow and be present but difficult to detect in other settings. They may explain permeability anisotropy in other sand deposits.

  5. Energy study (EEAP) at MELSTF, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.; Howard, D.; Pieper, C.A.

    1996-08-23

    This energy conservation study was performed by Huitt-Zollars Inc., for the U.S. Army Engineer District (USAED), Fort Worth, under contract number DECAC63-94-D-0015. The study was conducted at MELSTF on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, between September 21, 1995 and April 28, 1996. The site survey, data collection and technical analysis were performed by John Carter, E.I.T, Denney Howard, P.E. and C.A. Pieper, P.E.. The purpose of the study was to perform a limited site survey of specific buildings at the facility, identify specific Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) that exist, and then evaluate these ECOs for technical and economic feasibility. These ECOs were open to all methods of energy conservation which were reasonable and practical.

  6. Depleted uranium investigation at missile impact sites in White Sands Missile Range

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, D.M.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation for residual depleted uranium was conducted at Pershing missile impact sites on the White Sands Missile Range. Subsurface core soil samples were taken at Chess, Salt Target, and Mine Impact Sites. A sampling pump was installed in a monitoring well at Site 65 where a Pershing earth penetrator was not recovered. Pumping tests and water samples were taken at this site. Chess Site, located in a gypsum flat, was the only location showing elevated levels of depleted uranium in the subsurface soil or perched groundwater. Small fragments can still be found on the surface of the impact sites. The seasonal flooding and near surface water has aided in the movement of surface fragments.

  7. Biannual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1986 and 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Robert G.; Sharp, Steven C.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico in 1986 and 1987. The total groundwater withdrawal in 1986 was 565,462,500 gal and in 1987 it was 620,492,000 gal. The total groundwater withdrawal was 110,971,300 gal less in 1986 than in 1985, but 55,029,500 gal more in 1987 than in 1986. Water samples from five Post Headquarters water supply wells were collected for chemical analysis in 1986. In 1987, water samples were collected from four test wells in the Post Headquarters area for analysis of selected volatile organic compounds. Twenty-eight water samples from wells were collected for analysis of specific conductance in 1986 and 1987. (USGS)

  8. ICESat Calibration and Validation Experiments at White Sands, New Mexico, 2003-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Urban, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Space Research (CSR) at the University of Texas at Austin has operated a primary site for ICESat cal/val activities near the White Sands Space Harbor (WSSH) area of the White Sands Missile Range, NM. This site was chosen for both geophysical (flat, reflective) and logistical (domestic, secure site) reasons. Before launch in 2003, a several-hundred-meter-scale grid comprised of hundreds of numbered PVC base-plates was installed at the chosen site to permanently mark the locations of various pieces of experiment hardware. In summary, CSR has supported four primary types of experiments at the cal/val site: (1) a permanent grid of laser retro-reflectors (corner cube reflectors) placed on top of poles of various known heights and collocated with 25 of the base plates, in use for the duration of the mission, (2) a set of computer-monitored position and timing detectors utilized for cal/val during the first three years of the project, (3) several camera-equipped aircraft flyovers of the area designed to capture images of the green and infrared footprints on the surface at the precise time of ICESat overflights, (4) elevation comparisons between the ICESat data and a high-resolution (1 m) DEM derived via small-footprint airborne lidar collections in 2003 and 2007. The experiments at WSSH were targeted by the ICESat spacecraft approximately four times per campaign, making this cal/val site one of the most sampled locations in the world. This presentation will chronicle the extensive collection of ICESat and experimental data collected at WSSH from 2003 to 2010.

  9. Sand remobilization enhanced complexity to mounded geometry, Early Tertiary deep water sand reservoirs, Balder Oil Field North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bergslien, D.; Rye-Larsen, M.; Jenssen, A.I.

    1996-12-31

    Sand remobilization played a major role in generating the high relief mounded geometries that trap oil in the early Tertiary reservoirs at Balder Field in Norwegian North Sea blocks 25/10 and 25/11. The thick massive submarine-fan sandstones were shed from the East Shetland Platform and deposited from high density turbidity currents. These thick massive sandstones lie in the distal portions of the fan system on the northwestern margin of the Utsira High. An intricate interaction between deposition and soft sediment deformation processes generated the complex cluster of thick mounded sand geometries comprising the Balder oil field. Slumping, sliding and sand remobilization with associated sand injections into overlying shales were the dominant deformation processes that mainly occurred during the early Eocene. The field is comprised of three reservoirs, the Paleocene Heimdal and Hermod Formations and the Early Eocene Balder Formation. The sandstones, which have excellent reservoir properties, share a common pressure system and oil-water contact. This is probably related to the soft-sediment deformation and associated sand injections establishing cross-stratal communication.

  10. Sand remobilization enhanced complexity to mounded geometry, Early Tertiary deep water sand reservoirs, Balder Oil Field North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bergslien, D.; Rye-Larsen, M.; Jenssen, A.I. )

    1996-01-01

    Sand remobilization played a major role in generating the high relief mounded geometries that trap oil in the early Tertiary reservoirs at Balder Field in Norwegian North Sea blocks 25/10 and 25/11. The thick massive submarine-fan sandstones were shed from the East Shetland Platform and deposited from high density turbidity currents. These thick massive sandstones lie in the distal portions of the fan system on the northwestern margin of the Utsira High. An intricate interaction between deposition and soft sediment deformation processes generated the complex cluster of thick mounded sand geometries comprising the Balder oil field. Slumping, sliding and sand remobilization with associated sand injections into overlying shales were the dominant deformation processes that mainly occurred during the early Eocene. The field is comprised of three reservoirs, the Paleocene Heimdal and Hermod Formations and the Early Eocene Balder Formation. The sandstones, which have excellent reservoir properties, share a common pressure system and oil-water contact. This is probably related to the soft-sediment deformation and associated sand injections establishing cross-stratal communication.

  11. Modeling grain size variations of aeolian gypsum deposits at White Sands, New Mexico, using AVIRIS imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ghrefat, H.A.; Goodell, P.C.; Hubbard, B.E.; Langford, R.P.; Aldouri, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) through Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) (0.4-2.5????m) AVIRIS data, along with laboratory spectral measurements and analyses of field samples, were used to characterize grain size variations in aeolian gypsum deposits across barchan-transverse, parabolic, and barchan dunes at White Sands, New Mexico, USA. All field samples contained a mineralogy of ?????100% gypsum. In order to document grain size variations at White Sands, surficial gypsum samples were collected along three Transects parallel to the prevailing downwind direction. Grain size analyses were carried out on the samples by sieving them into seven size fractions ranging from 45 to 621????m, which were subjected to spectral measurements. Absorption band depths of the size fractions were determined after applying an automated continuum-removal procedure to each spectrum. Then, the relationship between absorption band depth and gypsum size fraction was established using a linear regression. Three software processing steps were carried out to measure the grain size variations of gypsum in the Dune Area using AVIRIS data. AVIRIS mapping results, field work and laboratory analysis all show that the interdune areas have lower absorption band depth values and consist of finer grained gypsum deposits. In contrast, the dune crest areas have higher absorption band depth values and consist of coarser grained gypsum deposits. Based on laboratory estimates, a representative barchan-transverse dune (Transect 1) has a mean grain size of 1.16 ??{symbol} (449????m). The error bar results show that the error ranges from - 50 to + 50????m. Mean grain size for a representative parabolic dune (Transect 2) is 1.51 ??{symbol} (352????m), and 1.52 ??{symbol} (347????m) for a representative barchan dune (Transect 3). T-test results confirm that there are differences in the grain size distributions between barchan and parabolic dunes and between interdune and dune crest areas. The t-test results

  12. Genetic features of soils on marine sands and their windblown derivatives on the White Sea coast (the Kola Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, V. N.; Kazakov, L. A.; Chamin, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Quaternary deposits on the Tersk coast of the White Sea are represented by marine deposits (the Tersk sands) enriched in the sea-sorted eluvium of the red Tersk sandstone. These deposits and the soils developed from them are characterized by the predominance of the fine sand fraction and the absence of gravel and the coarser fractions. The sediments derived from the red Tersk sandstone have an impoverished chemical composition (the silica content reaches 75-80%). The iron-illuvial podzols developed from them are characterized by the slightly pronounced differentiation of the main oxides and by the eluvial-illuvial redistribution of the amorphous Al and Fe compounds. Sandy soils—psammozems—with undifferentiated soil profiles are developed from windblown sands subjected to afforestation and from coastal marine sands under a relatively thin natural plant cover. Iron-illuvial podzols buried under a thin sand layer preserve the Al-Fe-humus type of the profile differentiation. In the recently deposited sand layer, the eluvial-illuvial redistribution of the chemical elements is absent.

  13. Response of vegetation stability and groundwater depth to spatial variability in sediment transport; White Sands National Monument, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masteller, C.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Bhattachan, A.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial variability in sediment transport can drive changes in dune morphology and vegetation cover across desert dunefields. Due to the complex interaction of vegetation with both water table dynamics and the soil-salt balance a discontinuous ecosystem response may exist. A theoretical model predicts that salt-vegetation feedback can lead to two stable states; one with sparse or no vegetation cover and a shallow brackish water table, and another with dense vegetation and a deep, fresh water table (Runyan and D'Odorico, 2010). Results presented here suggest that both stable states are present at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico - a gypsum dune field with a shallow, saline groundwater table - as actively-migrating barchan dunes abruptly transition to stable, vegetated parabolic forms. Vertical profiles of soil salinity, soil moisture, and depth to groundwater table were measured across the barchan-parabolic transition. Groundwater depth drops from ~0.5 m to ~1 m across this transition, likely a response to increasing transpiration. Salinity is uniform with depth in the unvegetated dunes; parabolics with dense vegetation exhibit a strong partitioning of salts.. Groundwater salinity drops by more than an order of magnitude, while there is a spike in soil salinity at the surface; consistent with model predictions. The spatial transition in dune-plant stability may therefore be applied to understand temporal shifts in dune field stability that may result from environmental change.

  14. A laboratory study of subjective response to sonic booms measured at White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.

    1993-01-01

    The Sonic Boom Simulator of the Langley Research Center was used to quantify subjective loudness response to boom signatures consisting of: (1) simulator reproductions of booms recently recorded at White Sands Missile Range; (2) idealized N-waves; and (3) idealized booms having intermediate shocks. The booms with intermediate shocks represented signatures derived from CFD predictions. The recorded booms represented those generated by F15 and T38 aircraft flyovers and represented a variety of waveforms reflecting the effects of propagation through a turbulent atmosphere. These waveforms included the following shape categories: N-waves, peaked, rounded, and U-shaped. Results showed that Perceived Level and Zwicker Loudness Level were good estimators of the loudness of turbulence modified sonic booms. No significant differences were observed between loudness responses for the several shape categories when expressed in terms of Perceived Level. Thus, Perceived Level effectively accounted for waveform differences due to turbulence. Idealized booms with intermediate shocks, however, were rated as being approximately 2.7 dB(PL) less loud than the recorded signatures. This difference was not accounted for by PL.

  15. Development of CFC-Free Cleaning Processes at the NASA White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-113- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. The presentation will include the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification processes that are based on a draft of a proposed NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) cleaning procedure. Verification testing with known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils, established correlations between nonvolatile residue and CFC-113. Recoveries ranged from 35 to 60 percent of theoretical. WSTF is also investigating enhancements to aqueous sampling for organics and particulates. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225), tert-butylmethylether, and n-Hexane was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC-113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autoignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

  16. Aqueous Cleaning and Validation for Space Shuttle Propulsion Hardware at the White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornung, Steven D.; Biesinger, Paul; Kirsch, Mike; Beeson, Harold; Leuders, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has developed an entirely aqueous final cleaning and verification process to replace the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) 113 based process. This process has been accepted for final cleaning and cleanliness verification of WSTF ground support equipment. The aqueous process relies on ultrapure water at 50 C (323 K) and ultrasonic agitation for removal of organic compounds and particulate. The cleanliness is verified bv determining the total organic carbon (TOC) content and filtration with particulate counting. The effectiveness of the aqueous methods for detecting hydrocarbon contamination and particulate was compared to the accepted CFC 113 sampling procedures. Testing with known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and cutting and lubricating oils, to establish a correlation between aqueous TOC and CFC 113 nonvolatile residue (NVR) was performed. Particulate sampling on cleaned batches of hardware that were randomly separated and sampled by the two methods was performed. This paper presents the approach and results, and discusses the issues in establishing the equivalence of aqueous sampling to CFC 113 sampling, while describing the approach for implementing aqueous techniques on Space Shuttle Propulsion hardware.

  17. Narrowband Angular Reflectance Properties of the Alkali Flats at White Sands, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, Charles H.; LeCroy, Stuart R.; Wheeler, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Results from helicopter measurements of the angular properties of surface reflectance for the alkali flats regions of the White Sands Missile Range are presented for the wavelength interval of 0.4 to 0.85 microns. This work was performed to allow accurate radiative transfer calculations over the region. Detailed tables and interpolation equations are given that permit other investigators to perform satellite calibrations over the alkali flats site. The effects of wavelength and soil moisture on narrowband angular reflectance are also investigated. Although there is a spectral variation in surface albedo, there is little spectral effect in Anisotropic Factor except in the forward scattering peak at solar zenith angles greater than 60 deg. The magnitude of the forward-scattering peak is also sensitive to soil moisture, with wet conditions causing a larger peak. The significance of this result is that angular reflectance properties at the center of the alkali flats usually will be different than those at the flats edge because moisture differences typically exist.

  18. Dust devils at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. 1. Temporal and spatial distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, J.T.; McClelland, T.M. )

    1990-08-20

    From May 13, through August 21, 1986, and again from April 3, through May 28, 1987, a dust devil census was conducted at the Permanent High Explosive Test Site on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. In a 260-km{sup 2} observation area, a total of 3,134 dust devils were counted on 97 days (out of 112 observing days). Within the observation area, the dust devils were concentrated in a relatively small area and showed strong correlation with roadways and other cleared areas. However, from the summer of 1986 to the spring of 1987, the center of activity shifted from a relatively undisturbed region to an area whose surface had been recently modified. This shift is attributed to changes in soil moisture and surface thermal properties. It is suggested that the co-location of the center of activity in 1987 with the modified surface is an example of inadvertent weather modification on a very local scale. The dust devils had a daily distribution very similar to that found by Sinclair (1969) in comparable terrain in the vicinity of Tucson, Arizona. The time of the first observed dust devil was very regular on days with dry surface conditions at sunrise and clear skies through the morning. The time of the first dust devil was delayed and the degree of activity reduced if precipitation had occurred on a previous day in the observation area. The production of dust devils often ended abruptly with the onset of an afternoon thundershower in the observation area.

  19. Potential for substitution of geothermal energy at domestic defense installations and White Sands Missile Range

    SciTech Connect

    Bakewell, C.A.; Renner, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources that might provide substitute energy at any of 76 defense installations are identified and evaluated. The geologic characteristics and related economics of potential geothermal resources located at or near the 76 installations were estimated. The geologic assessment identified 18 installations with possible geothermal resources and 4 Atlantic Coastal Plain resource configurations that represented the alternatives available to East Coast bases. These 18 locations and 4 resource configurations, together with 2 possible resources at the White Sands Missile Range and a potential resource at Kings Bay, Georgia, were examined to determine the relative economics of substituting potential geothermal energy for part or all of the existing oil, gas, and electrical energy usage. Four of the military installations - Mountain Home, Norton, Hawthorne, and Sierra - appear to be co-located with possible geothermal resources which, if present, might provide substitute energy at or below current market prices for oil. Six additional locations - Ellsworth, Luke, Williams, Bliss, Fallon, and Twentynine Palms - could become economically attractive under certain conditions. No geothermal resource was found to be economically competitive with natural gas at current controlled prices. Generation of electric power at the locations studied is estimated to be uneconomic at present.

  20. Groundwater salinity as a control on development of eolian landscape: An example from the White Sands of New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Richard P.; Rose, Jessica M.; White, Diane E.

    2009-04-01

    The White Sands of southern New Mexico form the largest field of gypsum dunes in the world. The juxtaposition of several different types of dunes within the field has long been recognized and has generally been attributed to changes in the rate of sand transport across the dune field. However, Steven Fryberger [Fryberger, S.G., 2003. Geology of White Sands National Monument, web page www2.nature.nps.gov/geology/parks/whsa/] recently hypothesized, however, that a primary control is groundwater salinity. The White Sands dune field is underlain by saline waters. Fryberger proposed that parabolic dunes could form in topographic highs that accumulated a lens of fresher water derived from precipitation. Water with lower salinity allowed vegetation to grow, and stabilized the sand except for the active noses of the parabolic dunes. This study is a test of that hypothesis. A study transect was established across the boundary between parabolic and barchan dunes. Groundwater and soil at six sites were sampled during December, 2004 and March, May, and June of 2005. Two sites were established in the parabolic field, two in the barchans, and two in the transition zone between them. Groundwater was found to be three times more saline in the barchan area. Conductivity and chloride decreased across the transition zone. A GPS topographic survey revealed two abrupt topographic steps, one at the boundary between the barchans and the transition zone and a second at the edge of the parabolic field. A second, larger topographic step was found outside the study area defining a higher parabolic dune field. These data indicate that Fryberger's (2003) hypothesis is correct and groundwater is controlling the dune field morphology. The dune field did not begin to form until the Mid-Holocene (6500 years ago). A compilation of dates shows that the parabolic dune field has probably been stable for the last 3500 years. In contrast, the barchan area has been recently deflated and exposed 2000 year

  1. Long term geological record of a global deep subsurface microbial habitat in sand injection complexes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, John; Boyce, Adrian J; Hurst, Andrew; Davidheiser-Kroll, Brett; Ponicka, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive evidence from drilling into continental margins for microbial colonization of a deep biosphere. However it is difficult to prove deep biosphere activity in the geological record, where evidence for life is dominated by the remains of organic matter buried after deposition at the surface. Nevertheless we propose that natural injections of sand into muddy strata at continental margins represent an excellent habitat opportunity for deep microbial activity down to several kilometres' present day depth. Sulphur isotope data for iron sulphides precipitated soon after injection indicate consistent microbial sulphate reduction through the geological record. The complexes are favourable sites for colonization, because high permeability and extensive sand/mud interface allow ready availability of electron donors and nutrients. The measured examples of iron sulphide in injected sands extend back to the Proterozoic, and show that injected sand complexes have been a long-term environment for deep subsurface microbial colonization. PMID:23681146

  2. Long term geological record of a global deep subsurface microbial habitat in sand injection complexes

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, John; Boyce, Adrian J.; Hurst, Andrew; Davidheiser-Kroll, Brett; Ponicka, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive evidence from drilling into continental margins for microbial colonization of a deep biosphere. However it is difficult to prove deep biosphere activity in the geological record, where evidence for life is dominated by the remains of organic matter buried after deposition at the surface. Nevertheless we propose that natural injections of sand into muddy strata at continental margins represent an excellent habitat opportunity for deep microbial activity down to several kilometres' present day depth. Sulphur isotope data for iron sulphides precipitated soon after injection indicate consistent microbial sulphate reduction through the geological record. The complexes are favourable sites for colonization, because high permeability and extensive sand/mud interface allow ready availability of electron donors and nutrients. The measured examples of iron sulphide in injected sands extend back to the Proterozoic, and show that injected sand complexes have been a long-term environment for deep subsurface microbial colonization. PMID:23681146

  3. Plasma proteome profiles of White Sucker (Catostomus commersonii) from the Athabasca River within the oil sands deposit.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Denina B D; Sherry, James P

    2016-09-01

    There are questions about the potential for oil sands related chemicals to enter the Athabasca River, whether from tailing ponds, atmospheric deposition, precipitation, or transport of mining dust, at concentrations sufficient to negatively impact the health of biota. We applied shotgun proteomics to generate protein profiles of mature male and female White Sucker (Catostomus commersonii) that were collected from various sites along the main stem of the Athabasca River in 2011 and 2012. On average, 399±131 (standard deviation) proteins were identified in fish plasma from each location in both years. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software was used to determine the proteins' core functions and to compare the datasets by location, year, and sex. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine if variation in the number of proteins related to a core function among all male and female individuals from both sampling years was affected by location. The core biological functions of plasma proteins that were common to both sampling years for males and females from each location were also estimated separately (based on Ingenuity's Knowledge Base). PCA revealed site-specific differences in the functional characteristics of the plasma proteome from white sucker sampled from downstream of oil sands extraction facilities compared with fish from upstream. Plasma proteins that were unique to fish downstream of oil sands extraction were related to lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, vitamin and mineral metabolism, endocrine system disorders, skeletal and muscular development and function, neoplasia, carcinomas, and gastrointestinal disease. PMID:27013027

  4. Fine root dynamics in lodgepole pine and white spruce stands along productivity gradients in reclaimed oil sands sites.

    PubMed

    Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Duan, Min; House, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Open-pit mining activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, create disturbed lands that, by law, must be reclaimed to a land capability equivalent to that existed before the disturbance. Re-establishment of forest cover will be affected by the production and turnover rate of fine roots. However, the relationship between fine root dynamics and tree growth has not been studied in reclaimed oil sands sites. Fine root properties (root length density, mean surface area, total root biomass, and rates of root production, turnover, and decomposition) were assessed from May to October 2011 and 2012 using sequential coring and ingrowth core methods in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) stands. The pine and spruce stands were planted on peat mineral soil mix placed over tailings sand and overburden substrates, respectively, in reclaimed oil sands sites in Alberta. We selected stands that form a productivity gradient (low, medium, and high productivities) of each tree species based on differences in tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) increments. In lodgepole pine stands, fine root length density and fine root production, and turnover rates were in the order of high > medium > low productivity sites and were positively correlated with tree height and DBH and negatively correlated with soil salinity (P < 0.05). In white spruce stands, fine root surface area was the only parameter that increased along the productivity gradient and was negatively correlated with soil compaction. In conclusion, fine root dynamics along the stand productivity gradients were closely linked to stand productivity and were affected by limiting soil properties related to the specific substrate used for reconstructing the reclaimed soil. Understanding the impact of soil properties on fine root dynamics and overall stand productivity will help improve land reclamation outcomes. PMID:26668730

  5. Determining soil moisture and sediment availability at White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico, from apparent thermal inertia data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Stephen; Ramsey, Michael; Lancaster, Nicholas

    2010-06-01

    Determinations of soil moisture and sediment availability in arid regions are important indicators of local climate variability and the potential for future dust storm events. Data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer were used to derive the relationships among potential soil erosion, soil moisture, and thermal inertia (TI) at the spatial scale of aeolian landforms for the White Sands Dune Field between May 2000 and March 2008. Land surface apparent thermal inertia (ATI) data were used to derive an approximation of actual TI in order to estimate the wind threshold velocity ratio (WTR). The WTR is a ratio of the wind velocity thresholds at which soil erosion occurs for wet soil versus dry soil. The ASTER-derived soil moisture retrievals and the changes through time at White Sands were interpreted to be driven primarily by precipitation, but the presence of a perched groundwater table may also influence certain areas. The sediment availability of dunes, active playa surfaces and the margin of the alluvial fans to the west were determined to be consistently higher than the surrounding area. The sediment availability can be primarily explained by precipitation events and the number of dry days prior to the data acquisition. Other factors such as vegetation and the amount of surface crusting may also influence soil mobility, but these were not measured in the field. This approach showed the highest modeled sediment availability values just days prior to the largest dust emission event at White Sands in decades. Such an approach could be extended to a global monitoring technique for arid land systems that are prone to dust storms and for other regional land surface studies in the Sahara.

  6. Dust Plume Modeling from Ranges and Maneuver Areas on Fort Bliss and the White Sands Missile Range: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Elaine G.; Barnard, James C.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Shaw, William J.

    2009-05-04

    The potential for air quality impacts from heavy mechanized vehicles operating on and between the unpaved main supply routes at Fort Bliss and White Sands Missile Range was investigated. This report details efforts by the staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Fort Bliss Directorate of Environment in this investigation. Dust emission and dispersion from typical move-out activities occurring on the installations were simulated using the atmospheric modeling system DUSTRAN. Major assumptions associated with designing the modeling scenarios are summarized and results of simulations conducted under these assumptions are presented for four representative meteorological periods.

  7. Test wells T21, T22, and T25, White Sands Missile Range, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Three test wells, T21, T22, and T25, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military program sponsored by the U.S. Army in September 1982. T21 and T22 were drilled as observation wells for two old landfills. T25 was drilled as an exploratory hole to obtain lithologic and borehole-geophysical data in the vicinity of the proposed replacement well for Supply Well 15. Information obtained from these wells includes borehole-geophysical and driller's logs.

  8. 6. General view of complex. Sand tower at left (MN99E) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General view of complex. Sand tower at left (MN-99-E) and oil house (MN-99-C) at right. Machine shop section of roundhouse (Mn-99-A) in background at center. View to west. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  9. Second-Wave White Teacher Identity Studies: Toward Complexity and Reflexivity in the Racial Conscientization of White Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupp, James C.; Lensmire, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce our special issue, "Second-Wave White Teacher Identity Studies: Toward Complexity and Reflexivity in the Racial Conscientization of White Teachers." We characterize white teacher identity studies as a developing field with important implications for education research and teacher education. Early work in…

  10. Complex resistivity signatures of ethanol in sand-clay mixtures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personna, Yves Robert; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Werkema, Dale; Szabo, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    We performed complex resistivity (CR) measurements on laboratory columns to investigate changes in electrical properties as a result of varying ethanol (EtOH) concentration (0% to 30% v/v) in a sand–clay (bentonite) matrix. We applied Debye decomposition, a phenomenological model commonly used to fit CR data, to determine model parameters (time constant: τ, chargeability: m, and normalized chargeability: mn). The CR data showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) time-dependent variation in the clay driven polarization response (~ 12 mrad) for 0% EtOH concentration. This temporal variation probably results from the clay–water reaction kinetics trending towards equilibrium in the sand–clay–water system. The clay polarization is significantly suppressed (P ≤ 0.001) for both measured phase (ϕ) and imaginary conductivity (σ″) with increasing EtOH concentration. Normalized chargeability consistently decreases (by up to a factor of ~ 2) as EtOH concentration increases from 0% to 10% and 10 to 20%, respectively. We propose that such suppression effects are associated with alterations in the electrical double layer (EDL) at the clay–fluid interface due to (a) strong EtOH adsorption on clay, and (b) complex intermolecular EtOH–water interactions and subsequent changes in ionic mobility on the surface in the EDL. Changes in the CR data following a change of the saturating fluid from EtOH 20% to plain water indicate strong hysteresis effects in the electrical response, which we attribute to persistent EtOH adsorption on clay. Our results demonstrate high sensitivity of CR measurements to clay–EtOH interactions in porous media, indicating the potential application of this technique for characterization and monitoring of ethanol contamination in sediments containing clays.

  11. GroundwaterGeochemistry,SeasonalChangesandControlsonEolianMorphology.WhiteSandsNationalMonument,NewMexi co,TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, J. M.; Langford, R. P.; Cueto, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    The White Sands of New Mexico is composed of transverse, barchan and parabolic dunes formed of gypsum sand. Transverse dunes pass downwind into barchans and then vegetated parabolic dunes. This study focuses on the transition from barchan dunes that migrate rapidly (12 m/year) through an unvegetated landscape, to isolated parabolic dunes migrating at 1 to 2 m/year through vegetated, stabilized dunes and sand sheets. One theory is the vegetated parabolic dunes form where enough sand has been deposited above the permanent saline water table to allow the formation of a fresh water lens. Conversely, where there is enough vegetation, due to the permanent and highly saline groundwater table, the sand blows away as barchan dunes, deflating the dune field. In a 5 km long swath through the dunes, six sampling sites were established: two barchan, two parabolic and two in the transition zone between the two dune types. Groundwater as well as soil samples were collected to measure the seasonal variations on water salinity and of sand movement in the dune field. The water table is less than 1.5 m at all sites. During successive sampling during the first half of 2005, at the barchan sites, the water is three times more saline than the parabolic sites at (20,000 g/ml vs. 3,000-8000 g/ml). Sampling each two months from early December through June suggests the influx of fresh water into the basin has caused a salinity decrease in the soil water in both the transition and parabolic sites during the spring and summer from about 2,000-3,000 mg/L to about 1,000 mg/L). March results show an overall decrease in salinity readings although in May the results are more varied, showing some sites high and some showing low salinity readings but mostly ranging about 1,000 mg/L. The parabolic dunes specifically show an increase, in salinity from 1,000 mg/L in December to 8,000 mg/L in May. During the winter, thin zones of high salinity, or spikes, are found between 40 and 80 cm deep in the soil

  12. Variation of bee communities on a sand dune complex in the Great Basin: Implications for sand dune conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sand dunes across the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts house rich bee communities. The pollination services these bees provide can be vital in maintaining the diverse, and often endemic, dune flora. These dune environments, however, are threatened by intense off-highway vehicle (OHV) use. Conservati...

  13. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883) (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini).

    PubMed

    Metzler, Eric H; Forbes, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883), previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:22207799

  14. Compilation of hydrologic data for White Sands pupfish habitat and nonhabitat areas, northern Tularosa Basin, White Sands Missile Range and Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1911-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, C.A.; Myers, R.G.; Saleh, D.K.; Myers, N.C.

    2014-01-01

    The White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa), listed as threatened by the State of New Mexico and as a Federal species of concern, is endemic to the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Because water quality can affect pupfish and the environmental conditions of their habitat, a comprehensive compilation of hydrologic data for pupfish habitat and nonhabitat areas in the northern Tularosa Basin was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with White Sands Missile Range. The four locations within the Tularosa Basin that are known pupfish habitat areas are the Salt Creek, Malpais Spring and Malpais Salt Marsh, Main Mound Spring, and Lost River habitat areas. Streamflow data from the Salt Creek near Tularosa streamflow-gaging station indicated that the average annual mean streamflow and average annual total streamflow for water years 1995–2008 were 1.35 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) and 983 acre-feet, respectively. Periods of no flow were observed in water years 2002 through 2006. Dissolved-solids concentrations in Salt Creek samples collected from 1911 through 2007 ranged from 2,290 to 66,700 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The average annual mean streamflow and average annual total streamflow at the Malpais Spring near Oscura streamflow-gaging station for water years 2003–8 were 6.81 ft3/s and 584 acre-feet, respectively. Dissolved-solids concentrations for 16 Malpais Spring samples ranged from 3,882 to 5,500 mg/L. Isotopic data for a Malpais Spring near Oscura water sample collected in 1982 indicated that the water was more than 27,900 years old. Streamflow from Main Mound Spring was estimated at 0.007 ft3/s in 1955 and 1957 and ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 ft3/s from 1996 to 2001. Dissolved-solids concentrations in samples collected between 1955 and 2007 ranged from an estimated 3,760 to 4,240 mg/L in the upper pond and 4,840 to 5,120 mg/L in the lower pond. Isotopic data for a Main Mound Spring water sample collected in 1982 indicated that the water was about

  15. CYP1A induction and blue sac disease in early life stages of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to oil sands.

    PubMed

    Colavecchia, Maria V; Hodson, Peter V; Parrott, Joanne L

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of natural oil sands on the early developmental stages of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and to determine whether biochemical responses in this species were similar to native fish caught in the Athabasca Oil Sands area. Early life stage (ELS) sediment toxicity tests were conducted using controls, reference sediments, natural oil sands, and industrially contaminated (wastewater pond) sediments collected from sites along the Athabasca River, Alberta (Canada). Eggs and larvae were observed for mortality, hatching, deformities, growth, and cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) activity using immunohistochemistry. E-Nat-, S-Nat-, and wastewater pond sediment-exposed groups showed significant premature hatching, reduced growth, and exposure-dependent increases in ELS mortality and larval malformations relative to controls. The most common larval deformities included edemas (pericardial, yolk sac, and subepidermal), hemorrhages, and spinal defects. Juveniles exposed to oil sands and wastewater pond sediments (96 h) demonstrated significantly increased 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity (30- to 50-fold) as compared to controls. Reference sediment-exposed groups and water controls demonstrated reliable embryo and larval survival, minimal malformations, and negligible CYP1A staining. These observed signs of blue sac disease (ELS mortality, malformations, growth reductions, CYP1A activity induction) may produce deleterious reproductive effects in natural fish populations exposed to oil sands mixtures. PMID:16728374

  16. Gold Nanocluster and Quantum Dot Complex in Protein for Biofriendly White-Light-Emitting Material.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Satyapriya; Pramanik, Sabyasachi; Khandelia, Rumi; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2016-01-27

    We report the synthesis of a biofriendly highly luminescent white-light-emitting nanocomposite. The composite consisted of Au nanoclusters and ZnQ2 complex (on the surface of ZnS quantum dots) embedded in protein. The combination of red, green, and blue luminescence from clusters, complex, and protein, respectively, led to white light generation. PMID:26741861

  17. An investigation of several aspects of LANDSAT-5 data quality. [Palmer County, Shelby, mt; White sands, NM; Great Salt Lake, UT; San Matted Bridge and Sacramento, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Band-to-band registration, geodetic registration, interdector noise, and the modulation transfer function (MTE) are discussed for the Palmer County; TX scene. Band combinations for several LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT 5 scenes; the geodetic registration test for the Sacramento, CA area; periodic noise components in TM band 5; and grey level measurements by detector for Great Salt Lake (UT) dark water forescans and backscans are considered. Results of MTF analyses of the San Mateo Bridge and of TM high resolution and aerial Daedalus scanner imagery are consistent and appear to be repeatable. An oil-on-sand target was constructed on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The two-image analysis procedure used is summarized.

  18. Analysis of the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Test System for Friction-Ignition of Metallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoffstall, Michael S.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2000-01-01

    Friction is a known ignition source for metals in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. The test system developed by the NASA White Sands Test Facility in response to ASTM G-94 has been used successfully to determine the relative ignition from friction of numerous metallic materials and metallic materials pairs. These results have been ranked in terms of a pressure-velocity product (PV) as measured under the prescribed test conditions. A high value of 4.1(exp 8) watts per square meter for Inconel MA 754 is used to imply resistance to friction ignition, whereas a low value of 1.04(exp 8) watts per square meter for stainless steel 304 is taken as indicating material susceptible to friction ignition. No attempt has been made to relate PV values to other material properties. This work reports the analysis of the WSTF friction-ignition test system for producing fundamental properties of metallic materials relating to ignition through friction. Three materials, aluminum, titanium, and nickel were tested in the WSTF frictional ignition instrument system under atmospheres of oxygen or nitrogen. Test conditions were modified to reach a steady state of operation, that is applied, the force was reduced and the rotational speed was reduced. Additional temperature measurements were made on the stator sample. The aluminum immediately galled on contact (reproducible) and the test was stopped. Titanium immediately ignited as a result of non-uniform contact of the stator and rotor. This was reproducible. A portion of the stator sampled burned, but the test continued. Temperature measurements on the stator were used to validate the mathematical model used for estimating the interface (stator/rotor) temperature. These interface temperature measurements and the associate thermal flux into the stator were used to distinguish material-phase transitions, chemical reaction, and mechanical work. The mechanical work was used to analyze surface asperities in the materials and to estimate a

  19. Impacts of bridging complexation on the transport of surface-modified nanoparticles in saturated sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkzaban, Saeed; Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Bradford, Scott A.

    2012-08-01

    The transport of polyacrylic acid capped cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs), carboxylate-modified latex (CML), and bare silica nanoparticles (NPs) was studied in packed columns at various electrolyte concentrations and cation types. The breakthrough curves (BTCs) of QDs and CML particles in acid-treated Accusand showed significant amounts of increasing deposition with 0.5, 1, and 2 mM Ca2+, but only minute deposition at 50 and 100 mM Na+. Negligible QD and CML deposition occurred at 2 mM Ca2+ in columns packed with ultrapure quartz sand that was similar in size to the Accusand. These observations are not consistent with interpretations based on Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) calculations of interaction energies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis demonstrated that there were regions on the acid-treated Accusand covered with small amounts of clay that were absent on the ultrapure quartz sand. A salt cleaning method was therefore used to remove the clay from the acid-treated Accusand. The BTCs of QDs and CML in this acid + salt treated Accusand exhibited much less deposition at any given Ca2+ concentration compared to those obtained from the acid-treated sand. SEM images showed that most of the QD deposited in acid-treated Accusand occurred on clay surfaces. Unlike our results with QDs and CML, negligible deposition of bare silica NPs occurred at 5 and 10 mM Ca2+ in acid-treated Accusand. The high deposition of QDs and CML particles was therefore attributed to bridging complexation in which Ca2+ serves as a bridge between the cation exchange locations on the clay and carboxyl functional groups on the QD and CML particles, which were absent on the bare silica NPs. Our results suggest that the transport of carboxylic ligand-modified NPs may be limited in subsurface environments because of the ubiquitous presence of clay and divalent cations.

  20. LIDAR first results from the Oil Sands Region: A complex vertical atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawbridge, K. B.

    2012-12-01

    Environment Canada is using LIDAR technology to probe the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere over the oil sands region. This provided the critical vertical context for the interpretation of ground-based chemistry measurements and model verification and validation. In recent years, Environment Canada has designed an autonomous aerosol LIDAR system that can be deployed to remote areas such as the oil sands. The trailer that contains the LIDAR system includes a roof hatch assembly, basic meteorological tower, radar interlock system, climate control system and leveling stabilizers. A precipitation sensor is used to operate the roof hatch and three pan/tilt webcams capture sky conditions and monitor the Lidar system's health. A remote control interface is used to monitor all vital components of the system, including the ability to provide hard resets to the various electronic devices onboard. Every 10 seconds the system provides vertical aerosol profiles from near ground to 20 km. The LIDAR transmitter emits two wavelengths (1064nm and 532nm) and the detector assembly collects three channels (1064nm backscatter, 532nm backscatter and 532nm depolarization). The depolarization channel provided key information in identifying and discriminating the various aerosol layers aloft such as dust, forest fire plumes, industrial plume sources or ice crystals. It operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week except during precipitation events and when aircraft fly over the site. The system is operated remotely and the data are updated every hour to a website to allow near real-time capability. First results from an intensive field campaign will be presented. LIDAR false color plot showing the bottom 7 km of the atmosphere during a forest fire event. Note the forest fire plume is between 1.5 and 5 km.

  1. Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Emissions From the Alberta Oil Sands Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; McNaughton, C. S.; Freitag, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Alberta oil sands contain a vast reservoir of fossil hydrocarbons. The extremely viscous bitumen requires significant energy to extract and upgrade to make a fluid product suitable for pipelines and further refinement. The mining and upgrading process constitute a large industrial complex in an otherwise sparsely populated area of Canada. During the ARCTAS project in June/July 2008, while studying forest fire plumes, the NASA DC-8 and P-3B flew through the plume a total of 5 times. Once was a coordinated visit by both aircraft; the other 3 were fortuitous passes downwind. One study has been published about gas emissions from the complex. Here we concentrate on aerosol emissions and aging. As previously reported, there appear to be at least 2 types of plumes produced. One is an industrial-type plume with vast numbers of ultrafine particles, SO2, sulfate, black carbon (BC), CO, and NO2. The other, probably from the mining, has more organic aerosol and BC together with dust-like aerosols at 3 μm and a 1 μm mode of unknown origin. The DC-8 crossed the plume about 10 km downwind of the industrial site, giving time for the boundary layer to mix and enabling a very crude flux calculation suggesting that sulfate and organic aerosols were each produced at about 500 g/s (estimated errors are a factor of 2, chiefly due to concerns about vertical mixing). Since this was a single flight during a project dedicated to other purposes and operating conditions and weather may change fluxes considerably, this may not be a typical flux. As the plume progresses downwind, the ultrafine particles grow to sizes effective as cloud condensation nucei (CCN), SO2 is converted to sulfate, and organic aerosol is produced. During fair weather in the summer, as was the case during these flights, cloud convection pumps aerosol above the mixed layer. While the aerosol plume is difficult to detect from space, NO2 is measured by the OMI instrument an the Aura satellite and the oil sands plume

  2. XRD and mineralogical analysis of gypsum dunes at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico and applications to gypsum detection on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, B.; Bishop, J. L.; Fenton, L. K.; King, S. J.; Blake, D.; Sarrazin, P.; Downs, R.; Horgan, B. H.

    2013-12-01

    A field portable X-ray Diffraction (XRD) instrument was used at White Sands National Monument to perform in-situ measurements followed by laboratory analyses of the gypsum-rich dunes and to determine its modal mineralogy. The field instrument is a Terra XRD (Olympus NDT) based on the technology of the CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity which is providing the mineralogical and chemical composition of scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected at Gale Crater [1]. Using Terra at White Sands will contribute to 'ground truth' for gypsum-bearing environments on Mars. Together with data provided by VNIR spectra [2], this study clarifies our understanding of the origin and history of gypsum-rich sand dunes discovered near the northern polar region of Mars [3]. The results obtained from the field analyses performed by XRD and VNIR spectroscopy in four dunes at White Sands revealed the presence of quartz and dolomite. Their relative abundance has been estimated using the Reference Intensity Ratio (RIR) method. For this study, particulate samples of pure natural gypsum, quartz and dolomite were used to prepare calibration mixtures of gypsum-quartz and gypsum-dolomite with the 90-150μm size fractions. All single phases and mixtures were analyzed by XRD and RIR factors were calculated. Using this method, the relative abundance of quartz and dolomite has been estimated from the data collected in the field. Quartz appears to be present in low amounts (2-5 wt.%) while dolomite is present at percentages up to 80 wt.%. Samples from four dunes were collected and prepared for subsequent XRD analysis in the lab to estimate their composition and illustrate the changes in mineralogy with respect to location and grain size. Gypsum-dolomite mixtures: The dolomite XRD pattern is dominated by an intense diffraction peak at 2θ≈36 deg. which overlaps a peak of gypsum, This makes low concentrations of dolomite

  3. Radiological survey and evaluation of the fallout area from the Trinity test: Chupadera Mesa and White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, W.R.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1985-06-01

    Current radiological conditions were evaluated for the site of the first nuclear weapons test, the Trinity test, and the associated fallout zone. The test, located on White Sands Missile Range, was conducted as part of the research with nuclear materials for the World War II Manhattan Engineer District atomic bomb project. Some residual radioactivity attributable to the test was found in the soils of Ground Zero on White Sands Missile Range and the areas that received fallout from the test. The study considered relevant information including historical records, environmental data extending back to the 1940s, and new data acquired by field sampling and measurements. Potential exposures to radiation were evaluated for current land uses. Maximum estimated doses on Chupadera Mesa and other uncontrolled areas are less than 3% of the DOE Radiation Protection Standards (RPSs). Radiation exposures during visits to the US Army-controlled Ground Zero area are less than 1 mrem per annual visit or less than 0.2% of the RPS for a member of the public. Detailed data and interpretations are provided in appendixes. 14 figs., 45 tabs.

  4. Controls on the large-scale spatial variations of dune field properties in the barchanoid portion of White Sands dune field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that sediment fluxes and dune sizes are a maximum near the upwind margin of the White Sands dune field and decrease, to first order, with increasing distance downwind. These patterns have alternatively been attributed to a shear-stress overshoot associated with a roughness transition localized at the upwind margin and to the influence of long-wavelength topography on the hydrology and hence erodibility of dune field sediments. I point out an issue that compromises the shear-stress overshoot model and further test the hypothesis that long-wavelength topographic variations, acting in concert with feedbacks among aerodynamic, granulometric, and geomorphic variables, control dune field properties at White Sands. Building upon the existing literature, I document that the mean and variability of grain sizes, sand dryness, aerodynamic roughness lengths, bed shear stresses, sediment fluxes, and ripple and dune heights all achieve local maxima at the crests of the two most prominent scarps in the dune field, one coincident with the upwind margin and the other located 6-7 km downwind. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling predicts that bed shear stresses, erosion rates, and the supply of relatively coarse, poorly sorted sediments are localized at the two scarps due to flow line convergence, hydrology, and the spatially distributed adjustment of the boundary layer to variations in dune size. As a result, the crests of the scarps have larger ripples due to the granulometric control of ripple size. Larger grain sizes and/or larger ripples lead to larger dunes and hence larger values of bed shear stress in a positive feedback.

  5. Adsorption and dissociation of Co-EDTA complexes in iron oxide-containing subsurface sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachara, J. M.; Smith, S. C.; Kuzel, L. S.

    1995-12-01

    The sorption of Co(II)EDTA 2-- (where EDTA is ethylenediaminetetracetic acid) was investigated on goethite and on eight sand-textured Quaternary and Pliocene fluvial sediments. Dual-label tracer techniques were used to follow the distribution of 60Co(II)- 14C/EDTA added as the preformed 1:1, Co(II)EDTA 2- complex. Sorption experiments were performed with fixed concentrations of Co(II)EDTA 2- (10 -5 mol/L) and variable pH (all materials), and fixed pH (4.4) with variable Co(II)EDTA 2-- concentrations (two materials), using solids concentrations of 0.5 g/L for goethite and 500 g/L for the sediments and electrolyte concentrations of 0.003 and 0.03 (goethite only) mol/L Ca(Cl0 4) 2. Aqueous Fe 3+aq) and Al'(a'q) were measured at the time of the sorption determination. On goethite, Co(II) EDTA 2- exhibited anion-like sorption, increasing with decreasing pH. Increasing electrolyte concentration decreased sorption, indicating a weak, ion-pair type surface complex. Below pH6, however, the sorption chemistry of Co 2+ and EDTA 4- became complex and disparate as a result of Co(II)EDTA 2--dissociation. dissociation was driven by exchange with Fe 3+(aq). A nonelectrostatic surface complexation model that explicitly considered the Fe 3+-Co(II)EDTA 2- exchange reaction was able to adequately describe the sorption data using surface complexes with Co(II)EDTA 2-, FeEDTA -, and Co 2+. The subsurface sediments contained variable amounts of grain-coating iron and aluminum oxides and layer silicates and their substrate mineralogy was dominated by quartz and plagioclase with some mica. Iron oxides were a dominant grain-coating phase on over half the sorbents, and X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical extraction, and microscopic techniques documented the presence of poorly crystalline forms as well as goethite, hematite, and feroxyhite. Aluminum oxides were also present. The sorption behavior of Co(II) EDTA 2- on the subsurface sediments was much weaker than, but analogous in behavior to

  6. Restoration of floodplain topography by sand-splay complex formation in response to intentional levee breaches, Lower Cosumnes River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, Joan L.; Mount, Jeffrey F.

    2002-04-01

    Restoration of sustainable geomorphic processes that create floodplain topography through development of sand-splay complexes at intentional breaches is one method to promote variability in physical structure needed for habitat restoration. The topography of splay complexes provides a range of floodplain elevations that creates local variability in (i) inundation duration and frequency and depth to ground water that influence riparian vegetation establishment; and (ii) flow depth and velocity that create refuge for fish. Two intentional levee breaches along the lowland Cosumnes River, Central Valley, CA, were evaluated during water years 1999 and 2000 in order to document changes in morphology and relief associated with deposition of sand-splay complexes. During the study period, annual peak-flow recurrence intervals ranged from ˜1 to 3 years, and water flowed through the breaches for a minimum of 55 days during water year 1999 and 53 days during water year 2000. At the two study sites, rapid vertical accretion and scour occurred within the first several years after intentionally breaching the levee at the Accidental Forest floodplain (constructed in 1995) and at the Corps Breach floodplain (constructed in 1997). Splay complexes are organized into a variety of landforms, including lateral levees and lobes separated by new floodplain channels. Maximum deposition measured on the splay surface is 0.36 m/year, while maximum scour in channels is 0.27 m/year. Juxtaposition of floodplain splay deposition and adjacent channel scour creates relief ranging from ˜1.6 to 0.25 m that decreases with distance from the breach and that becomes more pronounced over time as higher magnitude floods scour channels in the old floodplain sediment and deposit new sand and silt onto the surface of the splay. The ratio of splay complex height to depth of formative flow is estimated as ˜0.4. Progradation of main and secondary splay channels takes place by down-floodplain sand transport

  7. Friction evaluation of unpaved, gypsum-surface runways at Northrup Strip, White Sands Missile Range, in support of Space Shuttle Orbiter landing and retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.; Horne, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Friction measurement results obtained on the gypsum surface runways at Northrup Strip, White Sands Missile Range, N. M., using an instrumented tire test vehicle and a diagonal braked vehicle, are presented. These runways were prepared to serve as backup landing and retrieval sites to the primary sites located at Dryden Flight Research Center for shuttle orbiter during initial test flights. Similar friction data obtained on paved and other unpaved surfaces was shown for comparison and to indicate that the friction capability measured on the dry gypsum surface runways is sufficient for operations with the shuttle orbiter and the Boeing 747 aircraft. Based on these ground vehicle friction measurements, estimates of shuttle orbiter and aircraft tire friction performance are presented and discussed. General observations concerning the gypsum surface characteristics are also included and several recommendations are made for improving and maintaining adequate surface friction capabilities prior to the first shuttle orbiter landing.

  8. Test wells T23, T29, and T30, White Sands Missile Range and Fort Bliss Military Reservation, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Three test wells, T23, T29, and T30, were drilled in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Army in November 1982. Test well T23 was drilled as an exploratory and monitoring well in the proposed Soledad well field at the Fort Bliss Military Reservation. Test wells T29 and T30 were drilled at White Sands Missile Range. Test well T29 was drilled as an observation well in the vicinity of the outfall channel from the sewage treatment plant. Test well T30 was drilled as an observation well for a landfill south of the well site. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs for all wells and borehole-geophysical logs from the cased wells for test wells T29 and T30. (USGS)

  9. Tuberous sclerosis complex 1-mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling determines brown-to-white adipocyte phenotypic switch.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xinxin; Lan, He; Tang, Hong; Yuan, Fang; Xu, Yanhui; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

    2015-02-01

    Interconversion of white and brown adipocytes occurs between anabolic and catabolic states. The molecular mechanism regulating this phenotypic switch remains largely unknown. This study explores the role of tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1)-mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the conversion of brown to white adipose tissue (WAT). A colony of Fabp4-Tsc1(-/-) mice, in which the Tsc1 gene was specifically deleted by the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4)-Cre, was established. Western blotting and immunostaining demonstrated the absence of TSC1 and activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, the downstream target of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, in the brown adipose tissues (BATs) of Fabp4-Tsc1(-/-) mice. Accumulation of lipid droplets in BAT was significantly increased. Levels of brown adipocyte markers were markedly downregulated, while white adipocyte markers were upregulated. Rapamycin reversed the conversion from BAT to WAT in Fabp4-Tsc1(-/-) mice. Deletion of the Tsc1 gene in cultured brown preadipocytes significantly increased the conversion to white adipocytes. FoxC2 mRNA, the transcriptional factor for brown adipocyte determination, was significantly decreased, while mRNAs for retinoblastoma protein, p107 and RIP140, the transcriptional factors for white adipocyte determination, increased in the BAT of Fabp4-Tsc1(-/-) mice. Our study demonstrates that TSC1-mTORC1 signaling contributes to the brown-to-white adipocyte phenotypic switch. PMID:25213336

  10. Occult White Matter Damage Contributes to Intellectual Disability in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chunshui; Lin, Fuchun; Zhao, Li; Ye, Jing; Qin, Wen

    2009-01-01

    Whether patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) have brain normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) damage and whether such damage contributes to their intellectual disability were examined in 15 TSC patients and 15 gender- and age-matched healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Histogram and region of interest (ROI) analyses of…

  11. Apollo 14 crew arrive at White Room atop Pad A, Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The three Apollo 14 astronauts arrive at the White Room atop Pad A, Launch Complex 39, during the Apollo 14 prelaunch countdown. Note identifying red bands on the sleeve and leg of Shepard. Standing in the center background is Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, Chief of the Manned Spacecraft Center Astronaut Office.

  12. Issues of Indigenous Representation: White Advocacy and the Complexities of Ethical Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niesche, Richard; Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the tensions and complexities for two principals as they work towards equity and improved social and educational outcomes for their Indigenous students. Drawing on Foucault's fourfold ethical frame and poststructuralist notions of the subject, this paper presents the different ways the white female principals of Indigenous…

  13. Drilling, construction, and testing of water-supply wells 21 and 22, White Sands Missle Range, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.; White, R.R.; Roybal, R.G.; Gonzales, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 1976, two municipal-supply wells (designated as well 21 and well 22 - 2,000 feet apart) were drilled at the Post Headquarters area of White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. The design specifications for both wells called for 24-inch diameter surface casing cemented in place to a depth of about 430 feet, with 16-inch liner and slotted casing from the surface to a depth of about 700 feet. Each well was pumped continuously for 32 hours in a step-drawdown test. This test consisted of four steps, with discharge rates varying from about 500 to 1,150 gallons per minute. The drawdown test for well 21 gave an estimated transmissivity of 17,300 gallons per day per foot, and a final specific capacity of slightly less than 11 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. The step-drawdown test and later drawdown and recovery test on well 22 gave an average transmissivity of 32,600 gallons per day per foot, and a final specific capacity of about 15 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. The data collected indicated that the aquifer in the vicinity of well 22 is more permeable than the aquifer around well 21. Both wells furnish a satisfactory quantity of excellent-quality water. The dissolved-solids content of water from wells 21 and 22 is 232 and 301 mg/liter respectively. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. GBFEL-TIE (Ground-Based Free Electron Laser Technology Experiment) sample survey on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico: The NASA, Stallion, and Orogrande Alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seaman, T.J.; Doleman, W.H.

    1988-09-30

    Three locations on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, are under consideration as alternatives for the proposed Ground-Based Free-Electron Laser Technology Integration Experiment (GBFEL-TIE). The study conducted jointly by Prewitt and Associates, Inc., and the Office of Contract Archeology, was designed to provide input into the GBFEL-TIE Draft Environmental Impact Statement concerning the potential impact of the proposed project on cultural resources in each of the alternatives. The input consists of a series of predictions based on data gathered from two sources: (1) a cultural resource sample survey (15%) of two alternatives conducted as part of this study, and (2) from a previous survey of the third alternative. A predictive model was devleoped and applied using these data that estimated the potential impact of the GBFEL-TIE facility on the cultural resources within each alternative. The predictions indicate that the NASA alternatives, by far, the least favorable location for the facility followed by the Orogrande and Stallion Alternatives.

  15. The effects of ground-water development on the water supply in the Post Headquarters area, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, T.E.; Hearne, Glenn A.

    1976-01-01

    Water-level declines in the Post Headquarters area, White Sands Missile Range, N. Mex., have been accompanied by slight but progressive increases in the concentration of dissolved solids in water withdrawn from the aquifer. Projected water-level declines through 1996 are estimated from a digital simulation model to not exceed 200 feet (61 metres). A conceptual model of water quality provides three potential sources for water that is relatively high in dissolved solids: brine from the Tularosa Basin to the east, slightly saline water beneath the subjacent aquatard, and very slightly saline water from the less permeable units within the aquifer itself. Management of the well field to minimize drawdown and spread the cone of depression would minimize the rate of water-quality deterioration. A well designed monitoring network may provide advance warning of severe or rapid water-quality deterioration.. The Soledad Canyon area 10 miles (16.1 kilometres) south of the Post Headquarters offers the greatest potential for development of additional water supplies.

  16. Simulated water-level and water-quality changes in the bolson-fill aquifer, Post Headquarters area, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    The quantity of freshwater available in the Post Headquarters well field, White Sand Missile Range, New Mexico, is limited and its quality is threatened by saltwater enroachment. A three-dimensional, finite-difference, groundwater flow model and a cross-sectional, density-dependent solute-transport model were constructed to simulate possible future water level declines and water quality changes in the Post Headquarters well field. A six-layer flow model was constructed using hydraulic-conductivity values in the upper 600 ft of saturated aquifer ranging from 0.1 to 10 ft/day, specific yield of 0.15, and average recharge of about 1,590 acre-ft/yr. Water levels simulated by the model closely matched measured water levels for 1948-82. Possible future water level changes for 1983-2017 were simulated using rates of groundwater withdrawal of 1,033 and 2 ,066 acre-ft/year and wastewater return flow of 0 or 30% of the groundwater withdrawal rate. The cross-sectional solute-transport model indicated that the freshwater zone is about 1,500 to 2,000 ft thick beneath the well field. Transient simulations show that solutes probably will move laterally toward the well field rather than from beneath the well field. (USGS)

  17. 21. V2 GANTRY, LAUNCH COMPLEX 33: VIEW OF CRANE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. V-2 GANTRY, LAUNCH COMPLEX 33: VIEW OF CRANE WITH BLAST PIT OF 20,000 POUND MOTOR TEST AND LAUNCH FACILITY, IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING WEST - White Sands Missile Range, V-2 Rocket Facilities, Near Headquarters Area, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  18. 22. V2 GANTRY, LAUNCH COMPLEX 33: GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. V-2 GANTRY, LAUNCH COMPLEX 33: GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST AND UPWARD FROM APRON OF BLAST PIT, 20,000 POUND MOTOR TEST AND LAUNCH FACILITY - White Sands Missile Range, V-2 Rocket Facilities, Near Headquarters Area, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  19. 2005 annual progress report: Elk and bison grazing ecology in the Great Sand Dunes complex of lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenecker, Kate A.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Mao, Julie

    2006-01-01

    To address the questions and needs of local resource managers, a multi-agency research project was initiated in 2005 to study the ecology, forage relations, and habitat relations of elk and bison in the Great Sand Dunes–Sangre de Cristo–Baca complex of lands. Meetings and discussions of what this research should include were started in 2001 with representatives from NPS, USFWS, TNC, the Colorado Division of Wildlife (CDOW), and USDA-FS/BLM. The final study plan was successfully funded in 2004 with research scheduled to start in 2005. The research was designed to encompass three major study elements: (1) animal movements and population dynamics, (2) vegetation and nutrient effects from ungulate herbivory, and (3) development of ecological models, using empirical data collected from the first two components, that will include estimates of elk carrying capacity and management scenarios for resource managers.

  20. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Test Summary of the RS-18 Lunar Ascent Engine at Simulated Altitude Conditions at NASA White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, John C., IV; Allred, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Tests were conducted with the RS18 rocket engine using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4) propellants under simulated altitude conditions at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). This project is part of NASA s Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) project. "Green" propellants, such as LO2/LCH4, offer savings in both performance and safety over equivalently sized hypergolic propellant systems in spacecraft applications such as ascent engines or service module engines. Altitude simulation was achieved using the WSTF Large Altitude Simulation System, which provided altitude conditions equivalent up to approx.120,000 ft (approx.37 km). For specific impulse calculations, engine thrust and propellant mass flow rates were measured. Propellant flow rate was measured using a coriolis-style mass-flow meter and compared with a serial turbine-style flow meter. Results showed a significant performance measurement difference during ignition startup. LO2 flow ranged from 5.9-9.5 lbm/sec (2.7-4.3 kg/sec), and LCH4 flow varied from 3.0-4.4 lbm/sec (1.4-2.0 kg/sec) during the RS-18 hot-fire test series. Thrust was measured using three load cells in parallel. Ignition was demonstrated using a gaseous oxygen/methane spark torch igniter. Data was obtained at multiple chamber pressures, and calculations were performed for specific impulse, C* combustion efficiency, and thrust vector alignment. Test objectives for the RS-18 project are 1) conduct a shakedown of the test stand for LO2/methane lunar ascent engines, 2) obtain vacuum ignition data for the torch and pyrotechnic igniters, and 3) obtain nozzle kinetics data to anchor two-dimensional kinetics codes.

  1. Infrared Camera Characterization of Bi-Propellant Reaction Control Engines during Auxiliary Propulsion Systems Tests at NASA's White Sands Test Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, Elizabeth; Sharp, David; Sheller, Richard; Styron, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a FUR Systems A40M infrared (IR) digital camera for thermal monitoring of a Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Ethanol bi-propellant Reaction Control Engine (RCE) during Auxiliary Propulsion System (APS) testing at the National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Typically, NASA has relied mostly on the use of ThermoCouples (TC) for this type of thermal monitoring due to the variability of constraints required to accurately map rapidly changing temperatures from ambient to glowing hot chamber material. Obtaining accurate real-time temperatures in the JR spectrum is made even more elusive by the changing emissivity of the chamber material as it begins to glow. The parameters evaluated prior to APS testing included: (1) remote operation of the A40M camera using fiber optic Firewire signal sender and receiver units; (2) operation of the camera inside a Pelco explosion proof enclosure with a germanium window; (3) remote analog signal display for real-time monitoring; (4) remote digital data acquisition of the A40M's sensor information using FUR's ThermaCAM Researcher Pro 2.8 software; and (5) overall reliability of the system. An initial characterization report was prepared after the A40M characterization tests at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to document controlled heat source comparisons to calibrated TCs. Summary IR digital data recorded from WSTF's APS testing is included within this document along with findings, lessons learned, and recommendations for further usage as a monitoring tool for the development of rocket engines.

  2. Subduction Complex Provenance redefined: modern sands from the Indo-Burman-Andaman-Nicobar Ridge and Barbados Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limonta, Mara; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Bandopadhyay, Pinaki C.; Najman, Yani; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Subduction complexes large enough to be exposed subaerially and to become significant sources of terrigenous detritus are formed by tectonic accretion above trenches choked with thick sections of remnant-ocean turbidites. They thus need to be connected along strike to a large Alpine-type or Andean-type orogen, where huge volumes of orogenic detritus are produced and conveyed via a major fluvio-deltaic system to the deep sea (Ingersoll et al., 2003). We investigated sediment generation and recycling in the Indo-Burman-Andaman-Nicobar subduction complex, representing the archetype of such settings in the eastern prolongation of the Himalayan collisional system. "Subduction Complex Provenance" is composite, and chiefly consists of detritus recycled from largely turbiditic parent rocks (Recycled Clastic Provenance), with local supply from ultramafic and mafic rocks of forearc lithosphere (Ophiolite Provenance) or recycled paleovolcanic to neovolcanic sources (Volcanic Arc Provenance; Garzanti et al., 2007). In order to specifically investigate the effect of recycling, we characterized the diverse detrital signatures of Cenozoic sandstones deposited during subsequent stages of "soft" and "hard" Himalayan collision and exposed from Bangladesh to the Andaman Islands, and discuss the reasons for compositional discrepancies between parent sandstones and their recycled daughter sands. A companion study was carried out with the same methodologies, rationale and goals on Barbados Island, one of the few other places where a large accretionary prism is subaerially exposed. Also modern Barbados sands are largely multicyclic, reflecting mixing in various proportions of detritus from the basal Scotland Formation (sandstones and mudrocks), their stratigraphic and tectonic cover, the Oceanic Formation (quartzose turbidites and deep-water biogenic oozes including radiolarite), and from the Pleistocene calcarenite and reefal cap, as well as from volcanic layers ultimately derived from

  3. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Test Results of the RS-18 Lunar Ascent Engine at Simulated Altitude Conditions at NASA White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, John C., IV; Allred, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Tests were conducted with the RS-18 rocket engine using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4) propellants under simulated altitude conditions at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). This project is part of NASA's Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) project. "Green" propellants, such as LO2/LCH4, offer savings in both performance and safety over equivalently sized hypergolic propulsion systems in spacecraft applications such as ascent engines or service module engines. Altitude simulation was achieved using the WSTF Large Altitude Simulation System, which provided altitude conditions equivalent up to 122,000 ft (37 km). For specific impulse calculations, engine thrust and propellant mass flow rates were measured. LO2 flow ranged from 5.9 - 9.5 lbm/sec (2.7 - 4.3 kg/sec), and LCH4 flow varied from 3.0 - 4.4 lbm/sec (1.4 - 2.0 kg/sec) during the RS-18 hot-fire test series. Propellant flow rate was measured using a coriolis mass-flow meter and compared with a serial turbine-style flow meter. Results showed a significant performance measurement difference during ignition startup due to two-phase flow effects. Subsequent cold-flow testing demonstrated that the propellant manifolds must be adequately flushed in order for the coriolis flow meters to give accurate data. The coriolis flow meters were later shown to provide accurate steady-state data, but the turbine flow meter data should be used in transient phases of operation. Thrust was measured using three load cells in parallel, which also provides the capability to calculate thrust vector alignment. Ignition was demonstrated using a gaseous oxygen/methane spark torch igniter. Test objectives for the RS-18 project are 1) conduct a shakedown of the test stand for LO2/methane lunar ascent engines, 2) obtain vacuum ignition data for the torch and pyrotechnic igniters, and 3) obtain nozzle kinetics data to anchor two-dimensional kinetics codes. All of these objectives were

  4. Land cover mapping at Alkali Flat and Lake Lucero, White Sands, New Mexico, USA using multi-temporal and multi-spectral remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghrefat, Habes A.; Goodell, Philip C.

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this research is to map land cover patterns and to detect changes that occurred at Alkali Flat and Lake Lucero, White Sands using multispectral Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and hyperspectral Hyperion and Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. The other objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the information dimensionality limits of Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER, ALI, Hyperion, and AVIRIS data with respect to signal-to-noise and spectral resolution, (2) to determine the spatial distribution and fractional abundances of land cover endmembers, and (3) to check ground correspondence with satellite data. A better understanding of the spatial and spectral resolution of these sensors, optimum spectral bands and their information contents, appropriate image processing methods, spectral signatures of land cover classes, and atmospheric effects are needed to our ability to detect and map minerals from space. Image spectra were validated using samples collected from various localities across Alkali Flat and Lake Lucero. These samples were measured in the laboratory using VNIR-SWIR (0.4-2.5 μm) spectra and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. Dry gypsum deposits, wet gypsum deposits, standing water, green vegetation, and clastic alluvial sediments dominated by mixtures of ferric iron (ferricrete) and calcite were identified in the study area using Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), Pixel Purity Index (PPI), and n-D Visualization. The results of MNF confirm that AVIRIS and Hyperion data have higher information dimensionality thresholds exceeding the number of available bands of Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER, and ALI data. ASTER and ALI data can be a reasonable alternative to AVIRIS and Hyperion data for the purpose of monitoring land cover, hydrology and sedimentation in the basin. The spectral unmixing analysis and dimensionality eigen

  5. Effects of salinity and anatomical hook location on the mortality and physiological response of angled-and-released sand whiting Sillago ciliata.

    PubMed

    McGrath, S P; Butcher, P A; Broadhurst, M K

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments were done with sand whiting Sillago ciliata: the first two assessed the short-term mortality and physiological response of individuals after being mouth hooked and then subjected to rapid changes in salinity, while the third experiment investigated their longer-term fate after ingesting hooks (independent of salinity changes). In experiment one, 48 tanks containing a single S. ciliata were randomly assigned as either one of three treatments or a control. The fish in treatments one and two were exposed to salinity changes during their angling and subsequent release while those in treatment three were only subjected to angling and air exposure. Control fish remained untouched. Fish were then monitored for up to 6 days for mortalities before blood samples were taken to determine concentrations of plasma cortisol and glucose. Blood samples were also taken from five wild-caught fish to provide baseline estimates of the above variables. None of the treatment or control fish died over the 6 days, and there were no significant differences in blood cortisol or glucose between treatment, control and wild fish. In experiment two, 102 S. ciliata and 52 experimental tanks were used. The treatments were repeated as above, however, six individuals from each treatment and control group were removed and sampled for blood (and then glucose and cortisol) at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post release. Some changes in behaviour due to the salinity changes occurred as well as a significant main effect of time for cortisol, with all fish having significantly elevated acute stress at the first sample time. In experiment three, 52 S. ciliata were placed into individual tanks. Twenty-six of these fish were allowed to ingest baited J-hooks, played for 60 s, removed from their tanks, and then released after their lines were cut (50 mm from their mouths). Control fish were not touched. All fish were then monitored over 21 days. Six of the treatment fish died (between 3 h and 14 days

  6. Measurements of the complex dielectric constant of sand and dust particles at 11 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rizzo, Hussain M.; Al-Hafid, Hafid T.

    1988-03-01

    Measurements are reported of the refractive index (Delta-n) and loss tangent (tan delta) of dust particles in a laboratory-simulated model of dust storms, carried out at 11 GHz utilizing a confocal microwave open-cavity resonator. Four samples were used namely, sandy, silty, clayey silt, and clayey, for concentrations varying from 10-4 to 4 x 10-3 g/cu cm. The particle-size distribution (PSD) of each sample was measured by seiving along with the hydrometer technique. Dielectric-constant measurements were also conducted at bulk concentrations using the standing-wave technique for the dry samples and as a function of volumetric moisture content for up to 0.5 cu cm/cu cm. The complex dielectric constant of the dust particle material was evaluated by two approaches. In one the data for permittivities obtained over the whole range of measured concentrations were extrapolated to the particle densities of the samples. In the other a mixing formula was utilized for the determination of epsilon(s) from permittivities measured at bulk concentrations.

  7. Crest line minimal model for sand dune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guignier, Lucie; Valance, Alexandre; Lague, Dimitri

    2013-04-01

    In desert, complex patterns of dunes form. Under unidirectional wind, transverse rectilinear dunes or crescent shaped dunes called barchan dunes can appear, depending on the amount of sediment available. Most rectilinear transverse sand dunes are observed to fragment, for example at White Sands (New Mexico, United States of America) or Walvis Bay (Namibia). We develop a reduced complexity model to investigate the morphodynamics of sand dunes migrating over a non-erodible bed under unidirectional wind. The model is simply based on two physical ingredients, namely, the sand capture process at the slip face and the cross-wind sand transport. The efficiency of the sand capture process is taken to be dependent of the dune height and lateral diffusion is considered on both the windward and lee sides of the dune. In addition, the dune cross section is assumed to be scale invariant and is approximated by a triangular shape. In this framework, the dune dynamics is reduced to the motion of a string representing the dune crest line and is expressed as a set of two coupled nonlinear differential equations. This simple model reveals its ability to reproduce basic features of barchan and transverse dunes. Analytical predictions are drawn concerning dune equilibrium shape, stability and long-term dynamics. We derive, in particular, analytical solutions for barchan dunes, yielding explicit relationships between their shape and the lateral sand diffusion; and analytical predictions for the migration speed and equilibrium sand flux. A stability analysis of a rectilinear transverse dune allows us to predict analytically the wavelength emerging from fluctuations of the dune crest. We also determine the characteristic time needed for the rectilinear dune to fragment into a multitude of barchan dunes. These outcomes show that extremely simple ingredients can generate complex patterns for migrating dunes. From several dune field data, we are able to determine values of the model

  8. Probing the Structure, Dynamics, and Bonding of Coinage Metal Complexes of White Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Forfar, Laura C; Zeng, Dihao; Green, Michael; McGrady, John E; Russell, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    A series of cationic white phosphorus complexes of the coinage metals Au and Cu have been synthesised and characterised both in the solid state and in solution. All complexes feature a P4 unit coordinated through an edge P-P vector (η(2)-like), although the degree of activation (as measured by the coordinated P-P bond length) is greater in the gold species. All of the cations are fluxional on the NMR timescale at room temperature, but in the case of the gold systems fluxionality is frozen out at -90 °C. Electronic structure calculations suggest that this fluxionality proceeds via an η(1)-coordinated M-P4 intermediate. PMID:26918670

  9. Geochemical Trends and Natural Attenuation of RDX, Nitrate, and Perchlorate in the Hazardous Test Area Fractured-Granite Aquifer, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1996-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Robertson, Andrew J.; Bynum, Jamar; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.

    2008-01-01

    A fractured-granite aquifer at White Sands Missile Range is contaminated with the explosive compound RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate (oxidizer associated with rocket propellant) from the previous use of the Open Burn/Open Detonation site at the Hazardous Test Area. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate ground-water concentrations were analyzed to examine source characteristics, spatial and temporal variability, and the influence of the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation in the Hazardous Test Area fractured-granite aquifer. Two transects of ground-water wells from the existing monitoring-site network - one perpendicular to ground-water flow (transect A-A') and another parallel to ground-water flow (transect B-B') - were selected to examine source characteristics and the spatial and temporal variability of the contaminant concentrations. Ground-water samples collected in 2005 from a larger sampling of monitoring sites than the two transects were analyzed for various tracers including major ions, trace elements, RDX degradates, dissolved gases, water isotopes, nitrate isotopes, and sulfate isotopes to examine the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation. Recharge entrains contaminants at the site and transports them downgradient towards the Tularosa Basin floor through a poorly connected fracture system(s). From 1996 to 2006, RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate concentrations in ground water downgradient from the Open Burn/Open Detonation site have been relatively stable. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate in ground water from wells near the site indicate dispersed contaminant sources in and near the Open Burn/Open Detonation pits. The sources of RDX and nitrate in the pit area have shifted with time, and the shift correlates with the regrading of the south and east berms of each pit in 2002 and 2003 following closure of the site. The largest RDX concentrations were in ground water about 0.1 mile downgradient from the pits, the largest perchlorate

  10. Sequence stratigraphy of a Pliocene delta complex deposited in an active margin setting, Etchegoin and San Joaquin gas sands, San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    Prolific gas sands of the Pliocene Etchegoin and San Joaquin formations of the southern San Joaquin basin, California, are part of a 1300-m thick succession of deltaic sediments that record the final regression of the Pacific Ocean from a tectonically active, restricted basin associated with the California transform margin. Individual field studies, lacking a regional framework and based primarily on electric log data, correlate these gas sands to the extent that individual sands maintain the same stratigraphic level within the succession. However, a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework, constructed from recent 3D-seismic data and detailed well log correlations on the Bakersfield Arch area of the basin, indicates that the Pliocene succession is part of a south/southwest prograding delta complex. Therefore, sands climb up-section in the landward direction and grade laterally from deep-water to shallow-water facies. Because lithofacies boundaries cross chronostratigraphic surfaces, previous interpretations of the reservoir architecture are inaccurate. This model increases predictability of reservoir facies by constraining lithofacies mapping and enables interpretation of the effects on deposition of the integrated and inter-related controls of tectonics, eustatic sea-level change, and sediment supply. With this understanding, a well-defined model of the stratal architecture of the Pliocene succession of the southern San Joaquin basin is now possible.

  11. Sequence stratigraphy of a Pliocene delta complex deposited in an active margin setting, Etchegoin and San Joaquin gas sands, San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.C. )

    1996-01-01

    Prolific gas sands of the Pliocene Etchegoin and San Joaquin formations of the southern San Joaquin basin, California, are part of a 1300-m thick succession of deltaic sediments that record the final regression of the Pacific Ocean from a tectonically active, restricted basin associated with the California transform margin. Individual field studies, lacking a regional framework and based primarily on electric log data, correlate these gas sands to the extent that individual sands maintain the same stratigraphic level within the succession. However, a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework, constructed from recent 3D-seismic data and detailed well log correlations on the Bakersfield Arch area of the basin, indicates that the Pliocene succession is part of a south/southwest prograding delta complex. Therefore, sands climb up-section in the landward direction and grade laterally from deep-water to shallow-water facies. Because lithofacies boundaries cross chronostratigraphic surfaces, previous interpretations of the reservoir architecture are inaccurate. This model increases predictability of reservoir facies by constraining lithofacies mapping and enables interpretation of the effects on deposition of the integrated and inter-related controls of tectonics, eustatic sea-level change, and sediment supply. With this understanding, a well-defined model of the stratal architecture of the Pliocene succession of the southern San Joaquin basin is now possible.

  12. WIND VELOCITIES AND SAND FLUXES IN MESQUITE DUNE-LANDS IN THE NORTHERN CHIHUAHUAN DESERT: A COMPARISON BETWEEN FIELD MEASUREMENTS AND THE QUIC (QUICK URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster shows comparisons of wind velocities and sand fluxes between field measurements and a computer model, called QUIC (Quick Urban & Industrial Complex). The comparisons were made for a small desert region in New Mexico.

  13. Evolutionary and demographic history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Ortego, Joaquín; Noguerales, Víctor; Gugger, Paul F; Sork, Victoria L

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors promoting species formation is a major task in evolutionary research. Here, we employ an integrative approach to study the evolutionary history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex (genus Quercus). To infer the relative importance of geographical isolation and ecological divergence in driving the speciation process, we (i) analysed inter- and intraspecific patterns of genetic differentiation and employed an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework to evaluate different plausible scenarios of species divergence. In a second step, we (ii) linked the inferred divergence pathways with current and past species distribution models (SDMs) and (iii) tested for niche differentiation and phylogenetic niche conservatism across taxa. ABC analyses showed that the most plausible scenario is the one considering the divergence of two main lineages followed by a more recent pulse of speciation. Genotypic data in conjunction with SDMs and niche differentiation analyses support that different factors (geography vs. environment) and modes of speciation (parapatry, allopatry and maybe sympatry) have played a role in the divergence process within this complex. We found no significant relationship between genetic differentiation and niche overlap, which probably reflects niche lability and/or that multiple factors, have contributed to speciation. Our study shows that different mechanisms can drive divergence even among closely related taxa representing early stages of species formation and exemplifies the importance of adopting integrative approaches to get a better understanding of the speciation process. PMID:26547661

  14. 13. SANDSORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS FOR SAND SORTING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS FOR SAND SORTING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  15. Sands-on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandervoort, Frances S.

    1989-01-01

    Provides information for the development of a lesson which teaches students about sand, discusses facts about sands, sand studies, life in the sands, and sand activities. Includes diagrams showing the range in sand grain shape, formation of sand ripples, and sand samples from around the world. (RT)

  16. Native Black Consciousness Responding to the Complexity of White Racial Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, the author sttes that she has gained much insight from reviewing the collection of writing on whiteness. While there is agreement among those authors that there is a distinction between the first wave and second wave whiteness studies, there is a unified theme to not minimize the consequences of inhaling racist air, which is a…

  17. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  18. Tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Wennekers, J.H.N.

    1981-10-01

    The four largest oil sand deposits contain over 90% of the world's known heavy oil. The total heavy oil and bitumen in place, estimated at nearly 6 trillion barrels is almost entirely concentrated in western Canada, principally Alberta, and eastern Venezuela. The known tar sand resource in the United States consists of about 550 occurrences located in 22 states. The total oil in place in 39 of these occurrences is estimated to be between 23.7 billion and 32.7 billion barrels. At least 90% of this resource is located in Utah. Other significant deposits are in Texas, New Mexico, California, and Kentucky. Bituminous sand deposits and petroleum-impregnated rocks are found in Malagasy, Albania, Rumania, the USSR, and Trinidad. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

  19. Diurnal patterns of blowing sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diurnal pattern of blowing sand results from a complex process that involves an interaction between solar heating, thermal instability, atmospheric turbulence, wind strength, and surface threshold conditions. During the day, solar heating produces thermal instability, which enhances the convect...

  20. Tunable and Efficient White Light Phosphorescent Emission Based on Single Component N-Heterocyclic Carbene Platinum(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Michael; Suter, Dominik; Blacque, Olivier; Venkatesan, Koushik

    2016-05-16

    A new class of cyclometalated pyridine N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) Pt(II) complexes with electronically different alkyne derivatives (C≡CR; R = C6H4C(CH3)3 (1), C6H5 (2), C6H4F (3), C6H3(CF3)2 (4)) as ancillary ligands were synthesized, and the consequences of the electronic properties of the different substituted phenylacetylene ligands on the phosphorescent emission efficiencies were studied, where C≡CC6H4C(CH3)3 = 4-tert-butylphenylacetylene, C≡CC6H5 = phenylacetylene, C≡CC6H4F = 4-fluorophenylacetylene, and C≡CC6H3(CF3)2 = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetylene. Structural characterization, electrochemistry, and photophysical investigations were performed for all four compounds. Moreover, the emission quantum efficiencies and wavelength emission intensities of the complexes were also recorded in different weight percents in poly(methyl methacrylate) films (PMMA) and evaluated in the CIE-1931 chromaticity diagram. The square planar coordination geometry with the alkynyl ligands was corroborated for complexes 1, 2, and 3 by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These complexes show tunable monomeric high energy triplet emission and an additional concentration-dependent low-energy excimer-based phosphorescence. While adopting weight percent concentrations between 15 and 25%, the two emission bands covering the entire visible spectrum were obtained with these particular complexes displaying the properties of an efficient white light triplet emitter with excellent CIE-1931 coordinates (0.31, 0.33). On the basis of the high luminescent quantum efficiency of over 50% for white light emission, these compounds could be potentially useful for white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based applications. PMID:27135529

  1. Efficient and tunable white-light emission of metal–organic frameworks by iridium-complex encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chun-Yi; Wang, Xin-Long; Zhang, Xiao; Qin, Chao; Li, Peng; Su, Zhong-Min; Zhu, Dong-Xia; Shan, Guo-Gang; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Wu, Han; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are well known for their tunable structure and porosity. Many studies have shown they are promising for various important applications, for which their performance can be further enhanced by encapsulating functional species, such as luminescent guest molecules, within the frameworks. Although numerous MOFs are luminescent, very few emit white light and their quantum yield is usually low. Here we report a strategy to achieve efficient white-light emission by encapsulating an iridium complex in the MOF cavity. A mesoporous blue-emitting MOF is prepared as host to encapsulate a yellow-emitting iridium complex, [Ir(ppy)2(bpy)]+. The resultant composites emit bright white light with good colour quality (for example, Commission International de I’Eclairage coordinates, colour-rendering index and correlated colour temperature of (0.31, 0.33), 84.5 and 5409 K, respectively), and high quantum yield up to 115 °C. This strategy may open new perspectives for developing high-performance energy-saving solid-state lighting materials. PMID:24212250

  2. Production Mechanisms for the Sand on Titan and the Prospects for a Global Sand Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Radebaugh, Jani; Hayes, Alexander G.; MacKenzie, Shannon

    2014-11-01

    With ~15% of its surface covered by sand seas, Titan turns out to be the Arrakis of the solar system. How the sand particles that make up the dunes are created, however, remains an outstanding question. Titan's haze particles are organic in composition as required by spectral analysis of dunes, however they have diameters of ~1um, and are 10,000,000 times too small by mass to directly represent the ~200-um sand particles. In addition to previous suggestions that sand could come from sintering of sand particles or by burial, lithification, and subsequent erosion (more like typical sands on Earth), we suggest two new mechanisms for production of sand in association with Titan's liquid reservoirs. Dissolution and reprecipitation as evaporite forms the gypsum dunes of White Sands, NM, USA on Earth, and could play a role on Titan as well. Alternatively, haze particles in the lakes and seas could aggregate into larger particles via flocculation, a mechanism seen to occur on Earth in Morocco. Each of these sand particle production ideas has associated predictions that can be tested by future observations. The lack of evident sand sources in VIMS data implies that Titan's sand seas may be old and their continuous interconnectedness across the Dark Equatorial Belt implies that all of the equatorial dunefields may represent a single compositionally uniform sand sea. We will present possibilities for sands from this sea to bridge the large gap across Xanadu, including barchan chains and fluvial transport.

  3. "It's Almost like a White School Now": Racialised Complexities, Indigenous Representation and School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda; Niesche, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on a broader study that focused on examining principal leadership for equity and diversity, this paper presents the leadership experiences of "Jane", a White, middle-class principal of a rural Indigenous school. The paper highlights how Jane's leadership is inextricably shaped by her assumptions about race and the political dynamics and…

  4. Magnetic field evolution in white dwarfs: The hall effect and complexity of the field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muslimov, A. G.; Van Horn, H. M.; Wood, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the evolution of the magnetic fields in white dwarfs, taking into account the Hall effect. Because this effect depends nonlinearly upon the magnetic field strength B, the time dependences of the various multipole field components are coupled. The evolution of the field is thus significantly more complicated than has been indicated by previous investigations. Our calculations employ recent white dwarf evolutionary sequences computed for stars with masses 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 solar mass. We show that in the presence of a strong (up to approximately 10(exp 9) G) internal toroidal magnetic field; the evolution of even the lowest order poloidal modes can be substantially changed by the Hall effect. As an example, we compute the evolution of an initially weak quadrupole component, which we take arbitrarily to be approximately 0.1%-1% of the strength of a dominant dipole field. We find that coupling provided by the Hall effect can produce growth of the ratio of the quadrupole to the dipole component of the surface value of the magnetic field strength by more than a factor of 10 over the 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 10) year cooling lifetime of the white dwarf. Some consequences of these results for the process of magnetic-field evolution in white dwarfs are briefly discussed.

  5. Identification of White Wines by using Two Oppositely Charged Poly(p-phenyleneethynylene)s Individually and in Complex.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinsong; Bender, Markus; Seehafer, Kai; Bunz, Uwe H F

    2016-06-27

    We present a simple array composed of an anionic and a cationic poly(para-phenyleneethynylene) (PPE), together with an electrostatic complex between the two of them. The individual PPEs and the PPE complex were employed in the sensing of white wines at pH 13; the complex was also successfully employed as a sensor element at pH 3. The sensing mechanism is fluorescence quenching. Thirteen different wines were differentiated by this chemical tongue, which consists of four elements. The fluorescence quenching is not induced by the major components of the wines. Compounds such as acids, sugars, and alcohols alone do not quench the fluorescence, but rather the colored tannins and other polyphenols contained in wine are the main quenchers. However, the major constituents of wine significantly modulate the quenching of the PPEs by the tannins. PMID:27257821

  6. Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Defrosting Sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    19 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark spots formed in carbon dioxide frost that covers the surfaces of patches of sand in the south polar region. As spring arrived this year in the martian southern hemisphere, so began the annual defrosting process. The fact that sand dunes begin to defrost earlier than other surfaces, and that the defrosting process involves the formation of spots like these, has been known since the earliest days of the MGS mission.

    Location near: 66.8oS, 15.7oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  8. Recurrent hybridization and recent origin obscure phylogenetic relationships within the 'white-headed' gull (Larus sp.) complex.

    PubMed

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Wilson, Robert E; Chesser, R Terry; Pons, Jean-Marc; Crochet, Pierre-Andre; Driskell, Amy; Dove, Carla

    2016-10-01

    Species complexes that have undergone recent radiations are often characterized by extensive allele sharing due to recent ancestry and (or) introgressive hybridization. This can result in discordant evolutionary histories of genes and heterogeneous genomes, making delineating species limits difficult. Here we examine the phylogenetic relationships among a complex group of birds, the white-headed gulls (Aves: Laridae), which offer a unique window into the speciation process due to their recent evolutionary history and propensity to hybridize. Relationships were examined among 17 species (61 populations) using a multilocus approach, including mitochondrial and nuclear intron DNA sequences and microsatellite genotype information. Analyses of microsatellite and intron data resulted in some species-based groupings, although most species were not represented by a single cluster. Considerable allele and haplotype sharing among white-headed gull species was observed; no locus contained a species-specific clade. Despite this, our multilocus approach provided better resolution among some species than previous studies. Interestingly, most clades appear to correspond to geographic locality: our BEAST analysis recovered strong support for a northern European/Icelandic clade, a southern European/Russian clade, and a western North American/canus clade, with weak evidence for a high latitude clade spanning North America and northwestern Europe. This geographical structuring is concordant with behavioral observations of pervasive hybridization in areas of secondary contact. The extent of allele and haplotype sharing indicates that ecological and sexual selection are likely not strong enough to complete reproductive isolation within several species in the white-headed gull complex. This suggests that just a few genes are driving the speciation process. PMID:27369453

  9. Utility of unipolar recordings for complex Wolff-Parkinson-White ablation.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Ponnusamy Shunmuga; Sra, Jasbir

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment strategy for the management of symptomatic patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. It is supported by a success rate of 95% and a recurrence rate of less than 5%. However, ablation of accessory pathways can be challenging at times. The causes for failure can be grouped into three categories - unusual location of the pathway, technical difficulties in delivering the ablation and localization error [1]. In this case report we are reporting a case of a young male who presented to us with symptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with two failed prior ablations at another institution. This case illustrates the importance of knowing accurate localization and course of the accessory pathway by utilizing the unipolar and bipolar electrograms simultaneously during radiofrequency ablation. PMID:26937099

  10. Utility of unipolar recordings for complex Wolff–Parkinson–White ablation

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Ponnusamy Shunmuga; Sra, Jasbir

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment strategy for the management of symptomatic patients with Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome. It is supported by a success rate of 95% and a recurrence rate of less than 5%. However, ablation of accessory pathways can be challenging at times. The causes for failure can be grouped into three categories – unusual location of the pathway, technical difficulties in delivering the ablation and localization error [1]. In this case report we are reporting a case of a young male who presented to us with symptomatic Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome with two failed prior ablations at another institution. This case illustrates the importance of knowing accurate localization and course of the accessory pathway by utilizing the unipolar and bipolar electrograms simultaneously during radiofrequency ablation. PMID:26937099

  11. Theoretical and functional complexity of white variegation of unripe fleshy fruits

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    In many plant species, the bright colors of ripe fruit serve to attract frugivores to enable efficient seed dispersal. Here I show that the fleshy fruit of several dozens of species originating from Asia (southeastern, eastern and central), the Middle East, Africa, America (South, Central and North), Australia, Polynesia and Micronesia, with fruit usually larger than 1 cm, have white or light green spots while they are still unripe. In many of these species, while the spots are conspicuous, the unripe fruit is known to be poisonous, bitter or sour. I propose that this fruit syndrome may signal frugivores that the fruit is still unripe. Similarly to the succulent leaves of window-plants, these spots form windows that enable light to penetrate deeper into the photosynthetic layers in the developing fruit. This seems to be a solution to overcome the limitations of light harvest because of the high volume to surface ratio of developing fleshy fruits. The white or whitish variegation in these unripe fleshy fruits may serve at least five functions: 1) Windows for photosynthesis, 2) camouflage, 3) signaling to frugivores that they are not ripe (possibly sometimes a type of mutualism with frugivores), 4) signaling to frugivores that they are poisonous - aposematism, and 5) mimicking insect eggs to reduce egg laying. All these functions may be partly or fully simultaneous. Because these white spots appear in plants of diverse geographical and taxonomic origin, it is probably an old adaptation, and such a syndrome has appeared and been selected for many times. PMID:23921545

  12. Chemical complexity and source of the White River Ash, Alaska and Yukon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preece, S.J.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Westgate, J.A.; Pearce, N.J.G.; Hartmann, W.K.; Perkins, W.T.

    2014-01-01

    The White River Ash, a prominent stratigraphic marker bed in Alaska (USA) and Yukon (Canada), consists of multiple compositional units belonging to two geochemical groups. The compositional units are characterized using multiple criteria, with combined glass and ilmenite compositions being the best discriminators. Two compositional units compose the northern group (WRA-Na and WRA-Nb), and two units are present in the eastern group (WRA-Ea and the younger, WRA-Eb). In the proximal area, the ca. 1900 yr B.P. (Lerbekmo et al., 1975) WRA-Na displays reverse zoning in the glass phase and systematic changes in ilmenite composition and estimated oxygen fugacity from the base to the top of the unit. The eruption probably tapped different magma batches or bodies within the magma reservoir with limited mixing or mingling between them. The 1147 cal yr B.P. (calibrated years, approximately equivalent to calendric years) (Clague et al., 1995) WRA-Ea eruption is only weakly zoned, but pumices with different glass compositions are present, along with gray and white intermingled glass in individual pumice clasts, indicating the presence of multiple magmatic bodies or layers. All White River Ash products are high-silica adakites and are sourced from the Mount Churchill magmatic system.

  13. Complex bacterial diversity in the white biofilms of the Catacombs of St. Callixtus in Rome evidenced by different investigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Krakova, Lucia; De Leo, Filomena; Bruno, Laura; Pangallo, Domenico; Urzì, Clara

    2015-05-01

    Roman Catacombs are affected by different kinds of biofilms that were extensively investigated in the last 14 years. In particular, the areas far from the lamps are often covered by white biofilms of different extension, consistency and nature. The aim of this paper is to describe the profile of the microbial community present in two areas of the Ocean's Cubiculum (CSC13), characterized by similar alterations described as white biofilms, by using a multistep approach that included direct microscopy observations, culture-dependent and culture-independent methodologies through the extraction of DNA and RNA directly from the sampled areas. In addition to this, we extracted the DNA directly from the Petri dishes containing R2A and B4 media after incubation and growth of bacteria. Our results evidenced that a complex bacterial community (mainly constituted by filamentous Actinobacteria, as well as Firmicutes and Proteobacteria) colonizes the two different white biofilms, and its detection, quantitative and qualitative, could be revealed only by different approaches, each method giving different information that only partially overlap. PMID:25244154

  14. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the famous 'White Rock' feature in Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. The light-toned rock is not really white, but its light tone caught the eye of Mars geologists as far back as 1972, when it was first spotted in images acquired by Mariner 9. The light-toned materials are probably the remains of a suite of layered sediments that once spread completely across the interior of Pollack Crater. Dark materials in this image include sand dunes and large ripples.

    Location near: 8.1oS, 335.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  15. 1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR (LOWER RIGHT) THAT EXTENDS TO THE SAND-SORTING BUILDING, AND REMAINS OF ORIGINAL (1917) WASHING, DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (LEFT), VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF SAND-SORTING BUILDING - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  16. Ganges Chasma Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark, windblown sand in the form of dunes and a broad, relatively flat, sand sheet in Ganges Chasma, part of the eastern Valles Marineris trough complex. The winds responsible for these dunes blew largely from the north. Sand dunes on Mars, unlike their Earthly counterparts, are usually dark in tone. This is a reflection of their composition, which includes minerals that are more rich in iron and magnesium than the common silica-rich dunes of Earth. Similar dark sands on Earth are found in volcanic regions such as Iceland and Hawaii. A large dune field of iron/magnesium-rich grains, in the form fragments of the volcanic rock, basalt, occurs south of Moses Lake, Washington, in the U.S.

    Location near: 7.7oS, 45.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  17. Large-eddy Simulation of Boundary Layer Flow over Desert Sand Dune Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlrich, S.; Anderson, W.; Passalacqua, P.; Mohrig, D. C.; Kocurek, G.

    2012-12-01

    Complex spatiotemporal coupling exists between desert sand dune topography and surface layer physics of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Although the interactions of individual desert sand dunes have been extensively studied, with categorical interaction mechanisms identified, the aero-mechanical coupling associated with these dune interactions remains an open problem. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to simulate turbulent boundary layer flow over dune structures from White Sands, NM. The dunes are resolved with an immersed boundary method (IBM). The flow-forcing (imposed pressure gradient) is varied to simulate the three common prevailing wind conditions at White Sands (southwest, southeast, and northwest, with southwest being the most common). In the present research, comparison between flow statistics (dune wall pressure distribution retrieved from the IBM) and time-difference dune elevation data are used to characterize the mechanisms responsible for erosion (stoss side) and deposition (lee side) of sand. Additionally, statistical details of time series of aerodynamic forcing at different locations on the dune face are evaluated, which may be used to deepen understanding of erosion and deposition events observed in the time-difference lidar data.

  18. White Light Emission from Planar Remote Phosphor Based on NHC Cycloplatinated Complexes.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Sara; Chueca, Andrés J; Perálvarez, Mariano; Borja, Pilar; Torrell, Marc; Carreras, Josep; Sicilia, Violeta

    2016-06-29

    We report on the generation of bright white luminescence through solid-state illumination of remote phosphors based on novel cycloplatinated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) compounds. Following a stepwise protocol we got the new NHC compound [{Pt(μ-Cl)(C(∧)C*)}2] (4) (HC(∧)C*-κC* = 1-(4-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenyl)-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene), which was used together with the related ones 4a (HC(∧)C*-κC*= 1-(4-cyanophenyl)-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene) and 4b (HC(∧)C*-κC*= 3-methyl-1-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene) as starting materials for the synthesis of the new ionic derivatives [Pt(R-C(∧)C*) (CNR')2]PF6 (R = -COOEt, R' = t-Bu (5), Xyl (6); R = -CN, R' = t-Bu (7), Xyl (8); R(∧)C = Naph, R' = t-Bu (9), Xyl (10)). The X-ray structures of 6 and 8-10 have been determined. The photophysical properties of these cationic compounds have been studied and supported by the time-dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. The compounds 5, 8, and 9 have been revealed as the most efficient emitters in the solid state with quantum yields of 41%, 21%, and 40%, respectively. White-light remote-phosphors have been prepared just by stacking different combinations of these compounds and [Pt(bzq) (CN) (CN(t)Bu)] (R1) as blue (5, 8), yellow (9), and red (R1) components onto the same substrate. The CCT (correlated color temperature) and the CRI (color rendering index) of the emitted white-light have been tuned by accurately controlling the individual contributions. PMID:27268265

  19. Theoretical and functional complexity of white variegation of unripe fleshy fruits.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-10-01

    In many plant species, the bright colors of ripe fruit serve to attract frugivores to enable efficient seed dispersal. Here I show that the fleshy fruit of several dozens of species originating from Asia (southeastern, eastern and central), the Middle East, Africa, America (South, Central and North), Australia, Polynesia and Micronesia, with fruit usually larger than 1 cm, have white or light green spots while they are still unripe. In many of these species, while the spots are conspicuous, the unripe fruit is known to be poisonous, bitter or sour. I propose that this fruit syndrome may signal frugivores that the fruit is still unripe. Similarly to the succulent leaves of window-plants, these spots form windows that enable light to penetrate deeper into the photosynthetic layers in the developing fruit. This seems to be a solution to overcome the limitations of light harvest because of the high volume to surface ratio of developing fleshy fruits. The white or whitish variegation in these unripe fleshy fruits may serve at least five functions: 1) Windows for photosynthesis, 2) camouflage, 3) signaling to frugivores that they are not ripe (possibly sometimes a type of mutualism with frugivores), 4) signaling to frugivores that they are poisonous--aposematism, and 5) mimicking insect eggs to reduce egg laying. All these functions may be partly or fully simultaneous. Because these white spots appear in plants of diverse geographical and taxonomic origin, it is probably an old adaptation, and such a syndrome has appeared and been selected for many times. PMID:23921545

  20. Design and Synthesis of Pyrimidine-Based Iridium(III) Complexes with Horizontal Orientation for Orange and White Phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin-Song; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Jiang, Zuo-Quan; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Two phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes Ir(ppm)2(acac) and Ir(dmppm)2(acac) were synthesized and characterized with emission ranged at 584/600 nm and high photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of 0.90/0.92, respectively. The angle-dependent PL spectra analysis reveals that the two orange iridium(III) complexes embodied horizontal orientation property. The high photoluminescence quantum yield and high horizontal dipoles ratio determine their excellent device performance. The devices based on Ir(ppm)2(acac) and Ir(dmppm)2(acac) achieved efficiencies of 26.8% and 28.2%, respectively, which can be comparable to the best orange phosphorescent devices reported in the literature. Furthermore, with the introduction of FIrpic as sky-blue emitter, phosphorescent two-element white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) have been realized with external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) as high as 25%, which are the highest values among the reported two-element white OLEDs. PMID:25943159

  1. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  2. Long-range seismic recording of the MISTY PICTURE high-explosive test, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Environmental research papers, February 1987-February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Cipar, J.

    1988-02-04

    The Solid Earth Geophysics Branch of the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory recorded the MISTY PICTURE high-explosive test at nine sites in the Tularosa Basin of southern New Mexico. Each site consisted of a three-component seismometer set and a digital-event recorder. The stations were due south of the explosion between 95 and 127 km. Analysis of P-wave travel times indicates that the crust is 30-32 km thick beneath the Tularosa Basin, a side graben of the Rio Grande Rift. S-wave travel times are consistent with earlier surface-wave results. Polarization analysis indicates complex scattered and converted energy between the P- and S-wave groups.

  3. Atlas of Dutch drift sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riksen, Michel; Jungerius, Pieter

    2013-04-01

    The Netherlands is well known for its aeolian landscapes. Frequent storms during the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD) reactivated Pleistocene coversands and river dunes and are responsible for the formation of the Holocene drift sands at a scale which is unique for Europe. A hypothesized relationship with farmer practices for making plaggensoils has recently been refuted, because drift sand formation began centuries earlier. The coastal dune belt with their parabolic dunes dates from the same period as the drift sand. An estimate of the extent of drift sands can be made from soil maps: drift sands are too young to show much profile development (Regosols). With this method Koster estimated the maximum extent of Holocene drift sands in the Netherlands to be about 800 km2 (Koster 2005). Laser altimetry allows a more precise estimate of the total surface affected by wind from the characteristic relief patterns produced by the Holocene wind, which is different from the smooth surface of cover sand deposits. Laser altimetry has been used before to investigate the mechanism of drift sand formation (Jungerius & Riksen 2010). Most of the surface affected by wind is not active anymore, but the tell-tale rough surface survived ages of different landuse. The total affected surface amounts to 825 km2. It is noteworthy that both methods give comparable results. We recorded a total number of 367 of affected areas of varying shapes, ranging in size from 1.6 ha to a large complex of drif sands of 7,119.5 ha. As is to be expected from their mode of origin, most occurrences are associated with cover sands, and with river dunes along the river Meuse and smaller rivers in other parts of the country. Particularly the final phases of cover sand and river dunes that show more relief as parabolic dunes were affected. There are also small aeolian deposits at the lee side blown from fallow agricultural fields but they are (sub)recent. Most of the relief is irregular, but the larger

  4. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Effect of adsorbed metals ions on the transport of Zn- and Ni-EDTA complexes in a sand and gravel aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, D.B.; Davis, J.A.; Anderson, L.C.D.; Rea, B.A.; Coston, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption, complexation, and dissolution reactions strongly influenced the transport of metal ions complexed with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in a predominantly quartz-sand aquifer during two tracer tests conducted under mildly reducing conditions at pH 5.8 to 6.1. In tracer test M89, EDTA complexes of zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni), along with excess free EDTA, were injected such that the lower portion of the tracer cloud traveled through a region with adsorbed manganese (Mn) and the upper portion of the tracer cloud traveled through a region with adsorbed Zn. In tracer test S89, Ni- and Zn-EDTA complexes, along with excess EDTA complexed with calcium (Ca), were injected into a region with adsorbed Mn. The only discernable chemical reaction between Ni-EDTA and the sediments was a small degree of reversible adsorption leading to minor retardation. In the absence of adsorbed Zn, the injected Zn was displaced from EDTA complexes by iron(III) [Fe(III)] dissolved from the sediments. Displacement of Zn by Fe(III) on EDTA became increasingly thermodynamically favorable with decreasing total EDTA concentration. The reaction was slow compared to the time-scale of transport. Free EDTA rapidly dissolved aluminum (Al) from the sediments, which was subsequently displaced slowly by Fe. In the portion of tracer cloud M89 that traveled through the region contaminated with adsorbed Zn, little displacement of Zn complexed with EDTA was observed, and Al was rapidly displaced from EDTA by Zn desorbed from the sediments, in agreement with equilibrium calculations. In tracer test S89, desorption of Mn dominated over the more thermodynamically favorable dissolution of Al oxyhydroxides. Comparison with results from M89 suggests that dissolution of Al oxyhydroxides in coatings on these sediment grains by Ca-EDTA was rate-limited whereas that by free EDTA reached equilibrium on the time-scale of transport. Rates of desorption are much faster than rates of dissolution of Fe

  6. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2010 was about 26.5 Mt (29.2 million st), a 6-percent increased from 2009. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as sand for container glass, golf course sand, recreational sand, specialty glass and water filtration, showed increased demand in 2010.

  7. Sand Dunes in Noachis Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    11 February 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-toned sand dunes in a crater in eastern Noachis Terra. Most big martian dunes tend to be dark, as opposed to the more familiar light-toned dunes of Earth. This difference is a product of the composition of the dunes; on Earth, most dunes contain abundant quartz. Quartz is usually clear (transparent), though quartz sand grains that have been kicked around by wind usually develop a white, frosty surface. On Mars, the sand is mostly made up of the darker minerals that comprise iron- and magnesium-rich volcanic rocks--i.e., like the black sand beaches found on volcanic islands like Hawaii. Examples of dark sand dunes on Earth are found in central Washington state and Iceland, among other places. This picture is located near 49.0oS, 326.3oW. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  8. Steady-state phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II proteins preserves photosystem I under fluctuating white light.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Michele; Tikkanen, Mikko; Paakkarinen, Virpi; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2012-12-01

    According to the "state transitions" theory, the light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) phosphorylation in plant chloroplasts is essential to adjust the relative absorption cross section of photosystem II (PSII) and PSI upon changes in light quality. The role of LHCII phosphorylation upon changes in light intensity is less thoroughly investigated, particularly when changes in light intensity are too fast to allow the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes to occur. Here, we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stn7 (for state transition7) mutant, devoid of the STN7 kinase and LHCII phosphorylation, shows a growth penalty only under fluctuating white light due to a low amount of PSI. Under constant growth light conditions, stn7 acquires chloroplast redox homeostasis by increasing the relative amount of PSI centers. Thus, in plant chloroplasts, the steady-state LHCII phosphorylation plays a major role in preserving PSI upon rapid fluctuations in white light intensity. Such protection of PSI results from LHCII phosphorylation-dependent equal distribution of excitation energy to both PSII and PSI from the shared LHCII antenna and occurs in cooperation with nonphotochemical quenching and the proton gradient regulation5-dependent control of electron flow, which are likewise strictly regulated by white light intensity. LHCII phosphorylation is concluded to function both as a stabilizer (in time scales of seconds to minutes) and a dynamic regulator (in time scales from tens of minutes to hours and days) of redox homeostasis in chloroplasts, subject to modifications by both environmental and metabolic cues. Exceeding the capacity of LHCII phosphorylation/dephosphorylation to balance the distribution of excitation energy between PSII and PSI results in readjustment of photosystem stoichiometry. PMID:23033142

  9. Sand Diver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Alan J.

    2005-01-01

    A few years ago, I was preparing to teach a summer enrichment program for middle school students at the University of Wisconsin-Stout. With swimming on the minds of most kids during the summer, I thought buoyancy would be a fun topic to discuss. An interesting way to introduce this concept is by discussing the beer-drinking balloonist who, in a lawn chair, floated to 11,000 feet above Los Angeles in 1997. However, I needed a hands-on project and was not about to go purchase some lawn chairs to duplicate this experiment. A simple submersible called the "Sand Diver" was designed and is now used as a hands-on activity for my introductory physics course.

  10. White organic light-emitting devices employing phosphorescent iridium complex as RGB dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ruili; Duan, Yu; Chen, Shufen; Zhao, Yi; Hou, Jingying; Liu, Shiyong

    2007-07-01

    Efficient phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) were realized by using a bright blue-emitting layer, iridium (III) bis-[(4,6- di-fluoropheny)-pyridinato-N, C2'] picolinate doped 4.4'-bis-(9-carbazolyl)-2, 2'-dimethyl-biphenyl doped, together with tris-(2-phenylpyridine) iridium and bis-(1-phenyl-isoquinoline) acetylacetonate iridium (III) are codoped into a 4,4'-N,N'-dicarbazole- biphenyl layer to provide blue, green and red emission for colour mixing. The device emission colour is controlled by varying dopant concentrations and the thicknesses of blue and green-red layers as well as tuning the thickness of an exciton-blocking layer. The maximum luminance and power efficiency of the WOLED are 42700 cd m-2 at 17 V and 8.48 lm W-1 at 5 V, respectively. The Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinate changes from (0.41, 0.42) to (0.37, 0.39) when the luminance ranges from 1000 cd m-2 to 30000 cd m-2.

  11. Complex Response of White Pines to Past Environmental Variability Increases Understanding of Future Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Virginia; Krause, Teresa R.; Whitlock, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche models predict plant responses to climate change by circumscribing species distributions within a multivariate environmental framework. Most projections based on modern bioclimatic correlations imply that high-elevation species are likely to be extirpated from their current ranges as a result of rising growing-season temperatures in the coming decades. Paleoecological data spanning the last 15,000 years from the Greater Yellowstone region describe the response of vegetation to past climate variability and suggest that white pines, a taxon of special concern in the region, have been surprisingly resilient to high summer temperature and fire activity in the past. Moreover, the fossil record suggests that winter conditions and biotic interactions have been critical limiting variables for high-elevation conifers in the past and will likely be so in the future. This long-term perspective offers insights on species responses to a broader range of climate and associated ecosystem changes than can be observed at present and should be part of resource management and conservation planning for the future. PMID:25885810

  12. Sand resistance of sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Michael; Wood, Caryl; Martinez, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Like water resistance in sunscreens, sand resistance in sunscreens is the ability of the sunscreen to retain its effectiveness while undergoing sand treatment. The influence of the type of sand on the sand resistance of sunscreens has not been described. The sand resistance of a control standard sunscreen, P2, and data on three grades of Quickrete commercial grade sand, #1961, #1962, and #1152, are described. These sands represent a fine sand, a medium sand, and an all-purpose sand. Using the methodology described in the 2007 proposed amendment of the Final Monograph (1) with one exception, we obtained an SPF of 16.5 (1.6) for the control standard, compared to the expected SPF of 16.3 (3.4). After a five-minute treatment of sand #1961, #1962, or #1151, the SPF of the control standard was 18.3 (1.6), 18.4 (2.0), and 17.5 (2.2), respectively. Thus, all three sands exhibited a similar sand-resistance response. Thus, there was no significant difference in the average SPF with and without sand. The medium grade sand, Quickrete commercial grade #1962, was preferred for sand-resistance testing because the fine sand was difficult to remove from the subject's backs and the coarse sand was unpleasant to the subjects. PMID:23193889

  13. 2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING BINS TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  14. The White Collar Complex Is Involved in Sexual Development of Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunghoon; Yun, Sung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Sexual spores (ascospores) of Fusarium graminearum, a homothallic ascomycetous fungus, are believed to be the primary inocula for epidemics of the diseases caused by this species in cereal crops. Based on the light requirement for the formation of fruiting bodies (perithecia) of F. graminearum under laboratory conditions, we explored whether photoreceptors play an important role in sexual development. Here, we evaluated the roles of three genes encoding putative photoreceptors [a phytochrome gene (FgFph) and two white collar genes (FgWc-1 and FgWc-2)] during sexual development in F. graminearum. For functional analyses, we generated transgenic strains lacking one or two genes from the self-fertile Z3643 strain. Unlike the wild-type (WT) and add-back strains, the single deletion strains (ΔFgWc-1 and ΔFgWc-2) produced fertile perithecia under constant light on complete medium (CM, an unfavorable medium for sexual development) as well as on carrot agar (a perithecial induction condition). The expression of mating-type (MAT) genes increased significantly in the gene deletion strains compared to the WT under both conditions. Deletion of FgFph had no significant effect on sexual development or MAT gene expression. In contrast, all of the deletion strains examined did not show significant changes in other traits such as hyphal growth, mycotoxin production, and virulence. A split luciferase assay confirmed the in vivo protein-protein interactions among three photoreceptors along with FgLaeA, a global regulator of secondary metabolism and fungal development. Introduction of an intact copy of the A. nidulans LreA and LreB genes, which are homologs of FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, into the ΔFgWc-1 and ΔFgWc-2 strains, respectively, failed to repress perithecia formation on CM in the gene deletion strains. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, two central components of the blue-light sensing system, negatively regulate sexual development in F. graminearum

  15. Measurements of thermal updraft intensity over complex terrain using American white pelicans and a simple boundary-layer forecast model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shannon, H.D.; Young, G.S.; Yates, M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Seegar, W.

    2003-01-01

    An examination of boundary-layer meteorological and avian aerodynamic theories suggests that soaring birds can be used to measure the magnitude of vertical air motions within the boundary layer. These theories are applied to obtain mixed-layer normalized thermal updraft intensity over both flat and complex terrain from the climb rates of soaring American white pelicans and from diagnostic boundary-layer model-produced estimates of the boundary-layer depth zi and the convective velocity scale w*. Comparison of the flatland data with the profiles of normalized updraft velocity obtained from previous studies reveals that the pelican-derived measurements of thermal updraft intensity are in close agreement with those obtained using traditional research aircraft and large eddy simulation (LES) in the height range of 0.2 to 0.8 zi. Given the success of this method, the profiles of thermal vertical velocity over the flatland and the nearby mountains are compared. This comparison shows that these profiles are statistically indistinguishable over this height range, indicating that the profile for thermal updraft intensity varies little over this sample of complex terrain. These observations support the findings of a recent LES study that explored the turbulent structure of the boundary layer using a range of terrain specifications. For terrain similar in scale to that encountered in this study, results of the LES suggest that the terrain caused less than an 11% variation in the standard deviation of vertical velocity.

  16. Ni(II)-Schiff base complex as an enzyme inhibitor of hen egg white lysozyme: a crystallographic and spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Koley Seth, Banabithi; Ray, Aurkie; Biswas, Sampa; Basu, Samita

    2014-09-01

    The engineering of protein-small molecule interactions becomes imperative today to recognize the essential biochemical processes in living systems. Here we have investigated the interaction between hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and a newly synthesized small, simple nickel Schiff base complex (NSC) {(N(1)E,N(2)E)-N(1),N(2)-bis(pyridine-2-ylmethylene)propane-1,2-diaminenickel(II)} using different spectroscopic techniques. We attempted to determine the exact site of the interaction by crystallography. Absorption spectroscopy reveals that the interaction occurs through the ground state. The complex can quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HEWL through a static quenching method. The fluorescence quenching study along with the determination of thermodynamic parameters reveal that NSC binds HEWL spontaneously with moderate binding affinity. The results have also identified that the spontaneity of this enthalpy guided interaction is mainly governed by some H-bonding and hydrophobic interactions which are also indicated by the crystallographic analyses. Moreover, the crystallographic study shows that NSC makes its way into the active site enzyme cavity of HEWL forming a single covalent adduct between Ni(2+) and the oxygen of the active site Asp 52. The possibility of inhibiting the catalytic activity of HEWL by inclusion of NSC in the enzyme active site observed from crystallographic analyses has also been confirmed by enzyme kinetics experiments. PMID:25042037

  17. Luminescence properties of Sm, Tb(Sal)3Phen complex in polyvinyl alcohol: an approach for white-light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Rai, S. B.

    2011-10-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol polymer films doped with Sm,Tb(Sal)3Phen complexes have been synthesized using solution casting technique. An enhancement in absorption intensity is observed revealing the encapsulation of rare earth ions by salicylic acid (Sal)/1,10 phenanthroline (Phen) complex. Photoluminescence spectra of the co-doped samples were examined by varying the concentration of Tb3+ keeping concentration of Sm3+ ions fixed and vice-versa. It is found that the polymer samples emit a combination of blue, green and orange-red wavelengths tunable to white light when excited with 355 nm radiation. The emission spectra also show a self-quenching effect at higher concentration of Sm3+ ions. An efficient energy transfer was observed from Tb3+ : 5D4 → Sm3+ : 4G9/2. The reason for the enhancement in fluorescence intensities of Sm3+ in the co-doped polymer sample is the intermolecular as well as the intramolecular energy transfer.

  18. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2011 was about 30 Mt (33 million st), increasing slightly compared with 2010. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  19. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  20. Complex Geometric Models of Diffusion and Relaxation in Healthy and Damaged White Matter

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Jonathan A.D.; Smith, Seth A.; Reich, Daniel S.; Calabresi, Peter A.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Which aspects of tissue microstructure affect diffusion weighted MRI signals? Prior models, many of which use Monte-Carlo simulations, have focused on relatively simple models of the cellular microenvironment and have not considered important anatomic details. With the advent of higher-order analysis models for diffusion imaging, such as high-angular-resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), more realistic models are necessary. This paper presents and evaluates the reproducibility of simulations of diffusion in complex geometries. Our framework is quantitative, does not require specialized hardware, is easily implemented with little programming experience, and is freely available as open-source software. Models may include compartments with different diffusivities, permeabilities, and T2 time constants using both parametric (e.g., spheres and cylinders) and arbitrary (e.g., mesh-based) geometries. Three-dimensional diffusion displacement-probability functions are mapped with high reproducibility, and thus can be readily used to assess reproducibility of diffusion-derived contrasts. PMID:19739233

  1. Dinural patterns of blowing sand and dust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diurnal pattern of blowing sand results from a complex interaction between the sun, the atmosphere, and the sand surface. During the day, solar heating produces thermal instability, which enhances convective mixing of high momentum winds from the upper levels of the atmosphere to the surface la...

  2. Wet sand flows better than dry sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Wet sand that does not contain too much water is known to be stiff enough to build sand castles or in physical words has a significant yield stress. However, we could recently show that there are quite a few conditions under which such wet sand opposes less resistant to flow than its dry counterpart. This effect might have been already known to the old Egyptians: The Ancient painting of El Bersheh at the tomb of Tehutihetep shows that there was liquid poured in front of the sledge that was used to transport heavy weight stones and statues. While archeologist have attributed this to a sacral ceremony, our data clearly show that wetting the sand ground drastically decreases the effective sliding friction coefficient. We first study the stress-strain behavior of sand with and without small amounts of liquid under steady and oscillatory shear. Using a technique to quasistatically push the sand through a tube with an enforced parabolic (Poiseuille-like) profile, we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We observe that the resistance against deformation of the wet (partially saturated) sand is much smaller than that of the dry sand, and that the latter dissipates more energy under flow. Second we show experimentally that the sliding friction on sand is greatly reduced by the addition of some--but not too much--water. The formation of capillary water bridges increases the shear modulus of the sand, which facilitates the sliding.

  3. Diurnal patterns of blowing sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diurnal pattern of blowing sand results from a complex process that involves the interaction between the sun, wind, and earth. During the day, solar heating produces thermal instability, which enhances the convective mixing of high momentum winds from the upper levels of the atmosphere to the s...

  4. A High Resolution Look at Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes of Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Hershey, D. L.; Guerrieri, D. A.; Qurashi, J.; Abbass, M.; Blake, D. R.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Particulate air pollution is a problem of health concern. The microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles found and collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia has been determined. Primary emphasis is given to the use of multiple high resolution electron microscopy (viz., Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM)) to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of ';coatings or contaminants' adsorbed or carried on by the black sand particles. White sand contains natural coarse particles associated with wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of an igneous/metamorphic rock source, and volcanic activities. Silicates (alumino-silicates) and quartz (clear, milky, rose) dominate white sand and rest appears to contain calcite, olivine, feldspar, and magnetite. Black sand particles exhibit very different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness) compared with white sand and volcanic ash. Morphological analyses have shown that the black sand contain ultrafine particles. Black sand is strongly magnetic, which indicates the mineral magnetite (strongly magnetic) or elemental iron. Iron, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S particles dominate the black sand. Natural and anthropogenic sources have been implicated for the observed particles. Analysis revealed that the surface of white sand particles is mainly covered with the fine particles. It is known that emissions from combustion contain carbon soot and other contaminants that are easily absorbed by soil particles during a long-range transport.

  5. Analysis of particle motions of volcanic earthquakes at White Island, New Zealand, using multicomponent complex trace analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Arim; Kim, Ki Young; Jolly, Arthur D.

    2015-04-01

    To investigate particle motions of volcanos seismic waves, we applied multicomponent complex trace analysis to the non-harmonic tremor detected on August 19 and very long period (VLP) and long period (LP) events recorded on October 3, 2013 at seismic stations WIZ and WSRZ on White Island volcano in New Zealand. Seismic data of 1,000 s duration from continuous records were digitized at a 100-Hz sample rate. Since spectral ranges for the tremor and LP events were overlapped to each other, a low-pass filter with a corner frequency of 0.5 Hz was applied to the VLP event only. To generate the quadrature traces, we applied the Hilbert transform to seismic data and then we calculated instantaneous polarization attributes. To minimize the effects of rapid temporal changes, 10-s moving averages were applied to the instantaneous polarization attributes. The volcanic tremor was mainly composed of horizontally polarized waves with retrograde elliptic motions for which the phase difference between vertical and horizontal components and the reciprocal ellipticity was 9 deg and 0.2 to 0.3, respectively. The rise angle less than 4 deg indicated that the sources were located at shallow depths. The VLP event was linearly polarized with phase difference nearly constant at 0 deg, reciprocal ellipticity close to 0.1, and rise angle of 58 and 52 deg at the two seismic stations. The positive values of rise angle indicate that the VLP event was composed of the compressional waves. Using the values of rise angle, elevations, and surface locations of two seismic stations, we computed the source depth of the VLP event. The depth was estimated to be 0.9 km. The LP events had values for phase difference of 11 and 3 deg, reciprocal ellipticity of 0.2 to 0.3 and rise angle less than 5 deg. The polarization attributes and particle motions of the LP events were similar to those of the volcanic tremor.

  6. High temperature thermal energy storage in moving sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.; Awaya, H. I.

    1978-01-01

    Several high-temperature (to 500 C) heat-storage systems using sand as the storage medium are described. The advantages of sand as a storage medium include low cost for sand, widespread availability, non-toxicity, non-degradation characteristics, easy containment, and safety. The systems considered include: stationary sand with closely spaced tubes throughout the volume, the use of a fluidized bed, use of conveyor belt transporter, and the use of a blower rapid transport system. For a stationary sand bed, very close spacing of heat transfer tubes throughout the volume is required, manifesting as high power related system cost. The suggestion of moving sand past or around pipes is intended to reduce the power related costs at the penalty of added system complexity. Preliminary system cost estimates are offered. These rough calculations indicate that mobile sand heat storage systems cost less than the stationary sand approach.

  7. Wind profiles on the stoss slope of sand dunes: Implications for eolian sand transport

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.; Kocurek, G. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Starting with the work of R.A. Bagnold it has been recognized that the shear stress exerted by the wind on sand grains is the driving force for eolian sand transport. Calculation of accurate rates of sand transport is essential for prediction of migration rates of sand dunes in modern environments as well as reconstructing paleoclimates (wind speed and direction) from eolian deposits. Because a sand dune is a streamlined obstacle in the path of the wind, continuity necessitates that the flow field is compressed over the windward side of a dune and shear stress should progressively increase up the slope as the flow accelerates. However, airflow measurements over 14 dunes (at White Sands, New Mexico; Algodones, CA; and Padre Island, TX) show that compression of the flow field occurs very close to the surface and as a consequence, the overlying flow actually shows an overall decrease in shear stress up the slope. Measurements commonly collected in the overlying zone are not representative of the near-surface, sand-driving wind. Furthermore, near-surface compression of the flow field implies that a pressure gradient exists that would render the current transport models inappropriate for sloping surfaces that dominate natural sandy desert terrains.

  8. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, domestic production of industrial sand and gravel was about 31 Mt, a 5% increase from 2004. This increase was bouyed by robust construction and petroleum sectors of the US economy. Based on estimated world production figures, the United States was the world's leading producer and consumer of industrial sand and gravel. In the short term, local shortages of industrial sand and gravel will continue to increase.

  9. White Lupin (Lupinus albus) Response to Phosphorus Stress: Evidence for Complex Regulation of LaSAP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) has a unique adaptation to phosphorus deficiency stress, such that a set of tightly coordinated physiological and morphological responses gives rise to the formation of cluster, or proteoid roots, structures that allow the plant to live in extremely infertile soils. The c...

  10. Contextual Complexity and Violent Delinquency among Black and White Males. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Marino A.

    Most social scientists assert that Whites and African Americans exist in different economic, political, and social environments and that these contextual differences contribute substantially to group differences in violence and other antisocial outcomes. This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and structural…

  11. WHITE LUPIN NITROGEN FIXATION UNDER PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin is highly adapted to growth in a low P environment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether white lupin grown under P-stress has adaptations in nodulation and N2 fixation that facilitate continued functioning. Nodulated plants were grown in silica sand supplied with N-...

  12. Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  13. Sand dunes as migrating strings.

    PubMed

    Guignier, L; Niiya, H; Nishimori, H; Lague, D; Valance, A

    2013-05-01

    We develop a reduced complexity model for three-dimensional sand dunes, based on a simplified description of the longitudinal and lateral sand transport. The spatiotemporal evolution of a dune migrating over a nonerodible bed under unidirectional wind is reduced to the dynamics of its crest line, providing a simple framework for the investigation of three-dimensional dunes, such as barchan and transverse dunes. Within this model, we derive analytical solutions for barchan dunes and investigate the stability of a rectilinear transverse dune against lateral fluctuations. We show, in particular, that the latter is unstable only if the lateral transport on the dune slip face prevails over that on the upwind face. We also predict the wavelength and the characteristic time that control the subsequent evolution of an unstable transverse dune into a wavy ridge and the ultimate fragmentation into barchan dunes. PMID:23767529

  14. Sand dunes as migrating strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guignier, L.; Niiya, H.; Nishimori, H.; Lague, D.; Valance, A.

    2013-05-01

    We develop a reduced complexity model for three-dimensional sand dunes, based on a simplified description of the longitudinal and lateral sand transport. The spatiotemporal evolution of a dune migrating over a nonerodible bed under unidirectional wind is reduced to the dynamics of its crest line, providing a simple framework for the investigation of three-dimensional dunes, such as barchan and transverse dunes. Within this model, we derive analytical solutions for barchan dunes and investigate the stability of a rectilinear transverse dune against lateral fluctuations. We show, in particular, that the latter is unstable only if the lateral transport on the dune slip face prevails over that on the upwind face. We also predict the wavelength and the characteristic time that control the subsequent evolution of an unstable transverse dune into a wavy ridge and the ultimate fragmentation into barchan dunes.

  15. China Dust and Sand

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust and Sand Sweep Over Northeast China     View Larger Image ... these views of the dust and sand that swept over northeast China on March 10, 2004. Information on the height of the dust and an ...

  16. An Affair with Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Described is a resource idea developed for the teaching of oceanography to junior high students. Sand is studied to help make the study of beaches more relevant to students who may have never seen an ocean. Sand samples are brought into the classroom from various coastal cities, then analyzed and compared. (Author/DS)

  17. Strength and sintering effects at ejection of explosively driven sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnyansky, A. D.; Weckert, S. A.

    2014-05-01

    A description of the response of sand to extreme loads is very important for the evaluation of the sand ejecta impact effects on various targets. Sand is a complex material to simulate because of its porosity where the inter-phase equilibrium is hard to achieve under transient shock wave loading. A previously developed two-phase model with strength has been implemented in CTH and applied to sand. The shock response of the sand, including the Hugoniot abnormality known from the literature for highly porous silica, is adequately described with the material model. The sand unloading effects appearing as the ejecta are observed in the present work using dynamic flash X-ray of an aluminium target plate loaded by limestone sand ejecta from the detonation of a buried high explosive charge. The CTH modelling results compared with the flash X-ray images have demonstrated good agreement, particularly, in the description of momentum transfer to the target.

  18. Crystal structure of the WOPR-DNA complex and implications for Wor1 function in white-opaque switching of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shicheng; Zhang, Tianlong; Yan, Minghui; Ding, Jianping; Chen, Jiangye

    2014-01-01

    Wor1 (white-opaque switching regulator 1) is a master regulator of the white-opaque switching in Candida albicans, an opportunistic human fungal pathogen, and is associated with its pathogenicity and commensality. Wor1 contains a conserved DNA-binding region at the N-terminus, consisting of two conserved segments (WOPRa and WOPRb) connected by a non-conserved linker that can bind to specific DNA sequences of the promoter regions and then regulates the transcription. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C. albicans Wor1 WOPR segments in complex with a double-stranded DNA corresponding to one promoter region of WOR1. The sequentially separated WOPRa and WOPRb are structurally interwound together to form a compact globular domain that we term the WOPR domain. The WOPR domain represents a new conserved fungal-specific DNA-binding domain which uses primarily a conserved loop to recognize and interact specifically with a conserved 6-bp motif of the DNA in both minor and major grooves. The protein-DNA interactions are essential for WOR1 transcriptional regulation and white-to-opaque switching. The structural and biological data together reveal the molecular basis for the recognition and binding specificity of the WOPR domain with its specific DNA sequences and the function of Wor1 in the activation of transcription. PMID:25091450

  19. Crystal structure of the WOPR-DNA complex and implications for Wor1 function in white-opaque switching of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shicheng; Zhang, Tianlong; Yan, Minghui; Ding, Jianping; Chen, Jiangye

    2014-09-01

    Wor1 (white-opaque switching regulator 1) is a master regulator of the white-opaque switching in Candida albicans, an opportunistic human fungal pathogen, and is associated with its pathogenicity and commensality. Wor1 contains a conserved DNA-binding region at the N-terminus, consisting of two conserved segments (WOPRa and WOPRb) connected by a non-conserved linker that can bind to specific DNA sequences of the promoter regions and then regulates the transcription. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C. albicans Wor1 WOPR segments in complex with a double-stranded DNA corresponding to one promoter region of WOR1. The sequentially separated WOPRa and WOPRb are structurally interwound together to form a compact globular domain that we term the WOPR domain. The WOPR domain represents a new conserved fungal-specific DNA-binding domain which uses primarily a conserved loop to recognize and interact specifically with a conserved 6-bp motif of the DNA in both minor and major grooves. The protein-DNA interactions are essential for WOR1 transcriptional regulation and white-to-opaque switching. The structural and biological data together reveal the molecular basis for the recognition and binding specificity of the WOPR domain with its specific DNA sequences and the function of Wor1 in the activation of transcription. PMID:25091450

  20. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    has a higher spatial resolution that enables CRISM to see smaller exposures of these minerals, if they occur. If White Rock is an evaporative lacustrine or lake deposit, CRISM has the best chance of detecting telltale mineralogical signatures. The images above reveal what CRISM found.

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic of Pollack Crater taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). White Rock actually appears dark in the THEMIS mosaic due to a low daytime temperature, because its light color leads to less heating by the Sun. The middle-left image is an infrared, false color image that reveals White Rock's reddish hue. The middle-right image shows the signatures of different minerals that are present. CRISM found that White Rock is composed of accumulated dust perhaps with some fine-grained olivine (an igneous mineral), surrounded by basaltic sand containing olivine and dark-colored pyroxene. The lower two images were constructed by draping CRISM images over topography and exaggerating the vertical scale to better illustrate White Rock's topography. White Rock still appears not to contain evaporite, but instead to be composed of accumulated dust and sand.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  1. Analysis of wind-blown sand movement over transverse dunes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-01-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification. PMID:25434372

  2. Analysis of Wind-blown Sand Movement over Transverse Dunes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-01-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification. PMID:25434372

  3. Analysis of Wind-blown Sand Movement over Transverse Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-12-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification.

  4. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  5. VNIR reflectance spectra of gypsum mixtures for comparison with White Sands National Monument, New Mexico (WSNM) dune samples as an analog study of the Olympia Undae region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. J.; Bishop, J. L.; Fenton, L. K.; Lafuente, B.; Garcia, G. C.; Horgan, B. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dunes at WSNM are being used as an analog study area for gypsum-rich dunes near the northern polar region of Mars. Samples were collected from 4 dunes at WSNM for this study. In order to determine abundances of the gypsum, quartz and dolomite present in the dune sand, size separates (<45, 45-90, 90-150, 150-250, >250 μm) were prepared for gypsum, quartz and dolomite, mixtures were prepared using the 90-150 μm size fraction, and all samples were characterized in the lab. Analyses of the VNIR spectral data are presented here (Figs. 1-2) and analyses of the XRD data are presented in a companion abstract [1]. The majority of the dune sand is dominated by gypsum, while the coarse grains at some ripples are largely dolomite. Mid-IR spectra will be evaluated as well. Gypsum/Dolomite Mixtures (Fig. 1) There is a clear progression of albedo and band strength in these mixture spectra as one mineral is increased and the other decreased. The mixture spectra are dominated by the gypsum bands for mixtures that are gypsum rich (≥50wt.% gypsum) including a triplet at 1.446-1.535 μm, plus bands at 1.749, 1.945, 2.217 and 2.267 μm. When mixtures become predominantly dolomite (10/90 & 20/80 mixtures), the gypsum bands are significantly weaker, while the dolomite band at 2.322 becomes much more visible. Gypsum/Quartz Mixtures (Fig. 2) The gypsum/quartz mixture spectra are dominated to an even greater extent by gypsum, resulting in readily observable gypsum features for spectra of samples with only 10 wt.% gypsum. [1] Lafuente et al. (2013) AGU, submitted.

  6. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2009 was about 27 Mt (30 million st), declining by 10 percent compared with 2008. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as foundry and glassmaking sand, may have declined by a factor greater than 10 percent in 2009. U.S. apparent consumption was 24.7 Mt (27.2 million st) in 2009, down by 10 percent from the previous year, and imports declined to 83 kt (91,000 st).

  7. Foundry sand reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Filipovitch, A.J.; Bleuenstein, J.M.

    1984-05-22

    A dry method of conditioning spent foundry sand is disclosed. After having sized the sand and removal of tramp metallic elements, the sand is subjected to a sequence of squeezing under a high-stress low kinetic energy system for a period of 5-30 minutes, and then propelled against a target with high-kinetic energy in the presence of a suction for several minutes. This sequence can be preferably repeated to increase the quality of the resulting product which should have 0.1% or less of fine particles, a pH of 6-9, a clay content and organic combustible content of substantially zero. The reclaimed sand will exhibit a density of at least 100 grams/biscuit when compacted for core making or molding.

  8. Complete sequence, subunit structure, and complexes with pancreatic alpha-amylase of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from Phaseolus vulgaris white kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, K; Hayashi, K; Arakawa, T; Philo, J S; Wen, J; Hara, S; Yamaguchi, H

    1996-07-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor (PHA-I), which is composed of two kinds of glycopolypeptide subunits, alpha and beta, was established by conventional methods. The polypeptide molecular weight of PHA-I determined by the light-scattering technique, considered together with the sequence molecular weights revealed for the subunits, indicated that PHA-I has the subunit stoichiometry of (alpha beta)2 complex. Inhibition test of PHA-I with increasing amounts of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) suggested that an inactive 2:1 complex is formed between PPA and PHA-I. In fact, two complexes differing from each other in the molar ratio of PPA to PHA-I were separated by gel filtration, and molecular weight estimation by the light-scattering technique confirmed that they are complexes of PHA-I with one or two PPA molecules. The binding of PPA to PHA-I appeared to follow simple binomial statistics, suggesting that two binding sites on PHA-I are independent and of high affinity for PPA. PMID:8864861

  9. A study of morphology, provenance, and movement of desert sand seas in Africa, Asia, and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, E. D.; Breed, C. S.; Harris, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Examination of sand samples from both dune and interdune areas at White Sands, New Mexico, indicates marked differences in composition and texture between these two types of facies. If these differences are characteristics of dune fields in general, information concerning them may help to explain the contrast in appearance of the two kinds of sand areas on ERTS imagery and to permit interpretation of similar features in remote areas, such as Saudi Arabia.

  10. Heat-treatment of metal parts facilitated by sand embedment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briscoe, C. C.; Kelley, R. C.

    1966-01-01

    Embedding metal parts of complex shape in sand contained in a steel box prevents strains and warping during heat treatment. The sand not only provides a simple, inexpensive support for the parts but also ensures more uniform distribution of heat to the parts.

  11. 7. SAND FILTERS, CANAL TO LEFT. CONCRETE OVERFLOW AREA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SAND FILTERS, CANAL TO LEFT. CONCRETE OVERFLOW AREA TO LEFT OF CANAL ORIGINALLY PLANNED AS A STORAGE LAKE. VIEW LOOKING DUE WEST OF HINDS COMPLEX IN BACKGROUND OF SAND FILTERS. - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  12. Sand Sheet on Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    As with yesterday's image, this dune field is located inside a crater, in this case an unnamed crater at 26 degrees North latitude. In this VIS image the dunes are coalescing into a sand sheet, note the lack of dune forms to the north of the small hills. The presence of ridges and hills in the area is affecting the dune shapes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 26.4, Longitude 62.7 East (297.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology

  13. Kinetic Parameters of Secondary Carbide Precipitation in High-Cr White Iron Alloyed by Mn-Ni-Mo-V Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremenko, V. G.; Chabak, Yu. G.; Brykov, M. N.

    2013-05-01

    This study presents kinetics of precipitation of secondary carbides in 14.55%Cr-Mn-Ni-Mo-V white cast iron during the destabilization heat treatment. The as-cast iron was heat treated at temperatures in the range of 800-1100 °C with soaking up to 6 h. Investigation was carried out by optical and electron microscopy, dilatometric analysis, Ms temperature measurement, and bulk hardness evaluation. TTT-curve of precipitation process of secondary carbides (M7C3, M23C6, M3C2) has been constructed in this study. It was determined that the precipitation occurs at the maximum rate at 950 °C where the process is started after 10 s and completed within 160 min further. The precipitation leads to significant increase of Ms temperature and bulk hardness; large soaking times at destabilization temperatures cause coarsening of secondary carbides and decrease in particles number, followed by decrease in hardness. The results obtained are discussed in terms of solubility of carbon in the austenite and diffusion activation of Cr atoms. The precipitation was found to consist of two stages with activation energies of 196.5 kJ/g-mole at the first stage and 47.1 kJ/g-mole at the second stage.

  14. Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Rigg, Tara D; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C; Bowen, Richard; Zabel, Mark D; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

  15. Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Rigg, Tara D.; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C.; Bowen, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

  16. Sidewinding snakes on sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Dimenichi, Dante; Chrystal, Robert; Mendelson, Joseph; Goldman, Daniel; Hu, David; Georgia Tech and Zoo Atlanta Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    Desert snakes such as the rattlesnake Crotalus cerastes propel themselves over sand using sidewinding, a mode of locomotion relying upon helical traveling waves. While sidewinding on hard ground has been described, the mechanics of movement on more natural substrates such as granular media remain poorly understood. In this experimental study, we use 3-D high speed video to characterize the motion of a sidewinder rattlesnake as it moves on a granular bed. We study the movement both on natural desert sand and in an air-fluidized bed trackway which we use to challenge the animal on different compactions of granular media. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the snake's thrust on this media using friction and normal forces on the piles of sand created by the snake's body. The authors thank the NSF (PHY-0848894), Georgia Tech, and the Elizabeth Smithgall Watts endowment for support. We would also like to thank Zoo Atlanta staff for their generous help with this project.

  17. Sand Dunes with Frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  18. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    PubMed

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded. PMID:24458659

  19. Activation of White Phosphorus by Low-Valent Group 5 Complexes: Formation and Reactivity of cyclo-P4 Inverted Sandwich Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis and comprehensive study of the electronic structure of a unique series of dinuclear group 5 cyclo-tetraphosphide inverted sandwich complexes. White phosphorus (P4) reacts with niobium(III) and tantalum(III) β-diketiminate (BDI) tert-butylimido complexes to produce the bridging cyclo-P4 phosphide species {[(BDI)(NtBu)M]2(μ-η3:η3P4)} (1, M = Nb; 2, M = Ta) in fair yields. 1 is alternatively synthesized upon hydrogenolysis of (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Me2 in the presence of P4. The trinuclear side product {[(BDI)NbNtBu]3(μ-P12)} (3) is also identified. Protonation of 1 with [HOEt2][B(C6F5)4] does not occur at the phosphide ring but rather involves the BDI ligand to yield {[(BDI#)Nb(NtBu)]2(μ-η3:η3P4)}[B(C6F5)4]2 (4). The monocation and dication analogues {[(BDI)(NtBu)Nb]2(μ-η3:η3P4)}{B(ArF)4}n (5, n = 1; 6, n = 2) are both synthesized by oxidation of 1 with AgBArF. DFT calculations were used in combination with EPR and UV–visible spectroscopies to probe the nature of the metal–phosphorus bonding. PMID:25469924

  20. Building with Sand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  1. Does complex terrain matter for global terrestrial ecosystem models? Forest ecosystem dynamics in the White Mountains, NH. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, M. C.; Richardson, A. D.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Environmental scientists have long recognized that vegetation varies consistently at a landscape-scale due to variation in soils, hydrology, and topography. We expect that this variation to interact with climate change in complex ways, potentially allowing some species to persist in refugia while shifting other species to locations that may be edaphically unfavorable. Despite the recognized importance of this variation, it has not been incorporated into global and regional scale models because this heterogeneity occurs at a finer spatial scale than can be captured explicitly by refining model resolution. Rather than represent landscape-scale variability explicitly, we develop a spatially implicit approach to capture variation in soils, lateral hydrologic flow, and the effects of topography on microclimate and radiation interception. This scheme is incorporated in the Ecosystem Demography model. We tested this approach by first calibrating the model to forest inventory data and eddy-covariance fluxes of carbon, water, and energy from the Bartlett Experimental Forest in central NH and then validating it against 40+ years of vegetation and hydrology data from the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study, located 40km in forests of similar composition. When applied to Hubbard Brook the model is able to capture watershed streamflow at monthly to interannual scales and the variation in growth rates with topography, soils, and hydrology, and reproduces observed NPP during the forest growth phase. Growth rates were overestimated during the latter portion of the record, likely due to the cumulative impacts of acid rain which are not yet accounted for in the model. By sequentially switching off each source of edaphic variation, we find that the effect of elevation on microclimate has the greatest impact on the within-watershed distribution of NEE and NPP. The effects of slope and aspect on radiation are strongest at mid-elevation while lateral hydrology is most important on ridges and

  2. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  3. Western Gas Sands Subprogram

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The Western Gas Sands Subprogram (WGSS) is a multidisciplinary research effort within the US Department of Energy program on Unconventional Gas Recovery. The subprogram, managed by DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is directed towards the development of tight (very low permeability) lenticular gas sands in the western United States. The purpose of the subprogram is to demonstrate the feasibility of economically producing natural gas from low-permeability reservoirs. The subprogram has two broad goals: (1) to reduce the uncertainty of the reservoir production potential and (2) to improve the extraction technology. With input from the gas industry, universities, and geologic and engineering consulting firms, the WGSS was broadened to include more fundamental research and development. Consequently, for the last five years it has focused on improving diagnostic instrumentation, geophysical and engineering interpretation, and stimulation techniques. Integrated geologic studies of the three priority basins containing tight sands and selected by DOE as research targets have also been pursued as part of this new effort. To date, the following tentative conclusions have evolved: Permeability of the tight gas sands can be as much as three to four orders of magnitude lower than conventional gas deposits. Nineteen western geologic basins and trends containing significant amounts of tight gas have been identified. Gas resources in the priority geologic basins are Piceance Basin, 49 tcf., Uinta Basin, 20 tcf., and Greater Green River Basin, 136 tcf. The presence of natural micro-fractures within the production zone of a reservoir and the effective propped length of hydraulically-induced fractures are the critical parameters for successful development of tight sand resources. 8 figures.

  4. Modelling hydrodynamics in the Rio Paraná, Argentina: An evaluation and inter-comparison of reduced-complexity and physics based models applied to a large sand-bed river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Andrew P.; Sandbach, Steven D.; Ashworth, Philip J.; Amsler, Mario L.; Best, James L.; Hardy, Richard J.; Lane, Stuart N.; Orfeo, Oscar; Parsons, Daniel R.; Reesink, Arnold J. H.; Sambrook Smith, Gregory H.; Szupiany, Ricardo N.

    2012-10-01

    Depth-averaged velocities and unit discharges within a 30 km reach of one of the world's largest rivers, the Rio Paraná, Argentina, were simulated using three hydrodynamic models with different process representations: a reduced complexity (RC) model that neglects most of the physics governing fluid flow, a two-dimensional model based on the shallow water equations, and a three-dimensional model based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Flow characteristics simulated using all three models were compared with data obtained by acoustic Doppler current profiler surveys at four cross sections within the study reach. This analysis demonstrates that, surprisingly, the performance of the RC model is generally equal to, and in some instances better than, that of the physics based models in terms of the statistical agreement between simulated and measured flow properties. In addition, in contrast to previous applications of RC models, the present study demonstrates that the RC model can successfully predict measured flow velocities. The strong performance of the RC model reflects, in part, the simplicity of the depth-averaged mean flow patterns within the study reach and the dominant role of channel-scale topographic features in controlling the flow dynamics. Moreover, the very low water surface slopes that typify large sand-bed rivers enable flow depths to be estimated reliably in the RC model using a simple fixed-lid planar water surface approximation. This approach overcomes a major problem encountered in the application of RC models in environments characterised by shallow flows and steep bed gradients. The RC model is four orders of magnitude faster than the physics based models when performing steady-state hydrodynamic calculations. However, the iterative nature of the RC model calculations implies a reduction in computational efficiency relative to some other RC models. A further implication of this is that, if used to simulate channel morphodynamics

  5. Windblown Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-557, 27 November 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows sand dunes and large ripples in a crater in the Hellespontus region of Mars. The winds that formed these dunes generally blew from the left/lower-left (west/southwest). Unlike the majority of dunes on Earth, sand dunes on Mars are mostly made up of dark, rather than light, grains. This scene is located near 50.3oS, 327.5oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide, and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  6. PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1957-12-01

    A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

  7. Dynamic sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Amarouchene, Y; Boudet, J F; Kellay, H

    2001-05-01

    When sand falling in the spacing between two plates goes past an obstacle, a dynamic dune with a parabolic shape and an inner triangular region of nonflowing or slowly creeping sand forms. The angle of the triangular zone increases with the height of the dune and saturates at a value determined by the geometry of the cell. The width of the dune, related to the radius of curvature at the tip, shows universal features versus its height rescaled by geometrical parameters. The velocity profile in the flowing part is determined and found to be nonlinear. The parabolic shape can be accounted for using a simple driven convection-diffusion equation for the interface. PMID:11328156

  8. Western gas sands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of economically producing natural gas from low-permeability reservoirs. Two broad research goals have been defined: (1) reducing the uncertainty of the reservoir production potential, and (2) improving the extraction technology. These goals are being pursued by conducting research and encouraging industrial efforts in developing the necessary technology, including: (1) providing fundamental research into the nature of tight, lenticular gas sands and the technologies for diagnosing and developing them: (2) developing and verifying the technology for effective gas production; and (3) promoting the transfer of research products and technology advances to the gas industry in usable forms. The focus of the research for the last several years has been improving diagnostic instrumentation for reservoir and stimulation performance evaluation, geophysical and engineering interpretation, and stimulation techniques. Integrated geologic studies of three basins containing tight lenticular sands, which were selected by DOE as priority research targets, have also been pursued as part of this new effort. To date, the following tentative conclusions have been formed: Permeability of the tight gas sands can be as much as three to four orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional gas deposits. Nineteen western geologic basins and trends containing significant volumes of tight gas have been identified. Gas resources in the priority geologic basins have been estimated - Piceance Basin 49 Tcf.; Greater Green River Basin, 136 Tcf.; Uinta Basin, 20 Tcf. Presence of natural micro-fractures within a reservoir and the effective propped length of hydraulically induced fratures are the critical parameters for successful development of tight sand resources. Stimulation technology at the present time is insufficient to efficiently recover gas from lenticular tight reservoirs. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Dark Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    13 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars. The dominant winds responsible for these dunes blew from the lower left (southwest). They are located near 76.6oN, 257.2oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper right.

  10. Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit welcomed the beginning of 2006 on Earth by taking this striking panorama of intricately rippled sand deposits in Gusev Crater on Mars. This is an approximate true-color rendering of the 'El Dorado' ripple field provided by Spirit over the New Year's holiday weekend. The view spans about 160 degrees in azimuth from left to right and consists of images acquired by Spirit's panoramic camera on Spirit's 708th and 710th Martian days, or sols, (Dec. 30, 2005 and Jan. 1, 2006). Spirit used the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters to capture the colors on Mars. Scientists have eliminated seams between individual frames in the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see. Spirit spent several days acquiring images, spectral data, and compositional and mineralogical information about these large sand deposits before continuing downhill toward 'Home Plate.'

  11. Booming Sand Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  12. Biological Significance of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: VIVID Photocycle Governs the Dynamic VIVID-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-adaptation and Response to Changes in Light Intensity.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Arko; Chen, Chen-Hui; Lee, ChangHwan; Gladfelter, Amy S; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J

    2015-05-01

    Most organisms on earth sense light through the use of chromophore-bearing photoreceptive proteins with distinct and characteristic photocycle lengths, yet the biological significance of this adduct decay length is neither understood nor has been tested. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa VIVID (VVD) is a critical player in the process of photoadaptation, the attenuation of light-induced responses and the ability to maintain photosensitivity in response to changing light intensities. Detailed in vitro analysis of the photochemistry of the blue light sensing, FAD binding, LOV domain of VVD has revealed residues around the site of photo-adduct formation that influence the stability of the adduct state (light state), that is, altering the photocycle length. We have examined the biological significance of VVD photocycle length to photoadaptation and report that a double substitution mutant (vvdI74VI85V), previously shown to have a very fast light to dark state reversion in vitro, shows significantly reduced interaction with the White Collar Complex (WCC) resulting in a substantial photoadaptation defect. This reduced interaction impacts photoreceptor transcription factor WHITE COLLAR-1 (WC-1) protein stability when N. crassa is exposed to light: The fast-reverting mutant VVD is unable to form a dynamic VVD-WCC pool of the size required for photoadaptation as assayed both by attenuation of gene expression and the ability to respond to increasing light intensity. Additionally, transcription of the clock gene frequency (frq) is sensitive to changing light intensity in a wild-type strain but not in the fast photo-reversion mutant indicating that the establishment of this dynamic VVD-WCC pool is essential in general photobiology and circadian biology. Thus, VVD photocycle length appears sculpted to establish a VVD-WCC reservoir of sufficient size to sustain photoadaptation while maintaining sensitivity to changing light intensity. The great diversity in photocycle

  13. Biological Significance of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: VIVID Photocycle Governs the Dynamic VIVID-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-adaptation and Response to Changes in Light Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Arko; Chen, Chen-Hui; Lee, ChangHwan; Gladfelter, Amy S.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Loros, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Most organisms on earth sense light through the use of chromophore-bearing photoreceptive proteins with distinct and characteristic photocycle lengths, yet the biological significance of this adduct decay length is neither understood nor has been tested. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa VIVID (VVD) is a critical player in the process of photoadaptation, the attenuation of light-induced responses and the ability to maintain photosensitivity in response to changing light intensities. Detailed in vitro analysis of the photochemistry of the blue light sensing, FAD binding, LOV domain of VVD has revealed residues around the site of photo-adduct formation that influence the stability of the adduct state (light state), that is, altering the photocycle length. We have examined the biological significance of VVD photocycle length to photoadaptation and report that a double substitution mutant (vvdI74VI85V), previously shown to have a very fast light to dark state reversion in vitro, shows significantly reduced interaction with the White Collar Complex (WCC) resulting in a substantial photoadaptation defect. This reduced interaction impacts photoreceptor transcription factor WHITE COLLAR-1 (WC-1) protein stability when N. crassa is exposed to light: The fast-reverting mutant VVD is unable to form a dynamic VVD-WCC pool of the size required for photoadaptation as assayed both by attenuation of gene expression and the ability to respond to increasing light intensity. Additionally, transcription of the clock gene frequency (frq) is sensitive to changing light intensity in a wild-type strain but not in the fast photo-reversion mutant indicating that the establishment of this dynamic VVD-WCC pool is essential in general photobiology and circadian biology. Thus, VVD photocycle length appears sculpted to establish a VVD-WCC reservoir of sufficient size to sustain photoadaptation while maintaining sensitivity to changing light intensity. The great diversity in photocycle

  14. Solvent extraction of southern US tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The socioeconomic aspects of the tar sands recovery were investigated by Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama conducted characterization and beneficiation studies on Alabama tar sands. Two sources in the state were identified, namely, Black Wax Hill and Spring Creek. Samples were obtained, beneficiated, then shared with the University of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas conducted research in three areas, namely, solvation and characterization of the tar sands phase equilibria as well as the design and operation of a bench-scale batch model. In the solvation studies, the results indicate that grinding the tar sands too fine results in downstream processing problems. Also, preliminary indications are that the beneficiation step may not be necessary in the solvation of the bitumen. The phase equilibria of the heptane/brine/isopropyl alcohol/XTOL{trademark} system is very complex. The salt concentration of the brine is significant in the partitioning of the isopropanol and heptane. Equilibrium data for some of the various combinations of chemical constituents have been obtained. Also included are appendices: statistical data on highways; petrography; Dean-Starke technique; FTIR and NMR spectra; FORTRAN computer program for GC; simulation of flash behavior for IPA/brine/fatty acid/N-C{sub 7} mixture; and previous progress reports. 32 figs., 28 tabs.

  15. Metamorphic evolution of the Rechnitz metamorphic core complex in relation to the Neogene Pannonian basin, Eastern Alps: Constraints from Ar-Ar white mica ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Bernroider, Manfred; Friedl, Gertrude

    2015-04-01

    The exhumation of Cordilleran-type metamorphic core complexes (MCC) is generally related to largely contemporaneous collapse-type sedimentary basins (mainly halfgrabens). Here, we investigate the example of the Rechnitz MCC, which formed by Miocene orogen-parallel extension within the Neogene Pannonian basin. The Rechnitz MCC is located on the South Burgenland basement High within the western part of the Neogene Pannonian basin, with the Styrian basin in the west and the Danube basin in the east. The Rechnitz MCC is metamorphosed within greenschist facies conditions (maximum temperature of 430 °C) ideal for Ar-Ar white mica dating. For the first time, we undertook an extensive survey of 40Ar/39Ar white mica dating combined with microfabrics and electron microprobe compositional data and we compare the new data with major evolutionary stages of adjacent sedimentary basins, mainly based on re-evaluation of existing reflection seismic lines. The internal structure of the Rechnitz window is characterized by two tectonic cover nappes, a lower nappe with distal continental affinity, and an upper nappe representing the infilling of an oceanic basin. Both within greenschist facies metamorphic conditions and few blueschists were found in the northwestern part of the upper nappe. We found a number of distinct white mica age spectra: (1) A sample from the northwesternmost upper nappe yield a staircase pattern ranging from 14.8 ± 0.9 Ma to 41.5 ± 1.0 Ma. We interpret the older age is minimum age of high-pressure metamorphism and the younger age as age of overprint during extensional exhumation. (2) A number of samples from the western part, independent from positions within the nappes yield plateau ages between 20 and maximum 23 Ma and are variably affected by a younger thermal overprint between 13 and 15 Ma. (3) The eastern and lower units show plateau-like patterns with plateau ages of 17 - 19 Ma with a majority at ca. 18 Ma and a single younger outlier at ca. 16 Ma. Some

  16. Committed White Male Teachers and Identifications: Toward Creative Identifications and a "Second Wave" of White Identity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupp, James C.; Slattery, G. Patrick, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Committed White male teachers of inner-city students seeks to supersede previous research on White teacher and other White identities by narrating respondents' "creative identifications" and initiating a "second wave" of White identity studies. This research reflection articulates complex, viable, and creative White identities, reconceptualized…

  17. Sand dollar sites orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Dee

    2013-04-01

    The determinology of the humble sand dollars habitat changing from inception to the drastic evolution of the zone to that of present day. Into the cauldron along the southern Californian 'ring of fire' lithosphere are evidence of geosynclinals areas, metasedimentary rock formations and hydrothermal activity. The explanation begins with 'Theia' and the Moon's formation, battles with cometary impacts, glacial ages, epochs with evolutionary bottlenecks and plate tectonics. Fully illustrated the lecture includes localised diagrams and figures with actual subject photographic examples of plutonic, granitic, jade and peridodite. Finally, the origins of the materials used in the lecture are revealed for prosecution by future students and the enjoyment of interested parties in general.

  18. Sand Dunes in Hellas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-537, 7 November 2003

    The smooth, rounded mounds in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture are sand dunes. The scene is located in southern Hellas Planitia and was acquired in mid-southern autumn, the ideal time of year for Hellas imaging. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. These dunes are located near 49.1oS, 292.6oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  19. Sand Dunes, Afghanistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image covers an area of 10.5 x 15 km in southern Afghanistan and was acquired on August 20, 2000. The band 3-2-1 composite shows part of an extensive field of barchan sand dunes south of Kandahar. The shape of the dunes indicates that the prevailing wind direction is from the west. The image is located at 30.7 degrees north latitude and 65.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Ganges Rocks and Sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 January 2004 The top half of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded remnants of sedimentary rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The lower half shows a thick accumulation of dark, windblown sand. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. These features are located near 7.6oS, 49.4oW.

  1. Fortune Cookie Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-432, 25 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of small barchan sand dunes in the north polar region near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Some of them are shaped like fortune cookies. The message these dunes provide: winds blow through this region from the lower right toward the upper left. The steep slip face slopes of these dunes, which point toward the upper left, indicate the wind direction. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  2. Defrosting Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-434, 27 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows retreating patches of frost on a field of large, dark sand dunes in the Noachis region of Mars. Large, windblown ripples of coarse sediment are also seen on some of the dunes. This dune field is located in a crater at 47.5oS, 326.3oW. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  3. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Bradley E.; Kabir, Md. E.; Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  4. White House

    MedlinePlus

    ... Check out the most popular infographics and videos Photos View the photo of the day and other galleries Video Gallery ... your questions or your story with President Obama. Photo of the Day Explore the White House Photo ...

  5. Direct observation of a sand-propped hydraulic fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R.; Tyler, L.D.; Vollendorf, W.C.; Northrop, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    An experiement has been conducted in which a sand-propped hydraulic fracture is created and then mined back to observe fracture behavior and proppant distribution. Three stages of different colored, different concentration sand transported by a water-based gel were injected into a volcanic ash fall tuff formation at a depth of 1400 ft near an existing tunnel complex. The resultant fracture was subsequently mined back for direct observation and photographed and mapped. This particular region was highly faulted and exhibited significant changes in in situ stress magnitudes across the faults; it is felt that this stress distribution resulted in very complex fracture behavior and growth processes. The fracture was bounded on one wing by a fault which was only a few feet from the wellbore. The fracture terminated on top at an unbonded bedding plane. Most of the injected volume of sand and fluid was forced downward, considerably below the elevation where the fracture was initiated. The different colors of sand were randomly distributed, although they were usually found in distinct layers, but this may have been due to the complex growth process. At different locations the fracture was found to have considerable variations in width; from several sand grains wide (1 cm) to devoid of sand altogether (2 to 3 mm average).

  6. Percolation of Blast Waves though Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proud, William

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has concentrated on the physical processes occurring when samples of sand, of varying moisture content, were shock compressed. In this study quartz sand samples are subjected to blast waves over a range of pressure and duration. Aspects of particle movement are discussed; the global movement of a bed hundreds of particles thick is a fraction of particle width. The main diagnostics used are pressure sensors and high-speed photography. Results are presented for a range of particle sizes, aspect ratio, density and moisture content. While the velocity of the percolation through the bed is primarily controlled by density and porosity the effect of moisture reveals a more complex dependence. The ISP acknowledges the support of the Atomic Weapons Establishment and Imperial College London.

  7. Science Learning in the Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to think about the Earth in a contextual manner and become familiar with constructive and destructive processes as they relate to sand - its origins, cyclical processes, and yielding of new products. Explores the bigger idea with a developmentally appropriate study of water, rocks, sand, physical phenomena,…

  8. Vacuum Head Removes Sanding Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengle, C. G.; Holt, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum sander prevents sanding dust from entering a work area, since dust particles are drawn off as quickly as they are produced. Tool is useful where dust presents health hazards, interferes with such processes as semiconductor manufacture, or could destroy wet paint or varnish finishes. Could be used to sand such materials as lead paint.

  9. Sand and Dust on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Haberle, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Mars is a planet of high scientific interest. Various studies are currently being made that involve vehicles that have landed on Mars. Because Mars is known to experience frequent wind storms, mission planners and engineers require knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of Martian windblown sand and dust, and the processes involved in the origin and evolution of sand and dust storms.

  10. Sand and Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 November 2003

    This image shows a relatively small crater (35 km across) in the heavily cratered terrain of the southern highlands. At the midlatitudes, this area is known both for its water-formed gullies and its sand dunes. This crater shows spectacular examples of both. In fact, the gullies running down the northern edge of the crater made it to the cover of Science magazine on June 30, 2000. The large dark spot in the floor of the crater is sand that has accumulated into one large dune with a single curvilinear crest.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -54.9, Longitude 17.5 East (342.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.