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1

White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437

Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

2012-08-15

2

A Post-Mortem Disease Survey of White-Tailed Deer on Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty-seven white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) killed by hunters on Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland were examined for spontaneous diseases. Gross necropsy and histologic examinations revealed cysticercosis, gongylonemiasis, setariasis, sarcosporidiosi...

P. F. Ward J. F. Ferrell D. F. Ford R. D. Chadwick

1968-01-01

3

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white- tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.

Robert F. Massung; Joshua W. Courtney; Shannon L. Hiratzka; Virginia E. Pitzer; Gary Smith; Richard L. Dryden

4

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus infection in M. rosenbergii (de Man) with white tail disease cultured in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in Macrobrachium rosenbergii hatcheries and nursery ponds in Asia. The causative agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and its associated extra small virus. This is the first re- port demonstrating MrNV virus in M. rosenbergii displaying WTD signs in Taiwan by reverse tran- scriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amplified fragments

C S Wang; J S Chang; C M Wen; H H Shih; S N Chen

2008-01-01

5

A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with "Bacterial White Tail Disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

6

A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.  

PubMed

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-02-27

7

An outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer in Kentucky.  

PubMed

In 1971, an outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease occurred in captive and free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, Clinical signs and gross pathological lesions were consistent with those of epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue, as were serological and histopathological findings for samples sent to other laboratories. The infection rate among the 104 captive deer was 88-92%, and that among the free-ranging Park deer appeared to be similar. Mortality was negligible in the Park deer, but 65 (62%) of the captive deer died. The deaths were bimodally distributed over a 36-day period, and the mortality rate decreased from 97-100% for deer clinically ill during the first 17 days of the outbreak to 58% for deer first exhibiting clinical signs on day 16 or later. Mortality was equal in males and females, but less in yearlings than among fawns or adults. Winter mortality among survivors of the initial outbreak was associated with low ambient temperatures and sometimes fungal and bacterial abscesses, possibly sequelae or complications of the hemorrhagic disease. The pregnancy and birth rates among surviving does appeared to be normal. PMID:167205

Roughton, R D

1975-04-01

8

Demodectic Mange, Dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975-2012  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospecti...

9

Host culling as an adaptive management tool for chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: a modelling study  

PubMed Central

Emerging wildlife diseases pose a significant threat to natural and human systems. Because of real or perceived risks of delayed actions, disease management strategies such as culling are often implemented before thorough scientific knowledge of disease dynamics is available. Adaptive management is a valuable approach in addressing the uncertainty and complexity associated with wildlife disease problems and can be facilitated by using a formal model. We developed a multi-state computer simulation model using age, sex, infection-stage, and seasonality as a tool for scientific learning and managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Our matrix model used disease transmission parameters based on data collected through disease management activities. We used this model to evaluate management issues on density- (DD) and frequency-dependent (FD) transmission, time since disease introduction, and deer culling on the demographics, epizootiology, and management of CWD. Both DD and FD models fit the Wisconsin data for a harvested white-tailed deer population, but FD was slightly better. Time since disease introduction was estimated as 36 (95% CI, 24–50) and 188 (41–>200) years for DD and FD transmission, respectively. Deer harvest using intermediate to high non-selective rates can be used to reduce uncertainty between DD and FD transmission and improve our prediction of long-term epidemic patterns and host population impacts. A higher harvest rate allows earlier detection of these differences, but substantially reduces deer abundance. Results showed that CWD has spread slowly within Wisconsin deer populations, and therefore, epidemics and disease management are expected to last for decades. Non-hunted deer populations can develop and sustain a high level of infection, generating a substantial risk of disease spread. In contrast, CWD prevalence remains lower in hunted deer populations, but at a higher prevalence the disease competes with recreational hunting to reduce deer abundance. Synthesis and applications. Uncertainty about density- or frequency-dependent transmission hinders predictions about the long-term impacts of chronic wasting disease on cervid populations and the development of appropriate management strategies. An adaptive management strategy using computer modelling coupled with experimental management and monitoring can be used to test model predictions, identify the likely mode of disease transmission, and evaluate the risks of alternative management responses.

Wasserberg, Gideon; Osnas, Erik E; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

2009-01-01

10

Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure.

Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Rigg, Tara D.; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C.; Bowen, Richard

2013-01-01

11

Molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer, elk, and moose. CWD is a fatal neurologic disease with a long preclinical incubation period, during which the disease is probably transmitted to healthy animals through direct exposure or environ...

12

Community-based prevention of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases through topical application of acaricide to white-tailed deer: background and rationale.  

PubMed

This series of articles describes the first large-scale experiment designed to explore the efficacy of reducing the risk of tick-borne disease in highly endemic communities of the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic United States through deployment of a self-application device that treats white-tailed deer with acaricide to prevent feeding by adult Ixodes scapularis ticks and all stages of Amblyomma americanum ticks where both species occur. The results of the multicenter study are reported in the accompanying articles in this issue. This article describes the background and rationale for this experiment by reviewing relevant literature on current tick-borne disease epidemics and previous efforts to reduce the public health burden of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases. PMID:19650729

Fish, Durland; Childs, James E

2009-08-01

13

Characterization and detection of BVDV related reproductive disease in white tail deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are the causative agent of reproductive and respiratory disease in cattle resulting in significant economic loss to the beef and dairy industries. The primary consequences of reproductive infection are due to the direct infection of the fetus and th...

14

Polymorphisms in the prion precursor functional gene but not the pseudogene are associated with susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) status and PrP genotypes were determined for a group of 133 wild white-tailed deer in a 780 acre enclosure in western Nebraska, USA. Approximately half of the deer tested showed evidence of PrPd in the brainstem or lymphoid tissues. Four PRNP alleles encoding amino acid substitutions were identified, with substitutions at residues 95 (QRH), 96 (GRS)

Katherine I. O'Rourke; Terry R. Spraker; Linda K. Hamburg; Thomas E. Besser; Kelly A. Brayton; Donald P. Knowles

2004-01-01

15

EXPOSURE OF WHITE TAILED DEER TO BOVINE DIARRHEA VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The importance of white tail deer as a reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been a point of controversy. The objective of this project was to observe the infectivity of BVDV white tail deer isolates in white tailed deer. Eight white tailed deer fawn 2-4 weeks in age were divided int...

16

Evaluation of a wild white-tailed deer population management program for controlling chronic wasting disease in Illinois, 2003-2008.  

PubMed

We evaluated population management programs for controlling chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild white-tailed deer in Illinois between November 2002 and March 2008. The intervention consisted of measures of deer removal from three deer population control programs: Illinois Department of Natural Resources culling, deer population control permits and nuisance deer removal permits. We included in the analysis a total of 14,650 white-tailed deer CWD test results. These data also included location and demographic data collected from both deer harvested in the interventions as well as deer from hunter harvests and deer vehicle collisions. We quantified intervention pressures as the number of years of intervention, the total number of deer removed and the average number of deer removed per year. We accounted for temporal and spatial variations of intervention by using mixed logistic regression to model the association between intervention pressures and CWD prevalence change. The results showed that deer population management intervention as practiced in Illinois during the study period was negatively associated with CWD prevalence and the strength of association varied depending on age of deer and the measure of intervention pressure. The population management programs showed a more consistent association with reduced CWD prevalence in fawn and yearling white-tailed deer than in adult deer. Our results also suggested that frequent and continuing intervention events with at least moderate intensity of culling were needed to reduce CWD prevalence. A longer study period, however, is needed to make a more definite conclusion about the effectiveness of similar population management programs for controlling CWD in wild white-tailed deer. PMID:23558033

Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan

2013-04-01

17

Broad and fine-scale genetic analysis of white-tailed deer populations: estimating the relative risk of chronic wasting disease spread  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, similar to sheep scrapie that has only recently been detected in wild populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in western Canada. Relatively little is known about local transmission dynamics of the disease or the potential for long-distance spread. We analysed the population genetic structure of over 2000 white-tailed deer sampled from Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan using microsatellite profiles and mtDNA sequencing to assess the relative risk of disease spread. There was very little differentiation among subpopulations and a weak trend of increasing differentiation with geographic distance. This suggests that the potential for long-distance disease spread through the dispersal of infected individuals is possible, yet the risk of spread should gradually diminish with distance from infection foci. Within subpopulations, females were more related than expected by chance (R > 0) within a radius of approximately 500 m. Sex-biased philopatry and social interactions among related females may facilitate local disease transmission within social groups. Local herd reduction may therefore be an effective tool for reducing the disease prevalence when implemented at the appropriate spatial scale.

Cullingham, Catherine I; Merrill, Evelyn H; Pybus, Margo J; Bollinger, Trent K; Wilson, Gregory A; Coltman, David W

2011-01-01

18

Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Rogers, K. G.; Robinson, S. J.; Samuel, M. D.; Grear, D. A.

2011-01-01

19

Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtDNA lineages in chronic wasting disease (CWD) outbreak areas in southern Wisconsin, USA.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. PMID:22043912

Rogers, Kip G; Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Grear, Daniel A

2011-01-01

20

White-tailed spider bites - arachnophobic fallout?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To investigate if public concern regarding the toxic effects of the bites from white-tailed spiders, Lampona cylindrata and L. murina, is reflected in the case histories of patients admitted to Christchurch Hospital with a diagnosis of spider bite. Methods The case histories of patients admitted to Christchurch Hospital with a diagnosis of 'contact with venomous spiders' were examined for

Jonathan Banks; Phil Sirvid; Cor Vink

21

Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.

1992-01-01

22

AUTUMN FOODS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rumen contents from65 hunter-harvested deer werecollected and analyzed during 1985-86 to estimate the principal autumn foods consumed by white-tailed deer inhabitingthe Ozark Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, and Gulf Coastal Plain regions of Arkansas. Deer in the Ozarks and Coastal Plain fed heavily on woody browse species, which comprised 99% of rumina identified from these 2 regions. Acorns were the primary

THOMAS A. NELSON

23

Effectiveness of Spayvac for reducing white-tailed deer fertility.  

PubMed

Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations have been reported in many urban and suburban communities across the United States. Large populations of deer can potentially increase the risk of human-wildlife conflicts, such as deer-vehicle collisions, transmission of disease to humans, and vegetation damage. In 2003, efforts to control white-tailed deer numbers were initiated at the National Aeronautical and Space Agency's (NASA) Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas, using the long-lasting, single-dose contraceptive SpayVac. Our objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of SpayVac for reducing white-tailed deer fertility and determine the partial cost for treatment. Between 2003 and 2004, we monitored 45 adult female deer (34 treated with SpayVac, 11 controls treated with a placebo). Fawning rate over 2 yr for deer treated with SpayVac >30 days prior to the rut was 0% (n=31), whereas the fawning rate for control deer was 78% (n=11). Inoculation 1 mo prior to the breeding season was sufficient time to achieve fertility control. We conclude that SpayVac can effectively reduce the fertility of urban white-tailed deer. PMID:17984269

Locke, Shawn L; Cook, Matthew W; Harveson, Louis A; Davis, Donald S; Lopez, Roel R; Silvy, Nova J; Fraker, Mark A

2007-10-01

24

Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, Daniel A.

2006-01-01

25

Selenium toxicosis in a white-tailed deer herd  

PubMed Central

Chronic selenium (Se) toxicosis was found in a herd of white-tailed deer showing signs of anorexia, weight loss, and lameness. Concentration of Se in the liver ranged from 2.7 to 8.97 mg/kg wet weight. Myocardial necrosis, mineralization, and fibroplasia were seen histologically. This is the first report of this toxicosis in white-tailed deer.

Al-Dissi, Ahmad N.; Blakley, Barry R.; Woodbury, Murray R.

2011-01-01

26

Host culling as an adaptive management tool for chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: a modelling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Emerging wildlife diseases pose a significant threat to natural and human systems. Because of real or perceived risks of delayed actions, disease management strategies such as culling are often implemented before thorough scientific knowledge of disease dynamics is available. Adaptive management is a valuable approach in addressing the uncertainty and complexity associated with wildlife disease problems and can

Gideon Wasserberg; Erik E. Osnas; Robert E. Rolley; Michael D. Samuel

2009-01-01

27

CAUSES OF MORTALITY IN WHITE-TAILED SEA EAGLES FROM GERMANY  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed Sea Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla found moribund or dead in the field were submitted for necropsy to the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) and to the Institute for Food, Drugs and Animal Diseases (ILAT), Berlin, Germany. The moribund eagles had died in rehabilitation stations or were euthanized. Onehundred-twenty White-tailed Sea Eagles were examined between 1990 and 2000, comprising

Oliver Krone; Torsten Langgemach; Paul Sömmer; Norbert Kenntner

28

Forest cover influences dispersal distance of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.001, d.f. = 9) and maximum (r2 = 0.86, P = 0.001, d.f. = 7) dispersal distances of juvenile male deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

Long, E. S.; Diefenbach, D. R.; Rosenberry, C. S.; Wallingford, B. D.; Grund, M. D.

2005-01-01

29

Update on vaccination of white-tailed deer with Mycobacterium bovis BCG: Safety and Efficacy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1994, white-tailed deer in northeast Michigan were found to be harboring Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in most animals including humans. Although deer likely contracted tuberculosis from cattle in the early 20th century, when the disease was present in Michigan cattle, ...

30

EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES OF AN INTRACRANIAL ABSCESSATION\\/SUPPURATIVE MENINGOENCEPHALITIS COMPLEX IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case records of 683 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (Georgia, USA) for diagnostic purposes from 1971 to 1989 were reviewed for the occurrence of pyogenic infections of the central nervous system, specifically intracranial abscessation or suppurative meningoencephalitis. These conditions, either alone or in combination, were diagnosed in 24 of 683 (4%) deer. Thirteen

William R. Davidson; Victor F. Nettles; Lynn E. Hayes; Elizabeth W. Howerth; C. Edward Couvillion

31

CONGENITAL POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY IN A WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polycystic kidney and liver disease was seen in a stillborn white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn. Bilaterally enlarged kidneys were characterized by severe dilatation of all renal tubules. Glomeruli were reduced in number, small and located within a dilated Bowman's capsule. The liver was...

32

White-Tailed Deer Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of an ongoing study is to...

33

PERSISTENT EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS INFECTION IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated intravenously with a deer-origin isolate (15B-WTD-GA) of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. The course of infection was mon- itored using indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and culture over a9m period. All deer became rickettsemic within 24 days post inoculation (DPI), and all developed antibody titers .1:64 to E. chaffeensis by 17 DPI. Titers

William R. Davidson; J. Mitchell Lockhart; David E. Stallknecht; Elizabeth W. Howerth; Jacqueline E. Dawson; Yigal Rechav

34

Modeling distribution of dispersal distances in male white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dispersal distances and their distribution pattern are important to understanding such phenomena as disease spread and gene flow, but oftentimes dispersal characteristics are modeled as a fixed trait for a given species. We found that dispersal distributions differ for spring and autumn dispersals of yearling male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but that combined data can be adequately modeled based on a log-normal distribution. We modeled distribution of dispersal distances from 3 distinct populations in Pennsylvania and Maryland, USA, based on the relationship between percent forest cover and mean dispersal distance and the relationship between mean and variance of dispersal distances. Our results suggest distributions of distances for dispersing yearling male white-tailed deer can be modeled by simply measuring a readily obtained landscape metric, percent forest cover, which could be used to create generalized spatially explicit disease or gene.

Diefenbach, D. R.; Long, E. S.; Rosenberry, C. S.; Wallingford, B. D.; Smith, D. R.

2008-01-01

35

Energy metabolism and hematology of white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Resting metabolic rates, weight gains and hematologic profiles of six newborn, captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns (four females, two males) were determined during the first 3 mo of life. Estimated mean daily weight gain of fawns was 0.2 kg. The regression equation for metabolic rate was: Metabolic rate (kcal/kg0.75/day) = 56.1 +/- 1.3 (age in days), r = 0.65, P less than 0.001). Regression equations were also used to relate age to red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume, white blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The age relationships of Hb, MCHC, and smaller RBC's were indicative of an increasing and more efficient oxygen-carrying and exchange capacity to fulfill the increasing metabolic demands for oxygen associated with increasing body size.

Rawson, R.E.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Dziuk, H.E.; Mech, L.D.

1992-01-01

36

Persistent Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Four white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated intravenously with a deer-origin isolate (15B-WTD-GA) of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. The course of infection was monitored using indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and culture over a 9 m period. All deer became rickettsemic within 24 days post inoculation (DPI), and all developed antibody titers >1:64 to E. chaffeensis by 17 DPI. Titers in all deer fell below 1:64 during 87 to 143 DPI. One deer exhibited a second period of seropositivity (peak titer of 1:256) from 207 to 271 DPI but was culture and PCR negative during this period. Rickettsemia was confirmed by reisolation of E. chaffeensis as late as 73 to 108 DPI in three deer. Positive PCR results were obtained from femur bone marrow of one deer and from rumenal lymph node of another (leer at 278 DPI. None of the deer developed clinical signs, hematologic abnormalities, or gross or microscopic lesions attributable to E. chaffeensis. Two uninoculated control deer were negative on all tests through 90 DPI at which time they were removed from the study. Herein we confirm that white-tailed deer become persistently infected with E. chaffeensis, have initial rickettsemias of several weeks duration and may experience recrudescence of rickettsemia, which reaffirm the importance of deer in the epidemiology of E. chaffeensis. PMID:11504227

Davidson, W R; Lockhart, J M; Stallknecht, D E; Howerth, E W; Dawson, J E; Rechav, Y

2001-07-01

37

Seasonal movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of movement patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) inhabiting landscapes intensively modified by agricultural systems is important to the present and future understanding of deer ecol- ogy. Little information exists regarding daily and seasonal movements of white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. Therefore, our goal was to determine movement patterns and home-range use of female white-tailed deer

T. W. Grovenburg; J. A. Jenks; R. W. Klaver; C. C. Swanson; C. N. Jacques; D. Todey

2009-01-01

38

Multicentric T-cell lymphosarcoma in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

An adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with a history of shaking, ataxia, and severe debilitation was submitted for examination. Macroscopic lesions included severe emaciation, severe abdominal and mesenteric lymphadenopathy, and several rumen-associated masses. Microscopically, the ruminal masses and lymph nodes were infiltrated by pleomorphic neoplastic lymphocytes. Similar lymphoblasts were associated with the leptomeninges, choroid plexus, and the intestinal mucosa; these cells were intensely positive for CD3 antigen, indicating their T-cell origin. Lymphoproliferative viruses (bovine leukemia virus and malignant catarrhal fever virus) or epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were not detected by polymerase chain reaction. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of the immunophenotype of a multicentric lymphosarcoma, metastasis involving the brain, and epitheliotropic lymphoblasts in a white-tailed deer. PMID:19617490

Madson, D M; Opriessnig, T

2009-07-01

39

Nesting habitat relationships of sympatric Crested Caracaras, Red-tailed Hawks, and White-tailed Hawks in South Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus) (n = 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis) (n = 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) (n = 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed Hawk nest sites were in shrubs and trees that were shorter (3.5 ?? 1.0 m) and had smaller canopy diameters (5.5 ?? 2.1 m) than those of Red-tailed Hawks (10.1 ?? 2.0 m, 13.7 ?? 5.8 m) and Crested Caracaras (5.6 ?? 1.7 m, 8.5 ?? 3.5 m). Red-tailed Hawk nest sites had higher woody densities (15.7 ?? 9.6 plants) and more woody cover (84 ?? 19%) than those of White-tailed Hawks (5.6 ?? 5.8 plants, 20 ?? 21%) and Crested Caracaras (9.9 ?? 6.7 plants, 55 ?? 34%). Crested Caracara nest sites were in dense, multi-branched shrubs composed of more living material (97 ?? 3%) than those of White-tailed (88 ?? 18%) and Red-tailed hawks (88 ?? 18%). Nest sites of White-tailed Hawks, Red-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras were similar to random samples from the surrounding habitat indicating that preferred nesting habitat was available for each of these species at least within 60 m of active nest sites. Nest tree height, along with woody plant and native grass cover best discriminated nest sites among the three raptor species. There was no overlap at Red-tailed and White-tailed hawk nest sites in vegetation structure, while Crested Caracara nests were in habitat intermediate between the two other species. Partitioning of nesting habitat may be how these raptor species co-exist at the broader landscape scale of our study area in the Coastal Sand Plain of Texas.

Actkinson, M. A.; Kuvlesky, Jr. , W. P.; Boal, C. W.; Brennan, L. A.; Hernandez, F.

2007-01-01

40

Field validation and assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting chronic wasting disease in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni).  

PubMed

Tissue samples (n = 25,050 total) from 23,256 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) collected statewide in Colorado were examined for chronic wasting disease (CWD) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed by Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. (brELISA), in a 2-phase study. In the validation phase of this study, a total of 4,175 retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN) or obex (OB) tissue samples were examined independently by brELISA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). There were 137 IHC-positive samples and 4,038 IHC-negative samples. Optical density (OD) values from brELISA were classified as "not detected" or "suspect" based on recommended cutoff values during the validation phase. Using IHC-positive cases as known CWD-infected individuals and assuming IHC-negative cases as uninfected, the relative sensitivity of brELISA depending on species ranged from 98.3% to 100% for RLN samples and 92.1% to 93.3% for OB samples; the relative specificity of brELISA depending on species ranged from 99.9% to 100% for RLN samples and was 100% for OB samples. Overall agreement between brELISA and IHC was > or = 97.6% in RLN samples and > or = 95.7% in OB samples of all species where values could be calculated; moreover, mean brELISA OD values were > or = 46X higher in IHC-positive samples than in IHC-negative samples. Discrepancies were observed only in early-stage cases of CWD. Based on the validation phase data, only RLN samples were collected for the field application phase of this study and only samples with brELISA OD values > 0.1 were examined by IHC. Among 20,875 RLN samples screened with brELISA during this second testing phase, 155 of 8,877 mule deer, 33 of 11,731 elk, and 9 of 267 white-tailed deer samples (197 total) had OD values > 0.1 and were further evaluated by IHC to confirm evidence of CWD infection. Of cases flagged for IHC follow-up, 143 of 155 mule deer, 29 of 33 elk, and all 9 white-tailed deer were confirmed positive. Mean (+/- SE) OD values for IHC-positive cases detected during the field application phase were comparable with those measured in RLN tissues during the validation phase. Based on these data, brELISA was determined to be an excellent rapid test for screening large numbers of samples in surveys designed to detect CWD infections in deer and elk populations. PMID:12918810

Hibler, Charles P; Wilson, Kathi L; Spraker, Terry R; Miller, Michael W; Zink, Robert R; DeBuse, Linda L; Andersen, Elaine; Schweitzer, Darrell; Kennedy, James A; Baeten, Laurie A; Smeltzer, John F; Salman, Mo D; Powers, Barbara E

2003-07-01

41

Experimental persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the most important reservoir for BVDV. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most abundant species of wild ruminants in the United States and contact between cattle and deer is common. If the outcome of fetal infection of white-tailed deer is similar

Thomas Passler; Paul H. Walz; Stephen S. Ditchkoff; M. Daniel Givens; Herris S. Maxwell; Kenny V. Brock

2007-01-01

42

Cougar predation and population growth of sympatric mule deer and white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations throughout the west appear to be declining, whereas white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations are increasing. We compared abundance, number of fetuses per female (maternity rate), recruitment, and cause-specific adult ( ?1 year old) mortality rate for sympatric mule deer and white- tailed deer in south-central British Columbia to assess population growth for each species.

Hugh S. Robinson; Robert B. Wielgus; John C. Gwilliam

2002-01-01

43

Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BVDV in white-tailed deer has not been evaluated, which prompted this study. Six pregnant white-tailed deer were captured in the first trimester of pregnancy and cohabitated with a PI white-tailed deer. Cohabitation with the PI deer resulted in BVDV infection in all does, as indicated by seroconversion. All does gave birth to live fawns and no reproductive losses were observed. At birth, evidence of BVDV infection was identified in two singlet fawns, of which one was determined to be PI by repeated serum reverse transcription nested PCR, whole blood virus isolation and immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrates for the first time that BVDV transmission may occur among white-tailed deer. The birth of a PI fawn through contact to a PI white-tailed deer indicates that under appropriate circumstances, BVDV may be maintained in white-tailed deer by congenital infection.

Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Givens, M. Daniel; Brock, Kenny V.; DeYoung, Randy W.; Walz, Paul H.

2009-01-01

44

Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...

45

Bovine viral diarrhea virus multi-organ infection in two white-tailed deer in southeastern South Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The role of wild ruminants especially cervids in the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has remained an enigma. Two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were submitted to the Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL) in the fall of 2003 by the South Dakota Game ...

46

Surveillance for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in Scavengers of White-Tailed Deer Carcasses in the Chronic Wasting Disease Area of Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative

Christopher S. Jennelle; Michael D. Samuel; Cherrie A. Nolden; Delwyn P. Keane; Daniel J. Barr; Chad Johnson; Joshua P. Vanderloo; Judd M. Aiken; Amir N. Hamir; Edward A. Hoover

2009-01-01

47

Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline  

SciTech Connect

The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

2003-02-26

48

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from the lungs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia.  

PubMed

In vitro susceptibilities of 29 strains of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from lung lesions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia were determined using the broth microdilution method to ascertain efficacious treatment options for pneumonic white-tailed deer. All 29 A. pyogenes strains tested were susceptible to ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but were resistant to both danofloxacin and sulfadimethoxine. Likewise, all 29 isolates were either fully susceptible or intermediately susceptible to gentamicin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate) and tulathromycin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate). At least one isolate of A. pyogenes tested was resistant to ampicillin, chlortetracycline, clindamycin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and tilmicosin suggesting their ineffectiveness in treating A. pyogenes-associated lung infections in white-tailed deer. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for tylosin and neomycin could not be interpreted due to unavailability of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-approved breakpoints for these 2 agents. In summary, based on MIC values, ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are more efficacious than other antimicrobial agents for treating A. pyogenes-related pneumonia in white-tailed deer. However, ceftiofur may be preferred over the other 4 drugs as it is being widely used to treat respiratory disease in cattle and other animal species, as well as is available for single dose parenteral administration. PMID:21908365

Tell, Lisa A; Brooks, Jason W; Lintner, Valerie; Matthews, Tammy; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

2011-09-01

49

Vaccination of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerín  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer in order to interrupt the cycle of deer to deer and deer to cattle transmission. Thirty-one white-tailed deer were assigned to

M. V. Palmer; T. C. Thacker; W. R. Waters

2007-01-01

50

Out-of-season breeding of captive white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although techniques to induce out-of-season breeding in deer with exogenous hormones are documented, a successful technique has not been developed for use with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The efficacy of using a combined treatment of melatonin, progesterone, and pregnant mare serum gonadotropin to advance seasonal estrus in captive white-tailed deer was tested. First estrus of 12 treated does (n =

D. A. Osborn; J. W. Gassett; K. V. Miller; W. R. Lance

2000-01-01

51

Size and composition of white-tailed deer groups in a tropical dry forest in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical dry forest of “Chamela” in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, is distinguished by highly seasonal food and water availability, year-round dense cover understory, and constant presence of predators species of the white-tailed deer. Therefore, frequent small groups and solitary individuals should be expected. To test this hypothesis, the size and composition of white-tailed deer groups was estimated between

S. Mandujano; S. Gallina

1996-01-01

52

Spatial analysis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population in Michigan, USA, has endemic Mycobacterium bovis. We determined whether there were spatial clusters of retrospective TB cases in white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan and identified specific factors associated with the spatial clusters.Data from hunter-harvested deer (age, gender, TB status, and geographic section) were collected by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR)

RoseAnn Miller; John B. Kaneene; Stephen M. Schmitt; David P. Lusch; Scott D. Fitzgerald

2007-01-01

53

White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) develop spirochetemia following experimental infection with Borrelia lonestari  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borrelia lonestari is considered a putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) and is known to occur naturally only in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We used a low passage isolate of B. lonestari (LS-1) to inoculate white-tailed deer, C3H mice, Holstein cattle, and beagles. Animals were monitored via examination of Giemsa and acridine

P. L. Moyer; A. S. Varela; M. P. Luttrell; V MOOREIV; D. E. Stallknecht; S. E. Little

2006-01-01

54

Immunocontraception of white-tailed deer using native and recombinant zona pellucida vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a 2-year feasibility study with native porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccine and three recombinant rabbit zona pellucida vaccines (RC55, RC75a and a combination of RC55, RC75a and RC75b) as an initial phase of developing a recombinant immunocontraceptive vaccine to control reproduction in overpopulated herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Forty captive white-tailed does were divided into five groups

Lowell A. Miller; Brad E. Johns; Gary J. Killian

2000-01-01

55

Temporal and Spatial Genetic Variability in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch-gel electrophoresis was used to assess temporal and spatial genetic variation in populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in western Tennessee. Samples of liver and kidney obtained from animals at five localities during 1985–1992 were analyzed at 11 loci known to be polymorphic in white-tailed deer. There were minimal significant differences in allelic frequencies between sexes and among age groups

P. G. Kollars; M. L. Beck; S. G. Mech; P. K. Kennedy; M. L. Kennedy

2004-01-01

56

White-tailed deer winter feeding strategy in area shared with other deer species  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer were introduced into the Czech republic about one hundred years ago. Population numbers have remained stable at low density despite almost no harvesting. this differs from other introductions of this species in europe. We presumed that one of the possible factors preventing expansion of the white-tailed deer population is lack of high-quality food components in an area overpopulated

Miloslav HoMolka; Marta Heroldová

57

INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION BETWEEN WHITE-TAILED, FALLOW , RED, AND ROE DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a series of studies in the Dobríš Forest, Czech Republic, to determine whether competitio n between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianu s) and sympatric cervid species could limit expansion of the whit e - tail population. We used grazing time among species as an indication of potential interspecific competition an d predicted that grazing time on an open pasture

KARL V. MILLER; Daniel B. Warnell

58

Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole blood or culture. None of the deer showed evidence of clinical disease, but 3 of the 6 deer evaluated had multiple episodes of transient thrombocytopenia. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained, thin blood smears revealed tiny, dark, spherical structures in platelets of acutely infected deer. Anaplasma sp. was detected in platelets of inoculated deer by polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Five of 6 deer developed antibodies reactive to Anaplasma sp. antigen, as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and gltA sequences confirmed the Anaplasma sp. is related to A. platys. Two attempts to transmit the Anaplasma sp. between deer by feeding Amblyomma americanum, a suspected tick vector, were unsuccessful. Based on its biologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, this organism is considered a novel species of Anaplasma, and the name Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. is proposed with UMUM76(T) (=CSUR-A1) as the type strain. PMID:23276749

Tate, Cynthia M; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Mead, Daniel G; Dugan, Vivien G; Luttrell, M Page; Sahora, Alexandra I; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Davidson, William R; Yabsley, Michael J

2012-12-29

59

Browsing of tree regeneration by white-tailed deer in large clearcuts on Anticosti Island, Quebec  

Microsoft Academic Search

Browsing by the substantial population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) on Anticosti Island hampers the regeneration of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), which is both the deer's preferred food and shelter. The island's original fir stands have gradually been replaced by stands of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), as this species is rarely browsed by the deer.

Christine Casabon; David Pothier

2007-01-01

60

Regional assessment on influence of landscape configuration and connectivity on range size of white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the size of home range of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has broad implications for managing populations, agricultural damage, and disease spread and transmission. Size of home\\u000a range of deer also varies seasonally because plant phenology dictates the vegetation types that are used as foraging or resting\\u000a sites. Knowledge of the landscape configuration and connectivity that contributes to variation

W. David Walter; Kurt C. VerCauteren; Henry Campa; William R. Clark; Justin W. Fischer; Scott E. Hygnstrom; Nancy E. Mathews; Clayton K. Nielsen; Eric M. Schauber; Timothy R. Van Deelen; Scott R. Winterstein

2009-01-01

61

Experimental malignant catarrhal fever (African form) in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were experimentally infected with the African form of malignant catarrhal fever (AMCF) virus by inoculation of whole blood from experimentally infected cattle, from whole blood obtained from a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and from virus isolated in cell culture. The incubation period from AMCF in experimentally infected deer ranged from 13 to 18 days. Clinical disease was characterized by lacrimation, an elevated body temperature, conjunctivitis and swelling of the external lymph nodes. Histologic lesions were primarily characterized by widespread vasculitis and lymphadenopathy. The organs most severely affected were liver, lymphoid tissue, brain and lungs. Successful recovery and identification of AMCF virus was accomplished from one experimentally infected deer. PMID:7310953

Whitenack, D L; Castro, A E; Kocan, A A

1981-07-01

62

A cross-sectional study of the causes of morbidity and mortality in farmed white-tailed deer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two questionnaires were designed and administered. The first was to a random sample of 340 farmers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. The second was a 10-year retrospective survey of deer submissions to veterinary diagnostic pathology laboratories in Canada and the United States. One-year rates of mortality and common causes of morbidity and mortality for the deer are reported. The primary diagnosis for each record was used to classify diseases into categories, such as parasitic, infectious, toxicological, and neoplastic. Submissions were further classified according to the anatomical location, the pathological change, and the etiology associated with each lesion. Trauma was the most important reported cause of farmed white-tailed deer mortality; necrobacillosis was a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in fawns.

2005-01-01

63

Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Actkinson, M. A.; Kuvlesky, Jr. , W. P.; Boal, C. W.; Brennan, L. A.; Hernandez, F.

2009-01-01

64

Effects of sex, age, habitat, and body weight on kidney weight in white-tailed deer  

SciTech Connect

Kidney (Y) and body (X) weights in kilograms are highly correlated (r = 0.88) in white-tailed deer. As in other mammals, the relationship between the two variables is curvilinear with Y = 2.493 X/sup 0/ /sup 746/. Habitat did not affect the parameters of the relationship although certain sex-age and sex month categories did. However, use of kidney weight in standardizing body condition indices in deer of different sizes still seems warranted for white-tailed deer in the Southeastern United States during the hunting season because of the relatively high predictability of the overall kidney-body weight relationship.

Johns, P.E.; Smith, M.H.; Chesser, R.K.

1980-03-01

65

Spatial analysis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA.  

PubMed

The wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population in Michigan, USA, has endemic Mycobacterium bovis. We determined whether there were spatial clusters of retrospective TB cases in white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan and identified specific factors associated with the spatial clusters. Data from hunter-harvested deer (age, gender, TB status, and geographic section) were collected by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during TB surveillance from 1995 to 2002. Land cover (vegetation, land-use) and land type (soil types and drainage characteristics, landforms) described potential deer habitats. Specific locations of large-scale supplemental feeding sites were collected from the MDNR aerial surveillance program from 1997 to 2002. Analyses were conducted using principal components derived from environmental data (and other risk factors) on spatial clusters of disease (identified by the spatial scan statistic). Spatial effects were incorporated into the multivariable analyses by using a neighborhood approach. A total of 420 deer with M. bovis infection were identified from 1995 to 2002, out of 39,451 harvested deer from 3216 TRS units, and spatial clusters of cases were identified. A total of seven principal components of environmental data were generated. Clusters were associated with the presence of large expanses of deciduous forests on moraine ridges separated by low areas of forested wetlands, and the presence of many small lakes. Factors that promoted congregation of deer for extended periods of time (natural cover, access to water, and less human contact) appeared to be associated with increased odds of TB positivity. This suggests that there are specific areas where interventions can be implemented to reduce congregation of animals and disrupt the cycle of infection transmission. PMID:17597240

Miller, RoseAnn; Kaneene, John B; Schmitt, Stephen M; Lusch, David P; Fitzgerald, Scott D

2007-06-26

66

Neospora caninum antibodies detected in Midwestern white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) by Western blot and ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve to maintain the Neospora caninum life cycle in the wild. Sera from white-tailed deer from south central Wisconsin and southeastern Missouri, USA were tested for antibodies to N. caninum by Western blot analyses and two indirect ELISAs. Seroreactivity against N. caninum surface antigens was observed in 30 of 147 (20%) of WI deer and 11

Todd Anderson; Amanda DeJardin; Daniel K. Howe; J. P. Dubey; Michelle L. Michalski

2007-01-01

67

A PLAGUE EPIZOOTIC IN THE WHITE-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LEUCURUS) OF MEETEETSE, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance for sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted near Meeteetse, Wyoming (USA) from 24 May to 14 june 1985. Ten species of fleas were collected from white- tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus), and from their burrows and associated rodents. Five of these flea species and two adult prairie dogs were positive for plague. The progression of this plague epizootic appeared

Sonya R. Ubico; Kathleen A. Fagerstone; Robert G. McLean

68

Impact of BVDV infection of white-tailed deer during second and third trimesters of pregnancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While it has been demonstrated that persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections can be established in white-tailed deer following in utero exposure in the first trimester of gestation, there is little to no information regarding the outcome of infection, in deer, in later stages of preg...

69

Immunohistological localization of testosterone in the growing antler of the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using immunohistological methods (fluorescein and peroxidase labeled double antibody technique), the localization of testosterone in the antlers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at the beginning of the period of accelerated calcification was examined. The most intense reaction for testosterone was found in the prochondral blastema layer and in the growing follicles of the velvet. The findings may indicate the importance

G. A. Bubenik; G. M. Brown; A. B. Bubenik; L. J. Grota

1974-01-01

70

EVIDENCE FOR ARRESTED DEVELOPMENT OF ABOMASAL NEMATODES IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) obtained from Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, Noxubee County, Mississippi (USA) during April (n = 3), June (n = 5), September (n = 5), and November (n = 5) 1989, were necropsied for counting and identification of adult and larval stages of abomasal nematodes. Fourth-stage larvae (L4) (n ? 25) from each deer were randomly selected for

A. M. G. Belem; C. E. Couvillion; C. Siefker; R. N. Griffin

1993-01-01

71

Experimental Infection of White-Tailed Deer with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Etiologic Agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serologic and molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been demonstrated in white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus), and deer are an important host for the tick vector Ixodes scapularis. In this study, we describe experimental infection of WTD with A. phagocytophilum. We inoculated four WTD with a human isolate of A. phagocytophilum propagated in tick cells. Two additional deer served as

Cynthia M. Tate; Daniel G. Mead; M. Page Luttrell; Elizabeth W. Howerth; Vivien G. Dugan; Ulrike G. Munderloh; William R. Davidson

2005-01-01

72

IMPACTS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER ON FOREST REGENERATION IN NORTHWEST ERN PENNSYLVANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a major cause of regeneration failure in Allegheny hardwood forests of northwestern Pennsylvania. I examined the impact of deer at 5 different densities (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 deer\\/259 ha) on tree seedlings, woody shrubs, and herbaceous plants in large enclosures over 5 years. I examined 3 silvicultural treatments (clearcut, thinning, and

NANCY G. TILGHMAN

73

Spatial Distributions of Adult Male White-Tailed Deer Relative to Supplemental Feed Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient intake of deer in south Texas is lowest in late summer and winter; therefore, supplemental food may be provided during these times by managers. When natural food resources become scarce, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) may shift home ranges or core areas to incorporate supplemental food sources. Thus, supplemental food sources may influence daily movements and home range characteristics of

Stephen L. Webb; David G. Hewitt; Dean D. Marquardt; Mickey W. Hellickson

74

Site and landscape conditions at white-tailed deer\\/vehicle collision locations in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle collisions with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) present several problems including danger to humans, vehicle damage, and deer mortality. Knowledge of factors influencing deer movements onto or across roads and highways may reduce deer\\/vehicle collisions on existing roads, and improve planning for future roads. We used remotely sensed data to determine characteristics associated with high accident areas. Topographic features

Rebecca A. Finder; John L. Roseberry; Alan Woolf

1999-01-01

75

ISOLATION OF NEOSPORA CANINUM FROM NATURALLY INFECTED WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Attempts were made to isolate Neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A total of 110 deer killed during the 2003 hunting season in Virginia region were used for the isolation of N. caninum. Of these, brains from 28 deer that had NAT titer of ' 200 were i...

76

Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2...

77

Assessing White-tailed Deer Abundance in the Town of Barnstable, Cape Cod, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are abundant throughout most of the eastern United States. However, in and around the town of Barnstable on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, there is a notable relative paucity of the species. I sought to seek rough population numbers\\/trends of deer through direct sightings and tracking (on sand, dirt, and snow) over the past 16 years (1993 -

78

Demographics of non-hunted white-tailed deer populations in suburban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burgeoning deer populations in urban and suburban areas, along with the inherent problems stemming from this increase, are becoming increasingly widespread. To address these problems, wildlife biologists need quality baseline data of herd composition for harvest and treatment forecasts for management and fertility control research programs. In this study, we provide white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population data from 4 areas

ANTHONY J. DENICOLA; DWYANE R. ETTER; THOMAS ALMENDINGER

2008-01-01

79

Associating Seasonal Range Characteristics With Survival of Female White-Tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delineating populations is critical for understanding population dynamics and managing habitats. Our objective was to delineate subpopulations of migratory female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, USA, on summer and winter ranges. We used fuzzy classification to assign radiocollared deer to subpopulations based on spatial location, characterized subpopulations by trapping sites, and explored

Robert W. Klaver; Jonathan A. Jenks; Christopher S. Deperno; Steven L. Griffin

2008-01-01

80

Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an “island” habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer needles)

Brian L. Cypher; Richard H. Yahner; Ellen A. Cypher

1988-01-01

81

Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an ``island'' habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer

Brian L. Cypher; Richard H. Yahner; Ellen A. Cypher

1988-01-01

82

Intersexual social behavior of urban white-tailed deer and its evolutionary implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) are now common in many urban environments throughout their geographic range. Yet, how male and female deer in the urban environment associate, behave socially, and the evolutionary implications of that behavior remains unstudied. We examined predictions of the predation risk and the social factor hypotheses to explain intersexual grouping patterns and social behavior observed

Katherine E. Richardson; Floyd W. Weckerly

2007-01-01

83

Aversive responses of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus , to predator urines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urine from bobcats (Lyra rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of Japanese yews (Taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. Urine of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting

Robert K. Swihart; Joseph J. Pignatello; Mary Jane I. Mattina

1991-01-01

84

Fasting Biochemistry of Representative Spontaneous and Facultative Hibernators : The White-Tailed Prairie Dog and the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-tailed prairie dog is a spontaneous hibernator that enters art anorexic state followed by torpor in early fall. The black-tailed prairie dog is a facultative hibernator that enters torpor only when deprived of food and water in the winter. The physiological state of hibernation is similar to a Phase II euthermic fast characterized by elevated fat catabolism, increased blood

C. J Cotton; Henry Harlow

1995-01-01

85

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.  

PubMed

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

2013-06-19

86

Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

1984-01-01

87

Establishment of the Invasive White-tailed Deer in Portland, Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A small population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was introduced to Jamaica in the 1980s through the accidental release of captive-held animals. This article is based on a 2003 investigation carried out on their distribution, population size, and socioeconomic impacts of the introduction. The investigation also sought to ascertain whether the deer represent a threat to biodiversity in the

Shauna-Lee Chai

88

High prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples of 400 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 16 preserves in northeastern Illinois were tested for Neospora caninum antibodies in the N. caninum agglutination test using mouse-derived N. caninum tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Antibodies were found in 162 deer with titres of 1:40 (47 deer), 1:80 (32 deer), 1:160 (17 deer), 1:200 (eight deer), 1:400 (19 deer), 1:800 (17 deer)

J. P Dubey; K Hollis; S Romand; P Thulliez; O. C. H Kwok; L Hungerford; C Anchor; D Etter

1999-01-01

89

LEVONORGESTREL IMPLANTS AS A CONTRACEPTIVE IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silastic implants containing levonorgestrel (LNG) were evaluated as a contraceptive in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Six adult females and six female fawns received either six or nine implants in autumn. Each implant contained 36 mg of LNG. Blood was analyzed by radioimmunoassay to determine LNG release profile for 5 mo post-implantation. Serum LNG concentrations rose significantly (P = 0.0005)

Lisa M. White; Robert J. Warren; Richard A. Fayrer-Hosken

90

Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (n=14 treated, n=7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated

Paul D. Curtis; Milo E. Richmond; Lowell A. Miller; Fred W. Quimby

2007-01-01

91

Leptospirosis Survey in a White-tailed Deer Herd in Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were sampled in a wilderness area of Southern Ontario in 1965, 1966, and, 1967. Serological evidence of Leptospira pomona and L. grippotypb:osa infection was found. Leptospirosis has not depressed the deer population. There was a positive correlation between age and reactor rate. Paper disc-absorbed whole blood has been tested comparatively with fluid serum and found to

BARBARA F. KINGSCOTE

92

ABSORPTION OF NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN IN GUAJILLO BY WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guajillo (Acacia berlandieri) is an important forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), but has high concentrations of non-protein nitrogen (N). To determine if non-protein N is absorbed by deer, 4 diets with different proportions of guajillo were assigned randomly to 4 male deer in a Latin square design and total balance trials were conducted. Urea and ammonium N were assayed

MICHAEL J. MAYFIELD; TYLER A. CAMPBELL; DAVID G. HEWITT

2004-01-01

93

DIET AND FOOD PREFERENCES OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN NORTH-EASTERN STEWART ISLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The diet and food preferences of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on north-eastern Stewart Island are described from the analysis of 160 samples of rumen contents collected between 1979 and 1985, and vegetation surveys in 1975 and 1976. Deer browsed all the hardwood trees, but few shrubs, ferns, or podocarps. Woody plants comprised 85.1 % (dry weight) of annual diet.

G. NUGENT; C. N. CHALLIES

94

COMBINATION OF ETORPHINE AND XYLAZINE IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER: I. SEDATIVE AND IMMOBILIZATION PROPERTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bstract: Eighteen white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were immobilized with a singleintramuscular injection of etorphine hydrochloride (20 ?sg\\/kg of body weight) and xylazine (0.4 mg\\/kg. of body weight). The deer ranged in age from 6 months to 8 years and some were in poor physical condition. The drugs were ad- ministered in syringes projected with a CO2-powered gun. Time required

K. RON PRESNELL; PAUL J. A. PRESIDENTE; WILLIAM A. RAPLEYJ

95

Modelling the impact of toxic and disturbance stress on white-tailed eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla ) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have related breeding success and survival of sea eagles to toxic or non-toxic stress separately. In the present\\u000a investigation, we analysed single and combined impacts of both toxic and disturbance stress on populations of white-tailed\\u000a eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), using an analytical single-species model. Chemical and eco(toxico)logical data reported from laboratory and field studies\\u000a were used to parameterise and

John C. Korsman; Aafke M. Schipper; H. J. Rob Lenders; Ruud P. B. Foppen; A. Jan Hendriks

2012-01-01

96

Relationship between dominance and antler cycle in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that there is a negative correlation between rank and order of casting antlers in white-tailed deerOdocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780) and that dominant individuals will start antler regrowth and velvet shedding earlier than subordinates.\\u000a We assessed dominance relationship among 14 bucks (1.5 to 7.5 years-of-age) confined in a 0.6 ha enclosure and related hierarchal\\u000a position to timing

Lud?k Bartoš; Karl V. Miller; David Osborn

2004-01-01

97

Cell mediated and humoral immune responses of white-tailed deer experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to improve the understanding of immune responses of whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Ten mature, female, white-tailed deer were inoculated by intratonsilar instillation of 2 × 103or 2 × 105colony-forming units of M. bovis. Lymphocyte proliferation and humoral response to M. bovis PPD and the M. bovis protein, MPB70 were measured.

M. V. PALMER; D. L. WHIPPLE; S. C. OLSEN; R. H. JACOBSON

2000-01-01

98

Ultrastructure of Sarcocystic sp. from the muscle of a white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis sp. from the muscle of naturally infected whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The primary cyst wall forms regularly spaced protrusions filled with electron-lucent ground substance; no fibrils are present in the protrusions. The cysts are divided by septa into compartments containing typical coccidian metrocytes and merozoites. Taxonomy of the protozoon from the white-tailed deer-dog

R. Entzeroth; B. Chobotar; E. Scholtyseck

1982-01-01

99

Daily movements of female white-tailed deer relative to parturition and breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: To assess how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd demographics;\\u000ainfluence reproductive behaviors, we examined 24-h diel movements of female whitetailed;\\u000adeer relative to parturition and breeding in a low-density population with a near;\\u000aeven sex ratio at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. We conducted a series;\\u000aof intensive, 24-h radio-tracking periods of 13 females during spring and

Gino J. DAngelo; Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Cory D. Drennan; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller

2005-01-01

100

Factors affecting road mortality of white- tailed deer in eastern South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) mortalities (n = 4,433) caused by collisions with automobiles during 2003 were modeled in 35 counties in eastern South Dakota. Seventeen independent variables and 5 independent variable interactions were evaluated to explain deer mortalities. A negative binomial regression model (Ln Y = 1.25 - 0.12 (percentage tree coverage) + 0.0002 (county area) + 5.39 (county hunter

TROY W. GROVENBURG; JONATHAN A. JENKS; ROBERT W. KLAVER; KEVIN L. MONTEITH; DWIGHT H. GALSTER; RON J. SCHAUER; WILBERT W. MORLOCK; JOSHUA A. DELGER

2008-01-01

101

SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

-,!.. Abstract: Seasonal activity patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied injl tensively along a IS-mile stretch of the Big Sioux River and less intensively on an expanse of 1,100; square miles in central eastern South Dakota from February, 1964, to March, 1966. Thirty-three deer were.'i marked individually with ear tags, streamers, and collars, and 461 locations were recorded.

ROLLIN D. SPARROWE; PAUL F. SPRINGER

102

Effects of ketamine on carfentanil and xylazine immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a crossover design, the effects of the addition of ketamine to a previously determined optimal hand-injected immobilization dosage of carfentanil\\/xylazine were evaluated in 11 adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Two i.m. ketamine dosages were evaluated: 0.15 mg\\/kg (low ketamine) and 0.30 mg\\/kg (high ketamine). Each deer was immobilized twice 2 wk apart. Inductions were video recorded and reviewed by

Timothy N. Storms; Juergen Schumacher; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller; Edward C. Ramsay

2006-01-01

103

A method of artificial insemination in captive White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ).  

PubMed

Production of fawns by artificial insemination in captive White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) has been accomplished by using frozen-thawed spermatozoa. The purpose of this study was to determine if frozen-thawed semen deposited at the posterior face of the os cervix could produce conception. Five hand-raised female White-tailed deer and one hand-raised male White-tailed deer were used over two breeding seasons 1984-1985 and 1985-1986. The vasectomized buck was ued to detect estrus in the does. The does were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen containing at least 100 million live normal cells with a 60% or higher motility. The artificial insemination catheters used in this study worked well, but due to the small size of the cervix, the catheter could only be passed up to the first cervical ring, the site at which the semen was deposited. Over two breeding seasons, nine does were inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa; each doe was inseminated once each estrous cycle at one of the following times: 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 or 30 h. after detection of estrus. Of the nine does inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa, six conceived and carried to term 11 healthy normal fawns, yielding an overall conception rate of 67%. PMID:16726625

Magyar, S J; Biediger, T; Hodges, C; Kraemer, D C; Seager, S W

1989-05-01

104

Tuberculous lesions in free-ranging white-tailed deer in Michigan.  

PubMed

Descriptions of the anatomical distribution of Mycobacterium bovis gross lesions in large samples of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are lacking in the scientific literature. This report describes the distribution of gross lesions in the 58 white-tailed deer that cultured positive for M. bovis among the 19,500 submitted for tuberculosis testing in Michigan (USA) in 1999. For the vast majority (19,348) of those tested, only the head was submitted; for others, only extracranial tissues (33) or both the head and extracranial tissues (119) were available. Among those deer that cultured positive, cranial gross lesions were noted most frequently in the medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes, although solitary, unilateral parotid lymph node lesions also were found. Extracranial lesions occurred most commonly in the thorax. The distribution of lesions largely agreed with the few existing case reports of the M. bovis in white-tailed deer, although gross lesions were also found in sites apparently not previously reported in this species (liver, spleen, rumen, mammary gland). Some practical issues that may assist future surveillance and public education efforts are also discussed. PMID:11504235

O'Brien, D J; Fitzgerald, S D; Lyon, T J; Butler, K L; Fierke, J S; Clarke, K R; Schmitt, S M; Cooley, T M; Derry, D E

2001-07-01

105

Survival rates, mortality causes, and habitats of Pennsylvania white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimates of survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns are important to population management. We quantified cause-specific mortality, survival rates, and habitat characteristics related to fawn survival in a forested landscape and an agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania. We captured and radiocollared neonatal (0.05). Predation accounted for 46.2% (95% Cl = 37.6-56.7%) of 106 mortalities through 34 weeks. We attributed 32.7% (95% Cl = 21.9-48.6%) and 36.7% (95% Cl = 25.5-52.9%) of 49 predation events to black bears (Ursus americanus) and coyotes (Canis latrans], respectively. Natural causes, excluding predation, accounted for 27.4% (95% Cl = 20.1-37.3) of mortalities. Fawn survival in Pennsylvania was comparable to reported survival in forested and agricultural regions in northern portions of the white-tailed deer range. We have no evidence to suggest that the fawn survival rates we observed were preventing population growth. Because white-tailed deer are habitat generalists, home-range-scale habitat characteristics may be unrelated to fawn survival; therefore, future studies should consider landscape-related characteristics on fawn survival.

Vreeland, J. K.; Diefenbach, D. R.; Wallingford, B. D.

2004-01-01

106

Butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine for immobilization of captive white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Drug combinations are commonly used to immobilize white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for capture or handling. Although efficacy of various compatible and complementary drugs has been tested in clinical trials with deer, extensive negative side effects, impractical drug volume, and slow recovery from immobilization sometimes make these combinations less than ideal for routine field use. We hypothesized that a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) would provide safe and effective immobilization of captive white-tailed deer while minimizing these complicating factors. We tested two dosages of this drug combination (BAM-1 and BAM-2) and two dosages of a naltrexone, tolazoline, and atipamezole antagonist combination (NTA-1 and NTA-2) with captive white-tailed deer. We characterized efficacy of drug for immobilization, quality of drug induction, and recovery after drug reversal, and we compared our findings with those of previous drug trials. Complete immobilization and excellent induction quality was achieved with a low volume dosage of BAM-2. Time to drug induction and deer recumbency for BAM-2 compared favorably with results from previous trials involving xylaxine/ ketamine and medetomidine/ketamine but without risk of hyperthermia. We found no differences in time to deer recovery for NTA-1 and NTA-2, with deer treated with either combination standing by 30 min postinjection. Regardless of immobilizing drugs used, we suggest practitioners monitor for signs of circulatory deficiency in deer and provide supplemental oxygen when needed. PMID:19395755

Miller, Brad F; Osborn, David A; Lance, William R; Howze, M Brent; Warren, Robert J; Miller, Karl V

2009-04-01

107

Plant Disease Lesson: White pine blister rust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on White pine blister rust (caused by Cronartium ribicola (Peridermium strobi)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Otis C. Maloy (Washington State University;)

2003-09-08

108

Hunter-Harvest of Captive-Raised Male White-Tailed Deer, 'Odocoileus virginianus', Released in Upper Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hunter recovery of tagged animals indicate that captive-raised male White-tailed Deer released in Upper Michigan when 3 years old died more frequently, and probably sooner, than expected due to non-hunting related factors. Hunters harvest...

J. J. Ozoga R. V. Doepker R. D. Earle

1992-01-01

109

Sexual selection, feather breakage and parasites: the importance of white spots in the tail of the barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long outermost tail feathers of barn swallows Hirundo rustica have white spots that are larger in males than in females and in adults than in juveniles. Spot size increases with age among\\u000a adults and is positively correlated with tail length. We tested the functional significance of these white spots by randomly\\u000a assigning males to either of three groups during

Mati Kose; Anders Pape Møller

1999-01-01

110

Is winter diet quality related to body condition of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )? An experiment using urine profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

During winter, boreal forest herbivores have access to only poor-quality forage. On Anticosti Island (Quebec, Canada), the ongoing reduction of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) P. Mill.) owing to overbrowsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) may force deer to include a higher proportion of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), a browse normally avoided, in their winter diet.

Daniel G. Sauveand; Steeve D. Côté

2006-01-01

111

Relationship between snow depth and gray wolf predation on white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Survival of 203 yearling and adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was monitored for 23,441 deer days from January through April 1975-85 in northeastern Minnesota. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) predation was the primary mortality cause, and from year to year during this period, the mean predation rate ranged from 0.00 to 0.29. The sum of weekly snow depths/month explained 51% of the variation in annual wolf predation rate, with the highest predation during the deepest snow.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1986-01-01

112

White-Tailed Deer Browse Preferences in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest  

SciTech Connect

The authors examined spring and summer use of browse by white-tailed deer in forest gaps created by group selection timber harvest at the SRS. Total percentage browse was low in both years, averaging 2.5% of the available browse. Six species were rated high use, 4 species as proportional use and 10 species as low use. Ratings were in agreement to others in the Southeast. Preferred species were maple, winged elm, greenbriar and black willow. Deer browse had very little impact on regeneration of most species.

Castleberry, S.B.; Ford, W.M.; Miller, K.V.; Smith, W.P.

1997-09-04

113

Intranasal naltrexone and atipamezole for reversal of white-tailed deer immobilized with carfentanil and medetomidine.  

PubMed

Carfentanil and medetomidine were used to immobilize 8 captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using mean dosages [+/- standard deviation (s)] of 14.2 +/- 1.11 microg/kg carfentanil and 17.8 +/- 2.03 microg/kg of medetomidine. Deer were reversed by intranasally or intramuscularly administered naltrexone and atipamezole. Dosages of carfentanil and medetomidine proved reliable for immobilization of most, but not all deer, with a mean induction time of 13.3 +/- 3.13 min. Effective and reliable immobilization will require higher dosages of carfentanil and possibly medetomidine than were used in this study. No significant differences in recovery times were observed for deer given reversal agents intranasally (9.45 +/- 5.37 min) versus intramuscularly (7.60 +/- 4.42 min). Naltrexone and atipamezole can be administered intranasally at 1.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively to safely and quickly reverse the effects of carfentanil and medetomidine in immobilized white-tailed deer. This route could potentially be useful for other reversal agents. PMID:20676292

Shury, Todd K; Caulkett, Nigel A; Woodbury, Murray R

2010-05-01

114

Mitochondrial DNA analysis of hybridization between sympatric white-tailed deer and mule deer in west Texas.  

PubMed Central

Sympatric populations of white-tailed deer and mule deer (Odocoileus virginianus and Odocoileus hemionus, respectively) on a west Texas ranch share a common mitochondrial DNA restriction map genotype. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this genotype is more characteristic of O. virginianus than of O. hemionus. The genotype of west Texas deer differs from that of O. virginianus from South Carolina by five mutational events (1.3% sequence divergence), whereas it differs from that of O. hemionus from California by 17 events (5.5% divergence). We suggest that interspecies hybridization has occurred, primarily between mule deer bucks and white-tailed deer does, with preferential absorption of hybrid offspring into the mule deer gene pool. Introgressive hybridization may be involved in ongoing displacement of mule deer by white-tailed deer in west Texas.

Carr, S M; Ballinger, S W; Derr, J N; Blankenship, L H; Bickham, J W

1986-01-01

115

Targeting ADAM12 in human disease: head, body or tail?  

PubMed

ADAM12/meltrin alpha is a type I transmembrane multidomain protein involved in tumor progression and other severe diseases, including osteoarthritis, and as such could be considered as a potential drug target. In addition to protease activity, ADAM12 possesses cell binding and cell signaling properties. This functional trinity is reflected in the structure of ADAM12, which can be divided into head, body, and tail. The head of the protein (consisting of the pro and catalytic domains) mediates processing of growth factors and cytokines and has been implicated in epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling. The body of the protein (consisting of the disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and EGF-like domains) is involved in contacts with the extracellular matrix and other cells through interactions with integrins and syndecans. Finally, the tail of the protein (consisting of the cytoplasmic domain) is engaged in interactions with intracellular signaling molecules. In many studies, ADAM12 overexpression has been correlated with disease, and ADAM12 has been shown to promote tumor growth and progression in cancer. On the other hand, protective effects of ADAM12 in disease have also been reported. Future investigations should address the precise mechanisms of ADAM12 in disease and biology in order to counterbalance the benefits from targeting ADAM12 therapeutically with possible side effects. This review describes the biology of ADAM12, its association with disease, and evaluates the possible approaches to targeting ADAM12 in human disease. PMID:19601832

Jacobsen, J; Wewer, U M

2009-01-01

116

Serum Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Captive White-tailed Fawns  

PubMed Central

Blood samples were collected, at one day of age and at weekly intervals from one through 25 weeks of age, from seven white-tailed fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) to determine the effect of age upon serum biochemical and hematological values. Serum total protein concentration increased continually during the six month period. The rate of anabolism of serum gamma-globulin exceeded the rate of catabolism at about seven weeks of age. Serum cholesterol concentration more than doubled from one day to eight weeks of age. Blood hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume increased markedly during the first eight weeks of life, but tended to remain constant from eight to 25 weeks of age. Blood erythrocyte count increased throughout the duration of the study; however, the relative increase was greater during the first eight weeks of age than thereafter.

Tumbleson, M. E.; Cuneio, J. D.; Murphy, D. A.

1970-01-01

117

Activity of buparvaquone against Theileria cervi in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Buparvaquone, a naphthoquinone with known efficacy against Theileria parva parva in cattle, was tested for activity against Theileria cervi piroplasms in both an in vitro culture system and in vivo in experimentally infected white-tailed deer. The in vitro data showed a significant decrease in the incorporation of 3H-hypoxanthine by infected red blood cells treated with buparvaquone when compared to that seen with imidocarb and chloroquine treatment. In both intact and splenectomized deer treated with buparvaquone (2.5 mg kg-1) a gradual decrease in piroplasm parasitaemia was observed following treatment. However, in the splenectomized deer, parasitaemia levels returned to near pretreatment values after approximately 2 weeks. PMID:1902608

Mitema, E S; Kocan, A A; Mukolwe, S W; Sangiah, S; Sherban, D

1991-01-01

118

Detection of stx1 and stx2 Genes in Pennsylvanian White-Tailed Deer  

PubMed Central

Shiga toxin-producing E. coli carrying the stx1 and/or stx2 genes can cause multi-symptomatic illness in humans. A variety of terrestrial and aquatic environmental reservoirs of stx have been described. Culture based detection of microbes in deer species have found a low percentage of samples that have tested positive for Stx-producing microbes, suggesting that while deer may contain these microbes, their overall abundance in deer is low. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was utilized to test for the presence of stx genes in white-tailed deer fecal matter in western Pennsylvania. In this culture independent screening, nearly half of the samples tested positive for the stx2 gene, with a bias towards samples that were concentrated with stx2. This study, while limited in scope, suggests that deer may be a greater reservoir for stx than was previously thought.

Kistler, Whitney M.; Mulugeta, Surafel; Mauro, Steven A.

2011-01-01

119

Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer (n=14 treated, n=7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated in 1998, and 3 of 6 (50%) revaccinated in 2000. The 2000 revaccinates without oophoritis, had significantly fewer normal secondary follicles than control females (P=0.03), and deer in the 1998 treatment group (P=0.04). PZP immunocontraceptive vaccine elicited ovarian pathologies in deer similar to those observed in other species. PMID:17475371

Curtis, Paul D; Richmond, Milo E; Miller, Lowell A; Quimby, Fred W

2007-04-11

120

Efficacy of clorsulon and albendazole against Fascioloides magna in naturally infected white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

The efficacy of clorsulon and of albendazole against Fascioloides magna were evaluated in 36 naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in southern Texas. A single oral dose of clorsulon suspension (12 to 30 mg/kg of body weight; mean = 24 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 153 (92%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (80%) of 5 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. A single oral dose of albendazole paste (17 to 46 mg/kg; mean = 26 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 148 (89%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (67%) of 6 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. In 82 nontreated control deer, 271 live flukes were recovered; dead flukes were not recovered. PMID:4077630

Foreyt, W J; Drawe, D L

1985-12-01

121

Evaluation of an expandable, breakaway radiocollar for white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated an expandable, breakaway VHF radiocollar design for use on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from birth to about 1 year of age. A similar collar design has been used on caribou (Rangifer tarandus), but we found that the collar did not expand quickly enough to accommodate increase in neck circumference of fawns during the first 2 months of life. Consequently, we modified the stitching pattern so that the first expansion fold opened faster. We monitored performance of this modification on free-ranging and captive fawns. Also, we collected data on neck growth in fawns to document design requirements of expandable collars for white-tailed deer. Mean neck circumference at ???14 days of age of free-ranging fawns in Pennsylvania was 17.8 cm (SD=1.67, n=62) for males and 17.3 cm (SD=1.50, n=52) for females. Based on measurements of captive fawns, neck circumference increased 8.8 cm from birth to August, 2.5 cm from August to October, and 2.6 cm from October to March. Observations of captive fawns fitted with dummy radiocollars indicated that collars expanded when needed and caused no apparent discomfort to fawns. We detected no problems with use of 86 collars on 113 free-ranging fawns for >270 days and recovered radiocollars expanded as designed. The elastic collar material failed on 3 collars (3%) after 142, 207, and 226 days on fawns, and 1-5 radiocollars (???4%) were cast by fawns. Our modification to this radiocollar design reduced fawn discomfort or suffering, allowing researchers to better comply with principles of the Animal Welfare Act.

Diefenbach, D. R.; Kochanny, C. O.; Vreeland, J. K.; Wallingford, B. D.

2003-01-01

122

Cohabitation of pregnant white-tailed deer and cattle persistently infected with Bovine viral diarrhea virus results in persistently infected fawns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic losses due to infection with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have prompted introduction of organized control programs. These programs primarily focus on the removal of persistently infected (PI) animals, the main source of BVDV transmission. Recently, persistent BVDV infection was demonstrated experimentally in white-tailed deer, the most abundant wild ruminant in North America. Contact of cattle and white-tailed deer

Thomas Passler; Paul H. Walz; Stephen S. Ditchkoff; Kenny V. Brock; Randy W. DeYoung; Aaron M. Foley; M. Daniel Givens

2009-01-01

123

Evaluation of Blood Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium Bovis in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) in Michigan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surveillance and control activities for bovine tuberculosis (TB) in free-ranging Michigan white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been underway for over a decade, with significant progress. However, foci of higher TB prevalence on private land, and limited agency ability to eliminate them ...

124

Stimuli-related variation in urination frequency of female white-tailed deer during the estrous cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed variations in urination frequency of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) that appeared to be dependent on stage of the estrous cycle and type of disturbance stimuli, and evaluated possible causes for this potential chemosensory behavior. Eight does were exposed randomly to a teaser buck, other does, and a human disturbance for 5 min each day. For each doe,

J. W. Gassett; D. A. Osborn; J. K. Rickard; R. L. Marchinton; K. V. Miller

1998-01-01

125

GASTROINTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER: EFFECTS OF FIRE, REPRODUCTION, AND FEEDING TYPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed variation in length, width, density, and surface enlargement factor of papillae; rumen and intestinal digesta weight; intestinal length; and intestinal tissue weight of reproductive and nonreproductive female white- tailed (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) using similar burned and unburned habitat. Deer were collected from study areas in Custer and Pennington counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent

Teresa J. Zimmerman; Jonathan A. Jenks; David M. Leslie

2006-01-01

126

Condition and Diet Quality of White-tailed Deer in Response to Vegetation Management in Central Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of woody vegetation management using herbicide and fire on condition and diet quality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the cross timbers of central Oklahoma. Condition of deer was assessed seasonally (1987-1989) on an area containing a mosaic of habitat types created by various brush removal treatments and on a control area not exposed to any

Roderick B. Soper; Robert L. Lochmiller; David M. Leslie

1993-01-01

127

White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1980 Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ninety-eight white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1980, an increase of twenty-five over 1979. Both spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those re...

J. D. Story J. T. Kitchings

1982-01-01

128

THE LIVER FLUKE METORCHIS BILIS - A NEW THREAT FOR THE WHITE-TAILED SEA EAGLE (HALIAEETUS ALBICILLA) IN MIDDLE EUROPE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extendet abstract: The white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) an endangered species in Germany suffers a lot of threats in the highly civilised landscape. Amongst the main causes of death such as traumata due to interference with human structures, i.e. collisions with trains, wire, electrocution, and poisoning, parasites do also play an important role in the health status of these birds

O. KRONE; R. SCHUSTER

129

THE IMPACT OF TRANSLOCATION AND RESTOCKING PROGRAMS ON THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN MISSISSIPPI.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The majority of wildlife population genetics studies have focused on model species representing threatened or endangered populations. However, there are several species that exemplify remarkable "success stories" due to past conservation efforts, but have received little attention. White-tailed de...

130

Effects of white-tailed deer on the population dynamics of acorns, seedlings and small saplings of Quercus buckleyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

To measure the effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on seeds, seedlings, and young saplings of Quercus buckleyi on the eastern Edwards Plateau of central Texas, USA, experimental fenced deer exclosures were constructed. Acorns or small Q. buckleyi transplants were placed in each exclosure and in each unfenced control plot. Deer did not significantly affect acorn survival and germination,

F. Leland Russell; Norma L. Fowler

2004-01-01

131

Distribution and interaction of white-tailed deer and cattle in a semi-arid grazing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to optimize production, range managers need to understand and manage the spatial distribution of free-ranging herbivores, although this task becomes increasingly difficult as ranching operations diversify to include management of wildlife for recreational hunting. White-tailed deer are sympatric with cattle throughout much of their range and are a valuable commodity in southern rangelands. The spatial distribution of deer

Susan M. Cooper; Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso; M. Keith Owens; Michael G. Meek; Manuel Figueroa-Pagán

2008-01-01

132

Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Hybridization between Sympatric White-Tailed Deer and Mule Deer in West Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sympatric populations of white-tailed deer and mule deer (Odocoileus virginianus and Odocoileus hemionus, respectively) on a west Texas ranch share a common mitochondrial DNA restriction map genotype. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this genotype is more characteristic of O. virginianus than of O. hemionus. The genotype of west Texas deer differs from that of O. virginianus from South Carolina by five

Steven M. Carr; Scott W. Ballinger; James N. Derr; Lytle H. Blankenship; John W. Bickham

1986-01-01

133

Prey switching and feeding habits of eastern coyotes in relation to snowshoe hare and white-tailed deer densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) availability on the feeding habits of coyotes ( Canis latrans) in Nova Scotia from 1992 to 1997. We hypothesized that coyotes would switch from deer to hare as hare abundance increased. Based on the analysis of 2443 scats, deer and hare were the dominant food items.

Brent R. Patterson; Lawrence K. Benjamin; François Messier

1998-01-01

134

SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY IN FREE-RANGING MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HE\\/Id\\/ONUS), WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSON\\/) IN NORTHCENTRAL COLORADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between March 1981 and June 1995, a neurological disease characterized histolog- ically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral Colorado (USA). Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and ac- counted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six Rocky Mountain elk (Cerous eluphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus oirginianus) were also

T. R. Spraker; M. W. Miller; E. S. Williams; D. M. Getzy; W. J. Adrian; G. G. Schoonveld; R. A. Spowart; K. I. O'Rourke; J. M. Miller; P. A. Merz

135

Movement Patterns and Behavior at Winter-Feeding and Fall Baiting Stations in a Population of White-Tailed Deer Infected with Bovine Tuberculosis in the Northeastern Lower Peninsula of Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994 bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) was discovered in a single free ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Michigan (Deer Management Unit 452 @MU 452)). By the end of the 2000 hunting season, 325+ deer within the DMU 452 had been detected with M. bovis and it was generally believed that the disease had radiated from a single focus

Mark Stephen Garner

2001-01-01

136

Multiple sclerosis and allied white matter diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches are extensively used for the assessment of central nervous system (CNS)\\u000a damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and allied white matter diseases. Through their ability to obtain simultaneous\\u000a measures of abnormalities of structure and function at a global and regional level, these techniques, which include magnetization\\u000a transfer MRI, diffusion tensor MRI and proton

Massimo Filippi; Maria Assunta Rocca

2008-01-01

137

Experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in yearling black-tailed deer.  

PubMed

An apparently novel adenovirus was associated with an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California (USA) during 1993-1994. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. Six black-tailed yearling deer (O. hemionus columbianus) were inoculated with purified adenovirus isolated from a black-tailed fawn that died of acute adenovirus hemorrhagic disease during the epizootic. Three of six inoculated deer also received intramuscular injections of dexamethasone sodium phosphate every 3 days during the study. Eight days post-inoculation, one deer (without dexamethasone) developed bloody diarrhea and died. Necropsy and histopathologic findings were identical to lesions in free-ranging animals that died of the natural disease. Hemorrhagic enteropathy and pulmonary edema were the significant necropsy findings and there was microscopic vascular damage and endothelial intranuclear inclusion bodies in the vessels of the intestines and lungs. Adenovirus was identified in necrotic endothelial cells in the lungs by fluorescent antibody staining, immunohistochemistry and by transmission electron microscopy. Adenovirus was reisolated from tissues of the animal that died of experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease. Similar gross and microscopic lesions were absent in four of six adenovirus-inoculated deer and in the negative control animal which were necropsied at variable intervals during the 14 wk study. One deer was inoculated with purified adenovirus a second time, 12 wk after the first inoculation. Fifteen days after the second inoculation, this deer developed severe ulceration of the tongue, pharynx and rumen and necrotizing osteomyelitis of the mandible which was associated with vasculitis and thrombosis of adjacent large vessels and endothelial intranuclear inclusions. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated adenovirus within the nuclei of vascular cells and immunohistochemistry demonstrated adenovirus antigen within tonsilar epithelium and in rare vessels. PMID:9391965

Woods, L W; Hanley, R S; Chiu, P H; Burd, M; Nordhausen, R W; Stillian, M H; Swift, P K

1997-10-01

138

Experimentally induced Faciola hepatica infection in white-tailed deer. I. Clinicopathological and parasitological features.  

PubMed Central

Six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and six sheep were inoculated with metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Two animals of each species were given 100, 500 or 2500 metacercariae. Clinicopathological features of these infections were determined by analyses of blood samples collected each week from inoculated deer and sheep as well as from two noninoculated animals of each species. One animal in each inoculated group was killed and examined at six weeks postinoculation and the remainder at 15 weeks postinoculation. Compared with the values obtained from noninoculated controls, eosinophilia, hyperproteinemia and hyperglobulinemia occured in inoculated deer. There were no other significant changes in hematological values or in serum aspartate aminotransferase levels. Marked leukocytosis and eosinophilia, with hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels and mild macrocytic normochromic anemia characterized the infection in lambs. Although approximately 29% of the inoculum was recovered from the hepatic parenchyma of the sheep, F. hepatica was found in only one of six inoculated deer. A patent infection was established in this deer and constitutes the second report of mature F. hepatica in this host. Images Fig. 1.

Presidente, P J; McCraw, B M; Lumsden, J H

1975-01-01

139

Ecology and management of white-tailed deer in a changing world.  

PubMed

Due to chronic high densities and preferential browsing, white-tailed deer have significant impacts on woody and herbaceous plants. These impacts have ramifications for animals that share resources and across trophic levels. High deer densities result from an absence of predators or high plant productivity, often due to human habitat modifications, and from the desires of stakeholders that set deer management goals based on cultural, rather than biological, carrying capacity. Success at maintaining forest ecosystems require regulating deer below biological carrying capacity, as measured by ecological impacts. Control methods limit reproduction through modifications in habitat productivity or increase mortality through increasing predators or hunting. Hunting is the primary deer management tool and relies on active participation of citizens. Hunters are capable of reducing deer densities but struggle with creating densities sufficiently low to ensure the persistence of rare species. Alternative management models may be necessary to achieve densities sufficiently below biological carrying capacity. Regardless of the population control adopted, success should be measured by ecological benchmarks and not solely by cultural acceptance. PMID:22268688

McShea, William J

2012-01-23

140

Evidence for competition between Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor albipictus feeding concurrently on white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Competition among ticks, and among ectoparasites generally, has rarely been demonstrated. Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor albipictus are both hard ticks commonly found feeding on deer harvested at Letterkenny Army Depot, in south central Pennsylvania, USA. The two species have contrasting life histories resulting in D. albipictus spending notably more time on the shared host. We hypothesized that this would give D. albipictus an advantage in locating and occupying optimal attachment sites (highly vascularized areas like the head and ears). Ticks were collected from 224 hunter-killed deer in December 2005 and November 2006 to determine if there is evidence of competition for attachment sites when these two species concurrently infest deer. A timed sample (3 min per region) of representative ticks was collected from the head (ears, face and neck regions) and body (axillae regions). Ixodes scapularis was more abundant and prevalent overall than D. albipictus. Dermacentor albipictus was found almost exclusively on the head, whereas I. scapularis was more evenly distributed, but somewhat more abundant on the body than on the head. The proportion of I. scapularis on the head was reduced at high D. albipictus abundances, but I. scapularis abundance did not alter the distribution of D. albipictus. This study supports the hypothesis of competition for preferred attachment sites between these two species of ticks, and suggests that D. albipictus may be competitively dominant over I. scapularis on the head region of concurrently infested white-tailed deer. PMID:22644381

Baer-Lehman, Marcie L; Light, Theo; Fuller, Nathan W; Barry-Landis, Katherine D; Kindlin, Craig M; Stewart, Richard L

2012-05-30

141

Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food habits of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an “island” habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer needles) was the predominant food type in all seasons except fall. Acorns and graminoids (grasses and sedges) were important food resources in fall and spring, respectively. Use of woody browse (twigs) was similar among seasons. Field use was relatively high during fall, winter without snow cover (<20 cm), and spring when food resources in fields were readily available. In contrast, use of fields was lowest in summer when preferred woodland foods were available and in winter with snow cover when food in fields was not readily accessible. Patterns of food-type use by deer at VFNHP indicate the year-round importance of nonwoody foods and field habitats to deer populations on public lands such as national parks in the northeastern United States.

Cypher, Brian L.; Yahner, Richard H.; Cypher, Ellen A.

1988-03-01

142

Antagonism of xylazine in white-tailed deer with intramuscular injection of yohimbine.  

PubMed

Eighteen free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were captured near Chestertown, Maryland (USA) from 15 February to 21 March, and 7 October to 13 November 1986. Deer were immobilized by intramuscular injection of 1.1 to 2.2 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride and 1.8 to 4.4 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride. Four captive deer from The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania (USA), were immobilized on 16 September 1986 with 1.5 to 2.0 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride. Intramuscular injection of yohimbine hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg) was used to antagonize the immobilizations. Free-ranging adult ( > or = 17 months) males could stand after a mean (+/-SE) time of 7.3 +/- 2.4 min, adult females after 8.6 +/- 1.7 min, male fawns after 5.7 +/- 3.3 min, and female fawns after 8.9 +/- 1.9 min. Captive adult males could stand after 20.2 +/- 3.4 min. Intramuscular injections of yohimbine hydrochloride effectively and safely antagonized the xylazine hydrochloride in immobilized deer and were easier to administer than intravenous injections. PMID:8722289

Wallingford, B D; Lancia, R A; Soutiere, E C

1996-04-01

143

Associating seasonal range characteristics with survival of female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Delineating populations is critical for understanding population dynamics and managing habitats. Our objective was to delineate subpopulations of migratory female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, USA, on summer and winter ranges. We used fuzzy classification to assign radiocollared deer to subpopulations based on spatial location, characterized subpopulations by trapping sites, and explored relationships among survival of subpopulations and habitat variables. In winter, Kaplan-Meier estimates for subpopulations indicated 2 groups: high (S = 0.991 ?? 0.005 [x- ?? SE]) and low (S = 0.968 ?? 0.007) weekly survivorship. Survivorship increased with basal area per hectare of trees, average diameter at breast height of trees, percent cover of slash, and total point-center quarter distance of trees. Cover of grass and forbs were less for the high survivorship than the lower survivorship group. In summer, deer were spaced apart with mixed associations among subpopulations. Habitat manipulations that promote or maintain large trees (i.e., basal area = 14.8 m2/ha and average dbh of trees = 8.3 cm) would seem to improve adult survival of deer in winter.

Klaver, R. W.; Jenks, J. A.; Deperno, C. S.; Griffin, S. L.

2008-01-01

144

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1980 status report  

SciTech Connect

Ninety-eight white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1980, an increase of twenty-five over 1979. Both spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. November and December were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road-kills was about 1.1 from January through October but shifted to a high male kill (4.8:1) during November and December, presumably the result of the rutting season. Reproductive data collected from does indicated that breeding occurred as early as October 20 and as late as December 21. Records kept on rutting condition in bucks indicated a breeding season from October through January; antlers were shed from January through April with the peak of shedding activity occurring in March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed a good general condition of the animals with only a few abnormalities or indications of sickness or disease. Abomasal parasite counts indicate that Reservation deer population has reached optimum density. Other parasites found include brainworms, body worms, and botfly larvae; papillomas were observed in two deer during 1980. Data from heart girth and weight measurements were presented and compared to similar data from elsewhere in the Southeastern United States.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1982-08-01

145

Lesion Distribution and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Elk and White-Tailed Deer in South-Western Manitoba, Canada.  

PubMed

Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, but that infected deer may also be involved. Prevalence was consistently higher in elk compared to deer in a small core area and prevalence declines since 2003 are likely due to a combination of management factors instituted during that time. Older age classes and animals sampled from the core area were at significantly higher risk of being culture positive. Positive elk and deer were more likely to be found through blood testing, opportunistic surveillance, and culling compared to hunting. No non-lesioned, culture-positive elk were detected in this study compared to previous studies in red deer. PMID:21776351

Shury, Todd K; Bergeson, Doug

2011-06-05

146

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium bovis Isolates from Michigan White-Tailed Deer during the 2009 Hunting Season.  

PubMed

Michigan has had an ongoing outbreak of endemic Mycobacterium bovis which has been recognized within and sustained by its free-ranging white-tailed deer population since 1994. Worldwide, organisms within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have exhibited the ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents, resulting in both the multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of human tuberculosis. Michigan's Bovine Tuberculosis Working Group has conducted active antimicrobial susceptibility testing on wildlife isolates of the endemic M. bovis organism at five-year intervals to detect any emerging drug resistance patterns. The results of 33 white-tailed deer origin isolates collected from the 2009 hunting season are reported here. There continues to be no evidence of any drug resistance except for pyrazinamide resistance. These results are likely due to the lack of antibacterial treatment applied to either wildlife or domestic animals which would provide selection pressure for the development of drug resistance. PMID:21151656

Fitzgerald, Scott D; Schooley, Angie M; Berry, Dale E; Kaneene, John B

2010-12-02

147

Nutritional condition and fertility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from areas with contrasting histories of hunting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the nutritional condition and pregnancy rates of 58 female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from five areas in Indiana, U.S.A., with differing herd densities and histories of hunting. We found significant differences among sites for five external measures of body size, six physiological indicators of nutritional restriction, and five internal postmortem measures of body size and fat reserves. Multivariate

Robert K. Swihart; Andrea L. Easter-Pilcher; Anthony J. DeNicola

1999-01-01

148

Mycobacterium bovis–Infected White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus): Detection of Immunoglobulin Specific to Crude Mycobacterial Antigens by ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have recently emerged as a source of Mycobacterium bovis infection for cattle within North America. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibody response of M. bovis–infected deer to crude mycobacterial antigens. Deer were experimentally inoculated with M. bovis strain 1315 either by intratonsilar instillation or by exposure to M. bovis–infected (i.e., in contact)

W. Ray Waters; Mitchell V. Palmer; Diana L. Whipple

2002-01-01

149

Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles ( Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (>6µg\\/gd.w.) lead concentrations,

B. Helander; J. Axelsson; H. Borg; K. Holm; A. Bignert

2009-01-01

150

Congener-specific analysis of chloronaphthalenes in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla breeding in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-four congeners of higher chlorinated naphthalenes were identified and quantified in the breast muscles, liver and adipose fat of a few specimens of white-tailed sea eagle collected from the Baltic coastal and inland breeding areas in Poland in 1991–1992. Many of the identified chloronaphthalenes (CNs) were well resolved as single peaks on the Rtx-5 HRGC-MS\\/EI-SIR chromatograms; but still some of

Jerzy Falandysz; Lidia Strandberg; Sten Erik Kulp; Bo Strandberg; Per-Anders Bergqvist; Christoffer Rappe

1996-01-01

151

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs)

Janna Koistinen; J. P. Giesy; J. Koivusaari; I. Nuuja; P. J. Vuorinen; J. Paasivirta

1997-01-01

152

PCDEs, PCBs, PCDDs AND PCDFs in black guillemots and white-tailed sea eagles from the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations and patterns of several chloro compounds including polychlorinated dibenzo p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), biphenyls (PCB) and diphenyl ethers (PCDE) were determined in black guillemots (Cepphus grylle L.) and white-tailed sea-eagles (Hallaeetus albicilla L.) from the Baltic Sea environment. Three breast muscles of eagles were analyzed and had different concentrations and patterns of the studied compounds, whereas the three guillemot

J. Koistinen; J. Koivusaari; I. Nuuja; J. Paasivirta

1995-01-01

153

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge reservation: 1981 status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred fifteen white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1981, an increase of seventeen over 1980. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. October and November were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road kills was 0.8:1 (males

J. D. Story; J. T. Kitchings

1982-01-01

154

Isolation and biochemical characterization of a fibrinolytic proteinase from Bothrops leucurus (white-tailed jararaca) snake venom  

Microsoft Academic Search

In investigations aimed at characterizing snake venom clot-dissolving enzymes, we have purified a fibrinolytic proteinase from the venom of Bothrops leucurus (white-tailed jararaca). The proteinase was purified to homogeneity by a combination of molecular sieve chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 and ion-exchange chromatography on CM Sepharose. The enzyme called leucurolysin-a (leuc-a), is a 23 kDa metalloendopeptidase since it is inhibited by EDTA.

C. A. Bello; A. L. N. Hermogenes; A. Magalhaes; S. S. Veiga; L. H. Gremski; M. Richardson; Eladio F. Sanchez

2006-01-01

155

Oocyte quality and estradiol supplementation affect in vitro maturation success in the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

White-tailed deer oocyte biology is not well documented. The objective of this study was to determine (1) the influence of estradiol (E(2)) supplementation on meiotic resumption and the ability to "rescue" poorer quality (lower grade) oocytes and (2) the kinetics of oocyte nuclear maturation in vitro in the white-tailed deer. In Experiment 1, immature oocytes harvested during hunting-culling operations were cultured for 24h in the presence or absence of E(2). Incubation in 1mug/mL E(2) promoted nuclear maturation (to telophase I, TI; or to metaphase II, MII) in a higher proportion of Grade 1 oocytes ( approximately 77%; P<0.05) compared with that in Grade 2 or Grade 3 counterparts ( approximately 51%). For Grades 2 and 3 oocytes, there was no advantage (P>0.05) for E(2) supplementation in reaching TI/MII. In Experiment 2, Grade 1 oocytes were cultured in the presence of E(2) and nuclear status evaluated at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24h of in vitro incubation. At 0h,>70% of oocytes already had undergone germinal vesicle breakdown. After 12h, approximately 70% of oocytes had reached metaphase I of nuclear maturation, with approximately 75% achieving TI/MII by 24h in vitro. In summary, adding E(2) to an in vitro maturation (IVM) culture system for white-tailed deer was advantageous, but only for the highest quality oocytes, with approximately 75% achieving nuclear maturation. In contrast, E(2) supplement did not benefit lower-grade oocytes, half of which will reach MII, with the other half failing. Under the described culture conditions, good-quality white-tailed deer oocytes achieve nuclear maturation over a time duration comparable with that reported in other ungulates. PMID:19853902

Siriaroonrat, B; Comizzoli, P; Songsasen, N; Monfort, S L; Wildt, D E; Pukazhenthi, B S

2009-10-23

156

PERCEPTIONS ABOUT CROP YIELDS AND LOSSES TO WHITE-TAILED DEER ON FARMS SURROUNDING GETTYSBURG NATIONAL MILITARY PARK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to determine the perceptions of farm operators concerning crop yields, and effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on crop lands surrounding Gettysburg Park. The survey consisted of 4 multiple-choice and 5 fill-in questions. Questions were developed to gauge land area planted and harvested by crop type, relative severity of impacts to crops by 8 wildlife species, and

Gary M. Vecellio; Gerald L. Storm; Richard H. Yahner

1991-01-01

157

High white-tailed deer densities benefit graminoids and contribute to biotic homogenization of forest ground-layer vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotic homogenization, with its emphasis on invasions, extinctions, and convergence in taxonomic similarity, provides an important\\u000a framework for investigating changes in biodiversity across scales. Through their selective foraging, large populations of\\u000a white-tailed deer are altering population sizes, driving extirpations, and facilitating invasions of plants throughout the\\u000a eastern United States. I hypothesize that deer can drive biotic homogenization in forest understory

Thomas P. Rooney

2009-01-01

158

A Paleozoological Perspective on White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana ) Population Density and Body Size in Central Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several\\u000a top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted,\\u000a which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected,

Steve Wolverton; James H. Kennedy; John D. Cornelius

2007-01-01

159

Genetic variability in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and its relationship to environmental parameters and herd origin (Cervidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme variation was examined in 1571 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 29 localities in Tennessee by starch gel electrophoresis. For 11 polymorphic loci, sex-related, age-related and temporal differences were minimal. However, significant spatial hererogeneity was evident in genotypes (contingency table results), allele frequencies (FST=0.057) and heterozygosity. Heterozygosity ranged from 16.9% to 26.8% with a mean of 22.9%. The spatial pattern

P. K. Kennedy; M. L. Kennedy; M. L. Beck

1987-01-01

160

Antigen Recognition by Serum Antibodies in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have emerged as reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis in northern America. For tuberculosis surveillance of deer, antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because deer are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. Sera collected sequentially from 25 Mycobacterium bovis-infected and 7 noninfected deer were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and multiantigen

W. R. Waters; M. V. Palmer; J. P. Bannantine; D. L. Whipple; R. Greenwald; J. Esfandiari; P. Andersen; J. McNair; J. M. Pollock; K. P. Lyashchenko

2004-01-01

161

Survival and fidelity of an enclosed white-tailed deer population using capture–recapture-reporting data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of animal populations enclosed by impermeable fences has increased, which poses issues related to the behavior\\u000a of individuals and populations. Despite the increased number of fenced enclosures, there is a paucity of survival and fidelity\\u000a data on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from fenced enclosures. Therefore, we examined marked deer recaptures and resightings over 13 years for an enclosed population

Stephen L. Webb; Kenneth L. Gee; Guiming Wang

2010-01-01

162

Spatial heterogeneity of mitochondrial DNA and allozymes among populations of white-tailed deer and mule deer.  

PubMed

A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population in northeastern Minnesota and a mule deer (O. hemionus) population in the Bridger Mountains Montana, have previously been shown to be spatially subdivided into contiguous subpopulations. We assessed the degree of genetic differentiation among subpopulations and tested the hypothesis that differentiation will be greater for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) than for nuclear-encoded allozymes. Differentiation of the white-tailed deer subpopulations was significant for two allozyme loci but not for mtDNA, and the overall degree of differentiation was low. Gene flow, recent founding of the subpopulations, and polygamous breeding structure may all have contributed to this pattern. Greater differentiation was evident among disjunct populations than between the contiguous subpopulations of white-tailed deer. The contiguous mule deer subpopulations were significantly differentiated for mtDNA and one allozyme locus. Differentiation was greater for mtDNA than for allozymes. These results are consistent with demographic data that indicate mule deer males disperse more than do females. Disjunct mule deer populations may be similar or dramatically different in mtDNA haplotype frequencies that do not necessarily vary with geographic distance. Current and historical gene flow and breeding structure will influence population genetic patterns. PMID:1849522

Cronin, M A; Nelson, M E; Pac, D F

163

Incubation of European yew (Taxus baccata) with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) rumen fluid reduces taxine A concentrations.  

PubMed

Yew ( Taxus baccata) foliage was co-incubated with rumen fluid (RF) taken from fistulated cattle (Bos taurus), anesthetized white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and O. virginianus killed by bow hunters. The first trial with live deer resulted in statistically significant 59% reduction of taxine A by deer RF and no reduction by cattle RF. The second intubation trial, in which half the samples were stopped after 12 h, resulted in slightly less taxine A reduction by deer (46%) and 12% reduction by cattle RF. RF obtained by hunters eQuipped with thermos bottles and trained to collect RF immediatey upon field dressing their deer caused the most (88-96%) taxine A destruction: cattle RF reduced 68-88% the toxin. Obtaining RF from freshly killed deer was less expensive and more consistently successful than taking RF by intubation of anesthetized deer. The greater ability of white-tailed deer RF to detoxify yew taxines may not entirely explain the advantage white-tailed deer have over cattle to surviveyew ingestions without toxic effects. PMID:15587242

Weaver, J D; Brown, D L

2004-12-01

164

White-tailed deer migration and its role in wolf predation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seventeen white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were radio-tagged in winter yards and tracked for up to 17 months each (881 locations) from January 1973 through August 1974 in the central Superior National Forest of NE Minnesota following a drastic decline in deer numbers. Ten vyolves (Canis lupus) from 7 packs in the same area were radiotracked before and/or during the same period (703 locations). Deer had winter ranges averaging 26.4 ha. Spring migration took place from 26 March to 23 April and was related to loss of snow cover. Deer generally migrated ENE in straight-line distances of 10.0 to 38.0 km to summer ranges. Two fawns did not migrate. Arrival on summer ranges was between 19 April and 18 May, and summer ranges varied from 48.1 to 410.4 ha. Migration back to the same winter yards took place in early December, coincident with snow accumulation and low temperatures. Social grouping appeared strongest during migration and winter yarding. Survival of the radio-tagged deer was studied through 1 May 1975. Four deer were killed by wolves, one was poached, and one drowned. Mean age of the captured deer was 5.4 years and estimated minimum survival after capture was 2.6 years, giving an estimated total minimum survival of 8.0 years. This unusually high survival rate appeared to be related to the fact that both winter and summer ranges of these deer were situated along wolf-pack territory edges rather than in centers. In addition, most summer ranges of the radio-tagged deer were along major waterways where the deer could escape wolves.

Hoskinson, R.L.; Mech, L.D.

1976-01-01

165

Effects of simulated environmental conditions on glucocorticoid metabolite measurements in white-tailed deer feces.  

PubMed

Environmental conditions may influence fecal glucocorticoid metabolite measurements if feces cannot be collected immediately after deposition. To evaluate the influence of environmental conditions on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations, we exposed fresh fecal samples to 1 of 5 simulated conditions: (1) room temperature (22 degrees C), (2) high heat (38 degrees C), (3) alternating high heat and room temperature cycle, (4) alternating freezing (-20 degrees C) and room temperature cycle, and (5) simulated rainfall (0.85 cm every other day at 22 degrees C) for 7 days. We collected fresh white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) feces at various times pre- and post-adrenocorticotropin injection to provide samples with initially low (n=5), medium (n=5), and high (n=5) glucocorticoid concentrations. Feces were mixed thoroughly and then allocated into five 10-g samples. Also, a 5-g sub-sample was taken from each fecal mass prior to treatment and stored at -20 degrees C until assayed. We subsampled from all treatments once every 24-h for 7 days. Fecal samples were assayed using [125I]corticosterone radioimmunoassay kits. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in all three groups in the simulated rainfall treatment and the low group in the alternating freezing and room temperature treatment increased significantly over the 7-day period. We believe increased microbial metabolism of fecal glucocorticoids may partly explain these results. Other biochemical processes (e.g., cleavage of conjugate side groups from hormone metabolites by non-microbial action or release of glucocorticoids from lipid micelles) may also have increased fecal glucocorticoid measurements. Our findings suggest that fecal samples exposed to rainfall for one week may artificially inflate fecal glucocorticoid measurements. Thus, researchers should recognize the potential bias when collecting fecal samples exposed to rainfall. Non-fresh samples may prove useful when care is taken to address the elevation in immunoreactive glucocorticoid concentrations. PMID:12225762

Washburn, Brian E; Millspaugh, Joshua J

2002-07-01

166

MUSCLEWORMS, PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS ANDERSONI (NEMATODA: PROTOSTRONGYLIDAE), DISCOVERED IN COLUMBIA WHITE-TAILED DEER FROM OREGON AND WASHINGTON: IMPLICATIONS FOR BIOGEOGRAPHY AND HOST ASSOCIATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Host and geographic distribution for this parasite, however, remain poorly defined in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from Columbia white-tailed deer (O. v. leucurus) in a restricted range endemic to Oregon and Washington, USA, were examined for dorsal-spined larvae characteristic of many protostrongylid nematodes.

Ingrid M. Asmundsson; Jack A. Mortenson; Eric P. Hoberg

167

INFECTION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN MICHIGAN WITH JAMESTOWN CANYON VIRUS (CALIFORNIA SEROGROUP) AND THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERNAL ANTIBODY IN VIRAL MAINTENANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera collected from a captive population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileusvirgini- anus) penned in the lower peninsula of Michigan were assayed over a 29-mo period for neutral- izing antibody to California serogroup viruses. In all, 130 individual white-tailed deer were bled one to 22 times between June 1983 and November 1985. Of the 130 sampled after active trans- mission had ceased,

Paul R. Grimstad; Diane G. Williams; Stephen M. SchmiW

168

Serologic Evidence of a Natural Infection of White-Tailed Deer with the Agent of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Wisconsin and Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer participate in the maintenance of the Ixodes tick life cycle and are reservoirs for some tick-borne infectious agents. Deer may be useful sentinels for tick-transmitted agents, such as ehrlichiae. In order to determine whether white-tailed deer are markers of natural transmission or are reservoirs for the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent, we performed indirect immunofluorescent-antibody (IFA) tests and

JENNIFER J. WALLS; KRISTIN M. ASANOVICH; JOHAN S. BAKKEN; J. STEPHEN DUMLER

1998-01-01

169

Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Danish In White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Vaccinated with a Lipid-Formulated Oral Vaccine.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in animals, has a broad host range, including humans. Historically, public health concerns prompted programs to eradicate tuberculosis from cattle in many nations. Eradication efforts decreased the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis; nevertheless, some countries encountered significant obstacles, not least of which was a wildlife reservoir of M. bovis. Efforts to decrease the size of the affected wildlife populations have neither eliminated disease nor eliminated transmission to cattle. Consequently, the use of a vaccine for wildlife is being explored. The vaccine most studied is M. bovis BCG, an attenuated live vaccine, first developed 100 years ago. The most efficient and effective means of vaccinating wildlife will be an oral vaccine. White-tailed deer in Michigan, USA, constitute a reservoir of M. bovis. White-tailed deer are a popular game species, and as such, represent a food animal to many hunters. BCG persistence in deer tissues could result in human exposure to BCG. Although non-pathogenic, BCG exposure could induce false-positive skin test results, confounding the central component of public health surveillance for TB. The objective of the present study in white-tailed deer was to evaluate persistence of lipid-encapsulated BCG and a liquid suspension of BCG after oral administration at two different dosages. Vaccine was not recovered at any time after oral consumption of a bait containing a single dose (1 × 10(8) CFU) of lipid-encapsulated BCG. However, persistence was consistent in deer consuming 10 lipid-encapsulated baits (1 × 10(9) CFU), with BCG recovered from at least one deer at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after consumption. Persistence of up to 9 months was seen in deer vaccinated with orally with a liquid suspension. Persistence of BCG was limited to lymphoid tissue and never found in samples of muscle collected at each time point. Although the risk of exposure to hunters is low, BCG persistence should be considered prior to field use in white-tailed deer. PMID:23173832

Palmer, M V; Thacker, T C; Waters, W R; Robbe-Austerman, S; Aldwell, F E

2012-11-22

170

Spatial point pattern analyses of Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in domestic livestock herds and concomitant seroprevalence in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important disease of domestic cattle that is capable of infecting cervids. A first step in the formulation of a regional BVDV management plan is a local assessment of the likelihood of pathogen transmission from wildlife to domestic livestock. To achieve this, blood samples were collected from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout New York State in the fall of 2009 and 2010. The SVANOVIR BVDV p80-AB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Svanova Biotech AV, Uppsala, Sweden) was used to screen sera for anti-BVDV antibodies. Because this ELISA is not validated for use in white-tailed deer, sera that tested positive were tested again using serum neutralization to verify the presence of antibodies. Spatial data describing the geographic location of BVDV antigen-positive cattle and camelid herds and BVDV-seropositive white-tailed deer were analyzed via the dual kernel density estimation method. In white-tailed deer, 7.48% (80/1,069) were BVDV-seropositive, whereas 3.43% (144/4,195) of tested herds were positive for BVDV antigen. An exploratory cluster analysis revealed 1 significant cluster of BVDV antigen-positive herds and 2 significant clusters of BVDV-seropositive deer. There was no spatial overlap between the clusters. The spatial point pattern and exploratory cluster analyses suggest that BVDV is maintained independently in domestic livestock herds in the western part of the state and in the white-tailed deer population in the northwestern part of the state. PMID:23512919

Kirchgessner, Megan S; Dubovi, Edward J; Whipps, Christopher M

2013-03-01

171

Predation by coyotes on White-Tailed Deer neonates in South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Coyotes (Canis latrans) are novel predators throughout the southeastern United States and their depredation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates may explain observed declines in some deer populations in the region, but direct evidence for such a relationship is lacking. Our objective was to quantify neonate survival rates and causes of mortality at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina to directly evaluate degree of predation in this deer population. From 2006 to 2009, we radio-monitored 91 neonates captured with the aid of vaginal implant transmitters in pregnant adult females and opportunistic searches. Overall Kaplan�¢����Meier survival rate to 16 weeks of age was 0.230 (95% CI = 0.155-0.328), and it varied little among years. Our best-fitting model estimated survival at 0.220 (95% CI = 0.144-0.320). This model included a quadratic time trend variable (lowest survival rate during the first week of life and increasing to near 1.000 around week 10), and Julian date of birth (survival probability declining as date of birth increased). Predation by coyotes was the most frequent cause of death among the 70 monitored neonates that died, definitively accounting for 37% of all mortalities and potentially accounting for as much as 80% when also including probable coyote predation. Predation by bobcats (Felis rufus) accounted for 7% (definitive) to 9% (including probable bobcat predation) of mortalities. The level of coyote-induced mortality we observed is consistent with the low recruitment rates exhibited in the SRS deer population since establishment of coyotes at the site. If representative of recruitment rates across South Carolina, current harvest levels appear unsustainable. This understanding is consistent with the recent declining trend in the statewide deer population. The effects of coyote predation on recruitment should be considered when setting harvest goals, regardless of whether local deer population size is currently above or below desired levels, because coyotes can substantially reduce fawn recruitment. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Kilgo, John, C.; Ray, Scott, H.; Vukovich, Mark; Goode, Mathew, J.; Ruth, Charles.

2012-05-07

172

Tail beat frequency as a predictor of swimming speed and oxygen consumption of saithe ( Pollachius virens ) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus ) during forced swimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption and tail beat frequency were measured on saithe (Pollachius virens) and whiting (Merlangius merlangus) during steady swimming. Oxygen consumption increased exponentially with swimming speed, and the relationship was described by a power function. The extrapolated standard metabolic rates (SMR) were similar for saithe and whiting, whereas the active metabolic rate (AMR) was twice as high for saithe. The

Maria Faldborg Steinhausen; John Fleng Steffensen; Niels Gerner Andersen

2005-01-01

173

Characterization of white mold disease avoidance in common bean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Physiological resistance and disease avoidance conferred by plant architecture-related traits contribute to white mold field resistance. Our objective was to further exam...

174

Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with <40% canopy cover. Bedding locations were represented by saw-timber pine structural stages with >40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined males selected areas that were characterized by greater levels of horizontal cover than females. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper (Juniperus communis), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0--40%, 41--70%, 71--100%) of canopy cover. All habitat types (i.e., pine, aspen, and spruce) were used as bedding locations with pine sapling-pole structural stages with >70% canopy cover used most, whereas pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover was primarily used for feeding. Females bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites, whereas male feeding sites had greater horizontal cover characteristics than bedding or random locations.

Deperno, Christopher Shannon

175

Intracranial abscessation as a natural mortality factor for adult male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Kent County, Maryland, USA.  

PubMed

Intracranial abscessation is a cause of natural mortality among free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across portions of the United States and Canada. Intracranial abscesses caused by Arcanobacterium pyogenes disproportionately affect adult male white-tailed deer. From 2003-08, we evaluated the occurrence of intracranial abscessation among adult (> or = 2.5 yr) radiocollared male white-tailed deer (n=33) at a large private property in Kent County, Maryland, USA. We documented mortality and necropsied 26 (79%) of the 33 deer. In 2007, we collected swabs from the antler bases and nasopharyngeal membranes of living male white-tailed deer in Maryland, USA (n=9), and Texas, USA (n=10), and from freshly rubbed (n=7) and unrubbed (n=7) trees in Maryland, USA. Swabs were cultured for the presence or absence of A. pyogenes. In Maryland, USA, nine (35%) of the 26 necropsied radiocollared male deer had intracranial abscesses. Five (56%) of nine Maryland, USA, males, and none (0%) of 10 Texas, USA, males cultured positive for A. pyogenes. No rubbed or unrubbed trees at the Maryland site cultured positive for A. pyogenes. The rate of intracranial abscess among adult male white-tailed deer at the Maryland, USA, site (35%) exceeds reported rates for other regions of the United States (9%). PMID:19204349

Karns, Gabriel R; Lancia, Richard A; Deperno, Christopher S; Conner, Mark C; Stoskopf, Michael K

2009-01-01

176

Bottlenecked but long-lived: high genetic diversity retained in white-tailed eagles upon recovery from population decline  

PubMed Central

Most of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) populations in Europe experienced dramatic declines during the twentieth century. However, owing to intense conservation actions and the ban of DDT and other persistent pollutants, populations are currently recovering. We show that despite passing through demographic bottlenecks, white-tailed eagle populations have retained significant levels of genetic diversity. Both genetic and ringing data indicate that migration between populations has not been a major factor for the maintenance of genetic variability. We argue that the long generation time of eagles has acted as an intrinsic buffer against loss of genetic diversity, leading to a shorter effective time of the experienced bottleneck. Notably, conservation actions taken in several small sub-populations have ensured the preservation of a larger proportion of the total genetic diversity than if conservation had focused on the population stronghold in Norway. For conservation programmes targeting other endangered, long-lived species, our results highlight the possibility for local retention of high genetic diversity in isolated remnant populations.

Hailer, Frank; Helander, Bjorn; Folkestad, Alv O; Ganusevich, Sergei A; Garstad, Steinar; Hauff, Peter; Koren, Christian; Nygard, Torgeir; Volke, Veljo; Vila, Carles; Ellegren, Hans

2006-01-01

177

Factors affecting reproductive performance of white-tailed deer subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination or natural mating.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of several factors affecting fawning rate, litter size, litter weight and neonatal fawn mortality in white-tailed deer inseminated either transcervically or by means of laparoscopy. Oestrus synchronisation with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) was conducted in 130 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) during three reproductive seasons (2007-2009; 271 services) in a game-hunting ranch in a hot-arid environment (26°4' N, 101°25' W). Ninety additional non-treated does were exposed to bucks for natural mating. Fawning rate did not differ between AI methods (40.0 vs 45.0% for transcervical and laparoscopic AI, respectively). Overall fawning rate (proportion of all does fawning after FTAI and a subsequent period of buck exposure) did not differ between transcervical (89.5%), laparoscopic (80.3%) or natural (88.9%) insemination. Litter size per fawning doe was higher (P<0.05) in naturally-served does (1.65±0.48) than in transcervically-inseminated does (1.40±0.51) or in laparoscopically-inseminated does (1.48±0.50). The main conclusion was that no enhancement of fawning rate or litter size occurred as a result of intrauterine deposition of semen by laparoscopy compared with the transcervical insemination technique. PMID:23464502

Mellado, Miguel; Orta, Claudia G; Lozano, Eloy A; García, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; de Santiago, Angeles

2013-01-01

178

Serosurvey of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer from Northern Mexico.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer from Northern Mexico. Sera from 532 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from three Northern states of Mexico were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by ELISA and western blot. From these samples, 368 were available to test for N. caninum antibodies by ELISA. The overall prevalence for T. gondii antibodies was 13.9% (74/532; CI(95) 11-17) and for N. caninum 8.4% (31/368; CI(95) 6-12). There was a significant association between positive ELISA results for T. gondii, with management factors within ranches, such number of deer per hectare and geographic location of deer, but none for N. caninum. T. gondii infection in the deer from Guerrero, Coahuila had an increased risk than those from Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas (OR, 8.3; CI(95) 1.9-35.4; P<0.05) and ranches with one deer in 15 ha had increased risk of positive association (OR, 2.61; CI(95) 1.5-4.4; P<0.05). These findings may have environmental or public health implications because venison can be an important meat source of T. gondii infections for humans and feral cats. PMID:22633992

Olamendi-Portugal, María; Caballero-Ortega, Heriberto; Correa, Dolores; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel A; Cruz-Vázquez, Carlos; Medina-Esparza, Leticia; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; Cantu, Antonio; García-Vázquez, Zeferino

2012-04-19

179

Drought effect on selection of conservation reserve program grasslands by white-tailed deer on the Northern Great Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P < 0.001) and home range (P < 0.001) levels. Deer selected for Conservation Reserve Program grasslands and corn during both summers and shifted selection temporally within summer. Use of CRP grasslands occurred during early summer; 73.1 and 88.9% of locations in CRP were documented prior to 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Conversely, selection for corn occurred during late summer; 86.0 and 68.4% of locations in corn were documented after 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Additionally, deer selected for forested cover and rural development areas containing permanent water sources during extreme drought conditions during 2006. Deer likely selected for fields of CRP grasslands during early summer for cover and natural forages, such as clover (Trifolium sp.), prior to the period when agricultural crops become available. Drought conditions occurring in semiarid prairie grassland regions may reduce food and water availability and contribute to subsequent changes in deer habitat selection across the range of the species.

Grovenburg, T. W.; Jacques, C. N.; Klaver, R. W.; Jenks, J. A.

2011-01-01

180

Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the rocky mountain arsenal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989-1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 (range 4-12) and 10.6 years (range 5-17), respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer (range 0.055-0.096 ??g/g), dieldrin was found in fat (n = 9) (range 0.02-0.72 ??g/g), liver (n = 4) (range 0.017-0.12 ??g/g), and brain (n = 1, 0.018 ??g/g), and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal (0.02 ??g/g). Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin (p < 0.001) and mercury (p = 0.05). Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

Creekmore, T. E.; Whittaker, D. G.; Roy, R. R.; Franson, J. C.; Baker, D. L.

1999-01-01

181

Canavan Disease: A White Matter Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Breakdown of oligodendrocyte-neuron interactions in white matter (WM), such as the loss of myelin, results in axonal dysfunction and hence a disruption of information processing between brain regions. The major feature of leukodystrophies is the lack of proper myelin formation during early development or the onset of myelin loss late in life.…

Kumar, Shalini; Mattan, Natalia S.; de Vellis, Jean

2006-01-01

182

Effects of Secondary Structures of Heated Egg White Protein on the Binding Between Prime Starch and Tailings Fractions in Fresh Wheat Flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 81(5):633-636 Dried egg white protein was heated at 120°C for 1 hr, added to a fresh wheat flour (protein 8.6%), and the protein and wheat flour were sub- jected to acetic acid (pH 3.5) fractionation. The results showed that egg white protein increased the binding between prime starch (PS) and tailings (T) fractions in wheat flour. Several conditions

M. Seguchi; M. Takemoto; U. Mizutani; M. Ozawa; C. Nakamura; Y. Matsumura

2004-01-01

183

Visceral helminth communities of sympatric mule and white-tailed deer from the Davis Mountains of Texas.  

PubMed

Hybridizing populations of mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) from the Davis Mountains of Texas were examined to determine similarities in species composition of their helminth communities and if abundances of helminth species in those communities varied across host species and seasonal factors. Only three cestode and three nematode species were recovered. There were very low abundances of species and little diversity in the helminth communities of both hosts. Common helminth species were shared by both deer, and the significant variance in abundances of three of the four most common helminth species appeared to result from differences in habitat preferences of the respective hosts. Our results indicated that analyses of helminth communities of deer from this geographical area do not provide a useful quantification technique for determining deer condition, degree of hybridization, or levels of intraspecific competition. PMID:3820412

Stubblefield, S S; Pence, D B; Warren, R J

1987-01-01

184

A Paleozoological Perspective on White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) Population Density and Body Size in Central Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted, which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected, given that a lack of predation likely has increased intraspecific competition for forage among deer, resulting in smaller body size today. In fact, modern deer from settings without harvest pressure are significantly smaller than those from harvested areas and from prehistoric deer. From a natural history perspective, this research highlights potential evolutionary causes and effects of top-predator removal on deer populations and related components of biological communities in central Texas.

Wolverton, Steve; Kennedy, James H.; Cornelius, John D.

2007-04-01

185

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1982 status report  

SciTech Connect

One hundred nine white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1982, a decrease of six from the vehicle kills in 1981. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. The highest number of deer killed was recorded during November. The sex ratio of road-kills was 0.6:1 (males to females) from January through September, but it shifted to 3.6:1 for the October through December period, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movements. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season from early October through late March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that animals were in good condition (only a few abnormalities were observed), and endoparasite burdens continue to reflect no overcrowding in the deer population. 5 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1985-06-01

186

Optimal medetomidine dose when combined with ketamine and tiletamine-zolazepam to immobilize white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Chemical immobilization is often needed for safe and effective capture and handling of wildlife. We evaluated medetomidine (125, 150, 175, or 200 ?g/kg; for synergistic effects and relaxation) mixed with ketamine (1.5 mg/kg; for relatively shorter recovery) and tiletamine-zolazepam (1.0 mg/kg; for rapid induction) in 22 female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at the University of Georgia Whitehall Deer Research Facility in Athens, Georgia, USA, on 14-15 and 21 May 2009. Deer were weighed before treatment, hand-injected intramuscularly (IM) while restrained in a squeeze chute, and released into a pen for monitoring. We measured rectal temperature, respiration rate, heart rate, hemoglobin saturation (using pulse oximetry), and arterial blood gases at 0, 10, and 20 min postimmobilization. We found no differences in induction time with different doses of medetomidine. Deer became laterally recumbent for all treatments combined at a median of 4.2 (2.6-21.3) min and were approachable by a median of 4.8 (3.5-21.8) min. Twelve of the 22 deer had rectal temperatures >40 C at time 0 and were treated with a cold-water enema. Hemoglobin saturation, estimated using pulse oximetry, was 79.5, 82.0, and 82.3% at times 0, 10, and 20, respectively. We injected atipamezole (0.35 mg/kg, IM) for reversal. Recovery occurred sooner and was more consistent for 125 and 150 ?g/kg medetomidine whereby deer stood with minimal sedation to moderate ataxia within 60-90 min after atipamezole administration. We recommend using 150 ?g of medetomidine with ketamine (1.5 mg/kg) and tiletamine-zolazepam (1.0 mg/kg) to provide effective and safe chemical immobilization of white-tailed deer. PMID:22493126

Muller, Lisa I; Osborn, David A; Doherty, Tom; Keel, M Kevin; Miller, Brad F; Warren, Robert J; Miller, Karl V

2012-04-01

187

Control of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on Spanish goats and white-tailed deer with orally administered ivermectin.  

PubMed

Ivermectin administered orally to Spanish goats, Capra hircus (L.), or to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman), was highly effective against lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). For Spanish goats, daily oral doses of 20 micrograms/kg resulted in greater than or equal to 2 ppb ivermectin in the blood. This level was sufficient to cause greater than 95% reduction of estimated larvae from feeding ticks. A bioassay with horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), was developed to estimate oral intake of ivermectin. Probit analysis of dose-mortality data indicated that a 50% reduction in adult horn fly emergence can be expected when the manure from goats treated orally with ivermectin at 10, 20, 35, and 50 micrograms/kg/d was mixed with untreated cow manure at a rate of 0.345, 0.110, 0.100, and 0.092%, respectively. In studies with white-tailed deer, daily oral doses of 35 and 50 micrograms/kg/d provided 100% control of adult and about 90% control of nymphs that were placed on treated fawns. A single oral dose of 50 micrograms/kg gave greater than 90% control of adult and nymphal ticks attached to treated fawns at the time of drug administration and 70% control of ticks placed on treated deer three days thereafter. When ticks were placed on fawns treated with a single dose of ivermectin (50 micrograms/kg) the engorgement period was longer, ticks were lighter in weight, and females laid fewer eggs than ticks detaching from control fawns. A single oral dose of ivermectin at 20 micrograms/kg prevented about 60% of the adult and nymphal ticks attached at the time of drug administration from engorging, but did not affect other ticks placed on the animals after treatment. PMID:2607030

Miller, J A; Garris, G I; George, J E; Oehler, D D

1989-12-01

188

Evaluating the effects of ecosystem management alternatives on elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer in the interior Columbia River basin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are highly valued for their game, aesthetic, and spiritual qualities by sportsman, wildlife enthusiasts, and Native Americans in North America. As part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP) of the US Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management, we: (1) defined key habitat associations of

John F Lehmkuhl; John G Kie; Louis C Bender; Gregg Servheen; Harvey Nyberg

2001-01-01

189

Rumen ciliates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), axis deer (Axis axis), sika deer (Cervus nippon) and fallow deer (Dama dama) from Texas.  

PubMed

Samples of rumen contents from 33 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 31 axis deer (Axis axis), 26 sika deer (Cervus nippon), and 25 fallow deer (Dama dama) were collected from four study areas in central Texas. The geometric mean concentration of total protozoa was 50.2 x 10(4) per ml, with no differences between species (P > 0.36). White-tailed deer had a higher percentage of Entodinium and lower percentage of Diplodiniinae (P < 0.01) than the other deer species, which were not different from each other. Occurrence of Epidinium, Isotricha, and Dasytricha was sporadic and did not differ among deer species. Numerous new host records of protozoan species were observed: white-tailed deer--four; axis deer--five; sika deer--five; fallow deer--four. This brings the total number of protozoan species identified in each deer species to: white-tailed--eight; axis--12; sika--15; fallow--16. For all species combined, protozoan concentration were 7.5 to 11-fold higher (P < 0.01) from Area 4, which differed from the other three areas by having a stream that allowed deer to have free access to water. Criteria used for identification of medium-size Eudiplodinium species were evaluated. PMID:10361734

Dehority, B A; Demarais, S; Osborn, D A

190

Evaluation of the Factors Involved in Bioaccumulation of gamma-Emmitting Radionuclides in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginanus). Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the work were to: determine the amounts and kinds of fallout gamma emitting radionuclides in an important food and sport animal, the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the southeastern U.S.A.; elucidate some of the food chain ...

J. H. Jenkins

1977-01-01

191

Development and multiplex PCR amplification of novel microsatellite markers in the White-tailed Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla (Aves: Falconiformes, Accipitridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development of 14 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers cloned from the White-tailed Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla , a formerly threatened raptor that has received much conservation attention throughout Eurasia. We also present a protocol for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the loci. Among 40 unrelated H. albicilla individuals from southern Sweden, the markers produced two to

FRANK HAILER; BARBARA GAUTSCHI; BJORN HELANDER

2005-01-01

192

Effects of fluoride emissions from a modern primary aluminum smelter on a local population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of fluoride emissions from a modern aluminum smelter on concentrations of skeletal fluoride and dental fluorosis in a resident population of white-tailed deer was studied. The smelter was located on Mount Holly Plantation in South Carolina, and concentrations of skeletal fluoride in the deer collected at Mount Holly increased approximately five-fold 3 yr after the operation began. Increases

J. S. Suttie; R. Dickie; A. B. Clay; Per Nielsen; W. E. Mahan; D. P. Baumann; R. J. Hamilton

1987-01-01

193

MOLECULAR AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HAMMONDIA HEYDORNI-LIKE OOCYSTS FROM A DOG FED HEARTS FROM NATURALLY-INFECTED WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: Neospora caninum and Hammondia heydorni are morphologically and phylogenetically related coccidians that are found in dogs. Though there is serological evidence of N. caninum infection in the white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the parasite has not been yet isolated from the tissues of th...

194

EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) ON THE PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN THE MICHIGAN WILD DEER POPULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was conducted to test the hypothesis that supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1995 to 1997 was associated with the preva- lence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in free-ranging deer in northeastern Michigan. Bovine TB prevalence data were obtained from an ongoing surveillance program, while data relating to supplemental feeding and other risk factors were collected

RoseAnn Miller; John B. Kaneene; Scott D. Fitzgerald; Steven M. Schmitt

195

TITLE: Evaluation of biological effects and social acceptance of new antler restrictions for white-tailed deer hunting season in Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

We captured and attached radio transmitters to 223 male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to monitor their survival and dispersal in Pennsylvania. One hundred twenty-two (77 fawns and 45 adults) and 101 (72 fawns and 29 adults) male deer were captured in Armstrong and Centre counties, respectively. As of 15 May 2004, 17 bucks in Armstrong County and 14 in Centre

Bret D. Wallingford; Christopher S. Rosenberry; Marrett Grund; Eric S. Long

196

Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over a seven year period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study...

197

Febrile response and decrease in circulating lymphocytes following acute infection of white tail deer fawns with either a BVDV1 or a BVDV2 strain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While commonly associated with infection in cattle, bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) also replicate in a wide range of domestic and wildlife species including cervids. BVDV has been isolated from a number of cervids including mule deer, German roe deer, Scottish deer, white tail deer and mouse ...

198

Mortality of Adult White-tailed Deer on Fort Chaffee, Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weconducted a telemetrystudyon Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, to estimate the extent, timing, and causes of mortalityamong resident adult white-taileddeer {Odocoileus virginianus). Twenty-sevendeer were captured, radio-collared and monitored for 1 yr to assess seasonalmortality. Annualmortality rates differedconsiderably between sexes, withmales exhibiting a much high- er rate (86.1%)than females (5.3%). The primary causes of death among males were poaching,predation by coyotes, and legal

Gregory G. Humphreys; Thomas A. Nelson

199

Initial sequencing and tissue distribution of Toll-like receptor 3 mRNA in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and activates a signal transduction pathway that results in the release of a variety of chemokines and cytokines and apoptotic activity. Variability in TLR3 expression may play an important role in disease susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses, which are dsRNA viruses. Because little is known about TLR3 in WTD, our objective was to sequence WTD TLR3 mRNA and to determine baseline levels of tissue expression. A 209-base pair sequence of TLR3 mRNA was obtained from WTD peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Dot blots confirmed that the sequence obtained was part of total WTD mRNA. Variable expression or ligand binding of TLR3 may contribute to observed susceptibility differences between populations of WTD, so the level of TLR3 in small intestine, skin, spleen, heart, cecum, rumen, lymph node, lung, kidney, and liver from WTD fawns (n=2) was analyzed using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Tissue expression of TLR3 mRNA relative to the housekeeping gene beta-actin was highest in spleen, heart, skin, and lung. PMID:19617489

Vos, Seychelle M; Yabsley, Michael J; Howerth, Elizabeth W

2009-07-01

200

EXPERIMENTAL ADENOVIRUS HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE IN YEARLING BLACK-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparently novel adenovirus was associated with an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus heinionus) in California (USA) during 1993-1994. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enter- opathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis\\/pharyngitis\\/glossitis or osteo- myelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that

Leslie W. Woods; Richard S. Manley; Philip H. W. Chiu; Matthew Burd; Robert W. Nordhausen; Michelle H. Stillian; Pamela K. Swift

201

[Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].  

PubMed

White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic. PMID:23894977

Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Ramírez-Pulido, José; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; López, Georgina Isabel García; Janczur, Mariusz

2013-03-01

202

Reproductive steroids in the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus borealis). I. Seasonal changes in the female.  

PubMed

Seasonal changes of reproductive steroids in the female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus borealis) were investigated. 161 blood samples were collected from 77 does during 1971 through 1974 in Minnesota and were utilized to make a characterization of the estrogen and progesterone levels in pregnant and nonpregnant does. Progesterone levels (measured by radioimmunoassay) during December through February were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant does. Progesterone levels (measured by radioimmunoassay) during December through February were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant animals. However, the pregnant does had higher (p less than .01) progesterone levels during March through May. Progesterone levels during June to early November were low and similar for lactating and nonlactating animals. Estrogen levels during the year only changed during the period before parturition in the pregnant does when they were elevated. 2 nonpregnant adult does were sampled every 5 days from late January throught early March. Progesterone levels revealed a cyclic pattern of about 28 days duration while estrogen levels revealed no distinct pattern but tended to be inversely related to progesterone. These results suggest 1) that deer exhibit estrous cycles of about 25-30 days in length, 2) that estrous cycles recorred in nonpregnant does from November through early March, 3) that progesterone levels are similar for pregnant and the luteal phase of the estrous cycle, and 4) that late pregnancy is characterized by high estrogen levels as compared with early pregnancy and the estrous cycle. PMID:843560

Plotka, E D; Seal, U S; Schmoller, G C; Karns, P D; Keenlyne, K D

1977-04-01

203

Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in laboratory-reared Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) fed on experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes dammini Spielman, Piesman, Clifford & Corwin from a laboratory colony were fed on two white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) inoculated with either the SH2-82 or JD-1 strains of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner. Ticks were exposed to one deer 43 and 69 d after inoculation of the spirochete and to a second deer 35 and 61 d after inoculation. Polymerase chain reaction assays amplified the 158 bp OspA DNA target sequence in 11.1% (n = 9) of fed larvae and 3.3% (n = 30) of nymphs from the deer inoculated with the SH2-82 strain, and 22.7% (n = 22) of larvae and 0% (n = 21) of nymphs from a second deer inoculated with the JD-1 strain of B. burgdorferi. One of three females derived from nymphs fed on one of the inoculated deer showed presence of B. burgdorferi DNA, but none of four males was positive. Experimentally inoculated deer can serve as a source of at least two geographic strains of B. burgdorferi to I. dammini larvae and nymphs for at least several weeks. PMID:1460639

Oliver, J H; Stallknecht, D; Chandler, F W; James, A M; McGuire, B S; Howerth, E

1992-11-01

204

Seasonal patterns of weight, hematology, and serum characteristics of free-ranging female white-tailed deer in Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weights, hematology, and serum profIles of white-tailed does in the central Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota were examined year-around to determine seasonal patterns of nutritional condition and metabolism. Deer were initially captured by Clover trap or rocket net. Between 15 February 1989 and 23 January 1990, we recaptured 12 adult (> 1.5 years) female deer 1-9 times each (a total of 59 recaptures) using a radio-controlled capture collar. Monthly weights of deer exhibited a cyclic seasonal pattern. Mean weight declined 22 % from February to an annual minimum during May, then steadily increased 45 % to a maximum in October. Seasonal patterns were most evident for hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells, packed cell volume, serum total protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the urea N to creatinine ratio, triiodothyronine, cortisol, and potassium. Wide seasonal variations of these characteristics were indicative of shifts in the deer's metabolic physiology. Although seasonal metabolic shifts are partially attributable to an endogenous rhythm, the intensity of, their expression was most likely affected by nutritional changes and concomitant alterations of body condition. Annual changes in seasonal trends of blood characteristics may be useful in investigating nutritional effects of specific environmental and demographic factors. We compare our findings with those reported for deer on ranges farther south.

DelGiudice, G. D.; Mech, L. D.; Kunkel, K. E.; Gese, E. M.; Seal, U. S.

1992-01-01

205

Occurrence, Isolation, and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey.  

PubMed

Abstract :? The ingestion of uncooked infected white-tailed deer (WTD) tissues can transmit Toxoplasma gondii infection to humans and mesocarnivores, including cats. In the present study, we tested 264 WTD from New Jersey for T. gondii infection during the 2011-2012 hunting season. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cutoff titer, 25); 76 (28.7%) of 264 WTD were seropositive. Heart muscle samples from 64 seropositive WTD were digested in pepsin, and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii . Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of 9 WTD; tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. One of the 9 strains was highly virulent for outbred Swiss Webster mice. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these 9 T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Six genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant), no. 4 (Type 12), no. 216, no. 220, and no. 221. The last 2 were new genotypes that were reported for the first time. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in deer from this region of the United States. PMID:23574007

Dubey, J P; Randall, A R; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Verma, S K; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

2013-04-10

206

Windows of opportunity: white-tailed deer and the dynamics of northern hardwood forests of the northeastern US  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Herbivory, lighting regimes, and site conditions are among the most important determinants of forest regeneration success, but these are affected by a host of other factors such as weather, predation, human exploitation, pathogens, wind and fire. We draw together > 50 years of research on the Huntington Wildlife Forest in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York to explore regeneration of northern hardwoods. A series of studies each of which focused on a single factor failed to identify the cause of regeneration failure. However, integration of these studies led to broader understanding of the process of forest stand development and identified at least three interacting factors: lighting regime, competing vegetation and selective browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The diverse 100-200 year-old hardwood stands present today probably reflect regeneration during periods of low deer density (< 2.0 deer/km super(2)) and significant forest disturbance. If this hypothesis is correct, forest managers can mimic these 'natural windows of opportunity' through manipulation of a few sensitive variables in the system. Further, these manipulations can be conducted on a relatively small geographic scale. Control of deer densities on a scale of 500 ha and understory American beech (Fagus grandifolia) on a scale of < 100 ha in conjunction with an even-aged regeneration system consistently resulted in successful establishment of desirable hardwood regeneration.

Sage, R.W.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

2003-01-01

207

The Effect of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E on Biochemical Parameters and Survival of Young Among White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two adult female white-tailed deer were assigned to four complete pelleted diets (±45ppm vitamin E; ±0.2ppm selenium). Selenium and vitamin E concentration in the unsupplemented diet was 0.04 and 5.5 ppm, respectively. Biochemical parameters of the erythrocyte ( RBC ) glutathione peroxidase system and survival of off-spring to wean ing were followed for 2 years. At the end of the

PAUL S. BRADY; LINDA J. BRADY

208

LEAD POISONING OF STELLER'S SEA-EAGLE (HALIAEETUS PELAGICUS) AND WHITE-TAILED EAGLE (HALIAEETUS ALBICILLA) CAUSED BY THE INGESTION OF LEAD BULLETS AND SLUGS, IN HOKKAIDO, JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Steller's Sea-Eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) and the White-tailed Eagle (H.albicilla) are among the largest eagles. The total population of the Steller's Sea-Eagle is estimated at 5,000 to 6,000 in- dividuals, and these eagles winter in large numbers in northern Japan, on the island of Hokkaido. Lead poi- soning of Steller's Sea-Eagles in Japan was first confirmed in 1996. By 2007,

KEISUKE SAITO

209

Putative chemical signals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urinary and vaginal mucus volatiles excreted by females during breeding season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine and vaginal mucus samples from female white-tailed deer in estrus and mid-cycle were analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty-four volatiles were found in mucus and 63 in urine. The volatiles common to both vaginal mucus and urine included alcohols, aldehydes, furans, ketones, alkanes, and alkenes. Aromatic hydrocarbons were present only in the vaginal mucus, whereas pyrans, amines,

B. Jemiolo; K. V. Miller; D. Wiesler; I. Jelinek; M. Novotny; R. L. Marchinton

1995-01-01

210

Detection of Borrelia lonestari, Putative Agent of Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness, in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if white-tailed deer may serve as a reservoir host for Borrelia lonestari, we used a nested PCR for the Borrelia flagellin gene to evaluate blood samples collected from deer from eight southeastern states. Seven of 80 deer (8.7%) from 5 of 17 sites (29.4%) had sequence-confirmed evidence of a B. lonestari flagellin gene by PCR, indicating that deer

Victor A. Moore; Andrea S. Varela; Michael J. Yabsley; William R. Davidson; Susan E. Little

211

Detection of Borrelia lonestari, Putative Agent of Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness, in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if white-tailed deer may serve as a reservoir host for Borrelia lonestari, we used a nested PCR for the Borrelia flagellin gene to evaluate blood samples collected from deer from eight southeastern states. Seven of 80 deer (8.7%) from 5 of 17 sites (29.4%) had sequence-confirmed evidence of a B. lonestari flagellin gene by PCR, indicating that deer

Victor A. Moore; Andrea S. Varela; Michael J. Yabsley; William R. Davidson; Susan E. Little

2003-01-01

212

ASSESSING THE RELATIONSHIP OF CONIFER THERMAL COVER TO WINTER DISTRIBUTION, MOVEMENTS, AND SURVIVAL OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER IN NORTH CENTRAL MINNESOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this long-term investigation is to assess the value of conifer stands as winter thermal cover\\/snow shelter for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at the population level. Over the course of the 15-year study period, we radiocollared and monitored a total of 452 female deer, including 43 female newborn fawns. During the past 12 years, data generated from this

Glenn D. DelGiudice; Barry A. Sampson

213

Evaluation of the factors involved in bioaccumulation of gamma-emmitting radionuclides in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus). Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the work were to: determine the amounts and kinds of fallout gamma emitting radionuclides in an important food and sport animal, the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the southeastern U.S.A.; elucidate some of the food chain interrelationships around the year; and see if a relationship exists between bioaccumulation in deer, the soils, the deer foods available, the

1977-01-01

214

Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America.  

PubMed

For many plant species in eastern North America, short observed seed dispersal distances (ranging up to a few tens of meters) fail to explain rapid rates of invasion and migration. This discrepancy points to a substantial gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms by which seeds are dispersed long distances. We investigated the potential for white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus Zimm.), the dominant large herbivore in much of eastern North America, to disperse seeds via endozoochory. This is the first comprehensive study of seed dispersal by white-tailed deer, despite a vast body of research on other aspects of their ecology. More than 70 plant species germinated from deer feces collected over a 1-year period in central New York State, USA. Viable seeds included native and alien herbs, shrubs, and trees, including several invasive introduced species, from the full range of habitat types in the local flora. A mean of >30 seeds germinated per fecal pellet group, and seeds were dispersed during all months of the year. A wide variety of presumed dispersal modes were represented (endo- and exozoochory, wind, ballistic, ant, and unassisted). The majority were species with small-seeded fruits having no obvious adaptations for dispersal, underscoring the difficulty of inferring dispersal ability from diaspore morphology. Due to their broad diet, wide-ranging movements, and relatively long gut retention times, white-tailed deer have tremendous potential for effecting long-distance seed dispersal via ingestion and defecation. We conclude that white-tailed deer represent a significant and previously unappreciated vector of seed dispersal across the North American landscape, probably contributing an important long-distance component to the seed shadows of hundreds of plant species, and providing a mechanism to help explain rapid rates of plant migration. PMID:14740288

Myers, Jonathan A; Vellend, Mark; Gardescu, Sana; Marks, P L

2004-01-22

215

The Role of DDE, PCB, Coplanar PCB and Eggshell Parameters for Reproduction in the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproduction of white-tailed sea eagles was monitored in1964-1999 in 3 differently contaminated sub-populations: Baltic Sea coast (Bp), inland central Sweden (Ip) and Lapland (Lp). 249 dead eggs from 205 clutches were obtained for analyses of DDE and PCBs and for eggshell measurements. A desiccation index (Di) value was calculated for each egg as a measure of water loss through

Björn Helander; Anders Olsson; Anders Bignert; Lillemor Asplund; Kerstin Litzén

2002-01-01

216

CACHE VALLEY AND POTOSI VIRUSES ( BUNYAVIRIDAE ) IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS ): EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS AND ANTIBODY PREVALENCE IN NATURAL POPULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache Valley virus (CVV) and Potosi virus (POTV) are two closely related mosquito-borne viruses (Bunyaviridae: Bunyamwera group) that appear to circulate in several regions of the United States, especially the Midwest. We determined the prevalence of specific neutralizing antibodies to both viruses in Indiana white-tailed deer and conducted infection experiments to assess whether deer could serve as an vertebrate-amplifying host.

CARINA G. M. BLACKMOREAND; PAUL R. GRIMSTAD

217

Molecular detection of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Tom Green County in central Texas.  

PubMed

Serologic and molecular evidence suggest that white-tailed deer in South Texas and North Mexico carry the agents of bovine babesiosis, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. To determine if white-tailed deer in central Texas, which is outside the known occurrence of the vector tick at this time, harbor these parasites, blood samples from free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Tom Green County were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for B. bovis and B. bigemina 18S rDNA. Of the 25 samples tested, three (12%) were positive by nested PCR for B. bovis. This identity was confirmed by sequence analysis of the cloned 18S rDNA PCR product. Further confirmation was made by sequence analysis of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1, 5.8S rRNA gene, and ITS 2 genomic region in two (representing samples from two different ranches) of the B. bovis positive samples. Three samples were positive by B. bigemina nested PCR, but sequencing of the cloned products confirmed only one animal positive for B. bigemina; Theileria spp. DNA was amplified from the other two animal samples. In addition to Theileria spp., two genotypically unique Babesia species sequences were identified among the cloned sequences produced by the B. bigemina primers in one sample. Phylogenetic analysis showed no separation of the deer B. bovis or B. bigemina 18S rDNA, or deer B. bovis ITS region sequences from those of bovine origin. Clarification of the possible role of white-tailed deer as reservoir hosts in maintaining these important pathogens of cattle is critical to understanding whether or not deer contribute to the epidemiology of bovine babesiosis. PMID:21194841

Holman, Patricia J; Carroll, Juliette E; Pugh, Roberta; Davis, Donald S

2010-12-04

218

Determination and evaluation of an optimal dosage of carfentanil and xylazine for the immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an iteration method, optimal hand-injected immobilization dosages of carfentanil\\/xylazine (CAR\\/XYL) were determined for 13 adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer were temporarily restrained in a squeeze chute and were repeatedly immobilized one to four times at 2–5-wk intervals from December 2002 to March 2003. A fixed ratio of 1 mg CAR:10 mg XYL intramuscularly was used, increasing or decreasing

Timothy N. Storms; Juergen Schumacher; Nancy Zagaya; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller; Edward C. Ramsay

2005-01-01

219

White Matter Integrity and Reaction Time Intraindividual Variability in Healthy Aging and Early-Stage Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Aging and early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) have been shown to be associated with increased RT intraindividual variability (IIV, as reflected by the coefficient of variation) and an exaggeration of the slow tail of the RT distribution in attentional control tasks, based on ex-Gaussian analyses. The current study examined associations between white matter volume, IIV, and ex-Gaussian RT distribution parameters in cognitively normal aging and early-stage AD. Three RT attention tasks (Stroop, Simon, and a consonant-vowel odd-even switching task) in conjunction with MRI-based measures of cerebral and regional white matter volume were obtained in 133 cognitively normal and 33 early-stage AD individuals. Larger volumes were associated with less IIV and less slowing in the tail of the RT distribution, and larger cerebral and inferior parietal white matter volumes were associated with faster modal reaction time. Collectively, these results support a role of white matter integrity in IIV and distributional skewing, and are consistent with the hypothesis that IIV and RT distributional skewing are sensitive to breakdowns in executive control processes in normal and pathological aging.

Jackson, Jonathan D.; Balota, David A.; Duchek, Janet M.; Head, Denise

2011-01-01

220

Mortality from infectious diseases among New Mexico's American Indians, Hispanic whites, and other whites, 1958-87.  

PubMed Central

To examine ethnic differences in infectious disease-related mortality in New Mexico's American Indian, Hispanic White and other White populations, we analyzed vital records data from 1958 to 1987. We found that for most infectious causes, American Indians had the highest mortality rates, followed by Hispanics. The state's minority populations remain at increased risk for infectious disease mortality.

Becker, T M; Wiggins, C; Peek, C; Key, C R; Samet, J M

1990-01-01

221

Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden.  

PubMed

In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (>6 microg/gd.w.) lead concentrations, indicating exposure to leaded ammunition, and 14% of the individuals had either liver or kidney lead concentrations diagnostic of lethal lead poisoning (>20 microg/gd.w.). Lead concentrations in liver and kidney were significantly correlated. In individuals with lead levels <6 microg/g, concentrations were significantly higher in kidney than in liver; in individuals with lead levels >20 microg/g, concentrations were significantly higher in liver. The lead isotope ratios indicate that the source of lead in individuals with lethal concentrations is different from that of individuals exhibiting background concentrations of lead (<6 microg/gd.w.) There were no significant sex or age differences in lead concentrations. A study from the Baltic reported in principle no biomagnification of lead, but background lead concentrations in WSE liver in this study were still four to >10 times higher than concentrations reported for Baltic fish from the same time period. In contrast to other biota there was no decrease in lead concentrations in WSE over the study period. The proportion of lead poisoned WSE remained unchanged over the study period, including two years after a partial ban of lead shot was enforced in 2002 for shallow wetlands. The use of lead in ammunition poses a threat to all raptors potentially feeding on shot game or offal. The removal of offal from shot game and alternatives to leaded ammunition needs to be implemented in order to prevent mortality from lead in raptors and scavengers. PMID:19683793

Helander, B; Axelsson, J; Borg, H; Holm, K; Bignert, A

2009-08-15

222

Harvested white-tailed deer as sentinel hosts for early establishing Ixodes scapularis populations and risk from vector-borne zoonoses in southeastern Canada.  

PubMed

Due to recent establishment of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in southeastern Canada, tick-borne zoonoses (Lyme disease, human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis) are of growing concern for public health. Using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) culled in southwestern Quebec during 2007-2008, we investigated whether hunter-killed deer could act as sentinels for early establishing tick populations and for tick-borne pathogens. Accounting for environmental characteristics of culling sites, and age and sex of deer, we investigated whether their tick infestation levels could identify locations of known tick populations detected in active surveillance, presumed tick populations detected by passive surveillance, or both. We also used spatial cluster analyses to identify spatial patterns of tick infestation and occurrence of tick-borne zoonoses infection in ticks collected from the deer. Adult ticks were found on 15% of the 583 deer examined. Adult male deer had the greatest number (approximately 90%) of adult ticks. Overall, 3, 15, and 0% of the ticks collected were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. Our statistical analyses suggest that sex and age of deer, temperature, precipitation, and an index of tick dispersion by migratory birds were significantly associated with tick infestation levels. Cluster analysis identified significant clusters of deer carrying ticks PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum, and for deer carrying two or more I. scapularis. Our study suggests that hunter-killed deer may be effective as sentinels for emerging areas of tick-borne anaplasmosis. They may have limited use as sentinels for early emerging I. scapularis tick populations and emerging Lyme disease risk. PMID:23540128

Bouchard, C; Leighton, P A; Beauchamp, G; Nguon, S; Trudel, L; Milord, F; Lindsay, L R; Bélanger, D; Ogden, N H

2013-03-01

223

National Dam Safety Program. Buick Mine Tailings Dam (MO 30162), White River Basin, Reynolds County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Buick Mine Tailings Dam, Missouri Inventory Number 30162, was inspected. Buick Mine Tailings Dam is classified as a large dam based on its present height of 141 ft. The maximum storage capacity is approximately 19,300 ac-ft. The large dam classification c...

R. G. Berggreen L. M. Krazynski

1981-01-01

224

Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).  

PubMed

Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross-neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate serologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotracheitis), turkey, duck and pigeon as well as from the blue-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Lake Victoria cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and desmoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) did not react with the stork herpesviruses. Neutralising antibodies against stork herpesvirus were detected in the majority of 72 blood samples from white and black storks. In addition, three Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) could be isolated from white storks. One isolate was highly virulent the two others were avirulent for the chicken. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that some storks have antibodies against Paramyxovirus- (PMV)-1 (NDV), PMV-2 and PMV-3. No antibodies could be detected in stork sera against PMV-4, -6 and -7. PMID:18766791

Kaleta, E F; Kummerfeld, N

1983-01-01

225

A universal carrier test for the long tail of Mendelian disease.  

PubMed

Mendelian disorders are individually rare but collectively common, forming a 'long tail' of genetic disease. A single highly accurate assay for this long tail would allow the scaling up of the Jewish community's successful campaign of population screening for Tay-Sachs disease to the general population, thereby improving millions of lives, greatly benefiting minority health and saving billions of dollars. This need has been addressed by designing a universal carrier test: a non-invasive, saliva-based assay for more than 100 Mendelian diseases across all major population groups. The test has been exhaustively validated with a median of 147 positive and 525 negative samples per variant, demonstrating a multiplex assay whose performance compares favourably with the previous standard of care, namely blood-based single-gene carrier tests. Because the test represents a dramatic reduction in the cost and complexity of large-scale population screening, an end to many preventable genetic diseases is now in sight. Moreover, given that the assay is inexpensive and requires only a saliva sample, it is now increasingly feasible to make carrier testing a routine part of preconception care. PMID:20729146

Srinivasan, Balaji S; Evans, Eric A; Flannick, Jason; Patterson, A Scott; Chang, Christopher C; Pham, Tuan; Young, Sharon; Kaushal, Amit; Lee, James; Jacobson, Jessica L; Patrizio, Pasquale

2010-08-21

226

Nonseptic diseases associated with the hoof complex: keratoma, white line disease, canker, and neoplasia.  

PubMed

This article addresses nonseptic diseases associated with the hoof complex, namely keratoma, white line disease, canker, and neoplasia. Keratoma is an uncommon cause of lameness, which may be surgically removed. White line disease, a keratolytic process on the solar surface of the hoof, is treated with therapeutic farriery and resection of the hoof wall when appropriate. Equine canker is an infectious process that results in development of a chronic hypertrophy of the horn-producing tissues. Neoplasia involving the equine foot is rare, and melanoma is the most common type of neoplasm reported. PMID:22981198

Redding, W Rich; O'Grady, Stephen E

2012-08-01

227

Differences in Medical Care and Disease Outcomes Among Black and White Women With Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The risk of cardiovascular mortality is higher among black women than white women, and the reasons for this disparity are largely unexplored. We sought to evaluate differences in medical care and clinical outcomes among black and white women with established coronary artery disease. Methods and Results—Among the 2699 women enrolled in the Heart and Estrogen\\/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), we used

Ashish K. Jha; Paul D. Varosy; Alka M. Kanaya; Donald B. Hunninghake; Mark A. Hlatky; David D. Waters; Curt D. Furberg; Michael G. Shlipak

2010-01-01

228

Candidates for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease.  

PubMed

The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and "Ca. Sulcia muelleri." Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and "Ca. Sulcia muelleri" colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. PMID:22798373

Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A; Hanboonsong, Yupa

2012-07-13

229

Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to experimentally infect calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer. Twelve colostrum-deprived male Holstein calves were used. Eight were inoculated intranasally with a BVDV type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer, and the other four were inoculated with the cell culture medium only and served as a control group. Whole blood, saliva, and nasal and rectal secretions were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 after inoculation for virus isolation and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On days 14 and 21, 4 calves in the infected group and 2 in the control group were euthanized; multiple tissue samples were collected for histopathologic study. Histopathologic changes included thymic atrophy and lymphoid depletion of the Peyer’s patches in all 8 infected calves. The RT-PCR gave positive results with the buffy coat of all 8 infected calves, the nasal samples of 7, and the saliva samples of 2. Virus neutralization testing of the serum gave positive results for 4 of the 8 infected calves, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the serum gave positive results for 3. All of the samples from the control calves yielded negative results.

Raizman, Eran A.; Pogranichniy, Roman M.; Levy, Michel; Negron, Maria; Van Alstine, William

2011-01-01

230

Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Over a 7 yr period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study animals in treatment and control groups were confined in 38.8 ha game-fenced and densely vegetated treatment plots in South Texas. Tick densities during years 1 and 7 served as untreated pre- and posttreatment comparisons and treatments occurred during years 2 through 5. Reductions in tick densities in the treatment plot were compared against tick densities in a control plot having similar vegetation and numbers of untreated deer. During years of treatment, indices of control pressure ranged from 18.2 to 82.6 for nymphs and 16.9-78.7 for adults, and efficacy, expressed as percentage control during the final year of treatment, was 77.2 and 85.0%, respectively, for nymphal and adult ticks. These data show that acaricidal collar treatments provide efficacies very similar to those achieved with the existing ivermectin-medicated bait and '4-Poster' topical treatment technologies to control ticks feeding on wild white-tailed deer. PMID:23356088

Pound, J M; Lohmeyer, K H; Davey, R B; Miller, J A; George, J E

2012-12-01

231

Effects of fluoride emissions from a modern primary aluminum smelter on a local population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

SciTech Connect

The influence of fluoride emissions from a modern aluminum smelter on concentrations of skeletal fluoride and dental fluorosis in a resident population of white-tailed deer was studied. The smelter was located on Mount Holly Plantation in South Carolina, and concentrations of skeletal fluoride in the deer collected at Mount Holly increased approximately five-fold 3 yr after the operation began. Increases in skeletal fluoride of less than two-fold were observed in deer obtained from Medway Plantation which has its nearest boundary 1.6 km from the smelter site. No dental fluorosis was observed in deer collected at Medway Plantation, but mild dental fluorosis was observed in a significant number of deer collected at Mount Holly Plantation. The dental fluorosis that was observed was not associated with incisor wear or with fluoride-induced molar wear. Osteofluorosis of mandibles or metacarpals was not observed in any of the deer obtained from either plantation. The data obtained from this study indicated that the presence of a modern aluminum smelter caused a detectable increase in concentration of skeletal fluoride in the resident population of white-tailed deer, but that no adverse health effects were seen.

Suttie, J.S.; Dickie, R.; Clay, A.B.; Nielsen, P.; Mahan, W.E.; Baumann, D.P.; Hamilton, R.J.

1987-01-01

232

Persistent organic pollutants and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in different tissues of white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from West Greenland.  

PubMed

We investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (e.g. dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), in six matrices (muscle, liver, kidney, adipose, blood, preen oil) of 17 white-tailed eagles from West Greenland sampled between 1997 and 2009. High inter-individual variation in contamination was found (PCBs: 0.49-1500 ?g/g lipid weight (lw), DDTs: 0.23-910 ?g/g lw, PBDEs: 0.01-24 ?g/g lw, MeO-PBDEs: 0.001-0.59 ?g/g lw), mostly due to age-related differences and not to temporal trends. One adult female (age > 5 years) displayed PCB levels up to 1500 ?g/g lw in liver, which is the highest concentration ever reported in Arctic wildlife. Muscle generally contained the highest median levels, while adipose tissue displayed the lowest median levels on a lipid basis. No significant differences were found among tissues for MeO-PBDEs. Remarkably, we found distinct correlations (0.62 ? r ? 0.98; <0.0001 ? p ? 0.17) between levels of MeO-PBDEs and PBDEs, suggesting similar bioaccumulation pathways of PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in white-tailed eagles. PMID:23377037

Jaspers, V L B; Sonne, C; Soler-Rodriguez, F; Boertmann, D; Dietz, R; Eens, M; Rasmussen, L M; Covaci, A

2013-01-31

233

White Matter Changes: Neurobehavioral Manifestations of Binswanger's Disease and Clinical Correlates in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although white matter lesions (WMLs) are among the most common structural neuroimaging changes found on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of older persons with dementia, their presence should not be misconstrued as proof that vascular disease is causing or contributing to the dementia. We report the results of several studies examining the neurobehavioral manifestations of persons meeting explicit operational

David A. Bennett; David W. Gilley; Sarha Lee; Elizabeth J. Cochran

1994-01-01

234

Detection of white matter lesions in cerebral small vessel disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White matter lesions (WML) are diffuse white matter abnormalities commonly found in older subjects and are important indicators of stroke, multiple sclerosis, dementia and other disorders. We present an automated WML detection method and evaluate it on a dataset of small vessel disease (SVD) patients. In early SVD, small WMLs are expected to be of importance for the prediction of disease progression. Commonly used WML segmentation methods tend to ignore small WMLs and are mostly validated on the basis of total lesion load or a Dice coefficient for all detected WMLs. Therefore, in this paper, we present a method that is designed to detect individual lesions, large or small, and we validate the detection performance of our system with FROC (free-response ROC) analysis. For the automated detection, we use supervised classification making use of multimodal voxel based features from different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, including intensities, tissue probabilities, voxel locations and distances, neighborhood textures and others. After preprocessing, including co-registration, brain extraction, bias correction, intensity normalization, and nonlinear registration, ventricle segmentation is performed and features are calculated for each brain voxel. A gentle-boost classifier is trained using these features from 50 manually annotated subjects to give each voxel a probability of being a lesion voxel. We perform ROC analysis to illustrate the benefits of using additional features to the commonly used voxel intensities; significantly increasing the area under the curve (Az) from 0.81 to 0.96 (p<0.05). We perform the FROC analysis by testing our classifier on 50 previously unseen subjects and compare the results with manual annotations performed by two experts. Using the first annotator results as our reference, the second annotator performs at a sensitivity of 0.90 with an average of 41 false positives per subject while our automated method reached the same level of sensitivity at approximately 180 false positives per subject.

Riad, Medhat M.; Platel, Bram; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Karssemeijer, Nico

2013-02-01

235

The effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on pregnancy rates of white-tailed deer following fixed-timed artificial insemination.  

PubMed

Control of the white-tailed doe's reproductive cycle is not well documented. The objective was to determine the effects of giving equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) at progesterone device removal on fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI) pregnancy rates in white-tailed does. All does (n = 74) were synchronized with a vaginal progesterone implant (CIDR; 0.3 g progesterone), inserted on Day 0 (without regard to stage of estrous cycle), removed 14 days later, and subjected to FTAI, on average, 60 h post-CIDR removal. Of these, 34 were given 200 IU (im) of eCG at CIDR removal. Overall, FTAI pregnancy rate was 50% across 2 yrs (effect of year, P = 0.35). Administration of eCG at CIDR removal did not affect (P = 0.16) pregnancy rate (eCG = 59%; no eCG = 43%). Pregnancy rates were not affected by vulva score or doe disposition. Does that were ? 4 yrs old were more likely (P = 0.01) to become pregnant than does > 4 yrs of age. Does inseminated ? 60.5 h after CIDR removal were 22 times more likely (P = 0.002) to become pregnant to FTAI than does inseminated < 60.5 h. When frozen-thawed semen was deposited in the cervix or uterus, does were 17 times more likely (P = 0.005) to become pregnant compared with those receiving intravaginal insemination. Fecundity was not different (P = 0.73) across treatment groups (1.6 ± 0.11; no eCG vs. 1.7 ± 0.10; eCG). Furthermore, fecundity of does pregnant to FTAI was not different (P = 0.72) compared with does pregnant to clean-up bucks (1.7 ± 0.08; AI does vs. 1.7 ± 0.09; clean-up bucks). In summary, white-tailed does were successfully inseminated using a 14 days FTAI protocol, eCG may not be essential for acceptable pregnancy rates, and increased pregnancy rates may result when FTAI is done ? 60.5 h after progesterone device removal. PMID:22401832

Gentry, G T; Lambe, J; Forbes, W; Olcott, B; Sanders, D; Bondioli, K; Godke, R A

2012-03-07

236

Neuropathology of White Matter Changes in Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological white matter changes were investigated in clinically and neuropathologically diagnosed cases of Alzheimer’s disease (AD; 60 cases) and vascular dementia (VaD; 40 cases). In 33 of 60 AD cases, a white matter disease (WMD) characterized by tissue rarefaction, mild gliosis and a non-amyloid small-vessel sclerosis occurred in the central, preferentially frontal deep white matter. The mean vessel density was

Elisabet Englund

1998-01-01

237

Do white matter changes on MRI and CT differentiate vascular dementia from Alzheimer's disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

MRI showed white matter changes in all 29 patients with vascular dementia and in eight out of 22 patients with Alzheimer's disease. The corresponding figures for CT were 26 and 1, respectively. White matter changes are therefore a useful diagnostic aid in the differential diagnosis between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

T Erkinjuntti; L Ketonen; R Sulkava; J Sipponen; M Vuorialho; M Iivanainen

1987-01-01

238

Skeletal photopenic appearance of Paget's disease with indium-111 white blood cell imaging  

SciTech Connect

A case of focal decreased skeletal uptake with In-111 labeled white blood cells representing Paget's disease is reported. Although uncommon, other causes for skeletal photon deficient areas using In-111 white blood cells have been described. To the authors' knowledge, this finding representing Paget's disease has not been previously described.

Borin, B.F.; Abghari, R.; Sarkissian, A.

1987-10-01

239

Influences of Hunting on the Behavior of White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Conservation of the Florida Panther  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of deer bunting by humans on deerpopubtion dynamics and behavior may indirectly affect the population dynamics and behavior of deer predators. We present data on the effects of bunting on the behavior of white-tuiled deer (Odocoileus virginianusj on the Osceola Nutional Forest, a potential reiatro- duction site for the endungered Florida panther @Iis concolor coryi). We then use

John C. Kilgo; Ronald F. Labisky; Duane E. Fritzen

1998-01-01

240

Spatial ecology of white-tailed deer fawns in the northern Great Plains: implications of loss of conservation reserve program grasslands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Few studies have evaluated how wildlife, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in particular, respond to Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands. We conducted a 3-year study (2007–2009) to determine the influence of CRP on fawn ecology during a time of declining CRP enrollment. We captured and radiocollared 81 fawn white-tailed deer during 15 May to 15 June 2007–2009 in north-central South Dakota, collected 6,505 locations, and documented 70 summer home ranges. Mean summer home ranges increased temporally during 2007–2009 (P P < 0.001) from 2007 to 2009. Analysis of covariance models indicated that change in CRP influenced home-range size, and change in CRP and wheat influenced daily movement. Smaller home ranges and reduced movements were associated with greater quantity of CRP available to fawns, and increased movements were associated with more acreage of wheat available to fawns. Fawns shifted resource selection during the summer at a mean age ranging from 48.8 days to 58.6 days, and this shift was associated with height of corn (83–87 cm). During early summer, fawns consistently selected for CRP; selection of wheat progressed temporally from avoidance in 2007 to selection in 2009. During late summer, fawns consistently selected for corn habitat and used CRP at least in proportion to its availability. Reduction in CRP-grasslands seemed to increase fawn home-range size and daily movements and, influenced change in resource selection to wheat. Current legislation mandates continued decrease in CRP enrollment and concomitant increase in the planting of corn for ethanol production. Management of habitat throughout the grasslands of the Northern Great Plains that maximizes cover habitats would provide neonates with adequate cover for protection from predators.

Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

2012-01-01

241

Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) spp. infecting cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) in the United States.  

PubMed

In the United States, the generally non-pathogenic trypanosome of cattle is designated Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri and is distinguished morphologically from Trypanosoma (M.) cervi, a trypanosome originally described in mule deer and elk. Phylogenetic studies of the Megatrypanum trypanosomes using various molecular markers reveal two lineages, designated TthI and TthII, with several genotypes within each. However, to date there is very limited genetic data for T. theileri, and none for the Megatrypanum trypanosomes found in wild ungulates, in the U.S. In this study U.S. isolates from cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (WTD), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were compared by ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis and their incidence in cattle and WTD in south Texas counties was investigated. Phylogenetic analyses showed clear separation of the bovine and cervine trypanosomes. Both lineages I and II were represented in the U.S. cattle and WTD parasites. Lineage I cattle isolates were of a previously described genotype, whereas WTD and elk isolates were of two new genotypes distinct from the cattle trypanosomes. The cattle isolate of lineage II was of a previously reported genotype and was divergent from the WTD isolate, which was of a new genotype. In La Salle, Starr, Webb, and Zapata counties in south Texas a total of 51.8% of white-tailed deer were positive for trypanosomes by 18S rDNA PCR. Of the cattle screened in Webb County, 35.4% were positive. Drought conditions prevailing in south Texas when the animals were screened suggest the possibility of a vector for Trypanosoma other than the ked (Lipoptena mazamae) and tabanid flies (Tabanus spp. and Haematopota spp.). PMID:23683651

Fisher, Amanda C; Schuster, Greta; Cobb, W Jacob; James, Andrea M; Cooper, Susan M; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Holman, Patricia J

2013-04-26

242

Comparative Plasma and Urine Chemistry of Fasting White-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys-Leucurus) and American Martens (Martes-Americana) : Representative Fat-Bodied and Lean-Bodied Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

American martens and white-tailed prairie dogs are mammals of similar body mass, exposed to periods of food deprivation, but of vastly different body fat content. While both species demonstrated a protein conservation phase during a short-term fast, martens had a greater reliance on protein as depicted by greater loss of body weight, higher daily urine volume, and glomerular clearance rates,

H. J Harlow; Steven Buskirk

1991-01-01

243

Independent Occurrences of Multiple Repeats in the Control Region of Mitochondrial DNA of White-Tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deer in the genera Mazama and Odocoileus generally have two copies of a 75-base-pair (bp) repeat in the left domain of the control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Phylogenetic analyses further suggest an ancient origin for the duplication supporting a previously stated contention that this event occurred before the separation of Mazama and Odocoileus. However, white-taileddeer(Odocoileusvirginianus)hadthreeorfourcopiesofa75-bprepeatinthecontrolregionoftheirmtDNAin7.8%of the individuals analyzed,

JAMES R. PURDUE; T ARAS K. OLEKSYK; MICHAEL H. SMITH

2006-01-01

244

Surface-Based Analysis on Shape and Fractional Anisotropy of White Matter Tracts in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWhite matter disruption has been suggested as one of anatomical features associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which has been widely used in AD studies, obtains new insights into the white matter structure.MethodsWe introduced surface-based geometric models of the deep white matter tracts extracted from DTI, allowing the characterization of their shape variations relative to an atlas

Anqi Qiu; Kenichi Oishi; Michael I. Miller; Constantine G. Lyketsos; Susumu Mori; Marilyn Albert

2010-01-01

245

In vivo parahippocampal white matter pathology as a biomarker of disease progression to Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Noninvasive diagnostic tests for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are limited. Postmortem diagnosis is based on density and distribution of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and amyloid-rich neuritic plaques. In preclinical stages of AD, the cells of origin for the perforant pathway within the entorhinal cortex are among the first to display NFTs, indicating its compromise in early stages of AD. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the integrity of the parahippocampal white matter in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, as a first step in developing a noninvasive tool for early diagnosis. Subjects with AD (N = 9), MCI (N = 8), or no cognitive impairment (NCI; N = 20) underwent DTI-MRI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean (MD) and radial (RD) diffusivity measured from the parahippocampal white matter in AD and NCI subjects differed greatly. Discriminant analysis in the MCI cases assigned statistical membership of 38% of MCI subjects to the AD group. Preliminary data 1 year later showed that all MCI cases assigned to the AD group either met the diagnostic criteria for probable AD or showed significant cognitive decline. Voxelwise analysis in the parahippocampal white matter revealed a progressive change in the DTI patterns in MCI and AD subjects: whereas converted MCI cases showed structural changes restricted to the anterior portions of this region, in AD the pathology was generalized along the entire anterior-posterior axis. The use of DTI for in vivo assessment of the parahippocampal white matter may be useful for identifying individuals with MCI at highest risk for conversion to AD and for assessing disease progression. J. Comp. Neurol. 521:4300-4317, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23839862

Solodkin, Ana; Chen, E Elinor; Van Hoesen, Gary W; Heimer, Lennart; Shereen, Ahmed; Kruggel, Frithjof; Mastrianni, James

2013-12-15

246

White matter abnormalities in Parkinson's disease patients with glucocerebrosidase gene mutations.  

PubMed

Glucocerebrosidase gene mutations represent a genetic risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease. This study investigated brain alterations in Parkinson's disease patients carrying heterozygous glucocerebrosidase gene mutations using structural and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Among 360 Parkinson's disease patients screened for glucocerebrosidase gene mutations, 19 heterozygous mutation carriers (5.3%) were identified. Of these, 15 patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation and a magnetic resonance imaging scan. Sixteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls and 14 idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients without glucocerebrosidase gene mutations were also studied. Tract-based spatial statistics was used to perform a white matter voxel-wise analysis of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging metrics. Mean fractional anisotropy values were obtained from white matter tracts of interest. Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess gray-matter atrophy. Cognitive deficits were found in 9 mutation carrier patients (60%). Compared with controls, Parkinson's disease patients carrying glucocerebrosidase gene mutations showed decreased fractional anisotropy in the olfactory tracts, corpus callosum, and anterior limb of the internal capsule bilaterally, as well as in the right anterior external capsule, and left cingulum, parahippocampal tract, parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and occipital white matter. Mutation carrier patients also had decreased fractional anisotropy of the majority of white matter tracts compared with Parkinson's disease patients with no mutations. No white matter abnormalities were found in Parkinson's disease patients without glucocerebrosidase gene mutations. No gray matter difference was found between patients and controls. In Parkinson's disease patients, verbal fluency scores correlated with white matter abnormalities. Parkinson's disease patients carrying glucocerebrosidase gene mutations experience a distributed pattern of white matter abnormalities involving the interhemispheric, frontal corticocortical, and parahippocampal tracts. White matter pathology in these patients may have an impact on the clinical manifestations of the disease, including cognitive impairment. PMID:23418083

Agosta, Federica; Kostic, Vladimir S; Davidovic, Kristina; Kresojevi?, Nikola; Sarro, Lidia; Svetel, Marina; Stankovi?, Iva; Comi, Giancarlo; Klein, Christine; Filippi, Massimo

2013-02-15

247

Magnetization transfer changes of grey and white matter in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the attempt to evidence structural brain damage in Parkinson's disease (PD) by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually disappointing, we have investigated whether the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) can reflect changes in grey and white matter of PD patients. MTR was quantified in 44 regions of interest (ROIs) in both grey and white matter of 11 non-demented PD

N. Tambasco; G. P. Pelliccioli; P. Chiarini; G. E. Montanari; F. Leone; M. L. Mancini; M. Paciaroni; V. Gallai

2003-01-01

248

Panencephalopathic type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: primary involvement of the cerebral white matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight necropsy cases of a “panencephalopathic” type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in the Japanese are reported. The reasons why this type should be discussed separately from other types of CJD are that there is primary involvement of the cerebral white matter as well as the cerebral cortex, and that the white matter lesion of one Japanese human brain with CJD

Toshio Mizutani; Atsushi Okumura; Masaya Oda; Hirotsugu Shiraki

1981-01-01

249

Novel White Matter Tract Integrity Metrics Sensitive to Alzheimer Disease Progression.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Along with cortical abnormalities, white matter microstructural changes such as axonal loss and myelin breakdown are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Recently, a white matter model was introduced that relates non-Gaussian diffusional kurtosis imaging metrics to characteristics of white matter tract integrity, including the axonal water fraction, the intra-axonal diffusivity, and the extra-axonal axial and radial diffusivities.MATERIALS AND METHODS:This study reports these white matter tract integrity metrics in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 12), Alzheimer disease (n = 14), and age-matched healthy controls (n = 15) in an effort to investigate their sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy, and associations with white matter changes through the course of Alzheimer disease.RESULTS:With tract-based spatial statistics and region-of-interest analyses, increased diffusivity in the extra-axonal space (extra-axonal axial and radial diffusivities) in several white matter tracts sensitively and accurately discriminated healthy controls from those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (AUC = 0.82-0.95), while widespread decreased axonal water fraction discriminated amnestic mild cognitive impairment from Alzheimer disease (AUC = 0.84). Additionally, these white matter tract integrity metrics in the body of the corpus callosum were strongly correlated with processing speed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (r = |0.80-0.82|, P < .001).CONCLUSIONS:These findings have implications for the course and spatial progression of white matter degeneration in Alzheimer disease, suggest the mechanisms by which these changes occur, and demonstrate the viability of these white matter tract integrity metrics as potential neuroimaging biomarkers of the earliest stages of Alzheimer disease and disease progression. PMID:23764722

Fieremans, E; Benitez, A; Jensen, J H; Falangola, M F; Tabesh, A; Deardorff, R L; Spampinato, M V S; Babb, J S; Novikov, D S; Ferris, S H; Helpern, J A

2013-06-13

250

Impact of White Matter Changes on Clinical Manifestation of Alzheimer's Disease A Quantitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—There have been conflicting results involving the clinical significance of white matter changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied the association between the volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on T2-weighted images and cognitive, neurological, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods—The subjects were 76 AD patients who had WMHs but no obvious cerebrovascular diseases. We quantified the volume

Nobutsugu Hirono; Hajime Kitagaki; Hiroaki Kazui; Mamoru Hashimoto; Etsuro Mori

251

The Ecology of ‘Acroporid White Syndrome', a Coral Disease from the Southern Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outbreaks of coral disease have increased worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, remarkably little is known about the ecology of disease in the Indo-Pacific Region. Here we report the spatiotemporal dynamics of a coral disease termed ‘Acroporid white syndrome’ observed to affect tabular corals of the genus Acropora on the southern Great Barrier Reef. The syndrome is characterised

George Roff; E. Charlotte E. Kvennefors; Maoz Fine; Juan Ortiz; Joanne E. Davy; Ove Hoegh-Guldberg

2011-01-01

252

AN OUTBREAK OF EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN FREE-RANGING WHITE-TAILED DEER IN MICHIGAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus has been recognized as affecting horses and humans in the eastern United States for 70 yr. Evidence of exposure with EEE virus has been reported in a variety of free-ranging wild birds and mammals but cases of clinical disease are much less commonly reported. In Michigan, reports of outbreaks of EEE virus in equine species

Stephen M. Schmitt; Thomas M. Cooley; Scott D. Fitzgerald; Steven R. Bolin; Ailam Lim; Sara M. Schaefer; Matti Kiupel; Roger K. Maes; Stephanie A. Hogle; Daniel J. O'Brien

2007-01-01

253

Distribution of Antibodies Reactive to Borrelia lonestari and Borrelia burgdorferi in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Populations in the Eastern United States  

PubMed Central

Abstract Southern tick-associated rash illness is a Lyme-like syndrome that occurs in the southern states. Borrelia lonestari, which has been suggested as a possible causative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness, naturally infects white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and is transmitted by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). To better understand the prevalence and distribution of Borrelia exposure among WTD, we tested WTD from 21 eastern states for antibodies reactive to B. lonestari using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay and Borrelia burgdorferi using the IDEXX SNAP® 4Dx® test. A total of 107/714 (15%) had antibodies reactive to B. lonestari, and prevalence of antibodies was higher in deer from southern states (17.5%) than in deer from northern states (9.2%). Using the SNAP 4DX test, we found that 73/723 (10%) were positive for B. burgdorferi, and significantly more northern deer (23.9%) were positive compared with southern deer (3.8%). Our data demonstrate that WTD are exposed to both Borrelia species, but antibody prevalence for exposure to the two species differs regionally and distributions correlate with the presence of Ixodes scapularis and A. americanum ticks.

Murdock, Jessica H.; Little, Susan E.; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Caudell, Joe N.; Huffman, Jane E.; Langenberg, Julia A.; Hollamby, Simon

2009-01-01

254

Control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) with topical self-application of permethrin by white-tailed deer inhabiting NASA, Beltsville, Maryland.  

PubMed

We report the first successful area-wide reduction of Ixodes scapularis by using minimal amounts of permethrin self-applied by free-ranging white-tailed deer in as little as 3 y of nearly continuous treatment. The study to control all active stages of L. scapularis Say was initiated in April 1995, at the Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Beltsville, Maryland (treated location), and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland (non-treated location). The locations had similar flora and fauna, and pre-treatment sampling (April to October 1995) of deer, plots, and mice for I. scapularis indicated nearly similar tick populations at both locations. After pre-treatment sampling, 4 deer '4-poster' stations were placed at NASA, while the control area received none. Ten percent permethrin, supplied to 4 roller covers on each station, was passively transferred to the head, neck, and ears of free-ranging deer feeding at the stations. This treatment resulted in elimination of adult I. scapularis on sampled deer (100% control) by the 2nd y of treatment and reductions of immature tick stages on mice. During the 3rd y of treatment, adult, nymphal, and larval questing ticks were reduced by 91-100% from sampled plots, and nymphal and larval ticks were reduced by 70-95% on sampled mice. PMID:12831136

Solberg, V B; Miller, J A; Hadfield, T; Burge, R; Schech, J M; Pound, J M

2003-06-01

255

Endothelial Function and White Matter Hyperintensities in Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The presence of white matter hyperintensities on brain MRI is common among elderly individuals. Previous research suggests that cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased white matter hyperintensities. Examining the role of direct physiological measures of vascular function will help to clarify the vascular mechanisms related to white matter hyperintensities. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vasodilatation and white matter hyperintensity volume. Methods Twenty-five older adults with a range of cardiovascular diseases underwent brain MRI and completed assessments of blood vessel integrity using endothelial-dependent and independent flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. A semi-automated pixel-based method was used to quantify total brain volume and white matter hyperintensity volume, with white matter hyperintensity volume corrected for total brain volume. The association between measures of flow-mediated dilation and log-transformed white matter hyperintensities was examined. Results Correlation analysis revealed that endothelial-dependent vasodilatation was significantly and inversely associated with white matter hyperintensity volume. In contrast, endothelial-independent vasodilatation was not associated with white matter hyperintensities. Neither endothelial-dependent nor endothelial-independent vasodilatation was associated with total brain volume. Conclusions These data provide preliminary evidence that the integrity of the vascular endothelium is associated with white matter hyperintensities in older adults with cardiovascular disease. Impaired vascular function may be one mechanism that contributes to the development of white matter hyperintensities in the brain. Additional longitudinal research combining measures of vessel function, neuroimaging and cognition will be helpful in clarifying this potential mechanism.

Hoth, Karin F.; Tate, David F.; Poppas, Athena; Forman, Daniel E.; Gunstad, John; Moser, David J.; Paul, Robert H.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Haley, Andreana P.; Cohen, Ronald A.

2009-01-01

256

Alterations of mean diffusivity in brain white matter and deep gray matter in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Although Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease primarily involving basal ganglia and midbrain, the deficit of white matter is also involved during the disease progression. As the diffusion tensor imaging method is sensitive to the microstructural changes, we investigated the microstructural alterations in white matter and deep gray matter in patients with Parkinson's disease. Brain images of 64 patients and sex- and age-matched 64 healthy controls were obtained from a 3T MRI scanner. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to compare the mean diffusivity of the white matter tract between the groups. Voxel-based analysis was used to compare the mean diffusivity of the subcortical gray matter between the groups. There were white matter deficits in the corticofugal tract, cingulum, uncinate fasciculus, crus of fornix or stria terminalis, corpus callosum, external capsule, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiation including optic radiation, and the tracts adjacent to the precuneus and supramarginal gyrus, as indicated by higher mean diffusivity in Parkinson's disease patients than in controls. There were also deficits in the left putamen, pallidum, thalamus, and caudate as indicated by higher mean diffusivity in Parkinson's disease patients than in controls. Using diffusion tensor imaging and multi-methods of image analysis, we successfully characterized and visualized brain white matter and deep gray matter areas with microstructural deficits in Parkinson's disease patients. PMID:23831353

Kim, Hengjun J; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Namkug; Han, Seungbong; Jang, Eun Hye; Chung, Sun J; Lee, Chong Sik

2013-07-03

257

Title: The Use of Highway Underpasses by Large Mammals in Virginia and Factors Influencing their Effectiveness Key Words: wildlife crossings, highway underpasses, large mammals, white-tailed deer, black bear, deer vehicle collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid increase in animal-vehicle collisions on U.S. roadways is a growing concern in terms of human safety, property damage and injury costs, and viability of wildlife populations. Wildlife crossing structures are gaining national recognition by transportation agencies as effective measures to reduce animal-vehicle collisions and connect wildlife habitats across transportation corridors. In Virginia, white-tailed deer and black bear pose

Bridget M. Donaldson

2005-01-01

258

The Ecology of 'Acroporid White Syndrome', a Coral Disease from the Southern Great Barrier Reef  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of coral disease have increased worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, remarkably little is known about the ecology of disease in the Indo-Pacific Region. Here we report the spatiotemporal dynamics of a coral disease termed ‘Acroporid white syndrome’ observed to affect tabular corals of the genus Acropora on the southern Great Barrier Reef. The syndrome is characterised by rapid tissue loss initiating in the basal margins of colonies, and manifests as a distinct lesion boundary between apparently healthy tissue and exposed white skeleton. Surveys of eight sites around Heron Reef in 2004 revealed a mean prevalence of 8.1±0.9%, affecting the three common species (Acropora cytherea, A. hyacinthus, A. clathrata) and nine other tabular Acropora spp. While all sizes of colonies were affected, white syndrome disproportionately affected larger colonies of tabular Acroporids (>80 cm). The prevalence of white syndrome was strongly related to the abundance of tabular Acroporids within transects, yet the incidence of the syndrome appears unaffected by proximity to other colonies, suggesting that while white syndrome is density dependant, it does not exhibit a strongly aggregated spatial pattern consistent with previous coral disease outbreaks. Acroporid white syndrome was not transmitted by either direct contact in the field or by mucus in aquaria experiments. Monitoring of affected colonies revealed highly variable rates of tissue loss ranging from 0 to 1146 cm?2 week?1, amongst the highest documented for a coral disease. Contrary to previous links between temperature and coral disease, rates of tissue loss in affected colonies increased threefold during the winter months. Given the lack of spatial pattern and non-infectious nature of Acroporid white syndrome, further studies are needed to determine causal factors and longer-term implications of disease outbreaks on the Great Barrier Reef.

Roff, George; Kvennefors, E. Charlotte E.; Fine, Maoz; Ortiz, Juan; Davy, Joanne E.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

2011-01-01

259

On-Farm Mitigation of Transmission of Tuberculosis from White-Tailed Deer to Cattle: Literature Review and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

The Animal Industry Division of the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) has been challenged with assisting farmers with modifying farm practices to reduce potential for exposure to Mycobacterium bovis from wildlife to cattle. The MDARD recommendations for on-farm risk mitigation practices were developed from experiences in the US, UK and Ireland and a review of the scientific literature. The objectives of our study were to review the present state of knowledge on M. bovis excretion, transmission, and survival in the environment and the interactions of wildlife and cattle with the intention of determining if the current recommendations by MDARD on farm practices are adequate and to identify additional changes to farm practices that may help to mitigate the risk of transmission. This review will provide agencies with a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature on mitigation of disease transmission between wildlife and cattle and to identify lacunae in published research.

Walter, W. David; Anderson, Charles W.; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; Averill, James J.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

2012-01-01

260

Dry bubble disease of the white button mushroom. Ecology and control of Lecanicillium fungicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry bubble disease is a persistent problem in the cultivation of the white button mushroom, A. bisporus. There is a pressing need for innovative ways to control spread and development of L. fungicola in mushroom cultivation as currently disease management relies heavily on one chemical (Sporgon) for which a reduced sensitivity of the pathogen has been reported. The research described

R. L. Berendsen

2011-01-01

261

White matter damage of patients with Alzheimer's disease correlated with the decreased cognitive function.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence demonstrates that there is marked damage and dysfunction in the white matter in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study investigates the nature of white matter damage of patients with Alzheimer's disease with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) and analyses the relationship between the white matter damage and the cognition function. DTI, as well as T1 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-FLAIR, was performed on probable patients of Alzheimer's disease, and sex and age matched healthy volunteers to measure the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, and the white matter of frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. FA was lower in the splenium of corpus callosum, as well as in the white matter of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes from patients with Alzheimer's disease than in the corresponding region from healthy controls and was strongly positive correlated with MMSE scores, whereas FA appeared no different in the anterior and posterior limbs of internal capsule, occipital lobes white matter, and the genu of corpus callosum between the patients and healthy controls. MD was significantly higher in the splenium of corpus callosum and parietal lobes white matter from patients than in that those from healthy controls and was strongly negative correlated with MMSE scores, whereas MD in the anterior and posterior limbs of internal capsule, as well as in frontal, temporal, occipital lobes white matter and the genu of corpus callosum, was not different between the patients and healthy controls. The most prominent alteration of FA and MD was in the splenium of corpus callosum. Our results suggested that white matter of patients with Alzheimer's disease was selectively impaired and the extent of damage had a strong correlation with the cognitive function, and that selective impairment reflected the cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical disconnections in the pathomechanism of Alzheimer's disease. The values of FA and MD in white matter, especially in the splenium of corpus callosum in AD patients, might be a more appropriate surrogate marker for monitoring the disease progression. PMID:16614789

Duan, Jin-Hai; Wang, Hua-Qiao; Xu, Jie; Lin, Xian; Chen, Shao-Qiong; Kang, Zhuang; Yao, Zhi-Bin

2006-04-14

262

White matter abnormalities and structural hippocampal disconnections in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer's disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer's disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate and frontal regions only in the Alzheimer's group. The severity of white matter degeneration appears to be higher in advanced clinical stages, supporting the construct that these abnormalities are part of the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24086371

Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

2013-09-27

263

Comparison of Dietary Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in African-American and White Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare African-American and white women's knowledge, attitudes, and energy and nutrient intakes related to cardiovascular disease risk.Design The 1989 through 1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS).Subjects A nationally representative sample of 2,684 white and 449 African-American women who completed the DHKS and provided 3 days of dietary information.Statistical

GALL GATES; MARY McDONALD

1997-01-01

264

White Matter Abnormalities and Structural Hippocampal Disconnections in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer’s disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer’s disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate and frontal regions only in the Alzheimer’s group. The severity of white matter degeneration appears to be higher in advanced clinical stages, supporting the construct that these abnormalities are part of the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer’s disease.

Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

2013-01-01

265

Signatures of large-scale and local climates on the demography of white-tailed ptarmigan in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA.  

PubMed

Global climate change may impact wildlife populations by affecting local weather patterns, which, in turn, can impact a variety of ecological processes. However, it is not clear that local variations in ecological processes can be explained by large-scale patterns of climate. The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is a large-scale climate phenomenon that has been shown to influence the population dynamics of some animals. Although effects of the NAO on vertebrate population dynamics have been studied, it remains uncertain whether it broadly predicts the impact of weather on species. We examined the ability of local weather data and the NAO to explain the annual variation in population dynamics of white-tailed ptarmigan ( Lagopus leucurus) in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA. We performed canonical correlation analysis on the demographic subspace of ptarmigan and local-climate subspace defined by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) using data from 1975 to 1999. We found that two subspaces were significantly correlated on the first canonical variable. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the first EOF values of the demographic and local-climate subspaces was significant. The population density and the first EOF of local-climate subspace influenced the ptarmigan population with 1-year lags in the Gompertz model. However, the NAO index was neither related to the first two EOF of local-climate subspace nor to the first EOF of the demographic subspace of ptarmigan. Moreover, the NAO index was not a significant term in the Gompertz model for the ptarmigan population. Therefore, local climate had stronger signature on the demography of ptarmigan than did a large-scale index, i.e., the NAO index. We conclude that local responses of wildlife populations to changing climate may not be adequately explained by models that project large-scale climatic patterns. PMID:12242476

Wang, Guiming; Hobbs, N Thompson; Galbraith, Hector; Giesen, Kenneth M

2002-06-04

266

The brain in myotonic dystrophy 1 and 2: evidence for a predominant white matter disease.  

PubMed

Myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2 are progressive multisystemic disorders with potential brain involvement. We compared 22 myotonic dystrophy type 1 and 22 myotonic dystrophy type 2 clinically and neuropsychologically well-characterized patients and a corresponding healthy control group using structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T (T(1)/T(2)/diffusion-weighted). Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics were applied for voxel-wise analysis of cerebral grey and white matter affection (P(corrected) < 0.05). We further examined the association of structural brain changes with clinical and neuropsychological data. White matter lesions rated visually were more prevalent and severe in myotonic dystrophy type 1 compared with controls, with frontal white matter most prominently affected in both disorders, and temporal lesions restricted to myotonic dystrophy type 1. Voxel-based morphometry analyses demonstrated extensive white matter involvement in all cerebral lobes, brainstem and corpus callosum in myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2, while grey matter decrease (cortical areas, thalamus, putamen) was restricted to myotonic dystrophy type 1. Accordingly, we found more prominent white matter affection in myotonic dystrophy type 1 than myotonic dystrophy type 2 by diffusion tensor imaging. Association fibres throughout the whole brain, limbic system fibre tracts, the callosal body and projection fibres (e.g. internal/external capsules) were affected in myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2. Central motor pathways were exclusively impaired in myotonic dystrophy type 1. We found mild executive and attentional deficits in our patients when neuropsychological tests were corrected for manual motor dysfunctioning. Regression analyses revealed associations of white matter affection with several clinical parameters in both disease entities, but not with neuropsychological performance. We showed that depressed mood and fatigue were more prominent in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 with less white matter affection (early disease stages), contrary to patients with myotonic dystrophy type 2. Thus, depression in myotonic dystrophies might be a reactive adjustment disorder rather than a direct consequence of structural brain damage. Associations of white matter affection with age/disease duration as well as patterns of cerebral water diffusion parameters pointed towards an ongoing process of myelin destruction and/or axonal loss in our cross-sectional study design. Our data suggest that both myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2 are serious white matter diseases with prominent callosal body and limbic system affection. White matter changes dominated the extent of grey matter changes, which might argue against Wallerian degeneration as the major cause of white matter affection in myotonic dystrophies. PMID:22131273

Minnerop, Martina; Weber, Bernd; Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Roeske, Sandra; Mirbach, Sandra; Anspach, Christian; Schneider-Gold, Christiane; Betz, Regina C; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Klockgether, Thomas; Kornblum, Cornelia

2011-11-29

267

Polycystic kidney syndrome in New Zealand White rabbits resembling human polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic kidney syndrome in New Zealand White rabbits resembling human polycystic kidney disease.BackgroundCystic kidney diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Small animal models are needed to more fully explore the complex expression patterns and pathobiology of this group of heritable diseases.MethodsWe performed a 15-year retrospective analysis of cases in our laboratory animal diagnostic archives to

Kirk J. Maurer; Robert P. Marini; James G. Fox; Arlin B. Rogers

2004-01-01

268

Mapping joint grey and white matter reductions in Alzheimer's disease using joint independent component analysis.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease concomitant with grey and white matter damages. However, the interrelationship of volumetric changes between grey and white matter remains poorly understood in AD. Using joint independent component analysis, this study identified joint grey and white matter volume reductions based on structural magnetic resonance imaging data to construct the covariant networks in twelve AD patients and fourteen normal controls (NC). We found that three networks showed significant volume reductions in joint grey-white matter sources in AD patients, including (1) frontal/parietal/temporal-superior longitudinal fasciculus/corpus callosum, (2) temporal/parietal/occipital-frontal/occipital, and (3) temporal-precentral/postcentral. The corresponding expression scores distinguished AD patients from NC with 85.7%, 100% and 85.7% sensitivity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively; 75.0%, 66.7% and 75.0% specificity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Furthermore, the combined source of three significant joint sources best predicted the AD/NC group membership with 92.9% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity. Our findings revealed joint grey and white matter loss in AD patients, and these results can help elucidate the mechanism of grey and white matter reductions in the development of AD. PMID:23123779

Guo, Xiaojuan; Han, Yuan; Chen, Kewei; Wang, Yan; Yao, Li

2012-11-02

269

White matter lesions in Fabry disease occur in 'prior' selectively hypometabolic and hyperperfused brain regions.  

PubMed

Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder associated with early onset stroke. We previously found a significantly elevated cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with Fabry disease. We set to determine whether elevated resting CBF in Fabry disease is primarily a cerebrovascular abnormality or is secondary to enhanced neuronal metabolism. The relationship of cerebral metabolism and blood flow to Fabry leukoencephalopathy was also investigated. We measured the global and regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose using 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) and PET in 16 patients with Fabry disease (7 patients with leukoaraiotic lesions and 9 without) and in 7 control subjects. MRI fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) studies were also performed in the patient and control groups. All control subjects had normal MRI FLAIR studies with no high-signal deep white matter lesions (WML). Patients were partitioned into FLAIR lesion and non-FLAIR lesion groups. We found no evidence of cerebral glucose hypermetabolism in Fabry disease. On the contrary, significantly decreased regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) was found particularly in the deep white matter in the Fabry non-lesion group and exacerbated in the lesion group. Lesion-susceptible regions were relatively hyperperfused in non-lesion patients compared to the control group. We conclude that the elevated rCBF and decreased white matter rCMRGlu indicates a dissociation between metabolism and blood flow suggesting chronic deep white matter metabolic insufficiency. PMID:14698356

Moore, David F; Altarescu, Gheona; Barker, W Craig; Patronas, Nicholas J; Herscovitch, Peter; Schiffmann, Raphael

2003-12-30

270

Diarrhoeal diseases in the White Mountain Apaches: clinical studies.  

PubMed

Acute diarrhoeal diseases continue to be a major health problem in certain underprivileged populations in the United States, including native Americans living in reservations. To describe the features of patients with diarrhoeal diseases requiring medical care, those attending the medical facilities of the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, Whiteriver, Arizona, were studied during 1981-1985. Clinical and aetiological information was obtained on 535 patients which constitute a 20% sample of those attending the outpatient clinic and all 386 patients who required 550 hospitalizations. Rotavirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Shigella were the most common aetiologic agents, a pattern similar to that seen in the developing countries. The clinical features of diarrhoeal illness and the frequent associated occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms, however, were remarkably similar, regardless of aetiology. PMID:7657960

Sack, R B; Santosham, M; Reid, R; Black, R; Croll, J; Yolken, R; Aurelian, L; Wolff, M; Chan, E; Garrett, S

1995-03-01

271

Lecanicillium fungicola: causal agent of dry dubble disease in white-button mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lecanicillium fungicola causes dry bubble disease in commercially cultivated mushroom. This review summarizes current knowledge on the biology of the pathogen and the interaction between the pathogen and its most important host, the white-button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. The ecology of the pathogen is discussed with emphasis on host range, dispersal and primary source of infection. In addition, current knowledge on

R. L. Berendsen; J. J. P. Baars; S. I. Kalkhove; L. G. Lugones; H. A. B. Wösten; P. A. H. M. Bakker

2010-01-01

272

Cryptocaryon irritans Brown 1951, the cause of ‘white spot disease’ in marine fish: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptocaryon irritans Brown 1951, a holotrichous ciliate parasite of marine fishes, causes ‘marine white spot disease’. In aquaria, C. irritans can cause acute damage and heavy mortalities to marine teleosts. Although first described 60 years ago, only within the last decade has detailed information emerged concerning its life cycle, transmission and pathogenesis. An update of our knowledge of this important

Angelo Colorni; Peter Burgess

1997-01-01

273

Ovine white liver disease — an hepatic dysfunction associated with vitamin B12 deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovine white liver disease is an economically important hepatic dysfunction which occurs in the wanner parts of New Zealand. Acute, chronic and recovered phases can be recognised clinically, histologically and biochemically. The condition is associated with severe ill-thrift and, in the acute phase, with photosensitivity. Acute and chronic cases show elevations of serumenzymes (GOT, GGT) and copper and, sometimes, bilirubin.

R. J. Sutherland; D. O. Cordes; G. C. Carthew

1979-01-01

274

Psychosis and epileptic seizures in Wilson's disease with predominantly white matter lesions in the frontal lobe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although psychiatric symptoms are not rare in Wilson's disease (WD), their association with epileptic seizures has not been reported. We describe three patients with such clinical manifestations who had predominantly cerebral white matter lesions in the frontal lobe. There were two men and one woman with ages ranging from 20 to 26 yr. The early presentations were psychiatric symptoms and

Chin-Chang Huang; Nai-Shin Chu

1995-01-01

275

Pathogenesis study of selected velogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus in White Leghorn chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Groups of 4-week old White Leghorn chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with three Newcastle disease viruses isolated from natural outbreaks (Vietnam, Australia, both velogenic; and U.S., mesogenic) and two strains rescued by reverse genetics (ZJ1 and ZJ1-GFP). The parent ZJ1, a velogen, wa...

276

Mitral Valve Disease Presentation and Surgical Outcome in African-American Patients Compared With White Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Disparities associated with race, particu- larly African-American race, in access to medical and surgical care for patients with cardiac disease have pre- viously been documented. The purpose of this study was to determine the presentation, etiology, and hospital outcome differences between African-American patients and white patients with regard to surgically corrected mitral valve disease. Methods. All 1,425 adult patients

Paul L. DiGiorgi; F. Gregory Baumann; Anne M. O'Leary; Charles F. Schwartz; Eugene A. Grossi; Greg H. Ribakove; Stephen B. Colvin; Aubrey C. Galloway; Juan B. Grau

2010-01-01

277

Fungal disease and the developing story of bat white-nose syndrome  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two recently emerged cutaneous fungal diseases of wildlife, bat white-nose syndrome (WNS) and amphibian chytridiomycosis, have devastated affected populations. Fungal diseases are gaining recognition as significant causes of morbidity and mortality to plants, animals, and humans, yet fewer than 10% of fungal species are known. Furthermore, limited antifungal therapeutic drugs are available, antifungal therapeutics often have associated toxicity, and there are no approved antifungal vaccines. The unexpected emergence of WNS, the rapidity with which it has spread, and its unprecedented severity demonstrate both the impacts of novel fungal disease upon naïve host populations and challenges to effective management of such diseases.

Blehert, David S.

2012-01-01

278

Phage therapy of the white plague-like disease of Favia favus in the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral disease is a major factor in the global decline of coral reefs. At present, there are no known procedures for preventing or treating infectious diseases of corals. Immunization is not possible because corals have a restricted adaptive immune system and antibiotics are neither ecologically safe nor practical in an open system. Thus, we tested phage therapy as an alternative therapeutic method for treating diseased corals. Phage BA3, specific to the coral pathogen Thalassomonas loyana, inhibited the progression of the white plague-like disease and transmission to healthy corals in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Only one out of 19 (5 %) of the healthy corals became infected when placed near phage-treated diseased corals, whereas 11 out of 18 (61 %) healthy corals were infected in the no-phage control. This is the first successful treatment for a coral disease in the sea. We posit that phage therapy of certain coral diseases is achievable in situ.

Atad, I.; Zvuloni, A.; Loya, Y.; Rosenberg, E.

2012-09-01

279

Black-White Differences in Severity of Coronary Artery Disease Among Individuals with Acute Coronary Syndromes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine whether the extent of coronary obstructive disease is similar among black and white patients with acute coronary syndromes. DESIGN Retrospective chart review. PATIENTS We used administrative discharge data to identify white and black male patients, 30 years of age or older, who were discharged between October 1, 1989 and September 30, 1995 from 1 of 6 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals with a primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or unstable angina (UnA) and who underwent coronary angiography during the admission. We excluded patients if they did not meet standard clinical criteria for AMI or UnA or if they had had prior percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Physician reviewers classified the degree of coronary obstruction from blinded coronary angiography reports. Obstruction was considered significant if there was at least 50% obstruction of the left main coronary artery, or if there was 70% obstruction in 1 of the 3 major epicardial vessels or their main branches. Of the 628 eligible patients, 300 (48%) had AMI. Among patients with AMI, blacks were more likely than whites to have no significant coronary obstructions (28/145, or 19%, vs 10/155 or 7%, P = .001). Similarly, among patients with UnA, 33% (56/168) of blacks but just 17% (27/160) of whites had no significant stenoses (P = .012). There were no racial differences in severity of coronary disease among veterans with at least 1 significant obstruction. Racial differences in coronary obstructions remained after correcting for coronary disease risk factors and characteristics of the AMI. CONCLUSIONS Black veterans who present with acute coronary insufficiency are less likely than whites to have significant coronary obstruction. Current understanding of coronary disease does not provide an explanation for these differences.

Whittle, Jeff; Conigliaro, Joseph; Good, C Bernie; Hanusa, Barbara H; Macpherson, David S

2002-01-01

280

The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata  

PubMed Central

Populations of the shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are being decimated by white pox disease, with losses of living cover in the Florida Keys typically in excess of 70%. The rate of tissue loss is rapid, averaging 2.5 cm2?day?1, and is greatest during periods of seasonally elevated temperature. In Florida, the spread of white pox fits the contagion model, with nearest neighbors most susceptible to infection. In this report, we identify a common fecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as the causal agent of white pox. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a bacterial species associated with the human gut has been shown to be a marine invertebrate pathogen.

Patterson, Kathryn L.; Porter, James W.; Ritchie, Kim B.; Polson, Shawn W.; Mueller, Erich; Peters, Esther C.; Santavy, Deborah L.; Smith, Garriet W.

2002-01-01

281

MYH9 related disease: four novel mutations of the tail domain of myosin-9 correlating with a mild clinical phenotype.  

PubMed

MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in MYH9, the gene encoding the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin IIA. All patients present congenital macrothrombocytopenia and inclusion bodies in neutrophils. Some of them can also develop sensorineural deafness, presenile cataract, and/or progressive nephropathy leading to end-stage renal failure. We report four families, each with a novel mutation: two missense mutations, in exons 31 and 32, and two out of frame deletions in exon 40. They were associated with no bleeding diathesis, normal, or only slightly reduced platelet count and no extra-hematological manifestations, confirming that alterations of the tail domain cause a mild form of MYH9-RD with no clinically relevant defects. PMID:20002731

Pecci, Alessandro; Panza, Emanuele; De Rocco, Daniela; Pujol-Moix, Nuria; Girotto, Giorgia; Podda, Luigi; Paparo, Carmelo; Bozzi, Valeria; Pastore, Annalisa; Balduini, Carlo L; Seri, Marco; Savoia, Anna

2009-12-11

282

Diseases of the hip. A comparative study of Japanese Oriental and American white patients.  

PubMed

Pelvic radiographs of 200 consecutive Japanese Oriental patients who were admitted for hip surgery at the Hospital of Kobe University in Japan were compared with those of 199 consecutive American white patients who were admitted for the same purpose to a New England hospital over a similar four and a half-year period between 1972 and 1976. One hundred and fifty-three Japanese Oriental and 157 American white patients had either primary or secondary osteoarthritis. The remainder had other types of hip pathology, such as avascular necrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. The radiographs of five Japanese Oriental and seven American white patients showed evidence of previous Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, coxa vara, or slipped capital femoral epiphysis. With only two exceptions, the osteoarthritis in the remainder of the Japanese Oriental patients was secondary, caused by antecedent congenital hip disease: twenty-eight had one or two congenitally dislocated hips, ninety-two had acetabular dysplasia, and twenty-six had superolateral osteoarthritis. In contrast, only nine of the American white patients clearly had a diagnosis of acetabular dysplasia, and twenty-six had superolateral osteoarthritis. Twenty-one American white men had a femoral head-tilt deformity. Among the Americans, the largest group (sixty-five patients) had superomedial osteoarthritis. Nine had non-rheumatoid protrusio acetabuli and twenty had axillary or concentric osteoarthritic involvement. The majority of American white patients, therefore, had a type of osteoarthritis that was not seen in the Japanese Oriental patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4077908

Hoaglund, F T; Shiba, R; Newberg, A H; Leung, K Y

1985-12-01

283

Susceptibility ofWhite-Tailed Deer(Odocoileus virginianus) toInfection withEhrlichia chaffeensis, theEtiologic AgentofHumanEhrlichiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although more than320casesofhumanehrlichiosis havebeendiagnosed in27states since1986, the reservoir host orhosts remain unknown. Since antibodies reactive toEhrlichia chajyeensis, theetiologic agent ofhumanehrlichiosis, havebeenfoundinwhite-tailed deer(Odocoileus virginianus), we experimentally evaluated thesusceptibilities offourwhite-tailed deertoinfection withE.chaj'eensis andEhrlichia canis, a closely related species. Afifth deerserved as anegative control. Isolation andnested PCRamplification results fromperipheral bloodindicated thatE.chajfeensis circulated foratleast 2 weeks.Thedeerdeveloped antibodies toE.chajfeensis byday10after inoculation, butthere was no indication

JACQUELINE E. DAWSON; DAVID E. STALLKNECHT; ELIZABETH W. HOWERTH; CYNTHIA WARNER; WILLIAM R. DAVIDSON; J. MITCHELL LOCKHART; VICTOR F. NE; JAMES G. OLSON

1994-01-01

284

Tail toy  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A toy having a tail attached to a flap which is tucked into clothing worn by a child at the rear so the tail appears to be part of the child. The flap is thin and has a large surface area for frictional engagement with the clothing. Both the flap and tail are soft and flexible, and the flap can detach from the clothing when the tail is pulled. In one embodiment, the flap can detach from the tail when pulled with a predetermined amount of force. Self expression, independence, knowledge and empathy for wildlife are promoted in the child by the toy. The flap can also house a story or picture relating to the animal represented by the tail, further interesting and enlightening the child.

Steiger; Vivian E. Y. (Manhattan Beach, CA)

1995-05-23

285

Extensive white-matter changes in case of adult polyglucosan body disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive white matter signal changes were observed on T2-weighted images of a 49-year-old man. He presented with a slowly\\u000a progressive gait disorder, and finally developed severe dementia. Extensive metabolic and infectious investigations failed\\u000a to disclose the underlying cause during life. Autopsy revealed adult polyglucosan body disease. We discuss MRI findings likely\\u000a to permit this diagnosis if combined with clinical findings

M. Berkhoff; J. Weis; G. Schroth; M. Sturzenegger

2001-01-01

286

Extensive white-matter changes in case of adult polyglucosan body disease.  

PubMed

Extensive white matter signal changes were observed on T2-weighted images of a 49-year-old man. He presented with a slowly progressive gait disorder, and finally developed severe dementia. Extensive metabolic and infectious investigations failed to disclose the underlying cause during life. Autopsy revealed adult polyglucosan body disease. We discuss MRI findings likely to permit this diagnosis if combined with clinical findings and nerve or skin biopsy. PMID:11305757

Berkhoff, M; Weis, J; Schroth, G; Sturzenegger, M

2001-03-01

287

Improved sensitivity to cerebral white matter abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease with spherical deconvolution based tractography.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based fiber tractography (FT) is the most popular approach for investigating white matter tracts in vivo, despite its inability to reconstruct fiber pathways in regions with "crossing fibers." Recently, constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) has been developed to mitigate the adverse effects of "crossing fibers" on DTI based FT. Notwithstanding the methodological benefit, the clinical relevance of CSD based FT for the assessment of white matter abnormalities remains unclear. In this work, we evaluated the applicability of a hybrid framework, in which CSD based FT is combined with conventional DTI metrics to assess white matter abnormalities in 25 patients with early Alzheimer's disease. Both CSD and DTI based FT were used to reconstruct two white matter tracts: one with regions of "crossing fibers," i.e., the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and one which contains only one fiber orientation, i.e. the midsagittal section of the corpus callosum (CC). The DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), obtained from these tracts were related to memory function. Our results show that in the tract with "crossing fibers" the relation between FA/MD and memory was stronger with CSD than with DTI based FT. By contrast, in the fiber bundle where one fiber population predominates, the relation between FA/MD and memory was comparable between both tractography methods. Importantly, these associations were most pronounced after adjustment for the planar diffusion coefficient, a measure reflecting the degree of fiber organization complexity. These findings indicate that compared to conventionally applied DTI based FT, CSD based FT combined with DTI metrics can increase the sensitivity to detect functionally significant white matter abnormalities in tracts with complex white matter architecture. PMID:22952880

Reijmer, Yael D; Leemans, Alexander; Heringa, Sophie M; Wielaard, Ilse; Jeurissen, Ben; Koek, Huiberdina L; Biessels, Geert Jan

2012-08-31

288

Incidence and Predictors of End Stage Renal Disease among Low-Income Blacks and Whites  

PubMed Central

We evaluated whether black race is associated with higher incidence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) among a cohort of blacks and whites of similar, generally low socioeconomic status, and whether risk factor patterns differ among blacks and whites and explain the poorly understood racial disparity in ESRD. Incident diagnoses of ESRD among 79,943 black and white participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS) were ascertained by linkage with the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) from 2002 through 2009. Person-years of follow up were calculated from date of entry into the SCCS until date of ESRD diagnosis, date of death, or September 1, 2009, whichever occurred first. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident ESRD among black and white participants in relation to baseline characteristics. After 329,003 person-years of follow-up, 687 incident cases of ESRD were identified in the cohort. The age-adjusted ESRD incidence rate was 273 (per 100,000) among blacks, 3.5-fold higher than the rate of 78 among whites. Risk factors for ESRD included male sex (HR?=?1.6; 95% CI 1.4–1.9), low income (HR?=?1.5; 95% CI 1.2–1.8 for income below vs. above $15,000), smoking (HR?=?1.2; 95% CI 1.02–1.4) and histories of diabetes (HRs increasing to 9.4 (95% CI 7.4–11.9) among those with ?20 years diabetes duration) and hypertension (HR?=?2.9; 95% CI 2.3–3.7). Patterns and magnitudes of association were virtually identical among blacks and whites. After adjustment for these risk factors, blacks continued to have a higher risk for ESRD (HR?=?2.4; 95% CI?=?1.9–3.0) relative to whites. The black-white disparity in risk of ESRD was attenuated but not eliminated after control for known risk factors in a closely socioeconomically matched cohort. Further research characterizing biomedical factors, including CKD progression, in ESRD occurrence in these two racial groups is needed.

Lipworth, Loren; Mumma, Michael T.; Cavanaugh, Kerri L.; Edwards, Todd L.; Ikizler, T. Alp; E.Tarone, Robert; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Blot, William J.

2012-01-01

289

Atrophy and dysfunction of parahippocampal white matter in mild Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

In addition to atrophy of mesial temporal lobe structures critical for memory function, white matter projections to the hippocampus may be compromised in individuals with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD), thereby compounding the memory difficulty. In the present study, we used high-resolution structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging techniques to examine micro-structural alterations in the parahippocampal white matter (PWM) region that includes the perforant path. Results demonstrated white matter volume loss bilaterally in the PWM in patients with mild AD. In addition, the remaining white matter had significantly lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean diffusivity values. Both increased mean diffusivity and volume reduction in the PWM were associated with memory performance and ApoE ?4 allele status. These findings indicate that, in addition to partial disconnection of the hippocampus from incoming sensory information due to volume loss in PWM, micro-structural alterations in remaining fibers may further degrade impulse transmission to the hippocampus and accentuate memory dysfunction. The results reported here also suggest that ApoE ?4 may exacerbate PWM changes.

Wang, Changsheng; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Medina, David A.; Shah, Raj C.; Bammer, Roland; Moseley, Michael E.; de Toledo-Morrell, Leyla

2010-01-01

290

Differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with sugarcane and gramineous weed white leaf disease and sugarcane grassy shoot disease by RFLP and sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing were used to elucidate the genetic relationship between phytoplasmas\\u000a that cause white lead disease and grassy shoot disease in sugarcane and white leaf disease in gramineous weeds found in the\\u000a cane-growing areas (Crowfoot grass, Bermuda grass and Brachiaria grass). A 1.35-kb DNA fragment encoding for the 16s rRNA was amplified by PCR using

P. Wongkaew; Y. Hanboonsong; P. Sirithorn; C. Choosai; S. Boonkrong; T. Tinnangwattana; R. Kitchareonpanya; S. Damak

1997-01-01

291

[Interhemispheric disconnection, Balint's syndrome and persistent anarthria: Marchifava-Bignami disease with white matter hemorrhage].  

PubMed

A 37-year-old alcoholic right-handed man developed a complex neuropsychological picture following a mild head injury and a severe confusional state. Prominent features were Balint's syndrome, signs of interhemispheric deconnection, and speech disorders with anarthria and dysprosody. Iterative CT scans showed pathognomonic hypodensities of the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, confirmative of Machiafava-Bignami disease. After a two years follow-up, a favourable outcome was observed despite haemmoragic transformation of bilateral necrotic lesions of the parietal white matter, an exceptional neuropathological fact. This case is demonstrative of the possibility of articulate speech impairment when lesions of both corpus callosum and subcortical white matter are present. It also raises several aetiopathogenic problems which are discussed. PMID:8761627

Truffert, A; Dumas, J J; Dandelot, J B

1996-03-01

292

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

293

White matter pathology in Parkinson's disease: The effect of imaging protocol differences and relevance to executive function  

PubMed Central

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used as a non-invasive method to investigate white matter structure in neurological and neuropsychiatric disease. However, many options are available for the acquisition sequence and analysis method. Here we used Parkinson's disease as a model neurodegenerative disorder to compare imaging protocols and analysis options. We investigated fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of white matter in patients and age-matched controls, comparing two datasets acquired with different imaging protocols. One protocol prioritised the number of b value acquisitions, whilst the other prioritised the number of gradient directions. The dataset with more gradient directions was more sensitive to reductions in fractional anisotropy in Parkinson's disease, whilst the dataset with more b values was more sensitive to increases in mean diffusivity. Moreover, the areas of reduced fractional anisotropy were highly similar to areas of increased mean diffusivity in PD patients. Next, we compared two widely used analysis methods: tract-based spatial statistics identified reduced fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity in Parkinson's disease in many of the major white matter tracts in the frontal and parietal lobes. Voxel-based analyses were less sensitive, with similar patterns of white matter pathology observed only at liberal statistical thresholds. We also used tract-based spatial statistics to identify correlations between a test of executive function (phonemic fluency), fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in prefrontal white matter in both Parkinson's disease patients and controls. These findings suggest that in Parkinson's disease there is widespread pathology of cerebral white matter, and furthermore, pathological white matter in the frontal lobe may be associated with executive dysfunction. Diffusion imaging protocols that prioritised the number of directions versus the number of b values were differentially sensitive to alternative markers of white matter pathology, such as fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity.

Rae, Charlotte L.; Correia, Marta M.; Altena, Ellemarije; Hughes, Laura E.; Barker, Roger A.; Rowe, James B.

2012-01-01

294

Nighttime blood pressure and white matter hyperintensities in patients with Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence indicates that nocturnal blood pressure level and/or loss of nocturnal blood pressure dips are sensitive markers of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several studies have suggested that blunted heart rate variability and nocturnal decline in heart rate are also associated with target organ damage. These phenomena occur relatively commonly in patients with Parkinson disease (PD); however, few studies have assessed the consequences of these abnormalities in patients with PD. We investigated the influence of circadian changes in blood pressure and heart rate on white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in patients with PD. The presence of nocturnal hypertension was associated with increased WMH score, and nighttime systolic pressure was closely related with white matter changes. Blunted heart rate variability and nocturnal decline in heart rate were also related to increasing WMH scores. The non-dipping phenomenon did not influence WMHs. These findings suggest that white matter changes are related to circadian autonomic dysfunction, particularly nocturnal hypertension in patients with PD. Therefore, it is important to monitor nocturnal blood pressure status, because modifying these circadian regulatory disturbances can be beneficial to protect against vascular brain damage in patients with PD. PMID:23742007

Oh, Yoon-Sang; Kim, Joong-Seok; Yang, Dong-Won; Koo, Ja-Seong; Kim, Yeong-In; Jung, Hae-Ok; Lee, Kwang-Soo

2013-06-06

295

White plague-like coral disease in remote reefs of the Western Caribbean.  

PubMed

The health of coral reef communities has been decreasing over the last 50 years, due the negative effects of human activities combined with other natural processes. We present documentation of a White Plague Disease (WPD) outbreak in the Serrana Bank, an isolated Western Caribbean atoll with presumably inexistent pollutant inputs from local human settlements. In addition, this study summarizes seven years of observations on diseased corals in the nearby island of San Andrés, which in contrast is one of the most populated islands of the Caribbean. There was a massive coral mortality in the atoll lagoon (14 degrees 27'53.24", 80 degrees 14'22.27" W, and 12m depth) due to WPD on May 4 of 2003. Seventeen species were found dead or largely affected by the disease. The information resulting from GPS and manta-tow transects revealed that approximately 5.8 ha of reticulate Montastraea spp. patch reefs were lethally affected by the disease in the atoll. On May 8 of the same year we observed and calculated a mean coral cover of 7.03% (SD +/- 2.44), a mean diseased coral tissue cover of 5.5% (SD +/- 1.1) and a 13.4% (SD +/- 8.05) of recently dead coral covered with a thin filamentous algae layer; approximately 73% of mortalities caused by the disease occurred before the end of the outbreak. A rough estimate of 18.9% in recent coral cover reduction can be attributed to WPD. This represents about 82% of the total coral cover decline since 1995. Semi-enclosed environments such as atoll lagoons and the reticulate patch-reefs of Montastraea spp. seem to be particularly vulnerable to this kind of coral disease, which constitute an alert to increase the monitoring of the same kind of atoll environments. The WPD has been present in the area of the nearby island of San Andrés at a low prevalence level, with sporadic increasing peaks of disease proliferation. The peaks observed during 1999 and 2004 comprised increases of 266% and 355% respectively, suggesting an alarming progression of the disease in this area. This study includes new information of the epizoolotiology of White Plague Disease and documents the permanent prevalence and progression of the WPD in the area of San Andres Island. PMID:20873047

Sánchez, Juan A; Herrera, Santiago; Navas-Camacho, Raúl; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Herron, Pilar; Pizarro, Valeria; Acosta, Alison R; Castillo, Paula A; Montoya, Phanor; Orozco, Carlos

2010-05-01

296

Body feathers as a potential new biomonitoring tool in raptors: a study on organohalogenated contaminants in different feather types and preen oil of West Greenland white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla).  

PubMed

We investigated the variation in concentrations and profiles of various classes of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) in different feather types, muscle tissue and preen oil from 15 white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) carcasses from Greenland. The influence of moult patterns and potential external contamination onto the feather surface was examined, while the present study is also the first to investigate the use of body feathers for OHC monitoring. Concentrations of sum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in feathers from white tailed eagles ranged from 2.3 ng/g in a primary wing feather to 4200 ng/g in body feathers. Using 300 mg of body feathers, almost 50 different OHCs could be quantified and median concentrations in body feathers were 10 fold higher than concentrations in tail feathers (rectrices) or primary wing feathers. Body feathers could be very useful for biomonitoring taking into account their easy sampling, short preparation time and high levels of OHCs. In addition, the effects of confounding variables such as feather size, moult and age are also minimised using body feathers. Correlations with concentrations in muscle tissue and preen oil were high and significant for all feather types (r ranging from 0.81 to 0.87 for sum PCBs). Significant differences in concentrations and profiles of OHCs were found between different primary feathers, indicating that the accumulation of OHCs in feathers varies over the moulting period (maximum three years). Washing of feathers with an organic solvent (acetone) resulted in a significant decrease in the measured concentrations of OHCs in feathers. However, our results indicated that preen oil is probably not the only contributor to the external contamination that can be removed by washing with acetone. Possibly dust and other particles may be of importance and may be sticking to the preened feathers. Rectrices washed only with water showed high and significant correlations with concentrations in muscle and preen oil as well. Washing with acetone therefore does not seem to be of great influence when relating to internal tissue concentrations. We recommend washing feathers only with distilled water in order to remove dirt and dust particles before analysis. PMID:21733575

Jaspers, Veerle L B; Rodriguez, Francisco Soler; Boertmann, David; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Rasmussen, Lars Maltha; Eens, Marcel; Covaci, Adrian

2011-07-05

297

Identification of a Genotype IX Newcastle Disease Virus in a Guangxi White Duck  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genomic sequence of a novel Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain, duck/China/Guangxi19/2011, isolated from a white duck in Guangxi Province, southern China. Phylogenetic analysis based on a fusion gene comparison with different NDV strains revealed that duck/China/Guangxi19/2011 is phylogenetically close to genotype IX NDV, and the deduced amino acid sequence of the fusion protein cleavage site was 112R-R-Q-R-R-F117. The whole nucleotide sequence had the highest homology (99.7%) to the sequence of strain F48E8 (GenBank accession number FJ436302). This study will help us understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of genotype IX Newcastle disease virus in ducks.

Xie, Liji; Xu, Zongli; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing; Luo, Sisi

2013-01-01

298

Incident lacunes preferentially localize to the edge of white matter hyperintensities: insights into the pathophysiology of cerebral small vessel disease.  

PubMed

White matter hyperintensities and lacunes are among the most frequent abnormalities on brain magnetic resonance imaging. They are commonly related to cerebral small vessel disease and associated with both stroke and dementia. We examined the spatial relationships between incident lacunes and white matter hyperintensities and related these findings to information on vascular anatomy to study possible mechanistic links between the two lesion types. Two hundred and seventy-six patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a genetically defined small vessel disease with mutations in the NOTCH3 gene were followed with magnetic resonance imaging over a total of 633 patient years. Using difference images and Jacobian maps from registered images we identified 104 incident lacunes. The majority (n = 95; 91.3%) of lacunes developed at the edge of a white matter hyperintensity whereas few lacunes were found to develop fully within (n = 6; 5.8%) or outside (n = 3; 2.9%) white matter hyperintensities. Adding information on vascular anatomy revealed that the majority of incident lacunes developed proximal to a white matter hyperintensity along the course of perforating vessels supplying the respective brain region. We further studied the spatial relationship between prevalent lacunes and white matter hyperintensities both in 365 patients with CADASIL and in 588 elderly subjects from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. The results were consistent with the results for incident lacunes. Lesion prevalence maps in different disease stages showed a spread of lesions towards subcortical regions in both cohorts. Our findings suggest that the mechanisms of lacunes and white matter hyperintensities are intimately connected and identify the edge of white matter hyperintensities as a predilection site for lacunes. Our observations further support and refine the concept of the white matter hyperintensity penumbra. PMID:23864274

Duering, Marco; Csanadi, Endy; Gesierich, Benno; Jouvent, Eric; Hervé, Dominique; Seiler, Stephan; Belaroussi, Boubakeur; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin

2013-07-17

299

Joint Prevalence of Diabetes, Impaired Glucose Regulation, Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Chronic Kidney Disease in South Asians and White Europeans  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple vascular risk factors may confer very high risk, but the degree of commonality between risk factors is unclear, particularly among ethnic minorities. Furthermore, it is unknown what impact this commonality will have on the UK-based NHS Health Check Programme; a vascular disease prevention programme that screens individuals aged 40–74 years. We estimated the joint prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose regulation (IGR), high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD) among White Europeans and South Asians who would be eligible for the Programme. Methods Cross-sectional data were analysed for 3707 participants (23.6% South Asian) in a screening study set in Leicestershire, UK. Diabetes and IGR were screen-detected. CKD may have been diagnosed previously. IGR was defined as impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance, and high CVD risk as 10 year risk greater than 20%. Results Among males, South Asians had higher prevalence than White Europeans of diabetes (9.0% vs. 3.9%, respectively, p<0.001), IGR (12.5% vs. 9.2%, p?=?0.06), and high CVD risk (39.1% vs. 33.1%, p?=?0.03), but lower prevalence of CKD (1.5% vs. 4.6%, p<0.01). Among females, South Asians had higher prevalence than White Europeans of diabetes (7.4% vs. 3.3%, p<0.001), but lower prevalence of CKD (3.7% vs. 13.0%, p <0.001) and CVD risk (2.4% vs. 4.6%, p?=?0.03), and a non-significant difference in IGR prevalence. At least one risk factor was diagnosed in 34% of participants, and all of them in 0.4%, suggesting that 723,589–734,589 more individuals each year will require monitoring following implementation of the Health Check Programme. Conclusions The collective prevalence of risk factors for vascular disease in this population was high, but there was little overlap between the risk factors, and prevalence differed by ethnicity. This has implications for service delivery and resources, and should be considered when planning screening and intervention programmes.

Khunti, Kamlesh; Morris, Danielle H.; Weston, Claire L.; Gray, Laura J.; Webb, David R.; Davies, Melanie J.

2013-01-01

300

Misclassified Tissue Volumes in Alzheimer Disease Patients With White Matter Hyperintensities Importance of Lesion Segmentation Procedures for Volumetric Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—MRI-based quantification of gray and white matter volume is common in studies involving elderly patient populations. The aim of the present study was to describe the effects of not accounting for subcortical white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on tissue volumes in Alzheimer Disease patients with varying degrees of WMH (mild: n19, moderate: n22, severe: n18). Methods—An automated tissue segmentation

Naama Levy-Cooperman; Joel Ramirez; Nancy J. Lobaugh; Sandra E. Black

2010-01-01

301

Vascular Care in Patients With Alzheimer Disease With Cerebrovascular Lesions Slows Progression of White Matter Lesions on MRI The Evaluation of Vascular Care in Alzheimer's Disease (EVA) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose-White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs and prevents occurrence of new infarcts. Methods-A randomized

E. Richard; A. A. Gouw; P. Scheltens; Gool van W. A

2010-01-01

302

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Characteristics Among African Americans, Hispanics, and Non-Hispanic Whites: Characterization of a Large North American Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising primarily of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is increasingly prevalent in racial and ethnic minorities. This study was undertaken to characterize racial differences in disease phenotype in a predominantly adult population.METHODS:Phenotype data on 830 non-Hispanic white, 127 non-Hispanic African American, and 169 Hispanic IBD patients, recruited from six academic centers, were abstracted from

Geoffrey C. Nguyen; Esther A. Torres; Miguel Regueiro; Gillian Bromfield; Alain Bitton; Joanne Stempak; Themistocles Dassopoulos; Philip Schumm; Federico J. Gregory; Anne M. Griffiths; Stephen B. Hanauer; Jennifer Hanson; Mary L. Harris; Sunanda V. Kane; Heather Kiraly Orkwis; Raymond Lahaie; Maria Oliva-Hemker; Pierre Pare; Gary E. Wild; John D. Rioux; Huiying Yang; Richard H. Duerr; Judy H. Cho; A. Hillary Steinhart; Steven R. Brant; Mark S. Silverberg

2006-01-01

303

White-Matter Changes Correlate with Cognitive Functioning in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings from emerging studies of cortical white-matter integrity in Parkinson’s disease (PD) without dementia are inconclusive. When white-matter changes have been found, their relationship to cognitive functioning in PD has not been carefully investigated. To better characterize changes in tissue diffusivity and to understand their functional significance, the present study conducted DTI in 25 PD patients without dementia and 26 controls of similar ages. An automated tract-based DTI method was used. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were analyzed. Neuropsychological measures of executive functioning (working memory, verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control) and visuospatial ability were then correlated with regions of interest that showed abnormal diffusivity in the PD group. We found widespread reductions in FA and increases in MD in the PD group relative to controls. These changes were predominantly related to an increase in RD. Increased AD in the PD group was limited to specific frontal tracks of the right hemisphere, possibly signifying more significant tissue changes. Motor symptom severity did not correlate with FA. However, different measures of executive functioning and visuospatial ability correlated with FA in different segments of tracts, which contain fiber pathways to cortical regions that are thought to support specific cognitive processes. The findings suggest that abnormal tissue diffusivity may be sensitive to subtle cognitive changes in PD, some of which may be prognostic of future cognitive decline.

Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Reed, Jason D.; Song, David D.; Huang, Mingxiong X.; Lee, Roland R.; Litvan, Irene; Harrington, Deborah L.

2013-01-01

304

Chronic Wasting Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). The natural history of CWD is incompletely understood, but it differs from scrapie and bovine spon- giform encephalopathy (BSE) by virtue of its occurrence in nondomestic and free-ranging species. CWD has many features

E. S. Williams

2005-01-01

305

The ?4 genotype of apolipoprotein E and white matter integrity in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: In this multicenter study, we investigated a possible association between the APOE ?4 allele and white matter (WM) integrity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: We analyzed fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) as indices of WM integrity in 70 AD patients (35 APOE ?4 carriers, 35 noncarriers) and 56 healthy control (HC) subjects (28 APOE ?4 carriers, 28 noncarriers). APOE ?4 carriers and noncarriers were matched for age and gender within each diagnostic group. RESULTS: We found significant effects of diagnosis (Pcorrected < .05 [FWE]; i.e., smaller FA values and larger MD values in AD patients compared with HCs) and significant effects (P < .001) of APOE ?4 carrier status on MD in HCs but not in AD subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that APOE ?4 has a moderate effect on WM integrity in HCs, but no effect on WM integrity in manifest AD. PMID:23706516

Kljajevic, Vanja; Meyer, Peter; Holzmann, Carsten; Dyrba, Martin; Kasper, Elisabeth; Bokde, Arun L W; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Meindl, Thomas; Hampel, Harald; Teipel, Stefan

2013-05-21

306

Gastric carcinoma associated with Menetrier's-like disease in a West Highland white terrier.  

PubMed

A seven-year-old West Highland white terrier was presented for chronic vomiting associated with mild regenerative anaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. Further examination showed a giant polypoid cerebriform mass located in the lesser curvature of the stomach. Partial gastrectomy was performed and histology was consistent with hypertrophic gastritis with typical features of Ménétrier's disease. Five years after surgery, the dog was re-examined for recurrence of vomiting episodes. Endoscopy showed ulceration of the lesser curvature of the stomach and histological analysis revealed a poorly differentiated superficial gastric carcinoma surrounded by hypertrophic gastritis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the second time that coexistence of these two types of lesions is reported, suggesting that recurrence of gastritis could be the starting point of the tumoural process. PMID:23034016

Lecoindre, P; Bystricka, M; Chevallier, M; Peyron, C

2012-10-04

307

Regional white matter hyperintensity volume, not hippocampal atrophy, predicts incident Alzheimer disease in the community.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND New-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) is often attributed to degenerative changes in the hippocampus. However, the contribution of regionally distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease, visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging, remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To determine whether regional WMHs and hippocampal volume predict incident AD in an epidemiological study. DESIGN A longitudinal community-based epidemiological study of older adults from northern Manhattan, New York. SETTING The Washington Heights/Inwood Columbia Aging Project. PARTICIPANTS Between 2005 and 2007, 717 participants without dementia received magnetic resonance imaging scans. A mean (SD) of 40.28 (9.77) months later, 503 returned for follow-up clinical examination and 46 met criteria for incident dementia (45 with AD). Regional WMHs and relative hippocampal volumes were derived. Three Cox proportional hazards models were run to predict incident dementia, controlling for relevant variables. The first included all WMH measurements; the second included relative hippocampal volume; and the third combined the 2 measurements. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Incident AD. RESULTS White matter hyperintensity volume in the parietal lobe predicted time to incident dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.194; P = .03). Relative hippocampal volume did not predict incident dementia when considered alone (HR = 0.419; P = .77) or with the WMH measures included in the model (HR = 0.302; P = .70). Including hippocampal volume in the model did not notably alter the predictive utility of parietal lobe WMHs (HR = 1.197; P = .049). CONCLUSIONS The findings highlight the regional specificity of the association of WMHs with AD. It is not clear whether parietal WMHs solely represent a marker for cerebrovascular burden or point to distinct injury compared with other regions. Future work should elucidate pathogenic mechanisms linking WMHs and AD pathology. PMID:22945686

Brickman, Adam M; Provenzano, Frank A; Muraskin, Jordan; Manly, Jennifer J; Blum, Sonja; Apa, Zoltan; Stern, Yaakov; Brown, Truman R; Luchsinger, José A; Mayeux, Richard

2012-12-01

308

A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.  

PubMed Central

In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology.

Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

2003-01-01

309

Dissociable effects of Alzheimer disease and white matter hyperintensities on brain metabolism.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer disease (AD) frequently co-occur and seem to act through different pathways in producing dementia. OBJECTIVE To examine cerebrovascular disease and AD markers in relation to brain glucose metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment. DESIGN AND SETTING Cohort study among the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative clinical sites in the United States and Canada. PARTICIPANTS Two hundred three patients having amnestic mild cognitive impairment (74 of whom converted to AD) with serial imaging during a 3-year follow-up period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Quantified white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) represented cerebrovascular disease, and cerebrospinal fluid ?-amyloid represented AD pathology. Brain glucose metabolism in temporoparietal and frontal brain regions was measured using positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose F18. RESULTS In converters, greater WMHs were associated with decreased frontal metabolism (-0.048; 95% CI, -0.067 to -0.029) but not temporoparietal metabolism (0.010; 95% CI, -0.010 to 0.030). Greater cerebrospinal fluid ?-amyloid (per 10-pg/mL increase) was associated with increased temporoparietal metabolism (0.005; 95% CI, 0.000-0.010) but not frontal metabolism (0.002; 95% CI, -0.004 to 0.007) in the same patients. In nonconverters, similar relationships were observed except for a positive association of greater WMHs with increased temporoparietal metabolism (0.051; 95% CI, 0.027-0.076). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The dissociation of WMHs and cerebrospinal fluid ?-amyloid in relation to regional glucose metabolism suggests that these pathologic conditions operate through different and independent pathways in AD that reflect dysfunction in different brain systems. The positive association of greater WMHs with temporoparietal metabolism suggests that these pathologic processes do not co-occur in nonconverters. PMID:23779022

Haight, Thaddeus J; Landau, Susan M; Carmichael, Owen; Schwarz, Christopher; Decarli, Charles; Jagust, William J

2013-08-01

310

Augmentation of retrovirus-induced lymphoid leukosis by Marek's disease herpesviruses in White Leghorn chickens.  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to determine whether the cell-associated herpesvirus vaccines used in chickens to control Marek's disease tumors can augment development of lymphoid leukosis (LL) induced by exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV). Various single or mixed Marek's disease vaccines were inoculated at day 1, and ALV was injected at 1 to 10 days, with chickens of several experimental or commercial strains. Development of LL was monitored at 16 to 48 weeks in various experiments. In several strains of chickens we repeatedly found that the widely used serotype 3 turkey herpesvirus vaccine did not augment LL in comparison with unvaccinated controls. However, LL development and incidence were prominently augmented in several chicken strains vaccinated with serotype 2 vaccines, used alone or as mixtures with other serotypes. In one chicken strain, augmentation was demonstrated after natural exposure to ALV or serotype 2 Marek's disease virus viremic shedder chickens. Augmentation of LL by virulent or attenuated Marek's disease viruses of serotype 1 was intermediate in effect. Serotype 2 Marek's disease virus augmentation of LL was prominent in three laboratory lines and one commercial strain of White Leghorns, but it was not observed in an LL-resistant laboratory line or four commercial strains susceptible to ALV infection. Chickens developed similar levels of viremia and neutralizing antibodies to ALV regardless of the presence of augmentation of LL, suggesting that the mechanism of enhanced LL did not result from differences in susceptibility or immune response to ALV. We postulate that the serotype 2 herpesviruses may augment LL through one of several possible influences on bursal cells that are subsequently transformed by exogenous ALV.

Bacon, L D; Witter, R L; Fadly, A M

1989-01-01

311

Safety of Tailings Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contains information on different aspects of tailings dams; tailings dam properties, disasters, failure modes, slurry waves, stability analysis, and safe tailings disposal. Also includes a slope stability calculator and a tailings flow slide calculator.

2008-08-25

312

Could Iron Accumulation Be an Etiology of the White Matter Change in Alzheimer’s Disease: Using Phase Imaging to Detect White Matter Iron Deposition Based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: To investigate if and where abnormal iron accumulation in white matter fibers occurs in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by phase imaging and to relate these findings to white matter tract degeneration assessed by diffusion tensor imaging. Methods: Twenty-five patients with AD and 20 normal controls underwent phase imaging and diffusion tensor imaging with a 3.0-tesla system. White matter

Hua-Wei Ling; Bei Ding; Tao Wang; Huan Zhang; Ke-Min Chen

2011-01-01

313

Vanishing White Matter Disease: A Review with Focus on Its Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is an autosomal recessive brain disorder, most often with a childhood onset. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy indicate that, with time, increasing amounts of cerebral white matter vanish and are replaced by fluid. Autopsy confirms white matter rarefaction and cystic degeneration.…

Pronk, Jan C.; van Kollenburg, Barbara; Scheper, Gert C.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

2006-01-01

314

The interplay of socioeconomic status and ethnicity on Hispanic and White men's cardiovascular disease risk and health communication patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we seek to confirm past studies that document increased levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among White men with lower educational attainment Second, we include a population of Hispanic men (89% Mexican American) to examine the separate and interactive effects of ethnicity and education (our measure of socioeconomic status) on CVD risk factors. Third, we examine

Kurt M. Ribisl; Marilyn A. Winkleby; Stephen P. Fortmann; June A. Flora

1998-01-01

315

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Perception and Knowledge: A Comparison of Hispanic and White College Students in a Hispanic-Serving Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are clear health conditions that disproportionately affect the Hispanic population. One hundred twenty-four (45%) Hispanic and 153 (55%) White college students completed a questionnaire on cardiovascular disease (CVD) awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of risk. Results indicated that Hispanic students rated themselves as poorer in…

McMahan, Shari; Cathorall, Michelle; Romero, Devan R.

2007-01-01

316

Dietary fat purchasing habits in whites, blacks and Asian peoples in England — implications for heart disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mortality and morbidity from coronary heart disease (CHD) is higher in people of South Asian origin than in whites, but is significantly lower in the black (Afro-Caribbean origin) community in the United Kingdom. To investigate whether this may be related to differences in fatty food intake, we performed a questionnaire survey of the weekly food purchasing habits and preparation

Gregory Y. H. Lip; Ifran Malik; Chris Luscombe; Maria McCarry; Gareth Beevers

1995-01-01

317

Effect of white matter disease on functional connections in the aging brain.  

PubMed Central

Periventricular white matter hyperintensities (PVHs) seen on T2 weighted MRI studies are common in elderly people and often represent demyelination of fibres. Damage to these fibres could lead to functional disconnection between brain regions. Electroencephalographic coherence, a measure of shared electrical activity between regions, was examined to determine if there was evidence for such disconnection. Twenty two subjects with clinically diagnosed dementia of the Alzheimer's type, 16 with multi-infarct dementia, and 18 normal controls were studied. It was hypothesised that coherence between areas presumably linked by fibres that traverse the periventricular region would be decreased in subjects with PVHs, and that PVHs would have a stronger association with decreased coherence than clinical diagnosis. It was also hypothesised that coherence between areas presumably connected by long corticocortical tracts that are neuroanatomically separated from the ventricles would be low in patients with Alzheimer's disease because of pyramidal cell death in this group, but would not be affected by the presence of PVHs. Patients with PVHs in fact had lower coherence than those without PVHs in the pre-Rolandic and post-Rolandic areas, where connecting fibres traverse the periventricular region. There was no effect of PVHs, however, on coherence between areas separated by the Rolandic fissure that were connected by long corticocortical tracts; this coherence was lowest among the patients with Alzheimer's disease. These patterns of association suggest that coherence may detect different types of neurophysiological "disconnection," and may be sensitive to selective damage to different fibre pathways. Images

Leuchter, A F; Dunkin, J J; Lufkin, R B; Anzai, Y; Cook, I A; Newton, T F

1994-01-01

318

White matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and normal aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESAlzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia are associated with an increase in changes in white matter on MRI. The aims were to investigate whether white matter changes also occur in dementia with Lewy bodies and to examine the relation between white matter lesions and the cognitive and non-cognitive features of dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia.METHODSProton density and

R Barber; P Scheltens; A Gholkar; C Ballard; I McKeith; P Ince; R Perry; J O’Brien

1999-01-01

319

The type localities of the mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817), and the Kansas white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus macrourus (Rafinesque, 1817), are not where we thought they were  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Among the iconic mammals of the North American West is the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). This species and a western subspecies of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus macrourus) were two of seven mammals originally named and described as new species in 1817 by Constantine S. Rafinesque. Rafinesque never saw the animals that he named. Instead, he followed the then-acceptable practice of basing his new species on animals characterized in another published work, in this case the putative journal of Charles Le Raye, a French Canadian fur trader who was said to have traversed the upper Missouri River region before the Lewis and Clark Expedition and whose journal described some of the wildlife in detail. Unlike the mule deer, whose existence has been established by generations of biologists, wildlife management professionals, and sportsmen, Le Raye and his journal have since been proven to be fraudulent. Because Rafinesque's names were published in accordance with the taxonomic conventions of his time, they remain available, but, based on the questionable source of his descriptions, the identities and type localities of the species must be viewed as unreliable. Fortunately, much of the Le Raye journal was derived from other, verifiable contemporary sources. In particular, the descriptions of the two deer were based on the published journal of Patrick Gass, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Using the Gass journal as the original source of Rafinesque's descriptions, the type localities for the two deer can be reliably placed in Lyman County, South Dakota.

Woodman, Neal

2013-01-01

320

Color discrimination deficits in Parkinson's disease are related to cognitive impairment and white-matter alterations.  

PubMed

Color discrimination deficit is a common nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the pathophysiology of this dysfunction remains poorly understood. Although retinal structure changes found in PD have been suggested to cause color discrimination deficits, the impact of cognitive impairment and cortical alterations remains to be determined. We investigated the contribution of cognitive impairment to color discrimination deficits in PD and correlated them with cortical anomalies. Sixty-six PD patients without dementia and 20 healthy controls performed the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test and underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment for mild cognitive impairment diagnosis. In a subgroup of 26 PD patients, we also used high-definition neuroanatomical magnetic resonance imaging for cortical thickness and diffusion tensor analysis. PD patients with mild cognitive impairment performed poorly on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test compared with PD patients without mild cognitive impairment and controls. In PD patients, performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test was correlated with measures of visuospatial abilities and executive functions. Neuroimaging analysis revealed higher mean and radial diffusivity values in right posterior white-matter structures that correlated with poor performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. No cortical thickness correlation reached significance. This study showed that cognitive impairment makes a major contribution to the color discrimination deficits reported in PD. Thus, performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test may reflect cognitive impairment more than color discrimination deficits in PD. Poor performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test was also associated with white-matter alterations in right posterior brain regions. PMID:23147270

Bertrand, Josie-Anne; Bedetti, Christophe; Postuma, Ronald B; Monchi, Oury; Génier Marchand, Daphné; Jubault, Thomas; Gagnon, Jean-François

2012-11-12

321

Improved prediction of Alzheimer's disease with longitudinal white matter/gray matter contrast changes.  

PubMed

Brain morphometry measures derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of the present study was to test whether we could improve morphometry-based detection and prediction of disease state by use of white matter/gray matter (WM/GM) signal intensity contrast obtained from conventional MRI scans. We hypothesized that including WM/GM contrast change along with measures of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampi would yield better classification of AD patients, and more accurate prediction of early disease progression. T1 -weighted MRI scans from two sessions approximately 2 years apart from 78 participants with AD (Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) = 0.5-2) and 71 age-matched controls were used to calculate annual change rates. Results showed that WM/GM contrast decay was larger in AD compared with controls in the medial temporal lobes. For the discrimination between AD and controls, entorhinal WM/GM contrast decay contributed significantly when included together with decrease in entorhinal cortical thickness and hippocampal volume, and increased the area under the curve to 0.79 compared with 0.75 when using the two morphometric variables only. Independent effects of WM/GM contrast decay and improved classification were also observed for the CDR-based subgroups, including participants converting from either a non-AD status to very mild AD, or from very mild to mild AD. Thus, WM/GM contrast decay increased diagnostic accuracy beyond what was obtained by well-validated morphometric measures alone. The findings suggest that signal intensity properties constitute a sensitive biomarker for cerebral degenration in AD. Hum Brain Mapp 34:2775-2785, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22674625

Grydeland, Håkon; Westlye, Lars T; Walhovd, Kristine B; Fjell, Anders M

2012-06-05

322

Obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in prepubescent and pubescent black and white females.  

PubMed

A total of 2379 females equally divided between black and white were enrolled at 9 or 10 years of age. Participants were seen yearly for 5 years for a complete medical examination, evaluation of socioeconomic status, and patterns of eating and physical activity. Parents were seen in year 1 and responded to a questionnaire in years 3 and 5. At baseline, black females 9 to 10 years of age were taller and heavier and had greater BMI and skinfold thickness than white females. On the basis of dietary history, black females consumed more total energy and more calories as fat than white females. White females were physically more active and spent less time than black females watching television. More black than white females expressed a desire to be on the fat side, and black mothers were noted to be 20 lb. heavier than white mothers. PMID:8357502

Falkner, F

1993-01-01

323

Characterization of thorn-shaped astrocytes in white matter of temporal lobe in Alzheimer's disease brains.  

PubMed

Thorn-shaped astrocytes (TsA) are mainly localized in the periventricular white matter of the temporal lobe in a subgroup of aged individuals usually in the context of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunohistochemistry of TsA shows 4Rtau deposition, tau phosphorylation at different sites recognized with phosphospecific anti-tau antibodies Thr181, Ser202, Ser214, Thr231, Ser396, Ser422, and clones AT8 and PHF-1, and conformational changes revealed with Alz50 and MC-1 antibodies; TsA are also immunostained with antibodies to active tau kinases MAPK/ERK-P, SAPK/JNK-P, p38-P and GSK-3?. These findings are common to neurofibrillary tangles in AD. However, TsA are not stained with 3Rtau antibodies, and they are seldom stained or not at all with phosphospecific tauSer262 and with Tau-C3 antibody, which recognizes the latter tau truncation at aspartic acid 421. Previous studies have shown that tau phosphorylation at Ser262 reduces tau binding to microtubules and increases caspase-3 activity, whereas tau truncation at aspartic acid 421 is associated with tau ubiquitination, and toxic effects of tau. In this line, ubiquitin is not accumulated in TsA, and in situ end-labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation shows absence of degeneration in TsA. These observations support the concept that tau lesions in neurons differ from those seen in TsA in AD. PMID:22882361

López-González, Irene; Carmona, Margarita; Blanco, Rosa; Luna-Muñoz, José; Martínez-Mandonado, Alejandra; Mena, Raúl; Ferrer, Isidre

2012-09-13

324

White matter integrity and vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease: Preliminary findings and future directions  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging biomarkers that precede cognitive decline have the potential to aid early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A body of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) work has demonstrated declines in white matter (WM) microstructure in AD and its typical prodromal state, amnestic mild cognitive impairment. The present review summarizes recent evidence suggesting that WM integrity declines are present in individuals at high AD-risk, prior to cognitive decline. The available data suggest that AD-risk is associated with WM integrity declines in a subset of tracts showing decline in symptomatic AD. Specifically, AD-risk has been associated with WM integrity declines in tracts that connect grey matter structures associated with memory function. These tracts include parahippocampal WM, the cinglum, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the splenium of the corpus callosum. Preliminary evidence suggests that some AD-risk declines are characterized by increases of radial diffusivity, raising the possibility that a myelin-related pathology may contribute to AD onset. These findings justify future research aimed at a more complete understanding of the neurobiological bases of DTI-based declines in AD. With continued refinement of imaging methods, DTI holds promise as a method to aid identification of presymptomatic AD.

Gold, Brian T.; Johnson, Nathan F.; Powell, David K.; Smith, Charles D.

2011-01-01

325

Ovine white-liver disease (OWLD). Botanical and chemical composition of pasture grass.  

PubMed

The most important grass species on the ovine white-liver disease (OWLD) pastures (S) were Poa spp., Agropyron repens and Lolium perenne, while the control pastures (H), where lambs grew well, consisted of Poa spp., Festuca rubra and Agrostis tenuis. The soil was more acidic on the H pastures as compared with the S pastures. OWLD grass (S grass) contained marginal to deficient amounts of cobalt during the first 2 months of grazing. During 2 years out of 3, the average Co content was slightly lower in the S grass as compared with the content in the H grass. The lowest average grass Co was, however, found during one year in the H grass, in spite of the fact that the H lambs also this year grew well, and were 13 kg heavier than the S lambs after 3 1/2 months on pasture. Results thus indicate that the H lambs some years were subclinically Co deficient, without developing clinical symptoms or OWLD, and that factors other than marginal/deficient grass Co are of importance as to whether OWLD will develop or not. S grass differed from H grass by having significantly lower copper, molybdenum, manganese and zinc content, lower protein N/amid N ratios and higher aluminium and iron contents. According to the results, marginal to deficient grass Co is essential for development of OWLD, but cofactors play a part. PMID:2080770

Ulvund, M J; Pestalozzi, M

1990-01-01

326

White matter is altered with parental family history of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Brain alterations in structure and function have been identified in people with risk factors for sporadic type Alzheimer’s disease (AD), suggesting that alterations can be detected decades before AD diagnosis. While the effect of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ?4 on the brain is well studied, less is known about the effect of family history of AD. We examined the main effects of family history and ApoE ?4 on brain integrity, in addition to assessing possible additive effects of these two risk factors. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in 136 middle-aged asymptomatic participants stratified on family history and ApoE ?4. Mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy (FA) were entered in factorial analyses to test the effect of AD risk on microstructural brain integrity. We performed a post hoc analysis of the three principle diffusivities (?1, ?2, ?3) to provide potential additional insight on underlying tissue differences. Results Parental family history of AD was associated with lower FA in regions of the brain known to be affected by AD, including cingulum, corpus callosum, tapetum, uncinate fasciculus, hippocampus, and adjacent white matter. Contrary to previous reports there was no main effect of ApoE ?4; however, there was an additive effect of family history and ApoE ?4 where family history positive participants who were also ApoE ?4 carriers had the lowest FA compared to the other groups. Conclusions The data indicate that unknown risk factors contained in family history are associated with changes in microstructural brain integrity in areas of the brain known be affected by AD. Importantly, the results provide further evidence that AD pathology may be detected prior to cognitive changes, perhaps decades before disease onset.

Bendlin, B. B.; Ries, M. L.; Canu, E.; Sodhi, A.; Lazar, M.; Alexander, A. L.; Carlsson, C. M.; Sager, M. A.; Asthana, S.; Johnson, S. C.

2009-01-01

327

Cortical and Leptomeningeal Cerebrovascular Amyloid and White Matter Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neurofibrillary tangles and by the accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides in senile plaques and in the walls of cortical and leptomeningeal arteries as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). There also is a significant increase of interstitial fluid (ISF) in cerebral white matter (WM), the pathological basis of which is largely unknown. We hypothesized that the accumulation of ISF in dilated periarterial spaces of the WM in AD correlates with the severity of CAA, with the total A? load in the cortex and with Apo E genotype. A total of 24 AD brains and 17 nondemented age-matched control brains were examined. CAA was seen in vessels isolated from brain by using EDTA-SDS lysis stained by Thioflavin-S. Total A? in gray matter and WM was quantified by immunoassay, ApoE genotyping by PCR, and dilatation of perivascular spaces in the WM was assessed by quantitative histology. The study showed that the frequency and severity of dilatation of perivascular spaces in the WM in AD were significantly greater than in controls (P < 0.001) and correlated with A? load in the cortex, with the severity of CAA, and with ApoE ?4 genotype. The results of this study suggest that dilation of perivascular spaces and failure of drainage of ISF from the WM in AD may be associated with the deposition of A? in the perivascular fluid drainage pathways of cortical and leptomeningeal arteries. This failure of fluid drainage has implications for therapeutic strategies to treat Alzheimer’s disease.

Roher, Alex E; Kuo, Yu-Min; Esh, Chera; Knebel, Carmen; Weiss, Nicole; Kalback, Walter; Luehrs, Dean C; Childress, Jennifer L; Beach, Thomas G; Weller, Roy O; Kokjohn, Tyler A

2003-01-01

328

Neurofibrillary tangles and plaques are not accompanied by white matter pathology in aged triple transgenic-Alzheimer disease mice.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is the most common cause of dementia in aging populations. Although senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are well-established hallmarks of AD, changes in cerebral white matter correlate with cognitive decline and may increase the risk of the development of dementia. We used the triple transgenic (3xTg)-AD mouse model of AD, previously used to show that white matter changes precede plaque formation, to test the hypothesis that MRI detectable changes occur in the corpus callosum, external capsule and the fornix. T2-weighted and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging and histological stains were employed to assess white matter in older (11-17months) 3xTg-AD mice and controls. We found no statistically significant changes in white matter between 3xTg-AD mice and controls, despite well-developed neurofibrillary tangles and beta amyloid immunoreactive plaques. Myelin staining was normal in affected mice. These data suggest that the 3xTg-AD mouse model does not develop MRI detectable white matter changes at the ages we examined. PMID:23993791

Kastyak-Ibrahim, Marzena Z; Di Curzio, Domenico L; Buist, Richard; Herrera, Sheryl L; Albensi, Benedict C; Del Bigio, Marc R; Martin, Melanie

2013-08-29

329

Vibrio owensii Induces the Tissue Loss Disease Montipora White Syndrome in the Hawaiian Reef Coral Montipora capitata  

PubMed Central

Incidences of coral disease in the Indo-Pacific are increasing at an alarming rate. In particular, Montipora white syndrome, a tissue-loss disease found on corals throughout the Hawaiian archipelago, has the potential to degrade Hawaii’s reefs. To identify the etiologic agent of Montipora white syndrome, bacteria were isolated from a diseased fragment of Montipora capitata and used in a screen for virulent strains. A single isolate, designated strain OCN002, recreated disease signs in 53% of coral fragments in laboratory infection trials when added to a final concentration of 107 cells/ml of seawater. In addition to displaying similar signs of disease, diseased coral fragments from the field and those from infection trials both had a dramatic increase in the abundance of associated culturable bacteria, with those of the genus Vibiro well represented. Bacteria isolated from diseased fragments used in infection trails were shown to be descendants of the original OCN002 inocula based on both the presence of a plasmid introduced to genetically tag the strain and the sequence of a region of the OCN002 genome. In contrast, OCN002 was not re-isolated from fragments that were exposed to the strain but did not develop tissue loss. Sequencing of the rrsH gene, metabolic characterization, as well as multilocus sequence analysis indicated that OCN002 is a strain of the recently described species Vibrio owensii. This investigation of Montipora white syndrome recognizes V. owensii OCN002 as the first bacterial coral pathogen identified from Hawaii’s reefs and expands the range of bacteria known to cause disease in corals.

Ushijima, Blake; Smith, Ashley; Aeby, Greta S.; Callahan, Sean M.

2012-01-01

330

Use of technetium-tagged white blood cells in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: is differential diagnosis possible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Studies have suggested that scans with technetium-tagged white blood cells (WBC-Tc99m) may be equal to endoscopy in the assessment of extent and activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Objective. We have retrospectively examined the accuracy of WBC-Tc99m scans in differentiating continuous from discontinuous colitis in pediatric IBD. Materials and methods. There were 207 children in the study (96 boys,

Martin Charron; J. Fernando del Rosario; Samuel Kocoshis

1998-01-01

331

Dietary fat purchasing habits in whites, blacks and Asian peoples in England--implications for heart disease prevention.  

PubMed

The mortality and morbidity from coronary heart disease (CHD) is higher in people of South Asian origin than in whites, but is significantly lower in the black (Afro-Caribbean origin) community in the United Kingdom. To investigate whether this may be related to differences in fatty food intake, we performed a questionnaire survey of the weekly food purchasing habits and preparation methods in white, black (Caribbean) and Asian households in Birmingham. We interviewed 224 housewives from three ethnic groups (84 white, 76 black/Afro-Caribbean and 72 Asian). The highest quantity of fat in foods purchased per week was found in the Asian population (median 1409 g/week per person, interquartile range (IQR) 850-1952), which was significantly greater than black subjects, who had the lowest quantity of fat in foods purchased (1012 g/week per person, IQR 835-1388) (Mann-Whitney test:median differences 300.5, 95% C.I. 23.3-600.4, P = 0.029). The median quantity of fat in foods purchased by the white households was intermediate, at 1186 g/week per person (IQR 861-1711). There was a higher quantity of fat in foods purchased in the lower social classes (IV and V) in both the white and Asian populations. Butter, egg and milk consumption was significantly greater in Asians; with ghee consumption almost exclusive amongst this group (98%). Amongst whites and blacks, the commonest food preparation methods were grilling, boiling or poaching; whilst amongst Asians, frying was more common (chi 2 = 81.25, d.f. = 4, P < 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7782144

Lip, G Y; Malik, I; Luscombe, C; McCarry, M; Beevers, G

1995-03-01

332

Folate Network Genetic Variation Predicts Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Non-Hispanic White Males123  

PubMed Central

Genes functioning in folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism are hypothesized to play a role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk beyond the current narrow focus on the MTHFR 677 C?T (rs1801133) polymorphism. Using a cohort study design, we investigated whether sequence variants in the network of folate-related genes, particularly in genes encoding proteins related to SHMT1, predict CVD risk in 1131 men from the Normative Aging Study. A total of 330 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 52 genes, selected for function and gene coverage, were assayed on the Illumina GoldenGate platform. Age- and smoking-adjusted genotype-phenotype associations were estimated in regression models. Using a nominal P ? 5.00 × 10?3 significance threshold, 8 SNPs were associated with CVD risk in single locus analyses. Using a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold (P-adjusted ?1.00 × 10?1), a SNP in the GGH gene remained associated with reduced CVD risk, with a stronger association in early onset CVD cases (<55 y). A gene × folate interaction (MAT2B) and 2 gene × vitamin B-12 interactions (BHMT, SLC25A32) reached the FDR P-adjusted ?2.00 × 10?1 threshold. Three biological hypotheses related to SHMT1 were explored and significant gene × gene interactions were identified for TYMS by UBE2N, FTH1 by CELF1, and TYMS by MTHFR. Variations in genes other than MTHFR and those directly involved in homocysteine metabolism are associated with CVD risk in non-Hispanic white males. This work supports a role for SHMT1-related genes and nuclear folate metabolism, including the thymidylate biosynthesis pathway, in mediating CVD risk.

Wernimont, Susan M.; Clark, Andrew G.; Stover, Patrick J.; Wells, Martin T.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Weiss, Scott T.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Cassano, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

333

Decreased white matter integrity in late-myelinating fiber pathways in Alzheimer's disease supports retrogenesis  

PubMed Central

The retrogenesis model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) posits that white matter (WM) degeneration follows a pattern that is the reverse of myelogenesis. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test this model, we predicted greater loss of microstructural integrity in late-myelinating WM fiber pathways in AD patients than in healthy older adults, whereas differences in early-myelinating WM fiber pathways were not expected. We compared 16 AD patients and 14 demographically-matched healthy older adults with a whole-brain approach via tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), and a region of interest (ROI) approach targeting early-myelinating (posterior limb of internal capsule, cerebral peduncles) and late-myelinating (inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], superior longitudinal fasciculus [SLF]) fiber pathways. Permutation-based voxelwise analysis supported the retrogenesis model. There was significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in AD patients compared to healthy older adults in late-myelinating but not early-myelinating pathways. These group differences appeared to be driven by loss of myelin integrity based on our finding of greater radial diffusion in AD than in healthy elderly. ROI analyses were generally in agreement with whole-brain findings, with significantly lower FA and increased radial diffusion in the ILF in the AD group. Consistent with the retrogenesis model, AD patients showed demonstrable changes in late-myelinating WM fiber pathways. Given greater change in the ILF than the SLF, wallerian degeneration secondary to cortical atrophy may also be a contributing mechanism. Knowledge of the pattern of WM microstructural changes in AD and its underlying mechanisms may contribute to earlier detection and intervention in at-risk groups.

Stricker, N.H.; Schweinsburg, B.C.; Delano-Wood, L.; Wierenga, C.E.; Bangen, K.J.; Haaland, K.Y.; Frank, L.R.; Salmon, D.P.; Bondi, M.W.

2009-01-01

334

Subjects harboring presenilin familial Alzheimer's disease mutations exhibit diverse white matter biochemistry alterations  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia impacts all facets of higher order cognitive function and is characterized by the presence of distinctive pathological lesions in the gray matter (GM). The profound alterations in GM structure and function have fostered the view that AD impacts are primarily a consequence of GM damage. However, the white matter (WM) represents about 50% of the cerebrum and this area of the brain is substantially atrophied and profoundly abnormal in both sporadic AD (SAD) and familial AD (FAD). We examined the WM biochemistry by ELISA and Western blot analyses of key proteins in 10 FAD cases harboring mutations in the presenilin genes PSEN1 and PSEN2 as well as in 4 non-demented control (NDC) individuals and 4 subjects with SAD. The molecules examined were direct substrates of PSEN1 such as Notch-1 and amyloid precursor protein (APP). In addition, apolipoproteins, axonal transport molecules, cytoskeletal and structural proteins, neurotrophic factors and synaptic proteins were examined. PSEN-FAD subjects had, on average, higher amounts of WM amyloid-beta (A?) peptides compared to SAD, which may play a role in the devastating dysfunction of the brain. However, the PSEN-FAD mutations we examined did not produce uniform increases in the relative proportions of A?42 and exhibited substantial variability in total A? levels. These observations suggest that neurodegeneration and dementia do not depend solely on enhanced A?42 levels. Our data revealed additional complexities in PSEN-FAD individuals. Some direct substrates of ?-secretase, such as Notch, N-cadherin, Erb-B4 and APP, deviated substantially from the NDC group baseline for some, but not all, mutation types. Proteins that were not direct ?-secretase substrates, but play key structural and functional roles in the WM, likewise exhibited varied concentrations in the distinct PSEN mutation backgrounds. Detailing the diverse biochemical pathology spectrum of PSEN mutations may offer valuable insights into dementia progression and the design of effective therapeutic interventions for both SAD and FAD.

Roher, Alex E; Maarouf, Chera L; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Wilson, Jeffrey; Kokjohn, Tyler A; Daugs, Ian D; Whiteside, Charisse M; Kalback, Walter M; Macias, MiMi P; Jacobson, Sandra A; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Ghetti, Bernardino; Beach, Thomas G

2013-01-01

335

Altered white matter microstructure in the corpus callosum in Huntington's disease: implications for cortical "disconnection".  

PubMed

The corpus callosum (CC) is the major conduit for information transfer between the cerebral hemispheres and plays an integral role in relaying sensory, motor and cognitive information between homologous cortical regions. The majority of fibers that make up the CC arise from large pyramidal neurons in layers III and V, which project contra-laterally. These neurons degenerate in Huntington's disease (HD) in a topographically and temporally selective way. Since any focus of cortical degeneration could be expected to secondarily de-afferent homologous regions of cortex, we hypothesized that regionally selective cortical degeneration would be reflected in regionally selective degeneration of the CC. We used conventional T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and a modified corpus callosum segmentation scheme to examine the CC in healthy controls, huntingtin gene-carriers and symptomatic HD subjects. We measured mid-sagittal callosal cross-sectional thickness and several DTI parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA), which reflects the degree of white matter organization, radial diffusivity, a suggested index of myelin integrity, and axial diffusivity, a suggested index of axonal damage of the CC. We found a topologically selective pattern of alterations in these measures in pre-manifest subjects that were more extensive in early symptomatic HD subjects and that correlated with performance on distinct cognitive measures, suggesting an important role for disrupted inter-hemispheric transfer in the clinical symptoms of HD. Our findings provide evidence for early degeneration of commissural pyramidal neurons in the neocortex, loss of cortico-cortical connectivity, and functional compromise of associative cortical processing. PMID:19850138

Rosas, H Diana; Lee, Stephanie Y; Bender, Alexander C; Zaleta, Alexandra K; Vangel, Mark; Yu, Peng; Fischl, Bruce; Pappu, Vasanth; Onorato, Christina; Cha, Jang-Ho; Salat, David H; Hersch, Steven M

2009-10-19

336

Subjects harboring presenilin familial Alzheimer's disease mutations exhibit diverse white matter biochemistry alterations.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia impacts all facets of higher order cognitive function and is characterized by the presence of distinctive pathological lesions in the gray matter (GM). The profound alterations in GM structure and function have fostered the view that AD impacts are primarily a consequence of GM damage. However, the white matter (WM) represents about 50% of the cerebrum and this area of the brain is substantially atrophied and profoundly abnormal in both sporadic AD (SAD) and familial AD (FAD). We examined the WM biochemistry by ELISA and Western blot analyses of key proteins in 10 FAD cases harboring mutations in the presenilin genes PSEN1 and PSEN2 as well as in 4 non-demented control (NDC) individuals and 4 subjects with SAD. The molecules examined were direct substrates of PSEN1 such as Notch-1 and amyloid precursor protein (APP). In addition, apolipoproteins, axonal transport molecules, cytoskeletal and structural proteins, neurotrophic factors and synaptic proteins were examined. PSEN-FAD subjects had, on average, higher amounts of WM amyloid-beta (A?) peptides compared to SAD, which may play a role in the devastating dysfunction of the brain. However, the PSEN-FAD mutations we examined did not produce uniform increases in the relative proportions of A?42 and exhibited substantial variability in total A? levels. These observations suggest that neurodegeneration and dementia do not depend solely on enhanced A?42 levels. Our data revealed additional complexities in PSEN-FAD individuals. Some direct substrates of ?-secretase, such as Notch, N-cadherin, Erb-B4 and APP, deviated substantially from the NDC group baseline for some, but not all, mutation types. Proteins that were not direct ?-secretase substrates, but play key structural and functional roles in the WM, likewise exhibited varied concentrations in the distinct PSEN mutation backgrounds. Detailing the diverse biochemical pathology spectrum of PSEN mutations may offer valuable insights into dementia progression and the design of effective therapeutic interventions for both SAD and FAD. PMID:24093083

Roher, Alex E; Maarouf, Chera L; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Wilson, Jeffrey; Kokjohn, Tyler A; Daugs, Ian D; Whiteside, Charisse M; Kalback, Walter M; Macias, Mimi P; Jacobson, Sandra A; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Ghetti, Bernardino; Beach, Thomas G

2013-09-18

337

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Reveals Gray and White Matter Disease, and T2 Mapping Detects White Matter Disease in the Brain in Feline Alpha-Mannosidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Methods to locate and identify brain pathology are critical for monitoring disease progression and for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic intervention. The purpose of this study was to detect cell swelling, abnormal myelin, and astrogliosis in the feline model of the lysosomal storage disease -mannosidosis (AMD) by using diffusion and T2 mapping. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Average apparent

C. H. Vite; S. Magnitsky; D. Aleman; P. O'Donnell; K. Cullen; W. Ding; S. Pickup; J. H. Wolfe; H. Poptani

338

Appraisal, Coping, and Social Support as Mediators of Well-Being in Black and White Family Caregivers of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) commonly have high levels of psychological distress. Black caregivers often report less depression than white caregivers, but the process underlying this difference is poorly understood. With the use of a stress process model, 123 white and 74 black family caregivers of patients with AD…

Haley, William E.; And Others

1996-01-01

339

Appraisal, Coping, and Social Support as Mediators of Well-Being in Black and White Family Caregivers of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) commonly have high levels of psychological distress. Black caregivers often report less depression than white caregivers, but the process underlying this difference is poorly understood. With the use of a stress process model, 123 white and 74 black family caregivers of patients with AD…

Haley, William E.; And Others

1996-01-01

340

Cerebrovascular dysfunction and microcirculation rarefaction precede white matter lesions in a mouse genetic model of cerebral ischemic small vessel disease  

PubMed Central

Cerebral ischemic small vessel disease (SVD) is the leading cause of vascular dementia and a major contributor to stroke in humans. Dominant mutations in NOTCH3 cause cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a genetic archetype of cerebral ischemic SVD. Progress toward understanding the pathogenesis of this disease and developing effective therapies has been hampered by the lack of a good animal model. Here, we report the development of a mouse model for CADASIL via the introduction of a CADASIL-causing Notch3 point mutation into a large P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC). In vivo expression of the mutated PAC transgene in the mouse reproduced the endogenous Notch3 expression pattern and main pathological features of CADASIL, including Notch3 extracellular domain aggregates and granular osmiophilic material (GOM) deposits in brain vessels, progressive white matter damage, and reduced cerebral blood flow. Mutant mice displayed attenuated myogenic responses and reduced caliber of brain arteries as well as impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation and functional hyperemia. Further, we identified a substantial reduction of white matter capillary density. These neuropathological changes occurred in the absence of either histologically detectable alterations in cerebral artery structure or blood-brain barrier breakdown. These studies provide in vivo evidence for cerebrovascular dysfunction and microcirculatory failure as key contributors to hypoperfusion and white matter damage in this genetic model of ischemic SVD.

Joutel, Anne; Monet-Lepretre, Marie; Gosele, Claudia; Baron-Menguy, Celine; Hammes, Annette; Schmidt, Sabine; Lemaire-Carrette, Barbara; Domenga, Valerie; Schedl, Andreas; Lacombe, Pierre; Hubner, Norbert

2010-01-01

341

[Alzheimer's disease: the beta amyloid protein A4 is also present in the cortical white matter].  

PubMed

Amyloid deposits constituted with the beta amyloid protein A4 (beta PA4) have been recently immunodetected in skin and intestine wall of Alzheimer's patients. These findings support the hypothesis of an extraneuronal origin of the beta PA4. Until now, these amyloid deposits had not been observed in the white matter of Alzheimer's brains. Using an antiserum against the 1-10 N Ter subsequence of the beta PA4, we immunodetected amyloid deposits in white matter sections of Alzheimer's brains, pretreated with periodic acid. The immunolabelled amyloid substance was associated with capillaries. These original findings are in good agreement with the vascular origin of the beta PA4. PMID:2114194

Behrouz, N; Defossez, A; Delacourte, A; Mazzuca, M

1990-01-01

342

Susceptibility to infection and pathogenicity of White Spot Disease (WSD) in non-model crustacean host taxa from temperate regions.  

PubMed

Despite almost two decades since its discovery, White Spot Disease (WSD) caused by White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still considered the most significant known pathogen impacting the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in tropical regions, the virus is also able to infect, cause disease and kill a wide range of other decapod crustacean hosts from temperate regions, including lobsters, crabs, crayfish and shrimp. For this reason, WSSV has recently been listed in European Community Council Directive 2006/88. Using principles laid down by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) we applied an array of diagnostic approaches to provide a definitive statement on the susceptibility to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection in seven ecologically or economically important crustacean species from Europe. We chose four marine species: Cancer pagurus, Homarus gammarus, Nephrops norvegicus and Carcinus maenas; one estuarine species, Eriocheir sinensis and two freshwater species, Austropotamobius pallipes and Pacifastacus leniusculus. Exposure trials based upon natural (feeding) and artificial (intra-muscular injection) routes of exposure to WSSV revealed universal susceptibility to WSSV infection in these hosts. However, the relative degree of susceptibility (measured by progression of infection to disease, and mortality) varied significantly between host species. In some instances (Type 1 hosts), pathogenesis mimicked that observed in penaeid shrimp hosts whereas in other examples (Types 2 and 3 hosts), infection did not readily progress to disease, even though hosts were considered as infected and susceptible according to accepted principles. Results arising from challenge studies are discussed in relation to the potential risk posed to non-target hosts by the inadvertent introduction of WSSV to European waters via trade. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for susceptible but relatively resistant hosts to serve as models to investigate natural mitigation strategies against WSSV in these hosts. We speculate that these non-model hosts may offer a unique insight into viral handling in crustaceans. PMID:22484233

Bateman, K S; Tew, I; French, C; Hicks, R J; Martin, P; Munro, J; Stentiford, G D

2012-03-30

343

Ciliate and bacterial communities associated with White Syndrome and Brown Band Disease in reef-building corals  

PubMed Central

White Syndrome (WS) and Brown Band Disease (BrB) are important causes of reef coral mortality for which causal agents have not been definitively identified. Here we use culture-independent molecular techniques (DGGE and clone libraries) to characterize ciliate and bacterial communities in these diseases. Bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and ciliate (18S rRNA gene) communities were highly similar between the two diseases. Four bacterial and nine ciliate ribotypes were observed in both diseases, but absent in non-diseased specimens. Only one of the bacteria, Arcobacter sp. (JF831360) increased substantially in relative 16S rRNA gene abundance and was consistently represented in all diseased samples. Four of the eleven ciliate morphotypes detected contained coral algal symbionts, indicative of the ingestion of coral tissues. In both WS and BrB, there were two ciliate morphotypes consistently represented in all disease lesion samples. Morph1 (JN626268) was observed to burrow into and underneath the coral tissues at the lesion boundary. Morph2 (JN626269), previously identified in BrB, appears to play a secondary, less invasive role in pathogenesis, but has a higher population density in BrB, giving rise to the visible brown band. The strong similarity in bacterial and ciliate community composition of these diseases suggests that they are actually the same syndrome.

Sweet, Michael; Bythell, John

2012-01-01

344

Ciliate and bacterial communities associated with White Syndrome and Brown Band Disease in reef-building corals.  

PubMed

White Syndrome (WS) and Brown Band Disease (BrB) are important causes of reef coral mortality for which causal agents have not been definitively identified. Here we use culture-independent molecular techniques (DGGE and clone libraries) to characterize ciliate and bacterial communities in these diseases. Bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and ciliate (18S rRNA gene) communities were highly similar between the two diseases. Four bacterial and nine ciliate ribotypes were observed in both diseases, but absent in non-diseased specimens. Only one of the bacteria, Arcobacter sp. (JF831360) increased substantially in relative 16S rRNA gene abundance and was consistently represented in all diseased samples. Four of the eleven ciliate morphotypes detected contained coral algal symbionts, indicative of the ingestion of coral tissues. In both WS and BrB, there were two ciliate morphotypes consistently represented in all disease lesion samples. Morph1 (JN626268) was observed to burrow into and underneath the coral tissues at the lesion boundary. Morph2 (JN626269), previously identified in BrB, appears to play a secondary, less invasive role in pathogenesis, but has a higher population density in BrB, giving rise to the visible brown band. The strong similarity in bacterial and ciliate community composition of these diseases suggests that they are actually the same syndrome. PMID:22507379

Sweet, Michael; Bythell, John

2012-04-17

345

Obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in prepubescent and pubescent black and white females  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 2379 females equally divided between black and white were enrolled at 9 or 10 years of age. Participants were seen yearly for 5 years for a complete medical examination, evaluation of socioeconomic status, and patterns of eating and physical activity. Parents were seen in year 1 and responded to a questionnaire in years 3 and 5.At baseline,

Frank Falkner

1993-01-01

346

Unilaterally and rapidly progressing white matter lesion and elevated cytokines in a patient with Tay-Sachs disease.  

PubMed

We report the case of a girl with Tay-Sachs disease who had convulsions and deteriorated rapidly after an upper respiratory infection at the age of 11 months. At the age of 16 months, her seizures became intractable and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and marked swelling in the white matter and basal nucelei of the right hemisphere. Her seizures and right hemisphere lesion improved with glycerol and dexamethasone treatment. When dexamethasone was discontinued, her symptoms worsened and lesions later appeared in the left hemisphere. Her cerebrospinal fluid showed elevated levels of the cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-5. It is considered that inflammation contributes to disease progression in Tay-Sachs disease. PMID:19278800

Hayase, Tomomi; Shimizu, Jun; Goto, Tamako; Nozaki, Yasuyuki; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Naoto; Namba, Eiji; Yamagata, Takanori; Momoi, Mariko Y

2009-03-10

347

The Tail of the Rat, in Temperature Regulation and Acclimatization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of the tail of the Wistar white rat in its temperature regulation was studied, and a new index of acclimatization was found. Blood flow in the tail was measured by venous-occlusion plethysmography at environmental temperatures from 17 to 33C. The...

R. P. Rand A. C. Burton T. Ing

1964-01-01

348

Distinctive disruption patterns of white matter tracts in Alzheimer's disease with full diffusion tensor characterization  

PubMed Central

To characterize the white matter structural changes at the tract level and tract group level, comprehensive analysis with four metrics derived from DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AxD) and radial diffusivity (RD), was conducted. Tract groups, namely limbic, commissural, association and projection tracts, include white matter tracts of similar functions. DTI data were acquired from 61 subjects (26 AD, 11 subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or aMCI, 24 age-matched controls). An atlas-based approach was used to survey 30 major cerebral white matter tracts with the measurements of FA, MD, AxD and RD. Regional cortical atrophy and cognitive functions of AD patients were also measured to correlate with the structural changes of white matter. Synchronized structural changes of cingulum bundle and fornix, both of which are part of limbic tract group, were revealed. Widespread yet distinctive structural changes were found in limbic, commissural, association and projection tract groups between control and AD subjects. Specifically, FA, MD and RD of limbic tracts, FA, MD, AxD and RD of commissural tracts, MD, AxD and RD of association tracts and MD and AxD of projection tracts are significantly different between AD patients and control subjects. In contrast, the comparison between aMCI and control subjects shows disruption only in the limbic and commissural tract groups of aMCI subjects. MD values of all tract groups of AD patients are significantly correlated to cognitive functions. Difference between AD and control and that between MCI and control indicates a progression pattern of white matter disruption from limbic and commissural tract group to other tract groups. High correlation between FA, MD and RD measurements from limbic tracts and cortical atrophy suggests the disruption of the limbic tract group is caused by the neuronal damage.

Huang, Hao; Fan, Xin; Weiner, Myron; Martin-Cook, Kristin; Xiao, Guanghua; Davis, Jeannie; Devous, Michael; Rosenberg, Roger; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

2011-01-01

349

Motor development and sleep, play, and feeding positions in very-low-birthweight infants with and without white matter disease.  

PubMed

We investigated the association of infants' sleep and awake positioning with motor milestone acquisition as measured by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Participants were 30 very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants with preterm white matter disease (PTWMD; 21 males, nine females; mean birthweight [BW] 1,129 g [SD 338]; mean gestational age [GA] 28 wks [SD 2.44]); 21 VLBW infants without preterm WMD (PT; 13 males, eight females; mean BW 1,107 g [SD 370]; mean GA 28.05 wks [SD 2.21]); and 17 term infants (Term; seven males, 10 females; mean BW 3,565 g [SD 382]; mean GA 40 wks [SD 1.31]). Testing occurred at 1, 5, and 9 months of age (corrected for prematurity). Preferred positions during sleeping, playing, and feeding were obtained through parent interview. These positions and group were the independent variables. Prone sleeping was significantly and positively associated with motor development at all ages (1 mo: p=0.005; 5 mo: p=0.011; 9 mo: p=0.040). At 5 months, prone sleeping and playing were significantly and positively associated with AIMS scores (prone sleeping, p=0.016; prone playing, p=0.047). However, group was negatively associated with preterm white matter disease, with the PTWMD group having significantly lower AIMS scores than the Term group (p=0.029). At 9 months, sitting playing and group membership were significantly associated with AIMS scores (sitting playing, p=0.005; group, p=0.012). Prone positioning should be encouraged for awake time, particularly for infants with preterm white matter disease. PMID:17979857

Fetters, Linda; Huang, Hsiang-Han

2007-11-01

350

Dynamics of envelope evolution in clade C SHIV-infected pig-tailed macaques during disease progression analyzed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Understanding the evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope during disease progression can provide tremendous insights for vaccine development, and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection of non-human primate provides an ideal platform for such studies. A newly developed clade C SHIV, SHIV-1157ipd3N4, which was able to infect rhesus macaques, closely resembled primary HIV-1 in transmission and pathogenesis, was used to infect several pig-tailed macaques. One of the infected animals subsequently progressed to AIDS, whereas one remained a non-progressor. The viral envelope evolution in the infected animals during disease progression was analyzed by a bioinformatics approach using ultra-deep pyrosequencing. Our results showed substantial envelope variations emerging in the progressor animal after the onset of AIDS. These envelope variations impacted the length of the variable loops and charges of different envelope regions. Additionally, multiple mutations were located at the CD4 and CCR5 binding sites, potentially affecting receptor binding affinity, viral fitness and they might be selected at late stages of disease. More importantly, these envelope mutations are not random since they had repeatedly been observed in a rhesus macaque and a human infant infected by either SHIV or HIV-1, respectively, carrying the parental envelope of the infectious molecular clone SHIV-1157ipd3N4. Moreover, similar mutations were also observed from other studies on different clades of envelopes regardless of the host species. These recurring mutations in different envelopes suggest that there may be a common evolutionary pattern and selection pathway for the HIV-1 envelope during disease progression. PMID:22427893

Tso, For Yue; Tully, Damien C; Gonzalez, Sandra; Quince, Christopher; Ho, On; Polacino, Patricia; Ruprecht, Ruth M; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Wood, Charles

2012-03-12

351

Associations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with All-Cause Mortality in Blacks and Whites: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on all-cause mortality in Blacks and Whites from four U.S. communities. Methods We determined prospectively the risk of death through December 2004 in relation to baseline (1987–1989) COPD status in 10,333 Black and White participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Results Over a mean follow-up of 15 years (maximum 18 years), 462 deaths occurred in Blacks and 1221 deaths occurred in Whites. Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality among Blacks and Whites were similar (hazard ratio [HR]=1.74 in Blacks and HR=1.59 in Whites), indicating a 59–74% greater risk of mortality for those with COPD. However, for both those with and without COPD, crude death rates were approximately double in Blacks compared to Whites. Conclusions Our findings suggest that given COPD, Blacks and Whites have the same proportionate increase in mortality and that the difference in death rates between Blacks and Whites cannot be explained by COPD status. The public health burden of COPD is enormous, and strategies to reduce COPD and smoking could have a large impact on total mortality rates of both Blacks and Whites.

Chamberlain, Alanna M.; Schabath, Matthew B.; Folsom, Aaron R.

2010-01-01

352

Microarray analyses of laser-captured hippocampus reveal distinct gray and white matter signatures associated with incipient Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that threatens to reach epidemic proportions as our population ages. Although much research has examined molecular pathways associated with AD, relatively few such studies have focused on the disease’s critical early stages. In a prior microarray study we correlated gene expression in hippocampus with degree of Alzheimer’s disease and found close associations between upregulation of apparent glial transcription factor/epigenetic/tumor suppressor genes and incipient AD. The results suggested a new model in which AD pathology spreads along myelinated axons (Blalock et al., 2004). However, the microarray analyses were performed on RNA extracted from frozen hand-dissected hippocampal CA1 tissue blocks containing both gray and white matter, limiting the confidence with which transcriptional changes in gray matter could be distinguished from those in white matter. Here, we used laser capture microdissection (LCM) to exclude major white matter tracts while selectively collecting CA1 hippocampal gray matter from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) hippocampal sections of the same subjects assessed in our prior study. Microarray analyses of this gray matter-enriched tissue revealed many transcriptional changes similar to those seen in our past study and in studies by others, particularly for downregulated neuron-related genes. Additionally, the present analyses identified several previously undetected pathway alterations, including downregulation of molecules that stabilize ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release and upregulation of vasculature development. Conversely, we found a striking paucity of the upregulated changes in the putative glial and growth-related genes that had been strongly overrepresented in the prior mixed-tissue study. We conclude that FFPE tissue can be a reliable resource for microarray studies of brain tissue, that upregulation of growth-related epigenetic/transcription factors during incipient AD is predominantly localized in and around white matter (supporting our prior findings and model), and that novel alterations in vascular and ryanodine receptor-related pathways in gray matter are closely associated with incipient AD.

Blalock, Eric M.; Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Geddes, James W.; Landfield, Philip W.

2011-01-01

353

Linking disease and community ecology through behavioural indicators: immunochallenge of white-footed mice and its ecological impacts.  

PubMed

1. Pathogens and immune challenges can induce changes in host phenotype in ways that indirectly impact important community interactions, including those that affect host-pathogen interactions. 2. To explore host behavioural response to immune challenge, we exposed wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to an immunogen from an endemic, zoonotic pathogen, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. White-footed mice are a major reservoir host of Lyme disease (LD) spirochetes in northeastern USA and an abundant member of forest communities. The activity patterns, foraging behaviour, and space use of white-footed mice have implications for population growth rates of community members upon which mice incidentally prey (i.e. gypsy moths and native thrushes), as well as potentially determining host-vector encounter rates and human risk of LD. 3. Immunochallenge led to specific humoral (antibody) and cellular (i.e. elevated neutrophils and eosinophils) immune responses, supporting use of the immunogen as a surrogate for pathogenic infection. 4. Immunochallenged mice had reduced wheel-running activity early in the night when measured in the lab. However, mouse activity, as measured by track plates in natural field experiments, did not differ between mice exposed to the immunogen and unexposed mice. 5. Foraging behaviour of wild mice in the field - assessed with giving-up densities of seed at artificial feeding stations - was affected by exposure to the immunogen. Whereas immunochallenge did not influence whether foraging mice gained information on patch quality while foraging, it led to reductions in predator avoidance during foraging, suggesting that the proportion of space used by foraging mice may be greater as a result of immunochallenge. This increased space use is predicted to increase encounter rates with patchily distributed LD vectors (ticks) and with incidental prey items. 6. Thus, immunochallenge in white-footed mice, and potentially pathogenic infection, have the potential to indirectly impact community interactions, including those important for pathogen transmission. PMID:20796206

Schwanz, Lisa E; Brisson, Dustin; Gomes-Solecki, Maria; Ostfeld, Richard S

2010-08-26

354

Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tissue loss diseases or white syndromes (WS) are some of the most important coral diseases because they result in significant colony mortality and morbidity, threatening dominant Acroporidae in the Caribbean and Pacific. The causes of WS remain elusive in part because few have examined affected corals at the cellular level. We studied the cellular changes associated with WS over time in a dominant Hawaiian coral, Montipora capitata, and showed that: (i) WS has rapidly progressing (acute) phases mainly associated with ciliates or slowly progressing (chronic) phases mainly associated with helminths or chimeric parasites; (ii) these phases interchanged and waxed and waned; (iii) WS could be a systemic disease associated with chimeric parasitism or a localized disease associated with helminths or ciliates; (iv) corals responded to ciliates mainly with necrosis and to helminths or chimeric parasites with wound repair; (v) mixed infections were uncommon; and (vi) other than cyanobacteria, prokaryotes associated with cell death were not seen. Recognizing potential agents associated with disease at the cellular level and the host response to those agents offers a logical deductive rationale to further explore the role of such agents in the pathogenesis of WS in M. capitata and helps explain manifestation of gross lesions. This approach has broad applicability to the study of the pathogenesis of coral diseases in the field and under experimental settings.

Work, Thierry M.; Russell, Robin; Aeby, Greta S.

2012-01-01

355

Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes.  

PubMed

Tissue loss diseases or white syndromes (WS) are some of the most important coral diseases because they result in significant colony mortality and morbidity, threatening dominant Acroporidae in the Caribbean and Pacific. The causes of WS remain elusive in part because few have examined affected corals at the cellular level. We studied the cellular changes associated with WS over time in a dominant Hawaiian coral, Montipora capitata, and showed that: (i) WS has rapidly progressing (acute) phases mainly associated with ciliates or slowly progressing (chronic) phases mainly associated with helminths or chimeric parasites; (ii) these phases interchanged and waxed and waned; (iii) WS could be a systemic disease associated with chimeric parasitism or a localized disease associated with helminths or ciliates; (iv) corals responded to ciliates mainly with necrosis and to helminths or chimeric parasites with wound repair; (v) mixed infections were uncommon; and (vi) other than cyanobacteria, prokaryotes associated with cell death were not seen. Recognizing potential agents associated with disease at the cellular level and the host response to those agents offers a logical deductive rationale to further explore the role of such agents in the pathogenesis of WS in M. capitata and helps explain manifestation of gross lesions. This approach has broad applicability to the study of the pathogenesis of coral diseases in the field and under experimental settings. PMID:22951746

Work, Thierry M; Russell, Robin; Aeby, Greta S

2012-09-05

356

Loss of Normal Profilaggrin and Filaggrin in Flaky Tail (ft\\/ft) Mice: an Animal Model for the Filaggrin-Deficient Skin Disease Ichthyosis Vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flaky tail (gene symbol ft) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice that results in a dry, flaky skin, and annular tail and paw constrictions in the neonatal period. Previous studies demonstrated that the ft mutation maps to the central region of mouse chromosome 3, in the vicinity of the epidermal differentiation complex, a gene locus that includes many nonkeratin

Richard B. Presland; Dawnalyn Boggess; S. Patrick Lewis; Christopher Hull; Philip Fleckman; John P. Sundberg

2000-01-01

357

Development and field application of a molecular probe for the primary pathogen of the coral disease white plague type II.  

PubMed

One of the current problems in the field of coral disease research is that of tracking coral pathogens in the natural environment. A promising method to do this is by use of pathogen-specific molecular probes. However, this approach has been little used to date. We constructed, and validated in the laboratory, a fluorochrome-labeled molecular probe specific to Aurantimonas coralicida, the bacterial pathogen of the Caribbean coral disease white plague type II (WPIl). We then used the probe to test field samples of diseased coral tissue for the presence of this pathogen. Probe design was based on a unique subset (25 nucleotides) of the complete l6S rRNA gene sequence derived from a pure culture of the pathogen. The pathogen-specific probe was labeled with the fluorochrome GreenStar* FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate, GeneDetect Ltd, New Zealand). As a control, we used the universal eubacterial probe EUB 338, labeled with a different fluorochrome (TRITC, tetra-methylrhodamine isothiocyanate). Both probes were applied to laboratory samples of pure cultures of bacteria, and field samples collected from the surface of the disease line of corals exhibiting signs of white plague (types I and II), healthy controls, and corals with an uncharacterized disease ("patchy necrosis"). All samples were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We have determined that the probe is specific to our laboratory culture of the coral pathogen, and does not react with other bacterial species (the eubacterial probe does). The WPII pathogen was detected in association with diseased coral samples collected from coral colonies on reefs of the Bahamas (n= 9 samples) exhibiting signs of both WPI and WPII. Diseased (and healthy) tissue samples (n- 4) from corals exhibiting signs of "patchy necrosis" were also assayed. In this case the results were negative, indicating that the same pathogen is not involved in the two diseases. Incorporation and use of pathogen-specific probes can significantly expand our knowledge of the etiology of coral diseases. PMID:17465139

Richardson, Laurie L; Mills, DeEtta K; Remily, Elizabeth R; Voss, Joshua D

2005-05-01

358

Bacterial community structure associated with white band disease in the elkhorn coral Acropora palmata determined using culture-independent 16S rRNA techniques.  

PubMed

Culture-independent molecular (16S ribosomal RNA) techniques showed distinct differences in bacterial communities associated with white band disease (WBD) Type I and healthy elkhorn coral Acropora palmata. Differences were apparent at all levels, with a greater diversity present in tissues of diseased colonies. The bacterial community associated with remote, non-diseased coral was distinct from the apparently healthy tissues of infected corals several cm from the disease lesion. This demonstrates a whole-organism effect from what appears to be a localised disease lesion, an effect that has also been recently demonstrated in white plague-like disease in star coral Montastraea annularis. The pattern of bacterial community structure changes was similar to that recently demonstrated for white plague-like disease and black band disease. Some of the changes are likely to be explained by the colonisation of dead and degrading tissues by a micro-heterotroph community adapted to the decomposition of coral tissues. However, specific ribosomal types that are absent from healthy tissues appear consistently in all samples of each of the diseases. These ribotypes are closely related members of a group of alpha-proteobacteria that cause disease, notably juvenile oyster disease, in other marine organisms. It is clearly important that members of this group are isolated for challenge experiments to determine their role in the diseases. PMID:16703769

Pantos, Olga; Bythell, John C

2006-03-23

359

Alzheimer's disease in African American and white families: A clinical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social workers and other clinicians are increasingly facing the effects of Alzheimer's disease on the individual and family. Alzheimer's disease is the fourth largest cause of death among U. S. adults, killing more than 100,000 persons annually. More than four million Americans are diagnosed with this disorder. Greater knowledge about the disease and coping patterns among various client groups is

Joyce O. Beckett

1992-01-01

360

Genetics and Vaccine Efficacy: Host Genetic Variation Affecting Marek's Disease Vaccine Efficacy in White Leghorn Chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek’s disease (MD) is a T cell lymphoma disease of domestic chickens induced by Marek’s disease viruses (MDV), a naturally oncogenic and highly contagious cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus. Earlier reports have shown that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype as well as non-MHC gene...

361

White matter lesions in Fabry disease occur in ‘prior’ selectively hypometabolic and hyperperfused brain regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder associated with early onset stroke. We previously found a significantly elevated cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with Fabry disease. We set to determine whether elevated resting CBF in Fabry disease is primarily a cerebrovascular abnormality or is secondary to enhanced neuronal metabolism. The relationship of cerebral metabolism and blood flow to Fabry leukoencephalopathy

David F. Moore; Gheona Altarescu; W. Craig Barker; Nicholas J. Patronas; Peter Herscovitch; Raphael Schiffmann

2003-01-01

362

Detection of acute osteomyelitis with indium-111 labeled white blood cells in a patient with sickle cell disease  

SciTech Connect

A young patient with sickle cell disease (SCD) and multiple hospitalizations for crisis was admitted because of suspected osteomyelitis. Initial laboratory work, radiographs, and bone images were not contributory. An In-111 white blood cell (WBC) study demonstrated two areas of increased radionuclide uptake consistent with osteomyelitis. One of these had associated soft tissue infection. No other areas of active osteomyelitis were visualized, in spite of the presence of several additional infection sites. Imaging with In-111 WBC is probably not justified for routine diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in areas free of previous disease, where conventional bone images are highly efficient. In-111 WBC imaging, however, may be helpful in detecting osteomyelitis in selected patients with SCD in whom Tc-99m bone images and radiographs are usually abnormal and difficult to interpret due to previous bone infarcts. Localization of the infection focus is very important in choosing the aspiration site for bacteriologic studies. A negative study, however, should be interpreted cautiously.

Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; Vasavada, P.J.; Black, R.R.

1989-02-01

363

The General Secretory Pathway of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola BG164R Is Necessary for Cavity Disease in White Button Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavity disease in white button mushrooms is caused by Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola. We describe the isolation and characterization of six mutants of the strain BG164R that no longer cause this disease on mushrooms. The mutations were mapped to genes of the general secretory pathway (GSP). This is the first report of the association of the type II secretion pathway

Piklu Roy Chowdhury; Jack A. Heinemann

2006-01-01

364

Comparison of the presentation and course of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease in South asians with whites: a single center study in the United States.  

PubMed

We compared the severity of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease in South Asians with Whites in the US. South Asians more commonly presented with poor weight gain, developed fistulas, and received treatment with antibiotics, methotrexate, adalimumab, and steroids. South Asians appear to have a more complicated presentation and course of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23706360

Li, Benjamin H; Guan, Xin; Vittinghoff, Eric; Gupta, Neera

2013-05-21

365

[Measurement and analysis of hematology and blood chemistry parameters in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)].  

PubMed

The pig-tailed macaque is an important non-human primate experimental animal model that has been widely used in the research of AIDS and other diseases. Pig-tailed macaques include Mentawai macaques (Macaca pagensis), Sunda pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina) and northern pig-tailed macaques (M. leonina). Northern pig-tailed macaques inhabit China and surrounding Southeast Asia countries. To our knowledge, no reports have been published regarding the hematology and blood chemistry parameters of northern pig-tailed macaques, which are important for the objective evaluation of experimental results. We measured and analyzed 18 hematology parameters and 13 blood chemistry parameters in juvenile (aged 2-4 years) and adult (aged 5-10 years) northern pig-tailed macaques. We found that red blood cells, hemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase values were lower in female macaques than male macaques in both juvenile and adult groups. White blood cells, lymphocyte, monocytes, platelet distribution width, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase values were higher in juvenile macaques than adult macaques, while creatinine and triglycerides values were lower in juvenile macaques. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and creatinine values were positively correlated with weight in juvenile groups. In adult groups, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, percentage of granulocyte, hemoglobin and creatinine were also positively correlated with weight, and lymphocyte, percentage of lymphocyte, red cell distribution width, aspartate aminotransferase and cholesterol values were negatively correlated with weight. The results suggest that age, gender and weight of northern pig-tailed macaques affected their hematology and blood chemistry parameters. This hematological and blood chemistry study has great significance in biomedical research and animal models using northern pig-tailed macaque as an experimental animal. PMID:23572357

Pang, Wei; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Yun; Li, Gui; Huang, Dong-Ti; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Zheng, Yong-Tang

2013-04-01

366

Remediation of Tailings Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tailings are a waste product of mining activities. The ore is crushed in processing to a size less than 0.1 to 1.0 mm, the\\u000a metal content is removed, and the remaining product is called tailings. Normally, the tailings will be pumped as slurry to\\u000a a sedimentation pond that is surrounded by dams and, sometimes, natural heights that form a tailings

A. G. Benckert

367

Temporal Trend in the U.S. Black–White Disparity in Mortality Rates From Selected Alcohol-Related Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disparities between the U.S. African American (black)–white mortality rates for liver cirrhosis are often cited in the literature, but disparities in mortality from other chronic diseases largely attributable to alcohol have received less attention. This study analyzes U.S. age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) for those 25 years old or more for a 25-year period (1979–2003) for blacks and whites by

Anthony P. Polednak

2008-01-01

368

Length of Magnetospheric Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that hydromagnetic waves, through the action of radiation pressure, can prevent the tail of the magnetosphere from closing near the earth. It is argued that the tail of the magnetosphere may be 20 to 50 AU long. The tail can close at such heliocentric distances in the charge-exchange boundary shell where the solar wind is terminated and

A. J. Dessler

1964-01-01

369

Human Tail and Myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human tail is rarely reported and is usually associated with underlying spina bifida occulta. A male newborn presenting a caudal appendage (human tail) with skin-covered myelomeningocele and tethered cord is described. Surgical excision of the human tail and repair of the myelomeningocele were performed 3 days after birth. After the operation, the patient had an uneventful convalescence and received

Pei-Jung Lin; Yu-Tang Chang; Hsing-I Tseng; Jan-You Lin; Yu-Sheng Huang

2007-01-01

370

The intriguing contribution of white blood cells to sickle cell disease – a red cell disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by a point mutation that replaces adenine with thymidine in the sixth codon of the ?-globin gene, a unique morphological abnormality of red blood cells, vaso-occlusion with ischaemic tissue injury, and susceptibility to infections. Vascular lumen obstruction in SCD results from interaction of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, plasma proteins, and the vessel wall. The disease

Iheanyi Okpala

2004-01-01

371

Decreased white matter integrity before the onset of delusions in patients with Alzheimer's disease: diffusion tensor imaging  

PubMed Central

Background The pathology of delusions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) associated with white matter (WM) abnormalities is poorly understood. In addition, whether the abnormalities in WM integrity that underlie the delusions develop before the onset of the delusions remains unclear. In this study, we used a diffusion tensor imaging approach to examine the existence of baseline abnormalities in WM integrity in AD patients who developed delusions and AD patients who did not develop delusions. Methods Using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, we identified patients with AD who exhibit delusions during a 1-year period. All the patients underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination at baseline. We conducted fractional anisotropy using tract-based spatial statistics software and compared the results of AD patients who developed delusions with those who did not develop delusions. Results Compared with the AD patients who did not develop delusions (n = 15), the AD patients who developed delusions (n = 10) exhibited two relatively large clusters and one minimal cluster of significantly lower fractional anisotropy results. The first cluster was located in the left parieto-occipital region and included several fibers: the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the posterior corona radiate, and the forceps major of the corpus callosum. The second cluster was located on the body of the corpus callosum. A third minimal cluster was located on the superior temporal gyrus white matter. Conclusion Abnormalities in WM integrity involving several fibers may be crucial to the development of delusions in AD patients.

Nakaaki, Shutaro; Sato, Junko; Torii, Katsuyoshi; Oka, Mizuki; Negi, Atsushi; Nakamae, Takashi; Narumoto, Jin; Miyata, Jun; Furukawa, Toshi A; Mimura, Masaru

2013-01-01

372

White lies, white truth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within and through texts written in English by white women both before and since the opening of the hearings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, a process of confession has been enacted. The TRC's amnesty hearings heard no submissions from English-speaking white women as perpetrators. However, the telling of stories about the self, autobiographically inflected stories – significantly stories of

Georgina Horrell

2009-01-01

373

Shifts in bacterial communities of two caribbean reef-building coral species affected by white plague disease  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs are deteriorating at an alarming rate mainly as a consequence of the emergence of coral diseases. The white plague disease (WPD) is the most prevalent coral disease in the southwestern Caribbean, affecting dozens of coral species. However, the identification of a single causal agent has proved problematic. This suggests more complex etiological scenarios involving alterations in the dynamic interaction between environmental factors, the coral immune system and the symbiotic microbial communities. Here we compare the microbiome of healthy and WPD-affected corals from the two reef-building species Diploria strigosa and Siderastrea siderea collected at the Tayrona National Park in the Caribbean of Colombia. Microbiomes were analyzed by combining culture-dependent methods and pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) V5-V6 hypervariable regions. A total of 20?410 classifiable 16S rDNA sequences reads were obtained including all samples. No significant differences in operational taxonomic unit diversity were found between healthy and affected tissues; however, a significant increase of Alphaproteobacteria and a concomitant decrease in the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria was observed in WPD-affected corals of both species. Significant shifts were also observed in the orders Rhizobiales, Caulobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Rhodobacterales, Aleteromonadales and Xanthomonadales, although they were not consistent between the two coral species. These shifts in the microbiome structure of WPD-affected corals suggest a loss of community-mediated growth control mechanisms on bacterial populations specific for each holobiont system.

Cardenas, Anny; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Pizarro, Valeria; Cadavid, Luis F; Arevalo-Ferro, Catalina

2012-01-01

374

Chronic Wasting Disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

Richards, Bryan

2007-01-01

375

Cardiac Procedures among American Indians and Alaska Natives compared to Non-Hispanic Whites Hospitalized with Ischemic Heart Disease in California  

PubMed Central

Background American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIAN) experience a high burden of cardiovascular disease with rates for fatal and nonfatal heart disease approximately twofold higher than the U.S. population. Objective To determine if disparities exist in cardiac procedure rates among AIAN compared to non-Hispanic whites hospitalized in California for ischemic heart disease defined as acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina. Design Cross-sectional study. Events A total of 796 ischemic heart disease hospitalizations among AIAN and 90971 among non-Hispanic whites in 37 of 58 counties in California from 1998-2002. Measurements Cardiac catheterization, percutaneous cardiac intervention, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery procedure rates from hospitalization administrative data. Main results AIAN did not have lower cardiac procedure rates for cardiac catheterization and percutaneous cardiac intervention compared to non-Hispanic whites (unadjusted OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.87–1.16 and OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.90–1.20, respectively). Adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities, and payer source did not alter the results (adjusted OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.82–1.10 and OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.85–1.14, respectively). We found higher odds (unadjusted OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.70) for receipt of coronary artery bypass graft surgery among AIAN hospitalized for ischemic heart disease compared to non-Hispanic whites which after adjustment attenuated some and was no longer statistically significant (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00–1.58). Conclusion AIAN were not less likely to receive cardiac procedures as non-Hispanic whites during hospitalizations for ischemic heart disease. Additional research is needed to determine whether differences in specialty referral patterns, patients’ treatment preferences, or outpatient management may explain some of the health disparities due to cardiovascular disease that is found among AIAN.

Kao, Chi; Bindman, Andrew B.; Korenbrot, Carol

2010-01-01

376

Extensive striatal, cortical, and white matter brain MRI abnormalities in Wilson disease.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old boy presented with progressive dysarthria and gait and behavior disorders. The diagnosis of Wilson disease was made, based on Kayser-Fleischer rings, hypocupremia, hypoceruloplasminemia, and increased 24-hour urinary copper, and confirmed by molecular analysis (homozygous state, p.[Glu1382*]; [Glu1382*]). Brain MRI demonstrated diffuse bilateral cortical and subcortical abnormalities (figure). Chelator therapy (D-penicillamine) produced partial improvement, although the patient developed epileptic seizures, presumably due to the cortical involvement. Wilson disease with extensive cortical-subcortical lesions is rare,(1,2) but should be considered as a possible etiology of diffuse leukoencephalopathy with cystic evolution. PMID:24145882

Trocello, Jean-Marc; Woimant, France; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Guichard, Jean-Pierre; Poupon, Joel; Chappuis, Philippe; Feillet, Francois

2013-10-22

377

Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: The final common pathway of white-matter disease\\/dysfunction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) syndrome is described, and a model designed to encompass its complex manifestations is derived on the basis of the theory of Goldberg and Costa (1981), as extended by Rourke (1982). The commonality exhibited by children and adolescents suffering from a variety of types of neurological disease, disorder, and dysfunction is viewed as their shared deficiencies

Byron P. Rourke

1987-01-01

378

Relationship of Visceral Adiposity to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Black and White Teens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We tested the hypothesis that visceral adiposity, compared with general adiposity, would explain more of the variance in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.Research Method and Procedures: Subjects were 464 adolescents (238 black and 205 girls). Adiposity measures included visceral adipose tissue (VAT; magnetic resonance imaging), percent body fat (%BF; DXA), BMI, and waist girth (anthropometry). CVD risk factors were

Bernard Gutin; Maribeth H. Johnson; Matthew C. Humphries; Jeannie L. Hatfield-Laube; Gaston K. Kapuku; Jerry D. Allison; Barbara A. Gower; Stephen R. Daniels; Paule Barbeau

2007-01-01

379

Altered white matter microstructure in the corpus callosum in Huntington's disease: Implications for cortical “disconnection”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corpus callosum (CC) is the major conduit for information transfer between the cerebral hemispheres and plays an integral role in relaying sensory, motor and cognitive information between homologous cortical regions. The majority of fibers that make up the CC arise from large pyramidal neurons in layers III and V, which project contra-laterally. These neurons degenerate in Huntington's disease (HD)

H. Diana Rosas; Stephanie Y. Lee; Alexander C. Bender; Alexandra K. Zaleta; Mark Vangel; Peng Yu; Bruce Fischl; Vasanth Pappu; Christina Onorato; Jang-Ho Cha; David H. Salat; Steven M. Hersch

2010-01-01

380

An unusual white blood cell scan in a child with inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.  

PubMed

Technetium-99m-labeled leukocyte (WBC) imaging is a valuable screening method for inflammatory bowel disease, especially in children, because of its high rate of sensitivity, low cost, and ease of preparation. A 14-year-old girl is described who had juvenile arthritis and iritis complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. She was examined for recurrent abdominal pain. A Tc-99m stannous colloid WBC scan was performed, and tracer accumulation was seen in the small bowel in the region of the distal ileum on the initial 1-hour image. Delayed imaging at 3 hours also revealed tracer accumulation in the cecum and ascending colon, which was not seen on the early image. A biopsy of the colon during endoscopy showed no evidence of active inflammation in the colon. The small bowel was not seen. Computed tomography revealed changes suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease in the distal ileum. The appearance on the WBC study was most likely a result of inflammatory bowel disease involving the distal ileum, with transit of luminal activity into the large bowel. PMID:11043720

Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; O'Loughlin, E; Uren, R; Chaitow, J

2000-10-01

381

99mTc-Stannous Colloid White Cell Scintigraphy in Childhood Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

of children with suspected IBD. Methods: Diagnostic, endo- scopic, and contrast radiography results were retrospectively collected from the medical records. Two experienced nuclear physicians unaware of the patient data interpreted the WCS results, with agreement reached by consensus. Statistical anal- ysis was performed on the ability of WCS to detect active disease and localize it topographically and on a comparison

Kenneth Peacock; Ute Porn; Robert Howman-Giles; Edward O'Loughlin; Roger Uren; Kevin Gaskin; Stuart Dorney; Ramanand Kamath

382

Tails of Bacterial Motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cytoplasm of living cells provides a complex fluid environment in which intracellular bacteria live and move. By analyzing the easily visible curved actin ``comet-tail'' of polymerization-based-motility bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, we can learn about sub-micron structure and dynamics of the tail and of the bacterial surface enzyme that catalyzes tail formation. By characterizing the motility, we can transform such motile systems into probes of the cytoplasmic environment.

Rutenberg, Andrew; Grant, Martin

2001-03-01

383

Bacterial diversity and White Plague Disease-associated community changes in the Caribbean coral Montastraea faveolata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence confirms the crucial role bacteria and archaea play within the coral holobiont, that is, the coral host and its associated microbial community. The bacterial component constitutes a community of high diversity, which appears to change in structure in response to disease events. In this study, we highlight the limitation of 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) clone library sequencing

Shinichi Sunagawa; Todd Z DeSantis; Yvette M Piceno; Eoin L Brodie; Michael K DeSalvo; Christian R Voolstra; Ernesto Weil; Gary L Andersen; Mónica Medina

2009-01-01

384

Multiple Indices of Diffusion Identifies White Matter Damage in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The study of multiple indices of diffusion, including axial (DA), radial (DR) and mean diffusion (MD), as well as fractional anisotropy (FA), enables WM damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD) to be assessed in detail. Here, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were performed on scans of 40 healthy elders, 19 non-amnestic MCI (MCIna) subjects, 14 amnestic MCI (MCIa) subjects and 9 AD patients. Significantly higher DA was found in MCIna subjects compared to healthy elders in the right posterior cingulum/precuneus. Significantly higher DA was also found in MCIa subjects compared to healthy elders in the left prefrontal cortex, particularly in the forceps minor and uncinate fasciculus. In the MCIa versus MCIna comparison, significantly higher DA was found in large areas of the left prefrontal cortex. For AD patients, the overlap of FA and DR changes and the overlap of FA and MD changes were seen in temporal, parietal and frontal lobes, as well as the corpus callosum and fornix. Analysis of differences between the AD versus MCIna, and AD versus MCIa contrasts, highlighted regions that are increasingly compromised in more severe disease stages. Microstructural damage independent of gross tissue loss was widespread in later disease stages. Our findings suggest a scheme where WM damage begins in the core memory network of the temporal lobe, cingulum and prefrontal regions, and spreads beyond these regions in later stages. DA and MD indices were most sensitive at detecting early changes in MCIa.

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Des; Bartley, Mairead; Collins, D. Ronan; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2011-01-01

385

CASO CLÍNICO: BROTE DE ENFERMEDAD DEL MÚSCULO BLANCO O MIODEGENERACIÓN NUTRICIONAL EN TERNEROS Clinical Case: Outbreak of White Muscle Disease or Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy in Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of White Muscle Disease, WMD, or Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy is reported in a flock of 56 Red Friesian calves, where 18 calves of 4 to 5 months of age died in a pe- riod of 45 days. The signs observed were tachypnea, difficulty to walk, tachycardia, dilated jugular veins, temperature 38- 39°C. Signs of alterations of the nervous

Pedro A. Contreras; Enrique Paredes; Fernando Wittwer; Sergio Carrillo

2005-01-01

386

INHIBITION OF PROTEASE-RESISTANT PRION PROTEIN FORMATION IN A TRANSFORMED DEER CELL LINE INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of North American cervids, i.e., mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk (wapiti). To facilitate in vitro studies of CWD, we have developed a transformed deer cell line that is persistently infected wi...

387

Atlas-based whole brain white matter analysis using large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping: Application to normal elderly and Alzheimer's disease participants  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to establish single-participant white matter atlases based on diffusion tensor imaging. As one of the applications of the atlas, automated brain segmentation was performed and the accuracy was measured using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM). High-quality diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from a single-participant were B0-distortion-corrected and transformed to the ICBM-152 atlas or to Talairach coordinates. The deep white matter structures, which have been previously well documented and clearly identified by DTI, were manually segmented. The superficial white matter areas beneath the cortex were defined, based on a population-averaged white matter probability map. The white matter was parcellated into 176 regions based on the anatomical labeling in the ICBM-DTI-81 atlas. The automated parcellation was achieved by warping this parcellation map to normal controls and to Alzheimer’s disease patients with severe anatomical atrophy. The parcellation accuracy was measured by a kappa analysis between the automated and manual parcellation at 11 anatomical regions. The kappa values were 0.70 for both normal controls and patients while the inter-rater reproducibility was 0.81 (controls) and 0.82 (patients), suggesting “almost perfect” agreement. A power analysis suggested that the proposed method is suitable for detecting FA and size abnormalities of the white matter in clinical studies.

Oishi, Kenichi; Faria, Andreia; Jiang, Hangyi; Li, Xin; Akhter, Kazi; Zhang, Jiangyang; Hsu, John T.; Miller, Michael I.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Albert, Marilyn; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur W.; Pike, G. Bruce; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Evans, Alan; Mazziotta, John; Mori, Susumu

2010-01-01

388

Robust Automated Detection of Microstructural White Matter Degeneration in Alzheimer's Disease Using Machine Learning Classification of Multicenter DTI Data  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based assessment of white matter fiber tract integrity can support the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The use of DTI as a biomarker, however, depends on its applicability in a multicenter setting accounting for effects of different MRI scanners. We applied multivariate machine learning (ML) to a large multicenter sample from the recently created framework of the European DTI study on Dementia (EDSD). We hypothesized that ML approaches may amend effects of multicenter acquisition. We included a sample of 137 patients with clinically probable AD (MMSE 20.6±5.3) and 143 healthy elderly controls, scanned in nine different scanners. For diagnostic classification we used the DTI indices fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) and, for comparison, gray matter and white matter density maps from anatomical MRI. Data were classified using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) and a Naïve Bayes (NB) classifier. We used two cross-validation approaches, (i) test and training samples randomly drawn from the entire data set (pooled cross-validation) and (ii) data from each scanner as test set, and the data from the remaining scanners as training set (scanner-specific cross-validation). In the pooled cross-validation, SVM achieved an accuracy of 80% for FA and 83% for MD. Accuracies for NB were significantly lower, ranging between 68% and 75%. Removing variance components arising from scanners using principal component analysis did not significantly change the classification results for both classifiers. For the scanner-specific cross-validation, the classification accuracy was reduced for both SVM and NB. After mean correction, classification accuracy reached a level comparable to the results obtained from the pooled cross-validation. Our findings support the notion that machine learning classification allows robust classification of DTI data sets arising from multiple scanners, even if a new data set comes from a scanner that was not part of the training sample.

Dyrba, Martin; Ewers, Michael; Wegrzyn, Martin; Kilimann, Ingo; Plant, Claudia; Oswald, Annahita; Meindl, Thomas; Pievani, Michela; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Filippi, Massimo; Hampel, Harald; Kloppel, Stefan; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Kirste, Thomas; Teipel, Stefan J.

2013-01-01

389

CSF T-Tau/A?42 predicts white matter microstructure in healthy adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers T-Tau and A?(42) are linked with Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet little is known about the relationship between CSF biomarkers and structural brain alteration in healthy adults. In this study we examined the extent to which AD biomarkers measured in CSF predict brain microstructure indexed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and volume indexed by T1-weighted imaging. Forty-three middle-aged adults with parental family history of AD received baseline lumbar puncture and MRI approximately 3.5 years later. Voxel-wise image analysis methods were used to test whether baseline CSF A?(42), total tau (T-Tau), phosphorylated tau (P-Tau) and neurofilament light protein predicted brain microstructure as indexed by DTI and gray matter volume indexed by T1-weighted imaging. T-Tau and T-Tau/A?(42) were widely correlated with indices of brain microstructure (mean, axial, and radial diffusivity), notably in white matter regions adjacent to gray matter structures affected in the earliest stages of AD. None of the CSF biomarkers were related to gray matter volume. Elevated P-Tau and P-Tau/A?(42) levels were associated with lower recognition performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Overall, the results suggest that CSF biomarkers are related to brain microstructure in healthy adults with elevated risk of developing AD. Furthermore, the results clearly suggest that early pathological changes in AD can be detected with DTI and occur not only in cortex, but also in white matter. PMID:22701578

Bendlin, Barbara B; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Johnson, Sterling C; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Willette, Auriel A; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Sodhi, Aparna; Ries, Michele L; Birdsill, Alex C; Alexander, Andrew L; Rowley, Howard A; Puglielli, Luigi; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A

2012-06-06

390

Elevated HDL Cholesterol Is a Risk Factor for Ischemic Heart Disease in White Women When Caused by a Common Mutation in the Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The level of HDL cholesterol is inversely related to the risk of ischemic heart disease. Methods and Results—In 9168 women and men from a general population and 946 women and men with ischemic heart disease (all white), we tested the hypothesis that the Ile405Val mutation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene (CETP) affects HDL cholesterol levels and the risk

Birgit Agerholm-Larsen; Børge G. Nordestgaard; Rolf Steffensen; Gorm Jensen; Anne Tybjærg-Hansen

2010-01-01

391

Differences Between African American and White Research Volunteers in Their Attitudes, Beliefs and Knowledge Regarding Genetic Testing for Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic susceptibility testing for common diseases is expanding, but little is known about race group differences in test\\u000a perceptions. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between African Americans and Whites in knowledge, attitudes,\\u000a and motivations regarding genetic susceptibility testing for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Before enrolling in an AD genetic testing\\u000a research trial, 313 first-degree relatives of AD

Ibidapo Akinleye; J. Scott Roberts; Charmaine D. M. Royal; Erin Linnenbringer; Thomas O. Obisesan; Grace-Ann Fasaye; Robert C. Green

392

Floods from tailings dam failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released,

M. Rico; G. Benito; A. Díez-Herrero

2008-01-01

393

Knowledge Long Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach to visualize the benefits of applying contemporary technology in explicit knowledge management processes. The “Knowledge Long Tail” is a novel way of categorizing individual and organizational knowledge, and of modeling knowledge in organizations in terms of its type and frequency of use. The concept is inspired by the market long tail phenomenon raised by Chris

I. Lin; R. H. A. Seidel; D. Howell; D. Walker

2010-01-01

394

The human tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human tail is a congenital anomaly with a protruding lesion from the lumbosacrococcygeal region. A newborn with a tail-like structure over the coccygeal area observed since birth is presented. Lipoma accompanied by tethered spinal cord were found. In reviewing the literature from 1960 to 1997, 59 cases were described. Higher incidences of spinal dysraphism (49.15%) and tethered spinal cord

Frank L Lu; Pen-Jung Wang; Ru-Jeng Teng; Kuo-Inn Tsou Yau

1998-01-01

395

Reported tailings dam failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed search and re-evaluation of the known historical cases of tailings dam failure was carried out. A corpus of 147 cases of worldwide tailings dam disasters, from which 26 located in Europe, was compiled in a database. This contains six sections, including dam location, its physical and constructive characteristics, actual and putative failure cause, sludge hydrodynamics, socio-economical consequences and

M. Rico; G. Benito; A. R. Salgueiro; A. D ´ õez-Herrero; H. G. Pereira

2008-01-01

396

Whole brain-based analysis of regional white matter tract alterations in rare motor neuron diseases by diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

Different motor neuron disorders (MNDs) are mainly defined by the clinical presentation based on the predominance of upper or lower motor neuron impairment and the course of the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mostly serves as a tool to exclude other pathologies, but novel approaches such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have begun to add information on the underlying pathophysiological processes of these disorders in vivo. The present study was designed to investigate three different rare MNDs, i.e., primary lateral sclerosis (PLS, N = 25), hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP, N = 24), and X-linked spinobulbar muscular atrophy (X-SBMA, N = 20), by use of whole-brain-based DTI analysis in comparison with matched controls. This analysis of white matter (WM) impairment revealed widespread and characteristic patterns of alterations within the motor system with a predominant deterioration of the corticospinal tract (CST) in HSP and PLS patients according to the clinical presentation and also in patients with X-SBMA to a lesser degree, but also WM changes in projections to the limbic system and within distinct areas of the corpus callosum (CC), the latter both for HSP and PLS. In summary, DTI was able to define a characteristic WM pathoanatomy in motor and extra-motor brain areas, such as the CC and the limbic projectional system, for different MNDs via whole brain-based FA assessment and quantitative fiber tracking. Future advanced MRI-based investigations might help to provide a fingerprint-identification of MNDs. PMID:20336652

Unrath, Alexander; Müller, Hans-Peter; Riecker, Axel; Ludolph, Albert C; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Kassubek, Jan

2010-11-01

397

White matter abnormalities associated with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a critical review of MRI studies.  

PubMed

In this article, the authors aim to present a critical review of recent MRI studies addressing white matter (WM) abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), by searching PubMed and reviewing MRI studies evaluating subjects with AD or MCI using WM volumetric methods, diffusion tensor imaging and assessment of WM hyperintensities. Studies have found that, compared with healthy controls, AD and MCI samples display WM volumetric reductions and diffusion tensor imaging findings suggestive of reduced WM integrity. These changes affect complex networks relevant to episodic memory and other cognitive processes, including fiber connections that directly link medial temporal structures and the corpus callosum. Abnormalities in cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical WM interconnections are associated with an increased risk of progression from MCI to dementia. It can be concluded that WM abnormalities are detectable in early stages of AD and MCI. Degeneration of WM networks causes disconnection among neural cells and the degree of such changes is related to cognitive decline. PMID:23621306

Radanovic, Marcia; Pereira, Fabrício Ramos Silvestre; Stella, Florindo; Aprahamian, Ivan; Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Busatto, Geraldo F

2013-05-01

398

Human tails and pseudotails.  

PubMed

A case of a tail in a 2-week-old infant is reported, and findings from a review of 33 previously reported cases of true tails and pseudotails are summarized. The true, or persistent, vestigial tail of humans arises from the most distal remnant of the embryonic tail. It contains adipose and connective tissue, central bundles of striated muscle, blood vessels, and nerves and is covered by skin. Bone, cartilage, notochord, and spinal cord are lacking. The true tail arises by retention of structures found normally in fetal development. It may be as long as 13 cm, can move and contract, and occurs twice as often in males as in females. A true tail is easily removed surgically, without residual effects. It is rarely familial. Pseudotails are varied lesions having in common a lumbosacral protrusion and a superficial resemblance to persistent vestigial tails. The most frequent cause of a pseudotail in a series of ten cases obtained from the literature was an anomalous prolongation of the coccygeal vertebrae. Additional lesions included two lipomas, and one each of teratoma, chondromegaly , glioma, and a thin, elongated parasitic fetus. PMID:6373560

Dao, A H; Netsky, M G

1984-05-01

399

Anginal Symptoms, Coronary Artery Disease, and Adverse Outcomes in Black and White Women: The NHLBI-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Black women are less likely to be evaluated and treated for anginal symptoms, despite a higher premature cardiac mortality rate compared to white women. Our objective was to compare angina symptoms in black versus white women regarding (1) angina symptoms characterization; (2) relationship with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD); and (3) relationship with subsequent mortality. Methods: A cohort of 466 women (69 black and 397 white) undergoing coronary angiography for suspected ischemia and without prior history of CAD completed symptom checklists. Four symptom clusters (CHEST, UPPER, STOMACH, and TYPICAL TRIGGERS) were derived by factor analysis. All angiograms were analyzed by core lab. Mortality data over 10 years were obtained from National Death Index. Results: (1) Black women had lower mean CHEST cluster scores (0.60±0.30?vs. 0.73±30, p=0.002), but higher STOMACH scores (0.41±0.25?vs. 0.30±0.25, p=0.011) than white women. (2) Prevalence and severity of CAD did not differ in black and white women and was not predicted by symptom cluster scores. (3) All-cause mortality rates were 24.9% in blacks versus 14.5% in whites, p=0.007; and cardiovascular mortality 22.5% vs.8.8%, p=0.001. Symptom clusters were not predictive of adverse events in white women. However, black women with a low TYPICAL score had significantly higher mortality compared to those with a high TYPICAL score (43% vs. 10%, p=0.006). Conclusions: Among women undergoing coronary angiography, black women report fewer chest-related and more stomach-related symptoms, regardless of presence or severity of CAD, and these racial symptom presentation differences are linked with the more adverse prognosis observed in the black women. Atypical symptom presentation may be a barrier to appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment and contribute to poorer outcomes for black women. PMID:23992103

Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Johnson, B Delia; Rutledge, Thomas; Bittner, Vera; Whittaker, Kerry S; Krantz, David S; Cornell, Carol E; Eteiba, Wafia; Handberg, Eileen; Vido, Diane; Bairey Merz, C Noel

2013-08-30

400

Juxtaposition between host population structures: implications for disease transmission in a sympatric cervid community  

PubMed Central

Sympatric populations of phylogenetically related species are often vulnerable to similar communicable diseases. Although some host populations may exhibit spatial structure, other hosts within the community may have unstructured populations. Thus, individuals from unstructured host populations may act as interspecific vectors among discrete subpopulations of sympatric alternate hosts. We used a cervid-bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) system to investigate the landscape-scale potential for bovine tuberculosis transmission within a nonmigratory white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and elk (Cervus canadensis) community. Using landscape population genetics, we tested for genetic and spatial structure in white-tailed deer. We then compared these findings with the sympatric elk population that is structured and which has structure that correlates spatially and genetically to physiognomic landscape features. Despite genetic structure that indicates the white-tailed deer population forms three sympatric clusters, the absence of spatial structure suggested that intraspecific pathogen transmission is not likely to be limited by physiognomic landscape features. The potential for intraspecific transmission among subpopulations of elk is low due to spatial population structure. Given that white-tailed deer are abundant, widely distributed, and exhibit a distinct lack of spatial population structure, white-tailed deer likely pose a greater threat as bovine tuberculosis vectors among elk subpopulations than elk.

Vander Wal, Eric; Edye, Iain; Paquet, Paul C; Coltman, David W; Bayne, Erin; Brook, Ryan K; Andres, Jose A

2013-01-01

401

The Tail of BPM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

402

Incursion of epizootic hemorrhagic disease into the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia in 1999.  

PubMed Central

In September 1999, unusually high mortality rates in white-tailed deer and California bighorn sheep occurred in the southern Okanagan Valley. Necropsy and histopathologic findings were compatible with epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD); the presence of virus was not demonstrated. Subsequent serologic and polymerase chain reaction assays on sentinel cattle suggested an EHD virus incursion. Images Figure 1.

Pasick, J; Handel, K; Zhou, E M; Clavijo, A; Coates, J; Robinson, Y; Lincoln, B

2001-01-01

403

Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cervids including white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces). A leucine variant at position 132 (132L) in prion protein of Rocky Mountain elk confers a long incubation time with CWD, but not complete resistance. However, variants in

Stephen N White; Terry R Spraker; James O Reynolds; Katherine I O'Rourke

2010-01-01

404

Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

405

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY IN THREE CERVID SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of captive and free ranging mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk in some areas of North America. Although the disorder in all three species is characterized by accumulation of the abnormal prion protein in the brain and lymph nod...

406

Decreased Asialotransferrin in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Childhood-Onset Ataxia and Central Nervous System Hypomyelination\\/ Vanishing White Matter Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A biomarker for the diagnosis of child- hood-onset ataxia and central nervous system hypomy- elination (CACH)\\/vanishing white matter disease (VWM) would have clinical utility and pathophysio- logic significance. Methods: We used 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis\\/ mass spectrometry to compare the cerebrospinal fluid proteome of patients with mutation-confirmed CACH\\/ VWM with that of unaffected controls. We characterized selected spots by in-gel

Adeline Vanderver; Raphael Schiffmann; Margaret Timmons; Katherine A. Kellersberger; Dan Fabris; Eric P. Hoffman; Jelena Maletkovic; Yetrib Hathout

2005-01-01

407

Diffusion tensor imaging in presymptomatic and early Huntington's disease: Selective white matter pathology and its relationship to clinical measures.  

PubMed

Atrophy of cortical and subcortical gray matter is apparent in Huntington's disease (HD) before symptoms manifest. We hypothesized that the white matter (WM) connecting cortical and subcortical regions must also be affected early and that select clinical symptoms were related to systems degeneration. We used diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) to examine the regional nature of WM abnormalities in early HD, including the preclinical period, and to determine whether regional changes correlated with clinical features. We studied individuals in early stages (HD), presymptomatic individuals known to carry the genetic mutation that causes HD (Pre-HD), and matched healthy controls. DTI indices of tissue integrity were obtained from several regions of interest, including the corpus callosum (CC), internal capsule (IC), and basal ganglia, were compared across groups by t tests, and were correlated to cognitive and clinical measures. WM alterations were found throughout the CC, in the anterior and posterior limbs of the IC, and in frontal subcortical WM in HD subjects, supporting the selective involvement of the pyramidal tracts in HD; a similar distribution of changes was seen in Pre-HD subjects, supporting presymptomatic alterations. There was a significant relationship between select DTI measures and cognitive performance. Alterations in diffusion indices were also seen in the striatum that were independent of atrophy. Our findings support that WM alterations occur very early in HD. The distribution of the changes suggests that these changes contribute to the disruption of pyramidal and extrapyramidal circuits and also support a role of compromised cortical circuitry in early cognitive and subtle motor impairment during the preclinical stages of HD. PMID:16755582

Rosas, H Diana; Tuch, David S; Hevelone, Nathanael D; Zaleta, Alexandra K; Vangel, Mark; Hersch, Steven M; Salat, David H

2006-09-01

408

Subjective Cognitive Complaints Relate to White Matter Hyperintensities and Future Cognitive Decline in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Elderly patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) often report cognitive difficulties including reduced cognitive processing speed and attention. On cross-sectional examination, such reports relate more closely to mood than to objective measures of cognitive performance, thus questioning the validity of subjective cognitive complaints as a marker of neurodegenerative processes. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between self-reported cognitive difficulties, depression, and performance on objective tests of global cognition in patients with CVD. Participants and Methods Forty-seven CVD patients (ages 55 to 85 years) completed a measure of perceived cognitive dysfunction (Cognitive Difficulties Scale), a medical history questionnaire, the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at baseline and 12 months later. Baseline brain imaging was available on a small sub-sample (n = 17). Results Hierarchical linear regression revealed that increased report of cognitive difficulties at baseline was significantly associated with poorer DRS performance at follow-up (F(3, 43) = 4.45, p = .008, CDS partial r = ?.30, p = .048), independent of age, education, baseline DRS and BDI scores. Greater perceived cognitive dysfunction at baseline also related to higher level of white matter lesions (r = .53, df = 15, p = .028). Conclusions Self-reported cognitive difficulties may reflect early changes in cognitive aging that are difficult to detect using global cognitive screening measures at a single time point. Yet, these perceived difficulties relate to objectively measured cognitive decline over time. Thus, they may provide important clinical information about early neurodegenerative processes that should be carefully monitored.

Haley, Andreana P.; Hoth, Karin F.; Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Tate, David F.; Ono, Makoto; Jerskey, Beth A.; Poppas, Athena; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Cohen, Ronald A.

2009-01-01

409

Association between glycemic index and glycemic load and the risk of incident coronary heart disease among whites and African Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have examined the association between high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) diets and the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, most of these studies were conducted primarily on white populations. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether high GI and GL diets are associated with increased risk for developing CHD in whites

Dale Sharon Hardy

2008-01-01

410

Uranium mill tailings stabilization  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

1980-02-01

411

Update on genetic disorders affecting white matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification of diseases affecting white matter has changed dramatically with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. Classical leukodystrophies, such as metachromatic leukodystrophy and Krabbe’s disease, account for only a small number of inherited diseases that affect white matter. Magnetic resonance imaging has clarified genetic disorders that result in white matter changes or leukoencephalopathies. The term leukoencephalopathy is used to

Edward M Kaye

2001-01-01

412

Happy Tailings to You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students prepare a sample of "mine tailings", then separate out desirable materials using whatever method they choose, and quantify the results. They will discover that sometimes it's hard to separate desirable minerals from undesirable ones, especially if they look alike or the crystals are of similar sizes. Students learn that old, worked-out mines contain some desirable minerals (in small quantities) mixed in with unwanted minerals, but that doesn't stop some people from trying to squeeze out the last drop. Once considered tailings (or trash), the mix may now be profitable for mining. Desirable minerals can be separated physically and chemically.

413

Human tail: nature's aberration.  

PubMed

Human tail refers to a congenital cutaneous appendix protruding from the lumbosacral region. It is usually associated with an underlying spina bifida occulta, a form of spinal dysraphism. A contiguous fibrolipoma can sometimes be seen extending from the subcutaneous portion of the tail into the inferior spinal cord, resulting in tethered cord syndrome. Management of such lesions includes complete neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Early diagnosis and microsurgical intervention can prevent development or progression of severe neurologic defects in later life. PMID:22241711

Kumar, Dipti; Kapoor, Akshay

2012-01-12

414

Evaluation of Copper Concentration in Subclinical Cases of White Muscle Disease and Its Relationship with Cardiac Troponin I  

PubMed Central

The present study aims to evaluate the serum level of copper (Cu) in lambs suffering from subclinical forms of white muscle disease (WMD) and its relationship with cardiac troponin I (cTn-I) as a novel biomarker of cardiovascular disorders. Ten milliliters of jugular blood were taken from 200 lambs less than one year old to measure serum concentrations of Cu, selenium (Se), and cTn-I. The subjects were divided into 2 groups, namely, the deficient group which included 36 lambs, and the control group which included 164 lambs according to the reference serum Se concentration (50 ng/mL). Serum Se levels in the deficient group were lower than 50 ng/mL. By contrast, the control group showed Se levels higher than 50 ng/mL. Differences among the serum Cu and cTn-I levels were determined in both groups. The mean ±SD and median of serum Cu and cTn-I levels in the deficient group were lower and higher than those in the control group, respectively. A significant positive correlation was observed between serum Cu and Se levels, and also serum Cu and Se levels showed a negative correlation with serum cTn-I concentrations. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that serum Cu levels were correlated positively with serum Se levels (p<0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that the area under curve (AUC) of Cu was significantly higher than that of cTn-I based on the reference diagonal line. It is important to keep in mind that the value of AUC for the ROC curve is between 0.5 and 1.00, in which the lowest accuracy is related to the reference diagonal line with AUC of 0.5. A cut-off was determined to indicate which Cu level can discriminate between affected and healthy lambs. The cut-off level, sensitivity, and specificity of Cu in this study were 144.5 ng/mL, 74%, and 61%, respectively.

Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

2013-01-01

415

Body mass index, waist/hip ratio, and coronary heart disease incidence in African Americans and whites. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Investigators.  

PubMed

To study the relation of the amount and distribution of body fat with incident coronary heart disease in two ethnic groups, the authors analyzed prospective data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Among 14,040 participants aged 45-64 years and free of coronary disease at baseline in 1987-1989, we identified 398 events through 1994, an average of 6.2 years of follow-up. Among African-American women, the multivariable-adjusted relative risks of coronary heart disease across quartiles of body mass index were 1.0, 1.91. 1.54, and 2.15 (p for trend=0.27), and those for waist/hip ratio were 1.0, 2.07, 2.33, and 4.22 (p for trend=0.02). Among African-American men, these respective relative risks were 1.0, 1.03, 0.83, and 1.20 (p for trend=0.76) for body mass index and 1.0, 1.08, 1.87, and 1.68 (p for trend=0.06) for waist/hip ratio. Relative risks for whites were generally similar to those for African Americans. Relative risks were stronger for never smokers than for the overall cohort. Unlike some previous studies, our results suggest that Africa Americans, like whites, are not spared from the coronary heart disease risks accompanying obesity. PMID:9867265

Folsom, A R; Stevens, J; Schreiner, P J; McGovern, P G

1998-12-15

416

Disparities in premature coronary heart disease mortality by region and urbanicity among black and white adults ages 35-64, 1985-1995.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Regional and urban-rural disparities in premature coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality were evident in the US as early as 1950. Recent favorable trends at the national level may obscure less favorable outcomes for certain regions and localities. The authors examined trends in premature CHD mortality for 1985-1995 for black and white adults ages 35-64 years for four categories of urbanicity in two regions of the US (South and non-South). METHODS: All counties in the US (excluding Alaskan counties) were grouped by urbanicity and region. Annual age-adjusted CHD mortality rates were calculated for adults ages 35-64 by racial category (African American or white) and gender for each geographic area for the years 1985- 1995. Loglinear regression models were used to estimate average annual percent declines in mortality for each of 28 geo-demographic groups. Data were also collected on selected socioeconomic resources by urbanicity for the non-South (excluding Alaska) and South. RESULTS: For both white and black adults ages 35-64, the highest rates of premature CHD mortality and slowest mortality declines were observed in the rural South. For white men and women, marked disparities in premature CHD mortality across categories of urbanicity were noted in the South but not outside the South. Unexpectedly high rates of premature CHD mortality were observed for African Americans in major metropolitan areas outside the South despite favorable levels of socioeconomic resources. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in premature CHD mortality by region and urbanicity appear to have widened between 1985 and 1995. Residents of the rural South had the highest rates of premature CHD mortality, and rural communities in the South face significant barriers to effective heart disease prevention and control.

Barnett, E; Halverson, J

2000-01-01

417

"Tails" of Linguistic Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the relatively short history of computerized corpora of spoken language, it is not surprising that few diachronic studies have been done on the grammatical features recently highlighted by the analysis of such corpora. This article, however, does take a diachronic perspective on one such feature: the syntactic feature of "tails" (Dik 1978).…

Timmis, Ivor

2010-01-01

418

Dolphin Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-14

419

Crocodile Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The crocodile is a reptile that has a long and narrow skeleton. The backbone (a gliding joint) of this animal extends into a powerful tail, allowing it to swim through water. The ribs of the crocodile are small and serve to protect its inner organs.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Science)

2007-07-14

420

Internal Lifschitz tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an Anderson model in v dimensions with a potential distribution supported in ( a, b)?( c, d), where c- b>4v. We prove the existence of Lifschitz tails at the edges of the internal gap at b+2v and c- 2v. This reproves results of Mezincescu.

Simon, Barry

1987-03-01

421

White spots? A loaded question for shrimp farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether clinical white spots in shrimp appear only because of white spot disease (WSD) is a question needed to be asked in the light of new causes for development of white spots. The answer is 'no'. In fact, white spots could be due to WSD caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or bacterial disease or high water pH. Most

A. K. Sahoo; Prakash Patil; K. M. Shankar

422

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

423

Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease  

SciTech Connect

The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

1989-02-01

424

Breast Cancer Risk Perception and Lifestyle Behaviors Among White and Black Women With a Family History of the Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although researchers have investigated the relationships between perceived risk and behavioral risk factors for breast cancer, few qualitative studies have addressed the meaning of risk and its impact on decision making regarding lifestyle behaviors. This qualitative study explored factors involved in the formulation of perceived breast cancer risk and associations between risk perception and lifestyle behaviors in white and black

Merle Mishel; Celette Sugg Skinner; Lisa A. DeRoo; Dale P. Sandler

2009-01-01

425

Association of Maternal Chronic Disease and Negative Birth Outcomes in a Non-Hispanic Black-White Mississippi Birth Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the impact of selected maternal chronic medical conditions, race, and age on preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and infant mortality among Missis- sippi mothers from 1999 to 2003. Design: A retrospective cohort analysis of linked birth and death certificates. Sample: The 1999-2003 Mississippi birth cohort comprising 202,931 singleton infants born to African American and White

Juanita Graham; Lei Zhang; Renee Schwalberg

2007-01-01

426

Polymorphisms at the PRNP gene influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in two species of deer (Odocoileus Spp.) in western Canada.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is increasingly prevalent in multiple wild mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) herds in North America. CWD was first found in Canadian wild mule deer in Saskatchewan in 2000 and has since spread into the neighboring province of Alberta. The infectious agent for CWD is a misfolded prion protein encoded by the PRNP gene. Previous studies revealed association between PRNP genotype and susceptibility to CWD in both mule and white-tailed deer in other regions. To investigate this link in Canadian populations, PRNP gene sequence was examined in 166 CWD- and 83 CWD+ mule deer, and 197 CWD- and 30 CWD+ white-tailed deer from Saskatchewan and Alberta. Two variable sites were found in mule deer, and 15 in white-tailed deer. In both species PRNP genotype was associated with CWD status. Mule deer possessing at least one copy of the common allele at codon 20 were less likely to test positive for CWD than expected, given the frequency of this allele in the population. A variant at codon 96 in white-tailed deer was also linked with reduced incidence of CWD. A greater knowledge of the genetic sources of heterogeneity in CWD susceptibility may improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the CWD epidemic in western Canada. PMID:19697236

Wilson, Gregory A; Nakada, Stephanie M; Bollinger, Trent K; Pybus, Margo J; Merrill, Evelyn H; Coltman, David W

2009-01-01

427

Critical Parameters for Tailings Embankments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geotechnical data on copper, uranium, and phosphate tailings from 41 mines were collected and analyzed to empirically establish the variability in strength properties for tailings embankments. These data were analyzed both from geotechnical and statistica...

G. B. Baecher J. S. Lin J. A. Consla W. A. Marr

1983-01-01

428

Coral disease in the Indian Ocean: taxonomic susceptibility, spatial distribution and the role of host density on the prevalence of white syndrome.  

PubMed

Coral diseases, such as white diseases and white syndrome (WS), have caused widespread damage to coral reefs throughout the Caribbean and are increasing in prevalence on Pacific Ocean reefs. The current study confirms that WS is also present on coral reefs in the Indian Ocean and tests whether patterns in taxonomic susceptibility and spatial variability conform to patterns of WS reported in the Pacific Ocean. Underwater surveys at 19 sites around Christmas and Cocos Islands revealed that WS primarily affects Acropora plate corals (A. clathrata, A. cytherea and A. hyacinthus), and prevalence of WS varied significantly across all 3 spatial scales investigated (island, exposure and depth). Approximately 13.0% (range = 0 to 43% per site) of plate corals at Christmas Island sites exhibited WS compared to <1% at the Cocos Islands. At Christmas Island, WS prevalence was greater in shallow (31.5%) than in deeper water (6.7%) and greatest on the northern (leeward) side of the island (31.5%) compared to the more exposed coastlines (0 to 1.5%). Importantly, the spatial distribution of WS was positively correlated with host density, but not with hard coral cover, suggesting a role of host density in WS outbreaks. Overall the present study has established that WS is impacting remote, near-pristine reefs in the Indian Ocean. However, the highly variable spatial distribution of WS illustrates that patterns in disease prevalence, and the subsequent impact on coral reefs, can be location- or region-specific. PMID:20391907

Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Frisch, Ashley J

2010-02-24

429

Heavy tails and currency crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

In affine models of foreign exchange rate returns, the nature of cross sectional interdependence in crisis periods hinges on the tail properties of the fundamentals' distribution. If the fundamentals exhibit thin tails like the normal distribution, the dependence vanishes asymptotically; while the dependence remains in the case of heavy tailed fundamentals as in case of the Student-t distribution. The linearity

P. Hartmann; S. Straetmans; C. G. de Vries

2010-01-01

430

No evidence that polymorphisms of the vanishing white matter disease genes are risk factors in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Febrile infections are known to cause exacerbations in the white matter disorders 'vanishing white matter' (VWM) and multiple sclerosis (MS). We hypothesized that polymorphisms in EIF2B1-5, the genes involved in VWM, might be risk factors for the development of MS or temperature sensitivity in patients with MS. We found no difference in the frequencies of 15 EIF2B1-5 variants between patients with MS and healthy controls, and none of the variants showed significant deviation of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Furthermore, sequencing data of EIF2B1-5 in 20 patients with MS and measurement of the activity of eIF2B complex in patient-derived lymphoblasts did not support our hypothesis. PMID:18632786

Pronk, Jc; Scheper, Gc; van Andel, Rj; van Berkel, Cgm; Polman, Ch; Uitdehaag, Bmj; van der Knaap, Ms

2008-07-16

431

The impact of weight change on cardiovascular disease risk factors in young black and white adults: the CARDIA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relation between weight change and change in blood pressure, lipids and insulin levels, and determine if this relation differs by race or initial level of obesity.DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study.SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community-based sample of 3325 black and white men and women aged 18–30 y from four centers followed for 10 y. Women pregnant at