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1

Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed wasting disease in white-tailed deer. Ecosphere 4(1):10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES12-00141.1 Abstract- year-old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin, USA. We evaluated how

2

Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management  

E-print Network

relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin's area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management Zone. PLoS ONE 8Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White- tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease

3

White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437

Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

2012-09-01

4

Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

Joly, D.O.; Ribic, C.A.; Langenberg, J.A.; Beheler, K.; Batha, C.A.; Dhuey, B.J.; Rolley, R.E.; Bartelt, G.; VanDeelen, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

2003-01-01

5

SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN WISCONSIN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus

Mladenoff, David

6

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white- tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.

Robert F. Massung; Joshua W. Courtney; Shannon L. Hiratzka; Virginia E. Pitzer; Gary Smith; Richard L. Dryden

7

A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with “Bacterial White Tail Disease” of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

8

Disease risk surface for Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Coxiella burnetii is considered a re-emerging zoonosis in many countries. The bacterium is enzootic in livestock and wildlife in the United States, and environmental contamination is widespread. Despite the potential for exposure, the estimated prevalence of Q fever in humans and animals is not well elucidated, and reported human infections in the United States are relatively rare. Zoonotic transmission of the bacterium is usually associated with abortions in domestic ruminants, but other modes of transmission, such as contact with infected blood and/or milk during field dressing of infected wildlife, have not been thoroughly investigated. Studies of zoonotic pathogen transmission between animal reservoir hosts and humans are usually established in response to documented emergence or re-emergence of a zoonosis in a particular locale, and, as such, the prevalence of infection in wildlife is largely unknown for many zoonotic pathogens, including C. burnetii. The objective of this study was to create a disease risk surface for C. burnetii seroprevalence in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State. Blood samples were collected from hunter-harvested deer from across New York State in 2009 and 2010. The samples were processed and tested for the presence of anti-C. burnetii antibodies via indirect microimmunofluorescence assays using phase II C. burnetii strain RSA439. Overall, 14.50% of the tested white-tailed deer were C. burnetii phase II seropositive. The dual Kernel density estimation method was used to create a smoothed disease risk surface, which revealed variation in seroprevalence ranging from 0% to 32.0%. Areas of higher seroprevalence were detected in four discrete areas of Central New York and in one additional area in the southwest corner of the northern part of the state. This suggests certain locales where humans may be at increased risk for exposure to the bacterium secondary to contact with potentially infected deer. PMID:23176671

Kirchgessner, M S; Dubovi, E J; Whipps, C M

2013-11-01

9

Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

2008-01-01

10

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a potential sentinel for human Lyme disease in Indiana.  

PubMed

We assessed the potential of white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) to be a sentinel for human cases of Lyme disease (LD) in Indiana using location data from a 3-year survey of approximately 3400 hunted deer with associated tick Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) data. Data on human LD cases at the county level were obtained from the Indiana Department of Health. All data were assigned to county centroids to match the resolution of the LD data before creating optimized trend surfaces for LD incidence, hunted deer count, Ixodes scapularis and Bb prevalence. To determine whether LD was spatially associated with the areas of high densities of deer, deer with Ixodes scapularis and deer with ticks infected with Bb, we used spatial analysis with distance indices (SADIE). The SADIE analysis found significant spatial association between LD and the distribution of three organismal predictor variables, that is, WTD, Ixodes ticks and Bb. Lyme disease incident rate varied between 0.08 cases per 10,000 habitants (Johnson county) and 5.9 cases per 10,000 habitants (Warren county). In conclusion, WTD can be used as an accurate and cost-effective sentinel for human LD. This method will permit public health workers to identify potentially endemic areas independently of human case reports. PMID:22776734

Raizman, E A; Holland, J D; Shukle, J T

2013-05-01

11

White tail disease of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Thailand.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii has recently been the cause of high mortalities in Thai prawn farms. The causative agents of this disease in other countries are M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV), which are usually detected using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Using RT-PCR, most Thai post-larvae (PL) samples showing gross signs of WTD tested positive for MrNV but only a few were positive for XSV. In contrast, all tested brooder samples were positive for both MrNV and XSV. The possibility that brooders infected with MrNV and XSV could transmit the viruses to larvae and PL should be examined. Cloning, sequencing and comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of RT-PCR amplicons of WTD samples from Thailand with those of MrNV and XSV previously reported from the French West Indies and China revealed that the MrNV were closely related but not identical while those from XSV were identical. This is the first report of MrNV and XSV from Thailand. PMID:16724570

Yoganandhan, Kalidoss; Leartvibhas, Manee; Sriwongpuk, Supamas; Limsuwan, Chalor

2006-04-01

12

Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management  

PubMed Central

Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:24658535

Jennelle, Christopher S.; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E.; Samuel, Michael D.

2014-01-01

13

Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To compare clinicopathological findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, three groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with WTD, mule deer or elk isolates of CWD. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months pos...

14

Presence and Seeding Activity of Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), or prion disease, occurring in cervids such as white tailed-deer (WTD), mule deer or elk in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report for the first time a

Martin L. Daus; Johanna Breyer; Katja Wagenfuehr; Wiebke M. Wemheuer; Achim Thomzig; Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer; Michael Beekes

2011-01-01

15

Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (CWD) was evaluated. Disease was tracked in a CWD-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of

Margaret A. Wild; Terry R. Spraker; Christina J. Sigurdson; Katherine I. O'Rourke; Michael W. Miller

16

Detection and phylogenetic profiling of nodavirus associated with white tail disease in Malaysian Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious viral disease in the hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in many parts of the world. A new disease similar to WTD was observed in larvae and post larvae of M. rosenbergii cultured in Malaysia. In the present study, RT-PCR assay was used to detect the causative agents of WTD, M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) using specific primers for MrNV RNA2 and XSV. The results showed the presence of MrNV in the samples with or without signs of WTD. However, XSV was only detected in some of the MrNV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA2 of our Malaysian isolates were significantly different from the other isolates. Histopathological studies revealed myofiber degeneration of the tail muscles and liquefactive myopathy in the infected prawns. This was the first report on the occurrence of MrNV in the Malaysian freshwater prawn. PMID:22223294

Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Moeini, Hassan; Tan, Wen Siang; Yusoff, Khatijah; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Chu, Kua Beng; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

17

Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management Zone  

PubMed Central

Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin’s area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular. PMID:23437171

Magle, Seth B.; Samuel, Michael D.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Robinson, Stacie J.; Mathews, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

18

Susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to experimental infection with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7.  

PubMed

During the fall of 2006, in Israel, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 7 caused an intense and widespread epizootic in domestic cattle that resulted in significant economic losses for the dairy industry. The susceptibility of potential North American vector and ruminant hosts to infection with EHDV-7 is not known but is essential to understanding the potential for establishment of this exotic orbivirus in North America if it were introduced. Our primary objective was to determine whether white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) are susceptible to infection with EHDV-7. Six, 8-mo-old WTD were experimentally infected with EHDV-7, and all became infected and exhibited varying degrees of clinical disease. Clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, and postmortem findings were consistent with previous reports of orbiviral hemorrhagic disease (HD) in this species. Four of six animals died or were euthanized because of the severity of disease, one on postinoculation day (PID) 5 and the remaining WTD on PID 7. All deer had detectable viremia on PID 3, which peaked on PID 5 or 6 and persisted for as long as PID 46 in one animal. Deer surviving the acute phase of the disease seroconverted by PID 10. Based on the 67% mortality rate we observed, this strain of EHDV-7 is virulent in WTD, reaffirming their role as a sentinel species for the detection of endemic and nonendemic EHDV. Further, the observed disease was indistinguishable from previous reports of disease caused by North American EHDV and bluetongue virus serotypes, highlighting the importance of serotype-specific diagnostics during suspected HD outbreaks. PMID:22740533

Ruder, Mark G; Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Mead, Daniel G; McGraw, Sabrina M; Carter, Deborah L; Kubiski, Steven V; Batten, Carrie A; Klement, Eyal; Howerth, Elizabeth W

2012-07-01

19

Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Rigg, Tara D; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C; Bowen, Richard; Zabel, Mark D; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2013-01-01

20

Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Rigg, Tara D.; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C.; Bowen, Richard

2013-01-01

21

Quantitative relationship of two viruses (MrNV and XSV) in white-tail disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) were purified from diseased freshwater prawns M. rosenbergii and used to infect healthy post-larvae (PL) by an immersion method. Three groups of prawns were challenged with various combined doses of MrNV and XSV. Signs of white-tail disease (WTD) were observed in Groups 1 and 2, which had been challenged with combinations containing relatively high proportions of MrNV and low proportions of XSV. By contrast there was little sign of WTD in Group 3, which had been challenged with a higher proportion of XSV than MrNV. A 2-step Taqman real-time RT-PCR was developed and applied to quantify viral copy numbers in each challenged PL. Results showed that genomic copies of both viruses were much higher in Groups 1 and 2 than they were in Group 3, indicating that MrNV plays a key role in WTD of M. rosenbergii. The linear correlation between MrNV and XSV genome copies in infected prawns demonstrated that XSV is a satellite virus, dependent on MrNV, but its role in pathogenicity of WTD remains unclear. PMID:16921996

Zhang, Huajun; Wang, Jianmin; Yuan, Junfa; Li, Lijuan; Zhang, Jianhong; Bonami, Jean-Robert; Shi, Zhengli

2006-07-11

22

Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer and elk in North America. All diseases in this family are characterized by long preclinical incubation periods following by a relatively short clinical course. Endpoint disease is characterized by ext...

23

Molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer, elk, and moose. CWD is a fatal neurologic disease with a long preclinical incubation period, during which the disease is probably transmitted to healthy animals through direct exposure or environ...

24

Peer Reviewed White-Tailed Deer Harvest From the Chronic Wasting  

E-print Network

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus chronic wasting disease, deer herd reduction, harvest, Odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer-ranging and captive wildlife including elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (O

Mladenoff, David

25

Mucosal immunization with an attenuated Salmonella vaccine partially protects white-tailed deer from chronic wasting disease.  

PubMed

Prion disease is a unique category of illness, affecting both animals and humans, in which the underlying pathogenesis is related to a conformational change of a normal, self-protein called PrP(C) (C for cellular) to a pathological and infectious conformer known as PrP(Sc) (Sc for scrapie). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a prion disease believed to have arisen from feeding cattle with prion contaminated meat and bone meal products, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) infects large numbers of deer and elk, with the potential to infect humans. Currently no prionosis has an effective treatment. Previously, we have demonstrated we could prevent transmission of prions in a proportion of susceptible mice with a mucosal vaccine. In the current study, white-tailed deer were orally inoculated with attenuated Salmonella expressing PrP, while control deer were orally inoculated with vehicle attenuated Salmonella. Once a mucosal response was established, the vaccinated animals were boosted orally and locally by application of polymerized recombinant PrP onto the tonsils and rectal mucosa. The vaccinated and control animals were then challenged orally with CWD-infected brain homogenate. Three years post CWD oral challenge all control deer developed clinical CWD (median survival 602 days), while among the vaccinated there was a significant prolongation of the incubation period (median survival 909 days; p=0.012 by Weibull regression analysis) and one deer has remained CWD free both clinically and by RAMALT and tonsil biopsies. This negative vaccinate has the highest titers of IgA in saliva and systemic IgG against PrP. Western blots showed that immunoglobulins from this vaccinate react to PrP(CWD). We document the first partially successful vaccination for a prion disease in a species naturally at risk. PMID:25539804

Goñi, Fernando; Mathiason, Candace K; Yim, Lucia; Wong, Kinlung; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Nalls, Amy; Peyser, Daniel; Estevez, Veronica; Denkers, Nathaniel; Xu, Jinfeng; Osborn, David A; Miller, Karl V; Warren, Robert J; Brown, David R; Chabalgoity, Jose A; Hoover, Edward A; Wisniewski, Thomas

2015-01-29

26

Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 13.0 Columbian White-tailed............................................................................. 13-20 #12;COLUMBIAN WHITE-TAILED DEER III, 13-1 May 2004 13.0 Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) 13.1 Introduction The Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus

27

Polymorphisms in the prion precursor functional gene but not the pseudogene are associated with susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) status and PrP genotypes were determined for a group of 133 wild white-tailed deer in a 780 acre enclosure in western Nebraska, USA. Approximately half of the deer tested showed evidence of PrPd in the brainstem or lymphoid tissues. Four PRNP alleles encoding amino acid substitutions were identified, with substitutions at residues 95 (QRH), 96 (GRS)

Katherine I. O'Rourke; Terry R. Spraker; Linda K. Hamburg; Thomas E. Besser; Kelly A. Brayton; Donald P. Knowles

2004-01-01

28

Aerosol Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer  

PubMed Central

While the facile transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) remains incompletely elucidated, studies in rodents suggest that exposure of the respiratory mucosa may be an efficient pathway. The present study was designed to address this question in the native cervid host. Here, we demonstrate aerosol transmission of CWD to deer with a prion dose >20-fold lower than that used in previous oral inoculations. Inhalation of prions may facilitate transmission of CWD and, perhaps, other prion infections. PMID:23175370

Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Anderson, Kelly R.; Seelig, Davis M.; Haley, Nicholas J.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mathiason, Candace K.

2013-01-01

29

Prion protein in cardiac muscle of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) infected with chronic wasting disease.  

PubMed

To investigate the possible presence of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) in striated muscle of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-affected cervids, samples of diaphragm, tongue, heart and three appendicular skeletal muscles from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (Alces alces shirasi) were examined by ELISA, Western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). PrP(d) was detected in samples of heart muscle from seven of 16 CWD-infected white-tailed deer, including one free-ranging deer, and in 12 of 17 CWD-infected elk, but not in any of 13 mule deer samples, nor in the single CWD-infected moose. For white-tailed deer, PrP(d) was detected by Western blot at multiple sites throughout the heart; IHC results on ventricular sections of both elk and white-tailed deer showed positive staining in cardiac myocytes, but not in conduction tissues or nerve ganglia. Levels of PrP(d) in cardiac tissues were estimated from Western blot band intensity to be lower than levels found in brain tissue. PrP(d) was not detected in diaphragm, triceps brachii, semitendinosus, latissiumus dorsi or tongue muscles for any of the study subjects. This is the first report of PrP(d) in cardiac tissue from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy-infected ruminants in the human food chain and the first demonstration by immunological assays of PrP(d) in any striated muscle of CWD-infected cervids. PMID:17030881

Jewell, Jean E; Brown, Jeremy; Kreeger, Terry; Williams, Elizabeth S

2006-11-01

30

Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route.  

PubMed

To compare clinical and pathologic findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, 3 groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with a CWD prion of WTD, mule deer, or elk origin. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months postinoculation (MPI), 1 deer from each of the 3 inoculated groups was necropsied and their tissues were examined for lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (SE) and for the presence of abnormal prion protein (PrP(d)) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB). The remaining deer were allowed to live until they developed clinical signs of the disease which began approximately 18 MPI. By 26 MPI, all deer were euthanatized on humane grounds. Obvious differences in clinical signs or the incubation periods were not observed between the 3 groups of deer given CWD. In 1 of 3 nonclinical deer euthanatized at 10 MPI, minimal microscopic lesions of SE were seen in the central nervous system (CNS) tissues, and PrP(d) was observed by IHC in tissues of all 3 deer. In the clinical deer, CNS lesions of SE and PrP(d) accumulations were more severe and extensive. It is concluded that the 3 sources of CWD prion did not induce significant differences in time to clinical disease or qualitative differences in signs or lesions in WTD. However, this observation does not imply that these CWD agents would necessarily behave similarly in other recipient species. PMID:18487485

Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Miller, J M; Kunkle, R A; Hall, S M; Nicholson, E M; O'Rourke, K I; Greenlee, J J; Williams, E S

2008-05-01

31

Broad and fine-scale genetic analysis of white-tailed deer populations: estimating the relative risk of chronic wasting disease spread  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, similar to sheep scrapie that has only recently been detected in wild populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in western Canada. Relatively little is known about local transmission dynamics of the disease or the potential for long-distance spread. We analysed the population genetic structure of over 2000 white-tailed deer sampled from Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan using microsatellite profiles and mtDNA sequencing to assess the relative risk of disease spread. There was very little differentiation among subpopulations and a weak trend of increasing differentiation with geographic distance. This suggests that the potential for long-distance disease spread through the dispersal of infected individuals is possible, yet the risk of spread should gradually diminish with distance from infection foci. Within subpopulations, females were more related than expected by chance (R > 0) within a radius of approximately 500 m. Sex-biased philopatry and social interactions among related females may facilitate local disease transmission within social groups. Local herd reduction may therefore be an effective tool for reducing the disease prevalence when implemented at the appropriate spatial scale.

Cullingham, Catherine I; Merrill, Evelyn H; Pybus, Margo J; Bollinger, Trent K; Wilson, Gregory A; Coltman, David W

2011-01-01

32

Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Rogers, K.G.; Robinson, S.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Grear, D.A.

2011-01-01

33

Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: Complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case-control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n = 68) and CWD-negative (n = 91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p < 0.05. After controlling for Prnp, we found weak support for an elevated risk of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Blanchong, J.A.; Heisey, D.M.; Scribner, K.T.; Libants, S.V.; Johnson, C.; Aiken, J.M.; Langenberg, J.A.; Samuel, M.D.

2009-01-01

34

Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1992-01-01

35

In this issue: Does Coyote Predation Affect White-tailed  

E-print Network

In this issue: Does Coyote Predation Affect White-tailed Deer Populations in Florida? Got Longleaf Affect White-tailed Deer Populations in Florida? By Emma Willcox, William Giuliano, John Olson, and Jim are concerned about the negative effects coyotes may have on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus

Watson, Craig A.

36

Experimental Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) from Elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Fallow Deer (Dama dama) by Intracerebral Route: Final Report  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this communication we report final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (Dama dama). The study was terminated 5 years after it was initiated. Thirteen fawns were i...

37

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

38

Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, Daniel A.

2006-01-01

39

Acaricidal Treatment of White-Tailed Deer to Control Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme Disease-Endemic Community  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...

40

Research Article Survival of White-Tailed Deer Neonates  

E-print Network

, landscape, Minnesota, mortality, neonate, Odocoileus virginianus, predation, South Dakota, survival. Understanding white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population dynamics requires knowledge of survival

41

RT-PCR amplification and sequence analysis of extra small virus associated with white tail disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) cultured in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Post-larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with white tail disease (WTD) have been reported in Taiwan. The causative agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) associated with extra small virus (XSV). The present study is the first report confirming the presence of XSV virus in M. rosenbergii displaying WTD symptoms in Taiwan by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A 772 bp amplified product was obtained by RT-PCR, cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the 772 bp DNA fragment revealed 98% and 97% identity with XSV isolated from China and India, respectively. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the XSV partial genome showed strong homology (99% and 97%) with isolates from China and India. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the XSV-Taiwan isolate was more closely related to the Chinese rather than the Indian isolates. The results demonstrated the presence of XSV virus co-infection in M. rosenbergii cultured in Taiwan suffering from WTD. PMID:17352787

Wang, C S; Chang, J S; Shih, H H; Chen, S N

2007-03-01

42

SPONTANEOUS CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1994, cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in a diarrheic fawn from a captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd maintained for research purposes at The Uni- versity of Georgia's Warnell School of Forest Resources in Athens, Georgia (USA). From June through August 1995, 11 captive female white-tailed deer were housed in individual barn stalls where they gave birthto 18 fawns. Feces

Ronald Fayer; John R. Fischer; Christopher T. Sewell; Darrell M. Kavanaugh; David A. Osborn

43

SEMI-MELANISTIC WHITE-TAILED DEER IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN --Melanistic color morphs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are  

E-print Network

125 SEMI-MELANISTIC WHITE-TAILED DEER IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN -- Melanistic color morphs of white-tailed melanin and is considered rare in white-tailed deer populations (Severinghaus and Cheatum 1956, Sauer 1984 records of melanism in white-tailed deer existed prior to 1929 (Seton 1929). Melanism has since been

44

ELECTROCUTION OF AN ADULT WHITE-TAILED DEER --On 16 May 2002, an adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) died after  

E-print Network

47 ELECTROCUTION OF AN ADULT WHITE-TAILED DEER -- On 16 May 2002, an adult female white-tailed deer entanglements occur, they do not account for significant losses in white-tailed deer populations (Matschke et al fencing has been shown to be effective in deterring movement of white-tailed deer (George et al. 1983), we

45

Survival patterns in white-tailed and mule deer after oral inoculation with a standardized, conspecific prion dose.  

PubMed

We orally inoculated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with a standardized, conspecific prion dose and collected biologic samples throughout the disease course. Mule deer (PRNP genotype 225SS) and PRNP genotype 96GG white-tailed deer succumbed along similar trajectories, but 96GS- and 96SS-genotype individuals tended to survive longer. PMID:22493138

Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Jewell, Jean E; Williams, Elizabeth S

2012-04-01

46

Texas white-tailed deer Internet harvest model  

E-print Network

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is an intensively managed game species throughout Texas and the United States. Modeling is a tool that has been used to evaluate various management practices and their potential impacts on wildlife...

Garrett, Jennifer Nicole

2009-05-15

47

Malignant mesenchymal tumors in two white-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus townsendii).  

PubMed

Two white-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus townsendii) with proliferative lesions in their internal organs were submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada) for necropsy because of concern that dogs that had contact with the hares might have been exposed to an infectious disease. In both hares, the primary diagnosis was neoplasia. One hare had metastatic leiomyosarcoma and uterine fibroma, the other had metastatic mesenchymal tumors involving the liver and mesentery. These cases represent the only reports of malignant mesenchymal tumors in white-tailed jack rabbits that we have found in the literature. PMID:15650095

Jardine, Claire; Wobeser, Gary A; Simko, Elemir

2004-10-01

48

White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Sheep Scrapie by Intracerebral Inoculation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesi...

49

Update on vaccination of white-tailed deer with Mycobacterium bovis BCG: Safety and Efficacy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1994, white-tailed deer in northeast Michigan were found to be harboring Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in most animals including humans. Although deer likely contracted tuberculosis from cattle in the early 20th century, when the disease was present in Michigan cattle, ...

50

Adoption in rock and white-tailed ptarmigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reports of adoption in birds are widespread, but few studies report rates of adoption or possible mechanisms for this phenomenon, particularly in the Order Galliformes. We report incidents of adoption in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. leucura) from two sites in western Canada. Adoption rates for White-tailed Ptarmigan on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Ruby Ranges, Yukon Territory were 13% (n = 16 broods) and 4% (n = 27), respectively, while rates for Rock Ptarmigan were 14% (n = 29) in the Ruby Ranges. Low brood densities may result in lower rates of adoption for ptarmigan. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

Wong, M.M.L.; Fedy, B.C.; Wilson, S.; Martin, K.M.

2009-01-01

51

Ehrlichia ewingii Infection in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii, are transmitted by Ambl- yomma americanum, the lone star tick. Because white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of A. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of E. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with E. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans

Michael J. Yabsley; Andrea S. Varela; Cynthia M. Tate; Vivien G. Dugan; David E. Stallknecht; Susan E. Little; William R. Davidson

52

Mound Characteristics of White-Tailed Prairie Dog Maternity Burrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mound size characteristics of 682 white-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus) burrows were examined in Carbon Co., Montana. Burrows containing litters had significanlty larger mounds than those which did not. Mounds of litter-occupied burrows contained accessory digging for 48 and 49 observed litters. Maternity burrows can be identified by size and presence of current accessory digging.

Dennis L. Flath; Ronald K. Paulick

1979-01-01

53

Management and Conservation Immobilization of White-Tailed Deer With  

E-print Network

Management and Conservation Immobilization of White-Tailed Deer With Telazol, Ketamine Telazol­xylazine and ketamine­xylazine are versatile and safe drug combinations that are used frequently and recovery, we hypothesized that a combination of Telazol, ketamine, and xylazine (TKX) would provide a safe

54

IDENTIFICATION OF ASSEMBLAGE A GIARDIA IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fecal samples were collected from hunter killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during a managed hunt in a central Maryland county. Fecal samples were cleaned of debris and concentrated by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and stained with MerIFluor reagents. Stained samples were exami...

55

Influence of Body Size on Dietary Nutrition of White-Tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus  

E-print Network

Articles Influence of Body Size on Dietary Nutrition of White-Tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus masses (14­76 kg) in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus (n = 108) in a 2,628-ha enclosure at Kerr, Weckerly FW. 2013. Influence of body size on dietary nutrition of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

56

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer. PMID:23568932

Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-04-01

57

Tools and Technology Article Blind Count Surveys of White-Tailed  

E-print Network

. We conducted blind count surveys of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 214-ha enclosure, bootstrap, Bowden's estimator, computer simulations, Odocoileus virginianus, sex ratio, white-tailed deer, there are 4,657 permits to manage white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hunting operations on small (i

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

58

Does uctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow  

E-print Network

Does uctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; £uctuating asymmetry; handicap hypothesis; Odocoileus virginianus; sexual selection; white-tailed deer 1

Ditchkoff, Steve

59

Research Article Habitat Use by Sympatric Mule and White-Tailed  

E-print Network

competition, compositional analysis, habitat use, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, O. virginianus, sympatry, Texas, white- tailed deer. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) occur, and Fisheries Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA Abstract White-tailed deer (Odocoileus

Wallace, Mark C.

60

Research Note Winter Forage Selection in White-Tailed Deer at High  

E-print Network

Research Note Winter Forage Selection in White-Tailed Deer at High Density: Balsam Fir is the Best forage selection by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada, using spruce, white-tailed deer, winter diet. Forage selection by wild herbivores may be determined

Laval, Université

61

Dispersal Patterns of Male White-tailed Deer in Centre County, PA  

E-print Network

39 39 Dispersal Patterns of Male White-tailed Deer in Centre County, PA Milton G. Newberry, III: Dispersal direction of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been hypothesized (Greenwood 1980) and dispersal is most prevalent among yearling bucks in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus

Omiecinski, Curtis

62

Social rank and winter forage quality affect aggressiveness in white-tailed deer fawns  

E-print Network

Social rank and winter forage quality affect aggressiveness in white-tailed deer fawns JOE fawns fed the poor-quality diet decreased it. Our experimental approach revealed that white-tailed deer status; forage intake; Odocoileus virginianus; resource competition; social behaviour; white-tailed deer

Laval, Université

63

ASSESSING DIETARY QUALITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER USING FECAL INDICES: EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL  

E-print Network

ASSESSING DIETARY QUALITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER USING FECAL INDICES: EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING increasing over- winter mortality. Although winter diets of white-tailed deer (Odocoilells virginianli white-tailed deer (Odocoilells virginianll.f) in northern latitudes occur during winter (Mautz. 1978

64

NOTE / NOTE Winter habitat selection by white-tailed deer on  

E-print Network

NOTE / NOTE Winter habitat selection by white-tailed deer on Anticosti Island 2: relationship are important questions for winter habi- tat management of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann and Boots 676 Introduction At northern latitudes, white-tailed deer, Odocoileus vir- ginianus (Zimmermann

Laval, Université

65

Seasonal movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota  

E-print Network

Seasonal movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota T patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) inhabiting landscapes intensively. Little information exists regarding daily and seasonal movements of white-tailed deer in north

66

MOVEMENT OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND INTENSIVE ROW-CROP AGRICULTURE  

E-print Network

1099 MOVEMENT OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND INTENSIVE ROW-CROP AGRICULTURE Abstract: Movements (e.g., migration, dispersal) of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) vary greatly to effectively manage deer populations. Movements of white-tailed deer have been well documented in forest

67

Unusual Migration by a White-Tailed Deer Fawn in South Dakota  

E-print Network

Unusual Migration by a White-Tailed Deer Fawn in South Dakota CHRISTOPHER s. DEPERNO, STEVEN L, fawn, migration, OeJocoi/eus virgin/anus dacotensis, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. Migration between winter and summer ranges by white-tailed deer (Odocoi/eus virginianus) is most pronounced in northern

68

Browsing of tree regeneration by white-tailed deer in large clearcuts on Anticosti Island, Quebec  

E-print Network

Browsing of tree regeneration by white-tailed deer in large clearcuts on Anticosti Island, Quebec of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) on Anticosti Island hampers the regeneration reserved. Keywords: White-tailed deer; Browsing; High density; Tree regeneration; Clearcuts 1. Introduction

Laval, Université

69

Comparison among three approaches to evaluate winter habitat selection by white-tailed deer on  

E-print Network

Comparison among three approaches to evaluate winter habitat selection by white-tailed deer generally identified as those having the highest or lowest indices. White-tailed deer preferred forest circles) on data from a systematic aerial survey on Anticosti Island, where 260 groups of white-tailed

Laval, Université

70

D. Aaron Haines Student Projects Fecal Testing, Baiting & White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

D. Aaron Haines Student Projects Fecal Testing, Baiting & White-tailed Deer January 2013 ­ Present Due to the potential negative impacts of baiting on white­tailed deer, and the philosophy of fair as internationally. The objective of this study is to determine whether baiting activity on white-tailed deer can

Boal, Jean

71

White-tailed Deer Habitat Use and Movements Integrated with Factors Influencing Vehicle  

E-print Network

1/9/13 1 White-tailed Deer Habitat Use and Movements Integrated with Factors Influencing and compare white-tailed deer reproductive efforts during pre-, peak, and post-rut periods 2. Investigate and compare white-tailed deer reproductive efforts during pre-, peak, and post-rut periods 2. Investigate

Gray, Matthew

72

SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA 1 ROLLIN D. SPARROWE, South Research Unit, Brookings3 -,!.. Abstract: Seasonal activity patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus on counties. The history of white-tailed deer popula- tions in eastern South Dakota parallels that of deer

73

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Thirty white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One gr...

74

SELENIUM STATUS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHERN FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of serum, liver, kidney, and heart were collected for selenium analysis from 174 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus mrginianus) in southern Florida (USA), 1984 to 1988, to de- termine the selenium status of these animals. Deer were obtained from eight sites and classified by five age-class groups. For serum and the three tissues analyzed, selenium concentrations varied significantly (P < 0.001)

Lee R. McDowell; Donald J. Forrester; Stephen B. Linda; Scott D. Wright; Nancy S. Wilkinson

75

PREDATOR URINES AS CHEMICAL BARRIERS TO WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assessed whether bobcat (Lynx rufus) or coyote (Canis latrans) urine could reduce white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of established feeding areas or trails. A four-week experiment evaluating deer use of eight feeding stations, four each with coyote or bobcat urine was conducted at a 2,200 ha fenced facility in northern Ohio with high deer densities (38\\/km2). At this

Jerrold L. Belant; Thomas W. Seamans; Laura A. Tyson

1998-01-01

76

Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Globally, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that affect livestock, wildlife, companion animals, and humans, potentially causing serious and economically important disease problems. Little is known about hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. prevalence, host-specificity, or route of transmission in most species, including wildlife. DNA amplification by PCR targeting the 16SrRNA and the RNaseP genes was used to establish the presence and prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina. Sixty-five deer (89%) tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. where sequence analysis of the 16SsRNA and the RNaseP genes indicated the presence of at least three distinct species. This study represents the first detection of three distinct hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer and the first report of two novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species. PMID:24018179

Maggi, Ricardo G; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-12-01

77

White-tailed deer population dynamics and management on the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center  

E-print Network

-tailed deer: ecology and management. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA. 26 Miller, L. A., B. E. Johns, and G. J. Killian. 2000. Immunocontraception of white-tailed deer using native and recombinant zona pellucida vaccines. Animal...

Whisenant, Shane Weston

2004-11-15

78

Spatial interactions of yarded White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the spatial interactions of nine female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in two deeryards (winter aggregations) in northeastern Minnesota during February-April 1999. Global positioning system (GPS) collars yielded seven pair-wise comparisons of deer that were located at the same time (???1 minute apart) and mat used overlapping areas. Deer traveled separately and did not associate with one another. Within overlapping areas, comparisons of distances between deer and distances between random locations indicated deer moved without regard to each other. Similarly, comparisons of observed and expected probabilities of deer using areas overlapping those of other deer also evinced that deer moved independently.

Nelson, M.E.; Sargeant, G.A.

2008-01-01

79

Amino acid sequence of myoglobin from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Our objective was to determine the primary structure of white-tailed deer myoglobin (Mb). White-tailed deer Mb was isolated from cardiac muscles employing ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography. The amino acid sequence was determined by Edman degradation. Sequence analyses of intact Mb as well as tryptic- and cyanogen bromide-peptides yielded the complete primary structure of white-tailed deer Mb, which shared 100% similarity with red deer Mb. White-tailed deer Mb consists of 153 amino acid residues and shares more than 96% sequence similarity with myoglobins from meat-producing ruminants, such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat. Similar to sheep and goat myoglobins, white-tailed deer Mb contains 12 histidine residues. Proximal (position 93) and distal (position 64) histidine residues responsible for maintaining the stability of heme are conserved in white-tailed deer Mb. PMID:22608832

Joseph, Poulson; Suman, Surendranath P; Li, Shuting; Fontaine, Michele; Steinke, Laurey

2012-10-01

80

Energy metabolism and hematology of white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Resting metabolic rates, weight gains and hematologic profiles of six newborn, captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns (four females, two males) were determined during the first 3 mo of life. Estimated mean daily weight gain of fawns was 0.2 kg. The regression equation for metabolic rate was: Metabolic rate (kcal/kg0.75/day) = 56.1 +/- 1.3 (age in days), r = 0.65, P less than 0.001). Regression equations were also used to relate age to red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume, white blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The age relationships of Hb, MCHC, and smaller RBC's were indicative of an increasing and more efficient oxygen-carrying and exchange capacity to fulfill the increasing metabolic demands for oxygen associated with increasing body size.

Rawson, R.E.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Dziuk, H.E.; Mech, L.D.

1992-01-01

81

Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...

82

ABNORMAL PRION PROTEIN IN ECTOPIC LYMPHOID TISSUE IN A KIDNEY OF AN ASYMPTOMATIC WHITE-TAILED DEER EXPERIMENTALLY INOCULATED WITH THE AGENT OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk is one of a group of fatal, neurologic disease that affects several mammalian species, including human beings. Infection by the causative agent induces accumulations of an abnormal form of prion protein (...

83

Assessing fluctuating asymmetry of white-tailed deer antlers in a three-dimensional context  

E-print Network

-dimensional computer models of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) antlers to measure visual. Key words: antlers, fluctuating asymmetry, modeling, Odocoileus virginianus, 3-dimensional asymmetry

Ditchkoff, Steve

84

GROWTH OF MALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: CONSEQUENCES OF MATERNAL EFFECTS  

E-print Network

quantified growth and development of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) originating from environmental conditions. Key words: antler growth, body mass, gestation, nutrition, Odocoileus virginianus

85

Predator evasion by white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite their importance for understanding predator–prey interactions, factors that affect predator evasion behaviours of offspring of large ungulates are poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the influence of selection and availability of escape cover and maternal presence on predator evasion by white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fawns in the northern Great Plains, U.S.A. We observed 45 coyote, Canis latrans, chases of fawns, and we participated in 83 human chases of fawns during 2007–2009, of which, 19 and 42 chases, respectively, ended with capture of the fawn. Evasive techniques used by fawns were similar for human and coyote chases. Likelihood of a white-tailed deer fawn escaping capture, however, was influenced by deer group size and a number of antipredator behaviours, including aggressive defence by females, initial habitat and selection of escape cover, all of which were modified by the presence of parturient females. At the initiation of a chase, fawns in grasslands were more likely to escape, whereas fawns in forested cover, cultivated land or wheat were more likely to be captured by a coyote or human. Fawns fleeing to wetlands and grasslands also were less likely to be captured compared with those choosing forested cover, wheat and cultivated land. Increased probability of capture was associated with greater distance to wetland and grassland habitats and decreased distance to wheat. Use of wetland habitat as a successful antipredator strategy highlights the need for a greater understanding of the importance of habitat complexity in predator avoidance.

Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

2012-01-01

86

Culture and Serologic Survey for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection among Southeastern White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From July 1998 through October 2002, radiometric culture (ileocecal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, and feces) and serologic testing by enzyme-linked immunosor- bent assay (ELISA) were used to survey white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the southeastern United States for infection by My- cobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was

William R. Davidson; Elizabeth J. B. Manning; Victor F. Nettles; D. B. Warnell

87

Surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin, for TSE infection using the IDEXX HerdChek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the collected mammals tested positive using the ELISA, but these were negative when tested by Western blot. While our sample sizes permitted high probabilities of detecting TSE assuming 1% population prevalence in several common scavengers (93%, 87%, and 87% for raccoons, opossums, and coyotes, respectively), insufficient sample sizes for other species precluded similar conclusions. One cannot rule out successful cross-species TSE transmission to scavengers, but the results suggest that such transmission is not frequent in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin. The need for further surveillance of scavenger species, especially those known to be susceptible to TSE (e.g., cat, American mink, raccoon), is highlighted in both a field and laboratory setting.

Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Johnson, C.; Vanderloo, J.P.; Aiken, J.M.; Hamir, A.N.; Hoover, E.A.

2009-01-01

88

EFFICACY OF TRICLABENDAZOLE AGAINST FASCIOLOIDIASIS (FASCIOLOIDES MAGNA) IN NATURALLY INFECTED WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of triclabendazole was evaluated in the treatment of naturally acquired Fascioloides magna infections in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginlanus). Twenty white-tailed deer were captured on the Welder Wildlife Refuge (Sinton, San Patricio County, Texas, USA) and maintained in a 64 X 64 m deer enclosure. Ten deer were given a 5% suspension of tricla- bendazole orally at a dosage

Tariq Qureshi; Thomas M. Craig; D. Lynn Drawe; Donald S. Davis

1989-01-01

89

Excursive Behaviors by Female White-tailed Deer during Estrus at Two Mid-Atlantic Sites  

E-print Network

Excursive Behaviors by Female White-tailed Deer during Estrus at Two Mid-Atlantic Sites JEFFREY J, University of Georgia, Athens 30602 ABSTRACT.--Current research suggests that female white-tailed deer the movements of 10 female deer during the breeding season at two Mid- Atlantic study sites that support high

Muller, Lisa

90

MOVEMENT AND ASSOCIATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHWEST MINNESOTA  

E-print Network

MOVEMENT AND ASSOCIATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHWEST MINNESOTA BY CHRISTOPHER C. SWANSON and Fisheries Sciences South Dakota State University 2005 #12;11 MOVEMENT AND ASSOCIATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER Resources, Bend of the River Chapter of Minnesota Deer Hunters Association, Bluffland Whitetails Association

91

Direct and indirect effects of white-tailed deer in forest ecosystems$  

E-print Network

Direct and indirect effects of white-tailed deer in forest ecosystems$ Thomas P. Rooney* , Donald M and other ungulates have acted to boost populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus.g. Tsuga canadensis and Thuja occidentalis) as evidenced by demographic analysis. Deer also appear to limit

Waller, Donald M.

92

MOVEMENT AND MORTALITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHWEST MINNESOTA  

E-print Network

MOVEMENT AND MORTALITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHWEST MINNESOTA BY TODD J. BRINKMAN A thesis State University 2003 #12;11 MOVEMENT AND MORTALITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHWEST MINNESOTA was provided by Bend of the River Chapter of Minnesota Deer Hunters Association, Bluffland Whitetails

93

ECOLOGY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTH DAKOTA: GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND WINTER NUTRITION  

E-print Network

ECOLOGY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTH DAKOTA: GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND WINTER NUTRITION BY LOWELL E 2006 #12;ECOLOGY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTH DAKOTA: GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND WINTER NUTRITION to count. From the bottom of my heart I say thank you and I love you! I would like to thank the landowners

94

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Twenty-two white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One group (n=5) received 109 colony-forming units (cfu) BCG via a lipid-formulated oral bait; one group (n=5) received 109 cfu

P. Nol; M. V. Palmer; W. R. Waters; F. E. Aldwell; B. M. Buddle; J. M. Triantis; L. M. Linke; G. E. Phillips; T. C. Thacker; J. C. Rhyan; M. D. Salman; M. R. Dunbar

2008-01-01

95

The University of Notre Dame Effects of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) on Plants, Plant Populations and  

E-print Network

The University of Notre Dame Effects of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) on Plants, Plant 78712 ABSTRACT.-Largeeffects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) upon individual plants, plant, Indiana Vol. 146 July, 2001 No. 1 Am. Midi. Nat. 146:1-26 Effects of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

96

The walk is never random: subtle landscape effects shape gene flow in a continuous white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

of white-tailed deer. At the fine scale, spatial clustering of related animals was correlated, spatial ordination, white-tailed deer Received 27 January 2012; revision received 13 April 2012; acceptedThe walk is never random: subtle landscape effects shape gene flow in a continuous white-tailed

97

Spatiotemporal variations in resources affect activity and movement patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at high density  

E-print Network

of spatiotemporal variations in forage and climate on the activity and movement patterns of white-tailed deer virginianus, resource selection function, seasonal variations, white-tailed deer. Résumé : Bien que le budgetARTICLE Spatiotemporal variations in resources affect activity and movement patterns of white-tailed

Laval, Université

98

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Maternal care in white-tailed deer: trade-off between  

E-print Network

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Maternal care in white-tailed deer: trade-off between the nursing and foraging behaviours of control and food-restricted adult female white-tailed deer, Odocoileus care; nursing; Odocoileus virginianus; white-tailed deer Lactation is the most energetically demanding

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

99

THE SOUTHWESTERN NATURALIST 48(4):654660 DECEMBER 2003 IMPLICATIONS OF HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

.bradley@ttu.edu ABSTRACT Frequency of interspecific hybridization between mule deer and white-tailed deer was investigated of mating between a mule deer doe and a white-tailed deer buck, whereas the second individual resulted from between mule deer and white-tailed deer is not restricted to the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. Given

Baker, Robert J.

100

Effect of paved road density on abundance of white-tailed deer Keith G. MunroA  

E-print Network

Effect of paved road density on abundance of white-tailed deer Keith G. MunroA , Jeff Bowman author. Email: lenore_fahrig@carleton.ca Abstract Context. Although ~3% of white-tailed deer are killed mammal is the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus. For example, Conover et al. (1995) estimated

101

PROC. S.D. ACAD. SCI., VOL. 74 (1995) 71 CAPTURE SUCCESS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN  

E-print Network

PROC. S.D. ACAD. SCI., VOL. 74 (1995) 71 CAPTURE SUCCESS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN THE CENTRAL BLACK was to evaluate capture success and physical characteristics of white-tailed deer in the central Black IUlation density reduction, weather conditions. and/or deer behavior. INTRODUCTION Capture success of white-tailed

102

Effects of Hunting and Loss of Escape Cover on Movements and Activity of Female White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus  

E-print Network

Effects of Hunting and Loss of Escape Cover on Movements and Activity of Female White-tailed Deer increasing movemenls. White-tailed Deer arc usually crepuscular (Montgomery 1963; Kammermeyer and Marchinton and McCullough 1990) and moonlight (Kammermeyer 1975). White-tailed Deer also may modify activity ill

103

Journal of Environmental Management (1996) 48, 299303 Estimating 24-h Habitat Use Patterns of White-Tailed Deer from  

E-print Network

of White-Tailed Deer from Diurnal Use Brian J. Kernohan, Jonathan A. Jenks, David E. Naugle and Joshua J habitat use patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, habitat use, Odocoileus virginianus, radio telemetry, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. 1. Introduction

104

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 84 (2005) 119 POPULATION MODELS FOR WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

Models were developed for the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population inhabiting the Black, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. 559-W #12;120 Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of ScienceProceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 84 (2005) 119 POPULATION MODELS FOR WHITE-TAILED

105

Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.  

SciTech Connect

D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

D'Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

2003-12-31

106

Female white-tailed deer survival across ecoregions in minnesota and south dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities and vehicle collisions accounted for an additional 15.0%. Natural causes (e.g., disease, predation) of mortality were minor compared to human-related causes (e.g., hunting, vehicle collisions). We used known fate modeling in program MARK to estimate survival rates and compare ecoregions and seasons. Model Sseason (winter=summer) had the lowest AICc value suggesting that survival differed only between seasons where winter and summer survival was equal and differed with fall season. Annual and seasonal (summer, fall, winter) survival rates using the top model S season (summer=winter) were 0.76 (95% ci = 0.70-0.80), 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), 0.80 (95% ci = 0.76-0.83) and 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), respectively. High human-related mortality was likely associated with limited permanent cover, extensive road networks and high hunter density. Deer management in four distinct ecoregions relies on hunter harvest to maintain deer populations within state management goals. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Deperno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

2011-01-01

107

Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2014-01-01

108

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

2014-01-01

109

Development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I examined the development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1975 to 1996 by radio-tracking adult females and their fawns. Of 40 migratory fawns with radio-collared mothers, all returned from winter ranges to their mothers' summer ranges, as did 36 fawns with unknown mothers. Of 1.5- to 3.0-year-old daughters with radio-collared mothers, 67-80% continued migrating with mothers to their traditional summer ranges. Eighty-four percent (16/19) of yearling dispersers continued migratory behavior after replacing their natal summer ranges with their dispersal ranges, and 88% (14/16) of these continued migrating to their natal winter ranges, some through at least 6.5 years of age. Twenty percent (4/20) of nonmigratory fawns dispersed as yearlings, and two became migratory between their dispersal summer ranges and new winter ranges, one through 4.9 years of age and another through 6.5 years. Seven fawns changed their movement behavior from migratory to nonmigratory or vice versa as yearlings or when older, indicating that migratory behavior is not under rigid genetic control. Thus, the adaptiveness of migration must depend upon natural selection operating upon varying capacities and propensities to learn and mimic long-distance movements and not upon migratory behavior directly.

Nelson, M.E.

1998-01-01

110

GENETIC STRUCTURING OF COUES WHITE-TAILED DEER IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

patterns of genetic relatedness for Coues white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus couesi) in Arizona. hemionus eremicus). Both species are sympatric in many areas of the southwestern United States. Hybrid

111

Lesion Development in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of tuberculosis in free-living white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan underscores the need for increased understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in wildlife species. To investigate lesion development in white-tailed deer, 32 deer were experimentally infected by intratonsilar instillation of 300 colony-forming units of Mycobacterium bovis. Three deer each were euthanatized and examined at days 15, 28, 42,

M. V. Palmer; W. R. Waters; D. L. Whipple

2002-01-01

112

White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) develop spirochetemia following experimental infection with Borrelia lonestari  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borrelia lonestari is considered a putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) and is known to occur naturally only in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We used a low passage isolate of B. lonestari (LS-1) to inoculate white-tailed deer, C3H mice, Holstein cattle, and beagles. Animals were monitored via examination of Giemsa and acridine

P. L. Moyer; A. S. Varela; M. P. Luttrell; V MOOREIV; D. E. Stallknecht; S. E. Little

2006-01-01

113

Effects of immunocontraception on a suburban population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in North America have altered the structure of some forest communities and caused serious conflicts with farmers, gardeners, and motorists, encouraging the search for novel techniques to control populations of deer and other wildlife. We administered the porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraceptive vaccine to female white-tailed deer living on the 233-ha campus of

Allen T. Rutberg; Ricky E. Naugle; Lori A. Thiele; Irwin K. M. Liu

2004-01-01

114

Temporal and Spatial Genetic Variability in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch-gel electrophoresis was used to assess temporal and spatial genetic variation in populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in western Tennessee. Samples of liver and kidney obtained from animals at five localities during 1985–1992 were analyzed at 11 loci known to be polymorphic in white-tailed deer. There were minimal significant differences in allelic frequencies between sexes and among age groups

P. G. Kollars; M. L. Beck; S. G. Mech; P. K. Kennedy; M. L. Kennedy

2004-01-01

115

VARIABLE ACORN CROPS: RESPONSES OF WHITE-TAILED DEER AND OTHER MAST CONSUMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined movements and behavior of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) relative to the acorn mast-fall from 1986 through 1989 in a mature deciduous forest in Front Royal, Virginia. Ten white-tailed deer with radiotransmitters increased their home range to incorporate acorn-producing areas during mast-fall. Consumption of acorns by deer con­ stituted ca. 50% of foraging time during peak mast-fall; average

WILLIAM J. MCSHEA; GEORG SCHWEDE

116

White-tailed deer winter feeding strategy in area shared with other deer species  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer were introduced into the Czech republic about one hundred years ago. Population numbers have remained stable at low density despite almost no harvesting. this differs from other introductions of this species in europe. We presumed that one of the possible factors preventing expansion of the white-tailed deer population is lack of high-quality food components in an area overpopulated

Miloslav HoMolka; Marta Heroldová

117

Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

118

Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole blood or culture. None of the deer showed evidence of clinical disease, but 3 of the 6 deer evaluated had multiple episodes of transient thrombocytopenia. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained, thin blood smears revealed tiny, dark, spherical structures in platelets of acutely infected deer. Anaplasma sp. was detected in platelets of inoculated deer by polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Five of 6 deer developed antibodies reactive to Anaplasma sp. antigen, as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and gltA sequences confirmed the Anaplasma sp. is related to A. platys. Two attempts to transmit the Anaplasma sp. between deer by feeding Amblyomma americanum, a suspected tick vector, were unsuccessful. Based on its biologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, this organism is considered a novel species of Anaplasma, and the name Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. is proposed with UMUM76(T) (=CSUR-A1) as the type strain. PMID:23276749

Tate, Cynthia M; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Mead, Daniel G; Dugan, Vivien G; Luttrell, M Page; Sahora, Alexandra I; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Davidson, William R; Yabsley, Michael J

2013-02-01

119

137 WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 8:2 (2002) Traditional approaches for studying white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

nutritional status of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus populations in Maine, USA Stephen S. Ditchkoff-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus populations in Maine, USA. - Wildl. Biol. 8: 137-143. We used urinary Odocoileus virginianus in nine wintering areas in northern and central Maine, USA. Winter severity

Ditchkoff, Steve

120

INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION BETWEEN WHITE-TAILED, FALLOW , RED, AND ROE DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a series of studies in the Dobríš Forest, Czech Republic, to determine whether competitio n between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianu s) and sympatric cervid species could limit expansion of the whit e - tail population. We used grazing time among species as an indication of potential interspecific competition an d predicted that grazing time on an open pasture

KARL V. MILLER; Daniel B. Warnell

121

Detection and Multigenic Characterization of a Herpesvirus Associated with Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1998 and 2001, tissues from four captive white-tailed deer were observed to have histologic lesions of systemic lymphocytic vasculitis. These lesions suggested malignant catarrhal fever, although epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue were included in the differential diagnosis. Initial diagnostic efforts, including virus isolation and reverse transcription-PCR for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and blue- tongue virus, failed to identify an

Steven B. Kleiboeker; Margaret A. Miller; Susan K. Schommer; Jose A. Ramos-Vara; Magalie Boucher; Susan E. Turnquist

2002-01-01

122

Hematology, blood chemistry and selenium values of captive pronghorn antelope, white-tailed deer and American bison.  

PubMed

Pronghorn were observed to have a significantly higher whole blood selenium concentration than either the white-tailed deer or bison. Pronghorn colloid values were significantly less than those of the bison, and approached statistical significance for the white-tailed deer. Differential white blood cell counts for the white-tailed deer were markedly different from those of the pronghorn and bison. The American bison had significantly higher cortisol values and lower T3 values than either the white-tailed deer or pronghorn. PMID:2885128

Clemens, E T; Meyer, K L; Carlson, M P; Schneider, N R

1987-01-01

123

Kidney structure and function of obligate and facultative hibernators: the white-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys leucurus ) and the black-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-tailed prairie dog is an obligate hibernator that enters a heterothermic phase when maintained in the cold with low intensity light and ad libitum food and water. The black-tailed prairie dog (a facultative hibernator) will not hibernate under similar conditions. It has been suggested that the black tailed prairie dog remains active during the winter because it can conserve

H. J. Harlow; E. J. Braun

1995-01-01

124

Demography and conservation of the White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus on Aride Island, Western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus breeding population of Aride Island, Seychelles, has experienced a strong decline in the recent past. To predict the future\\u000a trends of the White-tailed Tropicbird population on Aride Island and understand the urgency of applying management procedures,\\u000a we developed a population matrix model. We estimated White-tailed Tropicbird adult survival rate over a 12-year period and\\u000a investigated

Teresa Catry; Jaime Albino Ramos; David Monticelli; John Bowler; Tony Jupiter; Matthieu Le Corre

2009-01-01

125

Novel Data as a Source for Assessing Breeding Phenology of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in South Carolina.  

E-print Network

??White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) breeding phenology varies temporally throughout the species' range and is critical to population management and hunter enjoyment. The South Carolina Department… (more)

Stone, David

2012-01-01

126

Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P., Jr.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

2009-01-01

127

Ecological studies of the white-tailed deer in western Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Activity patterns and microhabitat utilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are being studied at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant in Carroll and Gibson counties, Tennessee. Ten white-tailed deer have been fitted with radio-collars, and locations are being monitored using standard techniques. Home ranges and daily activity patterns are being determined. Preliminary analyses have shown that white-tailed deer are readily located using radio-techniques. Microhabitat utilization is being assessed by pellet transects and radio locations. Pellet counts from transects located in pastures and old fields are significantly different from those in other habitat types. Use of honeysuckle (Lonicera sp.) is being examined by observing the degree of browse along transects. No significant difference in utilization has been seen between the honeysuckle transects.

Frederick, R.D.; Kennedy, M.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States))

1993-04-01

128

Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010, brains of 155 white-tailed deer fetuses were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. Viable N. caninum (NcWTDMn1, NcWTDMn2) was isolated from the brains of two fetuses by bioassays in mice, and subsequent propagation in cell culture. Dams of these two infected fetuses had antibodies to N. caninum by Neospora agglutination test at 1:100 serum dilution. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates with Nc5 PCR confirmed diagnosis. Results prove congenital transmission of N. caninum in the white tailed deer for the first time. PMID:23566408

Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Villena, I; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

2013-09-23

129

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG Danish Strain 1331) in Protecting White-tailed Deer (Odecoileus Virginianus) against Bovine Tuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wildlife Disease Association Annual Conference, August 6-10, 2006 Terry Amundson Student Presentation Award Oral Presentation EFFICACY OF ORAL AND PARENTERAL BACILLE CALMETTE-GUERIN (BCG DANISH STRAIN 1331) IN PROTECTING WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODECOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AGAINST BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS Paulin...

130

Observation of the cervix and artificial insemination in captive white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

and manually captured. Does were then chemically restrained. The posterior face of the os cervix was visually examined for changes with the aid of a 10mm laparoscope and speculum. The os cervix on all deer observed during estrus in this study, were... mucus in the white-tailed deer has not been previously documented. Estrus detection combined with examination of the os cervix may allow the optimal time for AI to be predicted in white-tailed deer. The purpose for this study is to develop a...

Magyar, Stephen John

1986-01-01

131

Follicular changes and reproductive hormones in captive white- tailed deer during the breeding season  

E-print Network

during the estrous cycle of the white-tailed deer (Odocoi Jeus vgrgini anus) were obtained from this study. Does were observed for detection of estrus once daily during the 1984-85 season and twice daily during the 1985-86 season, using a penile..., Estrogen, progesterone, and LH tended to follow patterns of previous studies of white-tailed deer and also those of domestic animals during the estrous cycle. Estrogen increased 1-3 days prior to estrus before peaking on the day of estrus. Progesterone...

Biediger, Timothy Gerard

1986-01-01

132

HumanWildlife Interactions 5(1):3246, Spring 2011 Preference of white-tailed deer for corn  

E-print Network

Human­Wildlife Interactions 5(1):32­46, Spring 2011 Preference of white-tailed deer for corn Sciences, Box 2140B, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA Abstract: Damage to field corn degrees of success. Currently, little information is available on preference of white-tailed deer for corn

133

Surface Temperatures and Radiant Heat Loss from White-Tailed Deer Author(s): Aaron N. Moen  

E-print Network

radiant heat when the energy balance of an organismis being considered. The behavior of white-tailed deerSurface Temperatures and Radiant Heat Loss from White-Tailed Deer Author(s): Aaron N. Moen Reviewed to The Journal of Wildlife Management. http://www.jstor.org #12;SURFACETEMPERATURESAND RADIANT HEAT LOSS FROM

Minnesota, University of

134

Long-term decline in white-tailed deer browse supply: can lichens and litterfall act as alternative  

E-print Network

Long-term decline in white-tailed deer browse supply: can lichens and litterfall act as alternative on forest ecosystems. On Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada, introduced white-tailed deer (Odocoileus stability of the deer population over recent decades, we suspected that they were not at equilibrium

Laval, Université

135

Effects of grazing pressure by Angora goats on intra/interspecific foraging competition with white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

with White-tailed Deer (August 1989) Rhonda Lynne Hervey, B. S. , California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Jerry W. Stuth The dietary selection of 4 Angora goats and 4 white- tailed deer were compared on a...

Hervey, Rhonda Lynne

1989-01-01

136

EXPERIMENTAL CONTAGIOUS ECTHYMA IN MULE DEER, WHITE-TAILED DEER, PRONGHORN AND WAPITI1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ocis cana- densis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species devel- oped mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly

William R. Lance; Charles P. Hibler; James DeMartini

137

Modeling white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus population control by contraception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large populations of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus present conservation problems in suburban landscapes because of limited population control options. We used the GAPPS II modeling system to simulate temporal effects of contraception on deer population control and the interaction between contraception and uncertain immigration rates. Contraception rates less than 50% of female deer curbed population growth with a long (30

Steven W. Seagle; John D. Close

1996-01-01

138

Newly Recognized Herpesvirus Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify

HONG LI; NEIL DYER; JANICE KELLER; TIMOTHY B. CRAWFORD

139

Body mass, age, and reproductive influences on liver mass of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

E-print Network

on liver mass to gain insight into liver-mass variation in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus body mass is controlled. Key words: Odocoileus virginianus, ruminant, scaling relationships, visceral. [Traduit par la Rédaction] Mots-clés : Odocoileus virginianus, ruminant, relation d'échelle, organe

Weckerly, Floyd "Butch" - Department of Biology, Texas State University

140

Transmission of Babesia odocoilel in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) by Ixodes scapularis (Acari: lxodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory reared Ixodes scapu- laris proved to be an efficient vector of Babesia odocoilei Emerson and Wright between white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virgin janus ). Transta- dial survival of the babesia occurred between nymph and adult stages of the tick, and the adult stage transmitted the babesia.

K. A. Waldrup; A. A. Kocan; R. W. Barker; G. G. Wagner

141

Immunohistological localization of testosterone in the growing antler of the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using immunohistological methods (fluorescein and peroxidase labeled double antibody technique), the localization of testosterone in the antlers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at the beginning of the period of accelerated calcification was examined. The most intense reaction for testosterone was found in the prochondral blastema layer and in the growing follicles of the velvet. The findings may indicate the importance

G. A. Bubenik; G. M. Brown; A. B. Bubenik; L. J. Grota

1974-01-01

142

White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Predation on Grassland Songbird Nestlings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) continues to place scientific/ management resources online for general viewing. This resource, by Pamela J. Pietz and Diane A. Granfors, was published in 2000 in American Midland Naturalist [144(2):419-422] and reports on four instances of nest depredation by white-tailed deer. It may be browsed online or downloaded as a .zip file.

Granfors, Diane A.; Pietz, Pamela J.

2000-01-01

143

Evaluation of Two Survey Methods for Detection of Helminth Infections in \\\\White? tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, from central Pennsyl- vania were examined for helminth parasites by regular autopsy pro- cedures supplemented by a direct centrifugal flotation technique. The two methods were compared and evaluated for suitability in diagnosis and survey work. The reliability and repeatability of the flotation method were studied. Prevalence of most nematodes encountered was increased as a direct result

W. M. SAMUEL; R. L. BEAUDOIN

1966-01-01

144

Evaluation of an electrified mat as a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) pose economic and safety problems for agricultural and transportation industries. We tested an electronic mat to determine if it would reduce deer crossing through fence openings. We measured deer intrusions and corn consumption at five sites with charged mats and five sites with non-charged mats. Weekly intrusions at treated sites decreased an average of 95% from

Thomas W. Seamans; David A. Helon

2008-01-01

145

HumanWildlife Conflicts 2(1):2833, Spring 2008 Sharpshooting suburban white-tailed  

E-print Network

when white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) become abundant in urban and suburban environments (Ng to demonstrate that a reduction in deer (Odocoileus spp.) densities will result in a decline in DVCs. We can significantly reduce DVCs. Key words: deer­vehicle collisions, human­wildlife conflict, Odocoileus

146

Volatile Compounds from the Forehead Region of Male White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretions produced by sebaceous and apocrine glands of cervids may be important in identifying individuals, establishing dominance, and signaling sexual readiness. The secretions from these glands are transferred to the hair for both lubrication and scent communication via forehead rubbing. We collected hair samples from the forehead and back of 10 male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of various ages and

J. W. Gassett; D. P. Wiesler; A. G. Baker; D. A. Osborn; K. V. Miller; R. L. Marchinton; M. Novotny

1997-01-01

147

Intersexual social behavior of urban white-tailed deer and its evolutionary implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) are now common in many urban environments throughout their geographic range. Yet, how male and female deer in the urban environment associate, behave socially, and the evolutionary implications of that behavior remains unstudied. We examined predictions of the predation risk and the social factor hypotheses to explain intersexual grouping patterns and social behavior observed

Katherine E. Richardson; Floyd W. Weckerly

2007-01-01

148

Vaccination of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer in order to interrupt...

149

Proportion of White-tailed deer using medicated bait sites in Southern Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, have been found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) complicating eradication efforts of the USDA’s Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Our objective was to assess patterns of deer visitation to medicated bait...

150

Do Wolves Affect White-Tailed Buck Harvest In Northeastern Minnesota?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In early 2000 the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center posted this resource on wolves at their Website. "Do Wolves Affect White-Tailed Buck Harvest In Northeastern Minnesota?" summarizes wolf impacts on deer hunting in northeastern Minnesota from 1975 to 1977. The resource may be downloaded as a .zip file.

Mech, L. David.

151

A PLAGUE EPIZOOTIC IN THE WHITE-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LEUCURUS) OF MEETEETSE, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance for sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted near Meeteetse, Wyoming (USA) from 24 May to 14 june 1985. Ten species of fleas were collected from white- tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus), and from their burrows and associated rodents. Five of these flea species and two adult prairie dogs were positive for plague. The progression of this plague epizootic appeared

Sonya R. Ubico; Kathleen A. Fagerstone; Robert G. McLean

152

Effects of White-Tailed Deer on Populations of an Understory Forb in Fragmented Deciduous Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of grazing by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) on populations of Trillium spp. were examined in remnant, old-growth patches of the highly fragmented Big Woods forest ecosystem in south- eastern Minnesota. We conducted three separate studies involving an exclosure experiment, transplant exper- iments, and comparisons of Trillium populations among study sites. The highest grazing intensity was ob-

David J. Augustine; Lee E. Frelich

1998-01-01

153

ORAL BACILLE CALMETTE-GUERIN (BCG) VACCINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER AGAINST BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

154

VACCINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS BACILLUS CALMETTE GUERIN (BCG)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

155

Impact of BVDV infection of white-tailed deer during second and third trimesters of pregnancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While it has been demonstrated that persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections can be established in white-tailed deer following in utero exposure in the first trimester of gestation, there is little to no information regarding the outcome of infection, in deer, in later stages of preg...

156

White-tailed Deer Browse Preferences for South Texas and the Edwards Plateau  

E-print Network

trees and plants it may appear that deer have plenty to eat. But that is not necessarily the case. Some plants are not edible, some are not palat- able, and some are available only at certain times of the year. White-tailed deer use three major plant...

Wright, Byron D.; Lyons, Robert K.; Cooper, Susan; Cathey, James

2003-01-06

157

ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 AND SALMONELLA IN WHITE-TAILED DEER AND LIVESTOCK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella spp. are among the leading causes of food-borne illness in the United States and these bacteria have been isolated from numerous ruminant animal sources. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of E. coli O157 and Salmonella spp. in white-tailed ...

158

NESTING DOCUMENTATION FOR THE WHITE-TAILED PTARMIGAN IN THE SANGRE DE CRISTO MOUNTAINS, NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southernmost extent of the range of White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) reaches into north-central New Mexico. Although known to occur in New Mexico since around 1865, their exact distribution and abundance is not well known. This is primarily because the species is an alpine obligate, which has made efforts to survey difficult. Here I describe the first nest of the

Donald H. Wolfe

159

IMPACTS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER ON FOREST REGENERATION IN NORTHWEST ERN PENNSYLVANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a major cause of regeneration failure in Allegheny hardwood forests of northwestern Pennsylvania. I examined the impact of deer at 5 different densities (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 deer\\/259 ha) on tree seedlings, woody shrubs, and herbaceous plants in large enclosures over 5 years. I examined 3 silvicultural treatments (clearcut, thinning, and

NANCY G. TILGHMAN

160

Aversive responses of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus , to predator urines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urine from bobcats (Lyra rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of Japanese yews (Taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. Urine of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting

Robert K. Swihart; Joseph J. Pignatello; Mary Jane I. Mattina

1991-01-01

161

J Vet Diagn Invest 20:7982 (2008) Evaluation of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer for evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus  

E-print Network

(Odocoileus virginianus) for evidence of BVDV infection. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 2; immunohistochemistry; Odocoileus virginianus; seroprevalence; white-tailed deer. Artiodactyla, as has recently been reviewed.25 White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most abundant

Ditchkoff, Steve

162

Plague in a complex of white-tailed prairie dogs and associated small mammals in Wyoming.  

PubMed

Fleas were collected from white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) and other small mammals trapped on six grids during a field study near Meeteetse (Wyoming, USA) in 1989 and 1990 to investigate the dynamics of plague in this rodent population. Fleas were identified and tested for Yersinia pestis by mouse inoculation. Yersinia pestis-positive fleas were found on prairie dogs and in their burrows. Flea species on prairie dogs changed from spring to late summer. White-tailed prairie dog numbers were significantly lower in the presence of Y. pestis-positive fleas; however, affected populations generally recovered 1 to 2 yr following absence of detectable plague. Grids where recovery occurred had a high proportion of juvenile male prairie dogs. Eighteen flea species were identified on small mammals, six of which were infected with Y. pestis. Some flea species were associated with a particular small mammal species, while others were found on a broad range of host species. Flea species most important in the potential interchange of Y. pestis between associated small mammals and white-tailed prairie dogs were Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris, Oropsylla idahoensis, and Oropsylla labis. Plague cycled through the white-tailed prairie dog complex in an unpredictable manner. Each summer the complex was a mixture of colonies variously impacted by plague: some were declining, some were unaffected by plague, and others were recovering from plague population declines. These data provide insight into the dynamics of plague in white-tailed prairie dog complexes, but predicting movement of plague is not yet possible and the role of associated mammals in maintenance of plague is not understood. PMID:9391955

Anderson, S H; Williams, E S

1997-10-01

163

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.  

PubMed

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

2013-10-25

164

Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) after oral or parenteral vaccination.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in cattle and a serious zoonotic pathogen, most commonly contracted through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. To control this zoonosis, many countries have developed bovine tuberculosis eradication programmes. Although relatively successful, efforts are hindered in many regions by spillover from wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis to cattle. Such is the case in the United States where spillover of M. bovis from free-ranging white-tailed deer to cattle occurs. One approach to control such inter-species transmission is vaccination of wildlife. The live, attenuated human vaccine M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to reduce disease severity in white-tailed deer; however, vaccine persistence within tissues has also been noted. Consumption of venison containing BCG by hunters may present a public health concern as BCG exposure, although unlikely to cause disease, could cause false positive tuberculin skin test results. To examine BCG persistence further, 42 white-tailed deer were vaccinated orally or subcutaneously (SC) with BCG Danish. Three deer from each group were killed and examined at periods ranging from 2 weeks to 11 months after vaccination. BCG was recovered from orally vaccinated deer as late as 3 months after vaccination, while BCG persisted in SC vaccinated deer for as long as 9 months. At no time was BCG isolated from meat; however, prolonged persistence was seen in lymphoid organs. Although vaccine persistence was noted, especially in SC vaccinated deer, the distribution of culture-positive tissues makes human exposure through consumption unlikely. PMID:20707863

Palmer, M V; Thacker, T C; Waters, W R; Robbe-Austerman, S; Lebepe-Mazur, S M; Harris, N B

2010-12-01

165

Corresponding author email address: troy.grovenburg@sdstate.edu Use of Late Season Standing Corn by Female White-tailed Deer in the  

E-print Network

by Female White-tailed Deer in the Northern Great Plains During a Mild Winter TROY W. GROVENBURG1 Street, Sioux Falls, SD 57198, USA (RWK) ABSTRACT Winter habitat and resource use of white-tailed deer information exists on deer use of late season standing corn. We evaluated standing corn use by female white-tailed

166

Annotated Bibliography of Methodologies to Census, Estimate, and Monitor the Size of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting annotated bibliography, from Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, describes methodologies to census, estimate, and monitor the size of white-tailed deer populations. The bibliography is organized into three sections: a decade-by-decade summary of measuring/ monitoring techniques; techniques for biological populations (52 annotated references); and techniques for white-tailed deer (160 annotated references). In each section, earliest publications (1889) appear first, culminating in 1997. While the database emphasizes methodologies specific to white-tailed deer, it also does an excellent job documenting the historical evolution of techniques to measure wildlife populations. An author and keyword index completes the resource.

167

Function of the heterocercal tail in white sturgeon: flow visualization during steady swimming and vertical maneuvering.  

PubMed

Basal ray-finned fishes possess a heterocercal tail in which the dorsal lobe containing the extension of the vertebral column is longer than the ventral lobe. Clarifying the function of the heterocercal tail has proved elusive because of the difficulty of measuring the direction of force produced relative to body position in the aquatic medium. We measured the direction of force produced by the heterocercal tail of the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) by visualizing flow in the wake of the tail using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) while simultaneously recording body position and motion using high-speed video. To quantify tail function, we measured the vertical body velocity, the body angle and the path angle of the body from video recordings and the vortex ring axis angle and vortex jet angle from DPIV recordings of the wake downstream from the tail. These variables were measured for sturgeon exhibiting three swimming behaviors at 1.2 L s(-)(1), where L is total body length: rising through the water column, holding vertical position, and sinking through the water column. For vertical body velocity, body angle and path angle values, all behaviors were significantly different from one another. For vortex ring axis angle and vortex jet angle, rising and holding behavior were not significantly different from each other, but both were significantly different from sinking behavior. During steady horizontal swimming, the sturgeon tail generates a lift force relative to the path of motion but no rotational moment because the reaction force passes through the center of mass. For a rising sturgeon, the tail does not produce a lift force but causes the tail to rotate ventrally in relation to the head since the reaction force passes ventral to the center of mass. While sinking, the direction of the fluid jet produced by the tail relative to the path of motion causes a lift force to be created and causes the tail to rotate dorsally in relation to the head since the reaction force passes dorsal to the center of mass. These data provide evidence that sturgeon can actively control the direction of force produced by their tail while maneuvering through the water column because the relationship between vortex jet angle and body angle is not constant. PMID:11060219

Liao, J; Lauder, G V

2000-12-01

168

Spatial and temporal variability of microgeographic genetic structure in white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Techniques are described that define contiguous genetic subpopulations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) based on the spatial dispersion of 4,749 individuals that possessed discrete character values (alleles or genotypes) during each of 6 years (1974-1979). White-tailed deer were not uniformly distributed in space, but exhibited considerable spatial genetic structuring. Significant non-random clusters of individuals were documented during each year based on specific alleles and genotypes at the Sdh locus. Considerable temporal variation was observed in the position and genetic composition of specific clusters, which reflected changes in allele frequency in small geographic areas. The position of clusters did not consistently correspond with traditional management boundaries based on major discontinuities in habitat (swamp versus upland) and hunt compartments that were defined by roads and streams. Spatio-temporal stability of observed genetic contiguous clusters was interpreted relative to method and intensity of harvest, movements, and breeding ecology.

Scribner, K.T.; Smith, M.H.; Chesser, R.K.

1997-01-01

169

Aversive responses of white-tailed deer,Odocoileus virginianus, to predator urines.  

PubMed

We tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urine from bobcats (Lyra rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of Japanese yews (Taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. Urine of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting that deer do not respond aversively to odors of nonpredatory mammals or occasional predators with which they lack a long evolutionary association. Bobcat and coyote urine were more effective in tests conducted with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), which is less palatable to white-tailed deer than Japanese yew. A dichloromethane extract of bobcat urine was as effective as unextracted urine in reducing damage to hemlocks. Testing of the organic components of bobcat urine, particularly the volatile components, may enable identification of the compounds responsible for the repellency we observed. PMID:24258921

Swihart, R K; Pignatello, J J; Mattina, M J

1991-04-01

170

The ossification process of the developing antler in the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsy samples were obtained from the growing tips of the main beam and tines of two-and three-year-old, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout the active growing season. The samples were prepared by routine and special histological techniques. The histological differentiation of the antler proceeded through a complex series of changes. The series originated with reserve mesenchymal tissue, progressed through the differentiation

W. J. Banks

1974-01-01

171

High prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples of 400 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 16 preserves in northeastern Illinois were tested for Neospora caninum antibodies in the N. caninum agglutination test using mouse-derived N. caninum tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Antibodies were found in 162 deer with titres of 1:40 (47 deer), 1:80 (32 deer), 1:160 (17 deer), 1:200 (eight deer), 1:400 (19 deer), 1:800 (17 deer)

J. P Dubey; K Hollis; S Romand; P Thulliez; O. C. H Kwok; L Hungerford; C Anchor; D Etter

1999-01-01

172

Isolation of Neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts were made to isolate Neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A total of 110 deer killed during the 2003 hunting season in Virginia region were used for the isolation of N. caninum. Of these, brains from 28 deer that had NAT titer of 1:200 were inoculated into interferon-gamma gene knock out (KO) mice. N. caninum was

M. C. B. Vianna; C. Sreekumar; K. B. Miska; D. E. Hill; J. P. Dubey

2005-01-01

173

Volatile compounds from interdigital gland of male white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdigital secretions were collected from eight male white-tailed deer of various ages. Analysis of volatiles was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a modified headspace technique. Forty-six volatile compounds were found including alkanes, arenes, aldehydes, ketones, aliphatic acids, esters, pyrroles, furans, and sulfur compounds. Eleven occurred in higher concentrations (P0.10) in dominant (3.5-year-old) than in subordinate (1.5-year-old) animals. Dominant males

J. W. Gassett; D. P. Wiesler; A. G. Baker; D. A. Osborn; K. V. Miller; R. L. Marchinton; M. Novotny

1996-01-01

174

Food access by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) at winter feeding sites in eastern Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, we studied aggressive behaviour of White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at winter feeding stations in the Pohénégamook wintering area, Québec (47°29?N 69°14?W). The study aimed at determining if aggressive behaviour was related to priority of access to food by various age–sex classes. Deer were observed daily at four feeding sites and weekly at six others. More than 100 deer

Diane Grenier; Cyrille Barrette; Michel Crête

1999-01-01

175

EFFICACY OF IVERMECTIN AGAINST PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS ANDERSON! (NEMATODA, METASTRONGYLOIDEA) IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lvermectin was injected subcutaneously at 200 and 400 big\\/kg of body weight into seven white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in an attempt to control the muscle nematode Parelaphostrongylus andersoni. Counts of first-stage larvae in feces dropped to zero at 17 to 18 days posttreatment. Larvae reappeared in feces 1.5 to 6 wk later in six deer. Four deer were treated again

W. M. Samuel; J. Brent Gray

176

Ultrastructure of Sarcocystic sp. from the muscle of a white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis sp. from the muscle of naturally infected whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The primary cyst wall forms regularly spaced protrusions filled with electron-lucent ground substance; no fibrils are present in the protrusions. The cysts are divided by septa into compartments containing typical coccidian metrocytes and merozoites. Taxonomy of the protozoon from the white-tailed deer-dog

R. Entzeroth; B. Chobotar; E. Scholtyseck

1982-01-01

177

Cell mediated and humoral immune responses of white-tailed deer experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to improve the understanding of immune responses of whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Ten mature, female, white-tailed deer were inoculated by intratonsilar instillation of 2 × 103or 2 × 105colony-forming units of M. bovis. Lymphocyte proliferation and humoral response to M. bovis PPD and the M. bovis protein, MPB70 were measured.

M. V. PALMER; D. L. WHIPPLE; S. C. OLSEN; R. H. JACOBSON

2000-01-01

178

Relationship between dominance and antler cycle in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that there is a negative correlation between rank and order of casting antlers in white-tailed deerOdocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780) and that dominant individuals will start antler regrowth and velvet shedding earlier than subordinates.\\u000a We assessed dominance relationship among 14 bucks (1.5 to 7.5 years-of-age) confined in a 0.6 ha enclosure and related hierarchal\\u000a position to timing

Lud?k Bartoš; Karl V. Miller; David Osborn

2004-01-01

179

Daily movements of female white-tailed deer relative to parturition and breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: To assess how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd demographics;\\u000ainfluence reproductive behaviors, we examined 24-h diel movements of female whitetailed;\\u000adeer relative to parturition and breeding in a low-density population with a near;\\u000aeven sex ratio at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. We conducted a series;\\u000aof intensive, 24-h radio-tracking periods of 13 females during spring and

Gino J. DAngelo; Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Cory D. Drennan; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller

2005-01-01

180

Effects of ketamine on carfentanil and xylazine immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a crossover design, the effects of the addition of ketamine to a previously determined optimal hand-injected immobilization dosage of carfentanil\\/xylazine were evaluated in 11 adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Two i.m. ketamine dosages were evaluated: 0.15 mg\\/kg (low ketamine) and 0.30 mg\\/kg (high ketamine). Each deer was immobilized twice 2 wk apart. Inductions were video recorded and reviewed by

Timothy N. Storms; Juergen Schumacher; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller; Edward C. Ramsay

2006-01-01

181

PREVALENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SARCOCYSTIS SPP. AMONG WHITE-TAILED DEER OF THE SOUTHEASTERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

JAMES M. (RUM and ANNIE K. PRESTWOOI), Southeastern ('ooperative Wildlifi' l)is-asi' Stud. I lepartmi'nt of Parasitiiliigv, (iilk'gt- if Veterinar Medicine, 1'he University if (eiirgia. Athens, Geiirgia II )bll2, ISA. Abstract: Sarcocysts were found by light microscopic examination of muscle in 199 (51%) of 390 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the southeastern United States. Sarcocystis infections were detected more frequently in

1982-01-01

182

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PREDATOR REMOVAL AND WHITE-TAILED DEER NET PRODUCTIVITY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the impact of predation on productivity of white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in South Texas by removing predators from one area and compar- ing the results to a control area. A total of 188 coyotes (Canis latrans) and 120 bobcats (Lynx rufus) were removed during predator removal efforts on the approximately 5,400-acre (2,186-ha) experimental

SAMUEL L. BEASOM

183

GnRH immunocontraception of male and female white-tailed deer fawns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunocontraceptive vaccines based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) have been tested in adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), but their effects on fawns are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if early immunization against GnRH would induce a long-lasting immune response in fawns, and if it would delay or prevent sexual development. We gave primary and subsequent booster injections

LOWELL A. MILLER; JAMES P. G IONFRIDDO; JACK C. RHYAN; KATHLEEN A. FAGERSTONE; DONALD C. WAGNER; GARY J. KILLIAN

184

Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (n=14 treated, n=7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated

Paul D. Curtis; Milo E. Richmond; Lowell A. Miller; Fred W. Quimby

2007-01-01

185

New infectious spirochete isolated from short-tailed shrews and white-footed mice.  

PubMed

A spirochete with two periplasmic flagella was isolated from the blood or tissues of spleens and kidneys from short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in Connecticut and Minnesota. After inoculation, the shrew-mouse spirochete infected Swiss mice and Syrian hamsters. This spirochete is morphologically and serologically distinct from the species of Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, and Spirochaeta examined. PMID:3305565

Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W; Andreadis, T G

1987-08-01

186

White-tailed deer vigilance: the influence of social and environmental factors.  

PubMed

Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer. PMID:24599090

Lashley, Marcus A; Chitwood, M Colter; Biggerstaff, Michael T; Morina, Daniel L; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

2014-01-01

187

Butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine for immobilization of captive white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Drug combinations are commonly used to immobilize white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for capture or handling. Although efficacy of various compatible and complementary drugs has been tested in clinical trials with deer, extensive negative side effects, impractical drug volume, and slow recovery from immobilization sometimes make these combinations less than ideal for routine field use. We hypothesized that a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) would provide safe and effective immobilization of captive white-tailed deer while minimizing these complicating factors. We tested two dosages of this drug combination (BAM-1 and BAM-2) and two dosages of a naltrexone, tolazoline, and atipamezole antagonist combination (NTA-1 and NTA-2) with captive white-tailed deer. We characterized efficacy of drug for immobilization, quality of drug induction, and recovery after drug reversal, and we compared our findings with those of previous drug trials. Complete immobilization and excellent induction quality was achieved with a low volume dosage of BAM-2. Time to drug induction and deer recumbency for BAM-2 compared favorably with results from previous trials involving xylaxine/ ketamine and medetomidine/ketamine but without risk of hyperthermia. We found no differences in time to deer recovery for NTA-1 and NTA-2, with deer treated with either combination standing by 30 min postinjection. Regardless of immobilizing drugs used, we suggest practitioners monitor for signs of circulatory deficiency in deer and provide supplemental oxygen when needed. PMID:19395755

Miller, Brad F; Osborn, David A; Lance, William R; Howze, M Brent; Warren, Robert J; Miller, Karl V

2009-04-01

188

Undernutrition and serum and urinary urea nitrogen of white-tailed deer during winter  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Direct, practical means of assessing undernutrition in deer (Odocoileus spp.) and other ungulates during winter are needed in areas of research and management. We examined the relationship between mass loss and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine (U:C) in captive white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). During 4 February-5 May 1988, we maintained 7 adult white-tailed deer on various feeding regimes to simulate natural nutritional restriction during winter. Mass loss was greater (P = 0.037) in deer (17.0-32.2%) fed restricted amounts of a low protein low energy diet versus control deer (7.0-17.4%) fed the same diet ad libitum. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations did not differ (P = 0.191) between groups, but declined (P = 0.001) as nutrition declined. Slopes of percent mass lossSUN and urinary U:C relationships were positive (P = 0.008 and 0.055) in 7 and 6 deer, respectively. Mean U:C was directly related (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.040) to mean cumulative mass loss, whereas mean SUN was not (r2 = 0.29, P = 0.125). Data presented support the potential of urinary U:C as an index of winter nutritional condition of white-tailed deer; however, additional research is required to provide a complete understanding of this index's utility under field conditions.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

1994-01-01

189

Sexual selection, feather breakage and parasites: the importance of white spots in the tail of the barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long outermost tail feathers of barn swallows Hirundo rustica have white spots that are larger in males than in females and in adults than in juveniles. Spot size increases with age among\\u000a adults and is positively correlated with tail length. We tested the functional significance of these white spots by randomly\\u000a assigning males to either of three groups during

Mati Kose; Anders Pape Møller

1999-01-01

190

Comparative nest habitat characteristics of sympatric White?tailed Haliaeetus albicilla and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in western Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule Golden and White?tailed Eagles selected different habitats for nesting.Aim To investigate differences in nesting habitat used by sympatrically breeding eagles in western Scotland, following reintroduction of White?tailed Eagles from 1975 onwards.Methods Nest?site locations from national surveys in 2003–05 were entered into a geographical information system (GIS) in order to measure a set of geographic parameters for each nest site.

Richard J. Evans; D. Philip Whitfield; Justin R. Grant; Alison MacLennan; Robin Reid

2010-01-01

191

SEROLOGICAL PREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF BABESIA ODOCOILE! AMONG WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN TEXAS AND OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples collected from 581 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Texas and from 124 white-tailed deer from Oklahoma were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique against Babesia odocoilei. Prevalence of seropositive reactors varied from site to site in both states. Prevalence rates were statistically ranked as high, intermediate or low. Deer <12-mo-old had a significantly lower prevalence than all

K. A. Waldrup; A. A. Kocan; T. Qureshi; D. S. Davis; D. Baggett; G. G. Wagner

192

Isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from Wild White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Confirms Their Role as Natural Reservoir Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular,

J. MITCHELL LOCKHART; WILLIAM R. DAVIDSON; DAVID E. STALLKNECHT; JACQUELINE E. DAWSON; ELIZABETH W. HOWERTH

1997-01-01

193

Habitat use and population fluctuations of white-tailed deer at La Copita Research Area, Jim Wells County, Texas  

E-print Network

HABITAT USE AND POPULATION FLUCTUATIONS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER AT LA COPITA RESEARCH AREA, JIM WELLS COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by PATRICK BRENDAN WALSH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences HABITAT USE AND POPULATION FLUCTUATIONS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER AT LA COPITA RESEARCH AREA, JIM WELLS COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by PATRICK BRENDAN WALSH...

Walsh, Patrick Brendan

2012-06-07

194

Prevalence of Sarcocystis odocoileocanis from White-tailed Deer in Alabama and its Attempted Transmission to Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocysts of Sarcocystis odocoile- ocani.s were found in tissue sections of hearts and tongues examined by light microscopy from 30 (88%) of 34 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Hearts were infected less often (13 of 34, 38%) than were tongues (30 of 34, 88%). Sarcocysts of Sarcocystis odoi were not observed in the white-tailed deer examined. A gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus

David S. Lindsay; Byron L. Blagburn; William H. Mason; John C. Frandsen

1988-01-01

195

Breeding habitat selection of sympatric White-tailed, Rock and Willow Ptarmigan in the southern Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined breeding habitat selection at two scales for White-tailed (Lagopus leucura), Rock (L. muta), and Willow Ptarmigan (L. lagopus) at an alpine site in the Ruby Range Mountains of the Yukon Territory, Canada. To infer species-specific preferences, we\\u000a used logistic regression and AIC model selection to compare nest habitat of White-tailed (n = 43) and Rock Ptarmigan (n = 58). Only descriptive statistics

Scott Wilson; Kathy Martin

2008-01-01

196

TIDAL TAIL EJECTION AS A SIGNATURE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM WHITE DWARF MERGERS  

SciTech Connect

The merger of two white dwarfs may be preceded by the ejection of some mass in ''tidal tails,'' creating a circumstellar medium around the system. We consider the variety of observational signatures from this material, which depend on the lag time between the start of the merger and the ultimate explosion (assuming one occurs) of the system in a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). If the time lag is fairly short, then the interaction of the supernova ejecta with the tails could lead to detectable shock emission at radio, optical, and/or X-ray wavelengths. At somewhat later times, the tails produce relatively broad NaID absorption lines with velocity widths of the order of the white dwarf escape speed ({approx}1000 km s{sup -1}). That none of these signatures have been detected in normal SNe Ia constrains the lag time to be either very short ({approx}< 100 s) or fairly long ({approx}> 100 yr). If the tails have expanded and cooled over timescales {approx}10{sup 4} yr, then they could be observable through narrow NaID and Ca II H and K absorption lines in the spectra, which are seen in some fraction of SNe Ia. Using a combination of three-dimensional and one-dimensional hydrodynamical codes, we model the mass loss from tidal interactions in binary systems, and the subsequent interactions with the interstellar medium, which produce a slow-moving, dense shell of gas. We synthesize NaID line profiles by ray casting through this shell, and show that in some circumstances tidal tails could be responsible for narrow absorptions similar to those observed.

Raskin, Cody; Kasen, Daniel [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2013-07-20

197

COMPARISON OF TWO AUTOMATED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL PROCEDURES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF SCRAPIE IN DOMESTIC SHEEP AND CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN NORTH AMERICAN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AND MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of sheep and cervid ruminants respectively. These diseases are often diagnosed by immunohistochemistry using one or a cocktail of two monoclonal antibodies on an automated immunostainer that delivers commercially avai...

198

FAMILIARITY BREEDS CONTEMPT: COMBINING PROXIMITY LOGGERS AND GPS REVEALS FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER AVOIDING CLOSE CONTACT WITH NEIGHBORS.  

PubMed

Abstract Social interactions can influence infectious disease dynamics, particularly for directly transmitted pathogens. Therefore, reliable information on contact frequency within and among groups can better inform disease modeling and management. We compared three methods of assessing contact patterns: (1) space-use overlap (volume of interaction [VI]), (2) direct contact rates measured by simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) locations (<10 m apart), and (3) direct contact rates measured by proximity loggers (PLs; 1-m detection) among female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We calculated the PL?GPS contact ratios to see whether both devices reveal similar contact patterns and thus predict similar pathogen transmission patterns. Contact rates measured by GPS and PLs were similarly high for two within-group dyads (pairs of deer in the same social groups). Dyads representing separate but neighboring groups (high VI) had PL?GPS contact ratios near zero, whereas dyads further apart (intermediate VI) had higher PL?GPS contact ratios. Social networks based on PL contacts showed the fewest connected individuals and lowest mean centrality measures; network metrics were intermediate when based on GPS contacts and greatest when based on VI. Thus, the VI network portrayed animals to be more uniformly and strongly connected than did the PL network. We conclude that simultaneous GPS locations, compared with PLs, substantially underestimate the impact of group membership on direct contact rates of female deer and make networks appear more connected. We also found evidence that deer coming within the general vicinity of each other are less likely to come in close contact if they are in neighboring social groups than deer whose home ranges overlap little if at all. Combined, these results provide evidence that direct transmission of disease agents among female and juvenile white-tailed deer is likely to be constrained both spatially and by social structure, more so than GPS data alone would suggest. PMID:25398000

Tosa, Marie I; Schauber, Eric M; Nielsen, Clayton K

2014-11-14

199

Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

2010-01-01

200

Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

Cully, Jack F; Johnson, Tammi L; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris

2010-01-01

201

HumanWildlife Conflicts 3(1):129135, Spring 2009 White-tailed deer attacking humans during  

E-print Network

Human­Wildlife Conflicts 3(1):129­135, Spring 2009 White-tailed deer attacking humans during the fawning season: a unique human­wildlife conflict on a university campus RYAN D. HUBBARD1 , Southern, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA kezo92@siu.edu Abstract: Human­wildlife conflicts associated with suburban white

202

CORRELATION OF CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION WITH PATHOLOGY IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) INFECTED WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium bovis infected white-tailed deer (WTD) were detected in northeast Michigan in 1994. Subsequent surveys revealed a focus of infection that represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in North America. Relatively little work has been done to characterize the immune response of white...

203

53 WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 6:1 (2000) Using cast antler characteristics to profile quality of white-tailed  

E-print Network

53© WILDLIFE BIOLOGY · 6:1 (2000) Using cast antler characteristics to profile quality of white. Lochmiller Ditchkoff, S.S., Welch, E.R., Jr. & Lochmiller, R.L. 2000: Using cast antler characteristics to profile quality of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus populations. - Wildl. Biol. 6: 53-58. Cast

Ditchkoff, Steve

204

Comparing protein and energy status of winter-fed white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although nutritional status in response to controlled feeding trials has been extensively studied in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), there remains a considerable gap in understanding the influence of variable supplemental feeding protocols on free-ranging deer. Consequently, across the northern portion of the white-tailed deer range, numerous property managers are investing substantial resources into winter supplemental-feeding programs without adequate tools to assess the nutritional status of their populations. We studied the influence of a supplemental winter feeding gradient on the protein and energy status of free-ranging white-tailed deer in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. We collected blood and fecal samples from 31 captured fawns across 3 sites that varied considerably in the frequency, quantity, and method of supplemental feed distribution. To facilitate population-wide comparisons, we collected fresh fecal samples off the snow at each of the 3 sites with supplemental feeding and 1 reference site where no feeding occurred. Results indicated that the method of feed distribution, in addition to quantity and frequency, can affect the nutritional status of deer. The least intensively fed population showed considerable overlap in diet quality with the unfed population in a principal components ordination, despite the substantial time and financial resources invested in the feeding program. Data from fecal samples generally denoted a gradient in diet quality and digestibility that corresponded with the availability of supplements. Our results further demonstrated that fecal nitrogen and fecal fiber, indices of dietary protein and digestibility, can be estimated using regressions of fecal pellet mass, enabling a rapid qualitative assessment of diet quality.

Page, B.D.; Underwood, H.B.

2006-01-01

205

Genome Sequence of a Presumptive Mannheimia haemolytica Strain with an A1/A6-Cross-Reactive Serotype from a White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Mannheimia haemolytica is a Gram-negative bacterium and the principal etiological agent associated mostly with bovine respiratory disease complex. However, we report here the sequence of a strain with the novel A1/A6-cross-reactive serotype, strain PKL10, isolated from white-tailed deer. PKL10 was isolated from the spleen of farmed white-tailed deer showing clinical signs of pneumonia. The genome structure of PKL10 is dramatically different from that of previously sequenced isolates, which was demonstrated by genome alignments. In addition, the coding sequences in PKL10 share approximately 86% sequence identity with the coding sequences in other fully sequenced M. haemolytica strains. This suggests that PKL10 is a novel Mannheimia species. PMID:24675846

Lawrence, Paulraj K; Bey, Russell F; Wiener, Brittanny; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Bumgarner, Roger E

2014-01-01

206

Genome Sequence of a Presumptive Mannheimia haemolytica Strain with an A1/A6-Cross-Reactive Serotype from a White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Mannheimia haemolytica is a Gram-negative bacterium and the principal etiological agent associated mostly with bovine respiratory disease complex. However, we report here the sequence of a strain with the novel A1/A6-cross-reactive serotype, strain PKL10, isolated from white-tailed deer. PKL10 was isolated from the spleen of farmed white-tailed deer showing clinical signs of pneumonia. The genome structure of PKL10 is dramatically different from that of previously sequenced isolates, which was demonstrated by genome alignments. In addition, the coding sequences in PKL10 share approximately 86% sequence identity with the coding sequences in other fully sequenced M. haemolytica strains. This suggests that PKL10 is a novel Mannheimia species. PMID:24675846

Bey, Russell F.; Wiener, Brittanny; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Bumgarner, Roger E.

2014-01-01

207

Experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.  

PubMed

Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with contagious ecthyma. The limited clinical responses to the virus indicated that contagious ecthyma would not seriously impact free-ranging individuals. PMID:6685778

Lance, W R; Hibler, C P; DeMartini, J

1983-07-01

208

Notes and Discussion: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.

2000-01-01

209

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.

2000-01-01

210

Twenty-year Home-range Dynamics of a White-tailed Deer Matriline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted five newly online resources at the Center's homepage. These scientific articles were originally published in print journals, but are fully (and freely) available here, complete with figures. The second resource, by Michael E. Nelson and L. David Mech, was published in 1999 in Canadian Journal of Zoology [77:1128-1135]. The paper examines home-range dynamics and seasonal migration of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) matriline. All papers may be downloaded as .zip files.

211

Relationship between snow depth and gray wolf predation on white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Survival of 203 yearling and adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was monitored for 23,441 deer days from January through April 1975-85 in northeastern Minnesota. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) predation was the primary mortality cause, and from year to year during this period, the mean predation rate ranged from 0.00 to 0.29. The sum of weekly snow depths/month explained 51% of the variation in annual wolf predation rate, with the highest predation during the deepest snow.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1986-01-01

212

Heavy metals in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.

1985-01-01

213

Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.

1985-01-01

214

Control of Ticks on White-tailed Deer and Other Ungulate Wildlife - Host-targeted Control of Field Populations of Blacklegged and Lone Star Ticks to Reduce the Risk of Tick-borne Disease Transmission  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the continuing progression of blacklegged ticks and the agents causing Lyme disease from infestations in Maryland southward into Virginia, many citizens living in northern Virginia have asked the Governor for ARS-Patented ‘4-Poster’ Deer Treatment Stations to be deployed as an aid in reducing t...

215

Winter fasting and refeeding effects on urine characteristics in white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary characteristics of 9 captive, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Urinary sodium (na) and potassium (K) were diminished in fasted deer after 2 and 4 weeks. Renal excretion of Na and K were lower, whereas urinary phosphorus (P) was higher in fasted deer compared to deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) diets. Urinary P excretion of the fasted deer was also greater than in a low protein-high energy (LPHE)-fed group. Urinary area excretion of fasted deer was similar to that of deer fed low and high protein diets. One fasted deer died during the study and exhibited notably high excretion of urea, Na, K, and calcium (Ca). No effects of the 2 levels of dietary protein on urinary characteristics were detected. Urinary Na:C and K:C ratios wer significantly correlated with Na and K intake. Urinalysis has potential as a sensitive means of monitoring the nutritional status of white-tailed deer. Data are presented as reference values for interpretation of data from deer under less controlled circumstances.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

1987-01-01

216

Factors influencing reproduction of female white-tailed deer on the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Data were taken on 1103 pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina from 1965--1985 to describe temporal, age-specific, and habitat effects on fetal number. Time periods represented intervals of high and low density. Age significantly affected fetal number both with and without the data from fawns included. Low fetal numbers in yearlings and a high incidence of twinning in older deer were responsible for this effect. Mean number of fetuses per pregnant doe for the 0.5 year old deer (/bar X/ = 1.06) was less than for 1.5 (/bar X/ = 1.56), 2.5 (/bar X/ = 1.73), and greater than or equal to3.5 (/bar X/ = 1.76) year age classes. Temporal and age-specific effects on fetal number among time periods were significant using data from all age classes. These effects were probably not due to density-dependent feedback mechanisms, but to a sampling bias due to differential representation of age classes or habitat of origin in the statistical analyses. Significant differences were observed in fetal numbers between females from the swamp and upland areas both with and without fawn data. Differences between the densities and/or habitat quality in the 2 areas were responsible for this effect. Data were gathered on 2542 female white-tailed deer harvested on the SRP from 1967 to 1985. 48 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Rhodes, O.E. Jr.

1987-05-01

217

Daily movements of female white-tailed deer relative to parturition and breeding.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: To assess how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd demographics influence reproductive behaviors, we examined 24-h diel movements of female whitetailed deer relative to parturition and breeding in a low-density population with a near even sex ratio at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. We conducted a series of intensive, 24-h radio-tracking periods of 13 females during spring and fall 2002. We compared daily range (ha), rate of travel (m/h), and distance between extreme daily locations (m), among the periods of pre-parturition and post-parturition and pre-, peak-, and post-rut. From pre-parturition to post-parturition, we observed decreases in diel range size (�¢����38.2%), distance between extreme diel locations (�¢����17.0%), and diel rate of travel (�¢����18.2%). Diel range size, distance between extreme diel locations, and diel rate of travel during the pre-rut and rut exceeded those observed during post-rut. We further identified substantial increases in mobility during 12 24-h diel periods for eight females during our fall monitoring. Our data suggest that female white-tailed deer reduce mobility post-fawning following exaggerated movements during pre-parturition. Furthermore, despite a near equal sex ratio, estrous does may be required to actively seek potential mates due to low population density.

Gino J. D'Angelo; Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Cory D. Drennan; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller

2005-10-01

218

Movement patterns of rural and suburban white-tailed deer in Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used satellite land cover data and the program FRAGSTATS toquantify land cover types and calculate the amount of forest edge available in suburban and rural regions of northeastern and northwestern Massachusetts. Cover categories included forest cover, open canopy vegetation, and non-deer habitat. We calculated all edge segments where forest cover abutted open canopy cover. Our open canopy vegetation category was calculated both with and without low intensity suburban development. We then compared these findings to movement data from 53 (13 males, 40 females) adult radio-marked white-tailed deerOdocoileus virginianusmonitored biweekly and diurnally from January 2001 to January 2003. The range of movements of suburban deer in eastern Massachusetts showed no difference to that of suburban deer in western Massachusetts (P = 0.7). However, the ranges for suburban deer in both eastern and western Massachusetts were 10 times less than those of deer in rural western Massachusetts (P = 0.001).Our findings suggest that landscape configuration, as described by the amount and distribution of edge due to suburban development, which is related to the amount and distribution of resources such as food and cover, affects migratory behavior of white-tailed deer, allowsdeer to have smaller ranges, and contributes to high deer densities.Inclusion of suburban edge in habitat models will increase our understanding of deer-habitat relationships for management of deer in urbanizing environments. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

Gaughan, C.R.; DeStefano, S.

2005-01-01

219

WILDLIFE DISEASES SURVEILLANCE TO DETECT CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN  

E-print Network

of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer wasting disease, disease surveillance, Odocoileus virginianus, white- tailed deer, Wisconsin. INTRODUCTION), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus) associated with the presence

Mladenoff, David

220

Identification of a Mycoplasma ovis-like organism in a herd of farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in rural Indiana.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma ovis is a hemoplasma parasite of sheep, goats, and reindeer; however, natural hemoplasma infection in white-tailed deer has not previously been reported. Subsequent to finding many coccoid, bacillary, and ring-shaped organisms, consistent with hemotropic mycoplasmas, on RBCs from a 72-day-old female white-tailed fawn, we sought to (1) identify the putative hemoplasma observed in blood from the fawn, (2) evaluate others in the herd for hemoplasma infection, and (3) identify clinicopathologic characteristics of hemoplasma-infected white-tailed deer. EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood was collected from the fawn and 8 apparently healthy does in the same herd. CBCs were performed on 7 nonclotted samples from the fawn and 6 does. DNA was extracted from all samples, followed by PCR amplification of bacterial (16S rDNA) and protozoal (18S rDNA) genes. The nearly complete 16S rDNA product from the fawn's sample was directly sequenced and compared with known sequences in the GenBank database. Samples from the fawn and 7 of 8 does were PCR-positive using hemoplasma-specific and M ovis-specific protocols. The fawn was PCR-negative for Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., and Theileria spp. The 16S rDNA sequence from the fawn (GenBank accession number, FJ824847) was most closely related to M ovis (AF338268), having 98.5% sequence identity. The fawn had a mild nonregenerative anemia, a neutrophilic left-shift with toxic change, aspiration bronchopneumonia, and gastrointestinal disease. Hematologic values, including blood film evaluation, in infected does were unremarkable. The M ovis-like organism may have acted as either an opportunistic or primary pathogen in the fawn. The high occurrence of subclinical infections in the does suggests that white-tailed deer may act as wildlife reservoirs for M ovis. PMID:22112325

Boes, Katie M; Goncarovs, Kristina O; Thompson, Craig A; Halik, Lindsay A; Santos, Andrea P; Guimaraes, Ana M S; Feutz, Marybeth Miskovic; Holman, Patricia J; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Messick, Joanne B

2012-03-01

221

SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY IN FREE-RANGING MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HE\\/Id\\/ONUS), WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSON\\/) IN NORTHCENTRAL COLORADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between March 1981 and June 1995, a neurological disease characterized histolog- ically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral Colorado (USA). Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and ac- counted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six Rocky Mountain elk (Cerous eluphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus oirginianus) were also

T. R. Spraker; M. W. Miller; E. S. Williams; D. M. Getzy; W. J. Adrian; G. G. Schoonveld; R. A. Spowart; K. I. O'Rourke; J. M. Miller; P. A. Merz

222

White matter lesions in Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Pure vascular parkinsonism without evidence of nigral Lewy body pathology may occur as a distinct clinicopathological entity, but a much more frequent occurrence is the comorbid presence of age-associated white matter lesions (WMLs) in idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). WMLs are associated with motor and cognitive symptoms in otherwise normal elderly individuals. Comorbid WMLs are, therefore, expected to contribute to clinical symptoms in PD. Studies of WMLs in PD differ with regard to methods of assessment of WML burden and the patient populations selected for analysis, but converging evidence suggests that postural stability and gait motor functions are predominantly affected. WMLs are described to contribute to dementia in Alzheimer disease, and emerging but inconclusive evidence indicates similar effects in PD. In this article, we review the literature addressing the occurrence and impact of WMLs in PD, and suggest that WMLs may exacerbate or contribute to some motor and cognitive deficits associated with PD. We review existing and emerging methods for studying white matter pathology in vivo, and propose future research directions. PMID:21343896

Bohnen, Nicolaas I.; Albin, Roger L.

2013-01-01

223

CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS TYPE A ENTEROTOXEMIA IN A CAPTIVE ADULT WHITE-TAILED DEER --On the morning of 6 June 2005, a captive adult  

E-print Network

197 CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS TYPE A ENTEROTOXEMIA IN A CAPTIVE ADULT WHITE-TAILED DEER -- On the morning of 6 June 2005, a captive adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was found dead at the South Dakota State University (SDSU) Wildlife Research Facility, where a captive deer herd of approxi

224

Preliminary findings of a molecular survey for the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle fever ticks and white-tailed deer from south Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White-tailed deer are an alternative host for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, collectively referred to as cattle fever ticks. Dense white-tailed deer populations in south Texas complicate efforts by the National Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program to keep the U.S. free o...

225

Antleroma in a Free-ranging White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

A 2-year-old male free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was diagnosed with bilateral expansile tumors of antler origin. The deer was found dead by a landowner in High Springs, Florida. Two roughly spherical, multilobular, broad-based, bony, velvet-covered masses originated from each antler pedicle. These masses replaced or displaced many of the bones and soft tissues of the skull and extended through the left cribriform plate and the right petrous temporal bone, compressing portions of the brain. Microscopically, the masses closely resembled normal-growing antler, containing all the elements thereof but with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage suggestive of ischemi or trauma. Tumorlike outgrowths termed antleromas have been described in free-ranging and captive cervids and typically are associated with disruptions in the seasonal rise and fall of circulating testosterone necessary for normal antler growth, casting, and regeneration. PMID:24686388

Munk, B A; Garrison, E; Clemons, B; Keel, M Kevin

2015-01-01

226

Aerial tracking of radio-marked white-tailed tropicbirds over the Caribbean Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We radio-marked nesting white-tailed tropicbirds at Culebra National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico, and tracked them from a Cessna 182 during flights over the open sea. Locations of the birds were determined using standard aerial telemetry techniques for side-facing Yagi antennas. We used strut-mounted, 4-element Yagi antennas connected to a switchbox and scanning receiver. By recording bearing and distance from at least 1 of 3 aeronautical navigation beacons, the position of the aircraft and the bird could be estimated with an error of about 2 km. On several occasions we plotted the general heading of a bird and then relocated and tracked the same bird on the following day. Our method of aerial tracking and navigation was useful for tracking birds over the sea to at least 116 km from the breeding colony

Fuller, M.R.; Obrecht, H.H., III; Pennycuick, C.J.; Schaffner, F.C.

1989-01-01

227

Effects of winter fasting and refeeding on white-tailed deer blood profiles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examined the effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on blood characteristics of 9 nonpregnant, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in captivity from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Percent weight loss was greater in fasted deer than in deer fed diets of 2 crude protein levels. Fasting effects were also observed for hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), cholesterol, triglycerides, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), potassium (K), glucose, phosphorus (P), insulin, thyroxine (T4), and total protein (TP). Refeeding influenced cholesterol, sodium (Na), and calcium (Ca). Hemoglobin, PCV, Ca, P, and albumin varied with time in fasted deer. Changes over time in the fed deer occurred for several hematological and serum characteristics. Data are presented to serve as reference values for better understanding of data collected from free-ranging deer under less known conditions.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

1987-01-01

228

Prevalence of antibody titers to leptospira spp. in Minnesota white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Serum samples (n = 204) from 124 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota (USA) were collected from 1984 through 1989 and tested for antibodies to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohemorrhagiae, and pomona) using a microtiter agglutination test. Eighty-eight (43%) sera were positive at greater than or equal to 1:100 for antibodies against serovars pomona and/or bratislava; none was positive for any of the other four serovars. None of the 31 sera collected in 1984-85 was positive, whereas all 54 sera collected from 1986 through 1988 had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. During 1989, only 34 (29%) of 119 sera had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. Based on these results, we believe there to be wide variability in exposure of Minnesota deer to Leptospira interrogans.

Goyal, S.M.; Mech, L.D.; Nelson, M.E.

1992-01-01

229

Hepatic mineral values of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Virginia.  

PubMed

There is a lack of information on mineral requirements of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). In addition, mineral deficiencies or excesses may play a role in the development of parasitism/malnutrition syndrome. We measured hepatic mineral values in apparently healthy white-tailed deer from two sites in Virginia, USA, as well as in deer with presumptive parasitism/malnutrition syndrome during 2005-2007. Deer with presumptive parasitism/malnutrition syndrome that were displaying signs of emaciation and chronic diarrhea had significantly higher mean hepatic levels of magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) compared with healthy deer. Healthy deer in our study from northern Virginia, USA (i.e., Fairfax, Fauquier, Loudoun, and Prince William counties) had significantly lower mean hepatic selenium (Se) levels compared with deer from Nottoway County, Virginia, USA, which is 200 km distant. Healthy deer from northern Virginia, USA, also had significantly lower mean hepatic cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo) levels. Adult deer had significantly higher mean levels of hepatic iron (Fe) compared with fawns. In addition, male deer had significantly higher mean hepatic Co levels compared with female deer. The significantly higher mean (+/-SD) level of Zn in sick deer from northern Virginia, USA (78.7+/-54.9 microg/g versus 35.8+/-7.4 microg/g in healthy deer) is potentially clinically significant, although no signs consistent with Zn poisoning were observed. All deer in our study from northern Virginia, USA, had marginal or deficient levels of Cu (mean+/-SD=27.4+/-18.3 microg/g) and Se (mean=0.08+/-0.03 microg/g), which may be predisposing this population to the development of parasitism/malnutrition syndrome. PMID:20688645

Sleeman, Jonathan M; Magura, Karl; Howell, Jay; Rohm, John; Murphy, Lisa A

2010-04-01

230

The Effects of Population Density on Juvenile Growth Rate in White-Tailed Deer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer growth and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of growth rate to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates growth rate only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in growth rate over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in growth rate. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in growth rate that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal growth and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn.

Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve

2014-10-01

231

Predation of artificial ground nests on white-tailed prairie dog colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies are unique to prairie and shrub-steppe landscapes. However, widespread eradication, habitat loss, and sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) have reduced their numbers by 98% since historical times. Birds associated with prairie dogs also are declining. Potential nest predators, such as coyotes (Canis latrans), swift foxes (Vulpes velox), and badgers (Taxidea taxus), may be attracted to colonies where a high concentration of prairie dogs serve as available prey. Increased abundance of small mammals, including prairie dogs, also may increase the risk of predation for birds nesting on colonies. Finally, because grazing by prairie dogs may decrease vegetation height and canopy cover, bird nests may be easier for predators to locate. In this study, we placed 1,444 artificial ground nests on and off 74 white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) colonies to test the hypothesis that nest predation rates are higher on colonies than at nearby off sites (i.e., uncolonized habitat). We sampled colonies from 27 May to 16 July 1997 at the following 3 complexes: Coyote Basin, Utah and Colorado; Moxa Arch, Wyoming; and Shirley Basin, Wyoming. Differences in daily predation rates between colonies and paired off sites averaged 1.0% (P = 0.060). When converted to a typical 14-day incubation period, predation rates averaged 14% higher on colonies (57.7 ?? 2.7%; ?? ?? SE) than at off sites (50.4 ?? 3.1%). Comparisons of habitat variables on colonies to off sites showed percent canopy cover of vegetation was similar (P = 0.114), percent bare ground was higher on colonies (P 0.288). Although we found the risk of nest predation was higher on white-tailed prairie dog colonies than at off sites, fitness of birds nesting on colonies might depend on other factors that influence foraging success, reproductive success, or nestling survival.

Baker, B.W.; Stanley, T.R.; Sedgwick, J.A.

1999-01-01

232

Kidney structure and function of obligate and facultative hibernators: the white-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus) and the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).  

PubMed

The white-tailed prairie dog is an obligate hibernator that enters a heterothermic phase when maintained in the cold with low intensity light and ad libitum food and water. The black-tailed prairie dog (a facultative hibernator) will not hibernate under similar conditions. It has been suggested that the black tailed prairie dog remains active during the winter because it can conserve water more effectively due to a more efficient kidney. The present study revealed no significant differences between the species in renal morphology: relative medullary thickness, nephron heterogeneity, renal vasculature, or fornix dimensions, all of which are structures associated with the urinary concentrating mechanism. In addition, there was no difference in number of nephrons between the two species. The black-tailed prairie dog does produce a more concentrated urine when food and water deprived. However, this difference was not observed when the animals were salt loaded. The water-deprivation and salt-loading experiments suggest that the higher urine osmolality produced by the back-tailed prairie dog during fasting is a result of a higher urea load due to a greater protein catabolism and not because of a differential capacity to concentrate urine. PMID:7560310

Harlow, H J; Braun, E J

1995-01-01

233

Total and methylmercury in soft tissues of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) collected in Poland.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) contamination in piscivorous birds, especially methylmercury (MeHg), has been drawing much attention worldwide in regard to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. In this study on Hg in the soft tissues of white-tailed eagles (n = 22) and ospreys (n = 2) from Poland, total Hg (THg) range was 0.15-47.6 while MeHg range was 0.11-8.05 mg kg?¹ dry weight. In both species, median THg and MeHg concentrations were lower in the muscle and brain than in the liver and kidney. Median nephric residues were just under 3 and 5 mgTHg kg?¹ or 0.9 and 3.7 mgMeHg kg?¹ for white-tailed eagle and osprey, respectively. In Norwegian data from the 1970s and in our results, MeHg in the muscle of white-tailed eagle was ~60 % THg (%MeHg = MeHg/THg × 100), lower than in other piscivorous birds. A clear similarity in THg tissue levels was found between Polish and German populations of white-tailed eagles. PMID:24870933

Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Gorecki, Jerzy; Lanocha, Natalia; Okonska, Anna; Melgarejo, Javier B; Budis, Halina; Rzad, Izabella; Golas, Jerzy

2014-11-01

234

Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and

Christopher Shannon Deperno

1998-01-01

235

Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.  

PubMed

Sera collected from 299 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested in New York State by hunters in November 2010 were assayed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. White-tailed deer are a useful sentinel for risk of human and domestic animal exposure to Toxoplasma oocysts and pose a potential risk for infection to humans and other animals by ingestion of the meat. White-tailed deer share grazing space with domestic animals raised for meat and are likely to be exposed by horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption, similar to other grazing species of economic concern. Overall, 42.2% of samples were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating a true prevalence of 38.5%, with a significantly higher proportion of adult than immature deer antibody positive. No significant difference in prevalence was found between male and female deer nor was there a significant effect of local human population density on deer antibody prevalence. These results provide insight into the risk of environmental Toxoplasma exposure in New York State and support horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption as the most common mechanism of white-tailed deer infection. PMID:24502721

Schaefer, John J; Kirchgessner, Megan S; Whipps, Christopher M; Mohammed, Hussni O; Bunting, Elizabeth M; Wade, Susan E

2013-10-01

236

SEROCONVERSION RATES TO JAMESTOWN CANYON VIRUS AMONG SIX POPULATIONS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN INDIANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual seroconversion of fawns, yearlings, and adult white-tailed deer (Odocoi- leus virginianus) to Jamestown Canyon virus (California group) was followed at six Indiana sites from 1981 through 1984. In all, sera from 1,642 deer (515 fawns, 618 yearlings, and 509 adults) were tested for neutralizing antibody to three California serogroup viruses: Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, and trivittatus. Virtually all

Robert D. Boromisa; Paul R. Grimstad

237

Forest regeneration and the influences of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) in cool temperate New Zealand rain forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cool temperate rain forests on Stewart Island, southern New Zealand, have had little direct human modification, but introduced white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have influenced forest understoreys. Changes in life stages (seedlings, saplings and adult trees) of common tree and shrub species were recorded over at least 18 years in permanent plots in these forests. Faecal pellet indices of deer frequency

P. J Bellingham; C. N Allan

2003-01-01

238

Correlation of Cytokine Gene Expression with Pathology in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer (WTD) in northeast Michigan are a reservoir of mycobacteria that pose a threat to both domestic animals and humans. Relatively little work has been done to characterize the immune response of WTD to M. bovis infection; however, an understanding of the immune response to infection and pathogenesis may be critical to the development of an effective

Tyler C. Thacker; Mitchell V. Palmer; W. Ray Waters

2006-01-01

239

Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Hybridization between Sympatric White-Tailed Deer and Mule Deer in West Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sympatric populations of white-tailed deer and mule deer (Odocoileus virginianus and Odocoileus hemionus, respectively) on a west Texas ranch share a common mitochondrial DNA restriction map genotype. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this genotype is more characteristic of O. virginianus than of O. hemionus. The genotype of west Texas deer differs from that of O. virginianus from South Carolina by five

Steven M. Carr; Scott W. Ballinger; James N. Derr; Lytle H. Blankenship; John W. Bickham

1986-01-01

240

Browse Preference and Browsing Intensity of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Allegheny High Plateau Riparian Forests, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and

Eric V. Mosbacher; Charles Williams

2009-01-01

241

Nesting of the black stork ( Ciconia nigra) and white-tailed eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla) in relation to forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1957, 200m zones around known nests of the black stork (Ciconia nigra) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) have been strictly protected in Estonia. Yet, the black stork population has recently suffered a large decline, which coincides with the intensification of forestry. To check whether higher disturbance levels could have caused the decline, we related the extent of forestry operations

Raul Rosenvald; Asko Lõhmus

2003-01-01

242

Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla collected in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners including highly toxic non-, mono-, and di-ortho coplanar members as well as their pattern were determined in breast muscles of white-tailed sea eagles collected dead between 1982 and 1990 in Poland. There was a wide variation in total PCB residue concentrations among eagles from various breeding sites, with the Baltic Sea coast registering

J. Falandysz; N. Yamashita; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; L. Rucifiska; T. Mizera; B. Jakuczun

1994-01-01

243

Oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccina...

244

Short-term Care of White-tailed Deer Fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) in a Conventional Laboratory Animal Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory animal medicine professionals are often required to develop husbandry practices for species not com- monly considered for use as laboratory animals. Although protocols exist for management of captive white-tailed deer in an outdoor facility, it was necessary to modify those procedures to house fawns in an indoor facility. Four abandoned fawns were acquired through a cooperative effort with the

LON V. KENDALL; MARY J. KENNETT; RICHARD E. FISH

1998-01-01

245

Testing a molasses-based bait for oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against Mycobacterium bovis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA are wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) with documented spread to cattle. In vaccine efficacy trials, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) administered orally reduces colonization and bTB-associated lesions in whi...

246

SURVIVAL OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS ON FEEDSTUFFS COMMONLY USED AS SUPPLEMENTAL FEED FOR WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has become established in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan. Although, it is generally accepted that deer were originally infected with M. bovis through contact with cattle, deer to deer and deer to catt...

247

Prey switching and feeding habits of eastern coyotes in relation to snowshoe hare and white-tailed deer densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) availability on the feeding habits of coyotes ( Canis latrans) in Nova Scotia from 1992 to 1997. We hypothesized that coyotes would switch from deer to hare as hare abundance increased. Based on the analysis of 2443 scats, deer and hare were the dominant food items.

Brent R. Patterson; Lawrence K. Benjamin; François Messier

1998-01-01

248

Head space analysis to non-invasively distinguish between vaccinated and bovine tuberculosis-infected white-tailed deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) can act as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Presently, no method exists to noninvasively monitor the presence of bTB in wildlife. In addition, due to similarities betw...

249

Occurrence, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White tailed deer (WTD) is an important reservoir host for Toxoplasma gondii. Each yr hundreds of thousands WTD are hunted or die in road accidents in the U.S.A. Humans and animals can become infected with T. gondii by eating infected venison. Wild felids that eat infected deer tissues can shed oocy...

250

Sensitive detection of PrPCWD in rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue from preclinical white-tailed deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in four white-tailed deer test populations: from Wisconsin, a sample of free-ranging deer and a captive herd; and from Saskatchewan, Canada, two captive herds. Th...

251

White-tailed Deer Browsing and Rubbing Preferences for Trees and Shrubs That Produce Nontimber Forest Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nontimber forest products (food, herbal medicinals, and woody floral and handicraft products) produced in forest, agroforestry, and horticultural systems can be important sources of income to landowners. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can reduce the quality, quantity, and profitability of forest products by browsing twigs and rubbing stems, resulting in direct and indirect losses to production enterprises. We evaluated deer damage

Scott E. Hygnstrom; Peter D. Skelton; Scott J. Josiah; Jason M. Gilsdorf; Dallas R. Virchow; James A. Brandle; Anil K. Jayaprakash; Kent M. Eskridge; Kurt C. VerCauteren

2009-01-01

252

Investigations on the aetiology of pinching off syndrome in four white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the aetiology of the pinching off syndrome (POS), a generalized feather abnormality affecting free-living nestling of the white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Europe. For the first time, extensive clinical, haematological, biochemical, virological, bacteriological, nutritional, histopathological, parasitological and electron microscopical examinations were performed on three females and one male suffering from POS.

Kerstin Müller; Elvira Schettler; Helga Gerlach; Leo Brunnberg; Hafez Mohamed Hafez; Kim Hattermann; Reimar Johne; Rainer Kollmann; Oliver Krone; Michael Lierz; Sonja Linke; Dörte Lueschow; Annette Mankertz; Hermann Müller; Christina Prusas; Rüdiger Raue; Dirk Soike; Stephanie Speck; Petra Wolf; Kai Frölich

2007-01-01

253

Evaluation of Blood Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium Bovis in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) in Michigan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surveillance and control activities for bovine tuberculosis (TB) in free-ranging Michigan white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been underway for over a decade, with significant progress. However, foci of higher TB prevalence on private land, and limited agency ability to eliminate them ...

254

Serum 25-Hydroxvitamin D Concentrations in Captive and Free-Ranging, White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ABSTRACT: Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined for free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus). Effects of gender, season, and age on 25(OH)D concentrations were determined as well as comparisons to concentrations in serum from captive re...

255

THE IMPACT OF TRANSLOCATION AND RESTOCKING PROGRAMS ON THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN MISSISSIPPI.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The majority of wildlife population genetics studies have focused on model species representing threatened or endangered populations. However, there are several species that exemplify remarkable "success stories" due to past conservation efforts, but have received little attention. White-tailed de...

256

White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  

PubMed Central

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P = 0.002), axial (P = 0.0003) and radial (P = 0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (P < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons), with a generally symmetric pattern of involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P = 0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean diffusivity, however, was apparent visibly on the quantitative attenuation coefficient maps compared to healthy control subjects. Neuropathological analysis showed diffuse astrocytic gliosis and activated microglia in the white matter, rare prion deposition and subtle subcortical microvacuolization, and patchy foci of demyelination with no evident white matter axonal degeneration. Decreased mean diffusivity on attenuation coefficient maps might be associated with astrocytic gliosis. We show for the first time significant global reduced mean diffusivity within the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, suggesting possible primary involvement of the white matter, rather than changes secondary to neuronal degeneration/loss. PMID:25367029

Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Hess, Christopher P.; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L.; Lobach, Irina V.; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D.; Henry, Roland G.

2014-01-01

257

Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulation software applied to ion beam analysis use the main scattering event (MSE) approximation. This approximation consist in generating ion trajectories in different directions, making the detection rate independent of the cross-section dependence on the scattering angle, therefore speeding up calculations by a factor 104-106. The event generated bear a probability weight proportional to the cross-section, so in the case of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), events generated with a small scattering angle bear a very large weight, sometimes producing few events with a very large amplitude in the spectrum. They are avoided by setting a cut-off angle, but the signal they represent is in fact an actual contribution to the background signal. Here, it is shown that experimental spectra that include a significant contribution from several wide-angle scattering, such as tails or background signal in heavy ion RBS can be reproduced by a combination of two simulations: one featuring at least one wide-angle scattering, simulated accurately within the MSE approximation, and a background signal part, corresponding to trajectories featuring a series of small-angle scattering, simulated without the MSE approximation; this second simulation is achieved in a few minutes by increasing the detector size and mean free path by large factors, typically 100 each. The events included from the two parts of the simulation are discriminated by the minimum angle of the MSE.

Schiettekatte, François

2014-08-01

258

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 41(4), 2005, pp. 820824 Wildlife Disease Association 2005  

E-print Network

Tonsillar Biopsy Test for Chronic Wasting Disease: Two Sampling Approaches in Mule Deer and White-tailed investigating disease prevalence. Between Jan- uary 2003 and January 2005, white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) in southeast and southwest Minnesota and white-tailed and mule deer (O. hemionus) in Wind Cave National Park

259

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1980 status report  

SciTech Connect

Ninety-eight white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1980, an increase of twenty-five over 1979. Both spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. November and December were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road-kills was about 1.1 from January through October but shifted to a high male kill (4.8:1) during November and December, presumably the result of the rutting season. Reproductive data collected from does indicated that breeding occurred as early as October 20 and as late as December 21. Records kept on rutting condition in bucks indicated a breeding season from October through January; antlers were shed from January through April with the peak of shedding activity occurring in March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed a good general condition of the animals with only a few abnormalities or indications of sickness or disease. Abomasal parasite counts indicate that Reservation deer population has reached optimum density. Other parasites found include brainworms, body worms, and botfly larvae; papillomas were observed in two deer during 1980. Data from heart girth and weight measurements were presented and compared to similar data from elsewhere in the Southeastern United States.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1982-08-01

260

Deep White Matter in Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

White matter (WM) abnormalities have already been shown in presymptomatic (Pre-HD) and symptomatic HD subjects using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In the present study, we examined the microstructure of the long-range large deep WM tracts by applying two different MRI approaches: Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) -based tractography, and T2*weighted (iron sensitive) imaging. We collected Pre-HD subjects (n?=?25), HD patients (n?=?25) and healthy control subjects (n?=?50). Results revealed increased axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) and iron levels in Pre-HD subjects compared to controls. Fractional anisotropy decreased between the Pre-HD and HD phase and AD/RD increased and although impairment was pervasive in HD, degeneration occurred in a pattern in Pre-HD. Furthermore, iron levels dropped for HD patients. As increased iron levels are associated with remyelination, the data suggests that Pre-HD subjects attempt to repair damaged deep WM years before symptoms occur but this process fails with disease progression. PMID:25340651

Phillips, Owen; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Elifani, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

2014-01-01

261

Detection and Multigenic Characterization of a Herpesvirus Associated with Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Missouri  

PubMed Central

Between 1998 and 2001, tissues from four captive white-tailed deer were observed to have histologic lesions of systemic lymphocytic vasculitis. These lesions suggested malignant catarrhal fever, although epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue were included in the differential diagnosis. Initial diagnostic efforts, including virus isolation and reverse transcription-PCR for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and bluetongue virus, failed to identify an etiologic agent. However, consensus primer PCR targeted to the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene detected viral genomic DNA in each of these four cases. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified product demonstrated that the detected virus was identical over the compared region to the recently described malignant catarrhal fever virus of white-tailed deer (H. Li, N. Dyer, J. Keller, and T. B. Crawford, J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:1313-1318, 2000). Additional nucleotide sequencing of both the DNA polymerase gene and DNA packaging gene followed by phylogenetic analysis solidified this newly recognized herpesvirus as a member of the Gammaherpesvirinae and suggests that this virus, along with ovine herpesvirus 2, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, alcelaphine herpesvirus 2 and caprine herpesvirus 2, may be part of a separate clade within this subfamily. PMID:11923350

Kleiboeker, Steven B.; Miller, Margaret A.; Schommer, Susan K.; Ramos-Vara, Jose A.; Boucher, Magalie; Turnquist, Susan E.

2002-01-01

262

Borrelia burgdorferi in an urban environment: white-tailed deer with infected ticks and antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Ticks and blood samples were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in forests located in an insular, urban area of Bridgeport, Conn., and in rural south central Connecticut during 1992 and 1993. Immature and adult Ixodes scapularis ticks were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining methods. Deer sera were analyzed for antibodies to this bacterium by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infected ticks parasitized deer in Bridgeport from May through December; the prevalence of infection varied from 1.1% of 93 larvae to 28.1% of 114 adult females. The percentages of infected males (10.5% of 380 ticks) and females (13.7% of 328 ticks) were relatively lower in south central Connecticut. In antibody tests, the prevalence of seropositive specimens collected in Bridgeport (61% of 146 serum specimens) was more than twofold greater than that of specimens obtained in south central Connecticut (26.7% of 116 serum specimens). Foci for Lyme borreliosis can occur in forested, urban settings as well as in rural areas if there are ticks, rodents, birds, and large mammals present. Human exposure to ticks in such sites should be considered as a possible source of B. burgdorferi infection. PMID:7751354

Magnarelli, L A; Denicola, A; Stafford, K C; Anderson, J F

1995-01-01

263

White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity.  

PubMed

Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H'), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H' and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059

Begley-Miller, Danielle R; Hipp, Andrew L; Brown, Bethany H; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P

2014-01-01

264

Associating seasonal range characteristics with survival of female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Delineating populations is critical for understanding population dynamics and managing habitats. Our objective was to delineate subpopulations of migratory female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, USA, on summer and winter ranges. We used fuzzy classification to assign radiocollared deer to subpopulations based on spatial location, characterized subpopulations by trapping sites, and explored relationships among survival of subpopulations and habitat variables. In winter, Kaplan-Meier estimates for subpopulations indicated 2 groups: high (S = 0.991 ?? 0.005 [x- ?? SE]) and low (S = 0.968 ?? 0.007) weekly survivorship. Survivorship increased with basal area per hectare of trees, average diameter at breast height of trees, percent cover of slash, and total point-center quarter distance of trees. Cover of grass and forbs were less for the high survivorship than the lower survivorship group. In summer, deer were spaced apart with mixed associations among subpopulations. Habitat manipulations that promote or maintain large trees (i.e., basal area = 14.8 m2/ha and average dbh of trees = 8.3 cm) would seem to improve adult survival of deer in winter.

Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Deperno, C.S.; Griffin, S.L.

2008-01-01

265

Mother knows best: functionally referential alarm calling in white-tailed ptarmigan.  

PubMed

Functionally referential alarm calls have stimulus specificity, distinct acoustic structure, and elicit different escape responses that are appropriate to the threat. The mechanisms by which escape responses are evoked are not fully understood and may range from eliciting innate responses to conveying representational information. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) are a long-lived alpine tundra grouse, which are preyed upon by aerial and terrestrial predators. We investigated the hypothesis that alarm calls of ptarmigan hens with chicks are functionally referential. We recorded hens' alarm calls in response to naturally occurring and model predators in California's Sierra Nevada alpine tundra for two summer seasons. We conducted playback experiments in the field to determine chick responses to alarm calls. Alarm calls commenced with an extended 'alerting' note followed by a series of staccato notes grouped into elements. Fundamental and dominant frequencies in element notes were significantly higher in terrestrial compared to aerial threat alarm calls. Playbacks of terrestrial threat alarm calls elicited an upright/alert position by chicks (75 % of responses). In response to aerial threat alarm call playbacks, chicks flattened to the ground and froze (80 % of responses). To our knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence of functionally referential alarm calling, including the responses of the receivers, in an avian species in the wild. PMID:24132414

Ausmus, Desa M; Clarke, Jennifer A

2014-05-01

266

Characterization of Fusobacterium isolates from the respiratory tract of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

A total of 23 clinical isolates of Fusobacterium spp. were recovered at necropsy over a 2-year period from the respiratory tract of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Isolates were identified as Fusobacterium varium (18/23), Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme (3/23), and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum (2/23). Using polymerase chain reaction-based detection of virulence genes, all F. necrophorum isolates were positive for the promoter region of the leukotoxin operon and the hemagglutinin-related protein gene, while all F. varium isolates were negative. The presence of the leukotoxin gene in F. necrophorum isolates and the absence of this gene in F. varium isolates were confirmed by Southern hybridization using 2 separate probes. Toxicity to bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes was observed with all F. necrophorum isolates, but was not observed in any F. varium isolates. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was markedly different for F. varium as compared to F. necrophorum. In summary, no evidence of leukotoxin production was detected in any of the 23 F. varium isolates used in the current study. The data suggests that F. varium, the most common species isolated, may be a significant pathogen in deer with a different virulence mechanism than F. necrophorum. PMID:24590666

Brooks, Jason W; Kumar, Amit; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Myers, Suzanne; Brown, Kayla; Nagaraja, T G; Jayarao, Bhushan M

2014-03-01

267

Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food habits of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an “island” habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer needles) was the predominant food type in all seasons except fall. Acorns and graminoids (grasses and sedges) were important food resources in fall and spring, respectively. Use of woody browse (twigs) was similar among seasons. Field use was relatively high during fall, winter without snow cover (<20 cm), and spring when food resources in fields were readily available. In contrast, use of fields was lowest in summer when preferred woodland foods were available and in winter with snow cover when food in fields was not readily accessible. Patterns of food-type use by deer at VFNHP indicate the year-round importance of nonwoody foods and field habitats to deer populations on public lands such as national parks in the northeastern United States.

Cypher, Brian L.; Yahner, Richard H.; Cypher, Ellen A.

1988-03-01

268

The effect of environmental remediation on the cesium-137 levels in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Due to activities involving nuclear energy research during the latter half of the 1900 s, environmental contamination in the form of elevated cesium-137 levels was observed within the Brookhaven National Laboratory, a US Department of Energy facility. Between the years 2000 and 2005, the laboratory carried out a major soil cleanup effort to remove cesium-137 from contaminated sites. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the cleanup effort by comparing the levels of cesium-137 in the meat of white-tailed deer found within and around the laboratory. Results suggest that the cleanup was effective, with mean concentration of cesium-137 in the meat from within the laboratory decreasing from 2.04 Bq/g prior to 1.22 Bq/g after cleanup. At the current level, the consumption of deer would not pose any human health hazard. Nevertheless, statistically higher levels of cesium-137 were detected in the deer within the laboratory as opposed to levels found in deer 1 mi beyond the laboratory site. PMID:25028321

Rispoli, Fred J; Green, Timothy; Fasano, Thomas A; Shah, Vishal

2014-10-01

269

White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity  

PubMed Central

Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H?), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H? and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059

Begley-Miller, Danielle R.; Hipp, Andrew L.; Brown, Bethany H.; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P.

2014-01-01

270

Response of urinary hydroxyproline to dietary protein and fasting in white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary hydroxyproline of nine captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from 23 February to 3 May 1984 in northern Minnesota. In the fasted group, mean hydroxyproline:creatinine (OHP:C) was greater (P less than 0.05) at week 4 compared to baseline at week 0. Between fasted deer and deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) and low protein-high energy (LPHE) diets, no difference in OHP:C ratios was detected during the initial 4 wk of the study. Urinary OHP:C ratios were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater in the fasted group during refeeding, concomitant with greater feed consumption and weight gain. There was also a significant (P less than 0.02) time effect in the fasted-refed group; OHP:C ratios increased during these two phases of the study. There was no difference between the HPHE and LPHE fed deer in renal OHP excretion. However, mean OHP:C ratios in yearlings (16.8 +/- 2.2) were greater (P less than 0.001) than in the adults (7.5 +/- 1.2) of those groups, indicating a higher collagen turnover rate. Urinary OHP:C shows potential as an indicator of growth and starvation, and the data presented may serve as reference values.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

1988-01-01

271

Putative Chemical Signals from White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ): Social and Seasonal Effects on Urinary Volatile Excretion in Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine samples collected from dominant and subordinate male white-tailed deer during the breeding and nonbreeding season were analyzed by combined gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-five volatiles were found in measurable quantities. Ketones were most numerous, followed by alcohols and alkanes. Nine compounds were common to both dominants and subordinates during the breeding season. Of these nine, three were present in

K. V. Miller; B. Jemiolo; J. W. Gassett; I. Jelinek; D. Wiesler; M. Novotny

1998-01-01

272

High white-tailed deer densities benefit graminoids and contribute to biotic homogenization of forest ground-layer vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotic homogenization, with its emphasis on invasions, extinctions, and convergence in taxonomic similarity, provides an important\\u000a framework for investigating changes in biodiversity across scales. Through their selective foraging, large populations of\\u000a white-tailed deer are altering population sizes, driving extirpations, and facilitating invasions of plants throughout the\\u000a eastern United States. I hypothesize that deer can drive biotic homogenization in forest understory

Thomas P. Rooney

2009-01-01

273

Genetic variability in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and its relationship to environmental parameters and herd origin (Cervidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme variation was examined in 1571 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 29 localities in Tennessee by starch gel electrophoresis. For 11 polymorphic loci, sex-related, age-related and temporal differences were minimal. However, significant spatial hererogeneity was evident in genotypes (contingency table results), allele frequencies (FST=0.057) and heterozygosity. Heterozygosity ranged from 16.9% to 26.8% with a mean of 22.9%. The spatial pattern

P. K. Kennedy; M. L. Kennedy; M. L. Beck

1987-01-01

274

Survival and fidelity of an enclosed white-tailed deer population using capture–recapture-reporting data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of animal populations enclosed by impermeable fences has increased, which poses issues related to the behavior\\u000a of individuals and populations. Despite the increased number of fenced enclosures, there is a paucity of survival and fidelity\\u000a data on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from fenced enclosures. Therefore, we examined marked deer recaptures and resightings over 13 years for an enclosed population

Stephen L. Webb; Kenneth L. Gee; Guiming Wang

2010-01-01

275

Antigen Recognition by Serum Antibodies in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have emerged as reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis in northern America. For tuberculosis surveillance of deer, antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because deer are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. Sera collected sequentially from 25 Mycobacterium bovis-infected and 7 noninfected deer were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and multiantigen

W. R. Waters; M. V. Palmer; J. P. Bannantine; D. L. Whipple; R. Greenwald; J. Esfandiari; P. Andersen; J. McNair; J. M. Pollock; K. P. Lyashchenko

2004-01-01

276

A Paleozoological Perspective on White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana ) Population Density and Body Size in Central Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several\\u000a top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted,\\u000a which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected,

Steve Wolverton; James H. Kennedy; John D. Cornelius

2007-01-01

277

Coexistence of protected avian predators: does a recovering population of White-tailed Eagle threaten to exclude other avian predators?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of competition and predation determine the degree to which species can coexist; the importance of competition\\u000a in particular has been emphasized at high trophic levels. Competition exclusion will occur when habitat overlap between sympatric\\u000a species is high. In this study, we investigated nesting habitat overlap between internationally protected diurnal tree-nesting\\u000a avian predators of central Europe, namely, White-tailed Eagle

Rimgaudas Treinys; Deivis Dementavi?ius; Gintautas Mozgeris; Saulis Skuja; Saulius Rumbutis; Darius Ston?ius

278

IMMOBILIZATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER WITH XYLAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND ANTAGONISM BY TOLAZOLINE HYDROCHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen penned and 17 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgtnianus Rafinesque) were singularly or repeatedly immobilized with 100 mg xylazine hydrochloride (HCl) and 300 mg ketamine HCl. The mean times from intravenous injection to ambulation for 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg\\/kg body weight doses of tolazoline HCI were 13.5, 10.5, and 9.2 min. Deer not receiving tolazoline HCl recovered in an

Terry J. Kreeger; Glenn D. Del Giudice; S. SealI; Patrick D. Karns

279

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1980 status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-eight white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1980, an increase of twenty-five over 1979. Both spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. November and December were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road-kills was about 1.1

J. D. Story; J. T. Kitchings

1982-01-01

280

Enzymes of Adenylate Metabolism and Their Role in Hibernation of the White-Tailed Prairie Dog, Cynomys leucurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMP deaminase (AMPD) and adenylate kinase (AK) were purified from skeletal muscle of the white-tailed prairie dog, Cynomus leucurus, and enzyme properties were assayed at temperatures characteristic of euthermia (37°C) and hibernation (5°C) to analyze their role in adenylate metabolism during hibernation. Total adenylates decreased in muscle of torpid individuals from 6.97 ± 0.31 to 4.66 ± 0.58 ?mol\\/g of

Tamara E. English; Kenneth B. Storey

2000-01-01

281

Investigating variation in the nutritional ecology and genetics of White-tailed Ptarmigan: implications for climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are well suited as a focal species for the study of climate change because they are adapted to cool, alpine environments that are expected to undergo unusually rapid climate change. We compared samples collected in the late 1930s, the late 1960s, and the late 2000s using molecular genetic and stable isotope methods in an effort to

S. J. Oyler-McCance; C. A. Stricker; C. E. Braun; G. T. Wann; C. L. Aldridge

2010-01-01

282

Contributions of forage competition, harvest, and climate fluctuation to changes in population growth of northern white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently there has been considerable interest in determining the relative roles of endogenous (density-dependent) and exogenous (density-independent) factors in driving the population dynamics of free-ranging ungulates. We used time-series analysis to estimate the relative contributions of density-dependent forage competition, climatic fluctuation, and harvesting on the population dynamics of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Nova Scotia, Canada, from 1983 to 2000.

Brent R. Patterson; Vince A. Power

2002-01-01

283

Genetic diversity and connectivity of white-tailed jackrabbit populations in Iowa with notes on seasonal home ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss and fragmentation of Iowa’s native prairies has had varied effects on different species as some move more easily through unsuitable habitat than others. Small mammals may be highly affected by isolation as they may not move easily among habitat patches. I studied white–tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) as a representative of Iowa’s grassland–adapted species to determine effects of habitat

Irma Irene Tapia

2010-01-01

284

Effects of short duration grazing on white-tailed deer in the Edwards PLateau and Rio Grande Plain of Texas  

E-print Network

refers to short duration grazing as it is applied by ranchers that have participated in "Holistic Ranch Management" schools conducted by Allan Savory. STUDY AREAS Wardlaw Ranch One study was conducted on the Wardlaw Ranch near Lorna Alta, Texas (Fig... significant economic asset as well. Therefore, many Texas ranchers, as well as others, are concerned about the effects of the relatively new Savory Grazing Method (Savory 1978) on white-tailed deer (particularly when the method is applied with the primary...

Richardson, Calvin Lemuiel

1986-01-01

285

[Forage use and availability for white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in an experimental unit of Campeche, Mexico].  

PubMed

Forage use and availability for white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in an experimental unit of Campeche, Mexico. In Campeche state, 122 Wildlife Conservation and Management Units have been recently conformed. In these units, eventhough the white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi is a game species, no studies on its diet have been undertaken. The objectives of this work were to estimate the botanical composition of the diet and its seasonal change, to determine forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate of O. virginianus thomasi. The study was conducted in the experimental unit of Colegio de Postgraduados in Campeche, Mexico, from October 2010 to May 2012. The diet was determined through microhistological analyses of the white tailed deer feces by the use of reference material. Forage availability was determined through the Adelaide's method; the stocking rate, using the grazing pressure factor; and carrying capacity considering forage availability and 35% of utilization efficiency. In this experimental unit, the deer diet included 40 species belonging to 15 families. The highest species richness ocurred during the rainy season with 29 species. However, deers preferred shrubs during all seasons, and herbaceous species during the rainy season. The diet composition, forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate varied throughout the year. Carrying capacity ranged from 0.04 to 1.08deer/ha. Additional studies are required to detail about the composition of the diet, habitat availability and use throughout its geographical range, and to detail on nutritional and health aspects. PMID:25102651

Granados, Danilo; Tarango, Luis; Olmos, Genaro; Palacio, Jorge; Clemente, Fernando; Mendoza, Germán

2014-06-01

286

Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from black- and white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus and Cynomys leucurus) in central and southeast Wyoming.  

PubMed

Feces collected from live-trapped black- (Cynomys ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) from central and southeastern Wyoming were examined to determine the presence and prevalence of eimerian species. Six species (Eimeria adaensis [black-tailed prairie dog prevalence = 33%, white-tailed prairie dog prevalence = 51%], Eimeria beecheyi [8%, 28%], Eimeria callosper-mophili [64%, 71%], Eimeria lateralis [3%, 7%], Eimeria morainensis [19%, 8%], and Eimeria spermophili [2%, 1%]) were identified from both host species. Eimeria pseudospermophili was found infecting only black-tailed (prevalence = 1%) and Eimeria bilamellata only in white-tailed prairie dogs (2%). Reinfections in individual hosts were observed with E. callospermophili and E. adaensis. Comparison of these results with the published literature suggests that the host genera Cynomys and Spermophilus share a common guild of eimerians and that members of this guild have a long evolutionary association with these hosts, or host switching, or both, is common between these groups. PMID:9057719

Seville, R S

1997-02-01

287

TWO THEILERIA CERVI SSU RRNA GENE SEQUENCE TYPES FOUND IN ISOLATES FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER AND ELK IN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT :T woTheileria cervi SSU rRNA gene sequence Types, F and G, from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) isolates in North America were confirmed. Previously, nucleotide sequencing through a single variable (V4) region showed the presence of SSU rRNA gene Types F and G in T. cervi isolates from white-tailed deer and an elk. In this

Joon-seok Chae; Suryakant D. Waghela; Thomas M. Craig; Alan A. Kocan; G Gerald; Patricia J. Holman

1999-01-01

288

INFECTION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN MICHIGAN WITH JAMESTOWN CANYON VIRUS (CALIFORNIA SEROGROUP) AND THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERNAL ANTIBODY IN VIRAL MAINTENANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera collected from a captive population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileusvirgini- anus) penned in the lower peninsula of Michigan were assayed over a 29-mo period for neutral- izing antibody to California serogroup viruses. In all, 130 individual white-tailed deer were bled one to 22 times between June 1983 and November 1985. Of the 130 sampled after active trans- mission had ceased,

Paul R. Grimstad; Diane G. Williams; Stephen M. SchmiW

289

Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989--1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 and 10.6 years, respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer, dieldrin was found in fat, liver, and brain, and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal. Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin and mercury. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C. [Geological Survey, Madison, WI (United States). National Wildlife Health Center; Whittaker, D.G. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (United States); Roy, R.R. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Commerce City, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge]|[Fish and Wildlife Service, Moses Lake, WA (United States). Moses Lake Field Office; Baker, D.L. [Colorado Div. of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1999-02-01

290

Distribution of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral protein and nucleic acid within central nervous tissue lesions in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

An outbreak of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) occurred in Michigan free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during late summer and fall of 2005. Brain tissue from 7 deer with EEE, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was studied. Detailed microscopic examination, indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to characterize the lesions and distribution of the EEE virus within the brain. The main lesion in all 7 deer was a polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis, which was more prominent within the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. In 3 deer, multifocal microhemorrhages surrounded smaller vessels with or without perivascular cuffing, although vasculitis was not observed. Neuronal necrosis, associated with perineuronal satellitosis and neutrophilic neuronophagia, was most prominent in the thalamus and the brainstem. Positive IHC labeling was mainly observed in the perikaryon, axons, and dendrites of necrotic and intact neurons and, to a much lesser degree, in glial cells, a few neutrophils in the thalamus and the brainstem, and occasionally the cerebral cortex of the 7 deer. There was minimal IHC-based labeling in the cerebellum and hippocampus. ISH labeling was exclusively observed in the cytoplasm of neurons, with a distribution similar to IHC-positive neurons. Neurons positive by IHC and ISH were most prominent in the thalamus and brainstem. The neuropathology of EEE in deer is compared with other species. Based on our findings, EEE has to be considered a differential diagnosis for neurologic disease and meningoencephalitis in white-tailed deer. PMID:23686767

Kiupel, M; Fitzgerald, S D; Pennick, K E; Cooley, T M; O'Brien, D J; Bolin, S R; Maes, R K; Del Piero, F

2013-11-01

291

White-tailed deer response to vehicle approach: evidence of unclear and present danger.  

PubMed

The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles, in addition to posting advisory speed limits. PMID:25333922

Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; DeVault, Travis L

2014-01-01

292

Effects of capture-related injury on postcapture movement of white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Capture-related injuries or deaths of wildlife study subjects pose concerns to researchers, from considerations for animal welfare to inflated project costs and biased data. Capture myopathy (CM) is an injury that can affect an animal's survival ? 30 days postrelease, but is often difficult to detect without close monitoring and immediate necropsy. We evaluated the influence of capture and handling on postcapture movement in an attempt to characterize movement rates of animals suffering from CM. We captured and global positioning system-collared 95 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central and northern New York during 2006-2008. Six juveniles died within 30 days postrelease, and necropsy reports indicated that two suffered CM (2%). We compared postcapture movement rates for juveniles that survived >30 days with those that died ? 30 days postcapture. Survivor movement rates (43.74 m/hr, SD = 3.53, n = 28) were significantly higher than rates for deer that died within 30 days (17.70 m/hr, SD = 1.57, n = 6) (P<0.01). Additionally, movement rates of juveniles that died of CM (15.1 m/hr) were 5.1 m/hr lower than those for juveniles that died of other causes ? 30 days postcapture (20.2 m/hr), but we were unable to evaluate this statistically because of insufficient sample size. We found no difference in vital rates (temperature, heart rate, respiration rate) during handling between survivors and juveniles that died within 30 days postcapture but observed that survivors were in better body condition at capture. These results suggest that deer likely to die within the 30-day CM window can be identified soon after capture, provided that intensive movement data are collected. Further, even if necropsy reports are unavailable, these animals should be censored from analysis because their behavior is not representative of movements of surviving animals. PMID:24484502

Dechen Quinn, Amy C; Williams, David M; Porter, William F; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Hynes, Kevin

2014-04-01

293

White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger  

PubMed Central

The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles, in addition to posting advisory speed limits. PMID:25333922

Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; DeVault, Travis L.

2014-01-01

294

Escherichia coli Survival in, and Release from, White-Tailed Deer Feces.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer are an important reservoir for pathogens that can contribute a large portion of microbial pollution in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. The scarcity of experimental data on survival of microorganisms in and release from deer feces makes prediction of their fate and transport less reliable and development of efficient strategies for environment protection more difficult. The goal of this study was to estimate parameters for modeling Escherichia coli survival in and release from deer (Odocoileus virginianus) feces. Our objectives were as follows: (i) to measure survival of E. coli in deer pellets at different temperatures, (ii) to measure kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets at different rainfall intensities, and (iii) to estimate parameters of models describing survival and release of microorganisms from deer feces. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study E. coli survival in deer pellets at three temperatures and to estimate parameters of Chick's exponential model with temperature correction based on the Arrhenius equation. Kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets were measured at two rainfall intensities and used to derive the parameters of Bradford-Schijven model of bacterial release. The results showed that parameters of the survival and release models obtained for E. coli in this study substantially differed from those obtained by using other source materials, e.g., feces of domestic animals and manures. This emphasizes the necessity of comprehensive studies of survival of naturally occurring populations of microorganisms in and release from wildlife animal feces in order to achieve better predictions of microbial fate and transport in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. PMID:25480751

Guber, Andrey K; Fry, Jessica; Ives, Rebecca L; Rose, Joan B

2015-02-01

295

Spatial point pattern analyses of Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in domestic livestock herds and concomitant seroprevalence in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important disease of domestic cattle that is capable of infecting cervids. A first step in the formulation of a regional BVDV management plan is a local assessment of the likelihood of pathogen transmission from wildlife to domestic livestock. To achieve this, blood samples were collected from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout New York State in the fall of 2009 and 2010. The SVANOVIR BVDV p80-AB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Svanova Biotech AV, Uppsala, Sweden) was used to screen sera for anti-BVDV antibodies. Because this ELISA is not validated for use in white-tailed deer, sera that tested positive were tested again using serum neutralization to verify the presence of antibodies. Spatial data describing the geographic location of BVDV antigen-positive cattle and camelid herds and BVDV-seropositive white-tailed deer were analyzed via the dual kernel density estimation method. In white-tailed deer, 7.48% (80/1,069) were BVDV-seropositive, whereas 3.43% (144/4,195) of tested herds were positive for BVDV antigen. An exploratory cluster analysis revealed 1 significant cluster of BVDV antigen-positive herds and 2 significant clusters of BVDV-seropositive deer. There was no spatial overlap between the clusters. The spatial point pattern and exploratory cluster analyses suggest that BVDV is maintained independently in domestic livestock herds in the western part of the state and in the white-tailed deer population in the northwestern part of the state. PMID:23512919

Kirchgessner, Megan S; Dubovi, Edward J; Whipps, Christopher M

2013-03-01

296

Canavan Disease: A White Matter Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Breakdown of oligodendrocyte-neuron interactions in white matter (WM), such as the loss of myelin, results in axonal dysfunction and hence a disruption of information processing between brain regions. The major feature of leukodystrophies is the lack of proper myelin formation during early development or the onset of myelin loss late in life.…

Kumar, Shalini; Mattan, Natalia S.; de Vellis, Jean

2006-01-01

297

Chronic Kidney Disease Is Associated With White Matter Hyperintensity Volume  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose White matter hyperintensities have been associated with increased risk of stroke, cognitive decline, and dementia. Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for vascular disease and has been associated with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of white matter hyperintensities. Few studies have explored the relationship between chronic kidney disease and white matter hyperintensities. Methods The Northern Manhattan Study is a prospective, community-based cohort of which a subset of stroke-free participants underwent MRIs. MRIs were analyzed quantitatively for white matter hyperintensities volume, which was log-transformed to yield a normal distribution (log-white matter hyperintensity volume). Kidney function was modeled using serum creatinine, the Cockcroft-Gault formula for creatinine clearance, and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula for estimated glomerular filtration rate. Creatinine clearance and estimated glomerular filtration rate were trichotomized to 15 to 60 mL/min, 60 to 90 mL/min, and >90 mL/min (reference). Linear regression was used to measure the association between kidney function and log-white matter hyperintensity volume adjusting for age, gender, race–ethnicity, education, cardiac disease, diabetes, homocysteine, and hypertension. Results Baseline data were available on 615 subjects (mean age 70 years, 60% women, 18% whites, 21% blacks, 62% Hispanics). In multivariate analysis, creatinine clearance 15 to 60 mL/min was associated with increased log-white matter hyperintensity volume (? 0.322; 95% CI, 0.095 to 0.550) as was estimated glomerular filtration rate 15 to 60 mL/min (? 0.322; 95% CI, 0.080 to 0.564). Serum creatinine, per 1-mg/dL increase, was also positively associated with log-white matter hyperintensity volume (? 1.479; 95% CI, 1.067 to 2.050). Conclusions The association between moderate–severe chronic kidney disease and white matter hyperintensity volume highlights the growing importance of kidney disease as a possible determinant of cerebrovascular disease and/or as a marker of microangiopathy. PMID:17962588

Khatri, Minesh; Wright, Clinton B.; Nickolas, Thomas L.; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Paik, Myunghee C.; Kranwinkel, Grace; Sacco, Ralph L.; DeCarli, Charles

2010-01-01

298

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 44(1), 2008, pp. 181187 # Wildlife Disease Association 2008  

E-print Network

ungulates, livestock, and humans, serum samples from 114 (94 adults, 20 fawns) female white-tailed deer, selenium, serology, white-tailed deer. Development of appropriate manage- ment recommendations requires. White-tailed deer can serve as sentinels for livestock and human diseases, making epidemiologic

299

Muscleworms, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), discovered in Columbia white-tailed deer from Oregon and Washington: implications for biogeography and host associations.  

PubMed

Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Host and geographic distribution for this parasite, however, remain poorly defined in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from Columbia white-tailed deer (O. v. leucurus) in a restricted range endemic to Oregon and Washington, USA, were examined for dorsal-spined larvae characteristic of many protostrongylid nematodes. Multilocus DNA sequence data (internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) established the identity and a new record for P. andersoni in a subspecies of white-tailed deer previously unrecognized as hosts. Populations of P. andersoni are now recognized along the basin of the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington and from south-central Oregon on the North Umpqua River. Current data indicate a potentially broad zone of sympatry for P. andersoni and Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in the western region of North America, although these elaphostrongylines seem to be segregated, respectively, in white-tailed deer or in black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) at temperate latitudes. The geographic range for P. andersoni in white-tailed deer is extended substantially to the west of the currently defined limit in North America, and we confirm an apparently extensive range for this elpahostrongyline. These observations are explored in the broader context of host and geographic associations for P. andersoni and related elaphostrongylines in North American cervids. PMID:18263818

Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Mortenson, Jack A; Hoberg, Eric P

2008-01-01

300

Predation by coyotes on White-Tailed Deer neonates in South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Coyotes (Canis latrans) are novel predators throughout the southeastern United States and their depredation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates may explain observed declines in some deer populations in the region, but direct evidence for such a relationship is lacking. Our objective was to quantify neonate survival rates and causes of mortality at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina to directly evaluate degree of predation in this deer population. From 2006 to 2009, we radio-monitored 91 neonates captured with the aid of vaginal implant transmitters in pregnant adult females and opportunistic searches. Overall Kaplan�¢����Meier survival rate to 16 weeks of age was 0.230 (95% CI = 0.155-0.328), and it varied little among years. Our best-fitting model estimated survival at 0.220 (95% CI = 0.144-0.320). This model included a quadratic time trend variable (lowest survival rate during the first week of life and increasing to near 1.000 around week 10), and Julian date of birth (survival probability declining as date of birth increased). Predation by coyotes was the most frequent cause of death among the 70 monitored neonates that died, definitively accounting for 37% of all mortalities and potentially accounting for as much as 80% when also including probable coyote predation. Predation by bobcats (Felis rufus) accounted for 7% (definitive) to 9% (including probable bobcat predation) of mortalities. The level of coyote-induced mortality we observed is consistent with the low recruitment rates exhibited in the SRS deer population since establishment of coyotes at the site. If representative of recruitment rates across South Carolina, current harvest levels appear unsustainable. This understanding is consistent with the recent declining trend in the statewide deer population. The effects of coyote predation on recruitment should be considered when setting harvest goals, regardless of whether local deer population size is currently above or below desired levels, because coyotes can substantially reduce fawn recruitment. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Kilgo, John, C.; Ray, Scott, H.; Vukovich, Mark; Goode, Mathew, J.; Ruth, Charles.

2012-05-07

301

Effects of ketamine on carfentanil and xylazine immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Using a crossover design, the effects of the addition of ketamine to a previously determined optimal hand-injected immobilization dosage of carfentanil/xylazine were evaluated in 11 adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Two i.m. ketamine dosages were evaluated: 0.15 mg/kg (low ketamine) and 0.30 mg/kg (high ketamine). Each deer was immobilized twice 2 wk apart. Inductions were video recorded and reviewed by observers, who had been blinded to drugs and dosages, who rated qualitative aspects. There were significant (P < 0.05) dosage-dependent decreases in heart rate, SaO2, and arterial pH, and a significant dosage-dependent increase in PaCO2. Induction times with both dosages were more rapid (mean 2.3 +/- 0.9 min for low ketamine and 2.3 +/- 0.6 min for high ketamine) than those reported for the same carfentanil/xylazine dosage used without ketamine. Mean quality ratings, though improved compared to those reported for carfentanil/xylazine alone, were considered "undesirable" for both dosages. Hyperthermia (temperature > 41 degrees C) was noted in 13 of 22 immobilizations. Arterial pH and PaO2 increased significantly from 10 to 20 min postrecumbency, but acidemia (pH < 7.3) was present throughout immobilization periods for all deer. There were ketamine dosage-dependent increases in respiratory components of this acidemia compared with that associated with carfentanil/xylazine alone. Possible hypoxemia was present at both sampling times for both groups, while hypercapnea (PaCO2 > 60 mm Hg) was present for the high-ketamine group only. Reversal times for naltrexone and yohimbine were rapid (mean 2.9 +/- 0.7 min for low ketamine and 3.3 +/- 0.8 min for high ketamine), with no evidence of renarcotization. Although the addition of ketamine to carfentanil/xylazine caused faster inductions and improved induction qualities, it also produced an increased incidence of hyperthermia, acidemia, hypoxemia, and hypercapnea. Supplemental oxygen and close monitoring of body temperature is recommended when using this immobilization regimen. PMID:17319134

Storms, Timothy N; Schumacher, Juergen; Osborn, David A; Miller, Karl V; Ramsay, Edward C

2006-09-01

302

Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with <40% canopy cover. Bedding locations were represented by saw-timber pine structural stages with >40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined males selected areas that were characterized by greater levels of horizontal cover than females. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper (Juniperus communis), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0--40%, 41--70%, 71--100%) of canopy cover. All habitat types (i.e., pine, aspen, and spruce) were used as bedding locations with pine sapling-pole structural stages with >70% canopy cover used most, whereas pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover was primarily used for feeding. Females bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites, whereas male feeding sites had greater horizontal cover characteristics than bedding or random locations.

Deperno, Christopher Shannon

303

Active and latent ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) infection in a herd of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is the clinical manifestation of infection of certain ruminant species with one of a group of pathogenic gammaherpesviruses known as MCF viruses. Cattle and numerous exotic ruminant species are susceptible to clinical disease that may be sporadic or occasionally epidemic in nature. The most common MCF virus worldwide is ovine herpesvirus (OvHV)-2. Reservoir hosts such as sheep, carry and excrete OvHV-2, but do not develop clinical signs, while clinically susceptible species develop severe and often fatal disease. The existence of latent infection in clinically susceptible hosts is poorly understood, but is documented in some ruminant species. Twenty-six animals from a captive herd of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) died and were examined from October 2006 to December 2010. Fifteen of these animals (58%) showed clinical signs and gross and microscopical lesions consistent with MCF, while 11 (42%) did not. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification yielded product consistent with OvHV-2 DNA in samples of spleen from all 26 deer. To examine the possibility of latent infection in this herd, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were examined by PCR for OvHV-2 DNA, and the test was positive in 23/32 (72%) clinically normal deer. Archived serum samples were used to examine the history of MCF exposure in the herd using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which demonstrated that 10/40 (25%) deer tested had MCF viral antibodies, with nine deer being seropositive over multiple years. Combined with previous observations in deer and other species, these results suggest the existence of latent infection of white-tailed deer with OvHV-2. PMID:23453492

Palmer, M V; Thacker, T C; Madison, R J; Koster, L G; Swenson, S L; Li, H

2013-01-01

304

Seasonal feeding habits of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Bodd.) in young loblolly pine (pinus taeda L.) plantations  

E-print Network

for the degree of ~ OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major Subject: Forestry REARIRRL REEDIER IIARIIE OF RDI'IE-FAIIED DEER IOAAOoII Bodd. ) IN YOUNG ~Y PINE (Pinna taeda L. ) ~TIONS A Thesis PATRICIA LOUISE PURRH Approved as to style and content by: Andrew W. Ezell...) Patricia Louise Furrh, B. S. , Texas ASM University Chairman of Advisory, Cess)ittee: Dr. Andrew W. Ezell A study of white-tailed deer food habits was conducted on young loblolly pine plantations in East Texas sxxi 24 r)z)mn samples collect- ed...

Furrh, Patricia Louise

2012-06-07

305

Yohimbine hydrochloride as an antagonist to xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilization of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirteen captive and one free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were immobilized one to six times each with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride during winter and spring in northern Minnesota. Administration of 0.09 to 0.53 mg of yohimbine hydrochloride per kg IV after each trial reversed the immobilization. The deer raised their heads within a median time of 2.0 min, stood in 6.0 min and walked away in 9.5 min. No adverse side effects were observed for several weeks following the immobilization.

Mech, L.D.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Karns, P.D.; Seal, U.S.

1985-01-01

306

Two Theileria cervi SSU RRNA gene sequence types found in isolates from white-tailed deer and elk in North America.  

PubMed

Two Theileria cervi SSU rRNA gene sequence Types, F and G, from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) isolates in North America were confirmed. Previously, nucleotide sequencing through a single variable (V4) region showed the presence of SSU rRNA gene Types F and G in T. cervi isolates from white-tailed deer and an elk. In this study, both sequence types were found in four T. cervi isolates (two from deer and two from elk). Microheterogeneity only appeared in the Type G gene, resulting in Subtypes G1, G2 and G3. Subtype G1 was found in two elk and one white-tailed deer T. cervi isolate; Subtypes G2 and G3 were found in a white-tailed deer T. cervi isolate. The Type F SSU rRNA genes were identical in nucleotide sequence in both elk and white-tailed deer T. cervi isolates. The high degree of conservation in the Type F variable regions may be exploited to design specific oligonucleotide primers for parasite detection by the polymerase chain reaction in cervine or tick hosts. PMID:10479079

Chae, J S; Waghela, S D; Craig, T M; Kocan, A A; Wagner, G G; Holman, P J

1999-07-01

307

Oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG).  

PubMed

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n = 17); and non-vaccinated (n = 16). One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts. PMID:24804678

Palmer, Mitchell V; Thacker, Tyler C; Waters, W Ray; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

2014-01-01

308

Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns on a north Atlantic coastal island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns (n=29) were studied from birth to 1 year of age during 1991-95 on Mount Desert Island (MDI), Maine where deer hunting is prohibited, coyotes Canis latrans have become recently established, and protected U. S. National Park lands are interspersed with private property. Rate of predator-caused mortality was 0.52, with coyote predation (n=8) accounting for at least 47% of mortalities from all causes (n=17). Mortality rate from drowning was 0.24 (n=3), and from vehicles was 0.14 (n=3). Of fawns radio-collared as neonates, 10 of 14 mortalities occurred during the first 2 months of life. Annual rate of fawn survival was 0.26. Survival rate from 6 months to 1 year was 0.65 and 4 mortalities (2 predation, 2 drowning) were observed during this interval. A subgroup of fawns (n = 11) captured near a residential area and along the edge of a coyote territory had a higher (P = 0.002) rate of survival to 1 year of age (S = 0.67) than did fawns from all other areas (n = 18, S = 0.00). Recruitment to 1 year of age was lower than has been observed in other deer populations in the northeastern United States. Low recruitment associated with coyote predation and mortality sources influenced by humans appears to be limiting white-tailed deer populations in this insular landscape.

Long, R.A.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Harrison, D.J.

1998-01-01

309

Serosurvey of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer from Northern Mexico.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer from Northern Mexico. Sera from 532 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from three Northern states of Mexico were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by ELISA and western blot. From these samples, 368 were available to test for N. caninum antibodies by ELISA. The overall prevalence for T. gondii antibodies was 13.9% (74/532; CI(95) 11-17) and for N. caninum 8.4% (31/368; CI(95) 6-12). There was a significant association between positive ELISA results for T. gondii, with management factors within ranches, such number of deer per hectare and geographic location of deer, but none for N. caninum. T. gondii infection in the deer from Guerrero, Coahuila had an increased risk than those from Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas (OR, 8.3; CI(95) 1.9-35.4; P<0.05) and ranches with one deer in 15 ha had increased risk of positive association (OR, 2.61; CI(95) 1.5-4.4; P<0.05). These findings may have environmental or public health implications because venison can be an important meat source of T. gondii infections for humans and feral cats. PMID:22633992

Olamendi-Portugal, María; Caballero-Ortega, Heriberto; Correa, Dolores; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel A; Cruz-Vázquez, Carlos; Medina-Esparza, Leticia; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; Cantu, Antonio; García-Vázquez, Zeferino

2012-10-26

310

Drought effect on selection of conservation reserve program grasslands by white-tailed deer on the Northern Great Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P < 0.001) and home range (P < 0.001) levels. Deer selected for Conservation Reserve Program grasslands and corn during both summers and shifted selection temporally within summer. Use of CRP grasslands occurred during early summer; 73.1 and 88.9% of locations in CRP were documented prior to 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Conversely, selection for corn occurred during late summer; 86.0 and 68.4% of locations in corn were documented after 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Additionally, deer selected for forested cover and rural development areas containing permanent water sources during extreme drought conditions during 2006. Deer likely selected for fields of CRP grasslands during early summer for cover and natural forages, such as clover (Trifolium sp.), prior to the period when agricultural crops become available. Drought conditions occurring in semiarid prairie grassland regions may reduce food and water availability and contribute to subsequent changes in deer habitat selection across the range of the species.

Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

2011-01-01

311

Oral Vaccination of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)  

PubMed Central

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1×108 colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n?=?17); and non-vaccinated (n?=?16). One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts. PMID:24804678

Palmer, Mitchell V.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Waters, W. Ray; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

2014-01-01

312

Factors affecting reproductive performance of white-tailed deer subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination or natural mating.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of several factors affecting fawning rate, litter size, litter weight and neonatal fawn mortality in white-tailed deer inseminated either transcervically or by means of laparoscopy. Oestrus synchronisation with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) was conducted in 130 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) during three reproductive seasons (2007-2009; 271 services) in a game-hunting ranch in a hot-arid environment (26°4' N, 101°25' W). Ninety additional non-treated does were exposed to bucks for natural mating. Fawning rate did not differ between AI methods (40.0 vs 45.0% for transcervical and laparoscopic AI, respectively). Overall fawning rate (proportion of all does fawning after FTAI and a subsequent period of buck exposure) did not differ between transcervical (89.5%), laparoscopic (80.3%) or natural (88.9%) insemination. Litter size per fawning doe was higher (P<0.05) in naturally-served does (1.65±0.48) than in transcervically-inseminated does (1.40±0.51) or in laparoscopically-inseminated does (1.48±0.50). The main conclusion was that no enhancement of fawning rate or litter size occurred as a result of intrauterine deposition of semen by laparoscopy compared with the transcervical insemination technique. PMID:23464502

Mellado, Miguel; Orta, Claudia G; Lozano, Eloy A; García, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; de Santiago, Angeles

2013-01-01

313

Does fluctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns predicted for sexually selected traits?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Secondary sexual characters have been hypothesized to signal male quality and should demonstrate a negative relationship between the size of the trait and degree of fluctuating asymmetry because they are costly to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Oklahoma, USA, in order to determine whether measures of antler asymmetry follow the patterns predicted for sexually selected characters. Relative fluctuating asymmetry was negatively related to antler size for all deer and within age groups up to five and a half years of age. We did not detect an association between asymmetry and antler size among deer that were six and a half years or older. When categorizing deer by antler size, we found that deer with small antlers (???33rd percentile) had greater levels of relative asymmetry than deer with large antlers (???67th percentile). The relative asymmetry of antlers was negatively related to age and was greatest in deer that were one and a half years old. Relative asymmetry was also negatively related to carcass mass, inside spread, skull length and body length. These data suggest that asymmetry in the antlers of white-tailed deer may be a reliable signal of quality and, as such, may be important in maintaining honesty in intrasexual advertisements during the breeding season.

Ditchkoff, S.S.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.; Starry, W.R.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.

2001-01-01

314

Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia Ciconia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross?neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate sérologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotra?cheitis), turkey, duck

E. F. Kaleta; N. Kummerfeld

1983-01-01

315

AN EPIZOOTIC OF ADENOVIRUS-INDUCED HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE IN CAPTIVE BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten fawns and four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in a captive herd died as a result of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease. Acute, systemic infections were characterized by hemorrhagic enteropathy, pulmonary edema, and occasional ulceration of the upper alimentary tract. Localized infections were limited to the upper alimentary tract and included stomatitis, pharyngitis, mandibular osteomyelitis, and rumenitis. In deer with acute,

Walter M. Boyce; Leslie W. Woods; M. Kevin Keel; N. James MacLachlan; Charles O. Porter; Howard D. Lehmkuhl

316

Early effects of an 80% herbicide strip treatment on habitat use by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Northern Rio Grande Plain, Texas  

E-print Network

EARLY EFFECTS OF AN HOT HERBICIDE STRIP TREATMENT QN P~ITAT USE BY WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) ON THE NORTHERN RIO GRANDE PLAIN, TEXAS A Thesis bv GEORGE WALDEN TAIPi~ER Submitted to the Graduate College oz Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement ror the d gree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 19/6 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences EARLY EFFECTS OF AN SOB HERBICIDE STRIP TREATMENT ON HABITAT USE BY WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS...

Tanner, George Walden

1976-01-01

317

Evaluating use of cattle winter feeding areas by elk and white-tailed deer: implications for managing bovine tuberculosis transmission risk from the ground up.  

PubMed

Transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) among wildlife and livestock has created important risks for conservation and agriculture. Management strategies aimed at controlling TB have typically been top-down, regionally focused, and government-led programs that were at best only partially successful. The purpose of this study was to quantify co-mingling of elk and white-tailed deer (WTD) with cattle at multiple spatial scales (i.e., the regional farm scale and winter cattle feeding area patch) in southwestern Manitoba, Canada, to assess the potential for bovine tuberculosis transmission and identify alternative management strategies. For each spatial scale we quantified use of cattle farms by elk and white-tailed deer. We mailed questionnaires to rural households and then conducted personal interviews with 86 cattle farmers to map the spatial distribution of their cattle winter feeding areas at a fine scale. We deployed Global Positioning System (GPS) collars on 48 wild elk and 16 wild white-tailed deer from 2003 to 2011. Elk were observed on farms by 66% of cattle producers, including 5% and 20% who observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between elk and cattle. Cattle producers consistently (?100%) observed white-tailed deer on their farms, including 11% and 47% whom observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between white-tailed deer and cattle. A higher probability of white-tailed deer-cattle contact at the regional scale occurs on farms that (1) left crop residues specifically for wildlife, (2) had larger cattle herds, (3) used round bale feeders, and (4) were farther away from protected areas. None of the GPS-collared elk locations overlapped with cattle winter feeding areas. In contrast, 21% of GPS-collared white-tailed deer locations overlapped with winter cattle winter feeding areas (22% of these were from male WTD and 78% were from female WTD). White-tailed deer selected cattle winter feeding areas with higher (1) forage crop, (2) grassland/rangeland, and (3) forest cover around the cattle feeding area. Farmers overall expressed strongly negative attitudes toward eradicating the elk population or fencing the park to eradicate TB, but were generally supportive of less invasive and farm-based approaches. Our results suggested that management efforts to prevent TB transmission at the wildlife-agriculture interface can be effectively implemented using a 'bottom-up' approach that focuses on practical, farm-based mitigation strategies. This approach can be implemented by individual farm operators, is relatively low cost, and is generally well supported by farmers relative to other more extreme and controversial measures like wildlife eradication. PMID:22940061

Brook, Ryan K; Wal, Eric Vander; van Beest, Floris M; McLachlan, Stéphane M

2013-02-01

318

Distinguishing nonhuman predation on birds: pattern of damage done by the white-tailed eagle Haliaetus albicilla, with comments on the punctures made by the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presents criteria to distinguish some of the nonhuman predation on birds whose remains may also be found at archaeological sites. Specifically, it deals with fragmentation patterns of bird bones in uneaten food remains of the white-tailed eagle Haliaetus albicilla and discusses perforations in victims' bones done by the white-tailed and golden eagles. The food remains show very low

Zbigniew M. Bochenski; Teresa Tomek; Risto Tornberg; Krzysztof Wertz

2009-01-01

319

Serological Evidence for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, in Vermont, 2010  

PubMed Central

Serum samples from 489 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were screened for antibodies against the Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) using plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs). EEEV antibodies were detected in 10.2% of serum samples. This is the first evidence that EEEV is present in Vermont. Serum was collected from deer in all 14 counties in the state, and positive EEEV sera were found in 12 (85%) of 14 counties, suggesting statewide EEEV activity in Vermont. Analysis of the spatial distribution of PRNT-positive samples revealed a random distribution of EEEV throughout the state. The results indicate widespread EEEV activity in Vermont and suggest that EEEV is not a recent introduction to the state but that EEEV activity has not been detected until now. PMID:23208886

Berl, Erica; Eisen, Rebecca J.; MacMillan, Katherine; Swope, Bethany N.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Graham, Alan C.; Turmel, Jon P.; Mutebi, John-Paul

2013-01-01

320

Serological evidence for eastern equine encephalitis virus activity in white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, in Vermont, 2010.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 489 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were screened for antibodies against the Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) using plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs). EEEV antibodies were detected in 10.2% of serum samples. This is the first evidence that EEEV is present in Vermont. Serum was collected from deer in all 14 counties in the state, and positive EEEV sera were found in 12 (85%) of 14 counties, suggesting statewide EEEV activity in Vermont. Analysis of the spatial distribution of PRNT-positive samples revealed a random distribution of EEEV throughout the state. The results indicate widespread EEEV activity in Vermont and suggest that EEEV is not a recent introduction to the state but that EEEV activity has not been detected until now. PMID:23208886

Berl, Erica; Eisen, Rebecca J; MacMillan, Katherine; Swope, Bethany N; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D; Graham, Alan C; Turmel, Jon P; Mutebi, John-Paul

2013-01-01

321

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1982 status report  

SciTech Connect

One hundred nine white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1982, a decrease of six from the vehicle kills in 1981. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. The highest number of deer killed was recorded during November. The sex ratio of road-kills was 0.6:1 (males to females) from January through September, but it shifted to 3.6:1 for the October through December period, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movements. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season from early October through late March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that animals were in good condition (only a few abnormalities were observed), and endoparasite burdens continue to reflect no overcrowding in the deer population. 5 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1985-06-01

322

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge reservation: 1981 status report  

SciTech Connect

One hundred fifteen white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1981, an increase of seventeen over 1980. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. October and November were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road kills was 0.8:1 (males to females) from January through September but shifted to 3:1 during October, November, and December, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movement. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season spanning the September through February period. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that the animals were in good condition with only a few abnormalities observed. Abomasal parasite counts reflected an optimum density situation between the deer population and its habitat, although browse surveys made during the winter of 1981-1982 indicated a tendency toward an overpopulated condition.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1982-11-01

323

A phoenix of clinical toxinology: white-tailed spider (Lampona spp.) bites. A case report and review of medical significance.  

PubMed

The Australian white-tailed spiders ("WTS"; Lamponidae: notably Lampona cylindrata &Lampona murina) have a continuing reputation on Internet sites as a cause of skin ulceration, labelled "necrotic arachnidism", despite an increasing number of peer-reviewed publications debunking this reputation, with >135 confirmed cases now reported without any evidence of necrosis. We present here a case of confirmed WTS bite in a 42-year old male, followed for over a month, with photos of bite site signs and no development of skin ulceration/necrosis. The patient was initially alarmed by information on the Internet suggesting local necrosis would result from the bite. We discuss the evolution of knowledge about bites by the WTS, and the persistence of misconceptions about their factually mild medical significance. PMID:24923740

White, Julian; Weinstein, Scott A

2014-09-01

324

A Paleozoological Perspective on White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) Population Density and Body Size in Central Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted, which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected, given that a lack of predation likely has increased intraspecific competition for forage among deer, resulting in smaller body size today. In fact, modern deer from settings without harvest pressure are significantly smaller than those from harvested areas and from prehistoric deer. From a natural history perspective, this research highlights potential evolutionary causes and effects of top-predator removal on deer populations and related components of biological communities in central Texas.

Wolverton, Steve; Kennedy, James H.; Cornelius, John D.

2007-04-01

325

Comparison of white-tailed kite food web dynamics among various habitats in California using stable isotope analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) was once a common raptor species in the southern United States. However, by the 1930s, the species was considered on the verge of extinction until the 1940s, when a trend towards recovery was apparent. These dramatic fluctuations may be related to changes in rodent prey base due to the conversion of native wetlands to agriculture. To investigate the effects of changes in habitat, land use practices, and prey base on kite populations, we collected tissue samples from kites, their prey, and vegetation at four different locations in California: Arcata, Coastal-Coniferous Forest; Davis, mixed Urban-Agricultural; Cosumnes, Mixed Wetland-Agriculture, and Santa Barbara, Coastal-Chaparral.

Iko, W.M.; Kester, C.L.; Bern, C.R.; Stendell, R.C.; Rye, R.O.

2003-01-01

326

Does the use of vaginal-implant transmitters affect neonate survival rate of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared survival of neonate white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus captured using vaginal-implant transmitters (VITs) and traditional ground searches to determine if capture method affects neonate survival. During winter 2003, 14 adult female radio-collared deer were fitted with VITs to aid in the spring capture of neonates; neonates were captured using VITs (N = 14) and traditional ground searches (N = 7). Of the VITs, seven (50%) resulted in the location of birth sites and the capture of 14 neonates. However, seven (50%) VITs were prematurely expelled prior to parturition. Predation accounted for seven neonate mortalities, and of these, five were neonates captured using VITs. During summer 2003, survival for neonates captured using VITs one. two, and three months post capture was 0.76 (SE = 0.05; N = 14). 0.64 (SE = 0.07; N = 11) and 0.64 (SE = 0.08; N = 9), respectively. Neonate survival one, two and three months post capture for neonates captured using ground searches was 0.71 (SE = 0.11 N = 7), 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5) and 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5), respectively. Although 71% of neonates that died were captured <24 hours after birth using VITs, survival did not differ between capture methods. Therefore, use of VITs to capture neonate white-tailed deer did not influence neonate survival. VITs enabled us to capture neonates in dense habitats which would have been difficult to locate using traditional ground searches. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.; DePerno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Tardiff, J.A.

2008-01-01

327

Butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine anesthesia in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using radiotransmitter darts.  

PubMed

Fourteen free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were successfully anesthetized for a total of 15 anesthetic events using a combination of butorphanol (mean+/-SD, 0.58+/-0.1 mg/kg), azaperone (0.37+/-0.06 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.19+/-0.03 mg/kg) (BAM) administered by radiotelemetry darts from hunting blinds between November 2006 and May 2007. Mean time to locate deer (mean+/-SD, 17. 3+/-7 min), to recumbency (21.4+/-5 min), to initiation of data acquisition (27.5+/-8 min), total down time (37+/-6 min), and average distance run (161+/-82 m) were recorded. Physiologic monitoring was done every 5 min for a total of 20 min. Arterial blood gases were collected every 10 min. Mild to moderate hypoxemia and mildly depressed ventilation occurred in some animals. Muscle relaxation and plane of anesthesia were adequate for completion of all procedures; two deer were administered intravenous butorphanol supplementation to achieve light anesthesia (mean+/-SD, 0.19 mg/kg; 0.12 mg/kg). Recovery following intramuscular administration of naltrexone (1.34+/-0.42 mg/kg; 2x butorphanol dose) and atipamezole (0.93+/-0.14 mg/kg; 5x medetomidine dose) was rapid, smooth, and complete. Mean+/-SD recovery time was 4.5+/-1.5 min. Overall efficacy of the Pneu-Dart radiotelemetry system was 65%. Negative attributes of this protocol included long induction time and dart failure. No known mortalities occurred as a result of the study. This drug combination provided safe, reliable, short-term anesthesia of free-ranging white-tailed deer. Further evaluation for use in field procedures in other cervids is warranted. PMID:19395756

Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Citino, Scott B; Wade, Scotty; Elder, Laura; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Lance, William R

2009-04-01

328

Optimal medetomidine dose when combined with ketamine and tiletamine-zolazepam to immobilize white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Chemical immobilization is often needed for safe and effective capture and handling of wildlife. We evaluated medetomidine (125, 150, 175, or 200 ?g/kg; for synergistic effects and relaxation) mixed with ketamine (1.5 mg/kg; for relatively shorter recovery) and tiletamine-zolazepam (1.0 mg/kg; for rapid induction) in 22 female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at the University of Georgia Whitehall Deer Research Facility in Athens, Georgia, USA, on 14-15 and 21 May 2009. Deer were weighed before treatment, hand-injected intramuscularly (IM) while restrained in a squeeze chute, and released into a pen for monitoring. We measured rectal temperature, respiration rate, heart rate, hemoglobin saturation (using pulse oximetry), and arterial blood gases at 0, 10, and 20 min postimmobilization. We found no differences in induction time with different doses of medetomidine. Deer became laterally recumbent for all treatments combined at a median of 4.2 (2.6-21.3) min and were approachable by a median of 4.8 (3.5-21.8) min. Twelve of the 22 deer had rectal temperatures >40 C at time 0 and were treated with a cold-water enema. Hemoglobin saturation, estimated using pulse oximetry, was 79.5, 82.0, and 82.3% at times 0, 10, and 20, respectively. We injected atipamezole (0.35 mg/kg, IM) for reversal. Recovery occurred sooner and was more consistent for 125 and 150 ?g/kg medetomidine whereby deer stood with minimal sedation to moderate ataxia within 60-90 min after atipamezole administration. We recommend using 150 ?g of medetomidine with ketamine (1.5 mg/kg) and tiletamine-zolazepam (1.0 mg/kg) to provide effective and safe chemical immobilization of white-tailed deer. PMID:22493126

Muller, Lisa I; Osborn, David A; Doherty, Tom; Keel, M Kevin; Miller, Brad F; Warren, Robert J; Miller, Karl V

2012-04-01

329

Immunologic and molecular identification of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northern Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The suitability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as hosts for the cattle ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, has been well documented. These ticks have a wide host range, and both transmit Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina, the agents resp...

330

The impact of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on Estonian Common Carp Cyprinus carpio production: How large is the economic loss?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected bird species have been suspected to be a cause of a significant economic loss at Estonian fish farms, but its extent has remained unexplored. We counted the number of White-tailed Eagles and Ospreys, and the quantity of fish they take, and analysed the economic loss in five carp farms in 2001-2004. Each of Estonian four larger carp farms was

Joosep Tuvia; Ülo Välia

331

HOME RANGES OF SYMPATRIC MULE DEER AND WHITE-TAILED DEER KRISTINA J. BRUNJES, WARREN B. BALLARD,* MARY H. HUMPHREY, FIELDLING HARWELL,  

E-print Network

of sympatric female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) in west bura (Odocoileus hemionus) y venado cola blanca (O. virginianus) en el centro-oeste de Texas´fico fue menos en la primavera. In Texas, geographic distributions of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus

Wallace, Mark C.

332

Effects of fluoride emissions from a modern primary aluminum smelter on a local population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of fluoride emissions from a modern aluminum smelter on concentrations of skeletal fluoride and dental fluorosis in a resident population of white-tailed deer was studied. The smelter was located on Mount Holly Plantation in South Carolina, and concentrations of skeletal fluoride in the deer collected at Mount Holly increased approximately five-fold 3 yr after the operation began. Increases

J. S. Suttie; R. Dickie; A. B. Clay; Per Nielsen; W. E. Mahan; D. P. Baumann; R. J. Hamilton

1987-01-01

333

Development of a spatially targeted field sampling technique for the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by mapping white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, habitat in South Texas.  

PubMed

The objective of our study was to determine whether satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in South Texas. Two methods for mapping white-tailed deer habitat were used, an object-oriented method to identify closed canopies and waterways for deer movement and two vegetation indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to identify forage for deer. These two data sets of favorable white-tailed deer habitat were combined within a geographic information system to identify locations for sampling ticks. Larvae of R. (B.) microplus, were sampled in Zapata County, Texas, by walking transects with attached flannel panels to jeans. Although the data set and sampling period were limited, data analysis demonstrated that sampling of free-living larvae of R. (B.) microplus can be conducted in South Texas, and larvae were most abundant in areas that harbored O. virginianus. Spatial analysis of satellite imagery to classify white-tailed deer/southern cattle tick habitat proved efficacious and may be useful in directing sampling activities in the field. PMID:25368044

Phillips, Pamela L; Welch, John B; Kramer, Matthew

2014-01-01

334

Topical Treatment of White-Tailed Deer with an Acaricide for the Control of Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Connecticut Lyme Borreliosis Hyperendemic Community  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), against ticks using the acaricide amitraz, was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distrib...

335

Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high, but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 531 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio, and and 485 W...

336

Effects of Harvesting Intensity and Herbivory by White-tailed Deer on Vegetation and Nutrient Uptake in a Northern Hardwood Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified the response of vegetation and nutrient uptake in a northern hardwood forest in southeastern New York for three to four years after three intensities of harvesting: clearcutting, heavy timber stand improvement (TSI), light TSI (97, 29, and 10% basal area reductions, respectively). We also quantified effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on nutrient retention by vegetation. Total

T. E. Yorks; D. J. Leopold; D. J. Raynal; P. S. Murdoch; D. A. Burns

2003-01-01

337

Development and multiplex PCR amplification of novel microsatellite markers in the White-tailed Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla (Aves: Falconiformes, Accipitridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development of 14 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers cloned from the White-tailed Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla , a formerly threatened raptor that has received much conservation attention throughout Eurasia. We also present a protocol for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the loci. Among 40 unrelated H. albicilla individuals from southern Sweden, the markers produced two to

FRANK HAILER; BARBARA GAUTSCHI; BJORN HELANDER

2005-01-01

338

The quantitative effects of population density and winter weather on the body condition of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) in Nova Scotia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the underlying mechanisms that cause variation in survival and the reproductive success of animals is essential for predicting variation in population parameters. To gain an understanding of the effects of density and winter weather severity on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780), we examined the effects of current-year deer density and cumulative weekly average values for snow depth, rainfall,

Colin J. Garroway; Hugh G. Broders

2005-01-01

339

T-cell mRNA Expression in Response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Mycobacterium bovis Infection of White-tailed deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding immune responses of white-tailed deer (WTD) to infection with Mycobacterium bovis provides insight into mechanisms of pathogen control and may provide clues to development of effective vaccine strategies. WTD were vaccinated with either BCG strain Pasteur or BCG Danish. Both vaccinates...

340

Effects of white-tailed deer on vegetation structure and woody seedling composition in three forest types on the Piedmont Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Ododcoileus virginiana) can substantially affect the structure and species composition of a forest. The tolerance of a forest community to browsing may vary by type as a result of varying biotic and abiotic factors of the environment. To date, no studies have compared the effects of browsing among forest communities within a physiographic region. We investigated the effects

C. Reed Rossell; Bryan Gorsira; Steven Patch

2005-01-01

341

Initial sequencing and tissue distribution of Toll-like receptor 3 mRNA in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and activates a signal transduction pathway that results in the release of a variety of chemokines and cytokines and apoptotic activity. Variability in TLR3 expression may play an important role in disease susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses, which are dsRNA viruses. Because little is known about TLR3 in WTD, our objective was to sequence WTD TLR3 mRNA and to determine baseline levels of tissue expression. A 209-base pair sequence of TLR3 mRNA was obtained from WTD peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Dot blots confirmed that the sequence obtained was part of total WTD mRNA. Variable expression or ligand binding of TLR3 may contribute to observed susceptibility differences between populations of WTD, so the level of TLR3 in small intestine, skin, spleen, heart, cecum, rumen, lymph node, lung, kidney, and liver from WTD fawns (n=2) was analyzed using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Tissue expression of TLR3 mRNA relative to the housekeeping gene beta-actin was highest in spleen, heart, skin, and lung. PMID:19617489

Vos, Seychelle M; Yabsley, Michael J; Howerth, Elizabeth W

2009-07-01

342

Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease.  

PubMed

White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline. PMID:23949663

Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne M S; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

2014-02-01

343

Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease  

PubMed Central

White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline. PMID:23949663

Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne MS; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

2014-01-01

344

An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska.  

PubMed

An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines. PMID:14708993

Hollmén, Tuula E; Franson, J Christian; Flint, Paul L; Grand, James B; Lanctot, Richard B; Docherty, Douglas E; Wilson, Heather M

2003-01-01

345

Loss of white matter integrity is associated with gait disorders in cerebral small vessel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gait disturbances are common in the elderly. Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter lesions and lacunars infarcts, is thought to disrupt white matter tracts that connect important motor regions, hence resulting in gait disturbances. Pathological studies have demonstrated abnormalities in white matter that may appear normal on brain imaging. The loss of integrity in such normal-appearing white matter may

K. F. de Laat; A. M. Tuladhar; A. G. W. van Norden; D. G. Norris; M. P. Zwiers; F. E. de Leeuw

2011-01-01

346

Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).  

PubMed

Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross-neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate serologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotracheitis), turkey, duck and pigeon as well as from the blue-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Lake Victoria cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and desmoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) did not react with the stork herpesviruses. Neutralising antibodies against stork herpesvirus were detected in the majority of 72 blood samples from white and black storks. In addition, three Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) could be isolated from white storks. One isolate was highly virulent the two others were avirulent for the chicken. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that some storks have antibodies against Paramyxovirus- (PMV)-1 (NDV), PMV-2 and PMV-3. No antibodies could be detected in stork sera against PMV-4, -6 and -7. PMID:18766791

Kaleta, E F; Kummerfeld, N

1983-01-01

347

White Band Disease transmission in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis  

PubMed Central

The global rise in coral diseases has severely impacted coral reef ecosystems, yet often little is known about these diseases, including how they are transmitted. White Band Disease (WBD), for example, has caused unparalleled declines in live Acropora cover, spreading rapidly throughout the Caribbean by unknown means. Here we test four putative modes of WBD transmission to the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: two animal vectors (Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea) and waterborne transmission to intact and injured coral tissues. Using aquarium-based infection experiments, we determine that C. abbreviata, but not C. caribaea, acts as both a vector and reservoir for transmission of the WBD pathogen. We also demonstrate waterborne transmission to injured, but not intact staghorn coral tissues. The combination of transmission by both animal vectors and through the water column helps explain how WBD is spread locally and across the Caribbean. PMID:23150775

Gignoux-Wolfsohn, S. A.; Marks, Christopher J.; Vollmer, Steven V.

2012-01-01

348

Candidates for Symbiotic Control of Sugarcane White Leaf Disease  

PubMed Central

The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri.” Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri” colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. PMID:22798373

Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

349

Mobuck virus genome sequence and phylogenetic analysis: identification of a novel Orbivirus isolated from a white-tailed deer in Missouri, USA.  

PubMed

The genus Orbivirus includes a diverse group of segmented dsRNA viruses that are transmitted via arthropods, have a global distribution and affect a wide range of hosts. A novel orbivirus was co-isolated with epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) exhibiting clinical signs characteristic of EHDV. Using antiserum generated against EHDV, a pure isolate of the novel non-cytopathic orbivirus was obtained in Aedes albopictus cell culture. Genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of predicted ORFs showed that eight of the ten ORFs were most homologous to Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV), with amino acid identities of 44.3-73.7?%. The remaining two ORFs, VP3 and VP5, were most similar to Middle Point orbivirus (35.9?%) and Yunnan orbivirus (59.8?%), respectively. Taxonomic classification of orbiviruses is largely based on homology of the major subcore structural protein VP2(T2), encoded by segment 2 for mobuck virus. With only 69.1?% amino acid identity to PHSV, we propose mobuck virus as the prototype of a new species of Orbivirus. PMID:24114792

Cooper, Elyse; Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Klumper, Patricia; Scherba, Gail; Simonson, Randy R; Hause, Ben M

2014-01-01

350

A comparison of carfentanil/xylazine and Telazol/xylazine for immobilization of white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

October 2001 to January 2002, captive free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were immobilized with a combination of carfentanil citrate and xylazine hydrochloride. From this study, we selected a dose of carfentanil/xylazine for the purpose of comparing immobilization parameters and physiologic effects with those of a combination of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol) and xylazine. Animals were initially given intramuscular injections of 10 mg xylazine and one of four doses of carfentanil (i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg). A carfentanil dose of 1.2 mg (x +/- SD = 23.5 +/- 3.2 microg/kg) and 10 mg xylazine (0.2 +/- 0.03 mg/kg) were selected, based on induction times and previously published reports, to compare with a combination of 230 mg of Telazol (4.5 +/- 0.6 mg/kg) and 120 mg xylazine (2.3 +/- 0.3 mg/kg). Time to first observable drug effects and to induction were significantly longer for deer treated with carfentanil/xylazine than with Telazol/xylazine (P < 0.01). Hyperthermia was common in deer immobilized with carfentanil/xylazine, but heart rate, respiration rate, and hemoglobin saturation were within acceptable levels. Degree of anesthesia of deer immobilized with Telazol/xylazine was superior to deer immobilized with carfentanil/xylazine. The combination of 120 mg of naltrexone hydrochloride and 6.5 mg of yohimbine hydrochloride provided rapid and complete reversal (1.9 +/- 1.1 min) of carfentanil/xylazine immobilization. Animals immobilized with Telazol/xylazine had long recovery times with occasional resedation after antagonism with 6.5 mg of yohimbine. The combination of carfentanil and xylazine at the doses tested did not provide reliable induction or immobilization of white-tailel (leer even though drug reversal was rapid and safe using naltrexone and yohimbine. PMID:14733280

Miller, Brad F; Muller, Lisa I; Storms, Timothy N; Ramsay, Edward C; Osborn, David A; Warren, Robert J; Miller, Karl V; Adams, Kent A

2003-10-01

351

Vanishing White Matter Disease in a Spanish Population  

PubMed Central

Vanishing white matter (VWM) leukoencephalopathy is one of the most prevalent hereditary white matter diseases. It has been associated with mutations in genes encoding eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF2B). We have compiled a list of all the patients diagnosed with VWM in Spain; we found 21 children. The first clinical manifestation in all of them was spasticity, with severe ataxia in six patients, hemiparesis in one child, and dystonic movements in another. They suffered from progressive cognitive deterioration and nine of them had epilepsy too. In four children, we observed optic atrophy and three also had progressive macrocephaly, which is not common in VWM disease. The first two cases were diagnosed before the 1980s. Therefore, they were diagnosed by necropsy studies. The last 16 patients were diagnosed according to genetics: we found mutations in the genes eIF2B5 (13 cases), eIF2B3 (2 cases), and eIF2B4 (1 case). In our report, the second mutation in frequency was c.318A>T; patients with this mutation all followed a slow chronic course, both in homozygous and heterozygous states. Previously, there were no other reports to confirm this fact. We also found some mutations not described in previous reports: c.1090C>T in eIF2B4, c.314A>G in eIF2B5, and c.877C>T in eIF2B5. PMID:25089094

Turón-Viñas, Eulàlia; Pineda, Mercè; Cusí, Victòria; López-Laso, Eduardo; del Pozo, Rebeca Losada; Gutiérrez-Solana, Luis González; Moreno, David Conejo; Sierra-Córcoles, Concha; Olabarrieta-Hoyos, Naiara; Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Aguirre-Rodríguez, Javier; González-Álvarez, Verónica; O’Callaghan, Mar; Muchart, Jordi; Armstrong-Moron, Judith

2014-01-01

352

[Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].  

PubMed

White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic. PMID:23894977

Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Ramírez-Pulido, José; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; López, Georgina Isabel García; Janczur, Mariusz

2013-03-01

353

Changes during the holocene in the size of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from central Illinois  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from central Illinois varied in size during the Holocene. The record, which extends back to 8450 yr B.P., indicates small deer through the mid-Holocene until 3650 yr B.P., after which size increases. Although influences of winter climate, seasonality, anthropogenic effects, and other ecological factors should not be discounted, an intriguing possible cause of the deer size shifts is insolation-driven summer climate and its influence on food resources. In the Holocene, small deer size is correlated with high summer insolation and with low winter insolation. Climatic models indicate that in spite of changes in insolation, Holocene winters did not vary greatly through time, especially in contrast to summers, which were dynamic. Physiological constraints peculiar to O. virginianus make critical the quality of summer forage for determining final adult size. Summer temperature averaged 2°C warmer than present during the middle Holocene, which increased evaporation and probably reduced the period of availability of high-quality forage low in fiber and high in protein. Consequently, less fuel for growth was consumed by mid-Holocene deer and only small body size was achieved. Other possible causes (e.g., Bergmann's rule, seasonality) of clinal variation are considered with reference to central Illinois deer, but at present the most parsimonious explanation appears to be the summer insolation hypothesis.

Purdue, James R.

1989-11-01

354

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1979 status report  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1979, an increase of twenty-eight over 1978. Patterns of mortality were similar to those reported in previous documents. During the year, the highest number of deer was killed in October, November, and December. Throughout the year almost twice as many males as females were killed. Reproductive data collected from 19 does revealed that breeding during 1979 probably occurred from early December through early January. Night-lighting showed the same general trends in population increase that were apparent in the road-kill sample. The number of deer night-lighted in 1976 was 11/110 km, while in 1979 the number rose to 40/100 km. the habitat evaluation which began in 1978 was continued in 1979, with a survey of the number of deer trails from a given habitat-type supplementing the radiotelemetry work. Results indicated a preference for cutover areas where immature pine, eastern red cedar, and grasses dominated and for pine plantations where shelter was provided. Upland hardwoods areas were the least preferred.

Kitchings, J.T.; Story, J.D.

1980-10-01

355

Occurrence, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey.  

PubMed

The ingestion of uncooked infected white-tailed deer (WTD) tissues can transmit Toxoplasma gondii infection to humans and mesocarnivores, including cats. In the present study, we tested 264 WTD from New Jersey for T. gondii infection during the 2011-2012 hunting season. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cutoff titer, 25); 76 (28.7%) of 264 WTD were seropositive. Heart muscle samples from 64 seropositive WTD were digested in pepsin, and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii . Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of 9 WTD; tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. One of the 9 strains was highly virulent for outbred Swiss Webster mice. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these 9 T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Six genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant), no. 4 (Type 12), no. 216, no. 220, and no. 221. The last 2 were new genotypes that were reported for the first time. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in deer from this region of the United States. PMID:23574007

Dubey, J P; Randall, A R; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Verma, S K; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

2013-10-01

356

Evaluation of Serodiagnostic Assays for Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Elk, White-Tailed Deer, and Reindeer in the United States  

PubMed Central

In 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture conducted a project in which elk (Cervus elaphus spp.), white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) were evaluated by the single cervical tuberculin test (SCT), comparative cervical tuberculin test (CCT), and serologic tests. The rapid antibody detection tests evaluated were the CervidTB Stat-Pak (Stat-Pak), and the Dual Path Platform VetTB (DPP). Blood was collected from presumably uninfected animals prior to tuberculin injection for the SCT. A total of 1,783 animals were enrolled in the project. Of these, 1,752 (98.3%) were classified as presumably uninfected, based on originating from a captive cervid herd with no history of exposure to TB. Stat-Pak specificity estimates were 92.4% in reindeer, 96.7% in WTD, and 98.3% in elk and were not significantly different from SCT specificity estimates. Using the DPP in series on Stat-Pak antibody-positive samples improved specificity in the three species. Thirty one animals were classified as confirmed infected, based on necropsy and laboratory results, and 27/31 were antibody positive on Stat-Pak for an estimated sensitivity of 87.1%. The study findings indicate that rapid serologic tests used in series are comparable to the SCT and CCT and may have a greater ability to detect TB-infected cervids. PMID:22792512

Nelson, Jeffrey T.; Orloski, Kathleen A.; Lloyd, Audra L.; Camacho, Mark; Schoenbaum, Mark A.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Thomsen, Bruce V.; Hall, S. Mark

2012-01-01

357

Windows of opportunity: white-tailed deer and the dynamics of northern hardwood forests of the northeastern US  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Herbivory, lighting regimes, and site conditions are among the most important determinants of forest regeneration success, but these are affected by a host of other factors such as weather, predation, human exploitation, pathogens, wind and fire. We draw together > 50 years of research on the Huntington Wildlife Forest in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York to explore regeneration of northern hardwoods. A series of studies each of which focused on a single factor failed to identify the cause of regeneration failure. However, integration of these studies led to broader understanding of the process of forest stand development and identified at least three interacting factors: lighting regime, competing vegetation and selective browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The diverse 100-200 year-old hardwood stands present today probably reflect regeneration during periods of low deer density (< 2.0 deer/km super(2)) and significant forest disturbance. If this hypothesis is correct, forest managers can mimic these 'natural windows of opportunity' through manipulation of a few sensitive variables in the system. Further, these manipulations can be conducted on a relatively small geographic scale. Control of deer densities on a scale of 500 ha and understory American beech (Fagus grandifolia) on a scale of < 100 ha in conjunction with an even-aged regeneration system consistently resulted in successful establishment of desirable hardwood regeneration.

Sage, R.W.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

2003-01-01

358

Field testing of immunocontraception on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Fire Island National Seashore, New York, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Application of contraception for the control of suburban populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been much debated, but few data are available on field applications and even fewer on population effects. Between 1993 and 1997, 74-164 individually known female deer living on Fire Island, New York, USA, were treated remotely with an initial shot of 65 microg porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in Freund's complete adjuvant followed by booster injections of 65 microg PZP in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Starting in 1996, progressively increasing numbers of deer were treated with vaccinating/marking darts. Estimates of population density and composition, using distance sampling methods, began in 1995 in selected portions of the study area. Between 1993 and 1997, fawning rates among individually known, treated adult females decreased by 78.9% from pretreatment rates. Population density in the most heavily treated area increased by 11% per year from 1995 to March 1998 and then decreased at 23% per year to October 2000. In 1999-2000 surveys, fawns comprised 13-14% of the total population in the most heavily treated area, versus 16-33% in nearby untreated areas. These results show that PZP can be delivered effectively to sufficient deer to affect population density and composition in some environments, but that technical and logistical improvements are needed before contraception can be used widely to manage suburban deer populations.

Naugle, R.E.; Rutberg, A.T.; Underwood, H.B.; Turner, J.W., Jr.; Liu, I.K.

2002-01-01

359

Seasonal patterns of weight, hematology, and serum characteristics of free-ranging female white-tailed deer in Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weights, hematology, and serum profIles of white-tailed does in the central Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota were examined year-around to determine seasonal patterns of nutritional condition and metabolism. Deer were initially captured by Clover trap or rocket net. Between 15 February 1989 and 23 January 1990, we recaptured 12 adult (> 1.5 years) female deer 1-9 times each (a total of 59 recaptures) using a radio-controlled capture collar. Monthly weights of deer exhibited a cyclic seasonal pattern. Mean weight declined 22 % from February to an annual minimum during May, then steadily increased 45 % to a maximum in October. Seasonal patterns were most evident for hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells, packed cell volume, serum total protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the urea N to creatinine ratio, triiodothyronine, cortisol, and potassium. Wide seasonal variations of these characteristics were indicative of shifts in the deer's metabolic physiology. Although seasonal metabolic shifts are partially attributable to an endogenous rhythm, the intensity of, their expression was most likely affected by nutritional changes and concomitant alterations of body condition. Annual changes in seasonal trends of blood characteristics may be useful in investigating nutritional effects of specific environmental and demographic factors. We compare our findings with those reported for deer on ranges farther south.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Gese, E.M.; Seal, U.S.

1992-01-01

360

The influence of fine-scale habitat features on regional variation in population performance of alpine White-tailed Ptarmigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is often assumed (explicitly or implicitly) that animals select habitat features to maximize fitness. However, there is often a mismatch between preferred habitats and indices of individual and population measures of performance. We examined the influence of fine-scale habitat selection on the overall population performance of the White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura), an alpine specialist, in two subdivided populations whose habitat patches are configured differently. The central region of Vancouver Island, Canada, has more continuous and larger habitat patches than the southern region. In 2003 and 2004, using paired logistic regression between used (n = 176) and available (n = 324) sites, we identified food availability, distance to standing water, and predator cover as preferred habitat components . We then quantified variation in population performance in the two regions in terms of sex ratio, age structure (n = 182 adults and yearlings), and reproductive success (n = 98 females) on the basis of 8 years of data (1995-1999, 2002-2004). Region strongly influenced females' breeding success, which, unsuccessful hens included, was consistently higher in the central region (n = 77 females) of the island than in the south (n = 21 females, P = 0.01). The central region also had a much higher proportion of successful hens (87%) than did the south (55%, P < 0.001). In light of our findings, we suggest that population performance is influenced by a combination of fine-scale habitat features and coarse-scale habitat configuration. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

Fedy, B.; Martin, K.

2011-01-01

361

The Effect of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E on Biochemical Parameters and Survival of Young Among White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two adult female white-tailed deer were assigned to four complete pelleted diets (±45ppm vitamin E; ±0.2ppm selenium). Selenium and vitamin E concentration in the unsupplemented diet was 0.04 and 5.5 ppm, respectively. Biochemical parameters of the erythrocyte ( RBC ) glutathione peroxidase system and survival of off-spring to wean ing were followed for 2 years. At the end of the

PAUL S. BRADY; LINDA J. BRADY

362

Putative chemical signals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urinary and vaginal mucus volatiles excreted by females during breeding season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine and vaginal mucus samples from female white-tailed deer in estrus and mid-cycle were analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty-four volatiles were found in mucus and 63 in urine. The volatiles common to both vaginal mucus and urine included alcohols, aldehydes, furans, ketones, alkanes, and alkenes. Aromatic hydrocarbons were present only in the vaginal mucus, whereas pyrans, amines,

B. Jemiolo; K. V. Miller; D. Wiesler; I. Jelinek; M. Novotny; R. L. Marchinton

1995-01-01

363

Serologic Evidence of West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infections in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from New Jersey, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples from 689 hunter-killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) collected during the 2001 fall hunting season in New Jersey were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis en- cephalitis virus (SLEV) by plaque-reduction neutralization tests. WNV-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six (0.9%) of the samples, and SLEV-neutralizing antibodies were found in 11 (1.6%) of the

Ary Farajollahi; Robert Gates; Wayne Crans; Nicholas Komar

2004-01-01

364

Detection of Borrelia lonestari, Putative Agent of Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness, in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if white-tailed deer may serve as a reservoir host for Borrelia lonestari, we used a nested PCR for the Borrelia flagellin gene to evaluate blood samples collected from deer from eight southeastern states. Seven of 80 deer (8.7%) from 5 of 17 sites (29.4%) had sequence-confirmed evidence of a B. lonestari flagellin gene by PCR, indicating that deer

Victor A. Moore; Andrea S. Varela; Michael J. Yabsley; William R. Davidson; Susan E. Little

365

Electrophysiological measurements of spectral mechanisms in the retinas of two cervids: white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) and fallow deer ( Dama dama )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroretinogram (ERG) flicker photometry was used to study the spectral mechanisms in the retinas of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and fallow deer (Dama dama). In addition to having a rod pigment with maximum sensitivity (?max) of about 497 nm, both species appear to have two classes of photopic receptors. They share in common a short-wavelength-sensitive cone mechanism having ?max in

G. H. Jacobs; J. F. Deegan; J. Neitz; B. P. Murphy; K. V. Miller; R. L. Marchinton

1994-01-01

366

CACHE VALLEY AND POTOSI VIRUSES ( BUNYAVIRIDAE ) IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS ): EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS AND ANTIBODY PREVALENCE IN NATURAL POPULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache Valley virus (CVV) and Potosi virus (POTV) are two closely related mosquito-borne viruses (Bunyaviridae: Bunyamwera group) that appear to circulate in several regions of the United States, especially the Midwest. We determined the prevalence of specific neutralizing antibodies to both viruses in Indiana white-tailed deer and conducted infection experiments to assess whether deer could serve as an vertebrate-amplifying host.

CARINA G. M. BLACKMOREAND; PAUL R. GRIMSTAD

367

Determination and evaluation of an optimal dosage of carfentanil and xylazine for the immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an iteration method, optimal hand-injected immobilization dosages of carfentanil\\/xylazine (CAR\\/XYL) were determined for 13 adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer were temporarily restrained in a squeeze chute and were repeatedly immobilized one to four times at 2–5-wk intervals from December 2002 to March 2003. A fixed ratio of 1 mg CAR:10 mg XYL intramuscularly was used, increasing or decreasing

Timothy N. Storms; Juergen Schumacher; Nancy Zagaya; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller; Edward C. Ramsay

2005-01-01

368

RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF THINNING AND HIGH WHITE-TAILED DEER DENSITIES ON NORTHERN REDBACK SALAMANDERS IN SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND OAK FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has demonstrated that even-aged regeneration han-ests, especially clearcutting, can have a major and long-lasting detrimental effect on forest amphibians, but the effects of less intensive sil\\\\icultural treatments have not been well documented. Additionally, the chronic overabundance of white-tailed deer (Oclocoileusuirginianrls) has become a problem in many parts of North America, with associated effects on vegetation con~position and structure and

ROBERT T. BROOKS

369

Rapid Detection of Serum Antibody by Dual-Path Platform VetTB Assay in White-Tailed Deer Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cervids remains a significant problem affecting farmed herds and wild populations. Traditional skin testing has serious limitations in certain species, whereas emerging serological assays showed promising diagnostic performance. The recently developed immunochromatographic dual-path platform (DPP) VetTB assay has two antigen bands, T1 (MPB83 protein) and T2 (CFP10/ESAT-6 fusion protein), for antibody detection. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of this test by using serum samples collected from groups of white-tailed deer experimentally inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, or M. bovis BCG Pasteur. In addition, we used serum samples from farmed white-tailed deer in herds with no history of TB, as well as from free-ranging white-tailed deer culled during field surveillance studies performed in Michigan known to have bovine TB in the wild deer population. The DPP VetTB assay detected antibody responses in 58.1% of experimentally infected animals within 8 to 16 weeks postinoculation and in 71.9% of naturally infected deer, resulting in an estimated test sensitivity of 65.1% and a specificity of 97.8%. The higher seroreactivity found in deer with naturally acquired M. bovis infection was associated with an increased frequency of antibody responses to the ESAT-6 and CFP10 proteins, resulting in a greater contribution of these antigens, in addition to MPB83, to the detection of seropositive animals, compared with experimental M. bovis infection. Deer experimentally inoculated with either M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. bovis BCG Pasteur did not produce cross-reactive antibodies that could be detected by the DPP VetTB assay. The present findings demonstrate the relatively high diagnostic accuracy of the DPP VetTB test for white-tailed deer, especially in the detection of naturally infected animals. PMID:23595504

Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; O'Brien, Daniel J.; Schmitt, Stephen M.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Waters, W. Ray

2013-01-01

370

The food habits of white-tailed deer on the cattle stocked, liveoak-mesquite ranges of the King Ranch, as determined by analyses of deer rumen contents  

E-print Network

THE FOOD HABITS OF WHITE-TAILED DEFR ON THE CATTLE STOCKED, LIVEOAK-MESQUITE RAN"ES OF THE KIN RANCH, AS DETERMINED BY ANALYSES OP DEER RUMEN CONTENTS. Richard Bratton Davis A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural..., AS DETERMINED BY ANALYSES OF DEER RUMEN CONTENTS. Richard Bratton Davis Approved as to style and content by: airman of Committee TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements Page Zt& tl Development of the Problem- Previous Work? Study Areas- Sampling Procedures...

Davis, Richard Bratton

2012-06-07

371

Detection of Borrelia lonestari, Putative Agent of Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness, in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if white-tailed deer may serve as a reservoir host for Borrelia lonestari, we used a nested PCR for the Borrelia flagellin gene to evaluate blood samples collected from deer from eight southeastern states. Seven of 80 deer (8.7%) from 5 of 17 sites (29.4%) had sequence-confirmed evidence of a B. lonestari flagellin gene by PCR, indicating that deer

Victor A. Moore; Andrea S. Varela; Michael J. Yabsley; William R. Davidson; Susan E. Little

2003-01-01

372

The potential for transmission of BCG from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to cattle (Bos taurus) through a contaminated environment: experimental findings.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis have been shown to transmit the bacterium to other deer and cattle (Bos taurus) by sharing of pen waste and feed. The risk of transmission of M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer to other deer and cattle, however, is not well understood. In order to evaluate this risk, we orally vaccinated 14 white-tailed deer with 1×10(9) colony forming units BCG in lipid-formulated baits and housed them with nine non-vaccinated deer. Each day we exposed the same seven naïve cattle to pen space utilized by the deer to look for transmission between the two species. Before vaccination and every 60 days until the end of the study, we performed tuberculin skin testing on deer and cattle, as well as interferon-gamma testing in cattle, to detect cellular immune response to BCG exposure. At approximately 27 weeks all cattle and deer were euthanized and necropsied. None of the cattle converted on either caudal fold, comparative cervical tests, or interferon-gamma assay. None of the cattle were culture positive for BCG. Although there was immunological evidence that BCG transmission occurred from deer to deer, we were unable to detect immunological or microbiological evidence of transmission to cattle. This study suggests that the risk is likely to be low that BCG-vaccinated white-tailed deer would cause domestic cattle to react to the tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma test through exposure to a BCG-contaminated environment. PMID:23565211

Nol, Pauline; Rhyan, Jack C; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; McCollum, Matt P; Rigg, Tara D; Saklou, Nadia T; Salman, Mo D

2013-01-01

373

Natural and experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the United States with an Ehrlichia sp. closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium.  

PubMed

An Ehrlichia sp. (Panola Mountain [PM] Ehrlichia sp.) closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium was recently detected in a domestic goat experimentally infested with lone star ticks (LSTs, Amblyomma americanum) collected from Georgia, USA. The infected goat exhibited pyrexia and mild clinical pathologic abnormalities consistent with ehrlichiosis. At least two other Ehrlichia species (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii) are maintained in nature by a cycle involving LSTs as the primary vector and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus) as a known or suspected reservoir. To investigate the possibility that white-tailed deer are potential hosts of the PM Ehrlichia sp., whole blood samples collected from 87 wild deer from 2000 to 2002 were screened with a species-specific nested PCR assay targeting the citrate synthase gene. In addition, two laboratory-raised white-tailed deer fawns were each infested with 120 wild-caught LST adults from Missouri, USA, and blood samples were periodically collected and tested for the PM Ehrlichia sp. Of 87 deer tested from 20 locations in the southeastern United States, three (3%) deer from Arkansas, North Carolina, and Virginia were positive for the PM Ehrlichia sp. Wild-caught ticks transmitted the PM Ehrlichia sp. to one of two deer fawns, and colony-reared nymphal LSTs acquired the organism from the deer, maintained it transstadially as they molted to adults, and transmitted the PM Ehrlichia sp. to two naïve fawns. These findings indicate that white-tailed deer are naturally and experimentally susceptible to infection with an Ehrlichia sp. closely related to E. ruminantium and are able to serve as a source of infection to LSTs. PMID:18436670

Yabsley, Michael J; Loftis, Amanda D; Little, Susan E

2008-04-01

374

Harvested white-tailed deer as sentinel hosts for early establishing Ixodes scapularis populations and risk from vector-borne zoonoses in southeastern Canada.  

PubMed

Due to recent establishment of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in southeastern Canada, tick-borne zoonoses (Lyme disease, human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis) are of growing concern for public health. Using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) culled in southwestern Quebec during 2007-2008, we investigated whether hunter-killed deer could act as sentinels for early establishing tick populations and for tick-borne pathogens. Accounting for environmental characteristics of culling sites, and age and sex of deer, we investigated whether their tick infestation levels could identify locations of known tick populations detected in active surveillance, presumed tick populations detected by passive surveillance, or both. We also used spatial cluster analyses to identify spatial patterns of tick infestation and occurrence of tick-borne zoonoses infection in ticks collected from the deer. Adult ticks were found on 15% of the 583 deer examined. Adult male deer had the greatest number (approximately 90%) of adult ticks. Overall, 3, 15, and 0% of the ticks collected were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. Our statistical analyses suggest that sex and age of deer, temperature, precipitation, and an index of tick dispersion by migratory birds were significantly associated with tick infestation levels. Cluster analysis identified significant clusters of deer carrying ticks PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum, and for deer carrying two or more I. scapularis. Our study suggests that hunter-killed deer may be effective as sentinels for emerging areas of tick-borne anaplasmosis. They may have limited use as sentinels for early emerging I. scapularis tick populations and emerging Lyme disease risk. PMID:23540128

Bouchard, C; Leighton, P A; Beauchamp, G; Nguon, S; Trudel, L; Milord, F; Lindsay, L R; Bélanger, D; Ogden, N H

2013-03-01

375

Prevalence of five tick-borne bacterial genera in adult Ixodes scapularis removed from white-tailed deer in western Tennessee.  

PubMed

BackgroundIn the northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States Ixodes scapularis Say transmits the causal agents of anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), babesiosis (Babesia microti), and borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi). In the southeastern United States, none of those pathogens are considered endemic and two other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) (ehrlicihosis and rickettiosis) are more common. Our objective was to determine baseline presence and absence data for three non-endemic bacterial agents (Anaplasma, Borrelia and Babesia) and two commonly reported bacterial agents (Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia) in southern I. scapularis (n = 47) collected from 15 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in western Tennessee. FindingsOf the 47 ticks, 27 tested PCR positive for non-pathogenic Rickettsia species, two for Ehrlichia ewingii, one for Ehrlichia sp. ¿Panola Mountain¿, and one for Anaplasma phagocytophilum variant 1 strain. None of these ticks were positive for Babesia or Borrelia (including B. burgdorferi).ConclusionsFinding human pathogens in host-fed I. scapularis merits additional studies surveying pathogen prevalence in questing ticks. Collection of questing I. scapularis in their peak activity months should be undertaken to determine the overall encounter rates and relative risk of pathogenic Ehrlichia in southern I. scapularis. Ehrlichia sequences were homologous to previous human isolates, but neither Babesia nor B. burgdorferi were identified in these ticks. With the identification of pathogenic bacteria in this relatively small collection of I. scapularis from western Tennessee, the study of the absence of Lyme disease in the south should be refocused to evaluate the role of pathogenic Ehrlichia in southern I. scapularis. PMID:25331818

Mays, Sarah E; Hendricks, Brian M; Paulsen, David J; Houston, Allan E; Trout Fryxell, Rebecca T

2014-10-22

376

White Matter Hyperintensities and Changes in White Matter Integrity in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study investigated the relationship between WMHs and white matter changes in AD using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the sensitivity of each DTI index in distinguishing AD with WMHs. Subjects and Methods Forty-four subjects with WMHs were included. Subjects were classified into three groups based on the Scheltens rating scale: 15 AD patients with mild WMHs, 12 AD patients with severe WMHs, and 17 controls with mild WMHs. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (DR) and axial diffusivity (DA) were analyzed using the region of interest and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics methods. Sensitivity and specificity of DTI indices in distinguishing AD groups from the controls were evaluated. Results AD patients with mild WMHs exhibited differences from control subjects in most DTI indices in the medial temporal and frontal areas; however, differences in DTI indices from AD patients with mild WMHs and AD patients with severe WMHs were found in the parietal and occipital areas. FA and DR were more sensitive measurements than MD and DA in differentiating AD patients from controls, while MD was a more sensitive measurement in distinguishing AD patients with severe WMHs from those with mild WMHs. Conclusions WMHs may contribute to the white matter changes in AD brains, specifically in temporal and frontal areas. Changes in parietal and occipital lobes may be related to the severity of WMHs. DR may serve as an imaging marker of myelin deficits associated with AD. PMID:21152911

Wang, Liya; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Meltzer, Carolyn C.; Holder, Chad A.; Mao, Hui

2012-01-01

377

Febrile response and decrease in circulating lymphocytes following acute infection of white-tailed deer fawns with either a BVDV1 or a BVDV2 strain.  

PubMed

Although commonly associated with infection in cattle, bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) also replicate in many domestic and wildlife species, including cervids. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses have been isolated from a number of cervids, including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus), but little information is available regarding clinical presentation and progression of infection in these species. In preliminary studies of experimental infection of deer with BVDV, researchers noted seroconversion but no clinical signs. In this study, we infected white-tailed deer fawns that were negative for BVDV and for antibodies against BVDV, with either a type 1 or a type 2 BVDV that had been isolated from white-tailed deer. Fawns were monitored for changes in basal temperature, circulating lymphocytes, and platelets. The clinical progression following inoculation in these fawns was similar to that seen with BVDV infections in cattle and included fever and depletion of circulating lymphocytes. Because free-ranging cervid populations are frequently in contact with domestic cattle in the United States, possible transfer of BVDV between cattle and cervids has significant implications for proposed BVDV control programs. PMID:17984260

Ridpath, Julia F; Mark, C Scott; Chase, Christopher C L; Ridpath, Alanson C; Neill, John D

2007-10-01

378

Reconstruction and morphometric analysis of the nasal airway of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and implications regarding respiratory and olfactory airflow.  

PubMed

Compared with other mammals (e.g., primates, rodents, and carnivores), the form and function of the ungulate nasal fossa, in particular the ethmoidal region, has been largely unexplored. Hence, the nasal anatomy of the largest prey species remains far less understood than that of their predators, rendering comparisons and evolutionary context unclear. Of the previous studies of nasal anatomy, none have investigated the detailed anatomy and functional morphology of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), a species that is ubiquitous throughout North and Central America and in northern regions of South America. Here, nasal form and function is quantitatively investigated in an adult white-tailed deer using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, combined with anatomical reconstruction and morphometric analysis techniques. The cross-sectional anatomy of the airway is shown and a three-dimensional anatomical model of the convoluted nasal fossa is reconstructed from the image data. A detailed morphometric analysis is presented that includes quantitative distributions of airway size and shape (e.g., airway perimeter, cross-sectional area, surface area) and the functional implications of these data regarding respiratory and olfactory airflow are investigated. The white-tailed deer is shown to possess a long, double scroll maxilloturbinal that occupies approximately half of the length of the nasal fossa and provides a large surface area for respiratory heat and moisture exchange. The ethmoidal region contains a convoluted arrangement of folded ethmoturbinals that appear to be morphologically distinct from the single and double scroll ethmoturbinals found in most other non-primates. This complex folding provides a large surface area in the limited space available for chemical sensing, due to the expansive maxilloturbinal. Morphologically, the white-tailed deer is shown to possess a dorsal meatus that leads to an olfactory recess, a nasal architecture that has been shown in other non-primate species to cause unique nasal airflow patterns to develop during sniffing that are optimized for odorant delivery to the sensory part of the nose. Additionally, we demonstrate that, during respiration, airflow in the nasal vestibule and the anterior maxilloturbinal region may be transitional or turbulent, in which case turbulent mixing is expected to enhance respiratory heat and moisture exchange, which could be an important contribution to thermoregulation and water conservation in the white-tailed deer. PMID:25312370

Ranslow, Allison N; Richter, Joseph P; Neuberger, Thomas; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Rumple, Christopher R; Quigley, Andrew P; Pang, Benison; Krane, Michael H; Craven, Brent A

2014-11-01

379

Detection of white matter lesions in cerebral small vessel disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White matter lesions (WML) are diffuse white matter abnormalities commonly found in older subjects and are important indicators of stroke, multiple sclerosis, dementia and other disorders. We present an automated WML detection method and evaluate it on a dataset of small vessel disease (SVD) patients. In early SVD, small WMLs are expected to be of importance for the prediction of disease progression. Commonly used WML segmentation methods tend to ignore small WMLs and are mostly validated on the basis of total lesion load or a Dice coefficient for all detected WMLs. Therefore, in this paper, we present a method that is designed to detect individual lesions, large or small, and we validate the detection performance of our system with FROC (free-response ROC) analysis. For the automated detection, we use supervised classification making use of multimodal voxel based features from different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, including intensities, tissue probabilities, voxel locations and distances, neighborhood textures and others. After preprocessing, including co-registration, brain extraction, bias correction, intensity normalization, and nonlinear registration, ventricle segmentation is performed and features are calculated for each brain voxel. A gentle-boost classifier is trained using these features from 50 manually annotated subjects to give each voxel a probability of being a lesion voxel. We perform ROC analysis to illustrate the benefits of using additional features to the commonly used voxel intensities; significantly increasing the area under the curve (Az) from 0.81 to 0.96 (p<0.05). We perform the FROC analysis by testing our classifier on 50 previously unseen subjects and compare the results with manual annotations performed by two experts. Using the first annotator results as our reference, the second annotator performs at a sensitivity of 0.90 with an average of 41 false positives per subject while our automated method reached the same level of sensitivity at approximately 180 false positives per subject.

Riad, Medhat M.; Platel, Bram; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Karssemeijer, Nico

2013-02-01

380

ANTIBODY PREVALENCE OF EIGHT RUMINANT INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN CALIFORNIA MULE AND BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested 276 sera from 18 free-ranging black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) herds in California (USA) collected from 1987 to 1991 in five biogeographical habitat types, for antibodies against eight infectious disease agents. Overall antibody prevalence was 56% for Anaplasma marginale, 31% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 16% for bluetongue virus serotype 17, 15% for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, 7% for

Bruno B. Chomel; Marius L. Carniciu; Rickie W. Kasten; Paolo M. Castelli; Thierry M. Work; David A. Jessup

381

Serologic survey of selected zoonotic disease agents in black-tailed jack rabbits from western Texas.  

PubMed

A serologic survey for the agents of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) (Rickettsia rickettsii), Borrelia spp. including the causative agent for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted on blood samples collected from 30 and 46 black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) from an urban environment in Lubbock, Texas (USA) during winter 1987 and the following spring 1988, respectively. Antibody titers to the agents of RMSF and borreliosis were detected in sera of 28 and 1% of the jack rabbits, respectively. Neither organisms (rickettsiae and/or spirochetes) nor their associated antigens were detected in any of the tissue or whole blood samples; plague antibodies were not detected in the 76 jack rabbits sampled. Four of 18 ticks (Dermacentor parumapertus) removed from 12 jack rabbits were positive for RMSF using the fluorescent antibody test. The black-tailed jack rabbit is a common wildlife species living in close proximity to higher density human populations in many areas of the southwestern United States. Our results indicate the potential importance of urban populations of this mammal as reservoirs for at least one important zoonotic disease, RMSF, in western Texas. PMID:2106044

Henke, S E; Pence, D B; Demarais, S; Johnson, J R

1990-01-01

382

Enzymes of adenylate metabolism and their role in hibernation of the white-tailed prairie dog, Cynomys leucurus.  

PubMed

AMP deaminase (AMPD) and adenylate kinase (AK) were purified from skeletal muscle of the white-tailed prairie dog, Cynomus leucurus, and enzyme properties were assayed at temperatures characteristic of euthermia (37 degrees C) and hibernation (5 degrees C) to analyze their role in adenylate metabolism during hibernation. Total adenylates decreased in muscle of torpid individuals from 6.97 +/- 0. 31 to 4.66 +/- 0.58 micromol/g of wet weight due to a significant drop in ATP but ADP, AMP, IMP, and energy charge were unchanged. The affinity of prairie dog AMPD for AMP was not affected by temperature and did not differ from that of rabbit muscle AMPD, used for comparison. However, both prairie dog and rabbit AMPD showed much stronger inhibition by ions and GTP at 5 degrees C, versus 37 degrees C, and inhibition by inorganic phosphate, NH(4)Cl, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was much stronger at 5 degrees C for the prairie dog enzyme. Furthermore, ATP and ADP, which activated AMPD at 37 degrees C, were strong inhibitors of prairie dog AMPD at 5 degrees C, with I(50) values of 1 and 14 microM, respectively. ATP also inhibited rabbit AMPD at 5 degrees C (I(50) = 103 microM). Strong inhibition of AMPD at 5 degrees C by several effectors suggests that enzyme function is specifically suppressed in muscle of hibernating animals. By contrast, AK showed properties that would maintain or even enhance its function at low temperature. K(m) values for substrates (ATP, ADP, AMP) decreased with decreasing temperature, the change in K(m) ATP paralleling the decrease in muscle ATP concentration. AK inhibition by ions was also reduced at 5 degrees C. The data suggest that adenylate degradation via AMPD is blocked during hibernation but that AK maintains its function in stabilizing energy charge. PMID:10729194

English, T E; Storey, K B

2000-04-01

383

Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival  

PubMed Central

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May–31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

2014-01-01

384

Effects of maternal nutrition, resource use and multi-predator risk on neonatal white-tailed deer survival.  

PubMed

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

Duquette, Jared F; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Lederle, Patrick E

2014-01-01

385

A cloning and expression analysis of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins expressed in trophoblasts of the white-tail deer placenta.  

PubMed

The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are placental proteins that have been cloned from swine, sheep, goats, and cattle, but never from animals within the Cervidae family. The goal of this work was to characterize PAGs in white-tailed deer. Placenta and uterine tissues were collected from pregnant does at days 85 and 90 of pregnancy. RNA from cotyledons was used to amplify deer PAGs by RT-PCR. Ten distinct cDNAs were cloned and sequenced. Some normally conserved amino acids comprising the catalytic site were found to be altered in deer PAGs 4, 5, and 8; another PAG, (PAG-9) was a splice variant that lacked exon 7. In each case, these mutations would likely preclude proteolytic activity for these proteins. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the deer PAGs fell within the ancient PAG grouping. The remainder fell within the more modern (BNC-specific) PAG group. Western blotting was performed with anti-PAG antibodies and this analysis revealed that deer PAGs comprise a heterogeneous group based on different antigenicities and electrophoretic mobilities. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed some unique localization patterns of PAGs in the deer placentome compared to those in other ruminants. Most notably, deer PAGs 4 and 5, which according to the phylogeny, are "ancient PAGs," were expected to be present in all trophoblasts; instead, they were localized to the BNC. Although many of the PAGs identified here are very similar to those in Bovidae, some are clearly distinct in their expression pattern and probably possess functional roles unique to cervid reproduction. PMID:17393426

Brandt, Gretchen A; Parks, Tina E; Killian, Gary; Ealy, Alan D; Green, Jonathan A

2007-11-01

386

Phenotypic differences in white-tailed deer antlerogenic progenitor cells and marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.  

PubMed

Deer antlers are bony appendages that are annually cast and rapidly regrown in a seasonal process coupled to the reproductive cycle. Due to the uniqueness of this process among mammals, we reasoned that a fundamental characterization of antler progenitor cell behavior may provide insights that could lead to improved strategies for promoting bone repair. In this study, we investigated whether white-tailed deer antlerogenic progenitor cells (APC) conform to basic criteria defining mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). In addition, we tested the effects of the artificial glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) on osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation as well as the degree of apoptosis during the latter. Comparisons were made to animal-matched marrow-derived MSC. APC and MSC generated similar numbers of colonies. APC cultures expanded less rapidly overall but experienced population recovery at later time points. In contrast to MSC, APC did not display adipogenic in vitro differentiation capacity. Under osteogenic culture conditions, APC and MSC exhibited different patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity over time. DEX increased APC alkaline phosphatase activity only initially but consistently led to decreased activity in MSC. APC and MSC in osteogenic culture underwent different time and DEX-dependent patterns of mineralization, yet APC and MSC achieved similar levels of mineral accrual in an ectopic ossicle model. During chondrogenic differentiation, APC exhibited high levels of apoptosis without a reduction in cell density. DEX decreased proteoglycan production and increased apoptosis in chondrogenic APC cultures but had the opposite effects in MSC. Our results suggest that APC and MSC proliferation and differentiation differ in their dependence on time, factors, and milieu. Antler tip APC may be more lineage-restricted osteo/chondroprogenitors with distinctly different responses to apoptotic and glucocorticoid stimuli. PMID:24313802

Daley, Ethan L H; Alford, Andrea I; Miller, Joshua D; Goldstein, Steven A

2014-05-01

387

Estimates of annual survival, growth, and recruitment of a white-tailed ptarmigan population in Colorado over 43 years  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long-term datasets for high-elevation species are rare, and considerable uncertainty exists in understanding how high-elevation populations have responded to recent climate warming. We present estimates of demographic vital rates from a 43-year population study of white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura), a species endemic to alpine habitats in western North America. We used capture-recapture models to estimate annual rates of apparent survival, population growth, and recruitment for breeding-age ptarmigan, and we fit winter weather covariates to models in an attempt to explain annual variation. There were no trends in survival over the study period but there was strong support for age and sex effects. The average rate of annual growth suggests a relatively stable breeding-age population ( ? ¯ = 1.036), but there was considerable variation between years for both population growth and recruitment rates. Winter weather covariates only explained a small amount of variation in female survival and were not an important predictor of male survival. Cumulative winter precipitation was found to have a quadratic effect on female survival, with survival being highest during years of average precipitation. Cumulative winter precipitation was positively correlated with population growth and recruitment rates, although this covariate only explained a small amount of annual variation in these rates and there was considerable uncertainty among the models tested. Our results provide evidence for an alpine-endemic population that has not experienced extirpation or drastic declines. However, more information is needed to understand risks and vulnerabilities of warming effects on juveniles as our analysis was confined to determination of vital rates for breeding-age birds.

Wann, Greg; Aldridge, Cameron; Braun, Clait E.

2014-01-01

388

Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: Use of GIS to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt,and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighboring regions, RVFV is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat forhumans, livestock, and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for ‘exotic’ viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVFV is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep, and goats, if RVFV is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVFV transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)in a typical northeastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare, but these potentially susceptible ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human, and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, or 42 %) of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVFV transmission during the late summermonths. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVFV-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, orby 89%. PMID:21080319

Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A. Desirée; King, Charles H.

2011-01-01

389

Short-tailed shrews as reservoirs of the agents of Lyme disease and human babesiosis.  

PubMed

To determine whether short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) serve as reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and the agent of human babesiosis (Babesia microti), we examined nymphal ticks that had fed as larvae on shrews collected from 3 enzootic sites in coastal Massachusetts for evidence of infection by either or both of these agents. Xenodiagnosis indicated that 11 of 14 shrews were infected by B. burgdorferi. One of 3 piroplasm-infected shrews also infected ticks with B. microti. In a site where the piroplasm is endemic, 11 of 17 shrews showed patent parasitemias by thin blood smears. Of these, 4 had parasitemias exceeding 40%. Few immature ticks infested shrews, however, suggesting that B. brevicauda, although abundant in some endemic sites and serving as a competent reservoir, would contribute minimally to the population of infected nymphs. PMID:2213411

Telford, S R; Mather, T N; Adler, G H; Spielman, A

1990-10-01

390

Single-treatment porcine zona pellucida immunocontraception associated with reduction of a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Previous reports have demonstrated gradual reductions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations through immunocontraception, with stabilization occurring after 2-4 yr of treatment, and subsequent reductions of 6-10% annually. These studies employed porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccines that required two initial treatments and annual retreatments. From 2005 to 2010, 258 adult and yearling female deer on Fripp Island, South Carolina, were treated with one of several PZP preparations designed to produce 2+ yr of effective contraception with a single treatment. These included several preparations of SpayVac and of native PZP-adjuvant emulsion plus PZP and QA-21 in timed-release pellets. Deer were chemically immobilized, ear-tagged, and administered initial treatments by hand in February-March. Some treated deer were boosted remotely with PZP-adjuvant emulsion 1.5 - 4.5 yr after initial treatments. Ground-based distance sampling was used to estimate deer population density at Fripp Island, a resort community, and at a relatively undeveloped neighboring control site, Hunting Island. Most vaccine preparations tested reduced fawning rates by 75% to 95% for at least 1 yr. From 2005 to 2011, deer density on Fripp Island declined by 50%, from 72 deer/km(2) to 36 deer/km(2), an average annual reduction of 11%. In contrast, population density on the Hunting Island control site fluctuated between 2005 and 2011, averaging 23 deer/km(2) (range, 19-28 deer/km(2)). Population declines on Fripp Island were associated with an increase in the proportion of treated females and with a progressive decrease in winter fawn:doe ratios, from 1.21 fawns/doe in 2005 to 0.19 fawns/doe in 2010. Winter fawn:doe ratios averaged 1.36 fawns/doe (range, 0.84 - 1.62 fawns/doe) at the Hunting Island control site. Annual survivorship averaged approximately 79% among ear-tagged females. The rate at which deer populations diminished in association with PZP treatments on Fripp Island was higher than that seen at other study sites, although the reasons for the more rapid decline on Fripp Island are not well understood. PMID:24437087

Rutberg, Allen T; Naugle, Ricky E; Verret, Frank

2013-12-01

391

Sex identification of elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis), moose (Alces alces), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

We have developed a PCR-based protocol to determine the gender of tissue samples originating from elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis), moose (Alces alces) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The technique simultaneously amplifies a conserved region of the sex-determining gene on the Y-chromosome (Sry) and a region of the Fragile X mental retardation gene (Fmr-1). The multiplex nature of this protocol allows the determination of gender using the Sry marker with the Fmr-1 marker providing an internal control. This technique is applicable to the enforcement of the validation tag system for game species. Data are provided from a wildlife investigation in Ontario. PMID:9608686

Wilson, P J; White, B N

1998-05-01

392

Acid-base, blood gas, and physiologic parameters during laparoscopy in the head-down position in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

The objective of this project was to evaluate the acid-base, blood gas, and physiologic parameters of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during laparoscopy in the head-down position. Eleven white-tailed does were captured and then immobilized with xylazine (6 mg/kg i.m.) and ketamine (7 mg/kg i.m.). The deer were intubated orotracheally and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. The deer were positioned in dorsal recumbency and positive pressure ventilated. Heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (FE/CO2), and CO2 insufflation pressure were recorded every 5 min. Respiratory parameters, plasma electrolytes, and peak inspiratory pressure were measured immediately before tilting deer in the head-down position (45-55 degrees), 5 min after tilting, and immediately before the end of the procedure (while tilted). Butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at the end of the procedure and yohimbine (0.2 mg/kg i.v.) administered before release. The deer weighed 52 kg (28-70 kg) [median (minimum-maximum)]. The peak inspiratory pressure in dorsal recumbency while still horizontal was 25 cm H2O (16-28 cm H2O), which increased to 29 cm H2O (18-46 cm H2O) after tilting (P = 0.02). PaO2, PaCO2, FE/CO2, and pH did not change after tilting in the head-down position or after insufflation. HR did not change during the anesthetic period. Mean arterial pressure did not change after tilting or abdominal insufflation, but decreased by the end of the anesthetic period (approximately 1 hr). Time from intubation to extubation was 117 min (72-170 min) (n = 5) and surgery time was 31 min (17-60 min; n = 10). We conclude that captured white-tailed deer have minimal derangements to acid-base, blood gas, or physiologic parameters during laparoscopy in the head-down position with abdominal insufflation, and thus this procedure may be performed safely in ventilated white-tailed deer. PMID:17312721

Posner, Lysa P; Woodie, J Brett; Curtis, Paul D; Erb, Hollis N; Gilbert, Robert; Adams, Wendy A; Gleed, Robin D

2005-12-01

393

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak. PMID:24807363

Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

2014-07-01

394

In vivo parahippocampal white matter pathology as a biomarker of disease progression to Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Noninvasive diagnostic tests for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are limited. Postmortem diagnosis is based on density and distribution of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and amyloid-rich neuritic plaques. In preclinical stages of AD, the cells of origin for the perforant pathway within the entorhinal cortex are among the first to display NFTs, indicating its compromise in early stages of AD. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the integrity of the parahippocampal white matter in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, as a first step in developing a noninvasive tool for early diagnosis. Subjects with AD (N = 9), MCI (N = 8), or no cognitive impairment (NCI; N = 20) underwent DTI-MRI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean (MD) and radial (RD) diffusivity measured from the parahippocampal white matter in AD and NCI subjects differed greatly. Discriminant analysis in the MCI cases assigned statistical membership of 38% of MCI subjects to the AD group. Preliminary data 1 year later showed that all MCI cases assigned to the AD group either met the diagnostic criteria for probable AD or showed significant cognitive decline. Voxelwise analysis in the parahippocampal white matter revealed a progressive change in the DTI patterns in MCI and AD subjects: whereas converted MCI cases showed structural changes restricted to the anterior portions of this region, in AD the pathology was generalized along the entire anterior-posterior axis. The use of DTI for in vivo assessment of the parahippocampal white matter may be useful for identifying individuals with MCI at highest risk for conversion to AD and for assessing disease progression. PMID:23839862

Solodkin, Ana; Chen, E Elinor; Van Hoesen, Gary W; Heimer, Lennart; Shereen, Ahmed; Kruggel, Frithjof; Mastrianni, James

2013-12-15

395

Novel White Matter Tract Integrity Metrics Sensitive to Alzheimer Disease Progression  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Along with cortical abnormalities, white matter microstructural changes such as axonal loss and myelin breakdown are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Recently, a white matter model was introduced that relates non-Gaussian diffusional kurtosis imaging metrics to characteristics of white matter tract integrity, including the axonal water fraction, the intra-axonal diffusivity, and the extra-axonal axial and radial diffusivities. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study reports these white matter tract integrity metrics in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 12), Alzheimer disease (n = 14), and age-matched healthy controls (n = 15) in an effort to investigate their sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy, and associations with white matter changes through the course of Alzheimer disease. RESULTS With tract-based spatial statistics and region-of-interest analyses, increased diffusivity in the extra-axonal space (extra-axonal axial and radial diffusivities) in several white matter tracts sensitively and accurately discriminated healthy controls from those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.82–0.95), while widespread decreased axonal water fraction discriminated amnestic mild cognitive impairment from Alzheimer disease (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.84). Additionally, these white matter tract integrity metrics in the body of the corpus callosum were strongly correlated with processing speed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (r= |0.80–0.82|, P< .001). CONCLUSIONS These findings have implications for the course and spatial progression of white matter degeneration in Alzheimer disease, suggest the mechanisms by which these changes occur, and demonstrate the viability of these white matter tract integrity metrics as potential neuroimaging biomarkers of the earliest stages of Alzheimer disease and disease progression. PMID:23764722

Fieremans, E.; Benitez, A.; Jensen, J.H.; Falangola, M.F.; Tabesh, A.; Deardorff, R.L.; Spampinato, M.V.S.; Babb, J.S.; Novikov, D.S.; Ferris, S.H.; Helpern, J.A.

2014-01-01

396

Effects of fluoride emissions from a modern primary aluminum smelter on a local population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

SciTech Connect

The influence of fluoride emissions from a modern aluminum smelter on concentrations of skeletal fluoride and dental fluorosis in a resident population of white-tailed deer was studied. The smelter was located on Mount Holly Plantation in South Carolina, and concentrations of skeletal fluoride in the deer collected at Mount Holly increased approximately five-fold 3 yr after the operation began. Increases in skeletal fluoride of less than two-fold were observed in deer obtained from Medway Plantation which has its nearest boundary 1.6 km from the smelter site. No dental fluorosis was observed in deer collected at Medway Plantation, but mild dental fluorosis was observed in a significant number of deer collected at Mount Holly Plantation. The dental fluorosis that was observed was not associated with incisor wear or with fluoride-induced molar wear. Osteofluorosis of mandibles or metacarpals was not observed in any of the deer obtained from either plantation. The data obtained from this study indicated that the presence of a modern aluminum smelter caused a detectable increase in concentration of skeletal fluoride in the resident population of white-tailed deer, but that no adverse health effects were seen.

Suttie, J.S.; Dickie, R.; Clay, A.B.; Nielsen, P.; Mahan, W.E.; Baumann, D.P.; Hamilton, R.J.

1987-01-01

397

Molecular and biological characterization of Hammondia heydorni-like oocysts from a dog fed hearts from naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus Virginianus).  

PubMed

Neospora caninum and Hammondia heydorni are morphologically and phylogenetically related coccidians that are found in dogs. Although there is serological evidence of N. caninum infection in the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the parasite has not been yet isolated from the tissues of this host. In an attempt to isolate N. caninum from deer, hearts from 4 deer with antibodies to N. caninum were fed to 2 dogs. One of these dogs shed unsporulated oocysts 12-14 microm in diameter. Sporulated oocysts were not infective to Mongolian gerbils (Meriones ungulatus), and DNA isolated from these oocysts was not amplified using N. caninum-specific primers. However, positive amplification with the H. heydorni-specific first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) primers and common toxoplasmatiid ITS-1 primers confirmed the presence of H. heydorni DNA in the samples. The oocysts were considered to be H. heydorni on the basis of their morphology, biology, and molecular characteristics. This is the first record of a H. heydorni-like parasite in the white-tailed deer. PMID:15562623

Dubey, J P; Sreekumar, C; Miska, K B; Hill, D E; Vianna, M C B; Lindsay, D S

2004-10-01

398

Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to experimentally infect calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer. Twelve colostrum-deprived male Holstein calves were used. Eight were inoculated intranasally with a BVDV type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer, and the other four were inoculated with the cell culture medium only and served as a control group. Whole blood, saliva, and nasal and rectal secretions were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 after inoculation for virus isolation and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On days 14 and 21, 4 calves in the infected group and 2 in the control group were euthanized; multiple tissue samples were collected for histopathologic study. Histopathologic changes included thymic atrophy and lymphoid depletion of the Peyer’s patches in all 8 infected calves. The RT-PCR gave positive results with the buffy coat of all 8 infected calves, the nasal samples of 7, and the saliva samples of 2. Virus neutralization testing of the serum gave positive results for 4 of the 8 infected calves, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the serum gave positive results for 3. All of the samples from the control calves yielded negative results. PMID:21461198

Raizman, Eran A.; Pogranichniy, Roman M.; Levy, Michel; Negron, Maria; Van Alstine, William

2011-01-01

399

Using heterozygosity–fitness correlations to study inbreeding depression in an isolated population of white-tailed deer founded by few individuals  

PubMed Central

A heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFCs) may reflect inbreeding depression, but the extent to which they do so is debated. HFCs are particularly likely to occur after demographic disturbances such as population bottleneck or admixture. We here study HFC in an introduced and isolated ungulate population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus in Finland founded in 1934 by four individuals. A total of 422 ? 1-year-old white-tailed deer were collected in the 2012 hunting season in southern Finland and genotyped for 14 microsatellite loci. We find significant identity disequilibrium as estimated by g2. Heterozygosity was positively associated with size- and age-corrected body mass, but not with jaw size or (in males) antler score. Because of the relatively high identity disequilibrium, heterozygosity of the marker panel explained 51% of variation in inbreeding. Inbreeding explained approximately 4% of the variation in body mass and is thus a minor, although significant source of variation in body mass in this population. The study of HFC is attractive for game- and conservation-oriented wildlife management because it presents an affordable and readily used approach for genetic monitoring that allowing identification of fitness costs associated with genetic substructuring in what may seem like a homogeneous population.

Brommer, Jon E; Kekkonen, Jaana; Wikström, Mikael

2015-01-01

400

Persistent organic pollutants and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in different tissues of white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from West Greenland.  

PubMed

We investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (e.g. dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), in six matrices (muscle, liver, kidney, adipose, blood, preen oil) of 17 white-tailed eagles from West Greenland sampled between 1997 and 2009. High inter-individual variation in contamination was found (PCBs: 0.49-1500 ?g/g lipid weight (lw), DDTs: 0.23-910 ?g/g lw, PBDEs: 0.01-24 ?g/g lw, MeO-PBDEs: 0.001-0.59 ?g/g lw), mostly due to age-related differences and not to temporal trends. One adult female (age > 5 years) displayed PCB levels up to 1500 ?g/g lw in liver, which is the highest concentration ever reported in Arctic wildlife. Muscle generally contained the highest median levels, while adipose tissue displayed the lowest median levels on a lipid basis. No significant differences were found among tissues for MeO-PBDEs. Remarkably, we found distinct correlations (0.62 ? r ? 0.98; <0.0001 ? p ? 0.17) between levels of MeO-PBDEs and PBDEs, suggesting similar bioaccumulation pathways of PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in white-tailed eagles. PMID:23377037

Jaspers, V L B; Sonne, C; Soler-Rodriguez, F; Boertmann, D; Dietz, R; Eens, M; Rasmussen, L M; Covaci, A

2013-04-01

401

Endothelial Function and White Matter Hyperintensities in Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The presence of white matter hyperintensities on brain MRI is common among elderly individuals. Previous research suggests that cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased white matter hyperintensities. Examining the role of direct physiological measures of vascular function will help to clarify the vascular mechanisms related to white matter hyperintensities. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vasodilatation and white matter hyperintensity volume. Methods Twenty-five older adults with a range of cardiovascular diseases underwent brain MRI and completed assessments of blood vessel integrity using endothelial-dependent and independent flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. A semi-automated pixel-based method was used to quantify total brain volume and white matter hyperintensity volume, with white matter hyperintensity volume corrected for total brain volume. The association between measures of flow-mediated dilation and log-transformed white matter hyperintensities was examined. Results Correlation analysis revealed that endothelial-dependent vasodilatation was significantly and inversely associated with white matter hyperintensity volume. In contrast, endothelial-independent vasodilatation was not associated with white matter hyperintensities. Neither endothelial-dependent nor endothelial-independent vasodilatation was associated with total brain volume. Conclusions These data provide preliminary evidence that the integrity of the vascular endothelium is associated with white matter hyperintensities in older adults with cardiovascular disease. Impaired vascular function may be one mechanism that contributes to the development of white matter hyperintensities in the brain. Additional longitudinal research combining measures of vessel function, neuroimaging and cognition will be helpful in clarifying this potential mechanism. PMID:17204686

Hoth, Karin F.; Tate, David F.; Poppas, Athena; Forman, Daniel E.; Gunstad, John; Moser, David J.; Paul, Robert H.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Haley, Andreana P.; Cohen, Ronald A.

2009-01-01

402

Molecular Variation in the Variable-Length PCR Target and 120-Kilodalton Antigen Genes of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Genes encoding two surface-expressed antigens of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the variable-length PCR target (VLPT) and the 120-kDa antigen, which contain variable numbers of tandem repeats, were characterized for E. chaffeensis from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Both genes from infected deer contained numbers of repeats similar to those reported in genes from humans and ticks, although a new variant of the 120-kDa antigen gene containing five repeat units and coinfection with multiple VLPT and 120-kDa antigen gene genetic types were detected. Sequence analysis of both genes revealed more nucleotide variation than previously reported for E. chaffeensis from infected humans or ticks. This is the most extensive study of E. chaffeensis VLPT and 120-kDa antigen gene genetic variation to date and is the first to examine genetic variation in E. chaffeensis from a nonhuman vertebrate host. PMID:14605163

Yabsley, Michael J.; Little, Susan E.; Sims, Ethan J.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Stallknecht, David E.; Davidson, William R.

2003-01-01

403

Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) spp. infecting cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) in the United States.  

PubMed

In the United States, the generally non-pathogenic trypanosome of cattle is designated Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri and is distinguished morphologically from Trypanosoma (M.) cervi, a trypanosome originally described in mule deer and elk. Phylogenetic studies of the Megatrypanum trypanosomes using various molecular markers reveal two lineages, designated TthI and TthII, with several genotypes within each. However, to date there is very limited genetic data for T. theileri, and none for the Megatrypanum trypanosomes found in wild ungulates, in the U.S. In this study U.S. isolates from cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (WTD), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were compared by ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis and their incidence in cattle and WTD in south Texas counties was investigated. Phylogenetic analyses showed clear separation of the bovine and cervine trypanosomes. Both lineages I and II were represented in the U.S. cattle and WTD parasites. Lineage I cattle isolates were of a previously described genotype, whereas WTD and elk isolates were of two new genotypes distinct from the cattle trypanosomes. The cattle isolate of lineage II was of a previously reported genotype and was divergent from the WTD isolate, which was of a new genotype. In La Salle, Starr, Webb, and Zapata counties in south Texas a total of 51.8% of white-tailed deer were positive for trypanosomes by 18S rDNA PCR. Of the cattle screened in Webb County, 35.4% were positive. Drought conditions prevailing in south Texas when the animals were screened suggest the possibility of a vector for Trypanosoma other than the ked (Lipoptena mazamae) and tabanid flies (Tabanus spp. and Haematopota spp.). PMID:23683651

Fisher, Amanda C; Schuster, Greta; Cobb, W Jacob; James, Andrea M; Cooper, Susan M; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Holman, Patricia J

2013-10-18

404

Low flow oxygen therapy from a portable oxygen concentrator or an oxygen cylinder effectively treats hypoxemia in anesthetized white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

For treatment of hypoxemia, delivery of the minimum effective oxygen flow rate is advantageous during field anesthesia because it prolongs the life of the oxygen cylinder. Portable oxygen concentrators as the oxygen source require less logistical considerations than cylinders and are a safer alternative during helicopter field work because they are nonexplosive devices. The objective of this study was to evaluate low oxygen flow rates by continuous or pulsed intranasal delivery for treatment of hypoxemia in anesthetized white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Nine captive adult female deer (body mass 56-72 kg) were physically restrained in a drop-floor chute and hand injected intramuscularly with medetomidine (0.1-0.14 mg/kg) and ketamine (2.5-4.3 mg/kg). Intranasal oxygen was delivered from an oxygen cylinder at continuous flow rates of 1 and 2 L/min or from a battery driven oxygen concentrator (EverGo Portable Oxygen Concentrator, Respironics) with pulse-dose delivery (maximum capacity of 1.05 L/min). The pulse-dose setting (pulse volume 12-70 ml) was adjusted according to the respiratory rate. Arterial blood gases were analyzed before, during, and after O2 supplementation. A 10-min washout period was allowed between treatment groups. All three treatments adequately treated hypoxemia. The partial pressure of arterial oxygenation increased significantly from baseline values of 55 +/- 10 to 115 +/- 31 mm Hg during supplementation from the oxygen concentrator, to 138 +/- 21 mm Hg during supplementation from the oxygen cylinder at 1 L/min, and to 201 +/- 42 mm Hg at 2 L/min. In conclusion, low flow rates of intranasal oxygen supplemented continuously from an oxygen cylinder or by pulsed delivery from a portable oxygen concentrator effectively treated hypoxemia in anesthetized white-tailed deer. PMID:25000687

Fahlman, Asa; Caulkett, Nigel; Woodbury, Murray; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Wourms, Vincent

2014-06-01

405

Evaluation of intramuscular butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine and nasal oxygen insufflation for the chemical immobilization of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus.  

PubMed

Chemical immobilization of wildlife often includes opioids or cyclohexamines. These substances are problematic as a result of their required storage, handling, and record-keeping protocols. A potentially useful alternative sedation protocol includes a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM: 0.43 mg/kg butorphanol, 0.36 mg/kg azaperone, 0.14 mg/kg medetomidine). One risk of wildlife immobilization with any drug combination is hypoxemia. This may be of particular importance when using an alpha 2 agonist such as medetomidine because of its powerful vasoconstrictive effect. In this prospective study, the BAM combination was evaluated for chemical immobilization of white-tailed deer. Additionally, selected physiologic parameters associated with BAM immobilization, including oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas measurement, with and without nasal insufflation of oxygen at a relatively low flow of 3 L/min, were evaluated. The BAM combination resulted in a predictable onset of sedation, with a mean induction time to lateral recumbency of 9.8 +/- 3.6 min. All deer recovered smoothly within a range of 5-20 min after reversal with intramuscular administration of naltrexone, atipamazole, and tolazoline (NAT). Clinically relevant decreases in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were observed in animals not receiving supplemental oxygen, while both parameters significantly improved for oxygen-supplemented deer. Pulse oximetry with this protocol was an unreliable indicator of oxygen saturation. In this study, altitude, recumbency, hypoventilation, butorphanol- and medetomidine-specific effects, as well as the potential for alpha 2 agonist-induced pulmonary changes all may have contributed to the development of hypoxemia. Overall, capture of white-tailed deer with the BAM/NAT protocol resulted in excellent chemical immobilization and reversal. Because the BAM combination caused significant hypoxemia that is unreliably detected by pulse oximetry but that may be resolved with nasal oxygen insufflation, routine use of oxygen supplementation is recommended. PMID:18817017

Mich, Patrice M; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Davis, Tracy R; Lance, William R; Miller, Michael W

2008-09-01

406

Spatial ecology of white-tailed deer fawns in the northern Great Plains: implications of loss of conservation reserve program grasslands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Few studies have evaluated how wildlife, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in particular, respond to Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands. We conducted a 3-year study (2007–2009) to determine the influence of CRP on fawn ecology during a time of declining CRP enrollment. We captured and radiocollared 81 fawn white-tailed deer during 15 May to 15 June 2007–2009 in north-central South Dakota, collected 6,505 locations, and documented 70 summer home ranges. Mean summer home ranges increased temporally during 2007–2009 (P P < 0.001) from 2007 to 2009. Analysis of covariance models indicated that change in CRP influenced home-range size, and change in CRP and wheat influenced daily movement. Smaller home ranges and reduced movements were associated with greater quantity of CRP available to fawns, and increased movements were associated with more acreage of wheat available to fawns. Fawns shifted resource selection during the summer at a mean age ranging from 48.8 days to 58.6 days, and this shift was associated with height of corn (83–87 cm). During early summer, fawns consistently selected for CRP; selection of wheat progressed temporally from avoidance in 2007 to selection in 2009. During late summer, fawns consistently selected for corn habitat and used CRP at least in proportion to its availability. Reduction in CRP-grasslands seemed to increase fawn home-range size and daily movements and, influenced change in resource selection to wheat. Current legislation mandates continued decrease in CRP enrollment and concomitant increase in the planting of corn for ethanol production. Management of habitat throughout the grasslands of the Northern Great Plains that maximizes cover habitats would provide neonates with adequate cover for protection from predators.

Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

2012-01-01

407

Effects of Harvesting Intensity and Herbivory by White-tailed Deer on Vegetation and Nutrient Uptake in a Northern Hardwood Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantified the response of vegetation and nutrient uptake in a northern hardwood forest in southeastern New York for three to four years after three intensities of harvesting: clearcutting, heavy timber stand improvement (TSI), light TSI (97, 29, and 10% basal area reductions, respectively). We also quantified effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on nutrient retention by vegetation. Total biomass and nutrient accumulation in vegetation was higher after TSI than clearcutting in the first two years but was highest in the fenced clearcut in subsequent years, indicating that TSI or partial harvesting is a viable management tool for harvesting timber while consistently maintaining high rates of nutrient retention. After clearcutting, biomass and nutrient retention were initially dominated by woody stems <1.4 m tall and herbaceous vegetation, but saplings 0.1-5.0 cm DBH became the most important contributors to biomass and nutrient accumulation within four years. However, after both intensities of TSI, trees >5.0 cm DBH continued to account for most biomass and nutrient accumulation whereas understory vegetation accumulated little biomass or nutrients. Heavy TSI resulted in increased regeneration of only two tree species (Acer pensylvanicum, Fagus grandifolia), but clearcutting allowed these two species, mature forest species (A. saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis), and the early successional Prunus pensylvanica to regenerate. Several early successional shrub and herbaceous species were also important to nutrient retention after clearcutting, including Polygonum cilinode, Rubus spp., and Sambucus racemosa. Herbivory by white-tailed deer dramatically reduced biomass and nutrient accumulation by woody stems <5 cm DBH after clearcutting (5.5 vs. 0.7 Mg biomass/ha and 30.4 vs. 6.3 kg N/ha on fenced and unfenced clearcut sites, respectively, after four years), indicating the important influence this herbivore can have on nutrient retention in recently disturbed forests.

Yorks, T. E.; Leopold, D. J.; Raynal, D. J.; Murdoch, P. S.; Burns, D. A.

2003-12-01

408

Genetic and ecological data provide incongruent interpretations of population structure and dispersal in naturally subdivided populations of white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura).  

PubMed

The dispersal of individuals among populations affects the demographic and adaptive trajectories of animal populations and is fundamental to understanding population dynamics. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are a high elevation grouse species that live year-round in patchily distributed alpine areas in western North America. We investigated the patterns of dispersal and identified barriers to gene flow for a threatened subspecies (L. l. saxatilis) endemic to Vancouver Island, Canada. Connectivity among seven sites was examined using nine microsatellite loci (n = 133 individuals, H(O) = 0.62, mean number of alleles = 10) and direct movement observations using radio-telemetry (n = 118 individuals). Average movement distances of individuals measured by radio-telemetry were 0.63-3.23 km and considerably less than the shortest distance between sampling sites (18 km). Furthermore, despite extensive radio-telemetry data, movement was never observed between any of the seven sampling sites. In contrast, genetic results (STRUCTURE, TESS) showed connectivity among most of the seven sampling sites and suggested that genetic variation is best explained by two clusters of individuals which separated the South sampling site from all other areas of Vancouver Island. Analysis of molecular data also showed a generally consistent pattern of isolation by distance (Mantel test r = 0.11, P < 0.01) with large areas of unsuitable low elevation habitat possibly acting as barriers to gene flow. Despite the naturally subdivided distribution of populations, white-tailed ptarmigan do not fit well into any common definition of a metapopulation. We conclude the incongruities between the genetic and radio-telemetry data are best explained by episodic dispersal patterns. In this study, we demonstrated the importance of combining genetic and ecological data in understanding patterns of dispersal and population structure. PMID:18363666

Fedy, B C; Martin, K; Ritland, C; Young, J

2008-04-01

409

Rearrangement of chromosome 14q with associated white matter disease.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 29-month-old boy with spasticity and periventricular white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging in whom a complex rearrangement consisting of a de novo duplication of 14q32.31q32.33 and deletion of 14q32.33 was identified by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Our case replicates some of the previous features associated with chromosome 14q duplication and deletion while expanding its clinical spectrum with pyramidal tract dysfunction signs and neuroimaging features. Genomic lesions should be considered in cases of leukodystrophies, and genome-wide studies such as array-based comparative genomic hybridization could be considered in the assessment of undefined white matter disorders. PMID:21763953

Ramaswamy, Vijay; Jacob, François Dominique; Bolduc, François V

2011-08-01

410

Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis also causes white muscle disease in farmed giant freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

From May to August 2001 in Taiwan, 27 farms for the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii experienced white tail disease outbreaks in animals approximately 3 to 5 mo old, with total lengths from 6 to 8 cm. Examination of the infected prawns revealed not only previously reported Lactococcus garvieae (16 farms) but also the novel L. lactis subsp. lactis (10 farms). One farm had shrimp infected with both bacteria. In the farms with L. lactis infections, the cumulative mortality was approximately 25 to 60%. Gross signs of disease were opaque and whitish muscles, while histopathology included marked edema and necrotic lesions, with inflammation in the muscles and hepatopancreas. Bacteria isolated using brain/heart infusion medium or tryptic soy agar were Gram-positive and ovoid. Eleven isolates from different farms were identified as L. lactis subsp. lactis using API 20 Strep and Rapid ID32 Strep tests and using PCR assays specific for the L. lactis subsp. lactis 16S rDNA gene (650 bp amplicon) and for the 16S to 23S rDNA interspacer region (380 bp amplicon). In addition, sequencing of the full 16S rDNA genes of 2 of the isolates (MR17 and MR26; GenBank Accession Numbers AF493058 and AF493057, respectively) revealed 99.9% identity between the isolates and 98.7% identity to several complete 16S rRNA sequences of L. lactis subsp. lactis at GenBank. Experimental infections with our isolates gave gross signs and histopathological changes similar to those seen in naturally infected prawns. The mean lethal dose of 4 isolates and the reference strain L. lactis subsp. lactis BCRC 10791 ranged from 4.2 x 10(6) to 2.5 x 10(7) colony-forming units prawn(-1), indicating virulence similar to that previously reported for L. garvieae. This is the first report confirming L. lactis subsp. lactis as a pathogen in juvenile and adult prawns from aquaculture. PMID:18429437

Wang, Pei-Chi; Lin, Yu-De; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chern, Red-Shiung; Chen, Shih-Chu

2008-03-01

411

Phenotypic differences between African and white patients with motor neuron disease: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that race may affect the phenotype in some neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate this in motor neuron disease a retrospective case-control study has been carried out on 15 negroid African and 45 white patients with the disease seen over 8 years. Each African was compared with three age and sex matched white patients with motor neuron disease. There were no statistically significant differences in age of onset or the mean duration of disease in the two groups. The chance of presenting with the "flail arm" variant of motor neuron disease was four times as high in the African group than the white group (odds ratio 4.33, p=0.05, 95% confidence interval 0.99-18.92). Although no overall differences in survival were seen between the two groups, in those with the flail arm variant, four out of the six African patients had died whereas all six white arm patients were alive at the censoring date of 1 January 1999 (median follow up 38.5 months). It is concluded that race may influence the phenotype and progression of motor neuron disease.?? PMID:10896704

Tomik, B; Nicotra, A; Ellis, C; Murphy, C; Rabe-Hesketh, S; Parton, M; Shaw, C; Leigh, P

2000-01-01

412

Comparison of Dietary Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in African-American and White Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare African-American and white women's knowledge, attitudes, and energy and nutrient intakes related to cardiovascular disease risk.Design The 1989 through 1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS).Subjects A nationally representative sample of 2,684 white and 449 African-American women who completed the DHKS and provided 3 days of dietary information.Statistical

GALL GATES; MARY McDONALD

1997-01-01

413

Independent Occurrences of Multiple Repeats in the Control Region of Mitochondrial DNA of White-Tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deer in the genera Mazama and Odocoileus generally have two copies of a 75-base-pair (bp) repeat in the left domain of the control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Phylogenetic analyses further suggest an ancient origin for the duplication supporting a previously stated contention that this event occurred before the separation of Mazama and Odocoileus. However, white-taileddeer(Odocoileusvirginianus)hadthreeorfourcopiesofa75-bprepeatinthecontrolregionoftheirmtDNAin7.8%of the individuals analyzed,

JAMES R. PURDUE; T ARAS K. OLEKSYK; MICHAEL H. SMITH

2006-01-01

414

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti in mice on islands inhabited by white-tailed deer.  

PubMed Central

Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti were isolated from 35 of 51 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) captured on two Narragansett Bay, R.I., islands inhabited by deer, the principal host for the adult stages of the vector tick, Ixodes dammini. Immature ticks parasitized mice from both islands. From 105 mice captured on four other islands not inhabited by deer neither pathogen was isolated, nor were I. dammini found. PMID:3555339

Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W; Myers, J E

1987-01-01

415

White matter diffusion alterations in normal women at risk of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Increased white matter mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) has been observed in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to determine whether similar alterations of white matter occur in normal individuals at risk of AD. Diffusion tensor images were acquired in 42 cognitively normal right-handed women with both a family history of dementia and at least one apolipoprotein E4 allele. These were compared with images from 23 normal women without either AD risk factor. Group analyses were performed using tract-based spatial statistics. Reduced FA was observed in the fronto-occipital and inferior temporal fasciculi (particularly posteriorly), the splenium of the corpus callosum, subcallosal white matter and the cingulum bundle. These findings demonstrate that specific white matter pathways are altered in normal women at increased risk of AD years before the expected onset of cognitive symptoms. PMID:18801597

Smith, Charles D; Chebrolu, Himachandra; Andersen, Anders H; Powell, David A; Lovell, Mark A; Xiong, Shuling; Gold, Brian T

2010-07-01

416

Independent component analysis of DTI data reveals white matter covariances in Alzheimer's disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with the clinical symptom of the continuous deterioration of cognitive and memory functions. Multiple diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) can successfully explain the white matter damages in AD patients. However, most studies focused on the univariate measures (voxel-based analysis) to examine the differences between AD patients and normal controls (NCs). In this investigation, we applied a multivariate independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate the white matter covariances based on FA measurement from DTI data in 35 AD patients and 45 NCs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We found that six independent components (ICs) showed significant FA reductions in white matter covariances in AD compared with NC, including the genu and splenium of corpus callosum (IC-1 and IC-2), middle temporal gyral of temporal lobe (IC-3), sub-gyral of frontal lobe (IC-4 and IC-5) and sub-gyral of parietal lobe (IC-6). Our findings revealed covariant white matter loss in AD patients and suggest that the unsupervised data-driven ICA method is effective to explore the changes of FA in AD. This study assists us in understanding the mechanism of white matter covariant reductions in the development of AD.

Ouyang, Xin; Sun, Xiaoyu; Guo, Ting; Sun, Qiaoyue; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia; Guo, Xiaojuan

2014-03-01

417

Strategic white matter tracts for processing speed deficits in age-related small vessel disease  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cerebral small vessel disease is the most common cause of vascular cognitive impairment and typically manifests with slowed processing speed. We investigated the impact of lesion location on processing speed in age-related small vessel disease. Methods: A total of 584 community-dwelling elderly underwent brain MRI followed by segmentation of white matter hyperintensities. Processing speed was determined by the timed measure of the Trail Making Test part B. The impact of the location of white matter hyperintensities was assessed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and graph-based statistical models on regional lesion volumes in major white matter tracts. Results: Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping identified multiple voxel clusters where the presence of white matter hyperintensities was associated with slower performance on the Trail Making Test part B. Clusters were located bilaterally in the forceps minor and anterior thalamic radiation. Region of interest–based Bayesian network analyses on lesion volumes within major white matter tracts depicted the same tracts as direct predictors for an impaired Trail Making Test part B performance. Conclusions: Our findings highlight damage to frontal interhemispheric and thalamic projection fiber tracts harboring frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits as a predictor for processing speed performance in age-related small vessel disease. PMID:24793184

Duering, Marco; Gesierich, Benno; Seiler, Stephan; Pirpamer, Lukas; Gonik, Mariya; Hofer, Edith; Jouvent, Eric; Duchesnay, Edouard; Chabriat, Hugues; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

2014-01-01

418

Coral diseases and Drupella cornus invasion in the Red Sea Among the coral diseases listed and described by Antonius (1995), White Band Disease (WBD), Tissue  

E-print Network

Coral diseases and Drupella cornus invasion in the Red Sea Among the coral diseases listed as White Syndromes (WS). Damage to Red Sea corals by the corallivorous snail Drupella cornus was reported to suffer from a deadly combination of a Drupella cornus population explosion and an epidemic outbreak

419

Fungal disease and the developing story of bat white-nose syndrome  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two recently emerged cutaneous fungal diseases of wildlife, bat white-nose syndrome (WNS) and amphibian chytridiomycosis, have devastated affected populations. Fungal diseases are gaining recognition as significant causes of morbidity and mortality to plants, animals, and humans, yet fewer than 10% of fungal species are known. Furthermore, limited antifungal therapeutic drugs are available, antifungal therapeutics often have associated toxicity, and there are no approved antifungal vaccines. The unexpected emergence of WNS, the rapidity with which it has spread, and its unprecedented severity demonstrate both the impacts of novel fungal disease upon naïve host populations and challenges to effective management of such diseases.

Blehert, David S.

2012-01-01

420

Prion proteins in subpopulations of white blood cells from patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent cases of prion transmission in humans following transfusions using blood donated by patients with asymptomatic variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) implicate the presence of prion infectivity in peripheral blood. In this study, we examined the levels of the normal, cellular prion protein (PrPC), and the disease-causing isoform (PrPSc) in subpopulations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) from patients with sporadic

Ed M Choi; Michael D Geschwind; Camille Deering; Kristen Pomeroy; Amy Kuo; Bruce L Miller; Jiri G Safar; SB Prusiner

2009-01-01

421

Pathogenesis study of selected velogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus in White Leghorn chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Groups of 4-week old White Leghorn chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with three Newcastle disease viruses isolated from natural outbreaks (Vietnam, Australia, both velogenic; and U.S., mesogenic) and two strains rescued by reverse genetics (ZJ1 and ZJ1-GFP). The parent ZJ1, a velogen, wa...

422

Loss of connectivity in Alzheimer's disease: an evaluation of white matter tract integrity with colour coded MR diffusion tensor imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NOVEL MRI METHODdiffusion tensor imaging—was used to compare the integrity of several white matter fibre tracts in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Relative to normal controls, patients with probable Alzheimer's disease showed a highly significant reduction in the integrity of the association white matter fibre tracts, such as the splenium of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and cingulum.

Stephen E Rose; Fang Chen; Jonathan B Chalk; Fernando O Zelaya; Wendy E Strugnell; Mark Benson; James Semple; David M Doddrell

2000-01-01

423

Toxicodynamic modeling of 137Cs to estimate white-tailed deer background levels for the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is a former nuclear weapon material production and current research facility adjacent to the Savannah River in South Carolina, USA. The purpose of this study was to determine the background radiocesium ((137)Cs) body burden (e.g., from global fallout) for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) inhabiting the SRS. To differentiate what the background burden is for the SRS versus (137)Cs obtained from SRS nuclear activities, data were analyzed spatially, temporally and compared to other off-site hunting areas near the SRS. The specific objectives of this study were: to compare SRS and offsite deer herds based on time and space; to interpret comparisons based on how data were collected as well as the effect of environmental and anthropogenic influences; to determine what the ecological half-life/decay rate is for (137)Cs in the SRS deer herd; and to give a recommendation to what should be considered the background (137)Cs level in the SRS deer herd. Based on the available information and analyses, it is recommended that the determination of what is considered background for the SRS deer herd be derived from data collected from the SRS deer herd itself and not offsite collections for a variety of reasons. Offsite data show extreme variability most likely due to environmental factors such as soil type and land-use patterns (e.g., forest, agriculture, residential activities). This can be seen from results where samples from offsite military bases (Fort Jackson and Fort Stewart) without anthropogenic (137)Cs sources were much higher than both the SRS and a nearby (Sandhills) study site. Moreover, deer from private hunting grounds have the potential to be baited with corn, thus artificially lowering their (137)Cs body burdens compared to other free-ranging deer. Additionally, sample size for offsite collections were not robust enough to calculate a temporal decay curve with an upper confidence level to determine if the herds are following predicted radioactive decay rates like the SRS or if the variability is due to those points described above. Using mean yearly values, the ecological half-life for (137)Cs body burdens for SRS white-tailed deer was determined to be 28.79 years--very close to the 30.2 years physical half-life. PMID:24389840

Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M; Bobryk, Christopher W; Blas, Susan A

2014-04-01

424

Biochemical variables in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) after chemical immobilization in clover traps or via ground-darting.  

PubMed

The objective of this prospective observational cohort study in free-ranging female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was to compare the physiologic effects of two methods of anesthetic drug administration: hand-injection in Clover traps and remote injection by dart after ground-stalking. Six trapped and 14 darted female deer were injected with a median (minimum, maximum) of 590 microg/kg butorphanol (401, 1070 microg/kg), plus 235 microg/kg medetomidine (160, 429 microg/kg) intramuscularly. In the trap, the deer struggled when approached and were restrained for injection. Darted deer sprinted away after injection. Once immobilized, deer were transported to a veterinary hospital where blood was collected and vital signs were measured on admission. Admission data from a subset of deer in which measurements were taken within 40 min of trapping (n = 6) or darting (n = 5) were analyzed. After salpingectomy under isoflurane and while still anesthetized, another blood sample was collected from all 20 deer. Body weight and immobilization drug doses were not different between groups. On admission, most deer from both groups were hypoxemic, although the darted deer were significantly more hypoxemic. The median rectal temperature in trapped deer was higher than in darted deer, and temperatures higher than 39 degrees C only occurred in trapped deer. The median heart rate in trapped deer was more than twice that in darted deer. Trapped deer had lower median pH and base excess; in trapped deer, the median plasma lactate concentration was more than fivefold higher than in darted deer. After surgery, the median serum creatine kinase concentration was nearly 10-fold higher in trapped deer, and the median cardiac troponin I concentration was higher in trapped deer but undetectable in 10 of 14 darted deer. The white-tailed deer immobilized by hand-injection in Clover traps experienced more severe physiologic perturbations than deer remotely injected by dart after ground-stalking. These perturbations might be sufficient to cause myocardial damage. PMID:22946365

Boesch, Jordyn M; Boulanger, Jason R; Curtis, Paul D; Erb, Hollis N; Ludders, John W; Kraus, Marc S; Gleed, Robin D

2011-03-01

425

Phage therapy of the white plague-like disease of Favia favus in the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral disease is a major factor in the global decline of coral reefs. At present, there are no known procedures for preventing or treating infectious diseases of corals. Immunization is not possible because corals have a restricted adaptive immune system and antibiotics are neither ecologically safe nor practical in an open system. Thus, we tested phage therapy as an alternative therapeutic method for treating diseased corals. Phage BA3, specific to the coral pathogen Thalassomonas loyana, inhibited the progression of the white plague-like disease and transmission to healthy corals in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Only one out of 19 (5 %) of the healthy corals became infected when placed near phage-treated diseased corals, whereas 11 out of 18 (61 %) healthy corals were infected in the no-phage control. This is the first successful treatment for a coral disease in the sea. We posit that phage therapy of certain coral diseases is achievable in situ.

Atad, I.; Zvuloni, A.; Loya, Y.; Rosenberg, E.

2012-09-01

426

Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle and white-tailed deer: Translational research of relevance to human tuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tuberculosis (TB) is a premier example of a disease complex with pathogens primarily affecting humans (i.e., Mycobacterium tuberculosis) or livestock and wildlife (i.e., Mycobacterium bovis) and with a long history of inclusive collaborations between physicians and veterinarians. Advances with the s...

427

Transmission of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Acutely Infected White Tailed Deer to Cattle via Indirect Contact  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are found worldwide, and acute infections in cattle results in enteric, respiratory, and reproductive diseases of varying severity, depending on the BVDV strain, the immune and reproductive status of the host and the presence of secondary pathogens. While most c...

428

PYGM expression analysis in white blood cells: a complementary tool for diagnosing McArdle disease?  

PubMed

McArdle disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme myophosphorylase, resulting in exercise intolerance from childhood and acute crises of early fatigue and contractures. In severe cases, these manifestations can be accompanied by rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and fatal renal failure. Diagnosis of McArdle disease is based on clinical diagnostic tests, together with an absence of myophosphorylase activity in skeletal muscle biopsies and genetic analysis of the myophosphorylase-encoding gene, PYGM. The recently reported association between myophosphorylase and Rac1 GTPase in a T lymphocyte cell line prompted us to study myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells (WBCs) from 20 healthy donors and 30 McArdle patients by flow cytometry using a fluorescent-labeled PYGM antibody. We found that T lymphocytes expressed myophosphorylase in healthy donors, but expression was significantly lower in McArdle patients (p<0.001). PYGM mRNA levels were also lower in white blood cells from McArdle patients. Nevertheless, in 13% of patients (who were either heterozygotes or homozygotes for the most common PYGM pathogenic mutation among Caucasians (p.R50X)), the percentage of myophosphorylase-positive white blood cells was not different compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that analysis of myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells might be a useful, less-invasive, complementary test for diagnosing McArdle disease. PMID:25240406

de Luna, Noemí; Brull, Astrid; Lucia, Alejandro; Santalla, Alfredo; Garatachea, Nuria; Martí, Ramon; Andreu, Antoni L; Pinós, Tomàs

2014-12-01

429

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran, and polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) near a magnesium smelter in Quebec, Canada.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) near a magnesium-refining facility in Quebec (Canada) known to be a source of chlorinated organic compounds to the area. We compared contaminant concentrations in deer caught one year before the start of magnesium production with those measured three years later. Total PCB concentrations were spatially uniform in deer before magnesium production, but after magnesium production began, concentrations were higher near the smelter and decreased with distance. Many of the midrange PCB homologues that bioconcentrate most in deer showed similar relationships. Concentrations of coplanar PCB congeners and cytochrome P4501A expression in deer liver were examined in a subset of the samples, and these also showed a significant inverse relationship with distance after magnesium production began. This pattern was not observed for PCDD/F concentrations in deer. The risk involved for the human population in consuming local deer meat was assessed by applying contaminant concentrations measured in the present study to Health Canada consumption guidelines. Contaminants in deer were not shown to pose a serious risk to the population, but the number of portions of deer from beyond 20 km that could be safely consumed was less restrictive than the number for deer from within a 5-km radius of the magnesium smelter. PMID:18020688

Tolley, Cecilia; Blais, Jules M

2007-12-01

430

Winter browse selection by white-tailed deer and implications for bottomland forest restoration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) forage selectively, modifying upland forest species composition and in some cases shifting ecosystems to alternative stable states. Few studies, however, have investigated plant selection by deer in bottomland forests. Herbaceous invasive species are common in wetlands and their expansion could be promoted if deer avoid them and preferentially feed on native woody species. We surveyed plant species composition and winter deer browsing in 14 floodplain forest restoration sites along the Upper Mississippi River and tributaries. Tree seedling density declined rapidly with increasing cover of invasive Phalaris arundinacea, averaging less than 1 per m2 in all sites in which the grass was present. Deer browsed ?46% of available tree seedling stems (branches) at mainland restorations, compared to ?3% at island sites. Across all tree species, the number of browsed stems increased linearly with the number available and responded unimodally to tree height. Maximum browsing rates were observed on trees with high stem abundances (>10 per plant) and of heights between 50 and 150 cm. Deer preferred Ulmus americana and Acer saccharinum, and avoided Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer negundo, and Quercus spp. at mainland sites, and did not browse Phalaris arundinacea if present. Depending on plant growth responses to herbivory and the competitive effects of unbrowsed species, our results suggest that selective foraging could promote the expansion of invasive species and/or alter tree species composition in bottomland forest restorations. Islands may, however, serve as refuges from browsing on a regional scale.

Cogger, Benjamin J.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Thomsen, Meredith; Adams, Carrie Reinhardt

2014-01-01

431

NESTING HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS OF SYMPATRIC CRESTED CARACARAS, RED-TAILED HAWKS, ANDWHITE-TAILED HAWKS IN SOUTH TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus )( n 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis )( n 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway )( n 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed

Michael A. Actkinson; WILLIAM P. KUVLESKY JR; Clint W. Boal; Leonard A. Brennan; Fidel Hernandez

2007-01-01

432

Sequential relationships between grey matter and white matter atrophy and brain metabolic abnormalities in early Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

abnormalities in early Alzheimer's disease Nicolas Villain, PhD1 , Marine Fouquet, MSc1 , Jean-Claude Baron, MD3 Alzheimer's disease Keywords: Alzheimers disease, MRI/fMRI, PET imaging, white matter, hippocampus-matter tract disruption are well-described early macroscopic events in Alzheimers disease. The relationships

Boyer, Edmond

433

The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata  

PubMed Central

Populations of the shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are being decimated by white pox disease, with losses of living cover in the Florida Keys typically in excess of 70%. The rate of tissue loss is rapid, averaging 2.5 cm2?day?1, and is greatest during periods of seasonally elevated temperature. In Florida, the spread of white pox fits the contagion model, with nearest neighbors most susceptible to infection. In this report, we identify a common fecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as the causal agent of white pox. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a bacterial species associated with the human gut has been shown to be a marine invertebrate pathogen. PMID:12077296

Patterson, Kathryn L.; Porter, James W.; Ritchie, Kim B.; Polson, Shawn W.; Mueller, Erich; Peters, Esther C.; Santavy, Deborah L.; Smith, Garriet W.

2002-01-01

434

Coral disease physiology: the impact of Acroporid white syndrome on Symbiodinium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acroporid white syndrome, a disease-like syndrome from the Great Barrier Reef, results from degenerative host tissue at lesion borders. Tissue preceding lesion borders appears visually healthy, but it is currently unclear whether the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae ( Symbiodinium) are physiologically impacted. Compared to healthy colonies, this study found no significant differences in symbiont density, mitotic index or chlorophyll a content in tissue bordering (0 cm), and 8 cm away from white syndrome lesions. Using chlorophyll a fluorescence techniques, the border tissue did not appear to be photosynthetically compromised, and Symbiodinium extracted from this area were photosynthetically competent. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive degeneration of host tissues surrounding symbionts in affected areas, however, Symbiodinium cells were structurally intact with no sign of in situ degradation. Collectively, these results suggest that Symbiodinium at white syndrome lesion borders exist in a dynamic intra-cellular state during active host tissue loss, yet remain physiologically uncompromised.

Roff, G.; Kvennefors, E. C. E.; Ulstrup, K. E.; Fine, M.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

2008-06-01

435

Title: The Use of Highway Underpasses by Large Mammals in Virginia and Factors Influencing their Effectiveness Key Words: wildlife crossings, highway underpasses, large mammals, white-tailed deer, black bear, deer vehicle collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid increase in animal-vehicle collisions on U.S. roadways is a growing concern in terms of human safety, property damage and injury costs, and viability of wildlife populations. Wildlife crossing structures are gaining national recognition by transportation agencies as effective measures to reduce animal-vehicle collisions and connect wildlife habitats across transportation corridors. In Virginia, white-tailed deer and black bear pose

Bridget M. Donaldson

2005-01-01

436

Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity in Blacks and Whites: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, and obesity-related CVD risk factors such as hypertension are higher in blacks\\u000a than whites in the United States. Obesity, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity as well as psychosocial and environmental\\u000a factors may contribute to ethnic differences in CVD. Survey data from the United States show that black populations consume\\u000a fewer vegetables and CVD-protective micronutrients

Jennifer C. Lovejoy; Masa Sasagawa

2010-01-01

437

Serum Selenium, Vitamin E, and Sialic Acids Concentrations in Lambs with White Muscle Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the serum concentrations of selenium, vitamin E, and total- and lipid-bound sialic\\u000a acid (LBSA) in lambs with white muscle disease (WMD) before and after treatment with a commercial preparation containing selenite\\u000a and vitamin E. Fifteen lambs with WMD and ten control animals were used as research materials. Blood samples were collected\\u000a from

Yeter De?er; Handan Mert; Nihat Mert; Fatmagül Yur; Süleyman Kozat; ?brahim H. Yörük; Tevhide Sel

2008-01-01

438

Prevalence and clinical correlates of white coat hypertension in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The role of white coat hypertension (WCH) in the poor control of blood pressure (BP) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is ill defined. Methods. We measured systolic clinical (CBP) and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in 290 consecutive patients with non-dialysis CKD (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml\\/min\\/1.73 m2). We defined normo- tension (NOR) if CBP and daytime ABP <130

Roberto Minutolo; Silvio Borrelli; Raffaele Scigliano; Vincenzo Bellizzi; Paolo Chiodini; Bruno Cianciaruso; Felice Nappi; Pasquale Zamboli; Giuseppe Conte; Luca De Nicola

2007-01-01

439

Deciphering Seasonal Variations of Diet and Water in Modern White-Tailed Deer by In Situ Analysis of Osteons in Cortical Bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic apatite were obtained from longitudinally-cut sections of cortical bone from femurs of modern domesticated sheep and free-range White-Tailed deer, using an IR-laser and a GC-continuous flow interface. Ablation pits averaged 200x50 microns, making it possible to analyze individual osteons. Since cortical bone is remodelled along osteons throughout a mammal's lifetime, isotopic data at this resolution provides information about seasonal variations in diet and drinking water. The O-isotope results were calibrated using laser analyses of NBS-18 and NBS-19, which produced a value of 26.39±0.46 permil (n=27) for WS-1 calcite (accepted value, 26.25 permil). C-isotope results were calibrated using a CO2 reference gas, producing a value of 0.76±0.40permil (n=27) for WS-1, also in excellent agreement with its accepted value of 0.74 permil. Average O- and C-isotope values for a local domestic sheep (southwestern Ontario, Canada) were 12.20±0.58 and -15.70±0.35 permil (n=27), respectively. No isotopic trend occurred along or across individual osteons. This pattern is consistent with the sheep's relatively unchanging food and water sources. The free-range White-Tailed deer came from Pinery Provincial Park (PPP), southwestern Ontario. Its O- and C-isotope compositions varied systematically across individual osteons and were negatively correlated (R2=0.56). O-isotope values ranged from 13.4 to 15.5 permil; the highest values correlated with summer and the lowest values, with winter. The O-isotope compositions of the main water source (Old Ausable River Channel) varied similarly during the deer's lifetime: winter average, -10.7±0.5 permil; summer average, -8.6±0.4 permil. The C-isotope results for the deer osteons varied from -19.7 to -15.9 permil. This variation can be explained by changes in food sources. Summer diets of deer in PPP consist mainly of leafy fractions of C3 vegetation, especially sumac, cedar, oak and pine (average leaf C-isotope value, -28.4±0.8 permil). During winter, when leafy material is unavailable and deep snow inhibits access to vegetation in general, deer strip bark from vegetation (average bark C-isotope value, -25.6±0.8 permil). Certain C4 grasses (little bluestem and sandreed grass, average C-isotope value, -12.7±0.2 permil), which are abundant in unforested dune areas of PPP, commonly stand above the snow cover, and hence are also available for consumption. Deer may also range more widely in the winter, feeding on corn stalks and husks that escaped both harvest and snow cover (average C-isotope value, -11.3±0.2 permil).

Larson, T. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.

2004-12-01

440

Annual survival and site fidelity of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): comparative demography before (1983-1992) and after (1993-2005) spatial confinement.  

PubMed

Survival and movement are important demographic variables influencing the dynamics of large herbivores with implications for management and evolution of life-history strategies. Management practices such as spatial confinement and harvest regulation attempt to control survival and movement for the sustainability of harvested deer populations, but a paucity of long-term data exists on these management practices. We examined annual survival and site fidelity of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) over 10 years (1983-1992) to compare demographic parameters after spatial confinement (1993-2005). We used capture records (n = 174; 104 females, 70 males), marked deer recaptures (n = 42), and dead recoveries (n = 68) to estimate sex-specific, age-specific and time-specific parameters. We found that annual female survival was 50% from 1983-1987 during a period of intense harvest, but increased to 93.7% after intense harvesting was eliminated. Prior to spatial confinement, annual survival of marked male deer averaged 36.7%-42.5%. After spatial confinement, annual survival increased on average for males (58%-99%) and females (77%-98%). Females showed high levels of site fidelity (>99%) prior to spatial confinement, whereas males showed much less site fidelity (?4.5% for the 2 top-ranking models). During spatial confinement, the semi-impermeable fence effectively increased site fidelity of males (?56%). These results stem from long-term study (23 years) of a large herbivore experiencing changes to life-history, resulting from changes in management that were applied to the population and aimed at altering population demographics, for sustainability of a harvestable population of deer. PMID:24447659

Webb, Stephen L; Gee, Kenneth L

2014-01-01

441

Transplacental toxoplasmosis in naturally-infected white-tailed deer: Isolation and genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii from foetuses of different gestational ages.  

PubMed

Clinical toxoplasmosis is most severe in congenitally-infected hosts. In humans, transmission of Toxoplasma gondii from the mother to the foetus is considered to be most efficient during the last trimester of pregnancy but clinical congenital toxoplasmosis is more severe if transmission occurs during the first trimester. However, there are no data on the rate of congenital transmission of T. gondii with respect to gestational age in any host during natural infection. In the present study, attempts were made to isolate T. gondii by bioassay in mice inoculated with tissues from foetuses of 88 naturally-exposed white-tailed deer from Iowa and Minnesota. Viable T. gondii was isolated from foetuses of six of 61 deer in early pregnancy (45-85 days of gestation) from Iowa and foetuses of nine of 27 deer from Minnesota in mid-gestation (130-150 days) of a gestational period of 7 months. The 15 T. gondii isolates obtained from foetal deer were PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotyped using polymorphisms at 10 nuclear markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and an apicoplast marker, Apico. Five genotypes were revealed, including the clonal Type II and III lineages, and three non-clonal genotypes. DNA sequencing analysis of representative isolates at loci SAG2, c22-8, L358 and PK1 revealed that the three non-clonal genotypes are closely related to the clonal Type I, II and III lineages. It is very likely that these non-clonal genotypes were derived from genetic crosses among the three clonal Type I, II and III lineages. The most common genotype was Type II, commonly found in humans in North America and Europe, suggesting the possible link of transmission from game animals to humans. PMID:18187136

Dubey, J P; Velmurugan, G V; Ulrich, V; Gill, J; Carstensen, M; Sundar, N; Kwok, O C H; Thulliez, P; Majumdar, D; Su, C

2008-07-01

442

Brominated and phosphorus flame retardants in White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings: bioaccumulation and associations with dietary proxies (?¹³C, ?¹?N and ?³?S).  

PubMed

Very little is known on the exposure of high trophic level species to current-use brominated (BFRs) and phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), although observations on their persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity have been made. We investigated the accumulation of BFRs and PFRs, and their associations with dietary proxies (?(13)C, ?(15)N and ?(34)S), in plasma and feathers of White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings from Trøndelag, Norway. In addition to accumulation of a wide range of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in both plasma and feathers, all non-PBDE BFRs and PFRs could be measured in feathers, while in plasma only two of six PFRs, i.e. tris-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCPP) were detected. PFR concentrations in feathers (0.95-3,000 ng g(-1)) were much higher than selected organochlorines (OCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (CB 153; 2.3-15 ng g(-1)) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE; 2.3-21 ng g(-1)), PBDEs (0.03-2.3 ng g(-1)) and non-PBDE BFRs (0.03-1.5 ng g(-1)). Non-significant associations of PFR concentrations in feathers with those in plasma (P ? 0.74), and their similarity to reported atmospheric PFR concentrations, may suggest atmospheric PFR deposition on feathers. Most OCs and PBDEs, as well as tris(chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPHP) and tri-(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were associated to ?(15)N and/or ?(13)C (all P ? 0.02). Besides ?(15)N enrichment, ?(34)S was depleted in nestlings from fjords, inherently close to an urbanised centre. As such, both may have been a spatial proxy for anthropogenic disturbance, possible confounding their use as dietary proxy. PMID:24530584

Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Halley, Duncan J; Lepoint, Gilles; Nygård, Torgeir; Pinxten, Rianne; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel

2014-04-15

443

Molecular study of free-ranging mule deer and white-tailed deer from British Columbia, Canada, for evidence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp.  

PubMed

Twenty-three free-ranging white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and six mule deer (MD; Odocoileus hemionus) from south-central British Columbia, Canada, were tested for Anaplasma marginale by msp5 gene-specific PCR and Ehrlichia spp. by 16S rRNA or citrate synthase (gltA) gene-specific PCR, as well as by PCR with universal 16S rRNA primers detecting a wide range of bacteria. No deer tested positive for A. marginale. Amplification with universal 16S rRNA primers followed by sequencing of cloned fragments detected an Anaplasma sp. in one of 23 (4.3%) WTD and six of six (100%) MD and Bartonella sp. in four of 23 (17.4%) WTD. The Anaplasma sp. was genetically distinct from A. marginale and all other recognized members of the genus. Four of six (66.7%) MD and 0 of 23 (0%) WTD were Ehrlichia positive by PCR with primers for 16S rRNA and gltA genes. The sequences of gltA PCR fragments were identical to each other and to the respective region of the gltA gene of an Ehrlichia sp. which we detected previously in naturally infected cattle from the same area, suggesting the possibility of biological transmission of this rickettsia between cattle and wild cervids. Antibodies reactive with the MSP5 protein of A. marginale were detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in two of six (33.3%) MD, but not in WTD. The two seropositive MD were PCR positive for both the Anaplasma sp. and Ehrlichia sp. detected in this study, suggesting a reaction of antibodies against one or both of these rickettsias with the MSP5 antigen. PMID:21933360

Lobanov, V A; Gajadhar, A A; Al-Adhami, B; Schwantje, H M

2012-06-01

444

Brevinema andersonii gen. nov., sp. nov., an infectious spirochete isolated from the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus).  

PubMed

A spirochete which infects short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) has been shown previously to be ultrastructurally and serologically distinct from other spirochetes. Two of the original isolates from Connecticut and Minnesota and 16 new isolates obtained from shrews captured in Minnesota were characterized phenotypically and genetically in this study. A comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of two shrew isolates and one mouse isolate and the 16S rRNA sequences of 16 other spirochetes and Escherichia coli revealed that these organisms exhibited low levels of similarity (range of similarity values, 73.9 to 77.8%; average level of similarity, 74.7%). The shrew and mouse isolates which we examined formed a deeply branching subgroup that was clearly distinct from the other genera of spirochetes examined. These and other results indicated that the new spirochetes represent a unique taxon in the order Spirochaetales. Accordingly, we propose that they should be classified as members of a new genus, Brevinema. The three strains of Brevinema which we examined had 16S rRNA sequences that were nearly identical. We also compared these isolates by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fatty acid and enzyme analyses, restriction endonuclease analysis, and Southern hybridization and found that the levels of genetic and phenotypic homogeneity among the strains were very high. We concluded that the isolates which we examined were members of a single species, for which we propose the name Brevinema andersonii. The type strain of Brevinema andersonii is CT11616 (= ATCC 43811).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7857811

Defosse, D L; Johnson, R C; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Fraser, G J

1995-01-01

445

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Free-Roaming Cats (Felis catus) Across a Suburban to Urban Gradient in Northeastern Ohio.  

PubMed

Felids serve as the definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii contaminating environments with oocysts. White-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) are used as sentinel species for contaminated environments as well as a potential source for human foodborne infection with T. gondii. Here we determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in a WTD and felid population, and examine those risk factors that increase exposure to the parasite. Serum samples from 444 WTD and 200 free-roaming cats (Felis catus) from urban and suburban reservations were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 261 (58.8%) of 444 WTD, with 164 (66.1%) of 248 from urban and 97 (49.5%) of 196 from suburban regions. Significant risk factors for seroprevalence included increasing age (P < 0.0001), reservation type (P < 0.0001), and household densities within reservation (P < 0.0001). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 103 (51.5%) of 200 cats, with seroprevalences of 79 (51%) of 155 and 24 (53.3%) of 45 from areas surrounding urban and suburban reservations, respectively. Seroprevalence did not differ by age, gender, or reservation among the cats' sample. Results indicate WTD are exposed by horizontal transmission, and this occurs more frequently in urban environments. The difference between urban and suburban cat densities is the most likely the reason for an increased seroprevalence in urban WTD. These data have public health implications for individuals living near or visiting urban areas where outdoor cats are abundant as well as those individuals who may consume WTD venison. PMID:25269422

Ballash, Gregory A; Dubey, J P; Kwok, O C H; Shoben, Abigail B; Robison, Terry L; Kraft, Tom J; Dennis, Patricia M

2014-10-01

446

Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease across corals and oceans indicates a conserved and distinct disease microbiome  

PubMed Central

Coral diseases are characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue, but causes and consequences of these changes are vaguely understood due to the complexity and dynamics of coral-associated bacteria. We used 16S rRNA gene microarrays to assay differences in bacterial assemblages of healthy and diseased colonies displaying White Plague Disease (WPD) signs from two closely related Caribbean coral species, Orbicella faveolata and Orbicella franksi. Analysis of differentially abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed strong differences between healthy and diseased specimens, but not between coral species. A subsequent comparison to data from two Indo-Pacific coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) revealed distinct microbial community patterns associated with ocean basin, coral species and health state. Coral species were clearly separated by site, but also, the relatedness of the underlying bacterial community structures resembled the phylogenetic relationship of the coral hosts. In diseased samples, bacterial richness increased and putatively opportunistic bacteria were consistently more abundant highlighting the role of opportunistic conditions in structuring microbial community patterns during disease. Our comparative analysis shows that it is possible to derive conserved bacterial footprints of diseased coral holobionts that might help in identifying key bacterial species related to the underlying etiopathology. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that similar-appearing disease phenotypes produce microbial community patterns that are consistent over coral species and oceans, irrespective of the putative underlying pathogen. Consequently, profiling coral diseases by microbial community structure over multiple coral species might allow the development of a comparative disease framework that can inform on cause and relatedness of coral diseases. PMID:24350609

Roder, Cornelia; Arif, Chatchanit; Daniels, Camille; Weil, Ernesto; Voolstra, Christian R

2014-01-01

447

Intravascular ultrasound comparison of left main coronary artery disease between white and Asian patients.  

PubMed

We assessed the ethnic differences in coronary atherosclerosis lesion morphology between white and Asian patients. Our hypothesis was that left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease was more focal and less complex in Asian than in Western white patients. We studied 99 Asian patients (Japan and South Korea) and 99 matched control United States white patients with a stable clinical presentation and >30% LMCA angiographic diameter stenosis by visual estimation. The matching parameters included age, gender, and diabetes mellitus. The vessel and lumen areas and calcium arc were analyzed every 0.5 mm and normalized for analysis length. Overall, 75.1% of the patients were men and 34.1% had diabetes. The patient age was 68.0 ± 10 years, with no differences between the Asian and white patients. The Asian patients had a lower prevalence of hyperlipidemia than the white patients (41.4% vs 81.8%; p <0.0001) and were smaller in size, and the white patients were more obese (body mass index 23.7 ± 2.6 vs 27.6 ± 4.1 kg/m(2), p <0.0001). The Asian patients had a smaller lumen area (5.2 ± 1.8 vs 6.2 ± 14 mm(2); p <0.0001), larger vessel area (20.0 ± 4.9 vs 18.4 ± 4.4 mm(2); p <0.0001), and larger plaque burden (72 ± 10 vs 64 ± 12%: p <0.0001) at the minimum lumen site and over the entire LMCA length. The white patients had more calcification, whether assessed by the maximum arc (82° ± 74° vs 49° ± 45°; p <0.0001) or total length (3.6 ± 3.2 vs 2.1 ± 2.1 mm; p <0.0001). In conclusion, after matching well-known risk factors, there appeared to be ethnic differences in coronary atherosclerosis morphology between Asian and white patients, at least as it affected LMCA morphology. PMID:23340034

Rusinova, Reni P; Mintz, Gary S; Choi, So-Yeon; Araki, Hiroshi; Hakim, Diaa; Sanidas, Elias; Yakushiji, Tadayuki; Weisz, Giora; Mehran, Roxana; Franklin-Bond, Theresa; Fahy, Martin; Leon, Martin B; Stone, Gregg W; Moses, Jeffery W; Tahk, Seung-Jea; Ochiai, Masahiko; Maehara, Akiko

2013-04-01

448

Genetic Susceptibility, Colony Size, and Water Temperature Drive White-Pox Disease on the Coral Acropora palmata  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of coral diseases are one of the greatest threats to reef corals in the Caribbean, yet the mechanisms that lead to coral diseases are still largely unknown. Here we examined the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-pox disease on Acropora palmata coral colonies of known genotypes. We took a Bayesian approach, using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation algorithms, to examine which covariates influenced the presence of white-pox disease over seven years. We showed that colony size, genetic susceptibility of the coral host, and high-water temperatures were the primary tested variables that were positively associated with the presence of white-pox disease on A. palmata colonies. Our study also showed that neither distance from previously diseased individuals, nor colony location, influenced the dynamics of white-pox disease. These results suggest that white-pox disease was most likely a consequence of anomalously high water temperatures that selectively compromised the oldest colonies and the most susceptible coral genotypes. PMID:25372835

Muller, Erinn M.; van Woesik, Robert

2014-01-01

449

Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral-associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. Here, we compare bacterial assemblages of samples from healthy (HH) colonies and such displaying signs of White Plague Disease (WPD) of two different coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) from the same reef in Koh Tao, Thailand, using 16S rRNA gene microarrays. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased (DD) corals, and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens (Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae). In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries. PMID:23924783

Roder, Cornelia; Arif, Chatchanit; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Daniels, Camille; Shibl, Ahmed; Chavanich, Suchana; Voolstra, Christian R

2014-01-01

450

White-nose syndrome: is this emerging disease a threat to European bats?  

PubMed

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a newly emergent disease that potentially threatens all temperate bat species. A recently identified fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent of this disease. Until 2009, WNS and G. destructans were exclusively known from North America, but recent studies have confirmed this fungus is also present in Europe. We assembled an international WNS consortium of 67 scientists from 29 countries and identified the most important research and conservation priorities to assess the risk of WNS to European bats. Here, we review what is known about WNS and G. destructans and detail the conservation and research recommendations aimed at understanding and containing this emerging infectious disease. PMID:21835492

Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Frick, Winifred F; Kunz, Thomas H; Racey, Paul A; Voigt, Christian C; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Teeling, Emma C

2011-11-01

451

EFFECTS OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE ON REPRODUCTION AND FAWN HARVEST VULNERABILITY IN WISCONSIN  

E-print Network

(Odocoileus virginianus) fawns born in spring 2002 and evaluate the effects of CWD infection on reproduction, Odocoileus virginianus, parentage, white-tailed deer. INTRODUCTION Infectious diseases are now recognized

Mladenoff, David

452

Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 749 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio and 487 WTD deer shot in Minnesota during 2008, 2009, and 2010. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cut-off titer, 25). Additionally myocardial samples from 123 seropositive WTD from Ohio were digested in pepsin and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii. Furthermore, to estimate transplacental rate of transmission, brains from 155 fetuses (included twins) from 148 deer from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice for the isolation of viable T. gondii. Seroprevalence of T. gondii varied with the year of collection, geography, and the age of deer. Of the Ohio deer sampled in 2012 and 2013 seroprevalences for the two years were similar (73.4% and 75.7%, respectively); remarkably 150 (66.1%) of 227 deer of <1 year of age were seropositive. Of the Minnesota deer, seroprevalence was lowest for the year 2008 (14.8%, 26/175) versus 2009 (27.7%, 59/213), and 2010 (25.2%, 25/99), thought to be related to environmental temperatures. Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of four WTD from Ohio, and brain of one WTD fetus from Minnesota. Tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these five T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). Four genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 1 (Type II), no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant) and no. 146. Results indicate fluctuating seroprevalence, probably related to weather and warrant further epidemiological studies. PMID:24582734

Dubey, J P; Dennis, P M; Verma, S K; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Butler, E; Carstensen, M; Su, C

2014-05-28

453

Determination and evaluation of an optimal dosage of carfentanil and xylazine for the immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Using an iteration method, optimal hand-injected immobilization dosages of carfentanil/xylazine (CAR/XYL) were determined for 13 adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer were temporarily restrained in a squeeze chute and were repeatedly immobilized one to four times at 2-5-wk intervals from December 2002 to March 2003. A fixed ratio of 1 mg CAR:10 mg XYL intramuscularly was used, increasing or decreasing the dosage until the optimal dosage (defined by an induction time < 3 min and PaCO(2)< 60 mmHg) was reached for each animal. Inductions were video-recorded and reviewed by observers blinded to drugs and dosages, who rated qualitative aspects of each induction. There were significant (P < 0.05) dosage-dependent decreases in induction time, time to first effect, PaO(2), SaO(2), and arterial pH, and significant dosage-dependent increases in PaCO(2) and quality ratings. The median optimal dosage (mOD) was 0.03 (range, 0.015-0.06) mg/kg CAR+0.3 (range, 0.15-0.6) mg/kg XYL. Induction times using the mOD were rapid (median 3.0 min [range, 1.8-10.0]), but quality ratings were considered undesirable for nine of 13 deer. Increased rectal body temperatures of 40.6+/-0.5 C (mean +/- SD) were noted in all deer and hyperthermia (T > 41 C) was noted in three. There was a positive correlation between body temperature and induction time (r=0.44). Heart rates significantly decreased from 5 to 15 min postinduction and remained decreased at the 20-min reading; there was occasional bradycardia. There was a significant increase in pH from 10 to 20 min postinduction, but metabolic acidemia (pH<7.3) persisted throughout the immobilization periods for all deer. Possible hypoxemia (SaO(2) and SpO(2)<90 mmHg but PaO(2)>60 mmHg) was present after induction, while hypercapnea (PaCO(2) > 60 mmHg) did not occur. Reversal times with naltrexone and yohimbine were rapid (mean 3.7+/-1.5 min) and uneventful, with no evidence of renarcotization. Although the median optimal dosage produced rapid inductions, no respiratory depression, complete reversal after antagonist administration, and no renarcotization, negative attributes included elevated body temperatures, acidemia, and undesirable induction qualities. PMID:16244066

Storms, Timothy N; Schumacher, Juergen; Zagaya, Nancy; Osborn, David A; Miller, Karl V; Ramsay, Edward C

2005-07-01

454

Factors relating to compliance with a gluten-free diet in patients with coeliac disease: comparison of white Caucasian and South Asian patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & aims: To identify factors relating to compliance with a gluten-free diet amongst white Caucasian and South Asians with coeliac disease.Methods: Cross-sectional survey, with case note review of 130 adult patients with coeliac disease (90 white Caucasian and 40 South Asians).Results: 87 (66.9%) of the 130 questionnaires were returned; whites: 73.3%, South Asians: 52.5% (P=0.02). White Caucasians’ assessment of

Jeffrey R. Butterworth; Luke M. Banfield; Tariq H. Iqbal; Brian T. Cooper

2004-01-01

455

Caspase-cleaved glial fibrillary acidic protein within cerebellar white matter of the Alzheimer's disease brain.  

PubMed

Although the cerebellum is generally thought of as an area spared of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, recent evidence suggests that balance and mobility dysfunction may be magnified in affected individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine the degree of pathological changes within the cerebellum utilizing an antibody that specifically detects caspase-cleaved GFAP within degenerating astrocytes. Compared to control subjects, application of this antibody, termed the GFAP caspase-cleavage product (GFAPccp) antibody, revealed widespread labeling in cerebellar white matter with little staining observed in grey matter. Staining was observed within damaged astrocytes, was often localized near blood vessels and co-localized with other markers of apoptosis including TUNEL and caspase-cleaved tau. Of interest was the association of beta-amyloid deposition in white matter together with GFAPccp in cerebellar AD sections. In contrast, utilizing the tangle marker, PHF-1, neuritic pathology was completely absent in AD cerebellar sections. It is suggested that the observed pathological changes found in the white matter of the cerebellum may contribute to the declined motor performance in AD. PMID:23236541

Rohn, Troy T; Catlin, Lindsey W; Poon, Wayne W

2013-01-01

456

Depression in small-vessel disease relates to white matter ultrastructural damage, not disability  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) is a specific risk factor for depression, whether any association is mediated via white matter damage, and to study the role of depressive symptoms and disability on quality of life (QoL) in this patient group. Methods: Using path analyses in cross-sectional data, we modeled the relationships among depression, disability, and QoL in patients with SVD presenting with radiologically confirmed lacunar stroke (n = 100), and replicated results in a second SVD cohort (n = 100). We then compared the same model in a non-SVD stroke cohort (n = 50) and healthy older adults (n = 203). In a further study, to determine the role of white matter damage in mediating the association with depression, a subgroup of patients with SVD (n = 101) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Results: Reduced QoL was associated with depression in patients with SVD, but this association was not mediated by disability or cognition; very similar results were found in the replication SVD cohort. In contrast, the non-SVD stroke group and the healthy older adult group showed a direct relationship between disability and depression. The DTI study showed that fractional anisotropy, a marker of white matter damage, was related to depressive symptoms in patients with SVD. Conclusion: These results suggest that in stroke patients without SVD, disability is an important causal factor for depression, whereas in SVD stroke, other factors specific to this stroke subtype have a causal role. White matter damage detected on DTI is one factor that mediates the association between SVD and depression. PMID:25230999

Herbert, Vanessa; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Morris, Robin G.; Markus, Hugh S.

2014-01-01

457

Misclassified Tissue Volumes in Alzheimer Disease Patients With White Matter Hyperintensities Importance of Lesion Segmentation Procedures for Volumetric Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—MRI-based quantification of gray and white matter volume is common in studies involving elderly patient populations. The aim of the present study was to describe the effects of not accounting for subcortical white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on tissue volumes in Alzheimer Disease patients with varying degrees of WMH (mild: n19, moderate: n22, severe: n18). Methods—An automated tissue segmentation

Naama Levy-Cooperman; Joel Ramirez; Nancy J. Lobaugh; Sandra E. Black

2010-01-01

458

White Matter Abnormalities and Structural Hippocampal Disconnections in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer’s disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer’s disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate and frontal regions only in the Alzheimer’s group. The severity of white matter degeneration appears to be higher in advanced clinical stages, supporting the construct that these abnormalities are part of the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24086371

Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

2013-01-01

459

Impacts of white-tailed deer on red trillium (Trillium recurvatum): defining a threshold for deer browsing pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impacts to supplement deer surveys. We analyzed experimental data about red trillium (Trillium recurvatum), large flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum), nodding trillium (T. cernuum), and declined trillium (T. flexipes) growth in paired exclosure (fenced) plots and control (unfenced) plots from 2002 to 2010 at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter two species lacked replication, so statistical analysis was not possible. All red trillium plants were surveyed for height-to-leaf, effects of browsing, and presence of flowers. Data from individuals in 2009 demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between height-to-leaf and probability of flowering. The relationship on moraine soils was shifted to taller plants compared to those on sand substrates, with respectively 50 percent flowering at 18 and 16 cm and 33 percent flowering at 16 and 14 cm height-to-leaf. On a plot basis, the proportion of plants flowering was influenced by height to leaf, duration of protection, and deviation in rainfall. The proportion of plants flowering increased ninefold in exclosures (28 percent) compared to control plots (3 percent) over the 8 years of protection. The mean height-to-leaf was a function of the interaction between treatment and duration, as well as red trillium density. Changes in height-to-leaf in control plots from year to year were significantly influenced by an interaction between change in deer density and change in snowfall depth. There was a significant negative correlation between change in deer density and snowfall depth. Plants in the exclosures increased in height at a rate of 1.5 cm yr?1 whereas control plants decreased in height by 0.9 cm yr?1. In all, 78 percent of the control plots lacked flowering individuals over the 9 years of study, indicating that red trillium is being negatively affected by deer throughout the East Unit of the park. Of the five deer management zones studied, only one showed pre-impact height-to-leaf and flowering percentages in control plots that then declined after 2005. The results of this study demonstrate that Trillium species growing in the lands of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore are being suppressed reproductively by deer browsing. Specifically, we demonstrate, for the first time, the utility of using red trillium (Trillium recurvatum) height-to-leaf and percentage of flowering as indicators of the impacts of deer browsing. Application of the recommended thresholds demonstrates their utility in adopting red trillium as a phytoindicator of deer impact. Responses of plants to protection from deer suggest that deer culling might be necessary for 6 or more years for red trillium populations and rare trillium species to recover.

Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

2014-01-01

460

[Left hemiparesis as a sign of onset of vanishing white matter disease. Identification of a new mutation].  

PubMed

Vanishing white matter disease is a genetic disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance that affects the brain white matter There are various phenotypes that differ in severity and age at onset. Usually, it is characterized by ataxia, spasticity and a progressive motor decline with exacerbations triggered by fever and mild head traumas. The patient was a 2.5 year-old girl who developed unstable gait, left hemiparesis and increased tendon reflexes following a mild head trauma. Brain MRI showed diffuse and symmetric white matter abnormalities with decreased signal on T1 and increased signal on T2 and FLAIR sequences. Vanishing White Matter disease was suspected. The diagnosis was confirmed by genetic molecular testing that showed 2 mutations in EIF2B5 gene. Both mutations were considered pathogenic, although one had not been previously described. Hemiparesis must be included among clinical features of vanishing white matter disease. Early diagnosis can help to avoid infections and traumas and allows families to be genetically counselled. Our case contributes with the identification of a new mutation in EIF2B5 gene (p.Gly132Ala in position 395), not previously described. Its characteristics suggest a high probability of being pathogenic. We believe that it should be considered among the complex EIF2B mutations responsible for the disease. PMID:23434401

Alías Hernández, I; Ramos Lizana, J; Aguirre Rodríguez, J; Aguilera López, P; Garzón Cabrera, M I; Entrala Bernal, C

2013-07-01