Science.gov

Sample records for white tail disease

  1. Experimental Bluetongue Disease in White-Tailed Deer *

    PubMed Central

    Vosdingh, R. A.; Trainer, D. O.; Easterday, B. C.

    1968-01-01

    Nine white-tailed deer and six sheep were experimentally exposed to the California BTV-8 strain of bluetongue virus. The infections were fatal for seven of the nine deer. An additional deer died from exposure to an isolate of bluetongue virus from bighorn sheep. Clinical signs and lesions of bluetongue in deer were described. The incubation period, signs and lesions of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer appear to be similar. Virus isolations were made from the blood and a variety of tissues of exposed deer and identified as bluetongue virus. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in all of the convalescent sera. PMID:15846890

  2. Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joly, D.O.; Ribic, C.A.; Langenberg, J.A.; Beheler, K.; Batha, C.A.; Dhuey, B.J.; Rolley, R.E.; Bartelt, G.; VanDeelen, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

  3. Culicoides (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) collected during epizootics of hemorrhagic disease among captive white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Smith, K E; Stallknecht, D E

    1996-05-01

    To help determine specific vectors of epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue (BT) viruses for white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, in the southeastern United States, Culicoides sp. midges were collected during epizootics of hemorrhagic disease among captive white-tailed deer in Georgia, Mississippi, and North Carolina. Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett), a confirmed vector of EHD and BT viruses, was present in low numbers in light-trap collections made at all sites. Collections from deer made in Georgia and North Carolina yielded only a single specimen of C. variipennis. Other Culicoides species present in far greater numbers during the epizootics included C. lahillei Lutz, C. paraensis (Goeldi), and C. stellifer (Coquillett) C. lahillei warrants particular attention as a potential vector because its readily feeds on white-tailed deer and was by far the predominant species collected from deer during the epizootics. PMID:8667402

  4. Susceptibility of cattle to first-passage intracerebral inoculation with chronic wasting disease agent from white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare clinicopathological findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from white-tailed deer (CWD**wtd) with other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), prion diseases) that have been shown to be experimentally transmissible to cattle [sheep scr...

  5. Wetland cover dynamics drive hemorrhagic disease patterns in white-tailed deer in the United States.

    PubMed

    Berry, Brett S; Magori, Krisztian; Perofsky, Amanda C; Stallknecht, David E; Park, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    While vector-borne diseases are known to be particularly influenced by environmental factors, the impact of land-cover change on vector-borne wildlife disease patterns is poorly understood, largely due to the paucity of data on disease occurrence at extensive spatial and temporal scales. Widespread and rapid anthropogenic land-cover change, especially urbanization, has transformed the US landscape during the last century. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and blue tongue virus, vectored by Culicoides biting midges, are two RNA viruses in the Orbivirus genus that cause severe hemorrhagic disease (HD) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We examine the spatial dynamics of HD affecting white-tailed deer in the contiguous United States in two periods covering 1980 to 2007 in connection with land-cover change over the same time. Using spatial statistical modeling, wetland cover emerges as a critical driver of HD morbidity, whereas the drivers of mortality patterns are more complex. Increasing wetland cover is positively associated with HD morbidity, which is consistent with the ecologic requirements of the Culicoides vector. Wetland cover is inherently dynamic due to its importance to biodiversity and water quality as well as its utility for other purposes when drained. Accordingly this analysis helps in understanding the consequences of changing wetlands on vector-borne disease patterns, to identify disease hotspots in a large landscape, and to forecast the spatial spread of HD and related diseases. PMID:23778598

  6. EPIZOOTIOLOGY OF CRANIAL ABSCESS DISEASE IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) OF GEORGIA, USA.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bradley S; Belser, Emily H; Killmaster, Charlie H; Bowers, John W; Irwin, Brian J; Yabsley, Michael J; Miller, Karl V

    2015-07-01

    Intracranial abscess disease is a cause of natural mortality for mature male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of abscesses are associated with bacterial infection by Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, but a complete understanding of the epidemiology of this disease is lacking. We quantified the effects of individual characteristics, site-specific herd demographics, land cover, and soil variables in estimating the probability of this disease. We examined 7,545 white-tailed deer from 60 sites throughout Georgia US for signs of cranial abscesses, the predecessor of intracranial abscesses, and recorded the presence or absence of cranial abscesses for each individual examined. We detected no cranial abscesses in 2,562 female deer but 91 abscesses in 4,983 male deer examined (1.8%). A generalized linear mixed model, treating site as a random effect, was used to examine several potential explanatory risk factors including site-level landscape and soil characteristics (soil and forest type), demographic factors (deer density and male to female ratio), and individual host factors (deer sex and age). Model results indicated that the probability of a male having a cranial abscess increased with age and that adult sex ratio (male:female) was positively associated with this disease. Site-specific variables for land cover and soil types were not strongly associated with observations of the disease at the scale measured and a large amount of among-site variability remained. Given the demonstrated effect of age, gender, and local sex ratios but the remaining unexplained spatial variability, additional investigation into spatiotemporal variation of the presumed bacterial causative agent of cranial abscesses appears warranted. PMID:25984774

  7. Prion protein gene sequence and chronic wasting disease susceptibility in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam L; Kelly, Amy C; Green, Michelle L; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E

    2015-11-01

    The sequence of the prion protein gene (PRNP) affects susceptibility to spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases in many species. In white-tailed deer, both coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in this gene that correlate to chronic wasting disease (CWD) susceptibility. Previous studies examined individual nucleotide or amino acid mutations; here we examine all nucleotide polymorphisms and their combined effects on CWD. A 626 bp region of PRNP was examined from 703 free-ranging white-tailed deer. Deer were sampled between 2002 and 2010 by hunter harvest or government culling in Illinois and Wisconsin. Fourteen variable nucleotide positions were identified (4 new and 10 previously reported). We identified 68 diplotypes comprised of 24 predicted haplotypes, with the most common diplotype occurring in 123 individuals. Diplotypes that were found exclusively among positive or negative animals were rare, each occurring in less than 1% of the deer studied. Only one haplotype (C, odds ratio 0.240) and 2 diplotypes (AC and BC, odds ratios of 0.161 and 0.108 respectively) has significant associations with CWD resistance. Each contains mutations (one synonymous nucleotide 555C/T and one nonsynonymous nucleotide 286G/A) at positions reported to be significantly associated with reduced CWD susceptibility. Results suggest that deer populations with higher frequencies of haplotype C or diplotypes AC and BC might have a reduced risk for CWD infection - while populations with lower frequencies may have higher risk for infection. Understanding the genetic basis of CWD has improved our ability to assess herd susceptibility and direct management efforts within CWD infected areas. PMID:26634768

  8. Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, A.K.; Samuel, M.D.; VanDeelen, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P < 0.01) feeding at pile (49%) and spread (61%) treatments than at natural feeding areas (36%). We found higher deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

  9. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  10. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in captive bison, elk, white-tailed deer, cattle, and goats from Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissue...

  11. Spatial epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Blanchong, Julie A.; Batha, C.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Keane, D.P.; Ribic, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD prevalence declined with distance from a central location, was locally correlated at a scale of 3.6 km, and was correlated with deer habitat abundance. The latter result is consistent with patterns expected for a positive relationship between density and prevalence of CWD. We recommend management activities focused on culling in geographic areas with high prevalence to have the greatest probability of removing infected individuals. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors in envolved in CWD spread and infection rates, especially the role of density-dependent transmission. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  12. Demographic patterns and harvest vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected white-tailed deer in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, D.A.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Keane, D.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500-km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310-km2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and noninfected deer. Our results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) free-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible nonlinear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found, as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  13. Studies on the Pathogenesis of Experimental Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease of White-tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Fletch, A. L.; Karstad, L. H.

    1971-01-01

    Observations were made of clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions in white-tailed deer infected with epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus. Typically, animals became weak and lethargic and developed hyperemia of the oral and nasal mucosa, tongue, ears and sclera of the eyes six to seven days following intramuscular inoculation with virus. Body temperature increased initially and then fell to subnormal levels just prior to death. A decrease in levels of circulating blood platelets was correlated with the occurrence of fever and the appearance of platelet and fibrin thrombi in small vessels of many organs of the body. Thrombosis resulted in tissue degeneration, necrosis and hemorrhages in the terminal stages of the disease. Tissues most seriously affected were oral, nasal and tongue mucosa, mandibular salivary glands, myocardium and epithelium of the forestomachs. The lesions resembled those of blue-tongue in deer. Inoculation of domestic sheep with EHD virus-infected deer spleen tissues was without clinical effect. Blood collected from the sheep, representing the third blind passage of EHD virus in sheep, was not infective for deer. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:4254897

  14. An epizootic of hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer in Missouri.

    PubMed

    Beringer, J; Hansen, L P; Stallknecht, D E

    2000-07-01

    As part of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) survival study in Missouri (USA) we were actively monitoring 97 radio-collared deer when 8 (8%) died. This mortality, which occurred from 20 August to 23 September 1996, consisted of five adult females, two yearling females and one yearling male. Based on the seasonality of this mortality and the isolation of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 2 from one of these animals, we believe that these losses resulted from an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease. The remains of five unmarked deer that may have died from HD also were found on the study area during this same period. During the fall following this mortality, we tested serum from 96 deer taken by hunters in the immediate area. Fifteen (16%) were positive for EHDV or bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies as determined by agar gel immunodiffusion tests. Serum neutralization test results indicated that previous infections were caused by EHDV virus serotype 2. Based on these data, and assuming that there was no prior exposure to EHDV serotype 2 in this population, the exposure rate for this epizootic was 24% of which 8% died. We noted hoof interruptions in only two of the 96 deer sampled. During this mortality event, the Missouri Department of Conservation received no reports of dead deer, and without the radio-monitored animals the event would have been undetected. PMID:10941752

  15. Demodectic Mange, Dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospecti...

  16. Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare clinicopathological findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, three groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with WTD, mule deer or elk isolates of CWD. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months pos...

  17. EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) OF ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSONI), WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS), AND MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS HEMIONUS) TO WHITE-TAILED DEER BY INTRACEREBRAL ROUTE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting elk, white-tailed deer, and mule deer. Intra-species transmission of CWD is readily accomplished via oral administration of CWD-affected brain. And while the exact mode of natural transmission is unclear, ho...

  18. Social affiliation and contact patterns among white-tailed deer in disparate landscapes: implications for disease transmission

    PubMed Central

    Schauber, Eric M.; Nielsen, Clayton K.; Kjær, Lene J.; Anderson, Charles W.; Storm, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    In social species, individuals contact members of the same group much more often than those of other groups, particularly for contacts that could directly transmit disease agents. This disparity in contact rates violates the assumptions of simple disease models, hinders disease spread between groups, and could decouple disease transmission from population density. Social behavior of white-tailed deer has important implications for the long-term dynamics and impact of diseases such as bovine tuberculosis and chronic wasting disease (CWD), so expanding our understanding of their social system is important. White-tailed deer form matrilineal groups, which inhabit stable home ranges that overlap somewhat with others—a pattern intermediate between mass-action and strict territoriality. To quantify how group membership affects their contact rates and document the spectrum of social affiliation, we analyzed location data from global positioning system (GPS) collars on female and juvenile white-tailed deer in 2 study areas: near Carbondale in forest-dominated southern Illinois (2002–2006) and near Lake Shelbyville in agriculture-dominated central Illinois (2006–2009). For each deer dyad (i.e., 2 individual deer with sufficient overlapping GPS data), we measured space-use overlap, correlation of movements, direct contact rate (simultaneous GPS locations < 10 m apart), and indirect contact rate (GPS locations < 10 m apart when offset by 1 or 3 days). Direct contact rates were substantially higher for within-group dyads than between-group dyads, but group membership had little apparent effect on indirect contact rates. The group membership effect on direct contact rates was strongest in winter and weakest in summer, with no apparent difference between study areas. Social affiliations were not dichotomous, with some deer dyads showing loose but positive affiliation. Even for obvious within-group dyads, their strength of affiliation fluctuated between years, seasons, and even days. Our findings highlight the poor fit between deer behavior and simple models of disease transmission and, combined with previous infection data, suggest that direct contact is the primary driver of CWD transmission among free-living female and juvenile white-tailed deer. PMID:26937044

  19. Reproductive disease associated with inoculation of pregnant white-tailed deer with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose was to study the effects of BVDV infection in pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). To this end 11 white-tailed deer was purchased and housed in BSL2 containment. Pregnancy status was confirmed and the calculated stage of pregnancy was based on date of contact with buck....

  20. Potential vectors of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses of cattle and white-tailed deer in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Mullen, G R; Hayes, M E; Nusbaum, K E

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen Culicoides spp. were collected on Holstein cattle in Alabama: C. arboricola, C. bickleyi, C. biguttatus, C. debilipalpis, C. guttipennis, C. haematopotus, C. obsoletus, C. paraensis, C. piliferus, C. sanguisuga, C. spinosus, C. stellifer, C. variipennis and C. venustus. Six Culicoides spp. were collected directly from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): C. debilipalpis, C. niger, C. obsoletus, C. paraensis, C. sanguisuga and C. stellifer. Based on their host-feeding behavior, abundance and seasonal occurrence, the following 4 species warrant particular attention as potential vectors of bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses in the southeastern US: C. debilipalpis, C. obsoletus, C. paraensis and C. stellifer. PMID:2989854

  1. Monitoring of Culicoides spp. at a site enzootic for hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer in Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Smith, K E; Stallknecht, D E; Sewell, C T; Rollor, E A; Mullen, G R; Anderson, R R

    1996-10-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were monitored at a Georgia (USA) site where epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue (BT) viruses are enzootic among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Collections were made using a captive white-tailed deer and light traps from June 1993 through November 1994. We collected 210,482 females from the captive deer during morning and evening periods. Predominant species were C. lahillei (73%), C. stellifer (16%), C. biguttatus (6%), C. niger (3%), C. spinosus (2%), and C. paraensis (0.2%). Other species were C. venustus, C. obsoletus/sanguisuga, C. haematopotus, C. guttipennis, and C. arboricola, which together represented < 0.1% of the specimens collected. No C. variipennis, a known vector of EHD and BT viruses, were collected from the deer. An estimated 953,299 females were collected in 695 light-trap nights. The most common species in light-trap collections were C. spinosus (45%), C. biguttatus (27%) and C. stellifer (24%). Culicoides variipennis was rare in the light-trap samples, representing < 0.01% of the total collections. There was serological evidence from hunter-killed deer that local deer were infected with EHD and BT viruses during the study, particularly during 1994. A primary suspect vector was C. lahillei, which attacked the bait deer in large numbers during the summer and early fall of both 1993 and 1994. Based on their seasonality, relative abundance, and host-seeking activity, C. stellifer and C. spinosus also were considered as possible vectors. However, virus isolation attempts on 113,716 Culicoides, including 62,530 C. lahillei and 32,769 C. stellifer, were negative. PMID:9359063

  2. Scrapie transmits to white-tailed deer by the oral route and has a molecular profile similar to chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this work was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD) to the agent of sheep scrapie and to compare the resultant PrPSc to that of the original inoculum and chronic wasting disease (CWD). We inoculated WTD by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal (I...

  3. White-tailed deer harvest from the chronic wasting disease eradication zone in south-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Sausen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin in 2002. The current control method for CWD in the state is the harvest of deer from affected areas to reduce population density and lower CWD transmission. We used spatial regression methods to identify factors associated with deer harvest across south-central Wisconsin. Harvest of deer by hunters was positively related to deer density (slope=0.003, 95% CI=0.0001-0.006), the number of landowners that requested harvest permits (slope=0.071, 95% CI=0.037-0.105), and proximity to the area of highest CWD infection (slope=-0.041, 95% CI=-0.056- -0.027). Concomitantly, harvest was not impacted in areas where landowners signed a petition protesting intensive deer reduction (slope=-0.00006, 95% CI=-0.0005-0.0003). Our results suggest that the success of programs designed to reduce deer populations for disease control or to reduce overabundance in Wisconsin are dependent on landowner and hunter participation. We recommend that programs or actions implemented to eradicate or mitigate the spread of CWD should monitor and assess deer population reduction and evaluate factors affecting program success to improve methods to meet management goals.

  4. From the field: Efficacy of detecting Chronic Wasting Disease via sampling hunter-killed white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Boyd, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Surveillance programs for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids often use a standard of being able to detect 1% prevalence when determining minimum sample sizes. However, 1% prevalence may represent >10,000 infected animals in a population of 1 million, and most wildlife managers would prefer to detect the presence of CWD when far fewer infected animals exist. We wanted to detect the presence of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Pennsylvania when the disease was present in only 1 of 21 wildlife management units (WMUs) statewide. We used computer simulation to estimate the probability of detecting CWD based on a sampling design to detect the presence of CWD at 0.1% and 1.0% prevalence (23-76 and 225-762 infected deer, respectively) using tissue samples collected from hunter-killed deer. The probability of detection at 0.1% prevalence was <30% with sample sizes of ???6,000 deer, and the probability of detection at 1.0% prevalence was 46-72% with statewide sample sizes of 2,000-6,000 deer. We believe that testing of hunter-killed deer is an essential part of any surveillance program for CWD, but our results demonstrated the importance of a multifaceted surveillance approach for CWD detection rather than sole reliance on testing hunter-killed deer.

  5. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer and elk in North America. All diseases in this family are characterized by long preclinical incubation periods following by a relatively short clinical course. Endpoint disease is characterized by ext...

  6. Molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer, elk, and moose. CWD is a fatal neurologic disease with a long preclinical incubation period, during which the disease is probably transmitted to healthy animals through direct exposure or environ...

  7. Mucosal immunization with an attenuated Salmonella vaccine partially protects white-tailed deer from chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Fernando; Mathiason, Candace K; Yim, Lucia; Wong, Kinlung; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Nalls, Amy; Peyser, Daniel; Estevez, Veronica; Denkers, Nathaniel; Xu, Jinfeng; Osborn, David A; Miller, Karl V; Warren, Robert J; Brown, David R; Chabalgoity, Jose A; Hoover, Edward A; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2015-01-29

    Prion disease is a unique category of illness, affecting both animals and humans, in which the underlying pathogenesis is related to a conformational change of a normal, self-protein called PrP(C) (C for cellular) to a pathological and infectious conformer known as PrP(Sc) (Sc for scrapie). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a prion disease believed to have arisen from feeding cattle with prion contaminated meat and bone meal products, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) infects large numbers of deer and elk, with the potential to infect humans. Currently no prionosis has an effective treatment. Previously, we have demonstrated we could prevent transmission of prions in a proportion of susceptible mice with a mucosal vaccine. In the current study, white-tailed deer were orally inoculated with attenuated Salmonella expressing PrP, while control deer were orally inoculated with vehicle attenuated Salmonella. Once a mucosal response was established, the vaccinated animals were boosted orally and locally by application of polymerized recombinant PrP onto the tonsils and rectal mucosa. The vaccinated and control animals were then challenged orally with CWD-infected brain homogenate. Three years post CWD oral challenge all control deer developed clinical CWD (median survival 602 days), while among the vaccinated there was a significant prolongation of the incubation period (median survival 909 days; p=0.012 by Weibull regression analysis) and one deer has remained CWD free both clinically and by RAMALT and tonsil biopsies. This negative vaccinate has the highest titers of IgA in saliva and systemic IgG against PrP. Western blots showed that immunoglobulins from this vaccinate react to PrP(CWD). We document the first partially successful vaccination for a prion disease in a species naturally at risk. PMID:25539804

  8. Mucosal Immunization with an Attenuated Salmonella Vaccine Partially Protects White-Tailed Deer from Chronic Wasting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goñi, Fernando; Mathiason, Candace K.; Yim, Lucia; Wong, Kinlung; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Nalls, Amy; Peyser, Daniel; Estevez, Veronica; Denkers, Nathaniel; Xu, Jinfeng; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Brown, David R.; Chabalgoity, Jose A.; Hoover, Edward A.; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Prion disease is a unique category of illness, affecting both animals and humans, in which the underlying pathogenesis is related to a conformational change of a normal, self-protein called PrPC (C for cellular) to a pathological and infectious conformer known as PrPSc (Sc for scrapie). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a prion disease believed to have arisen from feeding cattle with prion contaminated meat and bone meal products, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) infects large numbers of deer and elk, with the potential to infect humans. Currently no prionosis has an effective treatment. Previously, we have demonstrated we could prevent transmission of prions in a proportion of susceptible mice with a mucosal vaccine. In the current study, white-tailed deer were orally inoculated with attenuated Salmonella expressing PrP, while control deer were orally inoculated with vehicle attenuated Salmonella. Once a mucosal response was established, the vaccinated animals were boosted orally and locally by application of polymerized recombinant PrP onto the tonsils and rectal mucosa. The vaccinated and control animals were then challenged orally with CWD-infected brain homogenate. Three years post CWD oral challenge all control deer developed clinical CWD (median survival 602 days), while among the vaccinated there was a significant prolongation of the incubation period (median survival 909 days; p=0.012 by Weibull regression analysis) and one deer has remained CWD free both clinically and by RAMALT and tonsil biopsies. This negative vaccinate has the highest titers of IgA in saliva and systemic IgG against PrP. Western blots showed that immunoglobulins from this vaccinate react to PrPCWD. We document the first partially successful vaccination for a prion disease in a species naturally at risk. PMID:25539804

  9. Expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 in white-tailed deer infected with Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease virus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prachi; Stallknecht, David E; Murphy, Molly D; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2015-12-31

    The pathogenesis of epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) in white?tailed deer (WTD) may be related to factors other than direct viral damage caused by replication in endothelium, such as the release of cytokines. This study focused on interleukin?1 ? (IL?1) and interleukin?6 (IL?6), which have been shown to be variably upregulated in Bluetongue virus (BTV) infected cattle and sheep endothelial cultures possibly explaining species susceptibility to BTV. We evaluated circulating and tissue levels of IL?1 and IL?6 in WTD experimentally infected with EHD virus serotype 2 (EHDV?2). Circulating levels of IL?1 were assayed by ELISA. RT?PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to detect upregulation of IL?1 and IL?6 mRNA as well as protein expression, respectively. RT?PCR was also used to determine whether IL?1 and IL?6 were upregulated in WTD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with EHDV?2 in vitro. We found increased circulating levels of IL?1 and upregulation of IL?1 mRNA and protein expression and upregulation of IL?6 mRNA in tissues of WTD infected with EHDV. Upregulation of mRNA levels of IL?1 and IL?6 in EHDV infected PBMCs was also observed. Findings suggest a role for IL?1 and IL?6 in the pathogenesis of EHD in WTD. PMID:26741245

  10. Characterization and detection of BVDV related reproductive disease in white tail deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are the causative agent of reproductive and respiratory disease in cattle resulting in significant economic loss to the beef and dairy industries. The primary consequences of reproductive infection are due to the direct infection of the fetus and th...

  11. Vanishing White Matter Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vanishing White Matter Disease What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? Vanishing White Matter Disease (VWM) is inherited ... about this). Other Clinical Names for Vanishing White Matter Disease Other clinical names of Vanishing White Matter ...

  12. Characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus from a bovine with clinical disease with high nucleotide sequence identity to white-tailed deer isolates.

    PubMed

    Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Hause, Ben M

    2014-10-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was isolated from a pregnant cow in Indiana, USA, exhibiting excessive salivation, pyrexia and abortion. VP2, VP5, and VP7 sequences of the isolated bovine EHDV showed 97.7, 97.4, and 97.9 % identity to a serotype 2 reference virus. Bovine EHDV was closely related (>99.9 %) to white tailed deer (WTD) EHDV collected from Iowa in 2013 and showed less than 2.1 % divergence from EHDV collected from WTD across the USA in 2013. The high degree of sequence identity between bovine and WTD EHDV isolates demonstrates that similar viruses concurrently circulate in both species and suggests possible further incursions into bovines. PMID:24852073

  13. EXPOSURE OF WHITE TAILED DEER TO BOVINE DIARRHEA VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of white tail deer as a reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been a point of controversy. The objective of this project was to observe the infectivity of BVDV white tail deer isolates in white tailed deer. Eight white tailed deer fawn 2-4 weeks in age were divided int...

  14. Broad and fine-scale genetic analysis of white-tailed deer populations: estimating the relative risk of chronic wasting disease spread

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Merrill, Evelyn H; Pybus, Margo J; Bollinger, Trent K; Wilson, Gregory A; Coltman, David W

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, similar to sheep scrapie that has only recently been detected in wild populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in western Canada. Relatively little is known about local transmission dynamics of the disease or the potential for long-distance spread. We analysed the population genetic structure of over 2000 white-tailed deer sampled from Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan using microsatellite profiles and mtDNA sequencing to assess the relative risk of disease spread. There was very little differentiation among subpopulations and a weak trend of increasing differentiation with geographic distance. This suggests that the potential for long-distance disease spread through the dispersal of infected individuals is possible, yet the risk of spread should gradually diminish with distance from infection foci. Within subpopulations, females were more related than expected by chance (R > 0) within a radius of approximately 500 m. Sex-biased philopatry and social interactions among related females may facilitate local disease transmission within social groups. Local herd reduction may therefore be an effective tool for reducing the disease prevalence when implemented at the appropriate spatial scale. PMID:25567957

  15. Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, K.G.; Robinson, S.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Grear, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America:Effects of age,sex,polymorphism at PRNP codon 96,and disease progression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa ...

  17. Dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

  18. Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scribner, Kim T.; Libants, Scot V.; Johnson, Chad; Aiken, Judd M.; Langenberg, Julia A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case–control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n = 68) and CWD-negative (n = 91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p < 0.05. After controlling for Prnp, we found weak support for an elevated risk of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility.

  19. Influence of landscape factors and management decisions on spatial and temporal patterns of the transmission of chronic wasting disease transmission in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    O'Hara Ruiz, Marilyn; Kelly, Amy C; Brown, William M; Novakofski, Jan E; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E

    2013-11-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been reported in white-tailed deer at the border of the US states of Illinois and Wisconsin since 2002. Transmission of infectious prions between animals and from the environment has resulted in spatial and temporal structure observable in the spatio-temporal patterns of reported cases. Case locations of 382 positive cases from 28,954 deer tested between 2002 and 2009 provided insight into the potential risk factors and landscape features associated with transmission using a combination of clustering, generalised linear modelling and descriptive evaluations of a risk map of predicted cases of CWD. A species distribution map of white-tailed deer developed using MaxEnt provided an estimate of deer locations. We found that deer probability increased in areas with larger forests and less urban and agricultural lands. Spatial clustering analysis revealed a core area of persistent CWD transmission in the northern part of the region. The regression model indicated that larger and more compact forests were associated with higher risk for CWD. High risk areas also had soils with less clay and more sand than other parts of the region. The transmission potential was higher where landscape features indicated the potential for higher deer concentrations. The inclusion of spatial lag variables improved the model. Of the 102 cases reported in the study area in the two years following the study period, 89 (87%) of those were in the 32% of the study area with the highest 50% of predicted risk of cases. PMID:24258897

  20. Epethelial Presence of Trueperella pyogenes Predicts Site-Level Presence of Cranial Abscess Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Belser, Emily H.; Cohen, Bradley S.; Keeler, Shamus P.; Killmaster, Charles H.; Bowers, John W.; Miller, Karl V.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial/intracranial abscess disease is an emerging source of significant mortality for male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of cranial/intracranial abscess disease are associated with infection by the opportunistic pathogen Trueperella pyogenes although the relationship between the prevalence of the bacteria and occurrence of disease is speculative. We examined 5,612 hunter-harvested deer from 29 sites across all physiographic provinces in Georgia for evidence of cranial abscess disease and sampled the forehead, lingual, and nasal surfaces from 692 deer. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine presence of T. pyogenes from these samples. We found T. pyogenes prevalence at a site was a predictor for the occurrence of cranial abscess disease. Prevalence of T. pyogenes did not differ between samples from the nose or tongue although prevalence along the forehead was greater for males than females (p = 0.04), particularly at sites with high occurrence of this disease. Socio-sexual behaviors, bacterial prevalence, or physiological characteristics may predispose male deer to intracranial/cranial abscess disease. Determination of factors that affect T. pyogenes prevalence among sites may help explain the occurrence of this disease among populations. PMID:25803047

  1. Epethelial presence of Trueperella pyogenes predicts site-level presence of cranial abscess disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Belser, Emily H; Cohen, Bradley S; Keeler, Shamus P; Killmaster, Charles H; Bowers, John W; Miller, Karl V

    2015-01-01

    Cranial/intracranial abscess disease is an emerging source of significant mortality for male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of cranial/intracranial abscess disease are associated with infection by the opportunistic pathogen Trueperella pyogenes although the relationship between the prevalence of the bacteria and occurrence of disease is speculative. We examined 5,612 hunter-harvested deer from 29 sites across all physiographic provinces in Georgia for evidence of cranial abscess disease and sampled the forehead, lingual, and nasal surfaces from 692 deer. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine presence of T. pyogenes from these samples. We found T. pyogenes prevalence at a site was a predictor for the occurrence of cranial abscess disease. Prevalence of T. pyogenes did not differ between samples from the nose or tongue although prevalence along the forehead was greater for males than females (p = 0.04), particularly at sites with high occurrence of this disease. Socio-sexual behaviors, bacterial prevalence, or physiological characteristics may predispose male deer to intracranial/cranial abscess disease. Determination of factors that affect T. pyogenes prevalence among sites may help explain the occurrence of this disease among populations. PMID:25803047

  2. Experimental Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) from Elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Fallow Deer (Dama dama) by Intracerebral Route: Final Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this communication we report final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (Dama dama). The study was terminated 5 years after it was initiated. Thirteen fawns were i...

  3. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

  4. Acaricidal Treatment of White-Tailed Deer to Control Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme Disease-Endemic Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...

  5. Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, Daniel A.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  6. Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or TSE of deer and elk, occurring primarily in North America. The TSEs are fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with conversion of a normal cell protein to a pathogenic and potentially infectious agent by post trans...

  7. Susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to experimental infection with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the fall of 2006, in Israel, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 7 was the cause of an intense and widespread epizootic in domestic cattle that resulted in significant economic losses for the dairy industry. The susceptibility of potential North American vector and ruminant ho...

  8. Forest cover influences dispersal distance of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Grund, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.001, d.f. = 9) and maximum (r2 = 0.86, P = 0.001, d.f. = 7) dispersal distances of juvenile male deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  9. Lead concentrations in white-tailed deer mandibles and teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Witkowski, S.A.; Ault, S.R.; Field, R.W.

    1982-05-01

    Mandibles and teeth of 48 white-tailed deer from 6 counties in Pennsylvania were analyzed for lead by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate little influence of age, sex, and county on lead levels. (JMT)

  10. Wasting and neurologic signs associated with cerebrovascular mineralization in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileu virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A case of wasting and neurologic syndrome (WANS) of white-tailed deer was evaluated by histopathology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for disease associated prion protein (PrP**d). Some of the clinical and pathological features of this case were similar to chronic wasting disease (CWD) of w...

  11. Adoption in rock and white-tailed ptarmigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, M.M.L.; Fedy, B.C.; Wilson, S.; Martin, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Reports of adoption in birds are widespread, but few studies report rates of adoption or possible mechanisms for this phenomenon, particularly in the Order Galliformes. We report incidents of adoption in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. leucura) from two sites in western Canada. Adoption rates for White-tailed Ptarmigan on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Ruby Ranges, Yukon Territory were 13% (n = 16 broods) and 4% (n = 27), respectively, while rates for Rock Ptarmigan were 14% (n = 29) in the Ruby Ranges. Low brood densities may result in lower rates of adoption for ptarmigan. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

  12. White-Tailed Deer Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determ...

  13. Update on vaccination of white-tailed deer with Mycobacterium bovis BCG: Safety and Efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1994, white-tailed deer in northeast Michigan were found to be harboring Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in most animals including humans. Although deer likely contracted tuberculosis from cattle in the early 20th century, when the disease was present in Michigan cattle, ...

  14. White-Tailed Deer Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of an ongoing study is to...

  15. White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Sheep Scrapie by Intracerebral Inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesi...

  16. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. The present study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in ...

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF ASSEMBLAGE A GIARDIA IN WHITE-TAILED DEER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal samples were collected from hunter killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during a managed hunt in a central Maryland county. Fecal samples were cleaned of debris and concentrated by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and stained with MerIFluor reagents. Stained samples were exami...

  18. Ehrlichia ewingii Infection in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Andrea S.; Tate, Cynthia M.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Stallknecht, David E.; Little, Susan E.; Davidson, William R.

    2002-01-01

    Two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii, are transmitted by Amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. Because white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of A. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of E. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with E. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans and dogs. To test for E. ewingii infection, we used polymerase chain reaction and inoculation of fawns with whole blood from wild deer. Of 110 deer tested from 20 locations in 8 U.S. states, 6 (5.5%) were positive for E. ewingii. In addition, natural E. ewingii infection was confirmed through infection of captive fawns. These findings expand the geographic distribution of E. ewingii, along with risk for human infection, to include areas of Kentucky, Georgia, and South Carolina. These data suggest that white-tailed deer may be an important reservoir for E. ewingii. PMID:12095432

  19. Parelaphostrongyliasis in white-tailed deer in Missouri.

    PubMed

    Banks, S M; Ashley, D C

    2000-07-01

    The heads of 137 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were collected on the opening day of the 1996 Missouri (USA) fire-arms deer season and surveyed for the presence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis). Eighteen percent of the deer examined were infected. Mean intensity of infection was 2.0 (range 1-7). There were no significant differences of infection or mean intensity when deer were classified and compared according to sex or age class. PMID:10941746

  20. Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Thirty white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One gr...

  1. Survival of Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, M.A.; Anthony, R.G.; Jackson, D.H.; Wolfe, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus; CWTD) are an endangered subspecies on which little demographic information exists. We determined survival rates and causes of mortality for 64 radiocollared adults from 1996 to 1998, and for 63 radiocollared neonatal fawns during the summer and fall months of 1996-2001 in Douglas County, Oregon, USA. Annual adult survival rates averaged 0.74 over 3 years, and most mortality (73%) occurred between fall and winter. Seasonal survival was lowest (0.75) for the fall-winter 1997-1998, and was ???0.90 during all spring-summer periods. Annual and seasonal survival rates did not differ by gender. Average annual survival was 0.77 for deer in wildland areas compared with 0.66 for deer in suburban areas, but these differences were not consistent between years and seasons. Survival over the entire 3-year study was low (0.38). Eight deer died from a combination of emaciation and disease, and almost all (92%) necropsied deer were in poor body condition. Fawn survival to 7 months was low (0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.26) and declined most rapidly during the first 1.5 months of life. Predation (n = 21) and abandonment (n = 6) were the most frequent known causes of death for fawns. Our results suggest that CWTD may have responded to density-dependent factors during this short-term study, although the effects of other environmental or intrinsic factors cannot be ignored. Fawn survival may be insufficient to produce enough recruits for population growth and eventual range expansion.

  2. Modeling distribution of dispersal distances in male white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Long, E.S.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Smith, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dispersal distances and their distribution pattern are important to understanding such phenomena as disease spread and gene flow, but oftentimes dispersal characteristics are modeled as a fixed trait for a given species. We found that dispersal distributions differ for spring and autumn dispersals of yearling male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but that combined data can be adequately modeled based on a log-normal distribution. We modeled distribution of dispersal distances from 3 distinct populations in Pennsylvania and Maryland, USA, based on the relationship between percent forest cover and mean dispersal distance and the relationship between mean and variance of dispersal distances. Our results suggest distributions of distances for dispersing yearling male white-tailed deer can be modeled by simply measuring a readily obtained landscape metric, percent forest cover, which could be used to create generalized spatially explicit disease or gene.

  3. Spatial interactions of yarded White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Sargeant, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the spatial interactions of nine female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in two deeryards (winter aggregations) in northeastern Minnesota during February-April 1999. Global positioning system (GPS) collars yielded seven pair-wise comparisons of deer that were located at the same time (???1 minute apart) and mat used overlapping areas. Deer traveled separately and did not associate with one another. Within overlapping areas, comparisons of distances between deer and distances between random locations indicated deer moved without regard to each other. Similarly, comparisons of observed and expected probabilities of deer using areas overlapping those of other deer also evinced that deer moved independently.

  4. Energy metabolism and hematology of white-tailed deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rawson, R.E.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Dziuk, H.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Resting metabolic rates, weight gains and hematologic profiles of six newborn, captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns (four females, two males) were determined during the first 3 mo of life. Estimated mean daily weight gain of fawns was 0.2 kg. The regression equation for metabolic rate was: Metabolic rate (kcal/kg0.75/day) = 56.1 +/- 1.3 (age in days), r = 0.65, P less than 0.001). Regression equations were also used to relate age to red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume, white blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The age relationships of Hb, MCHC, and smaller RBC's were indicative of an increasing and more efficient oxygen-carrying and exchange capacity to fulfill the increasing metabolic demands for oxygen associated with increasing body size.

  5. Lead content in soft tissues of white-tailed deer

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.

    1995-12-31

    The white-tailed deer is one of the North America`s most abundant game animals and can be used to monitor the quality of the environment. During the 1994 and 1995 hunting seasons, twenty-nine white-tailed deer were harvested with the permission of the Game Biologist of the Alabama Cooperative Deer Management Assistance Program and their liver and kidney samples were analyzed for lead levels. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys, were 0.35 and 0.37 ppm, respectively. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys did not show any significant difference. The lead levels in the livers of males and females were 0.49 and 0.28 ppm and in the kidneys of males and females were 0.36 and 0.38 ppm, respectively. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys of males and females also did not show any significant difference. Likewise, the lead level neither in the livers nor in the kidneys of young and old deer showed any significant difference.

  6. Predator evasion by white-tailed deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite their importance for understanding predatorprey interactions, factors that affect predator evasion behaviours of offspring of large ungulates are poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the influence of selection and availability of escape cover and maternal presence on predator evasion by white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fawns in the northern Great Plains, U.S.A. We observed 45 coyote, Canis latrans, chases of fawns, and we participated in 83 human chases of fawns during 20072009, of which, 19 and 42 chases, respectively, ended with capture of the fawn. Evasive techniques used by fawns were similar for human and coyote chases. Likelihood of a white-tailed deer fawn escaping capture, however, was influenced by deer group size and a number of antipredator behaviours, including aggressive defence by females, initial habitat and selection of escape cover, all of which were modified by the presence of parturient females. At the initiation of a chase, fawns in grasslands were more likely to escape, whereas fawns in forested cover, cultivated land or wheat were more likely to be captured by a coyote or human. Fawns fleeing to wetlands and grasslands also were less likely to be captured compared with those choosing forested cover, wheat and cultivated land. Increased probability of capture was associated with greater distance to wetland and grassland habitats and decreased distance to wheat. Use of wetland habitat as a successful antipredator strategy highlights the need for a greater understanding of the importance of habitat complexity in predator avoidance.

  7. Nesting habitat relationships of sympatric Crested Caracaras, Red-tailed Hawks, and White-tailed Hawks in South Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P., Jr.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

    2007-01-01

    We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus) (n = 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis) (n = 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) (n = 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed Hawk nest sites were in shrubs and trees that were shorter (3.5 ?? 1.0 m) and had smaller canopy diameters (5.5 ?? 2.1 m) than those of Red-tailed Hawks (10.1 ?? 2.0 m, 13.7 ?? 5.8 m) and Crested Caracaras (5.6 ?? 1.7 m, 8.5 ?? 3.5 m). Red-tailed Hawk nest sites had higher woody densities (15.7 ?? 9.6 plants) and more woody cover (84 ?? 19%) than those of White-tailed Hawks (5.6 ?? 5.8 plants, 20 ?? 21%) and Crested Caracaras (9.9 ?? 6.7 plants, 55 ?? 34%). Crested Caracara nest sites were in dense, multi-branched shrubs composed of more living material (97 ?? 3%) than those of White-tailed (88 ?? 18%) and Red-tailed hawks (88 ?? 18%). Nest sites of White-tailed Hawks, Red-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras were similar to random samples from the surrounding habitat indicating that preferred nesting habitat was available for each of these species at least within 60 m of active nest sites. Nest tree height, along with woody plant and native grass cover best discriminated nest sites among the three raptor species. There was no overlap at Red-tailed and White-tailed hawk nest sites in vegetation structure, while Crested Caracara nests were in habitat intermediate between the two other species. Partitioning of nesting habitat may be how these raptor species co-exist at the broader landscape scale of our study area in the Coastal Sand Plain of Texas.

  8. Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...

  9. Antemortem detection of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brush collections and rectal biopsies from white-tailed deer by real time quaking-induced conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly fifty years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, 2 Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The increasing expansion of this disease makes the d...

  10. Mortality of white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred nine white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were radiotracked in the central Superior National Forest, Minnesota, from 1973 through winter 1983-84; 85 deaths were recorded. Annual survival was 0.31 for fawns (< 1.0 years old), 0.80 for yearling (1.0-2.0 years old) females, 0.41 for yearling males, 0.79 for adult (.gtoreq. 2.0 years old) females, and 0.47 for adult males. Monthly survival rates were high from May through December (0.94-1.00), except for yearling (0.60) and adult (0.69) bucks during the November hunting season. Most mortality occurred from January through April when gray wolf (Canis lupus) predation was an important mortality source for all cohorts. Yearling males were most vulnerable to hunting and adult males to wolf predation.

  11. Preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer (Dama dama)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease (CWD) to fallow deer (Cervus dama) and to provide information about clinical course, lesions and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of CWD in this species, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with CWD br...

  12. Surveillance for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in Scavengers of White-Tailed Deer Carcasses in the Chronic Wasting Disease Area of Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains an...

  13. Preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease (CWD) to fallow deer (Dama dama) and to provide information about clinical course, lesions and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of CWD in this species, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with CWD brai...

  14. Liquid Chromatographic Detection of Permethrin from Filter Paper Wipes of White-tailed Deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, small-scale method for the determination of the presence or absence of permethrin on the hair coat of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), by high performance liquid chromatography was developed. White-tailed deer in South Texas and the northeastern U.S. are routinely tr...

  15. Bovine viral diarrhea virus multi-organ infection in two white-tailed deer in southeastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of wild ruminants especially cervids in the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has remained an enigma. Two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were submitted to the Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL) in the fall of 2003 by the South Dakota Game ...

  16. Surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Johnson, Chad; Vanderloo, J.P.; Aiken, Judd M.; Hamir, A.N.; Hoover, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin, for TSE infection using the IDEXX HerdChek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the collected mammals tested positive using the ELISA, but these were negative when tested by Western blot. While our sample sizes permitted high probabilities of detecting TSE assuming 1% population prevalence in several common scavengers (93%, 87%, and 87% for raccoons, opossums, and coyotes, respectively), insufficient sample sizes for other species precluded similar conclusions. One cannot rule out successful cross-species TSE transmission to scavengers, but the results suggest that such transmission is not frequent in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin. The need for further surveillance of scavenger species, especially those known to be susceptible to TSE (e.g., cat, American mink, raccoon), is highlighted in both a field and laboratory setting.

  17. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, giardia, and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans. PMID:25066778

  18. Development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    I examined the development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1975 to 1996 by radio-tracking adult females and their fawns. Of 40 migratory fawns with radio-collared mothers, all returned from winter ranges to their mothers' summer ranges, as did 36 fawns with unknown mothers. Of 1.5- to 3.0-year-old daughters with radio-collared mothers, 67-80% continued migrating with mothers to their traditional summer ranges. Eighty-four percent (16/19) of yearling dispersers continued migratory behavior after replacing their natal summer ranges with their dispersal ranges, and 88% (14/16) of these continued migrating to their natal winter ranges, some through at least 6.5 years of age. Twenty percent (4/20) of nonmigratory fawns dispersed as yearlings, and two became migratory between their dispersal summer ranges and new winter ranges, one through 4.9 years of age and another through 6.5 years. Seven fawns changed their movement behavior from migratory to nonmigratory or vice versa as yearlings or when older, indicating that migratory behavior is not under rigid genetic control. Thus, the adaptiveness of migration must depend upon natural selection operating upon varying capacities and propensities to learn and mimic long-distance movements and not upon migratory behavior directly.

  19. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

    2003-12-31

    D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

  20. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

    2003-02-26

    The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

  1. Female white-tailed deer survival across ecoregions in minnesota and south dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Deperno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities and vehicle collisions accounted for an additional 15.0%. Natural causes (e.g., disease, predation) of mortality were minor compared to human-related causes (e.g., hunting, vehicle collisions). We used known fate modeling in program MARK to estimate survival rates and compare ecoregions and seasons. Model Sseason (winter=summer) had the lowest AICc value suggesting that survival differed only between seasons where winter and summer survival was equal and differed with fall season. Annual and seasonal (summer, fall, winter) survival rates using the top model S season (summer=winter) were 0.76 (95% ci = 0.70-0.80), 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), 0.80 (95% ci = 0.76-0.83) and 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), respectively. High human-related mortality was likely associated with limited permanent cover, extensive road networks and high hunter density. Deer management in four distinct ecoregions relies on hunter harvest to maintain deer populations within state management goals. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  2. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    PubMed

    Walter, W David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

  3. Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from the lungs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Tell, Lisa A; Brooks, Jason W; Lintner, Valerie; Matthews, Tammy; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2011-09-01

    In vitro susceptibilities of 29 strains of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from lung lesions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia were determined using the broth microdilution method to ascertain efficacious treatment options for pneumonic white-tailed deer. All 29 A. pyogenes strains tested were susceptible to ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but were resistant to both danofloxacin and sulfadimethoxine. Likewise, all 29 isolates were either fully susceptible or intermediately susceptible to gentamicin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate) and tulathromycin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate). At least one isolate of A. pyogenes tested was resistant to ampicillin, chlortetracycline, clindamycin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and tilmicosin suggesting their ineffectiveness in treating A. pyogenes-associated lung infections in white-tailed deer. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for tylosin and neomycin could not be interpreted due to unavailability of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-approved breakpoints for these 2 agents. In summary, based on MIC values, ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are more efficacious than other antimicrobial agents for treating A. pyogenes-related pneumonia in white-tailed deer. However, ceftiofur may be preferred over the other 4 drugs as it is being widely used to treat respiratory disease in cattle and other animal species, as well as is available for single dose parenteral administration. PMID:21908365

  5. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R.; Baker, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  6. Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Cynthia M.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Mead, Daniel G.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Luttrell, M. Page; Sahora, Alexandra I.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Davidson, William R.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole blood or culture. None of the deer showed evidence of clinical disease, but 3 of the 6 deer evaluated had multiple episodes of transient thrombocytopenia. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained, thin blood smears revealed tiny, dark, spherical structures in platelets of acutely infected deer. Anaplasma sp. was detected in platelets of inoculated deer by polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Five of 6 deer developed antibodies reactive to Anaplasma sp. antigen, as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and gltA sequences confirmed the Anaplasma sp. is related to A. platys. Two attempts to transmit the Anaplasma sp. between deer by feeding Amblyomma americanum, a suspected tick vector, were unsuccessful. Based on its biologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, this organism is considered a novel species of Anaplasma, and the name Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. is proposed with UMUM76T (=CSUR-A1) as the type strain. PMID:23276749

  7. Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P., Jr.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  8. A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with “Bacterial White Tail Disease” of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

  9. [Mineral composition of selected tissues and organs of white-tailed sea eagle].

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J; Ichihashi, H; Mizera, T; Yamasaki, S

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the concentrations of K, S, P, Mg, Na, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Ag, Cd, In, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th and U in tissues and organs of white-tailed sea eagle collected dead in Poland has revealed that the metal of risk is lead, and to a somewhat degree also mercury. An intoxication of white-tailed sea eagles with lead is due to ingestion of lead pellets from the waterfowl injured or killed by the hunters, which than become recaptured by the birds. In the case of mercury a source of elevated concentrations of that element in tissues and organs of some white-tailed sea eagles examined is their food (waterfowl and fish) originating from a coast of the Baltic Sea and the Firth of Szczecin. PMID:10846930

  10. Ecological studies of the white-tailed deer in western Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, R.D.; Kennedy, M.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Activity patterns and microhabitat utilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are being studied at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant in Carroll and Gibson counties, Tennessee. Ten white-tailed deer have been fitted with radio-collars, and locations are being monitored using standard techniques. Home ranges and daily activity patterns are being determined. Preliminary analyses have shown that white-tailed deer are readily located using radio-techniques. Microhabitat utilization is being assessed by pellet transects and radio locations. Pellet counts from transects located in pastures and old fields are significantly different from those in other habitat types. Use of honeysuckle (Lonicera sp.) is being examined by observing the degree of browse along transects. No significant difference in utilization has been seen between the honeysuckle transects.

  11. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Dubay, Shelli; Jacques, Christopher; Golden, Nigel; Kern, Bryant; Mahoney, Kathleen; Norton, Andrew; Patnayak, Devi; Van Deelen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland) in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3). We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens) variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%), IBR (7.9%), Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%), L. i. bratislava (1.0%), L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5%) and L. i. hardjo (0.3%). Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119) were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens. PMID:26030150

  12. Influence of roads, rivers, and mountains on natal dispersal of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.; Rosenberry, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic landscape features, such as rivers, mountain ranges, and roads can alter animal dispersal paths and movement patterns. Consequently landscape, through its effects on dispersal, may influence many ecological processes, including disease transmission, invasion dynamics, and gene flow. To investigate influences of landscape features on dispersal patterns of a large mammal, we captured and radiomarked 363 juvenile male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), including 212 confirmed dispersers, in 2 topographically dissimilar study areas in Pennsylvania, USA. Dispersal azimuths were uniformly distributed in the western study area (WSA), where there was irregular, hilly topography. Mean dispersal azimuths paralleled ridge direction in the eastern study area, where long parallel ridges were aligned northeastsouthwest. Major roads in both areas and a large river in the WSA were semipermeable barriers to dispersal of juvenile males; dispersal paths were less likely to intersect these linear features. Dispersal movements were direct and brief, typically lasting <12 hours. For all dispersers, we found no evidence for preference or avoidance of establishing adult, postdispersal ranges in proximity to roads; however, deer that encountered roads near the terminus of their dispersal path were more likely to stop on the near side. Further, for deer that established postdispersal home ranges near major roads, these features influenced range placement such that locations were typically clustered on one side of the road. The influence of roads, rivers, and mountains on dispersal paths and postdispersal locations of white-tailed deer suggest that landscape-specific features should be considered in conservation and management of this and possibly other species of large mammals. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  13. Spatial analysis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Miller, RoseAnn; Kaneene, John B; Schmitt, Stephen M; Lusch, David P; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2007-11-15

    The wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population in Michigan, USA, has endemic Mycobacterium bovis. We determined whether there were spatial clusters of retrospective TB cases in white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan and identified specific factors associated with the spatial clusters. Data from hunter-harvested deer (age, gender, TB status, and geographic section) were collected by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during TB surveillance from 1995 to 2002. Land cover (vegetation, land-use) and land type (soil types and drainage characteristics, landforms) described potential deer habitats. Specific locations of large-scale supplemental feeding sites were collected from the MDNR aerial surveillance program from 1997 to 2002. Analyses were conducted using principal components derived from environmental data (and other risk factors) on spatial clusters of disease (identified by the spatial scan statistic). Spatial effects were incorporated into the multivariable analyses by using a neighborhood approach. A total of 420 deer with M. bovis infection were identified from 1995 to 2002, out of 39,451 harvested deer from 3216 TRS units, and spatial clusters of cases were identified. A total of seven principal components of environmental data were generated. Clusters were associated with the presence of large expanses of deciduous forests on moraine ridges separated by low areas of forested wetlands, and the presence of many small lakes. Factors that promoted congregation of deer for extended periods of time (natural cover, access to water, and less human contact) appeared to be associated with increased odds of TB positivity. This suggests that there are specific areas where interventions can be implemented to reduce congregation of animals and disrupt the cycle of infection transmission. PMID:17597240

  14. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Bryant; Mahoney, Kathleen; Norton, Andrew; Patnayak, Devi; Van Deelen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland) in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3). We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens) variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010–2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%), IBR (7.9%), Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%), L. i. bratislava (1.0%), L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5%) and L. i. hardjo (0.3%). Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119) were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens. PMID:26030150

  15. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, T.J.; Jenks, J.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Neiger, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n=42) and mule deer (n=41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (T1), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P???0.05) between habitats. Because of the nutritional demands of gestation and lactation, we hypothesized that elemental concentrations would vary depending on reproductive status; Cd, Cu, Ca, P, Mn, Mo, Na, and Zn values differed (P???0.05) by reproductive status. We also hypothesized that, due to variation in feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P???0.05) between species. Further research is needed to determine causes of variation in hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  16. Effects of sex, age, habitat, and body weight on kidney weight in white-tailed deer

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, P.E.; Smith, M.H.; Chesser, R.K.

    1980-03-01

    Kidney (Y) and body (X) weights in kilograms are highly correlated (r = 0.88) in white-tailed deer. As in other mammals, the relationship between the two variables is curvilinear with Y = 2.493 X/sup 0/ /sup 746/. Habitat did not affect the parameters of the relationship although certain sex-age and sex month categories did. However, use of kidney weight in standardizing body condition indices in deer of different sizes still seems warranted for white-tailed deer in the Southeastern United States during the hunting season because of the relatively high predictability of the overall kidney-body weight relationship.

  17. Susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, J E; Stallknecht, D E; Howerth, E W; Warner, C; Biggie, K; Davidson, W R; Lockhart, J M; Nettles, V F; Olson, J G; Childs, J E

    1994-01-01

    Although more than 320 cases of human ehrlichiosis have been diagnosed in 27 states since 1986, the reservoir host or hosts remain unknown. Since antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis, have been found in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), we experimentally evaluated the susceptibilities of four white-tailed deer to infection with E. chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis, a closely related species. A fifth deer served as a negative control. Isolation and nested PCR amplification results from peripheral blood indicated that E. chaffeensis circulated for at least 2 weeks. The deer developed antibodies to E. chaffeensis by day 10 after inoculation, but there was no indication of clinical disease. Immunohistochemical staining identified E. chaffeensis within macrophage-type cells in lymph nodes. The deer inoculated with E. canis did not become infected and did not seroconvert. These results indicate that white-tailed deer can support an E. chaffeensis infection with resulting rickettsemia of at least 2 weeks. The resistance to infection and the absence of seroconversion upon exposure to E. canis indicate that antibody responses previously detected among wild deer are not E. canis cross-reactions. The role of deer as competent reservoirs in the life cycle of E. chaffeensis remains to be explored with suspected tick vectors. Images PMID:7852563

  18. Immunological response of tick-naive white-tailed deer to infestation with Dermacentor albipictus, a one host tick

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer are competent alternative hosts for cattle fever ticks, and their abundance throughout south Texas is compromising efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP). We artificially infested white-tailed deer with a model one-host tick, Dermacentor albipictus (winter tic...

  19. 77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock... the White-tailed Deer Management Plan (Plan), Rock Creek Park, Washington, DC The Plan will support... resources in Rock Creek Park. DATES: The NPS will execute a Record of Decision (ROD) no sooner than 30...

  20. Diagnosis of preclinical CWD in farmed white-tailed deer in Canada by the immunohistochemical examination of recto-anal mucosa- associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in two white-tailed deer farms from Saskatchewan, Canada. The apparent prevalence of disease in these two farms was 21% and 31%. None of these deer were demonstra...

  1. Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG Danish Strain 1331) in Protecting White-tailed Deer (Odecoileus Virginianus) against Bovine Tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildlife Disease Association Annual Conference, August 6-10, 2006 Terry Amundson Student Presentation Award Oral Presentation EFFICACY OF ORAL AND PARENTERAL BACILLE CALMETTE-GUERIN (BCG DANISH STRAIN 1331) IN PROTECTING WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODECOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AGAINST BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS Paulin...

  2. Detection of PrP**CWD in retinal tissues in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with CWD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, has been reported in captive and free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). An abnormal isoform of a prion p...

  3. ANALYSIS OF LYMPHOCYTES ISOLATED FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) FAWNS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from female white-tailed deer fawns at 48 hours of age and every two weeks there after until the fawns were three months of age. Lymphocytes were phenotyped to examine the expression of specific surface receptors as the fawns aged. Three-color...

  4. Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2...

  5. Anatomical distribution of Mycobacterium bovis genotypes in experimentally infected white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) causes tuberculosis in white-tailed deer (WTD). Natural infection of WTD with M. bovis is most closely mimicked by instilling inoculum into palatine tonsilar crypts. One hundred fifty days after intratonsilar inoculation, M. bovis was cultured from 30 tissues originati...

  6. ORAL BACILLE CALMETTE-GUERIN (BCG) VACCINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER AGAINST BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

  7. Proximity of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, ranges to wolf Canis lupus, pack homesites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    2001-01-01

    Seven adult female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota lived within 1.8 km of Wolf pack (Canis lupus) homesites without vacating their home ranges. Six of these deer and at least three of their fawns survived through the Wolf homesite period.

  8. Proportion of White-tailed deer using medicated bait sites in Southern Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, have been found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) complicating eradication efforts of the USDA’s Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Our objective was to assess patterns of deer visitation to medicated bait...

  9. VACCINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS BACILLUS CALMETTE GUERIN (BCG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

  10. Plasma gossypol dynamics in white-tailed deer: Implications for whole cottonseed as a supplemental feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole cottonseed (WCS) is a potential supplemental feed for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in rangeland conditions because of its high digestible energy and protein content, moderate fiber content, and resistance to degradation in moist conditions. WCS also contains the polyphenolic sec...

  11. Sika and White-Tailed Deer Surveys at Assateague Island National Seashore

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Research on sika and white-tailed deer on Assateague Island National Seashore is investigating movements and habitat partitioning between these two ungulate species. Photo is of Sonja Christensen (M.S. student in Wildlife and Fisheries Science at Penn State University) with a sika deer....

  12. Vaccination of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer in order to interrupt...

  13. Vaccination of White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer in order to interrupt...

  14. Metals in obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes of Illinois white-tailed deer and their variations associated with CWD status.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Nelda A; Novakofski, Jan; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Kelly, Amy; Satterthwaite-Phillips, Damian; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra

    2015-01-01

    Prion proteins (PrP(C)) are cell membrane glycoproteins that can be found in many cell types, but specially in neurons. Many studies have suggested PrP(C)'s participation in metal transport and cellular protection against stress in the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand PrP(Sc), the misfolded isoform of PrP(C) and the pathogenic agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), has been associated with brain metal dyshomeostasis in prion diseases. Thus, changes in metal concentration associated with protein misfolding and aggregation have been reported for human and animal prion diseases, as well as for other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The use of metal concentrations in tissues as surrogate markers for early detection of TSEs has been suggested. Studies on the accumulation of metals in free-ranging white-tailed deer have not been conducted. This study established concentrations of copper, iron, manganese, and magnesium in 2 diagnostic tissues used for CWD testing (obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN)). We compared these concentrations between tissues and in relation to CWD status. We established reference intervals (RIs) for these metals and explored their ability to discriminate between CWD-positive and CWD-negative animals. Our results indicate that independent of CWD status, white-tailed deer accumulate higher concentrations of Fe, Mn and Mg in RLN than in obex. White-tailed deer infected with CWD accumulated significantly lower concentrations of Mn and Fe than CWD-negative deer. These patterns differed from other species infected with prion diseases. Overlapping values between CWD positive and negative groups indicate that evaluation of these metals in obex and RLN may not be appropriate as a diagnostic tool for CWD infection in white-tailed deer. Because the CWD-negative deer were included in constructing the RIs, high specificities were expected and should be interpreted with caution. Due to the low sensitivity derived from the RIs, we do not recommend using metal concentrations for disease discrimination. PMID:25695915

  15. Metals in obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes of Illinois white-tailed deer and their variations associated with CWD status

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Nelda A; Novakofski, Jan; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Kelly, Amy; Satterthwaite-Phillips, Damian; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prion proteins (PrPC) are cell membrane glycoproteins that can be found in many cell types, but specially in neurons. Many studies have suggested PrPCs participation in metal transport and cellular protection against stress in the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand PrPSc, the misfolded isoform of PrPC and the pathogenic agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), has been associated with brain metal dyshomeostasis in prion diseases. Thus, changes in metal concentration associated with protein misfolding and aggregation have been reported for human and animal prion diseases, as well as for other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The use of metal concentrations in tissues as surrogate markers for early detection of TSEs has been suggested. Studies on the accumulation of metals in free-ranging white-tailed deer have not been conducted. This study established concentrations of copper, iron, manganese, and magnesium in 2 diagnostic tissues used for CWD testing (obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN)). We compared these concentrations between tissues and in relation to CWD status. We established reference intervals (RIs) for these metals and explored their ability to discriminate between CWD-positive and CWD-negative animals. Our results indicate that independent of CWD status, white-tailed deer accumulate higher concentrations of Fe, Mn and Mg in RLN than in obex. White-tailed deer infected with CWD accumulated significantly lower concentrations of Mn and Fe than CWD-negative deer. These patterns differed from other species infected with prion diseases. Overlapping values between CWD positive and negative groups indicate that evaluation of these metals in obex and RLN may not be appropriate as a diagnostic tool for CWD infection in white-tailed deer. Because the CWD-negative deer were included in constructing the RIs, high specificities were expected and should be interpreted with caution. Due to the low sensitivity derived from the RIs, we do not recommend using metal concentrations for disease discrimination. PMID:25695915

  16. White-spot disease of salmon fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazuranich, J.J.; Nielson, W.E.

    1959-01-01

     White-spot disease, sometimes referred to as coagulated-yolk disease, has been associated with excessive mortalities occurring among the fry and early fingerling stages of the fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytacha) at the U.S. Fish-Cultural Stations at Carson, Cook, Underwood, and Willard, Washington. This disease of eggs and fry should not be confused with the "white-spot" infection that is caused in fingerlings by members of the protozoan genus Ichthyophthirius.

  17. Sensitivity of condition indices to changing density in a white-tailed deer population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sams, M.G.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Qualls, C.W., Jr.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The ways in which comprehensive condition profiles, incorporating morphometric, histologic, physiologic, and diet quality indices, responded to changes in density of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population were examined. Changes in these condition indices were monitored in a northeastern Oklahoma deer herd as density declined from peaks of 80 and 72 deer/km2 in 1989 and 1990 (high-density) to lows of 39 and 41 deer/km2 in 1991 and 1992 (reduced-density), respectively. Compared to a reference population (6 deer/km2), deer sampled during high-density exhibited classic signs of nutritional stress such as low body and visceral organ masses (except elevated adrenal gland mass), low fecal nitrogen levels, reduced concentrations of serum albumin, elevated serum creatinine concentrations, and a high prevalence of parasitic infections. Although density declined by one half over the 4-yr study, gross indices of condition (in particular body mass and size) remained largely unchanged. However, selected organ masses, serum albumin and non-protein nitrogen constituents, and fecal nitrogen indices reflected improvements in nutritional status with reductions in density. Many commonly used indices of deer condition (fat reserves, hematocrit, total serum protein, and blood urea nitrogen) were not responsive to fluctuations in density. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 1998.

  18. Function of the heterocercal tail in white sturgeon: flow visualization during steady swimming and vertical maneuvering.

    PubMed

    Liao, J; Lauder, G V

    2000-12-01

    Basal ray-finned fishes possess a heterocercal tail in which the dorsal lobe containing the extension of the vertebral column is longer than the ventral lobe. Clarifying the function of the heterocercal tail has proved elusive because of the difficulty of measuring the direction of force produced relative to body position in the aquatic medium. We measured the direction of force produced by the heterocercal tail of the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) by visualizing flow in the wake of the tail using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) while simultaneously recording body position and motion using high-speed video. To quantify tail function, we measured the vertical body velocity, the body angle and the path angle of the body from video recordings and the vortex ring axis angle and vortex jet angle from DPIV recordings of the wake downstream from the tail. These variables were measured for sturgeon exhibiting three swimming behaviors at 1.2 L s(-)(1), where L is total body length: rising through the water column, holding vertical position, and sinking through the water column. For vertical body velocity, body angle and path angle values, all behaviors were significantly different from one another. For vortex ring axis angle and vortex jet angle, rising and holding behavior were not significantly different from each other, but both were significantly different from sinking behavior. During steady horizontal swimming, the sturgeon tail generates a lift force relative to the path of motion but no rotational moment because the reaction force passes through the center of mass. For a rising sturgeon, the tail does not produce a lift force but causes the tail to rotate ventrally in relation to the head since the reaction force passes ventral to the center of mass. While sinking, the direction of the fluid jet produced by the tail relative to the path of motion causes a lift force to be created and causes the tail to rotate dorsally in relation to the head since the reaction force passes dorsal to the center of mass. These data provide evidence that sturgeon can actively control the direction of force produced by their tail while maneuvering through the water column because the relationship between vortex jet angle and body angle is not constant. PMID:11060219

  19. Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

  20. Fructosamine: An Alternative to Serum Glucose Measurement in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    DePerno, Christopher S; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2015-10-01

    We determined the relationship between fructosamine and serum glucose in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested during two seasonally stressful periods for deer in coastal North Carolina, US: July 2008 represented the postparturition and lactation period, and March 2009 represented the late winter and pre-green-up period. Serum glucose and fructosamine concentrations were similar between time periods but were uncorrelated within each season. However, when serum glucose was separated into high and low categories based on the median blood glucose score within each time period, we detected statistically significant differences between July and March for serum glucose. Fructosamine was more stable than serum glucose for evaluating the white-tailed deer physiologic condition. PMID:26251990

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of microgeographic genetic structure in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Smith, M.H.; Chesser, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques are described that define contiguous genetic subpopulations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) based on the spatial dispersion of 4,749 individuals that possessed discrete character values (alleles or genotypes) during each of 6 years (1974-1979). White-tailed deer were not uniformly distributed in space, but exhibited considerable spatial genetic structuring. Significant non-random clusters of individuals were documented during each year based on specific alleles and genotypes at the Sdh locus. Considerable temporal variation was observed in the position and genetic composition of specific clusters, which reflected changes in allele frequency in small geographic areas. The position of clusters did not consistently correspond with traditional management boundaries based on major discontinuities in habitat (swamp versus upland) and hunt compartments that were defined by roads and streams. Spatio-temporal stability of observed genetic contiguous clusters was interpreted relative to method and intensity of harvest, movements, and breeding ecology.

  2. Field testing of commercially manufactured capture collars on white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    We conducted 31 tests of commercially manufactured capture collars on female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, under temperatures from -37C to 22C. Deer were recaptured in 28 of the 31 tests; in the 3 failures, we remotely released the collars from the deer. Communication with the collars was achieved from up to 3.0 km on the ground and 26.5 km from the air.

  3. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.

    SciTech Connect

    Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D'Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

    2005-07-01

    Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

  4. Effects of climate change on nutrition and genetics of White-tailed Ptarmigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Stricker, Craig A.; St. John, Judy, Braun, Clait E.; Wann, Gregory T.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2011-01-01

    White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are well suited as a focal species for the study of climate change because they are adapted to cool, alpine environments that are expected to undergo unusually rapid climate change. We compared samples collected in the late 1930s, the late 1960s, and the late 2000s using molecular genetic and stable isotope methods in an effort to determine whether White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans, Colorado, have experiences recent environmental changes resulting in shifts in genetic diversity, gene frequency, and nutritional ecology. We genotyped 115 individuals spanning the three time periods, using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in our genetic analysis. These samples were also analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition. We found a slight trend of lower heterozygosity through time, and allelic richness values were significantly lower in more recent times, but not significantly using an alpha of 0.05 (P 13C and δ15N values decreased significantly across time periods, whereas the range in isotope values increased consistently from the late 1930s to the late time periods. Inferred changes in the nutritional ecology of White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans relate primarily to increased atmospheric deposition of nutrients that likely influenced foraging habits and tundra plant composition and nutritional quality. Future work seeks to integrate genetic and isotopic data with long-term demographics to develop a detailed understanding of the interaction among environmental stressors on the long-term viability of ptarmigan populations.

  5. Survival rates, mortality causes, and habitats of Pennsylvania white-tailed deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vreeland, J.K.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns are important to population management. We quantified cause-specific mortality, survival rates, and habitat characteristics related to fawn survival in a forested landscape and an agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania. We captured and radiocollared neonatal (0.05). Predation accounted for 46.2% (95% Cl = 37.6-56.7%) of 106 mortalities through 34 weeks. We attributed 32.7% (95% Cl = 21.9-48.6%) and 36.7% (95% Cl = 25.5-52.9%) of 49 predation events to black bears (Ursus americanus) and coyotes (Canis latrans], respectively. Natural causes, excluding predation, accounted for 27.4% (95% Cl = 20.1-37.3) of mortalities. Fawn survival in Pennsylvania was comparable to reported survival in forested and agricultural regions in northern portions of the white-tailed deer range. We have no evidence to suggest that the fawn survival rates we observed were preventing population growth. Because white-tailed deer are habitat generalists, home-range-scale habitat characteristics may be unrelated to fawn survival; therefore, future studies should consider landscape-related characteristics on fawn survival.

  6. White-Tailed Deer Vigilance: The Influence of Social and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lashley, Marcus A; Chitwood, M. Colter; Biggerstaff, Michael T.; Morina, Daniel L.; Moorman, Christopher E.; DePerno, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer. PMID:24599090

  7. Undernutrition and serum and urinary urea nitrogen of white-tailed deer during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1994-01-01

    Direct, practical means of assessing undernutrition in deer (Odocoileus spp.) and other ungulates during winter are needed in areas of research and management. We examined the relationship between mass loss and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine (U:C) in captive white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). During 4 February-5 May 1988, we maintained 7 adult white-tailed deer on various feeding regimes to simulate natural nutritional restriction during winter. Mass loss was greater (P = 0.037) in deer (17.0-32.2%) fed restricted amounts of a low protein low energy diet versus control deer (7.0-17.4%) fed the same diet ad libitum. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations did not differ (P = 0.191) between groups, but declined (P = 0.001) as nutrition declined. Slopes of percent mass lossSUN and urinary U:C relationships were positive (P = 0.008 and 0.055) in 7 and 6 deer, respectively. Mean U:C was directly related (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.040) to mean cumulative mass loss, whereas mean SUN was not (r2 = 0.29, P = 0.125). Data presented support the potential of urinary U:C as an index of winter nutritional condition of white-tailed deer; however, additional research is required to provide a complete understanding of this index's utility under field conditions.

  8. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jeanne M.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Scoles, Glen A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock. PMID:26083429

  9. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Ueti, Massaro W; Olafson, Pia U; Freeman, Jeanne M; Johnson, Wendell C; Scoles, Glen A

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into nave recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, nave steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock. PMID:26083429

  10. TIDAL TAIL EJECTION AS A SIGNATURE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM WHITE DWARF MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Cody; Kasen, Daniel

    2013-07-20

    The merger of two white dwarfs may be preceded by the ejection of some mass in ''tidal tails,'' creating a circumstellar medium around the system. We consider the variety of observational signatures from this material, which depend on the lag time between the start of the merger and the ultimate explosion (assuming one occurs) of the system in a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). If the time lag is fairly short, then the interaction of the supernova ejecta with the tails could lead to detectable shock emission at radio, optical, and/or X-ray wavelengths. At somewhat later times, the tails produce relatively broad NaID absorption lines with velocity widths of the order of the white dwarf escape speed ({approx}1000 km s{sup -1}). That none of these signatures have been detected in normal SNe Ia constrains the lag time to be either very short ({approx}< 100 s) or fairly long ({approx}> 100 yr). If the tails have expanded and cooled over timescales {approx}10{sup 4} yr, then they could be observable through narrow NaID and Ca II H and K absorption lines in the spectra, which are seen in some fraction of SNe Ia. Using a combination of three-dimensional and one-dimensional hydrodynamical codes, we model the mass loss from tidal interactions in binary systems, and the subsequent interactions with the interstellar medium, which produce a slow-moving, dense shell of gas. We synthesize NaID line profiles by ray casting through this shell, and show that in some circumstances tidal tails could be responsible for narrow absorptions similar to those observed.

  11. Experimental Infection of White-Tailed Deer with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Etiologic Agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Cynthia M.; Mead, Daniel G.; Luttrell, M. Page; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Davidson, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Serologic and molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been demonstrated in white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus), and deer are an important host for the tick vector Ixodes scapularis. In this study, we describe experimental infection of WTD with A. phagocytophilum. We inoculated four WTD with a human isolate of A. phagocytophilum propagated in tick cells. Two additional deer served as negative controls. All inoculated deer developed antibodies (titers, ?64) to A. phagocytophilum, as determined by an indirect fluorescent antibody test, between 14 and 24 days postinfection [p.i.]), and two deer maintained reciprocal titers of ?64 through the end of the 66-day study. Although morulae were not observed in granulocytes and A. phagocytophilum was not reisolated via tick cell culture of blood, 16S reverse transcriptase nested PCR (RT-nPCR) results indicated that A. phagocytophilum circulated in peripheral blood of three deer through at least 17 days p.i. and was present in two deer at 38 days p.i. Femoral bone marrow from one deer was RT-nPCR positive for A. phagocytophilum at 66 days p.i. There was no indication of clinical disease. These data confirm that WTD are susceptible to infection with a human isolate of A. phagocytophilum and verify that WTD produce detectable antibodies upon exposure to the organism. Because adults are the predominant life stage of I. scapularis found on deer and because adult I. scapularis ticks do not transmit A. phagocytophilum transovarially, it is unlikely that WTD are a significant source of A. phagocytophilum for immature ticks even though deer have a high probability of natural infection. However, the susceptibility and immunologic response of WTD to A. phagocytophilum render them suitable candidates as natural sentinels for this zoonotic tick-borne organism. PMID:16081884

  12. The superficial white matter in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Owen R; Joshi, Shantanu H; Piras, Fabrizio; Orfei, Maria Donata; Iorio, Mariangela; Narr, Katherine L; Shattuck, David W; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-04-01

    White matter abnormalities have been shown in the large deep fibers of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, the late myelinating superficial white matter comprised of intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received much attention. To investigate this area, we extracted a surface corresponding to the superficial white matter beneath the cortex and then applied a cortical pattern-matching approach which allowed us to register and subsequently sample diffusivity along thousands of points at the interface between the gray matter and white matter in 44 patients with Alzheimer's disease (Age: 71.02 ± 5.84, 16M/28F) and 47 healthy controls (Age 69.23 ± 4.45, 19M/28F). In patients we found an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across most of the superficial white matter (P < 0.001) with increases in diffusivity of more than 20% in the bilateral parahippocampal regions and the temporal and frontal lobes. Furthermore, diffusivity correlated with the cognitive deficits measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination scores (P < 0.001). The superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and is critical for the integration of multimodal information during brain maturation and aging. Here we show that there are major abnormalities in patients and the deterioration of these fibers relates to clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1321-1334, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26801955

  13. Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Melissa M.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Conner, Mark C.; Eyler, T. Brian; Lancia, Richard A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM) disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM) and Quality Deer Management (QDM), a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the six regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of antler and nasal swabs from deer were positive for A. pyogenes, respectively. On the Upper Eastern Shore, prevalence of A. pyogenes cultured from deer did not differ between management areas, and was abundant among both sexes and across all age classes. No A. pyogenes was cultured from a small sample of neonates. Conclusion Our study indicates A. pyogenes may be carried widely among white-tailed deer regardless of sex or age class, but we found no evidence the pathogen is acquired in utero. The distribution of A. pyogenes across regions and concentration in a region with low livestock levels suggests the potential for localized endemicity of the organism and the possibility that deer may serve as a maintenance reservoir for an emerging one health concern. PMID:23930157

  14. Comparing protein and energy status of winter-fed white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, B.D.; Underwood, H.B.

    2006-01-01

    Although nutritional status in response to controlled feeding trials has been extensively studied in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), there remains a considerable gap in understanding the influence of variable supplemental feeding protocols on free-ranging deer. Consequently, across the northern portion of the white-tailed deer range, numerous property managers are investing substantial resources into winter supplemental-feeding programs without adequate tools to assess the nutritional status of their populations. We studied the influence of a supplemental winter feeding gradient on the protein and energy status of free-ranging white-tailed deer in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. We collected blood and fecal samples from 31 captured fawns across 3 sites that varied considerably in the frequency, quantity, and method of supplemental feed distribution. To facilitate population-wide comparisons, we collected fresh fecal samples off the snow at each of the 3 sites with supplemental feeding and 1 reference site where no feeding occurred. Results indicated that the method of feed distribution, in addition to quantity and frequency, can affect the nutritional status of deer. The least intensively fed population showed considerable overlap in diet quality with the unfed population in a principal components ordination, despite the substantial time and financial resources invested in the feeding program. Data from fecal samples generally denoted a gradient in diet quality and digestibility that corresponded with the availability of supplements. Our results further demonstrated that fecal nitrogen and fecal fiber, indices of dietary protein and digestibility, can be estimated using regressions of fecal pellet mass, enabling a rapid qualitative assessment of diet quality.

  15. Evaluating the effect of predators on white-tailed deer: Movement and diet of coyotes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, M.M.; Rockhill, A.P.; Deperno, C.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.; Jarding, A.R.; Grovenburg, T.W.; Pollock, K.H.

    2011-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) may affect adult and neonate white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) survival and have been implicated as a contributor to the decline of deer populations. Additionally, coyote diet composition is influenced by prey availability, season, and region. Because coyote movement and diet vary by region, local data are important to understand coyote population dynamics and their impact on prey species. In southeast Minnesota, we investigated the effect of coyotes on white-tailed deer populations by documenting movement rates, distances moved, and habitats searched by coyotes during fawning and non-fawning periods. Additionally, we determined survival, cause-specific mortality, and seasonal diet composition of coyotes. From 2001 to 2003, we captured and radiocollared 30 coyotes. Per-hour rate of movement averaged 0.87 km and was greater (P = 0.046) during the fawning (1.07 km) than the nonfawning period (0.80 km); areas searched were similar (P = 0.175) between seasons. Coyote habitat use differed during both seasons; habitats were not used in proportion to their availability (P < 0.001). Croplands were used more (P < 0.001) than their proportional availability during both seasons. Use of grasslands was greater during the fawning period (P = 0.030), whereas use of cropland was greater in the nonfawning period (P < 0.001). We collected 66 fecal samples during the nonfawning period; coyote diets were primarily composed of Microtus spp. (65.2%), and consumption of deer was 9.1%. During the study, 19 coyotes died; annual survival rate range was 0.33-0.41, which was low compared with other studies. Consumption of deer was low and coyotes searched open areas (i.e., cropland) more than fawning areas with dense cover. These factors in addition to high coyote mortality suggested that coyote predation was not likely limiting white-tailed deer populations in southeast Minnesota. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  16. White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn risk from Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) predation during summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Morris, Aaron; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how often various prey animals are at risk of predation by Gray Wolves (Canis lupus). We used a system to monitor the presence during the day of two radio-collared Gray Wolves within 2 km of a radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with a fawn or fawns in August 2013 in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota. We concluded that the fawn or fawns were at risk of predation by at least one wolf at least daily.

  17. Relationship between snow depth and gray wolf predation on white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Survival of 203 yearling and adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was monitored for 23,441 deer days from January through April 1975-85 in northeastern Minnesota. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) predation was the primary mortality cause, and from year to year during this period, the mean predation rate ranged from 0.00 to 0.29. The sum of weekly snow depths/month explained 51% of the variation in annual wolf predation rate, with the highest predation during the deepest snow.

  18. White-Tailed Deer Browse Preferences in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Castleberry, S.B.; Ford, W.M.; Miller, K.V.; Smith, W.P.

    1997-09-04

    The authors examined spring and summer use of browse by white-tailed deer in forest gaps created by group selection timber harvest at the SRS. Total percentage browse was low in both years, averaging 2.5% of the available browse. Six species were rated high use, 4 species as proportional use and 10 species as low use. Ratings were in agreement to others in the Southeast. Preferred species were maple, winged elm, greenbriar and black willow. Deer browse had very little impact on regeneration of most species.

  19. Notes and Discussion: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    White-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

  20. Testing the Wildlink activity-detection system on wolves and white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Mech, L.D.; Gese, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    We tested the reliability and predictive capabilities of the activity meter in the new Wildlink Data Acquisition and Recapture System by comparing activity counts with concurrent observations of captive wolf (Canis lupus) and free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) activity. The Wildlink system stores activity data in a computer within a radio collar with which a biologist can communicate. Three levels of activity could be detected. The Wildlink system provided greater activity discrimination and was more reliable, adaptable, and efficient and was easier to use than conventional telemetry activity systems. The Wildlink system could be highly useful for determining wildlife energy budgets.

  1. Distribution of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in white-tailed deer from Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Kocan, A A; Shaw, M G; Waldrup, K A; Kubat, G J

    1982-10-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) was found in 75 of 190 (39%) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) examined in Oklahoma from 1977-81. Infections were found in deer from southeastern mixed forest, oak-hickory forest, oak-bluestem parkland and oak-hickory parkland, and not in deer from western bluestem prairie, bluestem-grama prairie and grama-buffalo grass ecoregions. Factors which may influence the distribution of meningeal worm in Oklahoma include distribution and densities of suitable snail hosts and deer feeding habits. PMID:7154219

  2. Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Sileo, L; Beyer, W N

    1985-07-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw] and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney. PMID:4032627

  3. Visual counts as an index of White-Tailed Prairie Dog density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menkens, George E., Jr.; Biggins, Dean E.; Anderson, Stanley H.

    1990-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) are depended on prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) for food and shelter and were historically restricted to prairie dog towns (Anderson et al. 1986). Because ferrets and prairie dogs are closely associated, successful ferret management and conservation depends on successful prairie dog management. A critical component of any management program for ferrets will be monitoring prairie dog population dynamics on towns containing ferrets or on towns proposed as ferret reintroduction sites. Three techniques for estimating prairie dog population size and density are counts of plugged and reopened burrows (Tietjen and Matschke 1982), mark-recapture (Otis et al. 1978; Seber 1982, 1986; Menkens and Anderson 1989), and visual counts (Fagerstone and Biggins 1986, Knowles 1986). The technique of plugging burrows and counting the number reopened by prairie dogs is too time and labor intensive for population evaluation on a large number of towns or over large areas. Total burrow counts are not correlated with white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) densities and thus cannot be used for populated evaluation (Menkens et al. 1988). Mark-recapture requires trapping that is expensive and time and labor intensive. Monitoring a large number of prairie dog populations using mark-recapture would be difficult. Alternatively a large number of populations could be monitored in short periods of time using the visual count technique (Fagerstone and Biggins 1986, Knowles 1986). However, the accuracy of visual counts has only been evaluated in a few locations. Thus, it is not known whether the relationship between counts and prairie dog density is consistent throughout the prairie dog's range. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of using visual counts as a rapid means of estimating white-tailed prairie dog density in prairie dog towns throughout Wyoming. We studied 18 white-tailed prairie dog towns in 4 white-tailed prairie dog complexes in Wyoming near Laramie (10540'W, 4120'N, 3 grids), Pathfinder reservoir (10655'W, 4230'N, 6 grids), Shirley Basin (10610'W, 4220'N, 6 grids), and Meeteetse (10810'W, 4410'N, 3 grids). All towns were dominated by grasses, forbs, and shrubs (details in Collins and Lichvar 1986). Topography of towns ranged from flat to gently rolling hills.

  4. Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson

    1985-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

  5. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, Jack F., Jr.; Johnson, T.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  6. Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

  7. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Cully, Jack F; Johnson, Tammi L; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

  8. Early Pathological Changes Associated with Fasciola hepatica Infection in White-tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Presidente, P. J. A.; McCraw, B. M.; Lumsden, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated with 1000 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica and examined on days 7, 14, and 28 postinoculation to determine the early response of a resistant host to this infection. It was concluded that only small numbers of the metacercariae penetrated the intestinal wall into the peritoneal cavity. Flukes that migrated to the liver penetrated through Glisson's capsule, primarily on the parietal surface. Marked fibroplasia and cellular infiltration of the capsule were induced and flukes were killed and destroyed in granulomas immediately beneath the capsule. Migration in hepatic parenchyma was minimal and immature flukes or migratory tracks were not found. There were infiltrations of eosinophils and mononuclear cells, bile duct hyperplasia and fibroplasia in portal areas. A few flukes penetrated through the diaphragm within 14 days postinoculation and on day 28 granulomas were observed on the dorsal surface of the lung where F. hepatica had penetrated this organ. The early reaction of Glisson's capsule to F. hepatica infection in white-tailed deer has not been described in cattle, sheep or swine infected with this fluke. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10. PMID:4277445

  9. Aggressive defensive behavior by free-ranging white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Swanson, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal investment plays a critical role in neonate survival, and adults can improve survival of offspring by defending them against predators. However, limited information exists documenting ungulate aggression toward humans in defense of neonates. During captures of neonates in spring 2007 and 2008 in north-central South Dakota, we documented 24 aggressive encounters by adult female and yearling male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45.8%) aggressive encounters included yearlings accompanying adult females. Mean ages and weights of neonates that were aggressively defended were greater (P < 0.0001) than ages and weights of those that were not; adults began protecting neonates at approximately 4 days of age. Male fawns were more likely (P = 0.013) to be defended than female fawns. Examination of our data suggests that sex- and age-biased maternal defensive behavior exists in white-tailed deer, and that deer biased maternal investment toward older, male neonates. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  10. Influence of landscape characteristics on migration strategies of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Deperno, C.S.; Brinkman, T.J.; Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A trade-off exists for migrating animals as to whether to migrate or remain residents. Few studies have documented relationships between landscape variables and deer migration strategies. From 2000 to 2007 we captured 267 adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at 7 study sites in Minnesota and South Dakota and monitored 149 individuals through ???3 seasonal migration periods (585 deer-migration seasons). All deer classified as obligate migrators with ???3 migrations (range 3-9 migration seasons) maintained their obligate status for the duration of the study. Multinomial logistic odds ratios from generalized estimating equations indicated that the odds of being a resident increased by 1.4 and 1.3 per 1-unit increase in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to migrating deer. Odds of being an obligate migrator increased by 0.7 and 0.8 per 1-unit decrease in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to resident or conditional migrating deer. Areas inhabited by resident deer were characterized by greater number of forest patches per 100 ha and larger mean forest patch area than conditional and obligate migrant areas. Odds of migrating increased by 1.1 per 1-unit increase in deer winter severity index. Migration behavior of white-tailed deer varied among regions, and land-cover and landscape characteristics provided predictive indicators of migration strategies for deer that could have important implications for conservation, metapopulation dynamics, and species management. ?? American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.

  11. Winter fasting and refeeding effects on urine characteristics in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary characteristics of 9 captive, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Urinary sodium (na) and potassium (K) were diminished in fasted deer after 2 and 4 weeks. Renal excretion of Na and K were lower, whereas urinary phosphorus (P) was higher in fasted deer compared to deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) diets. Urinary P excretion of the fasted deer was also greater than in a low protein-high energy (LPHE)-fed group. Urinary area excretion of fasted deer was similar to that of deer fed low and high protein diets. One fasted deer died during the study and exhibited notably high excretion of urea, Na, K, and calcium (Ca). No effects of the 2 levels of dietary protein on urinary characteristics were detected. Urinary Na:C and K:C ratios wer significantly correlated with Na and K intake. Urinalysis has potential as a sensitive means of monitoring the nutritional status of white-tailed deer. Data are presented as reference values for interpretation of data from deer under less controlled circumstances.

  12. Evidence for Neandertal Jewelry: Modified White-Tailed Eagle Claws at Krapina

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla) talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian. PMID:25760648

  13. Experimental evidence of spatial memory and home range affinity in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    The role of spatial memory in the movement of animals through landscapes remains elusive. To examine spatial memory and home range affinity of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota during 1995–2007, I translocated 17 adult does with known home ranges to unfamiliar sites and radio-tracked them after their release. Twelve does wearing transmitting radio-collars returned to their home ranges. Death and collar expiration precluded determination of whether the remaining five does would have returned to home ranges. Three of five does wearing global positioning system collars traveled throughout hundreds of square kilometres, circling, backtracking, and returning to release sites, while two others exhibited directional movement for tens of kilometres. Four does that survived to parturition stopped traveling and moved at hourly rates similar to those of control does during the first three weeks of the typical fawn-rearing period, but continued traveling later. Their aberrant extensive travel before and after interruption by parturition suggests that they recognized they were in unfamiliar areas, demonstrating both their capacity and propensity to search for and occupy the familiar space of their individual home ranges. Their successful return to home ranges provided experimental evidence of spatial memory and further elucidated its pervasive role in White-tailed Deer spatial ecology.

  14. Evidence for Neandertal jewelry: modified white-tailed eagle claws at Krapina.

    PubMed

    Radov?i?, Davorka; Sren, Ankica Oros; Radov?i?, Jakov; Frayer, David W

    2015-01-01

    We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliatus [Haliaeetus] albicilla) talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian. PMID:25760648

  15. Nutritional restriction and acid-base balance in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the effect of progressive nutritional restriction on acid-base balance in seven captive, adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 4 February to 5 May 1988 in north central Minnesota (USA). Metabolic acidosis was indicated by low mean blood pH (7.25 to 7.33) in deer throughout the study. Mean urinary pH values declined (P = 0.020) from a mean (+SE) baseline of 8.3 +0.1 to 6.7 + 0.3 as restriction progressed. Acidemia and aciduria were associated with significant variations in mean blood CO2 (P = 0.006) and pO2 (P = 0.032), serum potassium (P = 0.004) concentrations, and with a significant (P = 0.104) handling date times group interaction in urinary potassium:creatinine values. Mean bicarbonate:carbonic acid ratios were consistently below 20:1 during nutritional restriction. Mean packed cell volume increased (P = 0.019) and serum total protein decreased (P = 0.001); thus there was evidence for progressive dehydration and net protein catabolism, respectively. Blood pCO2, serum sodium, and urinary sodium:creatinine were stable throughout the study. We propose that acidosis and aciduria are metabolic complications associated with nutritional restriction of white-tailed deer.

  16. Factors influencing reproduction of female white-tailed deer on the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, O.E. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Data were taken on 1103 pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina from 1965--1985 to describe temporal, age-specific, and habitat effects on fetal number. Time periods represented intervals of high and low density. Age significantly affected fetal number both with and without the data from fawns included. Low fetal numbers in yearlings and a high incidence of twinning in older deer were responsible for this effect. Mean number of fetuses per pregnant doe for the 0.5 year old deer (/bar X/ = 1.06) was less than for 1.5 (/bar X/ = 1.56), 2.5 (/bar X/ = 1.73), and greater than or equal to3.5 (/bar X/ = 1.76) year age classes. Temporal and age-specific effects on fetal number among time periods were significant using data from all age classes. These effects were probably not due to density-dependent feedback mechanisms, but to a sampling bias due to differential representation of age classes or habitat of origin in the statistical analyses. Significant differences were observed in fetal numbers between females from the swamp and upland areas both with and without fawn data. Differences between the densities and/or habitat quality in the 2 areas were responsible for this effect. Data were gathered on 2542 female white-tailed deer harvested on the SRP from 1967 to 1985. 48 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Movement patterns of rural and suburban white-tailed deer in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaughan, C.R.; DeStefano, S.

    2005-01-01

    We used satellite land cover data and the program FRAGSTATS toquantify land cover types and calculate the amount of forest edge available in suburban and rural regions of northeastern and northwestern Massachusetts. Cover categories included forest cover, open canopy vegetation, and non-deer habitat. We calculated all edge segments where forest cover abutted open canopy cover. Our open canopy vegetation category was calculated both with and without low intensity suburban development. We then compared these findings to movement data from 53 (13 males, 40 females) adult radio-marked white-tailed deerOdocoileus virginianusmonitored biweekly and diurnally from January 2001 to January 2003. The range of movements of suburban deer in eastern Massachusetts showed no difference to that of suburban deer in western Massachusetts (P = 0.7). However, the ranges for suburban deer in both eastern and western Massachusetts were 10 times less than those of deer in rural western Massachusetts (P = 0.001).Our findings suggest that landscape configuration, as described by the amount and distribution of edge due to suburban development, which is related to the amount and distribution of resources such as food and cover, affects migratory behavior of white-tailed deer, allowsdeer to have smaller ranges, and contributes to high deer densities.Inclusion of suburban edge in habitat models will increase our understanding of deer-habitat relationships for management of deer in urbanizing environments. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  18. Surgical technique for tubal ligation in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    MacLean, Robert A; Mathews, Nancy E; Grove, Daniel M; Frank, Elizabeth S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2006-09-01

    Surgical tubal ligation was used to sterilize urban free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a methodology of a larger study investigating the influences of intact, sterile females on population dynamics and behavior. Deer were either trapped in clover traps (n = 55) and induced with an i.m. injection of xylazine and tiletamine/zolazepam or induced by a similar protocol by dart (n = 12), then intubated and maintained on isoflurane in oxygen. Over 3 yr, individual female deer (n = 103) were captured in Highland Park, Illinois, with a subset of females sterilized using tubal ligation by ventral laparotomy (n = 63). Other sterilization procedures included tubal transection by ventral (n = 1) or right lateral (n = 2) laparoscopy and ovariohysterectomy by ventral laparotomy (n = 1). One mortality (1/ 67, 1.5%) of a doe with an advanced pregnancy was attributed to a lengthy right lateral laparoscopic surgery that was converted to a right lateral laparotomy. The initial surgical modality of laparoscopy was altered in favor of a ventral laparotomy for simplification of the project and improved surgical access in late-term gravid does. Laparotomy techniques included oviductal ligation and transection (n = 14), application of an oviductal mechanical clip (n = 9), ligation and partial salpingectomy (n = 40), and ovariohysterectomy (n = 1). As of 2 yr poststerilization, no surgical does were observed with fawns, indicating that these procedures provide sterilization with low mortality in urban white-tailed deer. PMID:17319135

  19. Capture-recapture of white-tailed deer using DNA from fecal pellet-groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Matthew J; Beaver, Jared T; Muller, Lisa I; Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Harper, Craig T; Basinger, P Seth

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods for estimating white-tailed deer population size and density are affected by behavioral biases, poor detection in densely forested areas, and invalid techniques for estimating effective trapping area. We evaluated a noninvasive method of capture—recapture for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) density estimation using DNA extracted from fecal pellets as an individual marker and for gender determination, coupled with a spatial detection function to estimate density (spatially explicit capture—recapture, SECR). We collected pellet groups from 11 to 22 January 2010 at randomly selected sites within a 1-km2 area located on Arnold Air Force Base in Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee. We searched 703 10-m radius plots and collected 352 pellet-group samples from 197 plots over five two-day sampling intervals. Using only the freshest pellets we recorded 140 captures of 33 different animals (15M:18F). Male and female densities were 1.9 (SE = 0.8) and 3.8 (SE = 1.3) deer km-2, or a total density of 5.8 deer km-2 (14.9 deer mile-2). Population size was 20.8 (SE = 7.6) over a 360-ha area, and sex ratio was 1.0 M: 2.0 F (SE = 0.71). We found DNA sampling from pellet groups improved deer abundance, density and sex ratio estimates in contiguous landscapes which could be used to track responses to harvest or other management actions.

  20. Control of Ticks on White-tailed Deer and Other Ungulate Wildlife - Host-targeted Control of Field Populations of Blacklegged and Lone Star Ticks to Reduce the Risk of Tick-borne Disease Transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the continuing progression of blacklegged ticks and the agents causing Lyme disease from infestations in Maryland southward into Virginia, many citizens living in northern Virginia have asked the Governor for ARS-Patented ‘4-Poster’ Deer Treatment Stations to be deployed as an aid in reducing t...

  1. Epizootiology of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cantu-C, Antonio; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; Garca-Vzquez, Zeferino; Mosqueda, Juan; Henke, Scott E; George, John E

    2009-06-01

    Species of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) ticks are the vectors of babesiosis (cattle fever tick), which are distributed worldwide. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are important secondary hosts for the cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (B.) annulatus and Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus. White-tailed deer are capable of sustaining Boophilus spp. tick populations in the presence or absence of cattle. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and the prevalence of antibodies to them and identify possible risk factors for bovine babesiosis in white-tailed deer in 3 northeastern states of Mxico. Whole blood and serum samples (n = 457) were collected from white-tailed deer in the states of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas during the spring of 2004. Samples were tested for B. bovis and B. bigemina by nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR) (the primers for B. bovis identified the gene Rap-1 and B. bigemina were specific primers) and by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). A questionnaire was given to each ranch to obtain information about management practices. Logistic regression methods were used to test the association between management factors and the dependent variable of positive n-PCR or IFAT. Nineteen (4.2%) samples were positive to B. bigemina and 6 (1.7%) were positive to B. bovis by n-PCR. Serological testing showed 59.9% (n = 274) of deer sampled were positive to B. bovis and 5.4% (n = 25) were positive to B. bigemina antibodies. The logistic model varied with different dependent variables. With positive n-PCR and B. bigemina as the dependent variable, 3 factors were associated: habitat (presence of brush and exotic grasses; odds ratio (OR), 3.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-8.5), grazing system (continuous grazing OR 4.0; CI, 1.3-12.2), and tick treatment frequency (3-4 mo; OR 7.0, CI 1.4-34.3; 5-6 mo; OR, 11.0; CI, 1.9-62.7; > 6 mo; OR, 4.6; CI, 0.9-23.3). These findings suggest that white-tailed deer may act as a reservoir for the 2 bovine Babesia spp. and that white-tailed deer may be important in the epidemiology of babesiosis. However, evidence is not available to support whether white-tailed deer are, or are not, likely to be a host that could complete the transmission cycle of Babesia spp. These results suggest that additional research is needed to demonstrate the importance of white-tailed deer as a Babesia spp. infection source for ticks. PMID:19642800

  2. Foraging flights of the white-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus): Radiotracking and doubly-labelled water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pennycuick, C.J.; Shaffner, F.C.; Fuller, M.R.; Obrecht, H.H., III; Sternberg, L.

    1990-01-01

    Radiotracking transmitters were fitted to White-tailed Tropicbirds nesting at Culebra, Puerto Rico. Foragers were located by light aircraft out to 89 km SSW of the nesting colony, over a deep-water foraging area south of Vieques Island, Puerto Rico and west of St Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands. Two birds were followed out to 176 km NNW from the colony, over the Puerto Rico Trench, but these did not subsequently return. Foragers carrying radio transmitters performed similarly to those without, in terms of duration of absence from the colony, and mass of food brought for the chick. However, measuremetns of energy consumption by the doubly labelled water method indicated that birds with transmitters consumed significantly more energy than those without.

  3. Dual infection of a white-tailed deer by Dermatophilus congolensis and Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Salkin, I F; Gordon, M A; Stone, W B

    1975-10-01

    Infection by both Dermatophilus congolensis and Alternaria alternata was found in a 5 1/2-year-old, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Encrusted lesions characteristic of dermatophilosis were observed on the hocks, flanks, and back. Giemsa-staining of smears of material from beneath the crusts revealed branching filaments, transversely and longitudinally divided into packets of coccoid cells typical of D congolensis. Hyphae morphologically consistent with those of A alternata were found in methenamine-silver- and hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections of tissue from the ears, flanks, and back. Nutrient agar cultures inoculated with tissue from an ear and hindlimb of the deer yielded, respectively, A alternata and D congolensis. PMID:1236841

  4. Natal dispersal and gene flow in white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    I documented natal dispersal and gene flow in 79 yearling white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota during 1974-1988. Sixty-four percent (n = 28) of 44 males and 20?/0 (n = 7) of 35 females dispersed from their natal home ranges when 1.0-1.5-years old. Eighty-six percent and 95%, of all yearlings including nondispersers, dispersed 526 and 538 km, respectively. Minimum gene flow was estimated to be 40 deer per generation, based on a circular subpopulation defined by a 26-km radius. Gene flow estimated from allele frequencies for five polymorphic loci averaged 15 deer per generation among five subpopulations. These values of gene flow were concomitant with significant allele frequency heterogeneity at the subpopulation level.

  5. Effects of winter fasting and refeeding on white-tailed deer blood profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on blood characteristics of 9 nonpregnant, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in captivity from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Percent weight loss was greater in fasted deer than in deer fed diets of 2 crude protein levels. Fasting effects were also observed for hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), cholesterol, triglycerides, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), potassium (K), glucose, phosphorus (P), insulin, thyroxine (T4), and total protein (TP). Refeeding influenced cholesterol, sodium (Na), and calcium (Ca). Hemoglobin, PCV, Ca, P, and albumin varied with time in fasted deer. Changes over time in the fed deer occurred for several hematological and serum characteristics. Data are presented to serve as reference values for better understanding of data collected from free-ranging deer under less known conditions.

  6. Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, P.D.; Richmond, M.E.; Miller, L.A.; Quimby, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    White-tailed deer (n = 14 treated, n = 7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated in 1998, and 3 of 6 (50%) revaccinated in 2000. The 2000 revaccinates without oophoritis, had significantly fewer normal secondary follicles than control females (P = 0.03), and deer in the1998 treatment group (P = 0.04). PZP immunocontraceptive vaccine elicited ovarian pathologies in deer similar to those observed in other species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors affecting road mortality of white-tailed deer in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Galster, Dwight H.; Schauer, Ron J.; Morlock, Wilbert W.; Delger, Joshua A.

    2008-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) mortalities (n = 4,433) caused by collisions with automobiles during 2003 were modeled in 35 counties in eastern South Dakota. Seventeen independent variables and 5 independent variable interactions were evaluated to explain deer mortalities. A negative binomial regression model (Ln Y = 1.25 – 0.12 [percentage tree coverage] + 0.0002 [county area] + 5.39 [county hunter success rate] + 0.0023 [vehicle proxy 96–104 km/hr roads], model deviance = 33.43, χ2 = 27.53, df = 27) was chosen using a combination of a priori model selection and AICc. Management options include use of the model to predict road mortalities and to increase the number of hunting licenses, which could result in fewer DVCs.

  8. Prevalence of antibody titers to leptospira spp. in Minnesota white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goyal, S.M.; Mech, L.D.; Nelson, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Serum samples (n = 204) from 124 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota (USA) were collected from 1984 through 1989 and tested for antibodies to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohemorrhagiae, and pomona) using a microtiter agglutination test. Eighty-eight (43%) sera were positive at greater than or equal to 1:100 for antibodies against serovars pomona and/or bratislava; none was positive for any of the other four serovars. None of the 31 sera collected in 1984-85 was positive, whereas all 54 sera collected from 1986 through 1988 had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. During 1989, only 34 (29%) of 119 sera had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. Based on these results, we believe there to be wide variability in exposure of Minnesota deer to Leptospira interrogans.

  9. Antleroma in a free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Munk, B A; Garrison, E; Clemons, B; Keel, M Kevin

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year-old male free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was diagnosed with bilateral expansile tumors of antler origin. The deer was found dead by a landowner in High Springs, Florida. Two roughly spherical, multilobular, broad-based, bony, velvet-covered masses originated from each antler pedicle. These masses replaced or displaced many of the bones and soft tissues of the skull and extended through the left cribriform plate and the right petrous temporal bone, compressing portions of the brain. Microscopically, the masses closely resembled normal-growing antler, containing all the elements thereof but with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage suggestive of ischemi or trauma. Tumorlike outgrowths termed antleromas have been described in free-ranging and captive cervids and typically are associated with disruptions in the seasonal rise and fall of circulating testosterone necessary for normal antler growth, casting, and regeneration. PMID:24686388

  10. Anatomical distribution of Mycobacterium bovis genotypes in experimentally infected white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Tyler C; Palmer, Mitchell V; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Stuber, Tod P; Waters, W Ray

    2015-10-22

    Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) causes tuberculosis in white-tailed deer (WTD). Natural infection of WTD with M. bovis is most closely mimicked by instilling inoculum into palatine tonsillar crypts. One hundred fifty days after intratonsillar inoculation, M. bovis was cultured from 30 tissues originating from 14 deer. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on the original inoculum, single colonies subcultured from the original inoculum, and M. bovis isolated from each culture positive tissue. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified by comparing the derived sequences to the reference strain AF2122/97. Results indicate that the majority of the SNPs that were identified were homogeneous between the inoculum and the isolates from the tissues. The majority of individual tissues had different WGS genotypes from each other, suggesting that dissemination of M. bovis beyond the initial site of infection may require few mycobacteria representing a bottleneck. PMID:26243696

  11. Aerial tracking of radio-marked white-tailed tropicbirds over the Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, M.R.; Obrecht, H.H., III; Pennycuick, C.J.; Schaffner, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    We radio-marked nesting white-tailed tropicbirds at Culebra National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico, and tracked them from a Cessna 182 during flights over the open sea. Locations of the birds were determined using standard aerial telemetry techniques for side-facing Yagi antennas. We used strut-mounted, 4-element Yagi antennas connected to a switchbox and scanning receiver. By recording bearing and distance from at least 1 of 3 aeronautical navigation beacons, the position of the aircraft and the bird could be estimated with an error of about 2 km. On several occasions we plotted the general heading of a bird and then relocated and tracked the same bird on the following day. Our method of aerial tracking and navigation was useful for tracking birds over the sea to at least 116 km from the breeding colony

  12. Effects on fawn survival of multiple immobilizations of captive pregnant white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.; Karns, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    Fawn viability was tested in captive, pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) immobilized with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and reversed by yohimbine hydrochloride or tolazoline hydrochloride. Nine pregnant does were immobilized 10 times each from December 1984 to May 1985. Their mean parturition date was 8 June. The number of fawns produced per pregnant doe was 1.88. Mean weight of newborn fawns was 4.18 kg. Seventy-five percent of the does produced twins or triplets. Three (20%) fawns died postnatally within 48 hr, but the remaining 12 survived for the full 72 hr they were allowed to remain with their dams. These observations compare favorably with those of non-immobilized captive deer on similar diets.

  13. The Effects of Population Density on Juvenile Growth Rate in White-Tailed Deer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer growth and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of growth rate to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates growth rate only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in growth rate over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in growth rate. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in growth rate that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal growth and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn.

  14. Predation of artificial ground nests on white-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, B.W.; Stanley, T.R.; Sedgwick, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies are unique to prairie and shrub-steppe landscapes. However, widespread eradication, habitat loss, and sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) have reduced their numbers by 98% since historical times. Birds associated with prairie dogs also are declining. Potential nest predators, such as coyotes (Canis latrans), swift foxes (Vulpes velox), and badgers (Taxidea taxus), may be attracted to colonies where a high concentration of prairie dogs serve as available prey. Increased abundance of small mammals, including prairie dogs, also may increase the risk of predation for birds nesting on colonies. Finally, because grazing by prairie dogs may decrease vegetation height and canopy cover, bird nests may be easier for predators to locate. In this study, we placed 1,444 artificial ground nests on and off 74 white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) colonies to test the hypothesis that nest predation rates are higher on colonies than at nearby off sites (i.e., uncolonized habitat). We sampled colonies from 27 May to 16 July 1997 at the following 3 complexes: Coyote Basin, Utah and Colorado; Moxa Arch, Wyoming; and Shirley Basin, Wyoming. Differences in daily predation rates between colonies and paired off sites averaged 1.0% (P = 0.060). When converted to a typical 14-day incubation period, predation rates averaged 14% higher on colonies (57.7 ?? 2.7%; ?? ?? SE) than at off sites (50.4 ?? 3.1%). Comparisons of habitat variables on colonies to off sites showed percent canopy cover of vegetation was similar (P = 0.114), percent bare ground was higher on colonies (P 0.288). Although we found the risk of nest predation was higher on white-tailed prairie dog colonies than at off sites, fitness of birds nesting on colonies might depend on other factors that influence foraging success, reproductive success, or nestling survival.

  15. Multiple proximate and ultimate causes of natal dispersal in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    Proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal in vertebrates vary, and relative importance of these causes is poorly understood. Among populations, inter- and intrasexual social cues for dispersal are thought to reduce inbreeding and local mate competition, respectively, and specific emigration cue may affect dispersal distance, such that inbreeding avoidance dispersal tends to be farther than dispersal to reduce local competition. To investigate potential occurrence of multiple proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal within populations, we radio-marked 363 juvenile male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. Natal dispersal probability and distance were monitored over a 3-year period when large-scale management changes reduced density of adult females and increased density of adult males. Most dispersal (95-97%) occurred during two 12-week periods: spring, when yearling males still closely associate with related females, and prior to fall breeding season, when yearling males closely associate with other breeding-age males. Following changes to sex and age structure that reduced potential for inbreeding and increased potential for mate competition, annual dispersal probability did not change; however, probability of spring dispersal decreased, whereas probability of fall dispersal increased. Spring dispersal distances were greater than fall dispersal distances, suggesting that adaptive inbreeding avoidance dispersal requires greater distance than mate competition dispersal where opposite-sex relatives are philopatric and populations are not patchily distributed. Both inbreeding avoidance and mate competition are important ultimate causes of dispersal of white-tailed deer, but ultimate motivations for dispersal are proximately cued by different social mechanisms and elicit different responses in dispersers.

  16. Evaluation of an expandable, breakaway radiocollar for white-tailed deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Kochanny, C.O.; Vreeland, J.K.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated an expandable, breakaway VHF radiocollar design for use on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from birth to about 1 year of age. A similar collar design has been used on caribou (Rangifer tarandus), but we found that the collar did not expand quickly enough to accommodate increase in neck circumference of fawns during the first 2 months of life. Consequently, we modified the stitching pattern so that the first expansion fold opened faster. We monitored performance of this modification on free-ranging and captive fawns. Also, we collected data on neck growth in fawns to document design requirements of expandable collars for white-tailed deer. Mean neck circumference at ???14 days of age of free-ranging fawns in Pennsylvania was 17.8 cm (SD=1.67, n=62) for males and 17.3 cm (SD=1.50, n=52) for females. Based on measurements of captive fawns, neck circumference increased 8.8 cm from birth to August, 2.5 cm from August to October, and 2.6 cm from October to March. Observations of captive fawns fitted with dummy radiocollars indicated that collars expanded when needed and caused no apparent discomfort to fawns. We detected no problems with use of 86 collars on 113 free-ranging fawns for >270 days and recovered radiocollars expanded as designed. The elastic collar material failed on 3 collars (3%) after 142, 207, and 226 days on fawns, and 1-5 radiocollars (???4%) were cast by fawns. Our modification to this radiocollar design reduced fawn discomfort or suffering, allowing researchers to better comply with principles of the Animal Welfare Act.

  17. The effects of population density on juvenile growth rate in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer growth and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of growth rate to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates growth rate only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in growth rate over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in growth rate. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in growth rate that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal growth and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn. PMID:25148782

  18. Daily movements of female white-tailed deer relative to parturition and breeding.

    SciTech Connect

    Gino J. D'Angelo; Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Cory D. Drennan; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller

    2005-10-01

    Abstract: To assess how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd demographics influence reproductive behaviors, we examined 24-h diel movements of female whitetailed deer relative to parturition and breeding in a low-density population with a near even sex ratio at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. We conducted a series of intensive, 24-h radio-tracking periods of 13 females during spring and fall 2002. We compared daily range (ha), rate of travel (m/h), and distance between extreme daily locations (m), among the periods of pre-parturition and post-parturition and pre-, peak-, and post-rut. From pre-parturition to post-parturition, we observed decreases in diel range size (–38.2%), distance between extreme diel locations (–17.0%), and diel rate of travel (–18.2%). Diel range size, distance between extreme diel locations, and diel rate of travel during the pre-rut and rut exceeded those observed during post-rut. We further identified substantial increases in mobility during 12 24-h diel periods for eight females during our fall monitoring. Our data suggest that female white-tailed deer reduce mobility post-fawning following exaggerated movements during pre-parturition. Furthermore, despite a near equal sex ratio, estrous does may be required to actively seek potential mates due to low population density.

  19. Kidney structure and function of obligate and facultative hibernators: the white-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus) and the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Harlow, H J; Braun, E J

    1995-01-01

    The white-tailed prairie dog is an obligate hibernator that enters a heterothermic phase when maintained in the cold with low intensity light and ad libitum food and water. The black-tailed prairie dog (a facultative hibernator) will not hibernate under similar conditions. It has been suggested that the black tailed prairie dog remains active during the winter because it can conserve water more effectively due to a more efficient kidney. The present study revealed no significant differences between the species in renal morphology: relative medullary thickness, nephron heterogeneity, renal vasculature, or fornix dimensions, all of which are structures associated with the urinary concentrating mechanism. In addition, there was no difference in number of nephrons between the two species. The black-tailed prairie dog does produce a more concentrated urine when food and water deprived. However, this difference was not observed when the animals were salt loaded. The water-deprivation and salt-loading experiments suggest that the higher urine osmolality produced by the back-tailed prairie dog during fasting is a result of a higher urea load due to a greater protein catabolism and not because of a differential capacity to concentrate urine. PMID:7560310

  20. Preliminary findings of a molecular survey for the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle fever ticks and white-tailed deer from south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer are an alternative host for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, collectively referred to as cattle fever ticks. Dense white-tailed deer populations in south Texas complicate efforts by the National Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program to keep the U.S. free o...

  1. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in white tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from Iowa and Minnesota using four serologic tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoir of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in the US. Sera from white-tailed deer from Minnesota and Iowa were tested for antibodies to N. caninum by four serologic tests including the indi...

  2. Muscleworms, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), discovered in Columbia white-tailed deer from Oregon and Washington: Implications for biogeography and host associations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host and geographic distribution for Parelaphostrongylus andersoni, considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer, remain poorly defined particularly in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from the northern population of Columbia white-tailed deer (Odocoi...

  3. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  4. Testing a molasses-based bait for oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against Mycobacterium bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA are wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) with documented spread to cattle. In vaccine efficacy trials, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) administered orally reduces colonization and bTB-associated lesions in whi...

  5. Serum 25-Hydroxvitamin D Concentrations in Captive and Free-Ranging, White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT: Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined for free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus). Effects of gender, season, and age on 25(OH)D concentrations were determined as well as comparisons to concentrations in serum from captive re...

  6. Oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccina...

  7. THE IMPACT OF TRANSLOCATION AND RESTOCKING PROGRAMS ON THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN MISSISSIPPI.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of wildlife population genetics studies have focused on model species representing threatened or endangered populations. However, there are several species that exemplify remarkable "success stories" due to past conservation efforts, but have received little attention. White-tailed de...

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, John J; Kirchgessner, Megan S; Whipps, Christopher M; Mohammed, Hussni O; Bunting, Elizabeth M; Wade, Susan E

    2013-10-01

    Sera collected from 299 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested in New York State by hunters in November 2010 were assayed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. White-tailed deer are a useful sentinel for risk of human and domestic animal exposure to Toxoplasma oocysts and pose a potential risk for infection to humans and other animals by ingestion of the meat. White-tailed deer share grazing space with domestic animals raised for meat and are likely to be exposed by horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption, similar to other grazing species of economic concern. Overall, 42.2% of samples were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating a true prevalence of 38.5%, with a significantly higher proportion of adult than immature deer antibody positive. No significant difference in prevalence was found between male and female deer nor was there a significant effect of local human population density on deer antibody prevalence. These results provide insight into the risk of environmental Toxoplasma exposure in New York State and support horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption as the most common mechanism of white-tailed deer infection. PMID:24502721

  9. Head space analysis to non-invasively distinguish between vaccinated and bovine tuberculosis-infected white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) can act as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Presently, no method exists to noninvasively monitor the presence of bTB in wildlife. In addition, due to similarities betw...

  10. Evaluation of Blood Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium Bovis in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveillance and control activities for bovine tuberculosis (TB) in free-ranging Michigan white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been underway for over a decade, with significant progress. However, foci of higher TB prevalence on private land, and limited agency ability to eliminate them ...

  11. Occurrence, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White tailed deer (WTD) is an important reservoir host for Toxoplasma gondii. Each yr hundreds of thousands WTD are hunted or die in road accidents in the U.S.A. Humans and animals can become infected with T. gondii by eating infected venison. Wild felids that eat infected deer tissues can shed oocy...

  12. Sensitive detection of PrPCWD in rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue from preclinical white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in four white-tailed deer test populations: from Wisconsin, a sample of free-ranging deer and a captive herd; and from Saskatchewan, Canada, two captive herds. Th...

  13. Humoral Immune Responses of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Experimental Challenge with M. bovis?

    PubMed Central

    Nol, P.; Lyashchenko, K. P.; Greenwald, R.; Esfandiari, J.; Waters, W. R.; Palmer, M. V.; Nonnecke, B. J.; Keefe, T. J.; Thacker, T. C.; Rhyan, J. C.; Aldwell, F. E.; Salman, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of the kinetics of production of serum antibodies to multiple mycobacterial antigens can be useful as a diagnostic tool for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection as well as for the characterization of disease progression and the efficacy of intervention strategies in several species. The humoral immune responses to multiple M. bovis antigens by white-tailed deer vaccinated with BCG orally via a lipid-formulated bait (n = 5), orally in liquid form (n = 5), and subcutaneously (n = 6) were evaluated over time after vaccination and after experimental challenge with virulent M. bovis and were compared to the responses by unvaccinated deer (n = 6). Antibody responses were evaluated by using a rapid test (RT), a multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), a lipoarabinomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LAM-ELISA), and immunoblotting to whole-cell sonicate and recombinant antigen MPB83. MAPIA and RT detected minimal to no antibody responses over those at the baseline to multiple M. bovis antigens in vaccinated white-tailed deer after challenge. This was in contrast to the presence of more readily detectable antibody responses in nonvaccinated deer with more advanced disease. The LAM-ELISA results indicated an overall decrease in the level of production of detectable antibodies against lipoarabinomannan-enriched mycobacterial antigen in vaccinated animals compared to that in nonvaccinated animals after challenge. Immunoblot data were inconsistent but did suggest the occurrence of unique antibody responses by certain vaccinated groups to Ag85 and HSP70. These findings support further research toward the improvement and potential use of antibody-based assays, such as MAPIA, RT, and LAM-ELISA, as tools for the antemortem assessment of disease progression in white-tailed deer in both experimental and field vaccine trials. PMID:19129468

  14. Lesion Distribution and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Elk and White-Tailed Deer in South-Western Manitoba, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shury, Todd K.; Bergeson, Doug

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, but that infected deer may also be involved. Prevalence was consistently higher in elk compared to deer in a small core area and prevalence declines since 2003 are likely due to a combination of management factors instituted during that time. Older age classes and animals sampled from the core area were at significantly higher risk of being culture positive. Positive elk and deer were more likely to be found through blood testing, opportunistic surveillance, and culling compared to hunting. No non-lesioned, culture-positive elk were detected in this study compared to previous studies in red deer. PMID:21776351

  15. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1980 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

    1982-08-01

    Ninety-eight white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1980, an increase of twenty-five over 1979. Both spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. November and December were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road-kills was about 1.1 from January through October but shifted to a high male kill (4.8:1) during November and December, presumably the result of the rutting season. Reproductive data collected from does indicated that breeding occurred as early as October 20 and as late as December 21. Records kept on rutting condition in bucks indicated a breeding season from October through January; antlers were shed from January through April with the peak of shedding activity occurring in March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed a good general condition of the animals with only a few abnormalities or indications of sickness or disease. Abomasal parasite counts indicate that Reservation deer population has reached optimum density. Other parasites found include brainworms, body worms, and botfly larvae; papillomas were observed in two deer during 1980. Data from heart girth and weight measurements were presented and compared to similar data from elsewhere in the Southeastern United States.

  16. Spatial use and habitat associations of Columbian white-tailed deer fawns in southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, M.A.; Anthony, R.G.; Jackson, D.H.; Wolfe, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fawns represent a critical life history stage in the dynamics of deer populations, yet little recent information is available on the ecology of neonatal Columbian white-tailed deer (CWTD), a geographically isolated and federally endangered sub-species. We described home ranges, areas of concentrated use, and habitat associations of CWTD fawns in southwestern Oregon during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Spatial use patterns and habitat use within areas of concentrated use were described for 11 radio-marked fawns. Pooled habitat use was described for 24 radio-marked fawns. Areas of concentrated use averaged 2.4 ha, which was 13.3% of mean 95% home range size (18.0 ha). Frequent use of oak-madrone woodland and riparian cover types characterized fawn habitat use patterns. Cover types containing conifers were rarely used and usually not available within home ranges. Although we found no detectable patterns of habitat selection or avoidance among fawns, areas of concentrated use were composed mostly of oak-madrone woodland (35%) and riparian (26%) cover types. Moreover, 74% of concentrated use area was within 200 m of streams. Our results provide useful information on habitat characteristics used frequently by CWTD fawns.

  17. Proteomics Approach to the Study of Cattle Tick Adaptation to White Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Popara, Marina; Villar, Margarita; Mateos-Hernndez, Lourdes; Fernndez de Mera, Isabel G.; de la Fuente, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD) play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle. PMID:24364032

  18. Ecology and management of white-tailed deer in a changing world.

    PubMed

    McShea, William J

    2012-02-01

    Due to chronic high densities and preferential browsing, white-tailed deer have significant impacts on woody and herbaceous plants. These impacts have ramifications for animals that share resources and across trophic levels. High deer densities result from an absence of predators or high plant productivity, often due to human habitat modifications, and from the desires of stakeholders that set deer management goals based on cultural, rather than biological, carrying capacity. Success at maintaining forest ecosystems require regulating deer below biological carrying capacity, as measured by ecological impacts. Control methods limit reproduction through modifications in habitat productivity or increase mortality through increasing predators or hunting. Hunting is the primary deer management tool and relies on active participation of citizens. Hunters are capable of reducing deer densities but struggle with creating densities sufficiently low to ensure the persistence of rare species. Alternative management models may be necessary to achieve densities sufficiently below biological carrying capacity. Regardless of the population control adopted, success should be measured by ecological benchmarks and not solely by cultural acceptance. PMID:22268688

  19. Experimentally induced Faciola hepatica infection in white-tailed deer. I. Clinicopathological and parasitological features.

    PubMed Central

    Presidente, P J; McCraw, B M; Lumsden, J H

    1975-01-01

    Six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and six sheep were inoculated with metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Two animals of each species were given 100, 500 or 2500 metacercariae. Clinicopathological features of these infections were determined by analyses of blood samples collected each week from inoculated deer and sheep as well as from two noninoculated animals of each species. One animal in each inoculated group was killed and examined at six weeks postinoculation and the remainder at 15 weeks postinoculation. Compared with the values obtained from noninoculated controls, eosinophilia, hyperproteinemia and hyperglobulinemia occured in inoculated deer. There were no other significant changes in hematological values or in serum aspartate aminotransferase levels. Marked leukocytosis and eosinophilia, with hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels and mild macrocytic normochromic anemia characterized the infection in lambs. Although approximately 29% of the inoculum was recovered from the hepatic parenchyma of the sheep, F. hepatica was found in only one of six inoculated deer. A patent infection was established in this deer and constitutes the second report of mature F. hepatica in this host. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1125833

  20. Response of urinary hydroxyproline to dietary protein and fasting in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary hydroxyproline of nine captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from 23 February to 3 May 1984 in northern Minnesota. In the fasted group, mean hydroxyproline:creatinine (OHP:C) was greater (P less than 0.05) at week 4 compared to baseline at week 0. Between fasted deer and deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) and low protein-high energy (LPHE) diets, no difference in OHP:C ratios was detected during the initial 4 wk of the study. Urinary OHP:C ratios were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater in the fasted group during refeeding, concomitant with greater feed consumption and weight gain. There was also a significant (P less than 0.02) time effect in the fasted-refed group; OHP:C ratios increased during these two phases of the study. There was no difference between the HPHE and LPHE fed deer in renal OHP excretion. However, mean OHP:C ratios in yearlings (16.8 +/- 2.2) were greater (P less than 0.001) than in the adults (7.5 +/- 1.2) of those groups, indicating a higher collagen turnover rate. Urinary OHP:C shows potential as an indicator of growth and starvation, and the data presented may serve as reference values.

  1. Minimizing capture-related stress on white-tailed deer with a capture collar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1990-01-01

    We compared the effect of 3 capture methods for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on blood indicators of acute excitement and stress from 1 February to 20 April 1989. Eleven adult females were captured by Clover trap or cannon net between 1 February and 9 April 1989 in northeastern Minnesota [USA]. These deer were fitted with radio-controlled capture collars, and 9 deer were recaptured 7-33 days later. Trapping method affected serum cortisol (P < 0.0001), hemoglobin (Hb) (P < 0.06), and packed cell volume (PCV) (P < 0.07). Cortisol concentrations were lower (P < 0.0001) in capture-collared deer (0.54 .+-. 0.07 [SE] .mu.g/dL) compared to Clover-trapped (4.37 .+-. 0.69 .mu.g/dL) and cannon-netted (3.88 .+-. 0.82 .mu.g/dL) deer. Capture-collared deer were minimally stressed compared to deer captured by traditional methods. Use of the capture collar should permit more accurate interpretation of blood profiles of deer for assessement of condition and general health.

  2. The effect of environmental remediation on the cesium-137 levels in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, Fred J; Green, Timothy; Fasano, Thomas A; Shah, Vishal

    2014-10-01

    Due to activities involving nuclear energy research during the latter half of the 1900 s, environmental contamination in the form of elevated cesium-137 levels was observed within the Brookhaven National Laboratory, a US Department of Energy facility. Between the years 2000 and 2005, the laboratory carried out a major soil cleanup effort to remove cesium-137 from contaminated sites. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the cleanup effort by comparing the levels of cesium-137 in the meat of white-tailed deer found within and around the laboratory. Results suggest that the cleanup was effective, with mean concentration of cesium-137 in the meat from within the laboratory decreasing from 2.04 Bq/g prior to 1.22 Bq/g after cleanup. At the current level, the consumption of deer would not pose any human health hazard. Nevertheless, statistically higher levels of cesium-137 were detected in the deer within the laboratory as opposed to levels found in deer 1 mi beyond the laboratory site. PMID:25028321

  3. White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Begley-Miller, Danielle R; Hipp, Andrew L; Brown, Bethany H; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H'), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H' and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059

  4. Urinary 3-methylhistidine and progressive winter undernutrition in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Kerr, K.D.; Mech, L.D.; Riggs, M.R.; Seal, U.S.

    1998-01-01

    Physiological indicators of muscle catabolism would aid assessment of winter nutritional restriction of ungulates, and urinary 3-methylhistidine has exhibited potential in this regard in several species. We examined the effect of chronic moderate and severe nutritional restriction during winter on urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios in seven adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and the relationship of these ratios to urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine ratios. Mean base line estimates of urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratio for the control and severely restricted deer (0.043 and 0.086 ??mol:mg, respectively) were similar (P = 0.280) and remained unchanged in the control deer throughout the study. In contrast, mean 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios increased dramatically as nutritional restriction and cumulative mass loss progressed; the quadratic component of the data for the chronically restricted deer was significant (P < 0.001). Likewise, there was a strong curvilinear relationship (R2 = 0.82) between cumulative mass loss (up to 29%) of the pooled deer and urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios. Further, urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine ratios were strongly related to 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios (r2 = 0.89). Our study indicates that further investigation of 3-methylhistidine as an indicator of physical condition and muscle protein breakdown is warranted.

  5. Survival and harvest-related mortality of white-tailed deer in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, J.E., Jr.; DeStefano, S.; Gaughan, C.; Mayer, M.; Woytek, W.A.; Christensen, S.; Fuller, T.K.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored 142 radiocollared adult (>1.0 yr old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 3 study areas of Massachusetts, USA, to estimate annual survival and mortality due to legal hunting. We then applied these rates to deer harvest information to estimate deer population trends over time, and compared these to trends derived solely from harvest data estimates. Estimated adult female survival rates were similar (0.82-0.86), and uniformly high, across 3 management zones in Massachusetts that differed in landscape composition, human density, and harvest regulations. Legal hunting accounted for 16-29% of all adult female mortality. Estimated adult male survival rates varied from 0.55 to 0.79, and legal hunting accounted for 40-75% of all mortality. Use of composite hunting mortality rates produced realistic estimates for adult deer populations in 2 zones, but not for the third, where estimation was hindered by regulatory restrictions on antlerless deer harvest. In addition, the population estimates we calculated were generally higher than those derived from population reconstruction, likely due to relatively low harvest pressure. Legal harvest may not be the dominant form of deer mortality in developed landscapes; thus, estimates of populations or trends that rely solely on harvest data will likely be underestimates. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  6. Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Yahner, Richard H.; Cypher, Ellen A.

    1988-03-01

    Food habits of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an island habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer needles) was the predominant food type in all seasons except fall. Acorns and graminoids (grasses and sedges) were important food resources in fall and spring, respectively. Use of woody browse (twigs) was similar among seasons. Field use was relatively high during fall, winter without snow cover (<20 cm), and spring when food resources in fields were readily available. In contrast, use of fields was lowest in summer when preferred woodland foods were available and in winter with snow cover when food in fields was not readily accessible. Patterns of food-type use by deer at VFNHP indicate the year-round importance of nonwoody foods and field habitats to deer populations on public lands such as national parks in the northeastern United States.

  7. Mother knows best: functionally referential alarm calling in white-tailed ptarmigan.

    PubMed

    Ausmus, Desa M; Clarke, Jennifer A

    2014-05-01

    Functionally referential alarm calls have stimulus specificity, distinct acoustic structure, and elicit different escape responses that are appropriate to the threat. The mechanisms by which escape responses are evoked are not fully understood and may range from eliciting innate responses to conveying representational information. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) are a long-lived alpine tundra grouse, which are preyed upon by aerial and terrestrial predators. We investigated the hypothesis that alarm calls of ptarmigan hens with chicks are functionally referential. We recorded hens' alarm calls in response to naturally occurring and model predators in California's Sierra Nevada alpine tundra for two summer seasons. We conducted playback experiments in the field to determine chick responses to alarm calls. Alarm calls commenced with an extended 'alerting' note followed by a series of staccato notes grouped into elements. Fundamental and dominant frequencies in element notes were significantly higher in terrestrial compared to aerial threat alarm calls. Playbacks of terrestrial threat alarm calls elicited an upright/alert position by chicks (75 % of responses). In response to aerial threat alarm call playbacks, chicks flattened to the ground and froze (80 % of responses). To our knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence of functionally referential alarm calling, including the responses of the receivers, in an avian species in the wild. PMID:24132414

  8. Sensitivity of condition indices to changing density in a white-tailed deer population.

    PubMed

    Sams, M G; Lochmiller, R L; Qualls, C W; Leslie, D M

    1998-01-01

    The ways in which comprehensive condition profiles, incorporating morphometric, histologic, physiologic, and diet quality indices, responded to changes in density of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population were examined. Changes in these condition indices were monitored in a northeastern Oklahoma deer herd as density declined from peaks of 80 and 72 deer/km2 in 1989 and 1990 (high-density) to lows of 39 and 41 deer/km2 in 1991 and 1992 (reduced-density), respectively. Compared to a reference population (6 deer/km2), deer sampled during high-density exhibited classic signs of nutritional stress such as low body and visceral organ masses (except elevated adrenal gland mass), low fecal nitrogen levels, reduced concentrations of serum albumin, elevated serum creatinine concentrations, and a high prevalence of parasitic infections. Although density declined by one half over the 4-yr study, gross indices of condition (in particular body mass and size) remained largely unchanged. However, selected organ masses, serum albumin and non-protein nitrogen constituents, and fecal nitrogen indices reflected improvements in nutritional status with reductions in density. Many commonly used indices of deer condition (fat reserves, hematocrit, total serum protein, and blood urea nitrogen) were not responsive to fluctuations in density. PMID:9476232

  9. White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Begley-Miller, Danielle R.; Hipp, Andrew L.; Brown, Bethany H.; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H?), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H? and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059

  10. Testing releasable GPS radiocollars on wolves and white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, S.B.; Adams, L.G.; Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    We tested prototype GPS collars on 8 free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) and 3 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for varying periods between February and August 1997. We programmed the 920-gm collars to make a location attempt 6-96 times per day. The collars were designed to be remotely released from the animal and the data were then downloaded to a desktop computer. The collars produced 47-1,549 locations each during 11-41 days; locations were successful in 26-95% of the attempts (x?? = 70%). Eight collars released successfully. Three collar-release failures were caused by condensation. Two collars had GPS antennas that were improperly attached and did not collect data. Life was as long as, or longer than, expected in 4 collars, less than expected in 5 collars, and unknown in 2 collars. Limitations of this type of collar include brief life if programmed at short location-attempt intervals (???1 hr) and possible drop-off failure. Nevertheless, the large volume of data we collected with no field telemetry effort demonstrates the potential for this type of GPS collar to answer questions about movements of medium-sized mammals.

  11. Associating seasonal range characteristics with survival of female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Deperno, C.S.; Griffin, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Delineating populations is critical for understanding population dynamics and managing habitats. Our objective was to delineate subpopulations of migratory female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, USA, on summer and winter ranges. We used fuzzy classification to assign radiocollared deer to subpopulations based on spatial location, characterized subpopulations by trapping sites, and explored relationships among survival of subpopulations and habitat variables. In winter, Kaplan-Meier estimates for subpopulations indicated 2 groups: high (S = 0.991 ?? 0.005 [x- ?? SE]) and low (S = 0.968 ?? 0.007) weekly survivorship. Survivorship increased with basal area per hectare of trees, average diameter at breast height of trees, percent cover of slash, and total point-center quarter distance of trees. Cover of grass and forbs were less for the high survivorship than the lower survivorship group. In summer, deer were spaced apart with mixed associations among subpopulations. Habitat manipulations that promote or maintain large trees (i.e., basal area = 14.8 m2/ha and average dbh of trees = 8.3 cm) would seem to improve adult survival of deer in winter.

  12. White matter astrocytes in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Lundgaard, Iben; Osório, Maria Joana; Kress, Benjamin; Sanggaard, Simon; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    Myelination by oligodendrocytes is a highly specialized process that relies on intimate interactions between the axon and oligodendrocyte. Astrocytes also have an important part in facilitating myelination in the CNS, however, comparatively less is known about how they affect myelination. This review therefore summarizes the literature and explores lingering questions surrounding differences between white matter and grey matter astrocytes, how astrocytes support myelination, how their dysfunction in pathological states contributes to myelin pathologies and how astrocytes may facilitate remyelination. We propose that astrocytes in the white matter are specialized to facilitate myelination and myelin maintenance by clearance of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters and by secretion of pro-myelinating factors. Aditionally, astrocytes-oligodendrocyte coupling via gapjunctions is crucial for both myelin formation and maintenance, due to K+ buffering and possibly metabolic support for oligodendrocytes via the panglia syncytium. Dysfunctional astrocytes aberrantly affect oligodendrocytes, exemplified by a number of leukodystrophies in which astrocytic pathology is known as the direct cause of myelin pathology. Conversely, in primary demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, astrocytes may facilitate remyelination. We suggest that specific manipulation of astrocytes could help prevent myelin pathologies and successfully restore myelin sheaths after demyelination. PMID:24231735

  13. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) associated with white-tailed deer habitat and livestock operations in the northern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R R; Holloway, H L

    1993-05-01

    Twelve Culicoides species were collected from white-tailed deer habitat and cattle operations in the Northern Great Plains as part of an ongoing study of the geographical distribution and seasonal occurrence of C. variipennis and other species in North Dakota. C. variipennis, C. obsoletus, and C. stellifer were collected in both western and eastern counties. C. arboricola, C. hinmani, C. nanus, and C. palmerae are reported for the first time from North Dakota. PMID:8510124

  14. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  15. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles

    SciTech Connect

    Koistinen, J.; Giesy, J.P.; Koivusaari, J.; Nuuja, I.; Vuorinen, P.J.; Paasivirta, J.

    1997-07-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from instrumental chemical analyses in fractions containing polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Toxic equivalents were calculated by use of an additive model in which the product of the concentrations of instrumentally measured individual congeners were multiplied by their TCDD equivalency factors and were summed to give a total concentration of TEQs. The TCDD-EQs were compared with TEQs to develop a mass balance to determine whether all the TCDD-like activity was accounted for. The TEQs determined by chemical analyses for coplanar PCBs was 770 pg/g fw, and that of PCDD/PCDFs was 270 pg/g fw in this eagle. Thus, concentrations of TCDD-EQs were approx. 20% greater than those of TEQs. The true difference in activities is probably greater because of lower recoveries and infra-additivities among congeners in the bioassay. This indicates that there are compounds present in the extracts that can contribute to the total concentrations of TCDD-EQs in white-tailed sea eagle eggs to the no-observable-adverse-effect concentration, ranged from 7.3 to 141. This indicates that current concentrations of TCDD-EQs in these eggs are likely causing adverse effects in the Baltic populations of white-tailed sea eagles. This study indicated that the H4IIE bioassay is useful for monitoring the presence and biological activity of TCDD-like compounds in environmental samples like white-tailed sea eagles.

  16. Genome-Wide Polymorphism and Comparative Analyses in the White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Model for Conservation Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Seabury, Christopher M.; Bhattarai, Eric K.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Viswanathan, Ganesh G.; Cooper, Susan M.; Davis, Donald S.; Dowd, Scot E.; Lockwood, Mitch L.; Seabury, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) represents one of the most successful and widely distributed large mammal species within North America, yet very little nucleotide sequence information is available. We utilized massively parallel pyrosequencing of a reduced representation library (RRL) and a random shotgun library (RSL) to generate a complete mitochondrial genome sequence and identify a large number of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed throughout the white-tailed deer nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. A SNP validation study designed to test specific classes of putative SNPs provides evidence for as many as 10,476 genome-wide SNPs in the current dataset. Based on cytogenetic evidence for homology between cow (Bos taurus) and white-tailed deer chromosomes, we demonstrate that a divergent genome may be used for estimating the relative distribution and density of de novo sequence contigs as well as putative SNPs for species without draft genome assemblies. Our approach demonstrates that bioinformatic tools developed for model or agriculturally important species may be leveraged to support next-generation research programs for species of biological, ecological and evolutionary importance. We also provide a functional annotation analysis for the de novo sequence contigs assembled from white-tailed deer pyrosequencing reads, a mitochondrial phylogeny involving 13,722 nucleotide positions for 10 unique species of Cervidae, and a median joining haplotype network as a putative representation of mitochondrial evolution in O. virginianus. The results of this study are expected to provide a detailed template enabling genome-wide sequence-based studies of threatened, endangered or conservationally important non-model organisms. PMID:21283515

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: White-Tailed Deer in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Coastal Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1986-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. [Forage use and availability for white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in an experimental unit of Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Granados, Danilo; Tarango, Luis; Olmos, Genaro; Palacio, Jorge; Clemente, Fernando; Mendoza, Germn

    2014-06-01

    Forage use and availability for white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in an experimental unit of Campeche, Mexico. In Campeche state, 122 Wildlife Conservation and Management Units have been recently conformed. In these units, eventhough the white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi is a game species, no studies on its diet have been undertaken. The objectives of this work were to estimate the botanical composition of the diet and its seasonal change, to determine forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate of O. virginianus thomasi. The study was conducted in the experimental unit of Colegio de Postgraduados in Campeche, Mexico, from October 2010 to May 2012. The diet was determined through microhistological analyses of the white tailed deer feces by the use of reference material. Forage availability was determined through the Adelaide's method; the stocking rate, using the grazing pressure factor; and carrying capacity considering forage availability and 35% of utilization efficiency. In this experimental unit, the deer diet included 40 species belonging to 15 families. The highest species richness ocurred during the rainy season with 29 species. However, deers preferred shrubs during all seasons, and herbaceous species during the rainy season. The diet composition, forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate varied throughout the year. Carrying capacity ranged from 0.04 to 1.08deer/ha. Additional studies are required to detail about the composition of the diet, habitat availability and use throughout its geographical range, and to detail on nutritional and health aspects. PMID:25102651

  19. Investigating variation in the nutritional ecology and genetics of White-tailed Ptarmigan: implications for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyler-McCance, S. J.; Stricker, C. A.; Braun, C. E.; Wann, G. T.; Aldridge, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are well suited as a focal species for the study of climate change because they are adapted to cool, alpine environments that are expected to undergo unusually rapid climate change. We compared samples collected in the late 1930s, the late 1960s, and the late 2000s using molecular genetic and stable isotope methods in an effort to determine whether White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans, Colorado have experienced recent environmental changes resulting in shifts in genetic diversity, gene frequency, and nutritional ecology. We genotyped 115 individuals spanning the three time periods using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in our genetic analysis. These samples were also analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition. We found a slight trend of lower heterozygosity through time and allelic richness values were lower in more recent times. We found no changes in allele frequencies across time periods suggesting that population sizes have not changed dramatically. Feather ?13C and ?15N values decreased significantly across time periods, whereas the range in isotope values increased consistently from the late 1930s to the later time periods. Inferred changes in the nutritional ecology of White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans relates primarily to increased atmospheric deposition of nutrients that likely influenced foraging habits and tundra plant composition and nutritional quality. We briefly discuss similar ongoing work on the neighboring population in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado and tie in genetic results from across the species range.

  20. White-tailed deer response to vehicle approach: evidence of unclear and present danger.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; DeVault, Travis L

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles, in addition to posting advisory speed limits. PMID:25333922

  1. White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; DeVault, Travis L.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles, in addition to posting advisory speed limits. PMID:25333922

  2. Escherichia coli Survival in, and Release from, White-Tailed Deer Feces

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jessica; Ives, Rebecca L.; Rose, Joan B.

    2014-01-01

    White-tailed deer are an important reservoir for pathogens that can contribute a large portion of microbial pollution in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. The scarcity of experimental data on survival of microorganisms in and release from deer feces makes prediction of their fate and transport less reliable and development of efficient strategies for environment protection more difficult. The goal of this study was to estimate parameters for modeling Escherichia coli survival in and release from deer (Odocoileus virginianus) feces. Our objectives were as follows: (i) to measure survival of E. coli in deer pellets at different temperatures, (ii) to measure kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets at different rainfall intensities, and (iii) to estimate parameters of models describing survival and release of microorganisms from deer feces. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study E. coli survival in deer pellets at three temperatures and to estimate parameters of Chick's exponential model with temperature correction based on the Arrhenius equation. Kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets were measured at two rainfall intensities and used to derive the parameters of Bradford-Schijven model of bacterial release. The results showed that parameters of the survival and release models obtained for E. coli in this study substantially differed from those obtained by using other source materials, e.g., feces of domestic animals and manures. This emphasizes the necessity of comprehensive studies of survival of naturally occurring populations of microorganisms in and release from wildlife animal feces in order to achieve better predictions of microbial fate and transport in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. PMID:25480751

  3. Do biological and bedsite characteristics influence survival of neonatal white-tailed deer?

    PubMed

    Chitwood, M Colter; Lashley, Marcus A; Kilgo, John C; Pollock, Kenneth H; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Coyotes recently expanded into the eastern U.S. and potentially have caused localized white-tailed deer population declines. Research has focused on quantifying coyote predation on neonates, but little research has addressed the potential influence of bedsite characteristics on survival. In 2011 and 2012, we radiocollared 65 neonates, monitored them intensively for 16 weeks, and assigned mortality causes. We used Program MARK to estimate survival to 16 weeks and included biological covariates (i.e., sex, sibling status [whether or not it had a sibling], birth weight, and Julian date of birth). Survival to 16 weeks was 0.141 (95% CI = 0.075-0.249) and the top model included only sibling status, which indicated survival was lower for neonates that had a sibling. Predation was the leading cause of mortality (35 of 55; 64%) and coyotes were responsible for the majority of depredations (30 of 35; 86%). Additionally, we relocated neonates for the first 10 days of life and measured distance to firebreak, visual obstruction, and plant diversity at bedsites. Survival of predation to 10 days (0.726; 95% CI = 0.586-0.833) was weakly associated with plant diversity at bedsites but not related to visual obstruction. Our results indicate that neonate survival was low and coyote predation was an important source of mortality, which corroborates several recent studies from the region. Additionally, we detected only weak support for bedsite cover as a covariate to neonate survival, which indicates that mitigating effects of coyote predation on neonates may be more complicated than simply managing for increased hiding cover. PMID:25734333

  4. Effects of winter undernutrition on body composition and physiological profiles of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effects of undernutrition and recovery on body composition and blood and urinary profiles of 6 captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) between 18 December 1984 and 3 May 1985. Deer were weighed, and blood and urine were collected every 2 weeks from 10 January to 3 May. At Weeks 2, 8, and 14, body composition was estimated by the dilution of tritiated water technique and standard predictive equations. Feed intake decreased and cumulative mass loss increased during nutritional restriction. Baseline body composition included 62.1 .+-. 0.9 (SE)% water, 11.9 .+-. 1.0% fat, 20.5 .+-. 0.7% protein, and 4.5 .+-. 0.0% ash. Percent protein loss was linearly related (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) to percent mass loss. Peak mass loss from the beginning of the study (12.8 .+-. 2.0%) occurred at Week 12; estimated protein loss was 12.5%. Fat reserves were 85% depleted from Week 2 to Week 14. Elevated packed cell volume (PCV), serum calcium (Ca), cholesterol, triglycerides, and cortisol; and diminished serum urea nitrogen, thyroxine (T4), urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine and potassium:creatinine were associated with reduced food intake, mass loss, and decreases in body water, fat, and protein. Altered values of most of these blood and urinary characteristics reflected initiation of nutritional recovery after nutrition improved. Sequential data collection and the use of a combination of indices in blood or urine will yield the most useful assessments of animal nutrition and condition.

  5. Do Biological and Bedsite Characteristics Influence Survival of Neonatal White-Tailed Deer?

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, M. Colter; Lashley, Marcus A.; Kilgo, John C.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Moorman, Christopher E.; DePerno, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Coyotes recently expanded into the eastern U.S. and potentially have caused localized white-tailed deer population declines. Research has focused on quantifying coyote predation on neonates, but little research has addressed the potential influence of bedsite characteristics on survival. In 2011 and 2012, we radiocollared 65 neonates, monitored them intensively for 16 weeks, and assigned mortality causes. We used Program MARK to estimate survival to 16 weeks and included biological covariates (i.e., sex, sibling status [whether or not it had a sibling], birth weight, and Julian date of birth). Survival to 16 weeks was 0.141 (95% CI = 0.075-0.249) and the top model included only sibling status, which indicated survival was lower for neonates that had a sibling. Predation was the leading cause of mortality (35 of 55; 64%) and coyotes were responsible for the majority of depredations (30 of 35; 86%). Additionally, we relocated neonates for the first 10 days of life and measured distance to firebreak, visual obstruction, and plant diversity at bedsites. Survival of predation to 10 days (0.726; 95% CI = 0.586-0.833) was weakly associated with plant diversity at bedsites but not related to visual obstruction. Our results indicate that neonate survival was low and coyote predation was an important source of mortality, which corroborates several recent studies from the region. Additionally, we detected only weak support for bedsite cover as a covariate to neonate survival, which indicates that mitigating effects of coyote predation on neonates may be more complicated than simply managing for increased hiding cover. PMID:25734333

  6. Escherichia coli survival in, and release from, white-tailed deer feces.

    PubMed

    Guber, Andrey K; Fry, Jessica; Ives, Rebecca L; Rose, Joan B

    2015-02-01

    White-tailed deer are an important reservoir for pathogens that can contribute a large portion of microbial pollution in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. The scarcity of experimental data on survival of microorganisms in and release from deer feces makes prediction of their fate and transport less reliable and development of efficient strategies for environment protection more difficult. The goal of this study was to estimate parameters for modeling Escherichia coli survival in and release from deer (Odocoileus virginianus) feces. Our objectives were as follows: (i) to measure survival of E. coli in deer pellets at different temperatures, (ii) to measure kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets at different rainfall intensities, and (iii) to estimate parameters of models describing survival and release of microorganisms from deer feces. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study E. coli survival in deer pellets at three temperatures and to estimate parameters of Chick's exponential model with temperature correction based on the Arrhenius equation. Kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets were measured at two rainfall intensities and used to derive the parameters of Bradford-Schijven model of bacterial release. The results showed that parameters of the survival and release models obtained for E. coli in this study substantially differed from those obtained by using other source materials, e.g., feces of domestic animals and manures. This emphasizes the necessity of comprehensive studies of survival of naturally occurring populations of microorganisms in and release from wildlife animal feces in order to achieve better predictions of microbial fate and transport in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. PMID:25480751

  7. Survival of white-tailed deer neonates in Minnesota and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Brinkman, T.J.; Burris, B.M.; Deperno, C.S.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, birth mass, and sex) and habitat factors on survival of neonate white-tailed deer improves understanding of population ecology. During 2002-2004, we captured and radiocollared 78 neonates in eastern South Dakota and southwestern Minnesota, of which 16 died before 1 September. Predation accounted for 80% of mortality; the remaining 20% was attributed to starvation. Canids (coyotes [Canis latrans], domestic dogs) accounted for 100% of predation on neonates. We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to estimate survival rates and investigate the influence of intrinsic and habitat variables on survival. We developed 2 a priori model sets, including intrinsic variables (model set 1) and habitat variables (model set 2; forested cover, wetlands, grasslands, and croplands). For model set 1, model {Sage-interval} had the lowest AICc (Akaike's information criterion for small sample size) value, indicating that age at mortality (3-stage age-interval: 0-2 weeks, 2-8 weeks, and >8 weeks) best explained survival. Model set 2 indicated that habitat variables did not further influence survival in the study area; ??-estimates and 95% confidence intervals for habitat variables in competing models encompassed zero; thus, we excluded these models from consideration. Overall survival rate using model {Sage-interval} was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.83-0.91); 61% of mortalities occurred at 0-2 weeks of age, 26% at 2-8 weeks of age, and 13% at >8 weeks of age. Our results indicate that variables influencing survival may be area specific. Region-specific data are needed to determine influences of intrinsic and habitat variables on neonate survival before wildlife managers can determine which habitat management activities influence neonate populations. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  8. Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Gurin (BCG) Danish in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) vaccinated with a lipid-formulated oral vaccine.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M V; Thacker, T C; Waters, W R; Robbe-Austerman, S; Aldwell, F E

    2014-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in animals, has a broad host range, including humans. Historically, public health concerns prompted programs to eradicate tuberculosis from cattle in many nations. Eradication efforts decreased the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis; nevertheless, some countries encountered significant obstacles, not least of which was a wildlife reservoir of M. bovis. Efforts to decrease the size of the affected wildlife populations have neither eliminated disease nor eliminated transmission to cattle. Consequently, the use of a vaccine for wildlife is being explored. The vaccine most studied is M. bovis BCG, an attenuated live vaccine, first developed 100 years ago. The most efficient and effective means of vaccinating wildlife will be an oral vaccine. White-tailed deer in Michigan, USA, constitute a reservoir of M. bovis. White-tailed deer are a popular game species, and as such, represent a food animal to many hunters. BCG persistence in deer tissues could result in human exposure to BCG. Although non-pathogenic, BCG exposure could induce false-positive skin test results, confounding the central component of public health surveillance for TB. The objective of the present study in white-tailed deer was to evaluate persistence of lipid-encapsulated BCG and a liquid suspension of BCG after oral administration at two different dosages. Vaccine was not recovered at any time after oral consumption of a bait containing a single dose (1 10(8) CFU) of lipid-encapsulated BCG. However, persistence was consistent in deer consuming 10 lipid-encapsulated baits (1 10(9) CFU), with BCG recovered from at least one deer at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after consumption. Persistence of up to 9 months was seen in deer vaccinated with orally with a liquid suspension. Persistence of BCG was limited to lymphoid tissue and never found in samples of muscle collected at each time point. Although the risk of exposure to hunters is low, BCG persistence should be considered prior to field use in white-tailed deer. PMID:23173832

  9. White Matter atrophy in Alzheimer Disease variants

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Raffaella; Agosta, Federica; Possin, Katherine L.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Background In comparison to late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LO-AD, onset > 65), early age-of-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EO-AD, onset<65 years) more often presents with language, visuospatial and/or executive impairment, often occurring earlier than a progressive memory deficit. The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lv-PPA) and the posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) have recently been described as possible atypical variants of EO-AD. Lv-PPA is characterized by isolated language deficit, while PCA is characterized by predominant visuospatial deficits. Severe hemispheric grey matter (GM) atrophy associated with EO-AD, lv-PPA and PCA has been described, but regional patterns of white matter (WM) damage are still poorly understood. Methods Using structural MRI and voxel-based morphometry, we investigated WM damage in 16 EO-AD, 13 PCA, 10 lv-PPA, and 14 LO-AD patients at presentation, and 72 age-matched controls. Results In EO-AD, PCA and lv-PPA patients, WM atrophy was centered on lateral temporal and parietal regions, including cingulum and posterior corpus callosum. Compared to controls, lv-PPA patients showed a more severe left parietal damage, and PCA showed a more severe occipital atrophy. Moreover, EO-AD had greater cingulum atrophy compared with LO-AD. LO-AD showed WM damage in medial temporal regions and less extensive hemispheric involvement. Conclusions Patterns of WM damage in EO-AD, lv-PPA and PCA are consistent with the clinical syndromes and GM atrophy patterns. WM injury in AD atypical variants may contribute to symptoms and disease pathogenesis. PMID:23021625

  10. Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Whittaker, D.G.; Roy, R.R. |; Baker, D.L.

    1999-02-01

    The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989--1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 and 10.6 years, respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer, dieldrin was found in fat, liver, and brain, and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal. Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin and mercury. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

  11. Distribution of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral protein and nucleic acid within central nervous tissue lesions in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Kiupel, M; Fitzgerald, S D; Pennick, K E; Cooley, T M; O'Brien, D J; Bolin, S R; Maes, R K; Del Piero, F

    2013-11-01

    An outbreak of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) occurred in Michigan free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during late summer and fall of 2005. Brain tissue from 7 deer with EEE, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was studied. Detailed microscopic examination, indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to characterize the lesions and distribution of the EEE virus within the brain. The main lesion in all 7 deer was a polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis, which was more prominent within the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. In 3 deer, multifocal microhemorrhages surrounded smaller vessels with or without perivascular cuffing, although vasculitis was not observed. Neuronal necrosis, associated with perineuronal satellitosis and neutrophilic neuronophagia, was most prominent in the thalamus and the brainstem. Positive IHC labeling was mainly observed in the perikaryon, axons, and dendrites of necrotic and intact neurons and, to a much lesser degree, in glial cells, a few neutrophils in the thalamus and the brainstem, and occasionally the cerebral cortex of the 7 deer. There was minimal IHC-based labeling in the cerebellum and hippocampus. ISH labeling was exclusively observed in the cytoplasm of neurons, with a distribution similar to IHC-positive neurons. Neurons positive by IHC and ISH were most prominent in the thalamus and brainstem. The neuropathology of EEE in deer is compared with other species. Based on our findings, EEE has to be considered a differential diagnosis for neurologic disease and meningoencephalitis in white-tailed deer. PMID:23686767

  12. White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    PubMed Central

    Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Hess, Christopher P.; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L.; Lobach, Irina V.; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D.; Henry, Roland G.

    2014-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P = 0.002), axial (P = 0.0003) and radial (P = 0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (P < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons), with a generally symmetric pattern of involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P = 0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean diffusivity, however, was apparent visibly on the quantitative attenuation coefficient maps compared to healthy control subjects. Neuropathological analysis showed diffuse astrocytic gliosis and activated microglia in the white matter, rare prion deposition and subtle subcortical microvacuolization, and patchy foci of demyelination with no evident white matter axonal degeneration. Decreased mean diffusivity on attenuation coefficient maps might be associated with astrocytic gliosis. We show for the first time significant global reduced mean diffusivity within the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, suggesting possible primary involvement of the white matter, rather than changes secondary to neuronal degeneration/loss. PMID:25367029

  13. Deep White Matter in Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Elifani, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities have already been shown in presymptomatic (Pre-HD) and symptomatic HD subjects using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In the present study, we examined the microstructure of the long-range large deep WM tracts by applying two different MRI approaches: Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) -based tractography, and T2*weighted (iron sensitive) imaging. We collected Pre-HD subjects (n?=?25), HD patients (n?=?25) and healthy control subjects (n?=?50). Results revealed increased axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) and iron levels in Pre-HD subjects compared to controls. Fractional anisotropy decreased between the Pre-HD and HD phase and AD/RD increased and although impairment was pervasive in HD, degeneration occurred in a pattern in Pre-HD. Furthermore, iron levels dropped for HD patients. As increased iron levels are associated with remyelination, the data suggests that Pre-HD subjects attempt to repair damaged deep WM years before symptoms occur but this process fails with disease progression. PMID:25340651

  14. Spatial point pattern analyses of Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in domestic livestock herds and concomitant seroprevalence in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.

    PubMed

    Kirchgessner, Megan S; Dubovi, Edward J; Whipps, Christopher M

    2013-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important disease of domestic cattle that is capable of infecting cervids. A first step in the formulation of a regional BVDV management plan is a local assessment of the likelihood of pathogen transmission from wildlife to domestic livestock. To achieve this, blood samples were collected from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout New York State in the fall of 2009 and 2010. The SVANOVIR BVDV p80-AB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Svanova Biotech AV, Uppsala, Sweden) was used to screen sera for anti-BVDV antibodies. Because this ELISA is not validated for use in white-tailed deer, sera that tested positive were tested again using serum neutralization to verify the presence of antibodies. Spatial data describing the geographic location of BVDV antigen-positive cattle and camelid herds and BVDV-seropositive white-tailed deer were analyzed via the dual kernel density estimation method. In white-tailed deer, 7.48% (80/1,069) were BVDV-seropositive, whereas 3.43% (144/4,195) of tested herds were positive for BVDV antigen. An exploratory cluster analysis revealed 1 significant cluster of BVDV antigen-positive herds and 2 significant clusters of BVDV-seropositive deer. There was no spatial overlap between the clusters. The spatial point pattern and exploratory cluster analyses suggest that BVDV is maintained independently in domestic livestock herds in the western part of the state and in the white-tailed deer population in the northwestern part of the state. PMID:23512919

  15. Predation by coyotes on White-Tailed Deer neonates in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John, C.; Ray, Scott, H.; Vukovich, Mark; Goode, Mathew, J.; Ruth, Charles.

    2012-05-07

    Abstract: Coyotes (Canis latrans) are novel predators throughout the southeastern United States and their depredation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates may explain observed declines in some deer populations in the region, but direct evidence for such a relationship is lacking. Our objective was to quantify neonate survival rates and causes of mortality at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina to directly evaluate degree of predation in this deer population. From 2006 to 2009, we radio-monitored 91 neonates captured with the aid of vaginal implant transmitters in pregnant adult females and opportunistic searches. Overall Kaplan–Meier survival rate to 16 weeks of age was 0.230 (95% CI = 0.155-0.328), and it varied little among years. Our best-fitting model estimated survival at 0.220 (95% CI = 0.144-0.320). This model included a quadratic time trend variable (lowest survival rate during the first week of life and increasing to near 1.000 around week 10), and Julian date of birth (survival probability declining as date of birth increased). Predation by coyotes was the most frequent cause of death among the 70 monitored neonates that died, definitively accounting for 37% of all mortalities and potentially accounting for as much as 80% when also including probable coyote predation. Predation by bobcats (Felis rufus) accounted for 7% (definitive) to 9% (including probable bobcat predation) of mortalities. The level of coyote-induced mortality we observed is consistent with the low recruitment rates exhibited in the SRS deer population since establishment of coyotes at the site. If representative of recruitment rates across South Carolina, current harvest levels appear unsustainable. This understanding is consistent with the recent declining trend in the statewide deer population. The effects of coyote predation on recruitment should be considered when setting harvest goals, regardless of whether local deer population size is currently above or below desired levels, because coyotes can substantially reduce fawn recruitment. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Uncertainty in age-specific harvest estimates and consequences for white-tailed deer management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, B.A.; Krementz, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    Age structure proportions (proportion of harvested individuals within each age class) are commonly used as support for regulatory restrictions and input for deer population models. Such use requires critical evaluation when harvest regulations force hunters to selectively harvest specific age classes, due to impact on the underlying population age structure. We used a stochastic population simulation model to evaluate the impact of using harvest proportions to evaluate changes in population age structure under a selective harvest management program at two scales. Using harvest proportions to parameterize the age-specific harvest segment of the model for the local scale showed that predictions of post-harvest age structure did not vary dependent upon whether selective harvest criteria were in use or not. At the county scale, yearling frequency in the post-harvest population increased, but model predictions indicated that post-harvest population size of 2.5 years old males would decline below levels found before implementation of the antler restriction, reducing the number of individuals recruited into older age classes. Across the range of age-specific harvest rates modeled, our simulation predicted that underestimation of age-specific harvest rates has considerable influence on predictions of post-harvest population age structure. We found that the consequence of uncertainty in harvest rates corresponds to uncertainty in predictions of residual population structure, and this correspondence is proportional to scale. Our simulations also indicate that regardless of use of harvest proportions or harvest rates, at either the local or county scale the modeled SHC had a high probability (>0.60 and >0.75, respectively) of eliminating recruitment into >2.5 years old age classes. Although frequently used to increase population age structure, our modeling indicated that selective harvest criteria can decrease or eliminate the number of white-tailed deer recruited into older age classes. Thus, we suggest that using harvest proportions for management planning and evaluation should be viewed with caution. In addition, we recommend that managers focus more attention on estimation of age-specific harvest rates, and modeling approaches which combine harvest rates with information from harvested individuals to further increase their ability to effectively manage deer populations under selective harvest programs. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with <40% canopy cover. Bedding locations were represented by saw-timber pine structural stages with >40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined males selected areas that were characterized by greater levels of horizontal cover than females. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper (Juniperus communis), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0--40%, 41--70%, 71--100%) of canopy cover. All habitat types (i.e., pine, aspen, and spruce) were used as bedding locations with pine sapling-pole structural stages with >70% canopy cover used most, whereas pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover was primarily used for feeding. Females bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites, whereas male feeding sites had greater horizontal cover characteristics than bedding or random locations.

  18. Isolation and genotypic characterization of Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes recovered from active cranial abscess infections of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bradley S; Belser, Emily H; Keeler, Shamus P; Yabsley, Michael J; Miller, Karl V

    2015-03-01

    Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes is a causative agent of suppurative infections in domestic and wild animals. In some populations of captive or free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), cranial abscess disease is an important source of mortality in adult males. Although the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood, T. pyogenes has been isolated from active infections with other opportunistic bacteria. In this study, bacteria associated with cranial abscess infections were identified, the prevalence of T. pyogenes associated with these infections was determined, and the presence of known virulence determinants in T. pyogenes isolates was ascertained. Using routine biochemical techniques seven bacterial species were identified from 65 samples taken from active cranial abscess infections of 65 male white-tailed deer. Trueperellapyogenes was recovered from 46 samples; in 32 samples it was the only bacterium species detected. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 26 samples. From these samples, the presence of known and putative virulence genes of T. pyogenes--plo, nanH, nanP, cbpA, fimA, fimC, fimE, and fimG--was examined by conventional polymerase chain reaction. All T. pyogenes isolates were positive for the pyolysin genes plo, nanP, and fimA. Furthermore, nanH, fimA, fimC, and fimE were detected in over 70% of isolates. Of the isolates tested, 48% had genotypes containing all virulence genes except cbpA. The suggestive virulence potential of all isolates, coupled with the large number of pure cultures obtained, implies that T. pyogenes is a causative agent of cranial abscess disease. PMID:25831577

  19. Familiarity breeds contempt: combining proximity loggers and GPS reveals female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) avoiding close contact with neighbors.

    PubMed

    Tosa, Marie I; Schauber, Eric M; Nielsen, Clayton K

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions can influence infectious disease dynamics, particularly for directly transmitted pathogens. Therefore, reliable information on contact frequency within and among groups can better inform disease modeling and management. We compared three methods of assessing contact patterns: (1) space-use overlap (volume of interaction [VI]), (2) direct contact rates measured by simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) locations (<10 m apart), and (3) direct contact rates measured by proximity loggers (PLs; 1-m detection) among female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We calculated the PL?GPS contact ratios to see whether both devices reveal similar contact patterns and thus predict similar pathogen transmission patterns. Contact rates measured by GPS and PLs were similarly high for two within-group dyads (pairs of deer in the same social groups). Dyads representing separate but neighboring groups (high VI) had PL?GPS contact ratios near zero, whereas dyads further apart (intermediate VI) had higher PL?GPS contact ratios. Social networks based on PL contacts showed the fewest connected individuals and lowest mean centrality measures; network metrics were intermediate when based on GPS contacts and greatest when based on VI. Thus, the VI network portrayed animals to be more uniformly and strongly connected than did the PL network. We conclude that simultaneous GPS locations, compared with PLs, substantially underestimate the impact of group membership on direct contact rates of female deer and make networks appear more connected. We also present evidence that deer coming within the general vicinity of each other are less likely to come in close contact if they are in neighboring social groups than deer whose home ranges overlap little if at all. Combined, these results provide evidence that direct transmission of disease agents among female and juvenile white-tailed deer is likely to be constrained both spatially and by social structure, more so than GPS data alone would suggest. PMID:25398000

  20. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF A MEDETOMIDINE-AZAPERONE-ALFAXALONE COMBINATION IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS).

    PubMed

    Pon, Kylie; Caulkett, Nigel; Woodbury, Murray

    2016-03-01

    Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid that interacts with gamma-aminobutyric type A receptors to produce central nervous system depression and muscle relaxation. The effects of alfaxalone vary from sedation to general anesthesia. Alfaxalone is synergistic with other tranquilizers and sedatives and therefore has the potential to improve existing alpha-2 adrenergic agonist-based combinations used for wildlife immobilization. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and cardiopulmonary effects of a medetomidine-azaperone-alfaxalone (MAA) combination in captive white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ). Eight captive white-tailed deer were restrained in a drop-floor chute; hand injected i.m. with 0.15 mg/kg medetomidine, 0.2 mg/kg azaperone, and 0.5 mg/kg alfaxalone; and released into a small enclosure for observation. The deer were maintained in lateral recumbency for a total time from postinjection (PI) of the drug of 60 min. At 60 min PI, atipamezole was administered i.m. at five times the medetomidine dose. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and direct systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures were recorded every 5 min. Arterial blood samples were taken every 15 min for blood gas analysis. Level of sedation and quality of recovery were scored. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and descriptive statistics with a significance level of P < 0.05. Induction (time to lateral recumbency, 7.1 ± 2.4 min (mean ± SD) and recovery times (time to standing, 9.1 ± 3.1 min) were comparable to currently used medetomidine-based combinations in white-tailed deer. Major cardiopulmonary effects observed (values reported are 15 min PI of immobilizing drugs) were hypoxemia (PaO2, 54 ± 9 mm Hg), hypoventilation (PaCO2, 55 ± 3 mm Hg), and mixed acid-base disturbances (pH, 7.22 ± 0.04). No adverse effects were observed after recovery from anesthesia. MAA produced a satisfactory level of deep sedation for safe handling and minor procedures in captive white-tailed deer. PMID:27010262

  1. Yohimbine hydrochloride as an antagonist to xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilization of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Karns, P.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen captive and one free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were immobilized one to six times each with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride during winter and spring in northern Minnesota. Administration of 0.09 to 0.53 mg of yohimbine hydrochloride per kg IV after each trial reversed the immobilization. The deer raised their heads within a median time of 2.0 min, stood in 6.0 min and walked away in 9.5 min. No adverse side effects were observed for several weeks following the immobilization.

  2. Contrasting the Effects of Maternal and Behavioral Characteristics on Fawn Birth Mass in White-Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Maternal care influences offspring quality and can improve a mothers inclusive fitness. However, improved fitness may only occur when offspring quality (i.e., offspring birth mass) persists throughout life and enhances survival and/or reproductive success. Although maternal body mass, age, and social rank have been shown to influence offspring birth mass, the inter-dependence among these variables makes identifying causation problematic. We established that fawn birth mass was related to adult body mass for captive male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), thus maternal care should improve offspring fitness. We then used path analysis to identify which maternal characteristic(s) most influenced fawn birth mass of captive female white-tailed deer. Maternal age, body mass and social rank had varying effects on fawn birth mass. Maternal body mass displayed the strongest direct effect on fawn birth mass, followed by maternal age and social rank. Maternal body mass had a greater effect on social rank than age. The direct path between social rank and fawn birth mass may indicate dominance as an underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that heavier mothers could use dominance to improve access to resources, resulting in increased fitness through production of heavier offspring. PMID:26288141

  3. Factors affecting reproductive performance of white-tailed deer subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination or natural mating.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; Orta, Claudia G; Lozano, Eloy A; García, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; de Santiago, Angeles

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of several factors affecting fawning rate, litter size, litter weight and neonatal fawn mortality in white-tailed deer inseminated either transcervically or by means of laparoscopy. Oestrus synchronisation with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) was conducted in 130 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) during three reproductive seasons (2007-2009; 271 services) in a game-hunting ranch in a hot-arid environment (26°4' N, 101°25' W). Ninety additional non-treated does were exposed to bucks for natural mating. Fawning rate did not differ between AI methods (40.0 vs 45.0% for transcervical and laparoscopic AI, respectively). Overall fawning rate (proportion of all does fawning after FTAI and a subsequent period of buck exposure) did not differ between transcervical (89.5%), laparoscopic (80.3%) or natural (88.9%) insemination. Litter size per fawning doe was higher (P<0.05) in naturally-served does (1.65±0.48) than in transcervically-inseminated does (1.40±0.51) or in laparoscopically-inseminated does (1.48±0.50). The main conclusion was that no enhancement of fawning rate or litter size occurred as a result of intrauterine deposition of semen by laparoscopy compared with the transcervical insemination technique. PMID:23464502

  4. Does fluctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns predicted for sexually selected traits?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ditchkoff, S.S.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.; Starry, W.R.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Secondary sexual characters have been hypothesized to signal male quality and should demonstrate a negative relationship between the size of the trait and degree of fluctuating asymmetry because they are costly to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Oklahoma, USA, in order to determine whether measures of antler asymmetry follow the patterns predicted for sexually selected characters. Relative fluctuating asymmetry was negatively related to antler size for all deer and within age groups up to five and a half years of age. We did not detect an association between asymmetry and antler size among deer that were six and a half years or older. When categorizing deer by antler size, we found that deer with small antlers (???33rd percentile) had greater levels of relative asymmetry than deer with large antlers (???67th percentile). The relative asymmetry of antlers was negatively related to age and was greatest in deer that were one and a half years old. Relative asymmetry was also negatively related to carcass mass, inside spread, skull length and body length. These data suggest that asymmetry in the antlers of white-tailed deer may be a reliable signal of quality and, as such, may be important in maintaining honesty in intrasexual advertisements during the breeding season.

  5. Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns on a north Atlantic coastal island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Robert A.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Harrison, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns (n=29) were studied from birth to 1 year of age during 1991-95 on Mount Desert Island (MDI), Maine where deer hunting is prohibited, coyotes Canis latrans have become recently established, and protected U. S. National Park lands are interspersed with private property. Rate of predator-caused mortality was 0.52, with coyote predation (n=8) accounting for at least 47% of mortalities from all causes (n=17). Mortality rate from drowning was 0.24 (n=3), and from vehicles was 0.14 (n=3). Of fawns radio-collared as neonates, 10 of 14 mortalities occurred during the first 2 months of life. Annual rate of fawn survival was 0.26. Survival rate from 6 months to 1 year was 0.65 and 4 mortalities (2 predation, 2 drowning) were observed during this interval. A subgroup of fawns (n = 11) captured near a residential area and along the edge of a coyote territory had a higher (P = 0.002) rate of survival to 1 year of age (S = 0.67) than did fawns from all other areas (n = 18, S = 0.00). Recruitment to 1 year of age was lower than has been observed in other deer populations in the northeastern United States. Low recruitment associated with coyote predation and mortality sources influenced by humans appears to be limiting white-tailed deer populations in this insular landscape.

  6. Serum leptin as an indicator of fat levels in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, M Colter; Phillips, Shannon P; Whisnant, Scott; Tyndall, James; Lashley, Marcus A; DePerno, Christopher S

    2014-10-01

    Leptin is a hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake, appetite, and metabolism. In some mammals, leptin has been shown to circulate at levels proportional to body fat, which could make it useful for nonlethal evaluation of body condition. Leptin's usefulness for estimating fat levels (i.e., body condition) of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is unknown. We quantified serum leptin concentrations in a sample of free-ranging, female deer collected in July 2008 and March 2009 from coastal North Carolina, USA. We compared leptin concentrations with kidney fat index, femur marrow fat index, and kidney fat mass. Additionally, we assessed differences in leptin concentrations between the two seasons, lactating and nonlactating females, and gestating and nongestating females. Leptin concentrations were similar between seasons but were lower in lactating and gestating females. We did not detect significant relationships between leptin and the body fat metrics, indicating that leptin may have limited value for estimating fat reserves in white-tailed deer. PMID:24949928

  7. Contrasting the Effects of Maternal and Behavioral Characteristics on Fawn Birth Mass in White-Tailed Deer.

    PubMed

    Michel, Eric S; Demarais, Stephen; Strickland, Bronson K; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Maternal care influences offspring quality and can improve a mother's inclusive fitness. However, improved fitness may only occur when offspring quality (i.e., offspring birth mass) persists throughout life and enhances survival and/or reproductive success. Although maternal body mass, age, and social rank have been shown to influence offspring birth mass, the inter-dependence among these variables makes identifying causation problematic. We established that fawn birth mass was related to adult body mass for captive male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), thus maternal care should improve offspring fitness. We then used path analysis to identify which maternal characteristic(s) most influenced fawn birth mass of captive female white-tailed deer. Maternal age, body mass and social rank had varying effects on fawn birth mass. Maternal body mass displayed the strongest direct effect on fawn birth mass, followed by maternal age and social rank. Maternal body mass had a greater effect on social rank than age. The direct path between social rank and fawn birth mass may indicate dominance as an underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that heavier mothers could use dominance to improve access to resources, resulting in increased fitness through production of heavier offspring. PMID:26288141

  8. Drought effect on selection of conservation reserve program grasslands by white-tailed deer on the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P < 0.001) and home range (P < 0.001) levels. Deer selected for Conservation Reserve Program grasslands and corn during both summers and shifted selection temporally within summer. Use of CRP grasslands occurred during early summer; 73.1 and 88.9% of locations in CRP were documented prior to 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Conversely, selection for corn occurred during late summer; 86.0 and 68.4% of locations in corn were documented after 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Additionally, deer selected for forested cover and rural development areas containing permanent water sources during extreme drought conditions during 2006. Deer likely selected for fields of CRP grasslands during early summer for cover and natural forages, such as clover (Trifolium sp.), prior to the period when agricultural crops become available. Drought conditions occurring in semiarid prairie grassland regions may reduce food and water availability and contribute to subsequent changes in deer habitat selection across the range of the species.

  9. Forecasting the Effects of Fertility Control on Overabundant Ungulates: White-Tailed Deer in the National Capital Region

    PubMed Central

    Raiho, Ann M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Bates, Scott; Hobbs, N. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Overabundant populations of ungulates have caused environmental degradation and loss of biological diversity in ecosystems throughout the world. Culling or regulated harvest is often used to control overabundant species. These methods are difficult to implement in national parks, other types of conservation reserves, or in residential areas where public hunting may be forbidden by policy. As a result, fertility control has been recommended as a non-lethal alternative for regulating ungulate populations. We evaluate this alternative using white-tailed deer in national parks in the vicinity of Washington, D.C., USA as a model system. Managers seek to reduce densities of white-tailed deer from the current average (50 deer per km2) to decrease harm to native plant communities caused by deer. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model using 13 years of population estimates from 8 national parks in the National Capital Region Network. We offer a novel way to evaluate management actions relative to goals using short term forecasts. Our approach confirms past analyses that fertility control is incapable of rapidly reducing deer abundance. Fertility control can be combined with culling to maintain a population below carrying capacity with a high probability of success. This gives managers confronted with problematic overabundance a framework for implementing management actions with a realistic assessment of uncertainty. PMID:26650739

  10. Oral Vaccination of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Mitchell V.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Waters, W. Ray; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1×108 colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n = 17); and non-vaccinated (n = 16). One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts. PMID:24804678

  11. Canavan Disease: A White Matter Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shalini; Mattan, Natalia S.; de Vellis, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Breakdown of oligodendrocyte-neuron interactions in white matter (WM), such as the loss of myelin, results in axonal dysfunction and hence a disruption of information processing between brain regions. The major feature of leukodystrophies is the lack of proper myelin formation during early development or the onset of myelin loss late in life.

  12. Canavan Disease: A White Matter Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shalini; Mattan, Natalia S.; de Vellis, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Breakdown of oligodendrocyte-neuron interactions in white matter (WM), such as the loss of myelin, results in axonal dysfunction and hence a disruption of information processing between brain regions. The major feature of leukodystrophies is the lack of proper myelin formation during early development or the onset of myelin loss late in life.…

  13. Histopathology of crustose coralline algae affected by white band and white patch diseases.

    PubMed

    Qur, Galle; Meistertzheim, Anne-Leila; Steneck, Robert S; Nugues, Maggy M

    2015-01-01

    Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are major benthic calcifiers that play crucial roles in marine ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. Over the past two decades, epizootics have been reported for several CCA species on coral reefs worldwide. However, their causes remain often unknown in part because few studies have investigated CCA pathologies at a microscopic scale. We studied the cellular changes associated with two syndromes: Coralline White Band Syndrome (CWBS) and Coralline White Patch Disease (CWPD) from samples collected in Curaao, southern Caribbean. Healthy-looking tissue of diseased CCA did not differ from healthy tissue of healthy CCA. In diseased tissues of both pathologies, the three characteristic cell layers of CCA revealed cells completely depleted of protoplasmic content, but presenting an intact cell wall. In addition, CWBS showed a transition area between healthy and diseased tissues consisting of cells partially deprived of protoplasmic material, most likely corresponding to the white band characterizing the disease at the macroscopic level. This transition area was absent in CWPD. Regrowth at the lesion boundary were sometimes observed in both syndromes. Tissues of both healthy and diseased CCA were colonised by diverse boring organisms. Fungal infections associated with the diseased cells were not seen. However, other bioeroders were more abundant in diseased vs healthy CCA and in diseased vs healthy-looking tissues of diseased CCA. Although their role in the pathogenesis is unclear, this suggests that disease increases CCA susceptibility to bioerosion. Further investigations using an integrated approach are needed to carry out the complete diagnosis of these diseases. PMID:26157617

  14. Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the rocky mountain arsenal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creekmore, T.E.; Whittaker, D.G.; Roy, R.R.; Franson, J.C.; Baker, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989-1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 (range 4-12) and 10.6 years (range 5-17), respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer (range 0.055-0.096 ??g/g), dieldrin was found in fat (n = 9) (range 0.02-0.72 ??g/g), liver (n = 4) (range 0.017-0.12 ??g/g), and brain (n = 1, 0.018 ??g/g), and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal (0.02 ??g/g). Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin (p < 0.001) and mercury (p = 0.05). Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

  15. Reduced abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and the tick parasitoid Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) with reduction of white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Kirby C; Denicola, Anthony J; Kilpatrick, Howard J

    2003-09-01

    The principal vector for the pathogens of Lyme disease, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis is the tick Ixodes scapularis Say. A chalcid wasp, Ixodiphagus hookeri, in the family Encyrtidae parasitizes populations of the tick on several islands or other geographically isolated sites in New England with high densities of these ticks and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the principal host for adult I. scapularis. Deer densities were reduced at a forested tract in Bridgeport and the Bluff Point Coastal Reserve in Groton, Connecticut, from levels exceeding 90 animals per km2 in 1992 (Bridgeport) and 1994 (Bluff Point) to 17 and 10 animals per km2, respectively, by fall 2001. Tick densities declined with sustained reductions in the population of white-tailed deer. Similarly, prevalence of tick parasitism by Ixodes hookeri declined at both sites from 30 to 25% to <1.0% and was significantly correlated with previous year's deer density at both sites (r(s) = 0.933 and r(s) = 0.867, P < or = 0.0001) and with nymphal tick densities at Bridgeport (r(s) = 0.867, P < or = 0.0001), but was not as well correlated with tick densities in Groton. The virtual disappearance of I. hookeri in this study corresponds with a lack of I. hookeri in mainland I. scapularis at comparable deer and tick densities, suggesting that there is a threshold deer density of approximatley 10-20/km2, with corresponding tick densities necessary for I. hookeri to successfully parasitize I. scapularis. PMID:14596277

  16. Evaluating use of cattle winter feeding areas by elk and white-tailed deer: implications for managing bovine tuberculosis transmission risk from the ground up.

    PubMed

    Brook, Ryan K; Wal, Eric Vander; van Beest, Floris M; McLachlan, Stphane M

    2013-02-01

    Transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) among wildlife and livestock has created important risks for conservation and agriculture. Management strategies aimed at controlling TB have typically been top-down, regionally focused, and government-led programs that were at best only partially successful. The purpose of this study was to quantify co-mingling of elk and white-tailed deer (WTD) with cattle at multiple spatial scales (i.e., the regional farm scale and winter cattle feeding area patch) in southwestern Manitoba, Canada, to assess the potential for bovine tuberculosis transmission and identify alternative management strategies. For each spatial scale we quantified use of cattle farms by elk and white-tailed deer. We mailed questionnaires to rural households and then conducted personal interviews with 86 cattle farmers to map the spatial distribution of their cattle winter feeding areas at a fine scale. We deployed Global Positioning System (GPS) collars on 48 wild elk and 16 wild white-tailed deer from 2003 to 2011. Elk were observed on farms by 66% of cattle producers, including 5% and 20% who observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between elk and cattle. Cattle producers consistently (?100%) observed white-tailed deer on their farms, including 11% and 47% whom observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between white-tailed deer and cattle. A higher probability of white-tailed deer-cattle contact at the regional scale occurs on farms that (1) left crop residues specifically for wildlife, (2) had larger cattle herds, (3) used round bale feeders, and (4) were farther away from protected areas. None of the GPS-collared elk locations overlapped with cattle winter feeding areas. In contrast, 21% of GPS-collared white-tailed deer locations overlapped with winter cattle winter feeding areas (22% of these were from male WTD and 78% were from female WTD). White-tailed deer selected cattle winter feeding areas with higher (1) forage crop, (2) grassland/rangeland, and (3) forest cover around the cattle feeding area. Farmers overall expressed strongly negative attitudes toward eradicating the elk population or fencing the park to eradicate TB, but were generally supportive of less invasive and farm-based approaches. Our results suggested that management efforts to prevent TB transmission at the wildlife-agriculture interface can be effectively implemented using a 'bottom-up' approach that focuses on practical, farm-based mitigation strategies. This approach can be implemented by individual farm operators, is relatively low cost, and is generally well supported by farmers relative to other more extreme and controversial measures like wildlife eradication. PMID:22940061

  17. Serological Evidence for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, in Vermont, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Erica; Eisen, Rebecca J.; MacMillan, Katherine; Swope, Bethany N.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Graham, Alan C.; Turmel, Jon P.; Mutebi, John-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Serum samples from 489 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were screened for antibodies against the Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) using plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs). EEEV antibodies were detected in 10.2% of serum samples. This is the first evidence that EEEV is present in Vermont. Serum was collected from deer in all 14 counties in the state, and positive EEEV sera were found in 12 (85%) of 14 counties, suggesting statewide EEEV activity in Vermont. Analysis of the spatial distribution of PRNT-positive samples revealed a random distribution of EEEV throughout the state. The results indicate widespread EEEV activity in Vermont and suggest that EEEV is not a recent introduction to the state but that EEEV activity has not been detected until now. PMID:23208886

  18. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1982 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

    1985-06-01

    One hundred nine white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1982, a decrease of six from the vehicle kills in 1981. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. The highest number of deer killed was recorded during November. The sex ratio of road-kills was 0.6:1 (males to females) from January through September, but it shifted to 3.6:1 for the October through December period, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movements. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season from early October through late March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that animals were in good condition (only a few abnormalities were observed), and endoparasite burdens continue to reflect no overcrowding in the deer population. 5 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge reservation: 1981 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

    1982-11-01

    One hundred fifteen white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1981, an increase of seventeen over 1980. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. October and November were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road kills was 0.8:1 (males to females) from January through September but shifted to 3:1 during October, November, and December, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movement. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season spanning the September through February period. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that the animals were in good condition with only a few abnormalities observed. Abomasal parasite counts reflected an optimum density situation between the deer population and its habitat, although browse surveys made during the winter of 1981-1982 indicated a tendency toward an overpopulated condition.

  20. Comparison of white-tailed kite food web dynamics among various habitats in California using stable isotope analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iko, W.M.; Kester, C.L.; Bern, C.R.; Stendell, R.C.; Rye, R.O.

    2003-01-01

    The White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) was once a common raptor species in the southern United States. However, by the 1930s, the species was considered on the verge of extinction until the 1940s, when a trend towards recovery was apparent. These dramatic fluctuations may be related to changes in rodent prey base due to the conversion of native wetlands to agriculture. To investigate the effects of changes in habitat, land use practices, and prey base on kite populations, we collected tissue samples from kites, their prey, and vegetation at four different locations in California: Arcata, Coastal-Coniferous Forest; Davis, mixed Urban-Agricultural; Cosumnes, Mixed Wetland-Agriculture, and Santa Barbara, Coastal-Chaparral.

  1. A Paleozoological Perspective on White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) Population Density and Body Size in Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, Steve; Kennedy, James H.; Cornelius, John D.

    2007-04-01

    Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted, which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected, given that a lack of predation likely has increased intraspecific competition for forage among deer, resulting in smaller body size today. In fact, modern deer from settings without harvest pressure are significantly smaller than those from harvested areas and from prehistoric deer. From a natural history perspective, this research highlights potential evolutionary causes and effects of top-predator removal on deer populations and related components of biological communities in central Texas.

  2. Community-level impacts of white-tailed deer on understorey plants in North American forests: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Habeck, Christopher W; Schultz, Alexis K

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of introduced or overabundant large herbivores are a concern for the conservation of forest plant communities and the sustainability of ecosystem function. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are considered ecologically overabundant in much of North America. Previous work suggests that impacts of deer overabundance are broadly negative and are consequently degrading forests at multiple ecological and taxonomic levels. However, no quantitative synthesis currently exists to verify the generality or magnitude of these impacts. Here, we report the results of a meta-analysis quantifying the effects of deer exclusion on the diversity, cover and abundance of woody, herbaceous and whole community components of forest understories in North America. In addition, we explore the relationships of environmental and experimental factors on the direction and magnitude of plant community outcomes using meta-regression. Using 119 calculated effect sizes sourced from 25 peer-reviewed articles, we constructed 10 community-specific data sets and found strongly positive diversity, cover and abundance responses of the woody community to deer exclusion, but no significant effects for the herbaceous or whole community components of forest understories. Local deer density and time since exclusion were significant moderators of both whole community and woody community richness. Local deer density also moderated the effects of deer exclusion on whole community cover. Plot area, in contrast, showed no relationship to any of the community response outcomes. We suggest that the use of inadequate diversity indices, non-native species replacement or legacy effects of chronic deer overabundance might explain why the herbaceous and whole community components of forest understories showed no diversity or cover responses to deer exclusion. We also suggest some strategies to increase opportunities for future quantitative syntheses of deer impacts on forests, including providing better access to existing and future data. Ultimately, we show that white-tailed deer have strongly negative impacts on forest understorey plant communities in North America, but these impacts are not ubiquitous for all components of the plant community. PMID:26487676

  3. Does the use of vaginal-implant transmitters affect neonate survival rate of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.; DePerno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Tardiff, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We compared survival of neonate white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus captured using vaginal-implant transmitters (VITs) and traditional ground searches to determine if capture method affects neonate survival. During winter 2003, 14 adult female radio-collared deer were fitted with VITs to aid in the spring capture of neonates; neonates were captured using VITs (N = 14) and traditional ground searches (N = 7). Of the VITs, seven (50%) resulted in the location of birth sites and the capture of 14 neonates. However, seven (50%) VITs were prematurely expelled prior to parturition. Predation accounted for seven neonate mortalities, and of these, five were neonates captured using VITs. During summer 2003, survival for neonates captured using VITs one. two, and three months post capture was 0.76 (SE = 0.05; N = 14). 0.64 (SE = 0.07; N = 11) and 0.64 (SE = 0.08; N = 9), respectively. Neonate survival one, two and three months post capture for neonates captured using ground searches was 0.71 (SE = 0.11 N = 7), 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5) and 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5), respectively. Although 71% of neonates that died were captured <24 hours after birth using VITs, survival did not differ between capture methods. Therefore, use of VITs to capture neonate white-tailed deer did not influence neonate survival. VITs enabled us to capture neonates in dense habitats which would have been difficult to locate using traditional ground searches. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  4. Short-term Care of White-tailed Deer Fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) in a Conventional Laboratory Animal Facility.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Lon V.; Kennett, Mary J.; Fish, Richard E.

    1998-09-01

    Laboratory animal medicine professionals are often required to develop husbandry practices for species not commonly considered for use as laboratory animals. Although protocols exist for management of captive white-tailed deer in an outdoor facility, it was necessary to modify those procedures to house fawns in an indoor facility. Four abandoned fawns were acquired through a cooperative effort with the Department of Conservation. Physical examinations were performed and fecal samples were collected when the 2 to 3dayold fawns arrived at the facility. All fawns were infested with ticks, which were removed manually. After quarantine of 24 to 48 h, the fawns were moved to large chain-link pens and housed in pairs. Rubber mats covered with wood shavings provided secure footing, and a large portable kennel was used to provide shelter and concealment. Milk replacer formulated for goats was fed via a bottle at regularly scheduled intervals according to the expected caloric needs determined on the basis of body weight of each fawn. Water, hay, and alfalfa pellets were available ad libitum. All fawns gained weight at a steady rate during the 4-month study, with a mean weight gain of 150 g/d. Blood collection was performed at the conclusion of the study to establish reference values for 3- to 4-month-old white-tailed deer fawns. Manual restraint for clinical procedures was sufficient initially, but when the fawns grew too large to handle easily, a combination of ketamine hydrochloride- xylazine hydrochloride was used for sedation. The methods employed were successful for short-term maintenance of the fawns in an indoor facility. PMID:12456143

  5. Spatio-temporal variation in male white-tailed deer harvest rates in Pennsylvania: Implications for estimating abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, A.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.; Rosenberry, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of 2 popular methods that use age-at-harvest data to estimate abundance of white-tailed deer is contingent on assumptions about variation in estimates of subadult (1.5 yr old) and adult (????2.5 yr old) male harvest rates. Auxiliary data (e.g., estimates of survival or harvest rates from radiocollared animals) can be used to relax some assumptions, but unless these population parameters exhibit limited temporal or spatial variation, these auxiliary data may not improve accuracy. Unfortunately maintaining sufficient sample sizes of radiocollared deer for parameter estimation in every wildlife management unit (WMU) is not feasible for most state agencies. We monitored the fates of 397 subadult and 225 adult male white-tailed deer across 4 WMUs from 2002 to 2008 using radio telemetry. We investigated spatial and temporal variation in harvest rates and investigated covariates related to the patterns observed. We found that most variation in harvest rates was explained spatially and that adult harvest rates (0.36-0.69) were more variable among study areas than subadult harvest rates (0.26-0.42). We found that hunter effort during the archery and firearms season best explained variation in harvest rates of adult males among WMUs, whereas hunter effort during only the firearms season best explained harvest rates for subadult males. From a population estimation perspective, it is advantageous that most variation was spatial and explained by a readily obtained covariate (hunter effort). However, harvest rates may vary if hunting regulations or hunter behavior change, requiring additional field studies to obtain accurate estimates of harvest rates. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society. Copyright ?? The Wildlife Society, 2011.

  6. Control of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on Spanish goats and white-tailed deer with orally administered ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Miller, J A; Garris, G I; George, J E; Oehler, D D

    1989-12-01

    Ivermectin administered orally to Spanish goats, Capra hircus (L.), or to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman), was highly effective against lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). For Spanish goats, daily oral doses of 20 micrograms/kg resulted in greater than or equal to 2 ppb ivermectin in the blood. This level was sufficient to cause greater than 95% reduction of estimated larvae from feeding ticks. A bioassay with horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), was developed to estimate oral intake of ivermectin. Probit analysis of dose-mortality data indicated that a 50% reduction in adult horn fly emergence can be expected when the manure from goats treated orally with ivermectin at 10, 20, 35, and 50 micrograms/kg/d was mixed with untreated cow manure at a rate of 0.345, 0.110, 0.100, and 0.092%, respectively. In studies with white-tailed deer, daily oral doses of 35 and 50 micrograms/kg/d provided 100% control of adult and about 90% control of nymphs that were placed on treated fawns. A single oral dose of 50 micrograms/kg gave greater than 90% control of adult and nymphal ticks attached to treated fawns at the time of drug administration and 70% control of ticks placed on treated deer three days thereafter. When ticks were placed on fawns treated with a single dose of ivermectin (50 micrograms/kg) the engorgement period was longer, ticks were lighter in weight, and females laid fewer eggs than ticks detaching from control fawns. A single oral dose of ivermectin at 20 micrograms/kg prevented about 60% of the adult and nymphal ticks attached at the time of drug administration from engorging, but did not affect other ticks placed on the animals after treatment. PMID:2607030

  7. Community-level impacts of white-tailed deer on understorey plants in North American forests: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Habeck, Christopher W.; Schultz, Alexis K.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of introduced or overabundant large herbivores are a concern for the conservation of forest plant communities and the sustainability of ecosystem function. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are considered ecologically overabundant in much of North America. Previous work suggests that impacts of deer overabundance are broadly negative and are consequently degrading forests at multiple ecological and taxonomic levels. However, no quantitative synthesis currently exists to verify the generality or magnitude of these impacts. Here, we report the results of a meta-analysis quantifying the effects of deer exclusion on the diversity, cover and abundance of woody, herbaceous and whole community components of forest understories in North America. In addition, we explore the relationships of environmental and experimental factors on the direction and magnitude of plant community outcomes using meta-regression. Using 119 calculated effect sizes sourced from 25 peer-reviewed articles, we constructed 10 community-specific data sets and found strongly positive diversity, cover and abundance responses of the woody community to deer exclusion, but no significant effects for the herbaceous or whole community components of forest understories. Local deer density and time since exclusion were significant moderators of both whole community and woody community richness. Local deer density also moderated the effects of deer exclusion on whole community cover. Plot area, in contrast, showed no relationship to any of the community response outcomes. We suggest that the use of inadequate diversity indices, non-native species replacement or legacy effects of chronic deer overabundance might explain why the herbaceous and whole community components of forest understories showed no diversity or cover responses to deer exclusion. We also suggest some strategies to increase opportunities for future quantitative syntheses of deer impacts on forests, including providing better access to existing and future data. Ultimately, we show that white-tailed deer have strongly negative impacts on forest understorey plant communities in North America, but these impacts are not ubiquitous for all components of the plant community. PMID:26487676

  8. Histopathology of crustose coralline algae affected by white band and white patch diseases

    PubMed Central

    Meistertzheim, Anne-Leila; Steneck, Robert S.; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2015-01-01

    Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are major benthic calcifiers that play crucial roles in marine ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. Over the past two decades, epizootics have been reported for several CCA species on coral reefs worldwide. However, their causes remain often unknown in part because few studies have investigated CCA pathologies at a microscopic scale. We studied the cellular changes associated with two syndromes: Coralline White Band Syndrome (CWBS) and Coralline White Patch Disease (CWPD) from samples collected in Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Healthy-looking tissue of diseased CCA did not differ from healthy tissue of healthy CCA. In diseased tissues of both pathologies, the three characteristic cell layers of CCA revealed cells completely depleted of protoplasmic content, but presenting an intact cell wall. In addition, CWBS showed a transition area between healthy and diseased tissues consisting of cells partially deprived of protoplasmic material, most likely corresponding to the white band characterizing the disease at the macroscopic level. This transition area was absent in CWPD. Regrowth at the lesion boundary were sometimes observed in both syndromes. Tissues of both healthy and diseased CCA were colonised by diverse boring organisms. Fungal infections associated with the diseased cells were not seen. However, other bioeroders were more abundant in diseased vs healthy CCA and in diseased vs healthy-looking tissues of diseased CCA. Although their role in the pathogenesis is unclear, this suggests that disease increases CCA susceptibility to bioerosion. Further investigations using an integrated approach are needed to carry out the complete diagnosis of these diseases. PMID:26157617

  9. Efficacy of amitraz collars on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) against free-living populations of Lone Star Ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collars containing the acaricide amitraz were fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) confined in a 38.8 ha deer-fenced, densely vegetated plot in south Texas to determine efficacy in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (...

  10. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over a seven year period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around the neck of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). St...

  11. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over a seven year period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study...

  12. Depletion Rates of Injected and Ingested Ivermectin from Blood Serum of Penned White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus Virginianus (Zimmermann) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depletion rates of ivermectin from blood serum of penned doe and buck white-tailed deer that were administered ivermectin both by direct subcutaneous injection and by ingestion of ivermectin-medicated whole kernel corn were determined by bi-weekly and weekly assays of sampled blood. No statistical ...

  13. Topical Treatment of White-Tailed Deer with an Acaricide for the Control of Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Connecticut Lyme Borreliosis Hyperendemic Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), against ticks using the acaricide amitraz, was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distrib...

  14. Immunologic and molecular identification of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northern Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suitability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as hosts for the cattle ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, has been well documented. These ticks have a wide host range, and both transmit Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina, the agents resp...

  15. Development of a spatially targeted field sampling technique for the Southern Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by mapping white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, habitat in South Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether remote sensed data (Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery) could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman), and habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of Southern Cattle Ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) mi...

  16. Fecal volatile organic compound profiles from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as indicators of Mycobacterium bovis exposure or Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no...

  17. T-cell mRNA Expression in Response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Mycobacterium bovis Infection of White-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding immune responses of white-tailed deer (WTD) to infection with Mycobacterium bovis provides insight into mechanisms of pathogen control and may provide clues to development of effective vaccine strategies. WTD were vaccinated with either BCG strain Pasteur or BCG Danish. Both vaccinates...

  18. Development of a spatially targeted field sampling technique for the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by mapping white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, habitat in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Pamela L; Welch, John B; Kramer, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in South Texas. Two methods for mapping white-tailed deer habitat were used, an object-oriented method to identify closed canopies and waterways for deer movement and two vegetation indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to identify forage for deer. These two data sets of favorable white-tailed deer habitat were combined within a geographic information system to identify locations for sampling ticks. Larvae of R. (B.) microplus, were sampled in Zapata County, Texas, by walking transects with attached flannel panels to jeans. Although the data set and sampling period were limited, data analysis demonstrated that sampling of free-living larvae of R. (B.) microplus can be conducted in South Texas, and larvae were most abundant in areas that harbored O. virginianus. Spatial analysis of satellite imagery to classify white-tailed deer/southern cattle tick habitat proved efficacious and may be useful in directing sampling activities in the field. PMID:25368044

  19. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in white-tailed deer and free-roaming cats across a suburban to urban gradient in northeastern Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate zoonotic protozoan parasite infecting a variety of animals. White-tailed deer-(WTD, Odocoileus virginianus) serve as both a potential source for human infection as well as indicators of environmental risk factors for exposure to T. gondii. Here we determine the serop...

  20. Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high, but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 531 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio, and and 485 W...

  1. Experimental Infection of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johnes disease, a chronic enteric disease of domestic ruminants as well as some non-domestic ruminants. Paratuberculosis is characterized by a protracted subclinical phase followed by clinical signs such...

  2. Memory binding and white matter integrity in familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Parra, Mario A; Saarimki, Heini; Bastin, Mark E; Londoo, Ana C; Pettit, Lewis; Lopera, Francisco; Della Sala, Sergio; Abrahams, Sharon

    2015-05-01

    Binding information in short-term and long-term memory are functions sensitive to Alzheimer's disease. They have been found to be affected in patients who meet criteria for familial Alzheimer's disease due to the mutation E280A of the PSEN1 gene. However, only short-term memory binding has been found to be affected in asymptomatic carriers of this mutation. The neural correlates of this dissociation are poorly understood. The present study used diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether the integrity of white matter structures could offer an account. A sample of 19 patients with familial Alzheimer's disease, 18 asymptomatic carriers and 21 non-carrier controls underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological and memory binding assessment. The short-term memory binding task required participants to detect changes across two consecutive screens displaying arrays of shapes, colours, or shape-colour bindings. The long-term memory binding task was a Paired Associates Learning Test. Performance on these tasks were entered into regression models. Relative to controls, patients with familial Alzheimer's disease performed poorly on both memory binding tasks. Asymptomatic carriers differed from controls only in the short-term memory binding task. White matter integrity explained poor memory binding performance only in patients with familial Alzheimer's disease. White matter water diffusion metrics from the frontal lobe accounted for poor performance on both memory binding tasks. Dissociations were found in the genu of corpus callosum which accounted for short-term memory binding impairments and in the hippocampal part of cingulum bundle which accounted for long-term memory binding deficits. The results indicate that white matter structures in the frontal and temporal lobes are vulnerable to the early stages of familial Alzheimer's disease and their damage is associated with impairments in two memory binding functions known to be markers for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25762465

  3. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Docherty, D.E.; Wilson, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  4. Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the count...

  5. A virulent babesia bovis strain failed to infect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus...

  6. The Dutch strain of BTV-8 in white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, contains ten double stranded RNA segments encoding at least ten viral proteins. Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne disease; transmission to ruminants, including cattle, sheep, goats, and deer species by bites of species of Culicoides. In...

  7. Susceptibility of North American white-tailed deer to the Netherlands strain of BTV serotype 8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World-wide there are at least 24 serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), a complex non-enveloped virus in the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus. Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne disease of cattle, sheep, goats, and deer and is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. In 2006, bluetongue serotype ...

  8. Vaccination of White-tailed Deer with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in captive and free-ranging wildlife remains one of the greatest challenges to eradication of tuberculosis in the United States. A possible addition to current control measures could be vaccination of deer to prevent infection, disease, or tran...

  9. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Mimics a Conduction Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marrakchi, S.; Kammoun, I.; Kachboura, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is important to recognise Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in electrocardiograms (ECG), as it may mimic ischaemic heart disease, ventricular hypertrophy, and bundle branch block. Recognising WPW syndrome allows for risk stratification, the identification of associated conditions, and the institution of appropriate management. Objective. The present case showed that electrophysiological study is indicated in patients with abnormal ECG and syncope. Case Report. A 40-year-old man with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was presented to emergency with syncope. A baseline ECG was a complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock. He was admitted to the cardiac care unit for pacemaker implantation. The atypical figure of complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock was thought to be a false positive of conduction abnormality. But the long anterograde refractory period of the both accessory pathway and atrioventricular conduction may cause difficulty in diagnosing Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, Conclusion. A Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome may mimic a conduction disease. No reliable algorithm exists for making an ECG diagnosis of a preexcitation syndrome with conduction disorders. This can lead to diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in the context of syncope. PMID:25114686

  10. Mortality factors, helminth burden, and contaminant residues in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Finland.

    PubMed

    Krone, Oliver; Stjernberg, Torsten; Kenntner, Norbert; Tataruch, Frieda; Koivusaari, Juhani; Nuuja, Ismo

    2006-05-01

    Eleven white-tailed sea eagles (WSEs) (Haliaeetus albicilla) collected in Finland between 1994 and 2001 were examined for their causes of death, including analyses of ubiquitous environmental contaminants and parasites. Four WSEs died due to electrocution. Two were lead poisoned and another had fragments of a lead bullet in its gizzard. An 11-year-old female drowned entangled in fishing gear, but also had mercury levels in its liver and kidneys known for detrimental physiological effects. One WSE was evidently killed by an intraspecific conflict, which was also assumed to be with another bird. The mortality factors of two WSEs could not be clarified, but one had a lead level of 4.604 microg g(-1) in its liver, indicating high lead exposure at a clinically relevant concentration. All organ levels of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and cadmium were moderate and not harmful for birds of prey. Seven helminth species, but no ectoparasites or coccidians, were found in 8 of 10 WSEs investigated for parasites. The highest prevalence of 40% was found for the liver fluke Metorchis billis, but no severe parasitosis was diagnosed for the eagles. The two acanthocephalan species Corynosoma semerme and Polymorphus meyeri are both new records for WSEs. PMID:16846196

  11. Field testing of immunocontraception on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Fire Island National Seashore, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, R.E.; Rutberg, A.T.; Underwood, H.B.; Turner, J.W., Jr.; Liu, I.K.

    2002-01-01

    Application of contraception for the control of suburban populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been much debated, but few data are available on field applications and even fewer on population effects. Between 1993 and 1997, 74-164 individually known female deer living on Fire Island, New York, USA, were treated remotely with an initial shot of 65 microg porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in Freund's complete adjuvant followed by booster injections of 65 microg PZP in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Starting in 1996, progressively increasing numbers of deer were treated with vaccinating/marking darts. Estimates of population density and composition, using distance sampling methods, began in 1995 in selected portions of the study area. Between 1993 and 1997, fawning rates among individually known, treated adult females decreased by 78.9% from pretreatment rates. Population density in the most heavily treated area increased by 11% per year from 1995 to March 1998 and then decreased at 23% per year to October 2000. In 1999-2000 surveys, fawns comprised 13-14% of the total population in the most heavily treated area, versus 16-33% in nearby untreated areas. These results show that PZP can be delivered effectively to sufficient deer to affect population density and composition in some environments, but that technical and logistical improvements are needed before contraception can be used widely to manage suburban deer populations.

  12. Landscape influence on spatial patterns of meningeal worm and liver fluke infection in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Vanderwaal, Kimberly L; Windels, Steve K; Olson, Bryce T; Vannatta, J Trevor; Moen, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Parasites that primarily infect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), such as liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) and meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis), can cause morbidity and mortality when incidentally infecting moose (Alces alces). Ecological factors are expected to influence spatial variation in infection risk by affecting the survival of free-living life stages outside the host and the abundance of intermediate gastropod hosts. Here, we investigate how ecology influenced the fine-scale distribution of these parasites in deer in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Deer pellet groups (N = 295) were sampled for the presence of P. tenuis larvae and F. magna eggs. We found that deer were significantly more likely to be infected with P. tenuis in habitats with less upland deciduous forest and more upland mixed conifer forest and shrub, a pattern that mirrored microhabitat differences in gastropod abundances. Deer were also more likely to be infected with F. magna in areas with more marshland, specifically rooted-floating aquatic marshes (RFAMs). The environment played a larger role than deer density in determining spatial patterns of infection for both parasites, highlighting the importance of considering ecological factors on all stages of a parasite's life cycle in order to understand its occurrence within the definitive host. PMID:25498206

  13. Windows of opportunity: white-tailed deer and the dynamics of northern hardwood forests of the northeastern US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sage, R.W.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Herbivory, lighting regimes, and site conditions are among the most important determinants of forest regeneration success, but these are affected by a host of other factors such as weather, predation, human exploitation, pathogens, wind and fire. We draw together > 50 years of research on the Huntington Wildlife Forest in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York to explore regeneration of northern hardwoods. A series of studies each of which focused on a single factor failed to identify the cause of regeneration failure. However, integration of these studies led to broader understanding of the process of forest stand development and identified at least three interacting factors: lighting regime, competing vegetation and selective browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The diverse 100-200 year-old hardwood stands present today probably reflect regeneration during periods of low deer density (< 2.0 deer/km super(2)) and significant forest disturbance. If this hypothesis is correct, forest managers can mimic these 'natural windows of opportunity' through manipulation of a few sensitive variables in the system. Further, these manipulations can be conducted on a relatively small geographic scale. Control of deer densities on a scale of 500 ha and understory American beech (Fagus grandifolia) on a scale of < 100 ha in conjunction with an even-aged regeneration system consistently resulted in successful establishment of desirable hardwood regeneration.

  14. Changes during the holocene in the size of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from central Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdue, James R.

    1989-11-01

    White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from central Illinois varied in size during the Holocene. The record, which extends back to 8450 yr B.P., indicates small deer through the mid-Holocene until 3650 yr B.P., after which size increases. Although influences of winter climate, seasonality, anthropogenic effects, and other ecological factors should not be discounted, an intriguing possible cause of the deer size shifts is insolation-driven summer climate and its influence on food resources. In the Holocene, small deer size is correlated with high summer insolation and with low winter insolation. Climatic models indicate that in spite of changes in insolation, Holocene winters did not vary greatly through time, especially in contrast to summers, which were dynamic. Physiological constraints peculiar to O. virginianus make critical the quality of summer forage for determining final adult size. Summer temperature averaged 2C warmer than present during the middle Holocene, which increased evaporation and probably reduced the period of availability of high-quality forage low in fiber and high in protein. Consequently, less fuel for growth was consumed by mid-Holocene deer and only small body size was achieved. Other possible causes (e.g., Bergmann's rule, seasonality) of clinal variation are considered with reference to central Illinois deer, but at present the most parsimonious explanation appears to be the summer insolation hypothesis.

  15. Seasonal patterns of weight, hematology, and serum characteristics of free-ranging female white-tailed deer in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Gese, E.M.; Seal, U.S.

    1992-01-01

    Weights, hematology, and serum profIles of white-tailed does in the central Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota were examined year-around to determine seasonal patterns of nutritional condition and metabolism. Deer were initially captured by Clover trap or rocket net. Between 15 February 1989 and 23 January 1990, we recaptured 12 adult (> 1.5 years) female deer 1-9 times each (a total of 59 recaptures) using a radio-controlled capture collar. Monthly weights of deer exhibited a cyclic seasonal pattern. Mean weight declined 22 % from February to an annual minimum during May, then steadily increased 45 % to a maximum in October. Seasonal patterns were most evident for hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells, packed cell volume, serum total protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the urea N to creatinine ratio, triiodothyronine, cortisol, and potassium. Wide seasonal variations of these characteristics were indicative of shifts in the deer's metabolic physiology. Although seasonal metabolic shifts are partially attributable to an endogenous rhythm, the intensity of, their expression was most likely affected by nutritional changes and concomitant alterations of body condition. Annual changes in seasonal trends of blood characteristics may be useful in investigating nutritional effects of specific environmental and demographic factors. We compare our findings with those reported for deer on ranges farther south.

  16. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1979 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchings, J.T.; Story, J.D.

    1980-10-01

    Seventy-three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1979, an increase of twenty-eight over 1978. Patterns of mortality were similar to those reported in previous documents. During the year, the highest number of deer was killed in October, November, and December. Throughout the year almost twice as many males as females were killed. Reproductive data collected from 19 does revealed that breeding during 1979 probably occurred from early December through early January. Night-lighting showed the same general trends in population increase that were apparent in the road-kill sample. The number of deer night-lighted in 1976 was 11/110 km, while in 1979 the number rose to 40/100 km. the habitat evaluation which began in 1978 was continued in 1979, with a survey of the number of deer trails from a given habitat-type supplementing the radiotelemetry work. Results indicated a preference for cutover areas where immature pine, eastern red cedar, and grasses dominated and for pine plantations where shelter was provided. Upland hardwoods areas were the least preferred.

  17. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak. PMID:26785113

  18. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010–2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak. PMID:26785113

  19. Natural and experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the United States with an Ehrlichia sp. closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Loftis, Amanda D; Little, Susan E

    2008-04-01

    An Ehrlichia sp. (Panola Mountain [PM] Ehrlichia sp.) closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium was recently detected in a domestic goat experimentally infested with lone star ticks (LSTs, Amblyomma americanum) collected from Georgia, USA. The infected goat exhibited pyrexia and mild clinical pathologic abnormalities consistent with ehrlichiosis. At least two other Ehrlichia species (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii) are maintained in nature by a cycle involving LSTs as the primary vector and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus) as a known or suspected reservoir. To investigate the possibility that white-tailed deer are potential hosts of the PM Ehrlichia sp., whole blood samples collected from 87 wild deer from 2000 to 2002 were screened with a species-specific nested PCR assay targeting the citrate synthase gene. In addition, two laboratory-raised white-tailed deer fawns were each infested with 120 wild-caught LST adults from Missouri, USA, and blood samples were periodically collected and tested for the PM Ehrlichia sp. Of 87 deer tested from 20 locations in the southeastern United States, three (3%) deer from Arkansas, North Carolina, and Virginia were positive for the PM Ehrlichia sp. Wild-caught ticks transmitted the PM Ehrlichia sp. to one of two deer fawns, and colony-reared nymphal LSTs acquired the organism from the deer, maintained it transstadially as they molted to adults, and transmitted the PM Ehrlichia sp. to two nave fawns. These findings indicate that white-tailed deer are naturally and experimentally susceptible to infection with an Ehrlichia sp. closely related to E. ruminantium and are able to serve as a source of infection to LSTs. PMID:18436670

  20. Rapid detection of serum antibody by dual-path platform VetTB assay in white-tailed deer infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; O'Brien, Daniel J; Schmitt, Stephen M; Palmer, Mitchell V; Waters, W Ray

    2013-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cervids remains a significant problem affecting farmed herds and wild populations. Traditional skin testing has serious limitations in certain species, whereas emerging serological assays showed promising diagnostic performance. The recently developed immunochromatographic dual-path platform (DPP) VetTB assay has two antigen bands, T1 (MPB83 protein) and T2 (CFP10/ESAT-6 fusion protein), for antibody detection. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of this test by using serum samples collected from groups of white-tailed deer experimentally inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, or M. bovis BCG Pasteur. In addition, we used serum samples from farmed white-tailed deer in herds with no history of TB, as well as from free-ranging white-tailed deer culled during field surveillance studies performed in Michigan known to have bovine TB in the wild deer population. The DPP VetTB assay detected antibody responses in 58.1% of experimentally infected animals within 8 to 16 weeks postinoculation and in 71.9% of naturally infected deer, resulting in an estimated test sensitivity of 65.1% and a specificity of 97.8%. The higher seroreactivity found in deer with naturally acquired M. bovis infection was associated with an increased frequency of antibody responses to the ESAT-6 and CFP10 proteins, resulting in a greater contribution of these antigens, in addition to MPB83, to the detection of seropositive animals, compared with experimental M. bovis infection. Deer experimentally inoculated with either M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. bovis BCG Pasteur did not produce cross-reactive antibodies that could be detected by the DPP VetTB assay. The present findings demonstrate the relatively high diagnostic accuracy of the DPP VetTB test for white-tailed deer, especially in the detection of naturally infected animals. PMID:23595504

  1. Rapid Detection of Serum Antibody by Dual-Path Platform VetTB Assay in White-Tailed Deer Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; O'Brien, Daniel J.; Schmitt, Stephen M.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Waters, W. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cervids remains a significant problem affecting farmed herds and wild populations. Traditional skin testing has serious limitations in certain species, whereas emerging serological assays showed promising diagnostic performance. The recently developed immunochromatographic dual-path platform (DPP) VetTB assay has two antigen bands, T1 (MPB83 protein) and T2 (CFP10/ESAT-6 fusion protein), for antibody detection. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of this test by using serum samples collected from groups of white-tailed deer experimentally inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, or M. bovis BCG Pasteur. In addition, we used serum samples from farmed white-tailed deer in herds with no history of TB, as well as from free-ranging white-tailed deer culled during field surveillance studies performed in Michigan known to have bovine TB in the wild deer population. The DPP VetTB assay detected antibody responses in 58.1% of experimentally infected animals within 8 to 16 weeks postinoculation and in 71.9% of naturally infected deer, resulting in an estimated test sensitivity of 65.1% and a specificity of 97.8%. The higher seroreactivity found in deer with naturally acquired M. bovis infection was associated with an increased frequency of antibody responses to the ESAT-6 and CFP10 proteins, resulting in a greater contribution of these antigens, in addition to MPB83, to the detection of seropositive animals, compared with experimental M. bovis infection. Deer experimentally inoculated with either M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. bovis BCG Pasteur did not produce cross-reactive antibodies that could be detected by the DPP VetTB assay. The present findings demonstrate the relatively high diagnostic accuracy of the DPP VetTB test for white-tailed deer, especially in the detection of naturally infected animals. PMID:23595504

  2. Black, Hispanic, and white women's perception of heart disease.

    PubMed

    Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Understanding why women delay seeking treatment for symptoms suggestive of an acute myocardial infarction remains elusive. Thirty individual semistructured interviews were conducted to determine black (n=10), Hispanic (n=10), and white (n=10) women's perception of heart disease risk and whether differences existed based on participant's race or ethnicity. Narrative descriptions analyzed using the Morse and Field method revealed that women, regardless of race or ethnicity, associated heart disease and heart attacks with men who were obese, stressed, and smokers. Perceptions of heart disease risk were similar between groups, with women generally believing they were at risk for heart disease because of family history, diet, and obesity. Racial and ethnic differences were noted, however, in risk reduction and anticipated treatment-seeking behaviors. Continued efforts are needed to raise women's perception of their cardiac risks and the need for the engagement in health-promoting behaviors. PMID:17342001

  3. Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease.

    PubMed

    Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne M S; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2014-02-01

    White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline. PMID:23949663

  4. Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease

    PubMed Central

    Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne MS; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2014-01-01

    White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline. PMID:23949663

  5. Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Kummerfeld, N

    1983-01-01

    Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross-neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate serologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotracheitis), turkey, duck and pigeon as well as from the blue-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Lake Victoria cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and desmoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) did not react with the stork herpesviruses. Neutralising antibodies against stork herpesvirus were detected in the majority of 72 blood samples from white and black storks. In addition, three Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) could be isolated from white storks. One isolate was highly virulent the two others were avirulent for the chicken. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that some storks have antibodies against Paramyxovirus- (PMV)-1 (NDV), PMV-2 and PMV-3. No antibodies could be detected in stork sera against PMV-4, -6 and -7. PMID:18766791

  6. Performance and dietary preferences of white-tailed deer grazing chicory, birdsfoot trefoil or alfalfa in north central Alberta.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G A; Bork, E W; Donkor, N T; Hudson, R J

    2009-12-01

    Little information exists on the performance of deer on alternative forage species in northern temperate environments during summer and fall, the period of inherent maximum growth in deer. In performance and choice experiments, we compared live weight gain (g/kg(0.75)/day), absolute [kg/ha dry matter (DM)] and relative (% DM) herbage utilization, relative preference index (RPI) as well as plant community visitation of white-tailed deer grazing alfalfa (Medicago sativa), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) in north central Alberta, Canada. Herbage phytomass and quality was also measured on the grazed pastures. Alfalfa had higher dry matter yields and crude protein concentrations than chicory and trefoil. Chicory had lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations than the other forages. Tannin concentrations were greatest in birds foot trefoil (nearly 55 g/kg DM), well above those in the other forages (<5 g/kg DM). Live weight gain was similar among deer feeding within the paddocks seeded to birds foot trefoil and chicory, and more than two times higher (p < 0.05) than deer feeding in paddocks seeded to alfalfa. Deer spent more grazing time (about 40%) on chicory pastures than on alfalfa and birds foot trefoil pastures. RPI values were greatest for birds foot trefoil at 2.11, intermediate for chicory at 1.40, and lowest for alfalfa at <0.60. Absolute herbage utilization remained similar (p > 0.05) among the three forage species. In contrast, relative herbage utilization was greater from birds foot trefoil (52% DM) than chicory (40% DM) or alfalfa (25% DM). These results suggest that the use of alfalfa with other alternative forages may prove beneficial to deer production, rather than using alfalfa pasture alone. PMID:19138349

  7. Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May–31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

  8. Phenotypic differences in white-tailed deer antlerogenic progenitor cells and marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Daley, Ethan L H; Alford, Andrea I; Miller, Joshua D; Goldstein, Steven A

    2014-05-01

    Deer antlers are bony appendages that are annually cast and rapidly regrown in a seasonal process coupled to the reproductive cycle. Due to the uniqueness of this process among mammals, we reasoned that a fundamental characterization of antler progenitor cell behavior may provide insights that could lead to improved strategies for promoting bone repair. In this study, we investigated whether white-tailed deer antlerogenic progenitor cells (APC) conform to basic criteria defining mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). In addition, we tested the effects of the artificial glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) on osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation as well as the degree of apoptosis during the latter. Comparisons were made to animal-matched marrow-derived MSC. APC and MSC generated similar numbers of colonies. APC cultures expanded less rapidly overall but experienced population recovery at later time points. In contrast to MSC, APC did not display adipogenic in vitro differentiation capacity. Under osteogenic culture conditions, APC and MSC exhibited different patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity over time. DEX increased APC alkaline phosphatase activity only initially but consistently led to decreased activity in MSC. APC and MSC in osteogenic culture underwent different time and DEX-dependent patterns of mineralization, yet APC and MSC achieved similar levels of mineral accrual in an ectopic ossicle model. During chondrogenic differentiation, APC exhibited high levels of apoptosis without a reduction in cell density. DEX decreased proteoglycan production and increased apoptosis in chondrogenic APC cultures but had the opposite effects in MSC. Our results suggest that APC and MSC proliferation and differentiation differ in their dependence on time, factors, and milieu. Antler tip APC may be more lineage-restricted osteo/chondroprogenitors with distinctly different responses to apoptotic and glucocorticoid stimuli. PMID:24313802

  9. Estimates of annual survival, growth, and recruitment of a white-tailed ptarmigan population in Colorado over 43 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wann, Greg; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Braun, Clait E.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term datasets for high-elevation species are rare, and considerable uncertainty exists in understanding how high-elevation populations have responded to recent climate warming. We present estimates of demographic vital rates from a 43-year population study of white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura), a species endemic to alpine habitats in western North America. We used capture-recapture models to estimate annual rates of apparent survival, population growth, and recruitment for breeding-age ptarmigan, and we fit winter weather covariates to models in an attempt to explain annual variation. There were no trends in survival over the study period but there was strong support for age and sex effects. The average rate of annual growth suggests a relatively stable breeding-age population ( λ ¯ = 1.036), but there was considerable variation between years for both population growth and recruitment rates. Winter weather covariates only explained a small amount of variation in female survival and were not an important predictor of male survival. Cumulative winter precipitation was found to have a quadratic effect on female survival, with survival being highest during years of average precipitation. Cumulative winter precipitation was positively correlated with population growth and recruitment rates, although this covariate only explained a small amount of annual variation in these rates and there was considerable uncertainty among the models tested. Our results provide evidence for an alpine-endemic population that has not experienced extirpation or drastic declines. However, more information is needed to understand risks and vulnerabilities of warming effects on juveniles as our analysis was confined to determination of vital rates for breeding-age birds.

  10. Hidden in plain sight: Cryptic and endemic malaria parasites in North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Martinsen, Ellen S.; McInerney, Nancy; Brightman, Heidi; Ferebee, Ken; Walsh, Tim; McShea, William J.; Forrester, Tavis D.; Ware, Lisa; Joyner, Priscilla H.; Perkins, Susan L.; Latch, Emily K.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Schall, Joseph J.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium are diverse in mammal hosts, infecting five mammalian orders in the Old World, but were long considered absent from the diverse deer family (Cervidae) and from New World mammals. There was a description of a Plasmodium parasite infecting a single splenectomized white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) in 1967 but none have been reported since, which has proven a challenge to our understanding of malaria parasite biogeography. Using both microscopy and polymerase chain reaction, we screened a large sample of native and captive ungulate species from across the United States for malaria parasites. We found a surprisingly high prevalence (up to 25%) and extremely low parasitemia of Plasmodium parasites in WTD throughout the eastern United States. We did not detect infections in the other ungulate species nor in western WTD. We also isolated the parasites from the mosquito Anopheles punctipennis. Morphologically, the parasites resemble the parasite described in 1967, Plasmodium odocoilei. Our analysis of the cytochrome b gene revealed two divergent Plasmodium clades in WTD representative of species that likely diverged 2.3 to 6 million years ago, concurrent with the arrival of the WTD ancestor into North America across Beringia. Multigene phylogenetic analysis placed these clades within the larger malaria parasite clade. We document Plasmodium parasites to be common in WTD, endemic to the New World, and as the only known malaria parasites from deer (Cervidae). These findings reshape our knowledge of the phylogeography of the malaria parasites and suggest that other mammal taxa may harbor infection by endemic and occult malaria parasites. PMID:26989785

  11. Antigen Recognition by Serum Antibodies in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Waters, W. R.; Palmer, M. V.; Bannantine, J. P.; Whipple, D. L.; Greenwald, R.; Esfandiari, J.; Andersen, P.; McNair, J.; Pollock, J. M.; Lyashchenko, K. P.

    2004-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have emerged as reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis in northern America. For tuberculosis surveillance of deer, antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because deer are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. Sera collected sequentially from 25 Mycobacterium bovis-infected and 7 noninfected deer were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) for immunoglobulin specific to M. bovis antigens. Various routes of experimental M. bovis infection, such as intratonsillar inoculation (n = 11), aerosol (n = 6), and exposure to infected deer (in contact, n = 8), were studied. Upon infection, specific bands of reactivity at ?24 to 26 kDa, ?33 kDa, ?42 kDa, and ?75 kDa to M. bovis whole-cell sonicate were detected by immunoblot. Lipoarabinomannan-specific immunoglobulin was detected as early as 36 days postchallenge, and responses were detected for 94% of intratonsillarly and in-contact-infected deer. In MAPIA, sera were tested with 12 native and recombinant antigens coated on nitrocellulose. All in-contact-infected (8 of 8) and 10 of 11 intratonsillarly infected deer produced antibody reactive with one or more of the recombinant/native antigens. Responses were boosted by injection of tuberculin for intradermal tuberculin skin testing. Additionally, three of six deer receiving a very low dose of M. bovis via aerosol exposure produced antibody specific to one or more recombinant proteins. M. bovis was isolated from one of three nonresponding aerosol-challenged deer. Of the 12 antigens tested, the most immunodominant protein was MPB83; however, a highly sensitive serodiagnostic test will likely require use of multiple antigens. PMID:15358642

  12. A universal carrier test for the long tail of Mendelian disease.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Balaji S; Evans, Eric A; Flannick, Jason; Patterson, A Scott; Chang, Christopher C; Pham, Tuan; Young, Sharon; Kaushal, Amit; Lee, James; Jacobson, Jessica L; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2010-10-01

    Mendelian disorders are individually rare but collectively common, forming a 'long tail' of genetic disease. A single highly accurate assay for this long tail would allow the scaling up of the Jewish community's successful campaign of population screening for Tay-Sachs disease to the general population, thereby improving millions of lives, greatly benefiting minority health and saving billions of dollars. This need has been addressed by designing a universal carrier test: a non-invasive, saliva-based assay for more than 100 Mendelian diseases across all major population groups. The test has been exhaustively validated with a median of 147 positive and 525 negative samples per variant, demonstrating a multiplex assay whose performance compares favourably with the previous standard of care, namely blood-based single-gene carrier tests. Because the test represents a dramatic reduction in the cost and complexity of large-scale population screening, an end to many preventable genetic diseases is now in sight. Moreover, given that the assay is inexpensive and requires only a saliva sample, it is now increasingly feasible to make carrier testing a routine part of preconception care. PMID:20729146

  13. Reconstruction and morphometric analysis of the nasal airway of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and implications regarding respiratory and olfactory airflow.

    PubMed

    Ranslow, Allison N; Richter, Joseph P; Neuberger, Thomas; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Rumple, Christopher R; Quigley, Andrew P; Pang, Benison; Krane, Michael H; Craven, Brent A

    2014-11-01

    Compared with other mammals (e.g., primates, rodents, and carnivores), the form and function of the ungulate nasal fossa, in particular the ethmoidal region, has been largely unexplored. Hence, the nasal anatomy of the largest prey species remains far less understood than that of their predators, rendering comparisons and evolutionary context unclear. Of the previous studies of nasal anatomy, none have investigated the detailed anatomy and functional morphology of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), a species that is ubiquitous throughout North and Central America and in northern regions of South America. Here, nasal form and function is quantitatively investigated in an adult white-tailed deer using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, combined with anatomical reconstruction and morphometric analysis techniques. The cross-sectional anatomy of the airway is shown and a three-dimensional anatomical model of the convoluted nasal fossa is reconstructed from the image data. A detailed morphometric analysis is presented that includes quantitative distributions of airway size and shape (e.g., airway perimeter, cross-sectional area, surface area) and the functional implications of these data regarding respiratory and olfactory airflow are investigated. The white-tailed deer is shown to possess a long, double scroll maxilloturbinal that occupies approximately half of the length of the nasal fossa and provides a large surface area for respiratory heat and moisture exchange. The ethmoidal region contains a convoluted arrangement of folded ethmoturbinals that appear to be morphologically distinct from the single and double scroll ethmoturbinals found in most other non-primates. This complex folding provides a large surface area in the limited space available for chemical sensing, due to the expansive maxilloturbinal. Morphologically, the white-tailed deer is shown to possess a dorsal meatus that leads to an olfactory recess, a nasal architecture that has been shown in other non-primate species to cause unique nasal airflow patterns to develop during sniffing that are optimized for odorant delivery to the sensory part of the nose. Additionally, we demonstrate that, during respiration, airflow in the nasal vestibule and the anterior maxilloturbinal region may be transitional or turbulent, in which case turbulent mixing is expected to enhance respiratory heat and moisture exchange, which could be an important contribution to thermoregulation and water conservation in the white-tailed deer. PMID:25312370

  14. Candidates for Symbiotic Control of Sugarcane White Leaf Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri.” Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri” colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. PMID:22798373

  15. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: Use of GIS to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A. Desire; King, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt,and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighboring regions, RVFV is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat forhumans, livestock, and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for exotic viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVFV is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep, and goats, if RVFV is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVFV transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)in a typical northeastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare, but these potentially susceptible ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human, and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, or 42 %) of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVFV transmission during the late summermonths. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVFV-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, orby 89%. PMID:21080319

  16. Porites white patch syndrome: associated viruses and disease physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, S. A.; Davy, J. E.; Wilson, W. H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Davy, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, coral reefs worldwide have undergone significant changes in response to various environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Among the numerous causes of reef degradation, coral disease is one factor that is to a large extent still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the physiology of white patch syndrome (WPS), a disease affecting poritid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. WPS manifests as small, generally discrete patches of tissue discolouration. Physiological analysis revealed that chlorophyll a content was significantly lower in lesions than in healthy tissues, while host protein content remained constant, suggesting that host tissue is not affected by WPS. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, which showed intact host tissue within lesions. TEM also revealed that Symbiodinium cells are lost from the host gastrodermis with no apparent harm caused to the surrounding host tissue. Also present in the electron micrographs were numerous virus-like particles (VLPs), in both coral and Symbiodinium cells. Small (<50 nm diameter) icosahedral VLPs were significantly more abundant in coral tissue taken from diseased colonies, and there was an apparent, but not statistically significant, increase in abundance of filamentous VLPs in Symbiodinium cells from diseased colonies. There was no apparent increase in prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbial abundance in diseased colonies. Taken together, these results suggest that viruses infecting the coral and/or its resident Symbiodinium cells may be the causative agents of WPS.

  17. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  18. Single-treatment porcine zona pellucida immunocontraception associated with reduction of a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rutberg, Allen T; Naugle, Ricky E; Verret, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated gradual reductions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations through immunocontraception, with stabilization occurring after 2-4 yr of treatment, and subsequent reductions of 6-10% annually. These studies employed porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccines that required two initial treatments and annual retreatments. From 2005 to 2010, 258 adult and yearling female deer on Fripp Island, South Carolina, were treated with one of several PZP preparations designed to produce 2+ yr of effective contraception with a single treatment. These included several preparations of SpayVac and of native PZP-adjuvant emulsion plus PZP and QA-21 in timed-release pellets. Deer were chemically immobilized, ear-tagged, and administered initial treatments by hand in February-March. Some treated deer were boosted remotely with PZP-adjuvant emulsion 1.5 - 4.5 yr after initial treatments. Ground-based distance sampling was used to estimate deer population density at Fripp Island, a resort community, and at a relatively undeveloped neighboring control site, Hunting Island. Most vaccine preparations tested reduced fawning rates by 75% to 95% for at least 1 yr. From 2005 to 2011, deer density on Fripp Island declined by 50%, from 72 deer/km(2) to 36 deer/km(2), an average annual reduction of 11%. In contrast, population density on the Hunting Island control site fluctuated between 2005 and 2011, averaging 23 deer/km(2) (range, 19-28 deer/km(2)). Population declines on Fripp Island were associated with an increase in the proportion of treated females and with a progressive decrease in winter fawn:doe ratios, from 1.21 fawns/doe in 2005 to 0.19 fawns/doe in 2010. Winter fawn:doe ratios averaged 1.36 fawns/doe (range, 0.84 - 1.62 fawns/doe) at the Hunting Island control site. Annual survivorship averaged approximately 79% among ear-tagged females. The rate at which deer populations diminished in association with PZP treatments on Fripp Island was higher than that seen at other study sites, although the reasons for the more rapid decline on Fripp Island are not well understood. PMID:24437087

  19. Integration of Harvest and Time-to-Event Data Used to Estimate Demographic Parameters for White-tailed Deer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Andrew S.

    An integral component of managing game species is an understanding of population dynamics and relative abundance. Harvest data are frequently used to estimate abundance of white-tailed deer. Unless harvest age-structure is representative of the population age-structure and harvest vulnerability remains constant from year to year, these data alone are of limited value. Additional model structure and auxiliary information has accommodated this shortcoming. Specifically, integrated age-at-harvest (AAH) state-space population models can formally combine multiple sources of data, and regularization via hierarchical model structure can increase flexibility of model parameters. I collected known fates data, which I evaluated and used to inform trends in survival parameters for an integrated AAH model. I used temperature and snow depth covariates to predict survival outside of the hunting season, and opening weekend temperature and percent of corn harvest covariates to predict hunting season survival. When auxiliary empirical data were unavailable for the AAH model, moderately informative priors provided sufficient information for convergence and parameter estimates. The AAH model was most sensitive to errors in initial abundance, but this error was calibrated after 3 years. Among vital rates, the AAH model was most sensitive to reporting rates (percentage of mortality during the hunting season related to harvest). The AAH model, using only harvest data, was able to track changing abundance trends due to changes in survival rates even when prior models did not inform these changes (i.e. prior models were constant when truth varied). I also compared AAH model results with estimates from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WIDNR). Trends in abundance estimates from both models were similar, although AAH model predictions were systematically higher than WIDNR estimates in the East study area. When I incorporated auxiliary information (i.e. integrated AAH model) about survival outside the hunting season from known fates data, predicted trends appeared more closely related to what was expected. Disagreements between the AAH model and WIDNR estimates in the East were likely related to biased predictions for reporting and survival rates from the AAH model.

  20. White Matter Hyperintensities and Changes in White Matter Integrity in Patients with Alzheimers Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liya; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Meltzer, Carolyn C.; Holder, Chad A.; Mao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Purpose White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are a risk factor for Alzheimers disease (AD). This study investigated the relationship between WMHs and white matter changes in AD using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the sensitivity of each DTI index in distinguishing AD with WMHs. Subjects and Methods Forty-four subjects with WMHs were included. Subjects were classified into three groups based on the Scheltens rating scale: 15 AD patients with mild WMHs, 12 AD patients with severe WMHs, and 17 controls with mild WMHs. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (DR) and axial diffusivity (DA) were analyzed using the region of interest and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics methods. Sensitivity and specificity of DTI indices in distinguishing AD groups from the controls were evaluated. Results AD patients with mild WMHs exhibited differences from control subjects in most DTI indices in the medial temporal and frontal areas; however, differences in DTI indices from AD patients with mild WMHs and AD patients with severe WMHs were found in the parietal and occipital areas. FA and DR were more sensitive measurements than MD and DA in differentiating AD patients from controls, while MD was a more sensitive measurement in distinguishing AD patients with severe WMHs from those with mild WMHs. Conclusions WMHs may contribute to the white matter changes in AD brains, specifically in temporal and frontal areas. Changes in parietal and occipital lobes may be related to the severity of WMHs. DR may serve as an imaging marker of myelin deficits associated with AD. PMID:21152911

  1. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.

    PubMed

    Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations and dispersal in regions where deer are relevant hosts for these ectoparasites. PMID:22079077

  2. Twenty-Nail Dystrophy and Darier's (Darier-White) Disease.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Chaudhuri, Anita; Verma, Prashant; Sharma, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    A 35-year-old married man presented with progressive distortion of all the nails of the hands and toes for the past 30 years. Initially, his parents noticed yellowish discoloration and roughness of the thumb nail at the age of 5 years. Since then, the changes have been insidious to involve the other nails. Currently, the nails are lusterless, rough, ridged, and difficult to trim. In addition, the patient has had dark, dirty-looking raised eruptions over the skin, attended by generalized itching, corresponding to the onset of the nail lesions. His mother experienced similar disease. Examination of the nails was marked by alternating elevation and depression (ridging) and/or pitting, lack of luster, roughening, sandpaper texture, and splitting, along with muddy, grayish white discoloration. Dystrophy of the nails was prominent. The changes were bilateral and symmetrical, affecting all 10 fingers and 10 toes (Figure 1). PMID:26861433

  3. Structural neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease: do white matter hyperintensities matter?

    PubMed Central

    Brickman, Adam M.; Muraskin, Jordan; Zimmerman, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    The targeted brain dysfunction that accompanies aging can have a devastating effect on cognitive and intellectual abilities. A significant proportion of older adults experience precipitous cognitive decline that negatively impacts functional activities. Such individuals meet clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia, which is commonly attributed to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Structural neuroimaging, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has contributed significantly to our understanding of the morphological and pathology-related changes that may underlie normal and disease-associated cognitive change in aging. White matter hyperintensities (WMH), which are distributed patches of increased hyperintense signal on T2-weighted MRI, are among the most common structural neuroimaging findings in older adults. In recent years, WMH have emerged as robust radiological correlates of cognitive decline. Studies suggest that WMH distributed in anterior brain regions are related to decline in executive abilities that is typical of normal aging, whereas WMH distributed in more posterior brain regions are common in AD. Although epidemiological, observational, and pathological studies suggest that WMH may be ischemic in origin and caused by consistent or variable hypoperfusion, there is emerging evidence that they may also reflect vascular deposition of (?-amyloid, particularly when they are distributed in posterior areas and are present in patients with AD. Findings from the literature highlight the potential contribution of small-vessel cerebrovascular disease to the pathogenesis of AD, and suggest a mechanistic interaction, but future longitudinal studies using multiple imaging modalities are required to fully understand the complex role of WMH in AD. PMID:19585953

  4. Detection of white matter lesions in cerebral small vessel disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riad, Medhat M.; Platel, Bram; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-02-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are diffuse white matter abnormalities commonly found in older subjects and are important indicators of stroke, multiple sclerosis, dementia and other disorders. We present an automated WML detection method and evaluate it on a dataset of small vessel disease (SVD) patients. In early SVD, small WMLs are expected to be of importance for the prediction of disease progression. Commonly used WML segmentation methods tend to ignore small WMLs and are mostly validated on the basis of total lesion load or a Dice coefficient for all detected WMLs. Therefore, in this paper, we present a method that is designed to detect individual lesions, large or small, and we validate the detection performance of our system with FROC (free-response ROC) analysis. For the automated detection, we use supervised classification making use of multimodal voxel based features from different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, including intensities, tissue probabilities, voxel locations and distances, neighborhood textures and others. After preprocessing, including co-registration, brain extraction, bias correction, intensity normalization, and nonlinear registration, ventricle segmentation is performed and features are calculated for each brain voxel. A gentle-boost classifier is trained using these features from 50 manually annotated subjects to give each voxel a probability of being a lesion voxel. We perform ROC analysis to illustrate the benefits of using additional features to the commonly used voxel intensities; significantly increasing the area under the curve (Az) from 0.81 to 0.96 (p<0.05). We perform the FROC analysis by testing our classifier on 50 previously unseen subjects and compare the results with manual annotations performed by two experts. Using the first annotator results as our reference, the second annotator performs at a sensitivity of 0.90 with an average of 41 false positives per subject while our automated method reached the same level of sensitivity at approximately 180 false positives per subject.

  5. Short-tailed shrews as reservoirs of the agents of Lyme disease and human babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Telford, S R; Mather, T N; Adler, G H; Spielman, A

    1990-10-01

    To determine whether short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) serve as reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and the agent of human babesiosis (Babesia microti), we examined nymphal ticks that had fed as larvae on shrews collected from 3 enzootic sites in coastal Massachusetts for evidence of infection by either or both of these agents. Xenodiagnosis indicated that 11 of 14 shrews were infected by B. burgdorferi. One of 3 piroplasm-infected shrews also infected ticks with B. microti. In a site where the piroplasm is endemic, 11 of 17 shrews showed patent parasitemias by thin blood smears. Of these, 4 had parasitemias exceeding 40%. Few immature ticks infested shrews, however, suggesting that B. brevicauda, although abundant in some endemic sites and serving as a competent reservoir, would contribute minimally to the population of infected nymphs. PMID:2213411

  6. Using heterozygosityfitness correlations to study inbreeding depression in an isolated population of white-tailed deer founded by few individuals

    PubMed Central

    Brommer, Jon E; Kekkonen, Jaana; Wikstrm, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    A heterozygosityfitness correlations (HFCs) may reflect inbreeding depression, but the extent to which they do so is debated. HFCs are particularly likely to occur after demographic disturbances such as population bottleneck or admixture. We here study HFC in an introduced and isolated ungulate population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus in Finland founded in 1934 by four individuals. A total of 422?1-year-old white-tailed deer were collected in the 2012 hunting season in southern Finland and genotyped for 14 microsatellite loci. We find significant identity disequilibrium as estimated by g2. Heterozygosity was positively associated with size- and age-corrected body mass, but not with jaw size or (in males) antler score. Because of the relatively high identity disequilibrium, heterozygosity of the marker panel explained 51% of variation in inbreeding. Inbreeding explained approximately 4% of the variation in body mass and is thus a minor, although significant source of variation in body mass in this population. The study of HFC is attractive for game- and conservation-oriented wildlife management because it presents an affordable and readily used approach for genetic monitoring that allowing identification of fitness costs associated with genetic substructuring in what may seem like a homogeneous population. PMID:25691963

  7. Effects of fluoride emissions from a modern primary aluminum smelter on a local population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    SciTech Connect

    Suttie, J.S.; Dickie, R.; Clay, A.B.; Nielsen, P.; Mahan, W.E.; Baumann, D.P.; Hamilton, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of fluoride emissions from a modern aluminum smelter on concentrations of skeletal fluoride and dental fluorosis in a resident population of white-tailed deer was studied. The smelter was located on Mount Holly Plantation in South Carolina, and concentrations of skeletal fluoride in the deer collected at Mount Holly increased approximately five-fold 3 yr after the operation began. Increases in skeletal fluoride of less than two-fold were observed in deer obtained from Medway Plantation which has its nearest boundary 1.6 km from the smelter site. No dental fluorosis was observed in deer collected at Medway Plantation, but mild dental fluorosis was observed in a significant number of deer collected at Mount Holly Plantation. The dental fluorosis that was observed was not associated with incisor wear or with fluoride-induced molar wear. Osteofluorosis of mandibles or metacarpals was not observed in any of the deer obtained from either plantation. The data obtained from this study indicated that the presence of a modern aluminum smelter caused a detectable increase in concentration of skeletal fluoride in the resident population of white-tailed deer, but that no adverse health effects were seen.

  8. Management of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in recreational areas with acaricide applications, vegetative management, and exclusion of white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Bloemer, S R; Mount, G A; Morris, T A; Zimmerman, R H; Barnard, D R; Snoddy, E L

    1990-07-01

    A project on management of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.), at Land Between the Lakes, a Tennessee Valley Authority recreational area in Kentucky-Tennessee, during 1984-1988, demonstrated the effectiveness and economics of three control technologies. Acaricide applications (chlorpyrifos at 0.28 kg [AI]/ha), vegetative management (mowing and removal of 40% overstory and 90-100% of midstory, understory, and leaf litter), and host management (white-tailed deer exclusion from a 71-ha campground with a single-line fence) provided 75, 70, and 64% mean controls of all life stages of the lone star tick, respectively. Combinations of acaricide applications + vegetative management, acaricide applications + host management, and acaricide applications + vegetative management + host management produced 94, 89, and 96% mean control of all life stages, respectively. The costs of acaricide applications (two per year), vegetative management (two mowings per year), and white-tailed deer exclusion (single-line fence) were $45, $150, and $30/ha/yr, respectively. Results of this project are used to design management strategies that could be considered for use against lone star ticks in recreational areas. PMID:1696994

  9. Organohalogenated contaminants in white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) nestlings: An assessment of relationships to immunoglobulin levels, telomeres and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sletten, Silja; Bourgeon, Sophie; Brdsen, Brd-Jrgen; Herzke, Dorte; Criscuolo, Francois; Massemin, Sylvie; Zahn, Sandrine; Johnsen, Trond Vidar; Bustnes, Jan Ove

    2016-01-01

    Biomagnifying organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) may have adverse effects on the health of birds, especially marine avian top predators that accumulate high OHC loads. Contaminants may impair the humoral immunity and also influence the antioxidant enzyme activity (i.e. oxidative stress). Moreover, physical conditions and oxidative stress during development may reduce telomere lengths, one of the main mechanisms explaining cell senescence. To examine the potential effects of environmental contaminants on physiological biomarkers of health, OHCs with different 'physicochemical' properties were related to immunoglobulin Y levels (IgY; humoral immunity), superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) activity in blood plasma, and telomere length (measured in red blood cells) in individual 7-8weeks old nestlings (n=35) of white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Norwegian Sub-Arctic. Different organochlorines (OCs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were measured in blood plasma of nestlings, demonstrating higher concentrations of the emerging contaminants (PFASs), notably perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), compared to legacy OCs. There were no relationships between the contaminant loads and plasma IgY levels. Moreover, differences between years were found for telomere lengths, but this was not related to contaminants and more likely a result of different developmental conditions. However, there were significant and negative relationships between the OC loadings and the SOD activity. This suggests that some legacy OCs challenge the antioxidant capacity in nestlings of white-tailed eagles. PMID:26367189

  10. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Pound, J M; Lohmeyer, K H; Davey, R B; Miller, J A; George, J E

    2012-12-01

    Over a 7 yr period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study animals in treatment and control groups were confined in 38.8 ha game-fenced and densely vegetated treatment plots in South Texas. Tick densities during years 1 and 7 served as untreated pre- and posttreatment comparisons and treatments occurred during years 2 through 5. Reductions in tick densities in the treatment plot were compared against tick densities in a control plot having similar vegetation and numbers of untreated deer. During years of treatment, indices of control pressure ranged from 18.2 to 82.6 for nymphs and 16.9-78.7 for adults, and efficacy, expressed as percentage control during the final year of treatment, was 77.2 and 85.0%, respectively, for nymphal and adult ticks. These data show that acaricidal collar treatments provide efficacies very similar to those achieved with the existing ivermectin-medicated bait and '4-Poster' topical treatment technologies to control ticks feeding on wild white-tailed deer. PMID:23356088

  11. Using heterozygosity-fitness correlations to study inbreeding depression in an isolated population of white-tailed deer founded by few individuals.

    PubMed

    Brommer, Jon E; Kekkonen, Jaana; Wikstrm, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    A heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) may reflect inbreeding depression, but the extent to which they do so is debated. HFCs are particularly likely to occur after demographic disturbances such as population bottleneck or admixture. We here study HFC in an introduced and isolated ungulate population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus in Finland founded in 1934 by four individuals. A total of 422?1-year-old white-tailed deer were collected in the 2012 hunting season in southern Finland and genotyped for 14 microsatellite loci. We find significant identity disequilibrium as estimated by g 2. Heterozygosity was positively associated with size- and age-corrected body mass, but not with jaw size or (in males) antler score. Because of the relatively high identity disequilibrium, heterozygosity of the marker panel explained 51% of variation in inbreeding. Inbreeding explained approximately 4% of the variation in body mass and is thus a minor, although significant source of variation in body mass in this population. The study of HFC is attractive for game- and conservation-oriented wildlife management because it presents an affordable and readily used approach for genetic monitoring that allowing identification of fitness costs associated with genetic substructuring in what may seem like a homogeneous population. PMID:25691963

  12. Whiteness.

    PubMed

    Altman, Neil

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to make meaning of the experience of being white in the United States at this point in history. The self-awareness of white people is limited by a blind spot around the meaning and impact of being white in a multiracial society. Using psychoanalytic and literary methodology, the author seeks to cast light with which to explore this blind spot. Everyday experiences are used to illustrate the widely pervasive impact of race in the lives of white people, and a clinical vignette illustrates how race might show up in a white-on-white psychotherapy. Enactments within this paper are noted when they are evident to the author PMID:16482960

  13. Skeletal photopenic appearance of Paget's disease with indium-111 white blood cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Borin, B.F.; Abghari, R.; Sarkissian, A.

    1987-10-01

    A case of focal decreased skeletal uptake with In-111 labeled white blood cells representing Paget's disease is reported. Although uncommon, other causes for skeletal photon deficient areas using In-111 white blood cells have been described. To the authors' knowledge, this finding representing Paget's disease has not been previously described.

  14. The panzootic white-nose syndrome: an environmentally constrained disease?

    PubMed

    Hallam, T G; Federico, P

    2012-06-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating bats probably caused by a pathogenic fungus, Geomyces destructans. The fungus has dispersed rapidly in the Northeastern United States and Canada and is presently a serious risk to hibernating bats of the mid-southern United States. Our objectives were to investigate how the environmental factors of temperature and resources impact the physiology of bats and apply this to explore possible effects of the fungus G.destructans on bats. Using a dynamic, physiologically based model parameterized for little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), we found that the survival region defined in terms of minimal and maximal cave temperatures and bat lipid reserve levels exhibits plasticity as a function of cave temperature. During the pre-hibernation period, constellations of increased availability of fall and winter prey, reduced energy expenditure and lipogenic factors provide fat deposition in hibernator species that engender survival throughout the hibernation period. The model-derived survival region is used to demonstrate that small increases in lipid reserves allow survival under increasing maximum temperatures, which provides flexibility of bat persistence at the higher cave temperature ranges that may occur in the Southern United States. Antipodally, the lower-temperature survival range is bounded with minimum temperatures. Our results suggest that there is an environmental distinction between survival of bats in Southern and Northern US states, a relationship that could prove very important in managing WNS and its dispersal. PMID:22044513

  15. White matter hyperintensities are positively associated with cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Heidi I L; Clerx, Lies; Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Aalten, Pauline; Verhey, Frans R J

    2014-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities are associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). White matter hyperintensities are believed to disconnect brain areas. We examined the topographical association between white matter hyperintensities and cortical thickness in controls, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD patients. We examined associations between white matter hyperintensities and cortical thickness among 18 older cognitively healthy participants, 18 amnestic MCI, and 17 mild AD patients. These associations were cluster-size corrected for multiple comparisons. In controls, a positive association between white matter hyperintensities and cortical thickness was found in lateral temporal gyri. In MCI patients, white matter hyperintensities were positively related to cortical thickness in frontal, temporal, and parietal areas. Positive associations between white matter hyperintensities and cortical thickness in AD patients were confined to parietal areas. The results of the interaction group by white matter hyperintensities on cortical thickness were consistent with the findings of positive associations in the parietal lobe for MCI and AD patients separately. In the frontal areas, controls and AD patients showed inverse associations between white matter hyperintensities and cortical thickness, while MCI patients still showed a positive association. These results suggest that a paradoxical relationship between white matter hyperintensities and cortical thickness could be a consequence of neuroinflammatory processes induced by AD-pathology and white matter hyperintensities. Alternatively, it might reflect a region-specific and disease-stage dependent compensatory hypertrophy in response to a compromised network. PMID:24169238

  16. Low flow oxygen therapy from a portable oxygen concentrator or an oxygen cylinder effectively treats hypoxemia in anesthetized white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Asa; Caulkett, Nigel; Woodbury, Murray; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Wourms, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    For treatment of hypoxemia, delivery of the minimum effective oxygen flow rate is advantageous during field anesthesia because it prolongs the life of the oxygen cylinder. Portable oxygen concentrators as the oxygen source require less logistical considerations than cylinders and are a safer alternative during helicopter field work because they are nonexplosive devices. The objective of this study was to evaluate low oxygen flow rates by continuous or pulsed intranasal delivery for treatment of hypoxemia in anesthetized white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Nine captive adult female deer (body mass 56-72 kg) were physically restrained in a drop-floor chute and hand injected intramuscularly with medetomidine (0.1-0.14 mg/kg) and ketamine (2.5-4.3 mg/kg). Intranasal oxygen was delivered from an oxygen cylinder at continuous flow rates of 1 and 2 L/min or from a battery driven oxygen concentrator (EverGo Portable Oxygen Concentrator, Respironics) with pulse-dose delivery (maximum capacity of 1.05 L/min). The pulse-dose setting (pulse volume 12-70 ml) was adjusted according to the respiratory rate. Arterial blood gases were analyzed before, during, and after O2 supplementation. A 10-min washout period was allowed between treatment groups. All three treatments adequately treated hypoxemia. The partial pressure of arterial oxygenation increased significantly from baseline values of 55 +/- 10 to 115 +/- 31 mm Hg during supplementation from the oxygen concentrator, to 138 +/- 21 mm Hg during supplementation from the oxygen cylinder at 1 L/min, and to 201 +/- 42 mm Hg at 2 L/min. In conclusion, low flow rates of intranasal oxygen supplemented continuously from an oxygen cylinder or by pulsed delivery from a portable oxygen concentrator effectively treated hypoxemia in anesthetized white-tailed deer. PMID:25000687

  17. Spatial ecology of white-tailed deer fawns in the northern Great Plains: implications of loss of conservation reserve program grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how wildlife, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in particular, respond to Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands. We conducted a 3-year study (20072009) to determine the influence of CRP on fawn ecology during a time of declining CRP enrollment. We captured and radiocollared 81 fawn white-tailed deer during 15 May to 15 June 20072009 in north-central South Dakota, collected 6,505 locations, and documented 70 summer home ranges. Mean summer home ranges increased temporally during 20072009 (P P < 0.001) from 2007 to 2009. Analysis of covariance models indicated that change in CRP influenced home-range size, and change in CRP and wheat influenced daily movement. Smaller home ranges and reduced movements were associated with greater quantity of CRP available to fawns, and increased movements were associated with more acreage of wheat available to fawns. Fawns shifted resource selection during the summer at a mean age ranging from 48.8 days to 58.6 days, and this shift was associated with height of corn (8387 cm). During early summer, fawns consistently selected for CRP; selection of wheat progressed temporally from avoidance in 2007 to selection in 2009. During late summer, fawns consistently selected for corn habitat and used CRP at least in proportion to its availability. Reduction in CRP-grasslands seemed to increase fawn home-range size and daily movements and, influenced change in resource selection to wheat. Current legislation mandates continued decrease in CRP enrollment and concomitant increase in the planting of corn for ethanol production. Management of habitat throughout the grasslands of the Northern Great Plains that maximizes cover habitats would provide neonates with adequate cover for protection from predators.

  18. Deciphering seasonal variations in the diet and drinking water of modern White-Tailed deer by in situ analysis of osteons in cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, T. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.

    2007-12-01

    In situ carbon and oxygen isotope values for bioapatite were obtained from longitudinal slices of cortical bone from modern domesticated sheep and free-range White-Tailed deer. The analyses were obtained using an IR-laser coupled to a GC-IRMS interface. Ablation pits averaged 200 × 50 μm, making it possible to sample individual or small bundles of osteons. Cortical bone is remodeled along osteons throughout a mammal's life. Therefore, data at this scale can record seasonal variations in diet and drinking water during the adult stages of a mammal, whereas teeth provide may provide information about the juvenile years of a mammal. Average δ18O and δ13C values for the sheep from southwestern Ontario, Canada, were 14.0 and -16.1‰, respectively. No trend was observed in the isotopic composition of the sheep's osteons, consistent with its constant diet and water supply. The δ18O (14.2 to 16.6‰) and δ13C (-19.2 to -15.6‰) values of osteons from White-Tailed deer from nearby Pinery Provincial Park, however, varied systematically and were negatively correlated. Oxygen isotope values of the osteons correlated well with changes in the δ18O values of the main water source for these deer: winter average, -10.7‰; summer average, -8.6‰. The variation in δ13C values of the osteons reflects changes in diet; summer diet consisted mainly of leafy C3 vegetation (-28.4‰), whereas winter diet comprised bark (-25.6‰), C4 grasses (δ13C, -12.7‰), and corn stalks and husks (-11.3‰).

  19. Effects of Harvesting Intensity and Herbivory by White-tailed Deer on Vegetation and Nutrient Uptake in a Northern Hardwood Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorks, T. E.; Leopold, D. J.; Raynal, D. J.; Murdoch, P. S.; Burns, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    We quantified the response of vegetation and nutrient uptake in a northern hardwood forest in southeastern New York for three to four years after three intensities of harvesting: clearcutting, heavy timber stand improvement (TSI), light TSI (97, 29, and 10% basal area reductions, respectively). We also quantified effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on nutrient retention by vegetation. Total biomass and nutrient accumulation in vegetation was higher after TSI than clearcutting in the first two years but was highest in the fenced clearcut in subsequent years, indicating that TSI or partial harvesting is a viable management tool for harvesting timber while consistently maintaining high rates of nutrient retention. After clearcutting, biomass and nutrient retention were initially dominated by woody stems <1.4 m tall and herbaceous vegetation, but saplings 0.1-5.0 cm DBH became the most important contributors to biomass and nutrient accumulation within four years. However, after both intensities of TSI, trees >5.0 cm DBH continued to account for most biomass and nutrient accumulation whereas understory vegetation accumulated little biomass or nutrients. Heavy TSI resulted in increased regeneration of only two tree species (Acer pensylvanicum, Fagus grandifolia), but clearcutting allowed these two species, mature forest species (A. saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis), and the early successional Prunus pensylvanica to regenerate. Several early successional shrub and herbaceous species were also important to nutrient retention after clearcutting, including Polygonum cilinode, Rubus spp., and Sambucus racemosa. Herbivory by white-tailed deer dramatically reduced biomass and nutrient accumulation by woody stems <5 cm DBH after clearcutting (5.5 vs. 0.7 Mg biomass/ha and 30.4 vs. 6.3 kg N/ha on fenced and unfenced clearcut sites, respectively, after four years), indicating the important influence this herbivore can have on nutrient retention in recently disturbed forests.

  20. Efficacy of amitraz applied to white-tailed deer by the '4-poster' topical treatment device in controlling free-living lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Pound, J M; Miller, J A; George, J E

    2000-11-01

    White-tailed deer treated themselves with a commercial pour-on acaricide formulation containing 2% amitraz as they fed from an ARS-patented '4-poster' topical treatment device. Whole kernel corn attracted deer to a single device placed in each of two deer-fenced pastures. In the treatment pasture, the rollers of the treatment device were charged with the acaricide, whereas the rollers of the device in the other pasture remained untreated. Deer were allowed to use the '4-posters' during periods of tick activity beginning in early to midspring and lasting through late summer to early fall for three consecutive years. Pretreatment sampling of adults and nymphs with dry-ice traps and larval masses with flip cloths showed no significant differences in population indices between the two pastures; however, after the third year of treatment, control of nymphal and adult ticks in the treated pasture was 91.9 and 93.7%, respectively, when compared with the untreated pasture. Control of larval masses increased from 68.4% in year 1 to 96.4% in year 2, but declined to 88.0% in year 3, probably because of the presence of feral hogs. This study demonstrated that application of amitraz to white-tailed deer through free-choice interaction with a '4-poster' device significantly reduced the abundance of free-living lone star ticks in a deer-fenced experimental pasture. Moreover, the yearly pattern of incremental increases in control and the final percentage control values for all three parasitic life stages in this topical application study were similar in magnitude to that observed in a previously conducted study in which the systemic acaricide ivermectin was used to reduce populations of free-living ticks by controlling ticks on deer. PMID:11126544

  1. Prefrontal cortex white matter tracts in prodromal Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Joy T; Vaidya, Jatin G; Wassermann, Demian; Kim, Regina Eunyoung; Magnotta, Vincent A; Johnson, Hans J; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-10-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is most widely known for its selective degeneration of striatal neurons but there is also growing evidence for white matter (WM) deterioration. The primary objective of this research was to conduct a large-scale analysis using multisite diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) tractography data to quantify diffusivity properties along major prefrontal cortex WM tracts in prodromal HD. Fifteen international sites participating in the PREDICT-HD study collected imaging and neuropsychological data on gene-positive HD participants without a clinical diagnosis (i.e., prodromal) and gene-negative control participants. The anatomical prefrontal WM tracts of the corpus callosum (PFCC), anterior thalamic radiations (ATRs), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (IFO), and uncinate fasciculi (UNC) were identified using streamline tractography of DWI. Within each of these tracts, tensor scalars for fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity coefficients were calculated. We divided prodromal HD subjects into three CAG-age product (CAP) groups having Low, Medium, or High probabilities of onset indexed by genetic exposure. We observed significant differences in WM properties for each of the four anatomical tracts for the High CAP group in comparison to controls. Additionally, the Medium CAP group presented differences in the ATR and IFO in comparison to controls. Furthermore, WM alterations in the PFCC, ATR, and IFO showed robust associations with neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. These results suggest long-range tracts essential for cross-region information transfer show early vulnerability in HD and may explain cognitive problems often present in the prodromal stage. Hum Brain Mapp 36:3717-3732, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26179962

  2. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

    2014-07-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak. PMID:24807363

  3. White matter integrity in small vessel disease is related to cognition

    PubMed Central

    Tuladhar, Anil M.; van Norden, Anouk G.W.; de Laat, Karlijn F.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; van Dijk, Ewoud J.; Norris, David G.; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunes of presumed vascular origin, is common in elderly people and is related to cognitive impairment and dementia. One possible mechanism could be the disruption of white matter tracts (both within WMH and normal-appearing white matter) that connect distributed brain regions involved in cognitive functions. Here, we investigated the relation between microstructural integrity of the white matter and cognitive functions in patients with small vessel disease. The Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion tensor and Magnetic resonance Cohort study is a prospective cohort study among 444 independently living, non-demented elderly with cerebral small vessel disease, aged between 5500 and 85years. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging scanning and an extensive neuropsychological assessment. We showed that loss of microstructural integrity of the white matter at specific locations was related to specific cognitive disturbances, which was mainly located in the normal-appearing white matter (p<0.05, FWE-corrected for multiple comparisons). The microstructural integrity in the genu and splenium showed the highest significant relation with global cognitive function and executive functions, in the cingulum bundle with verbal memory performance. Associations between diffusion tensor imaging parameters and most cognitive domains remained present after adjustment for WMH and lacunes. In conclusion, cognitive disturbances in subjects with cerebral small vessel disease are related to microstructural integrity of multiple white matter fibers (within WMH and normal-appearing white matter) connecting different cortical and subcortical regions. PMID:25737960

  4. Effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatement of white-tailed deer on host-seeking tick infection prevalence and entomologic risk for Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on the infection prevalence and entomologic risk for three I. scapularis-borne bacteria in host-seeking ticks. Ticks were collected from vegetation in areas treated with the ‘4-Poster’ device and from control a...

  5. Contemporary white-band disease in Caribbean corals driven by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, C. J.; van Woesik, R.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, two of the dominant reef-building corals in the Caribbean, Acropora palmata and Acropora cervicornis, have experienced unprecedented declines. That loss has been largely attributed to a syndrome commonly referred to as white-band disease. Climate change-driven increases in sea surface temperature (SST) have been linked to several coral diseases, yet, despite decades of research, the attribution of white-band disease to climate change remains unknown. Here we hindcasted the potential relationship between recent ocean warming and outbreaks of white-band disease on acroporid corals. We quantified eight SST metrics, including rates of change in SST and contemporary thermal anomalies, and compared them with records of white-band disease on A. palmata and A. cervicornis from 473 sites across the Caribbean, surveyed from 1997 to 2004. The results of our models suggest that decades-long climate-driven changes in SST, increases in thermal minima, and the breach of thermal maxima have all played significant roles in the spread of white-band disease. We conclude that white-band disease has been strongly coupled with thermal stresses associated with climate change, which has contributed to the regional decline of these once-dominant reef-building corals.

  6. Role of the Cytoplasmic Tail Amino Acid Sequences of Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Protein in Virion Incorporation, Cell Fusion, and Pathogenicity ?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Yan, Yongqi; Samal, Siba K.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the role of amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) cytoplasmic tail in Newcastle disease virus (NDV) replication and pathogenicity, we generated recombinant NDVs with a deletion or point mutation in the N-terminal cytoplasmic tail. The first 2-amino-acid deletion in the cytoplasmic tail did not affect the biological characteristics of NDV. However, a 4-amino-acid deletion and the substitution of alanine for serine at position 6 affected cell fusion, pathogenicity, and colocalization of the HN and M proteins of NDV, indicating that these residues of the HN cytoplasmic tail are critical for its specific incorporation into virions. PMID:19640990

  7. White matter changes in chronic alcoholic liver disease: Hypothesized association and putative biochemical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Leith; Huang, Jimmy; Zamani, Amir; Morioka, Craig; El-Saden, Suzie

    2015-12-01

    Advanced liver disease has long been associated with cerebral abnormalities. These abnormalities, termed acquired hepatocerebral degeneration, are typically visualized as T1 weighted hyperintensity on MRI in the deep gray matter of the basal ganglia. Recent reports, however, have demonstrated that a subset of patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease may also develop white matter abnormalities. Thus far, the morphology of these changes is not well characterized. Previous studies have described these changes as patchy, sporadic white matter abnormalities but have not posited localization of these changes to any particular white matter tracts. This paper hypothesizes that the white matter findings associated with advanced alcoholic liver disease localize to the corticocerebellar tracts. As an initial investigation of this hypothesis, 78 patients with a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and an MRI showing clearly abnormal T1 weighted hyperintensity in the bilateral globus pallidus, characteristic of chronic liver disease, were examined for white matter signal abnormalities in the corticocerebellar tracts using FLAIR and T2 weighted images. The corticocerebellar tracts were subdivided into two regions: periventricular white matter (consisting of the sum of the centrum-semiovale and corona radiata), and lower white matter (consisting of the corona radiata, internal capsules, middle cerebral peduncles, middle cerebellar peduncles and cerebellum). As compared to matched controls, significantly greater signal abnormalities in both the periventricular white matter and lower white matter regions of the corticocerebellar tracts were observed in patients with known liver cirrhosis and abnormal T1W hyperintensity in the globi pallidi. This difference was most pronounced in the lower white matter region of the corticocerebellar tract, with statistical significance of p<0.0005. Furthermore, the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying these changes remains unknown. This paper hypothesizes that the etiology of white matter changes associated with advanced liver disease may resemble that of white matter findings in subacute combined degeneration secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. Specifically, significant evidence suggests that dysfunctional methionine metabolism as well as dysregulated cytokine production secondary to B12 deficiency play a major role in the development of subacute combined degeneration. Similar dysfunction of methionine metabolism and cytokine regulation is seen in alcoholic liver disease and is hypothesized in this paper to, at least in part, lead to white matter findings associated with alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26474927

  8. Brain white matter volume abnormalities in Lesch-Nyhan disease and its variants

    PubMed Central

    Varvaris, Mark; Vannorsdall, Tracy D.; Gordon, Barry; Harris, James C.; Jinnah, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine brain white matter abnormalities based on MRI in adults with Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) or an attenuated variant (LNV) of this rare, X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder of purine metabolism. Methods: In this observational study, we compared 21 adults with LND, 17 with LNV, and 33 age-, sex-, and race-matched healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry and analysis of covariance to identify white matter volume abnormalities in both patient groups. Results: Patients with classic LND showed larger reductions of white (26%) than gray (17%) matter volume relative to healthy controls. Those with LNV showed comparable reductions of white (14%) and gray (15%) matter volume. Both patient groups demonstrated reduced volume in medial inferior white matter regions. Compared with LNV, the LND group showed larger reductions in inferior frontal white matter adjoining limbic and temporal regions and the motor cortex. These regions likely include such long association fibers as the superior longitudinal and uncinate fasciculi. Conclusions: Despite earlier reports that LND primarily involves the basal ganglia, this study reveals substantial white matter volume abnormalities. Moreover, white matter deficits are more severe than gray matter deficits in classic LND, and also characterize persons with LNV. The brain images acquired for these analyses cannot precisely localize white matter abnormalities or determine whether they involve changes in tract orientation or anisotropy. However, clusters of reduced white matter volume identified here affect regions that are consistent with the neurobehavioral phenotype. PMID:25503620

  9. Toxicodynamic modeling of 137Cs to estimate white-tailed deer background levels for the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M; Bobryk, Christopher W; Blas, Susan A

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is a former nuclear weapon material production and current research facility adjacent to the Savannah River in South Carolina, USA. The purpose of this study was to determine the background radiocesium ((137)Cs) body burden (e.g., from global fallout) for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) inhabiting the SRS. To differentiate what the background burden is for the SRS versus (137)Cs obtained from SRS nuclear activities, data were analyzed spatially, temporally and compared to other off-site hunting areas near the SRS. The specific objectives of this study were: to compare SRS and offsite deer herds based on time and space; to interpret comparisons based on how data were collected as well as the effect of environmental and anthropogenic influences; to determine what the ecological half-life/decay rate is for (137)Cs in the SRS deer herd; and to give a recommendation to what should be considered the background (137)Cs level in the SRS deer herd. Based on the available information and analyses, it is recommended that the determination of what is considered background for the SRS deer herd be derived from data collected from the SRS deer herd itself and not offsite collections for a variety of reasons. Offsite data show extreme variability most likely due to environmental factors such as soil type and land-use patterns (e.g., forest, agriculture, residential activities). This can be seen from results where samples from offsite military bases (Fort Jackson and Fort Stewart) without anthropogenic (137)Cs sources were much higher than both the SRS and a nearby (Sandhills) study site. Moreover, deer from private hunting grounds have the potential to be baited with corn, thus artificially lowering their (137)Cs body burdens compared to other free-ranging deer. Additionally, sample size for offsite collections were not robust enough to calculate a temporal decay curve with an upper confidence level to determine if the herds are following predicted radioactive decay rates like the SRS or if the variability is due to those points described above. Using mean yearly values, the ecological half-life for (137)Cs body burdens for SRS white-tailed deer was determined to be 28.79 years--very close to the 30.2 years physical half-life. PMID:24389840

  10. The Ecology of Acroporid White Syndrome', a Coral Disease from the Southern Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    Roff, George; Kvennefors, E. Charlotte E.; Fine, Maoz; Ortiz, Juan; Davy, Joanne E.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Outbreaks of coral disease have increased worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, remarkably little is known about the ecology of disease in the Indo-Pacific Region. Here we report the spatiotemporal dynamics of a coral disease termed Acroporid white syndrome observed to affect tabular corals of the genus Acropora on the southern Great Barrier Reef. The syndrome is characterised by rapid tissue loss initiating in the basal margins of colonies, and manifests as a distinct lesion boundary between apparently healthy tissue and exposed white skeleton. Surveys of eight sites around Heron Reef in 2004 revealed a mean prevalence of 8.10.9%, affecting the three common species (Acropora cytherea, A. hyacinthus, A. clathrata) and nine other tabular Acropora spp. While all sizes of colonies were affected, white syndrome disproportionately affected larger colonies of tabular Acroporids (>80 cm). The prevalence of white syndrome was strongly related to the abundance of tabular Acroporids within transects, yet the incidence of the syndrome appears unaffected by proximity to other colonies, suggesting that while white syndrome is density dependant, it does not exhibit a strongly aggregated spatial pattern consistent with previous coral disease outbreaks. Acroporid white syndrome was not transmitted by either direct contact in the field or by mucus in aquaria experiments. Monitoring of affected colonies revealed highly variable rates of tissue loss ranging from 0 to 1146 cm?2 week?1, amongst the highest documented for a coral disease. Contrary to previous links between temperature and coral disease, rates of tissue loss in affected colonies increased threefold during the winter months. Given the lack of spatial pattern and non-infectious nature of Acroporid white syndrome, further studies are needed to determine causal factors and longer-term implications of disease outbreaks on the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:22163267

  11. The ecology of 'Acroporid white syndrome', a coral disease from the southern Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Roff, George; Kvennefors, E Charlotte E; Fine, Maoz; Ortiz, Juan; Davy, Joanne E; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Outbreaks of coral disease have increased worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, remarkably little is known about the ecology of disease in the Indo-Pacific Region. Here we report the spatiotemporal dynamics of a coral disease termed 'Acroporid white syndrome' observed to affect tabular corals of the genus Acropora on the southern Great Barrier Reef. The syndrome is characterised by rapid tissue loss initiating in the basal margins of colonies, and manifests as a distinct lesion boundary between apparently healthy tissue and exposed white skeleton. Surveys of eight sites around Heron Reef in 2004 revealed a mean prevalence of 8.10.9%, affecting the three common species (Acropora cytherea, A. hyacinthus, A. clathrata) and nine other tabular Acropora spp. While all sizes of colonies were affected, white syndrome disproportionately affected larger colonies of tabular Acroporids (>80 cm). The prevalence of white syndrome was strongly related to the abundance of tabular Acroporids within transects, yet the incidence of the syndrome appears unaffected by proximity to other colonies, suggesting that while white syndrome is density dependant, it does not exhibit a strongly aggregated spatial pattern consistent with previous coral disease outbreaks. Acroporid white syndrome was not transmitted by either direct contact in the field or by mucus in aquaria experiments. Monitoring of affected colonies revealed highly variable rates of tissue loss ranging from 0 to 1146 cm(-2) week(-1), amongst the highest documented for a coral disease. Contrary to previous links between temperature and coral disease, rates of tissue loss in affected colonies increased threefold during the winter months. Given the lack of spatial pattern and non-infectious nature of Acroporid white syndrome, further studies are needed to determine causal factors and longer-term implications of disease outbreaks on the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:22163267

  12. Transmission of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Acutely Infected White Tailed Deer to Cattle via Indirect Contact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are found worldwide, and acute infections in cattle results in enteric, respiratory, and reproductive diseases of varying severity, depending on the BVDV strain, the immune and reproductive status of the host and the presence of secondary pathogens. While most c...

  13. Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle and white-tailed deer: Translational research of relevance to human tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a premier example of a disease complex with pathogens primarily affecting humans (i.e., Mycobacterium tuberculosis) or livestock and wildlife (i.e., Mycobacterium bovis) and with a long history of inclusive collaborations between physicians and veterinarians. Advances with the s...

  14. ETIOLOGY OF WHITE POX, A LETHAL DISEASE OF THE CARIBBEAN ELKHORN CORAL, ACROPORA PALMATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of the shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are being decimated by white pox disease, with losses in the Florida Keys typically in excess of 70%. Tissue loss is rapid, averaging 2.5 cm2 day-1. A bacterium isolated from diseased A. palmata was shown...

  15. Distribution of Antibodies Reactive to Borrelia lonestari and Borrelia burgdorferi in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Populations in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, Jessica H.; Little, Susan E.; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Caudell, Joe N.; Huffman, Jane E.; Langenberg, Julia A.; Hollamby, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Southern tick-associated rash illness is a Lyme-like syndrome that occurs in the southern states. Borrelia lonestari, which has been suggested as a possible causative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness, naturally infects white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and is transmitted by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). To better understand the prevalence and distribution of Borrelia exposure among WTD, we tested WTD from 21 eastern states for antibodies reactive to B. lonestari using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay and Borrelia burgdorferi using the IDEXX SNAP 4Dx test. A total of 107/714 (15%) had antibodies reactive to B. lonestari, and prevalence of antibodies was higher in deer from southern states (17.5%) than in deer from northern states (9.2%). Using the SNAP 4DX test, we found that 73/723 (10%) were positive for B. burgdorferi, and significantly more northern deer (23.9%) were positive compared with southern deer (3.8%). Our data demonstrate that WTD are exposed to both Borrelia species, but antibody prevalence for exposure to the two species differs regionally and distributions correlate with the presence of Ixodes scapularis and A. americanum ticks. PMID:19874183

  16. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein antibodies in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York and Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    Kirchgessner, Megan S; Freer, Heather; Whipps, Christopher M; Wagner, Bettina

    2013-05-15

    Borrelia burgdorferi differentially exhibits outer surface proteins (Osp) on its outer membrane, and detection of particular Osp antibodies in mammals is suggestive of the infection stage. For example, OspF is typically associated with chronic infection, whereas OspC suggests early infection. A fluorescent bead-based multiplex assay was used to test sera from New York and Pennsylvania white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for the presence of antibodies to OspA, OspC, and OspF. OspF seroprevalence was significantly greater than both OspA and OspC seroprevalence for all study sites. OspA, OspC, and OspF seroprevalences were significantly greater in Pennsylvania deer than New York deer. The regional differences in seroprevalence are believed to be attributable to a heterogeneous Ixodes scapularis distribution. While most seropositive deer were solely OspF seropositive, deer concurrently OspC and OspF seropositive were the second most commonly encountered individuals. Simultaneous detection of OspF and OspC antibodies may occur when non-infected or chronically infected deer are bitten by an infected tick within a few months of blood collection, thereby inducing production of antibodies associated with the early stages of infection with B. burgdorferi. PMID:23507438

  17. [Annual follow-up of the gastrointestinal parasitosis of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in captivity in Yucatn, Mxico].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Montes Prez RC; Rodrguez Vivas RI; Torres Acosta JF; Ek Pech LG

    1998-09-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites, and egg and oocyst output in the faeces of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus yucatanensis) were recorded in Yucatan, Mexico. Feces were obtained from from January through December 1995 (ten samples every two weeks per place). Samples were processed by flotation and the McMaster techniques. Faecal cultures for L3 larvae were made by the Corticelli-Lai technique. Oocysts in faeces were cultured in 2% potassium dicromate. Seven genera were determined (Haemonchus spp., Cooperia spp, Isospora spp., Eimeria spp., Trichuris spp., Strongyloides spp. and Moniezia spp.) which represent five orders. The most frequent genera were Haemonchus, Isospora and Eimeria. The genus Isospora is reported for the first time in deer of this region, although it was not possible to explain the source of this parasite. The frequency and level of faecal egg and oocyst outputs were variable during the year and increased during the rainy season. There was a positive correlation between relative humidity, environmental temperature and rainfall with the coccidia and strongylida orders. In the central zone of Yucatan the meteorological conditions during the rainy season are favourable for the development of gastrointestinal parasitism which enable an increased risk of infection for deer.

  18. Cache Valley and Potosi viruses (Bunyaviridae) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): experimental infections and antibody prevalence in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, C G; Grimstad, P R

    1998-11-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV) and Potosi virus (POTV) are two closely related mosquito-borne viruses (Bunyaviridae: Bunyamwera group) that appear to circulate in several regions of the United States, especially the Midwest. We determined the prevalence of specific neutralizing antibodies to both viruses in Indiana white-tailed deer and conducted infection experiments to assess whether deer could serve as an vertebrate-amplifying host. Cross-infection experiments also were carried out to investigate the level of antibody cross-reactivity and cross-protection between the two viruses. The seroprevalence rate was high for both CVV (> 66%) and POTV (> 43%) in adult deer statewide. Antibodies neutralizing CVV were more common among deer harvested in the northern part of Indiana whereas the prevalence of POTV antibodies suggested a more southern distribution for this virus. Experimental infections of captive deer showed that they may serve as amplifying hosts for either virus. Deer infected with CVV or POTV developed a 1-3-day viremia with 3.0 and 4.1 log10 plaque-forming units/ml mean peak titers, respectively. However, significant levels of antibody cross-reactivity between the two viruses were observed. Viremia was lower and shorter when animals immune to either CVV or POTV were cross-infected with the alternate virus and antibody responses following cross-infections resembled original antigenic sin with higher titers of antibodies against the primary agent. PMID:9840585

  19. Winter browse selection by white-tailed deer and implications for bottomland forest restoration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cogger, Benjamin J.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Thomsen, Meredith; Adams, Carrie Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) forage selectively, modifying upland forest species composition and in some cases shifting ecosystems to alternative stable states. Few studies, however, have investigated plant selection by deer in bottomland forests. Herbaceous invasive species are common in wetlands and their expansion could be promoted if deer avoid them and preferentially feed on native woody species. We surveyed plant species composition and winter deer browsing in 14 floodplain forest restoration sites along the Upper Mississippi River and tributaries. Tree seedling density declined rapidly with increasing cover of invasive Phalaris arundinacea, averaging less than 1 per m2 in all sites in which the grass was present. Deer browsed ∼46% of available tree seedling stems (branches) at mainland restorations, compared to ∼3% at island sites. Across all tree species, the number of browsed stems increased linearly with the number available and responded unimodally to tree height. Maximum browsing rates were observed on trees with high stem abundances (>10 per plant) and of heights between 50 and 150 cm. Deer preferred Ulmus americana and Acer saccharinum, and avoided Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer negundo, and Quercus spp. at mainland sites, and did not browse Phalaris arundinacea if present. Depending on plant growth responses to herbivory and the competitive effects of unbrowsed species, our results suggest that selective foraging could promote the expansion of invasive species and/or alter tree species composition in bottomland forest restorations. Islands may, however, serve as refuges from browsing on a regional scale.

  20. Is Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome a genetic disease?

    PubMed

    Ehtisham, Javed; Watkins, Hugh

    2005-11-01

    Family studies, and more recent molecular genetic investigations, indicate that the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome and associated preexcitation disorders can have a substantial genetic component. Because preexcitation disorders are sometimes inherited as single gene disorders, key mechanistic insights can be gained that are expected to be relevant also to the more common multifactorial forms of these traits. Potentially, such insights will inform the future management of these conditions. Where WPW is inherited as a familial trait, with or without associated cardiac defects or a systemic syndrome, there are clinical genetic ramifications that are already of practical importance. PMID:16302915

  1. On-Farm Mitigation of Transmission of Tuberculosis from White-Tailed Deer to Cattle: Literature Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Anderson, Charles W.; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; Averill, James J.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2012-01-01

    The Animal Industry Division of the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) has been challenged with assisting farmers with modifying farm practices to reduce potential for exposure to Mycobacterium bovis from wildlife to cattle. The MDARD recommendations for on-farm risk mitigation practices were developed from experiences in the US, UK and Ireland and a review of the scientific literature. The objectives of our study were to review the present state of knowledge on M. bovis excretion, transmission, and survival in the environment and the interactions of wildlife and cattle with the intention of determining if the current recommendations by MDARD on farm practices are adequate and to identify additional changes to farm practices that may help to mitigate the risk of transmission. This review will provide agencies with a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature on mitigation of disease transmission between wildlife and cattle and to identify lacunae in published research. PMID:22991687

  2. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Cattle and White-Tailed Deer: Translational Research of Relevance to Human Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Waters, W Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a premier example of a disease complex with pathogens primarily affecting humans (i.e., Mycobacterium tuberculosis) or livestock and wildlife (i.e., Mycobacterium bovis) and with a long history of inclusive collaborations between physicians and veterinarians. Advances in the study of bovine TB have been applied to human TB, and vice versa. For instance, landmark discoveries on the use of Koch's tuberculin and interferon-γ release assays for diagnostic purposes, as well as Calmette and Guérin's attenuated M. bovis strain as a vaccine, were first evaluated in cattle for control of bovine TB prior to wide-scale use in humans. Likewise, recent discoveries on the role of effector/memory T cell subsets and polyfunctional T cells in the immune response to human TB, particularly as related to vaccine efficacy, have paved the way for similar studies in cattle. Over the past 15 years, substantial funding for development of human TB vaccines has led to the emergence of multiple promising candidates now in human clinical trials. Several of these vaccines are being tested for immunogenicity and efficacy in cattle. Also, the development of population-based vaccination strategies for control of M. bovis infection in wildlife reservoirs will undoubtedly have an impact on our understanding of herd immunity with relevance to the control of both bovine and human TB in regions of the world with high prevalence of TB. Thus, the one-health approach to research on TB is mutually beneficial for our understanding and control of TB in humans, livestock, and wildlife. PMID:25991696

  3. Multiple mechanisms of transmission of the Caribbean coral disease white plague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, E.; Brandt, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    White plague is one of the most devastating coral diseases in the Caribbean, and yet important aspects of its epidemiology, including how the disease transmits, remain unknown. This study tested potential mechanisms and rates of transmission of white plague in a laboratory setting. Transmission mechanisms including the transport of water, contact with macroalgae, and predation via corallivorous worms and snails were tested on the host species Orbicella annularis. Two of the tested mechanisms were shown to transmit disease: water transport and the corallivorous snail Coralliophila abbreviata. Between these transmission mechanisms, transport of water between a diseased coral and a healthy coral resulted in disease incidence significantly more frequently in exposed healthy corals. Transmission via water transport also occurred more quickly and was associated with higher rates of tissue loss (up to 3.5 cm d-1) than with the corallivorous snail treatment. In addition, water that was in contact with diseased corals but was filtered with a 0.22-μm filter prior to being introduced to apparently healthy corals also resulted in the transmission of disease signs, but at a much lower rate than when water was not filtered. This study has provided important information on the transmission potential of Caribbean white plague disease and highlights the need for a greater understanding of how these processes operate in the natural environment.

  4. Effects of cholinesterase inhibition on brain white matter volume in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Venneri, Annalena; Lane, Roger

    2009-02-18

    Brain white matter volume changes were quantified by using voxel-based morphometry in 26 minimal-to-mild Alzheimer's disease patients receiving cholinesterase inhibitors over 20 weeks. Patients treated with rivastigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, did not show those reductions in white matter volume that were observed in patients treated with acetylcholinesterase-selective agents, donepezil and galantamine. This is the first time that dual cholinesterase inhibition has been shown to influence white matter volume specifically. The findings are consistent with a thesis that dual cholinesterase inhibition may have neuroprotective potential. Attenuated loss of brain volumes and delayed/slower long-term clinical decline in patients treated with agents such as rivastigmine may be due to less extensive white matter damage and loss of corticosubcortical connectivity. PMID:19444953

  5. White matter diffusion alterations in normal women at risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles D; Chebrolu, Himachandra; Andersen, Anders H; Powell, David A; Lovell, Mark A; Xiong, Shuling; Gold, Brian T

    2010-07-01

    Increased white matter mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) has been observed in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to determine whether similar alterations of white matter occur in normal individuals at risk of AD. Diffusion tensor images were acquired in 42 cognitively normal right-handed women with both a family history of dementia and at least one apolipoprotein E4 allele. These were compared with images from 23 normal women without either AD risk factor. Group analyses were performed using tract-based spatial statistics. Reduced FA was observed in the fronto-occipital and inferior temporal fasciculi (particularly posteriorly), the splenium of the corpus callosum, subcallosal white matter and the cingulum bundle. These findings demonstrate that specific white matter pathways are altered in normal women at increased risk of AD years before the expected onset of cognitive symptoms. PMID:18801597

  6. White matter lesions in Fabry disease occur in 'prior' selectively hypometabolic and hyperperfused brain regions.

    PubMed

    Moore, David F; Altarescu, Gheona; Barker, W Craig; Patronas, Nicholas J; Herscovitch, Peter; Schiffmann, Raphael

    2003-12-30

    Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder associated with early onset stroke. We previously found a significantly elevated cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with Fabry disease. We set to determine whether elevated resting CBF in Fabry disease is primarily a cerebrovascular abnormality or is secondary to enhanced neuronal metabolism. The relationship of cerebral metabolism and blood flow to Fabry leukoencephalopathy was also investigated. We measured the global and regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose using 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) and PET in 16 patients with Fabry disease (7 patients with leukoaraiotic lesions and 9 without) and in 7 control subjects. MRI fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) studies were also performed in the patient and control groups. All control subjects had normal MRI FLAIR studies with no high-signal deep white matter lesions (WML). Patients were partitioned into FLAIR lesion and non-FLAIR lesion groups. We found no evidence of cerebral glucose hypermetabolism in Fabry disease. On the contrary, significantly decreased regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) was found particularly in the deep white matter in the Fabry non-lesion group and exacerbated in the lesion group. Lesion-susceptible regions were relatively hyperperfused in non-lesion patients compared to the control group. We conclude that the elevated rCBF and decreased white matter rCMRGlu indicates a dissociation between metabolism and blood flow suggesting chronic deep white matter metabolic insufficiency. PMID:14698356

  7. Independent component analysis of DTI data reveals white matter covariances in Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Xin; Sun, Xiaoyu; Guo, Ting; Sun, Qiaoyue; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2014-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with the clinical symptom of the continuous deterioration of cognitive and memory functions. Multiple diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) can successfully explain the white matter damages in AD patients. However, most studies focused on the univariate measures (voxel-based analysis) to examine the differences between AD patients and normal controls (NCs). In this investigation, we applied a multivariate independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate the white matter covariances based on FA measurement from DTI data in 35 AD patients and 45 NCs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We found that six independent components (ICs) showed significant FA reductions in white matter covariances in AD compared with NC, including the genu and splenium of corpus callosum (IC-1 and IC-2), middle temporal gyral of temporal lobe (IC-3), sub-gyral of frontal lobe (IC-4 and IC-5) and sub-gyral of parietal lobe (IC-6). Our findings revealed covariant white matter loss in AD patients and suggest that the unsupervised data-driven ICA method is effective to explore the changes of FA in AD. This study assists us in understanding the mechanism of white matter covariant reductions in the development of AD.

  8. Strategic white matter tracts for processing speed deficits in age-related small vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Duering, Marco; Gesierich, Benno; Seiler, Stephan; Pirpamer, Lukas; Gonik, Mariya; Hofer, Edith; Jouvent, Eric; Duchesnay, Edouard; Chabriat, Hugues; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cerebral small vessel disease is the most common cause of vascular cognitive impairment and typically manifests with slowed processing speed. We investigated the impact of lesion location on processing speed in age-related small vessel disease. Methods: A total of 584 community-dwelling elderly underwent brain MRI followed by segmentation of white matter hyperintensities. Processing speed was determined by the timed measure of the Trail Making Test part B. The impact of the location of white matter hyperintensities was assessed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and graph-based statistical models on regional lesion volumes in major white matter tracts. Results: Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping identified multiple voxel clusters where the presence of white matter hyperintensities was associated with slower performance on the Trail Making Test part B. Clusters were located bilaterally in the forceps minor and anterior thalamic radiation. Region of interestbased Bayesian network analyses on lesion volumes within major white matter tracts depicted the same tracts as direct predictors for an impaired Trail Making Test part B performance. Conclusions: Our findings highlight damage to frontal interhemispheric and thalamic projection fiber tracts harboring frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits as a predictor for processing speed performance in age-related small vessel disease. PMID:24793184

  9. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa. PMID:25776548

  10. Deciphering Seasonal Variations of Diet and Water in Modern White-Tailed Deer by In Situ Analysis of Osteons in Cortical Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, T. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.

    2004-12-01

    In situ stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic apatite were obtained from longitudinally-cut sections of cortical bone from femurs of modern domesticated sheep and free-range White-Tailed deer, using an IR-laser and a GC-continuous flow interface. Ablation pits averaged 200x50 microns, making it possible to analyze individual osteons. Since cortical bone is remodelled along osteons throughout a mammal's lifetime, isotopic data at this resolution provides information about seasonal variations in diet and drinking water. The O-isotope results were calibrated using laser analyses of NBS-18 and NBS-19, which produced a value of 26.39±0.46 permil (n=27) for WS-1 calcite (accepted value, 26.25 permil). C-isotope results were calibrated using a CO2 reference gas, producing a value of 0.76±0.40permil (n=27) for WS-1, also in excellent agreement with its accepted value of 0.74 permil. Average O- and C-isotope values for a local domestic sheep (southwestern Ontario, Canada) were 12.20±0.58 and -15.70±0.35 permil (n=27), respectively. No isotopic trend occurred along or across individual osteons. This pattern is consistent with the sheep's relatively unchanging food and water sources. The free-range White-Tailed deer came from Pinery Provincial Park (PPP), southwestern Ontario. Its O- and C-isotope compositions varied systematically across individual osteons and were negatively correlated (R2=0.56). O-isotope values ranged from 13.4 to 15.5 permil; the highest values correlated with summer and the lowest values, with winter. The O-isotope compositions of the main water source (Old Ausable River Channel) varied similarly during the deer's lifetime: winter average, -10.7±0.5 permil; summer average, -8.6±0.4 permil. The C-isotope results for the deer osteons varied from -19.7 to -15.9 permil. This variation can be explained by changes in food sources. Summer diets of deer in PPP consist mainly of leafy fractions of C3 vegetation, especially sumac, cedar, oak and pine (average leaf C-isotope value, -28.4±0.8 permil). During winter, when leafy material is unavailable and deep snow inhibits access to vegetation in general, deer strip bark from vegetation (average bark C-isotope value, -25.6±0.8 permil). Certain C4 grasses (little bluestem and sandreed grass, average C-isotope value, -12.7±0.2 permil), which are abundant in unforested dune areas of PPP, commonly stand above the snow cover, and hence are also available for consumption. Deer may also range more widely in the winter, feeding on corn stalks and husks that escaped both harvest and snow cover (average C-isotope value, -11.3±0.2 permil).

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Free-Roaming Cats (Felis catus) Across a Suburban to Urban Gradient in Northeastern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Ballash, Gregory A; Dubey, J P; Kwok, O C H; Shoben, Abigail B; Robison, Terry L; Kraft, Tom J; Dennis, Patricia M

    2015-06-01

    Felids serve as the definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii contaminating environments with oocysts. White-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) are used as sentinel species for contaminated environments as well as a potential source for human foodborne infection with T. gondii. Here we determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in a WTD and felid population, and examine those risk factors that increase exposure to the parasite. Serum samples from 444 WTD and 200 free-roaming cats (Felis catus) from urban and suburban reservations were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 261 (58.8%) of 444 WTD, with 164 (66.1%) of 248 from urban and 97 (49.5%) of 196 from suburban regions. Significant risk factors for seroprevalence included increasing age (P<0.0001), reservation type (P<0.0001), and household densities within reservation (P<0.0001). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 103 (51.5%) of 200 cats, with seroprevalences of 79 (51%) of 155 and 24 (53.3%) of 45 from areas surrounding urban and suburban reservations, respectively. Seroprevalence did not differ by age, gender, or reservation among the cats' sample. Results indicate WTD are exposed by horizontal transmission, and this occurs more frequently in urban environments. The difference between urban and suburban cat densities is the most likely the reason for an increased seroprevalence in urban WTD. These data have public health implications for individuals living near or visiting urban areas where outdoor cats are abundant as well as those individuals who may consume WTD venison. PMID:25269422

  12. Molecular study of free-ranging mule deer and white-tailed deer from British Columbia, Canada, for evidence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp.

    PubMed

    Lobanov, V A; Gajadhar, A A; Al-Adhami, B; Schwantje, H M

    2012-06-01

    Twenty-three free-ranging white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and six mule deer (MD; Odocoileus hemionus) from south-central British Columbia, Canada, were tested for Anaplasma marginale by msp5 gene-specific PCR and Ehrlichia spp. by 16S rRNA or citrate synthase (gltA) gene-specific PCR, as well as by PCR with universal 16S rRNA primers detecting a wide range of bacteria. No deer tested positive for A.marginale. Amplification with universal 16S rRNA primers followed by sequencing of cloned fragments detected an Anaplasma sp. in one of 23 (4.3%) WTD and six of six (100%) MD and Bartonella sp. in four of 23 (17.4%) WTD. The Anaplasma sp. was genetically distinct from A.marginale and all other recognized members of the genus. Four of six (66.7%) MD and 0 of 23 (0%) WTD were Ehrlichia positive by PCR with primers for 16S rRNA and gltA genes. The sequences of gltA PCR fragments were identical to each other and to the respective region of the gltA gene of an Ehrlichia sp. which we detected previously in naturally infected cattle from the same area, suggesting the possibility of biological transmission of this rickettsia between cattle and wild cervids. Antibodies reactive with the MSP5 protein of A.marginale were detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in two of six (33.3%) MD, but not in WTD. The two seropositive MD were PCR positive for both the Anaplasma sp. and Ehrlichia sp. detected in this study, suggesting a reaction of antibodies against one or both of these rickettsias with the MSP5 antigen. PMID:21933360

  13. Modeling the Impact of Climate and Landscape on the Efficacy of White Tailed Deer Vaccination for Cattle Tick Control in Northeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Carreón, Diana; Almazán, Consuelo; de la Fuente, José

    2014-01-01

    Cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. White tailed deer (WTD) sustain and spread cattle tick populations. The aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of WTD to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. Agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches) and climatic conditions were built in a GIS environment to simulate WTD vaccine effectiveness under conditions where unvaccinated cattle shared the landscape. Published and validated information on tick life cycle was used to build models describing tick mortality and developmental rates. Data from simulations were applied to a large territory in northeastern Mexico where cattle ticks are endemic and WTD and cattle share substantial portions of the habitat. WTD movements were simulated together with tick population dynamics considering the actual landscape and climatic features. The size of the vegetation patches and the distance between patches were critical for the successful control of tick infestations after WTD vaccination. The presence of well-connected, large vegetation patches proved essential for tick control, since the tick could persist in areas of highly fragmented habitat. The continued application of one yearly vaccination on days 1-70 for three years reduced tick abundance/animal/patch by a factor of 40 and 60 for R. annulatus and R. microplus, respectively when compared to non-vaccinated controls. The study showed that vaccination of WTD alone during three consecutive years could result in the reduction of cattle tick populations in northeastern Mexico. Furthermore, the results of the simulations suggested the possibility of using vaccines to prevent the spread and thus the re-introduction of cattle ticks into tick-free areas. PMID:25047078

  14. Fecal Volatile Organic Ccompound Profiles from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as Indicators of Mycobacterium bovis Exposure or Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Randal S; Ellis, Christine K; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W Ray; Palmer, Mitchell; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no method exists to non-invasively monitor the presence of bovine tuberculosis in deer. In this study, volatile organic compound profiles of BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated deer, before and after experimental challenge with M. bovis strain 95-1315, were generated using solid phase microextraction fiber head-space sampling over suspended fecal pellets with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chromatograms were processed using XCMS Online to characterize ion variation among treatment groups. The principal component scores resulting from significant (? = 0.05) ion responses were used to build linear discriminant analysis models. The sensitivity and specificity of these models were used to evaluate the feasibility of using this analytical approach to distinguish within group comparisons between pre- and post-M. bovis challenge: non-vaccinated male or female deer, BCG-vaccinated male deer, and the mixed gender non-vaccinated deer data. Seventeen compounds were identified in this analysis. The peak areas for these compounds were used to build a linear discriminant classification model based on principal component analysis scores to evaluate the feasibility of discriminating between fecal samples from M. bovis challenged deer, irrespective of vaccination status. The model best representing the data had a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 91.4%. The fecal head-space sampling approach presented in this pilot study provides a non-invasive method to discriminate between M. bovis challenged deer and BCG-vaccinated deer. Additionally, the technique may prove invaluable for BCG efficacy studies with free-ranging deer as well as for use as a non-invasive monitoring system for the detection of tuberculosis in captive deer and other livestock. PMID:26060998

  15. Preliminary data used to assess the accuracy of estimating female white-tailed deer diel birthing-season home ranges using only daytime locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    Because many white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) home-range and habitat-use studies rely only on daytime radio-tracking data, we were interested in whether diurnal data sufficiently represented diel home ranges. We analyzed home-range and core-use size and overlap of 8 adult-female Global-Positioning-System-collared deer during May and June 2001 and 2002 in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, USA. We used 2 traditional means of analysis: minimum-convex polygons (MCP) and fixed kernels (95% FK, home range and 50% FK, core use) and two methods to partition day and night location data: (1) daytime = 0800-2000 h versus nighttime = 2000-0800 h and (2) sunup versus sundown. We found no statistical difference in size of home-range and core-use areas across day and night comparisons; however, in terms of spatial overlap, approximately 30% of night-range areas on average were not accounted for using daytime locations, with even greater differences between core-use areas (on average approximately 50%). We conclude that diurnal data do not adequately describe diel adult-female-deer, May-June home-ranges due to differences in spatial overlap (location). We suggest research to determine (1) if our findings hold in other circumstances (e.g., exclusive of the parturition period, other age classes, etc.), (2) if our conclusions generalize under other conditions (e.g., across deer range, varying seasons, etc.), (3) if habitat-use conclusions are affected by the incomplete overlap between diurnal and diel data, (4) how many nocturnal locations must be included to generate sufficient overlap, and (5) the influence of using other kernel sizes (e.g., 75%, 90%).

  16. Brominated and phosphorus flame retardants in White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings: bioaccumulation and associations with dietary proxies (?C, ??N and ??S).

    PubMed

    Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Halley, Duncan J; Lepoint, Gilles; Nygrd, Torgeir; Pinxten, Rianne; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel

    2014-04-15

    Very little is known on the exposure of high trophic level species to current-use brominated (BFRs) and phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), although observations on their persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity have been made. We investigated the accumulation of BFRs and PFRs, and their associations with dietary proxies (?(13)C, ?(15)N and ?(34)S), in plasma and feathers of White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings from Trndelag, Norway. In addition to accumulation of a wide range of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in both plasma and feathers, all non-PBDE BFRs and PFRs could be measured in feathers, while in plasma only two of six PFRs, i.e. tris-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCPP) were detected. PFR concentrations in feathers (0.95-3,000 ng g(-1)) were much higher than selected organochlorines (OCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (CB 153; 2.3-15 ng g(-1)) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE; 2.3-21 ng g(-1)), PBDEs (0.03-2.3 ng g(-1)) and non-PBDE BFRs (0.03-1.5 ng g(-1)). Non-significant associations of PFR concentrations in feathers with those in plasma (P ? 0.74), and their similarity to reported atmospheric PFR concentrations, may suggest atmospheric PFR deposition on feathers. Most OCs and PBDEs, as well as tris(chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPHP) and tri-(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were associated to ?(15)N and/or ?(13)C (all P ? 0.02). Besides ?(15)N enrichment, ?(34)S was depleted in nestlings from fjords, inherently close to an urbanised centre. As such, both may have been a spatial proxy for anthropogenic disturbance, possible confounding their use as dietary proxy. PMID:24530584

  17. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Caulkett, N A; Cribb, P H; Haigh, J C

    2000-01-01

    Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen. PMID:10680659

  18. Annual survival and site fidelity of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): comparative demography before (1983-1992) and after (1993-2005) spatial confinement.

    PubMed

    Webb, Stephen L; Gee, Kenneth L

    2014-01-01

    Survival and movement are important demographic variables influencing the dynamics of large herbivores with implications for management and evolution of life-history strategies. Management practices such as spatial confinement and harvest regulation attempt to control survival and movement for the sustainability of harvested deer populations, but a paucity of long-term data exists on these management practices. We examined annual survival and site fidelity of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) over 10 years (1983-1992) to compare demographic parameters after spatial confinement (1993-2005). We used capture records (n = 174; 104 females, 70 males), marked deer recaptures (n = 42), and dead recoveries (n = 68) to estimate sex-specific, age-specific and time-specific parameters. We found that annual female survival was 50% from 1983-1987 during a period of intense harvest, but increased to 93.7% after intense harvesting was eliminated. Prior to spatial confinement, annual survival of marked male deer averaged 36.7%-42.5%. After spatial confinement, annual survival increased on average for males (58%-99%) and females (77%-98%). Females showed high levels of site fidelity (>99%) prior to spatial confinement, whereas males showed much less site fidelity (≤4.5% for the 2 top-ranking models). During spatial confinement, the semi-impermeable fence effectively increased site fidelity of males (≥56%). These results stem from long-term study (23 years) of a large herbivore experiencing changes to life-history, resulting from changes in management that were applied to the population and aimed at altering population demographics, for sustainability of a harvestable population of deer. PMID:24447659

  19. Fecal Volatile Organic Ccompound Profiles from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as Indicators of Mycobacterium bovis Exposure or Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Randal S.; Ellis, Christine K.; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitchell; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no method exists to non-invasively monitor the presence of bovine tuberculosis in deer. In this study, volatile organic compound profiles of BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated deer, before and after experimental challenge with M. bovis strain 95–1315, were generated using solid phase microextraction fiber head-space sampling over suspended fecal pellets with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chromatograms were processed using XCMS Online to characterize ion variation among treatment groups. The principal component scores resulting from significant (α = 0.05) ion responses were used to build linear discriminant analysis models. The sensitivity and specificity of these models were used to evaluate the feasibility of using this analytical approach to distinguish within group comparisons between pre- and post-M. bovis challenge: non-vaccinated male or female deer, BCG-vaccinated male deer, and the mixed gender non-vaccinated deer data. Seventeen compounds were identified in this analysis. The peak areas for these compounds were used to build a linear discriminant classification model based on principal component analysis scores to evaluate the feasibility of discriminating between fecal samples from M. bovis challenged deer, irrespective of vaccination status. The model best representing the data had a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 91.4%. The fecal head-space sampling approach presented in this pilot study provides a non-invasive method to discriminate between M. bovis challenged deer and BCG-vaccinated deer. Additionally, the technique may prove invaluable for BCG efficacy studies with free-ranging deer as well as for use as a non-invasive monitoring system for the detection of tuberculosis in captive deer and other livestock. PMID:26060998

  20. RNA-seq Profiles of Immune Related Genes in the Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis Infected with White Band Disease

    PubMed Central

    Libro, Silvia; Kaluziak, Stefan T.; Vollmer, Steven V.

    2013-01-01

    Coral diseases are among the most serious threats to coral reefs worldwide, yet most coral diseases remain poorly understood. How the coral host responds to pathogen infection is an area where very little is known. Here we used next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to produce a transcriptome-wide profile of the immune response of the Staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis to White Band Disease (WBD) by comparing infected versus healthy (asymptomatic) coral tissues. The transcriptome of A. cervicornis was assembled de novo from A-tail selected Illumina mRNA-seq data from whole coral tissues, and parsed bioinformatically into coral and non-coral transcripts using existing Acropora genomes in order to identify putative coral transcripts. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified in the coral and non-coral datasets to identify genes that were up- and down-regulated due to disease infection. RNA-seq analyses indicate that infected corals exhibited significant changes in gene expression across 4% (1,805 out of 47,748 transcripts) of the coral transcriptome. The primary response to infection included transcripts involved in macrophage-mediated pathogen recognition and ROS production, two hallmarks of phagocytosis, as well as key mediators of apoptosis and calcium homeostasis. The strong up-regulation of the enzyme allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase suggests a key role of the allene oxide pathway in coral immunity. Interestingly, none of the three primary innate immune pathways - Toll-like receptors (TLR), Complement, and prophenoloxydase pathways, were strongly associated with the response of A. cervicornis to infection. Five-hundred and fifty differentially expressed non-coral transcripts were classified as metazoan (n = 84), algal or plant (n = 52), fungi (n = 24) and protozoans (n = 13). None of the 52 putative Symbiodinium or algal transcript had any clear immune functions indicating that the immune response is driven by the coral host, and not its algal symbionts. PMID:24278460

  1. Gray and White Matter Contributions to Cognitive Frontostriatal Deficits in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Price, Catherine C.; Tanner, Jared; Nguyen, Peter T.; Schwab, Nadine A.; Mitchell, Sandra; Slonena, Elizabeth; Brumback, Babette; Okun, Michael S.; Mareci, Thomas H.; Bowers, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective investigation examined: 1) processing speed and working memory relative to other cognitive domains in non-demented medically managed idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, and 2) the predictive role of cortical/subcortical gray thickness/volume and white matter fractional anisotropy on processing speed and working memory. Methods Participants completed a neuropsychological protocol, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, brain MRI, and fasting blood draw to rule out vascular contributors. Within group a priori anatomical contributors included bilateral frontal thickness, caudate nuclei volume, and prefrontal white matter fractional anisotropy. Results Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (n = 40; Hoehn & Yahr stages 1–3) and non-Parkinson’s disease ‘control’ peers (n = 40) matched on demographics, general cognition, comorbidity, and imaging/blood vascular metrics. Cognitively, individuals with Parkinson’s disease were significantly more impaired than controls on tests of processing speed, secondary deficits on working memory, with subtle impairments in memory, abstract reasoning, and visuoperceptual/spatial abilities. Anatomically, Parkinson’s disease individuals were not statistically different in cortical gray thickness or subcortical gray volumes with the exception of the putamen. Tract Based Spatial Statistics showed reduced prefrontal fractional anisotropy for Parkinson’s disease relative to controls. Within Parkinson’s disease, prefrontal fractional anisotropy and caudate nucleus volume partially explained processing speed. For controls, only prefrontal white matter was a significant contributor to processing speed. There were no significant anatomical predictors of working memory for either group. Conclusions Caudate nuclei volume and prefrontal fractional anisotropy, not frontal gray matter thickness, showed unique and combined significance for processing speed in Parkinson’s disease. Findings underscore the relevance for examining gray-white matter interactions and also highlight clinical processing speed metrics as potential indicators of early cognitive impairment in PD. PMID:26784744

  2. White Matter Changes in Bipolar Disorder, Alzheimer Disease, and Mild Cognitive Impairment: New Insights from DTI

    PubMed Central

    Xekardaki, Aikaterini; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Haller, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have reported significant changes in white matter in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a recently developed technique, enables the detection of microstructural changes in white matter. It is a noninvasive in vivo technique that assesses water molecules' diffusion in brain tissues. The most commonly used parameters are axial and radial diffusivity reflecting diffusion along and perpendicular to the axons, as well as mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy representing global diffusion. Although the combination of these parameters provides valuable information about the integrity of brain circuits, their physiological meaning still remains controversial. After reviewing the basic principles of DTI, we report on recent contributions that used this technique to explore subtle structural changes in white matter occurring in elderly patients with bipolar disorder and Alzheimer disease. PMID:22187647

  3. Benzo[a]pyrene metabolism and excretion in white suckers with chronic liver diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, I.R.; Kirby, G.M.; Ferguson, H.W.; Hayes, M.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Wild white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) with diseased bile ducts excreted an oral dose of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) into their bile as glucuronide, glutathione, and sulfo-conjugates at twice the rate of an unaffected reference population. BaP-hydroxylase (10% higher in the diseased population), glutathione-S-transferase (similar), or uridine-5[prime]-diphosphoglucuronic acid transferase (50% lower) levels did not correlate with these excretion rates. Metabolite levels were 57% higher in the liver of affected suckers than those in the liver of reference suckers, which might be due to bile retention within the diseased bile ducts. The bile duct disease affecting white suckers does not appear to restrict the metabolism and excretion of BaP.

  4. Pathogenesis study of selected velogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus in White Leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groups of 4-week old White Leghorn chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with three Newcastle disease viruses isolated from natural outbreaks (Vietnam, Australia, both velogenic; and U.S., mesogenic) and two strains rescued by reverse genetics (ZJ1 and ZJ1-GFP). The parent ZJ1, a velogen, wa...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BACTERIUM SUSPECTED IN THE INCIDENCE OF WHITE BAND DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The common staghorn coral, Acropora cervicomis, has been critically impacted in the U.S. Virgin Islands by a condition described as white band disease, a malady accompanied by the presence of abundant finely granular ovoid basophilic bodies within degenerating tissues of this sto...

  6. A CANADIAN STRAIN OF PSUEDOMONAS SP. CAUSES WHITE-COLOR DISEASE OF CANADA THISTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patches of white-colored Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) plants were recently found on roadsides, pastures, and market gardens in Devon, Mulhurst, Stony Plain, and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The diseased plants showed apical chlorosis, sometimes with dark and necrotic leaf spots. These symptoms wer...

  7. Efficacy of Ichthyophthirius vaccines in channel catfish against white spot disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius (Ich) is a protozoan that causes white spot disease in many cultured fish and lead to severe losses in aquaculture. Two trials were conducted to determine the efficacy and serum antibody response of different formulation of Ich vaccines in channel catfish. In trial I, catfish were i...

  8. Fungal disease and the developing story of bat white-nose syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Two recently emerged cutaneous fungal diseases of wildlife, bat white-nose syndrome (WNS) and amphibian chytridiomycosis, have devastated affected populations. Fungal diseases are gaining recognition as significant causes of morbidity and mortality to plants, animals, and humans, yet fewer than 10% of fungal species are known. Furthermore, limited antifungal therapeutic drugs are available, antifungal therapeutics often have associated toxicity, and there are no approved antifungal vaccines. The unexpected emergence of WNS, the rapidity with which it has spread, and its unprecedented severity demonstrate both the impacts of novel fungal disease upon naïve host populations and challenges to effective management of such diseases.

  9. Tail-flick test response in 3Tg-AD mice at early and advanced stages of disease.

    PubMed

    Baeta-Corral, Raquel; Defrin, Ruti; Pick, Chagi G; Gimnez-Llort, Lydia

    2015-07-23

    Despite the impact of pain in cognitive dysfunctions and affective disorders has been largely studied, the research that examines pain dimensions in cognitive impairment or dementia is still scarce. In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias, management of pain is challenging. While the sensory-discriminative dimension of pain is preserved, the cognitive-evaluative and the affective-motivational pain dimensions are affected. Due to the complexity of the disease and the poor self-reports, pain is underdiagnosed and undertreated. In confluence with an impaired thermoregulatory behavior, the patients' ability to confront environmental stressors such as cold temperature can put them at risk of fatal accidental hypothermia. Here, 3xTg-AD mice demonstrate that the sensorial-discriminative threshold to a noxious cold stimulus, as measured by the latency of tail-flicking, was preserved at early and advances stages of disease (7 and 11 month-old, respectively) as compared to age-matched (adulthood and middle aged, respectively) non-transgenic mice (NTg). In both genotypes, the sensory deterioration and poor thermoregulatory behavior associated to age was observed as an increase of tail-flick response and poor sensorimotor performance. At both stages studied, 3xTg-AD mice exhibited BPSD (Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia)-like alterations in the corner, open-field, dark-light box and the T-maze tests. In the adult NTg mice, this nociceptive withdrawal response was correlated with copying with stress-related behaviors. This integrative behavioral profile was lost in both groups of 3xTg-AD mice and middle aged controls, suggesting derangements in their subjacent networks and the complex interplay between the pain dimensions in the elderly with dementia. PMID:26091881

  10. White Matter Disease Contributes to Apathy and Disinhibition in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Powers, John P.; Massimo, Lauren; McMillan, Corey T.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Zhang, Hui; Gee, James C.; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Objective To relate changes in fractional anisotropy associated with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia to measures of apathy and disinhibition. Background Apathy and disinhibition are the 2 most common behavioral features of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, and these symptoms are associated with accelerated patient decline and caregiver stress. However, little is known about how white matter disease contributes to these symptoms. Methods We collected neuropsychiatric data, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging in 11 patients who met published criteria for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and had an autopsy-validated cerebrospinal fluid profile consistent with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. We also collected imaging data on 34 healthy seniors for analyses defining regions of disease in the patients. We calculated and analyzed fractional anisotropy with a white matter tract-specific method. This approach uses anatomically guided data reduction to increase sensitivity, and localizes results within canonically defined tracts. We used nonparametric, cluster-based statistical analysis to relate fractional anisotropy to neuropsychiatric measures of apathy and disinhibition. Results The patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia had widespread reductions in fractional anisotropy in anterior portions of frontal and temporal white matter, compared to the controls. Fractional anisotropy correlated with apathy in the left uncinate fasciculus and with disinhibition in the right corona radiata. Conclusions In patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, apathy and disinhibition are associated with distinct regions of white matter disease. The implicated fiber tracts likely support frontotemporal networks that are involved in goal-directed behavior. PMID:25539040

  11. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  12. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klosinski, Lauren P.; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Harrington, Michael G.; Christensen, Trace A.; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-01-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  13. Lymphoblastic lymphoma and leukemic blood profile in a red-tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with concurrent inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Schilliger, Lionel; Selleri, Paolo; Frye, Fredric L

    2011-01-01

    An adult male wild-caught true red-tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor), imported from Surinam, was presented for anorexia, extreme lethargy, and coelomic swelling in the cranial third of the body, in the anatomic location of the thymus. The snake died a few minutes after blood sampling via cardiocentesis. Hematology revealed anemia and extreme leukocytosis (820 × 10(3)/ml) characterized by a predominance (95%) of lymphocytes. Necropsy revealed enlargement of most of the visceral organs. Histology confirmed lymphoblastic lymphoma with a leukemic blood profile and diffuse infiltration of some of the heart, thymus, bone marrow, kidney, spleen, lung, and liver. Several large intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies surrounded by narrow clear "halos" were identified within gastric mucosal cells, proximal and distal convoluted tubule epithelial cells, and splenic cells. The final diagnosis was lymphoblast lymphoma with a leukemic blood profile and concurrent inclusion body disease. PMID:21217051

  14. Regional white matter change in pre-symptomatic Huntington's disease: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Reading, Sarah A J; Yassa, Michael A; Bakker, Arnold; Dziorny, Adam C; Gourley, Lisa M; Yallapragada, Venu; Rosenblatt, Adam; Margolis, Russell L; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Brandt, Jason; Mori, Susumu; van Zijl, Peter; Bassett, Susan S; Ross, Christopher A

    2005-10-30

    The pathology of Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by diffuse brain atrophy, with the most substantial neuronal loss occurring in the caudate and putamen. Recent evidence suggests that there may be more widespread neuronal degeneration with significant involvement of extrastriate structures, including white matter. In this study of pre-symptomatic carriers of the HD genetic mutation, we have used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the integrity and organization of white matter in a group of individuals who previously demonstrated abnormalities in response to a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Our results indicate that, before the onset of manifest HD, there are regional decreases in fractional anisotropy, indicating early white matter disorganization. PMID:16199141

  15. The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Kathryn L.; Porter, James W.; Ritchie, Kim B.; Polson, Shawn W.; Mueller, Erich; Peters, Esther C.; Santavy, Deborah L.; Smith, Garriet W.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of the shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are being decimated by white pox disease, with losses of living cover in the Florida Keys typically in excess of 70%. The rate of tissue loss is rapid, averaging 2.5 cm2?day?1, and is greatest during periods of seasonally elevated temperature. In Florida, the spread of white pox fits the contagion model, with nearest neighbors most susceptible to infection. In this report, we identify a common fecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as the causal agent of white pox. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a bacterial species associated with the human gut has been shown to be a marine invertebrate pathogen. PMID:12077296

  16. Coral disease physiology: the impact of Acroporid white syndrome on Symbiodinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roff, G.; Kvennefors, E. C. E.; Ulstrup, K. E.; Fine, M.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2008-06-01

    Acroporid white syndrome, a disease-like syndrome from the Great Barrier Reef, results from degenerative host tissue at lesion borders. Tissue preceding lesion borders appears visually healthy, but it is currently unclear whether the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae ( Symbiodinium) are physiologically impacted. Compared to healthy colonies, this study found no significant differences in symbiont density, mitotic index or chlorophyll a content in tissue bordering (0 cm), and 8 cm away from white syndrome lesions. Using chlorophyll a fluorescence techniques, the border tissue did not appear to be photosynthetically compromised, and Symbiodinium extracted from this area were photosynthetically competent. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive degeneration of host tissues surrounding symbionts in affected areas, however, Symbiodinium cells were structurally intact with no sign of in situ degradation. Collectively, these results suggest that Symbiodinium at white syndrome lesion borders exist in a dynamic intra-cellular state during active host tissue loss, yet remain physiologically uncompromised.

  17. Darier-White disease treated with fractional CO2 laser in two cases.

    PubMed

    Raszewska-Famielec, Magdalena; Dudra-Jastrzębska, Monika; Borzęcki, Adam; Chodorowskaf, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    Darier-White disease is one of the most common genodermatoses. The most typical clinical symptoms such as diffuse hyperkeratotic papulae usually appear during puberty or early adulthood in seborrhoeic area. It is connected with substantial deterioration of the quality of life due to aesthetic defect. Although there exist many therapeutic options, the disease still causes considerable therapeutic difficulties. Treatment with fractional CO2 laser seems to be a promising therapeutic method. In this paper, we present two cases of patients with Darier's disease who have been treated with a fractional CO2 laser with very good clinical outcome. PMID:25847535

  18. Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Dennis, P M; Verma, S K; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Butler, E; Carstensen, M; Su, C

    2014-05-28

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 749 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio and 487 WTD deer shot in Minnesota during 2008, 2009, and 2010. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cut-off titer, 25). Additionally myocardial samples from 123 seropositive WTD from Ohio were digested in pepsin and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii. Furthermore, to estimate transplacental rate of transmission, brains from 155 fetuses (included twins) from 148 deer from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice for the isolation of viable T. gondii. Seroprevalence of T. gondii varied with the year of collection, geography, and the age of deer. Of the Ohio deer sampled in 2012 and 2013 seroprevalences for the two years were similar (73.4% and 75.7%, respectively); remarkably 150 (66.1%) of 227 deer of <1 year of age were seropositive. Of the Minnesota deer, seroprevalence was lowest for the year 2008 (14.8%, 26/175) versus 2009 (27.7%, 59/213), and 2010 (25.2%, 25/99), thought to be related to environmental temperatures. Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of four WTD from Ohio, and brain of one WTD fetus from Minnesota. Tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these five T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). Four genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 1 (Type II), no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant) and no. 146. Results indicate fluctuating seroprevalence, probably related to weather and warrant further epidemiological studies. PMID:24582734

  19. LABORATORY VALIDATION OF A POINT-OF-CARE CARDIAC TROPONIN I ASSAY FOR USE IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS).

    PubMed

    Boesch, Jordyn M; Gleed, R D; Erb, Hollis N; Solter, Philip F

    2015-09-01

    The VetScan i-STAT 1 Handheld Analyzer and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) cartridges (i-STAT cTnI assay) measured greater median cTnI concentration [cTnI] in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hand-injected with anesthetic drugs after physical restraint in Clover traps than in those ground-darted with the same drugs. This suggested that Clover trapping induces myocardial damage, bringing the use of this capture method under scrutiny. The purpose of this study was to confirm the validity of the i-STAT cTnI assay in deer before recommending changes in capture methods. Median [cTnI] measured by the i-STAT cTnI assay ([cTnI]i) in heparinized whole blood collected from 52 healthy, reproductively mature, female deer physically restrained in a chute was 0.01 ng/ml (10-90% percentiles: 0.00-0.03 ng/ml; minimum, maximum: 0.00, 0.07 ng/ml); [cTnI]i was 0.00 ng/ml in 42% of the deer. There was no association between [cTnI]i and either clotting or hemolytic index. [cTnI]i was 0.00 ng/ml when deer skeletal muscle homogenate was added to deer blood with [cTnI]i of 0.00 ng/ml, confirming the i-STAT cTnI assay does not detect skeletal muscle troponins. When deer cardiac muscle homogenate was serially diluted with 1) deer blood, 2) deer plasma, and 3) cow blood, [cTnI]i was directly proportional (Y intercept=-0.09, 0.7, and -0.08 ng/ml, respectively; r2?0.97) to the fraction of homogenate in each sample. Deer cardiac muscle homogenate was diluted with deer blood to produce three samples with low, intermediate, and high [cTnI]i; serial measurements (n=10) performed on each sample yielded coefficients of variation (CVs) of 8, 20, and 11%, respectively. Corresponding CVs when plasma was used as diluent were 13, 9, and 7%, respectively. [cTnI]i increased when plasma with a low [cTnI]i was stored at 20-24C for 9 days. Three freeze-thaw cycles caused no systematic change in plasma [cTnI]i. PMID:26352949

  20. White plague disease outbreak in a coral reef at Los Roques National Park, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Croquer, Aldo; Pauls, Sheila M; Zubillaga, Ainhoa L

    2003-06-01

    Coral diseases have been reported as a major problem affecting Caribbean coral reefs. During August 2000, a coral mortality event of White Plague Disease-II (WPD-II) was observed at Madrizqui Reef in Los Roques National Park, Venezuela. This disease was identified as the major cause of coral mortality, affecting 24% of all colonies surveyed (n = 1 439). Other diseases such as Black Band Disease (BBD), Yellow Blotch Disease (YBD), Dark Spots Disease (DSD) and White Band Disease (WBD) were also recorded, but showed a lower incidence (0.14-0.97%). Two depth intervals, D1 (5.5-6.5 m) and D2 (9-9.5 m) were surveyed with two sets of three band transects 50 x 2 m long, placed parallel to the long axis of the reef. All healthy and injured corals, along each band transect, were counted and identified to species level. Additionally, all diseases and recent mortality that were still identifiable on each colony also were recorded. The incidence of colonies affected by WPD-II ranged from 12.8 to 33% among transects, where thirteen species of scleractinian corals showed several degrees of mortality. The species most affected were Montastraea annularis (39.13%), M. faveolata (26.67%), M. franksi (9.86%), Stephanocoenia intersepta (7.25%), Colpophyllia natans (6.96%), Diploria labyrinthiformis (2.99%), Mycetophyllia aliciae (2.03%), M. cavernosa (1.74%), and D. strigosa (1.45%). WPD-II was more common in the deeper strata (9-9.5 m), where 63% of the surveyed colonies were affected, although the disease was present along the entire reef. Presently, it is imperative to determine how fast the disease is spreading across the reef, how the disease spreads across the affected colonies and what the long-term effects on the reef will be. PMID:15264552

  1. Concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in adult male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): associations with serum testosterone, morphometrics and age during and after the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Ditchkoff, S S; Spicer, L J; Masters, R E; Lochmiller, R L

    2001-07-01

    Our understanding of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in cervids has been limited mostly to its effects on antler development in red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), and pudu (Pudu puda). Although IGF-I has been found to play a critical role in reproductive function of other mammals, its role in reproduction of deer is unknown. The objectives of the present study were to determine if serum levels of IGF-I change during the breeding season, assess whether age influences serum IGF-I, compare levels of IGF-I measured during and following the breeding season, and determine if IGF-I is associated with body and antler characteristics in free-ranging adult, male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We collected serum and morphometric data from hunter-harvested and captured white-tailed deer to investigate these objectives. Mean level of serum IGF-I during the breeding season was 63.6 ng/ml and was greatest in deer between 2.5 and 5.5 years old (57.4-79.9 ng/ml). Levels of serum IGF-I decreased by approximately 40% as the breeding season progressed, but levels were less in deer following the breeding season (34.6 ng/ml). Both body and antler size were associated positively with IGF-I when controlling for age. Serum testosterone was also associated positively with IGF-I. Levels of serum testosterone during the breeding season generally increased with age from 4.82 (1.5 years old) to 18.79 ng/dl (5.5 years old), but decreased thereafter. These data suggest that IGF-I may be an important hormone in breeding, male white-tailed deer. PMID:11440874

  2. Identification of Candidate Coral Pathogens on White Band Disease-Infected Staghorn Coral

    PubMed Central

    Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Sarah A.; Vollmer, Steven V.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial diseases affecting scleractinian corals pose an enormous threat to the health of coral reefs, yet we still have a limited understanding of the bacteria associated with coral diseases. White band disease is a bacterial disease that affects the two Caribbean acroporid corals, the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and the elkhorn coral A. palmate. Species of Vibrio and Rickettsia have both been identified as putative WBD pathogens. Here we used Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile the bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased A. cervicornis collected from four field sites during two different years. We also exposed corals in tanks to diseased and healthy (control) homogenates to reduce some of the natural variation of field-collected coral bacterial communities. Using a combination of multivariate analyses, we identified community-level changes between diseased and healthy corals in both the field-collected and tank-exposed datasets. We then identified changes in the abundances of individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between diseased and healthy corals. By comparing the diseased and healthy-associated bacteria in field-collected and tank-exposed corals, we were able to identify 16 healthy-associated OTUs and 106 consistently disease-associated OTUs, which are good candidates for putative WBD pathogens. A large percentage of these disease-associated OTUs belonged to the order Flavobacteriales. In addition, two of the putative pathogens identified here belong to orders previously suggested as WBD pathogens: Vibronales and Rickettsiales. PMID:26241853

  3. Evidence for Autoinduction and Quorum Sensing in White Band Disease-Causing Microbes on Acropora cervicornis

    PubMed Central

    Certner, Rebecca H.; Vollmer, Steven V.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs have entered a state of global decline party due to an increasing incidence of coral disease. However, the diversity and complexity of coral-associated bacterial communities has made identifying the mechanisms underlying disease transmission and progression extremely difficult. This study explores the effects of coral cell-free culture fluid (CFCF) and autoinducer (a quorum sensing signaling molecule) on coral-associated bacterial growth and on coral tissue loss respectively. All experiments were conducted using the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis. Coral-associated microbes were grown on selective media infused with CFCF derived from healthy and white band disease-infected A. cervicornis. Exposure to diseased CFCF increased proliferation of Cytophaga-Flavobacterium spp. while exposure to healthy CFCF inhibited growth of this group. Exposure to either CFCF did not significantly affect Vibrio spp. growth. In order to test whether disease symptoms can be induced in healthy corals, A. cervicornis was exposed to bacterial assemblages supplemented with exogenous, purified autoinducer. Incubation with autoinducer resulted in complete tissue loss in all corals tested in less than one week. These findings indicate that white band disease in A. cervicornis may be caused by opportunistic pathogenesis of resident microbes. PMID:26047488

  4. Evidence for Autoinduction and Quorum Sensing in White Band Disease-Causing Microbes on Acropora cervicornis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Certner, Rebecca H.; Vollmer, Steven V.

    2015-06-01

    Coral reefs have entered a state of global decline party due to an increasing incidence of coral disease. However, the diversity and complexity of coral-associated bacterial communities has made identifying the mechanisms underlying disease transmission and progression extremely difficult. This study explores the effects of coral cell-free culture fluid (CFCF) and autoinducer (a quorum sensing signaling molecule) on coral-associated bacterial growth and on coral tissue loss respectively. All experiments were conducted using the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis. Coral-associated microbes were grown on selective media infused with CFCF derived from healthy and white band disease-infected A. cervicornis. Exposure to diseased CFCF increased proliferation of Cytophaga-Flavobacterium spp. while exposure to healthy CFCF inhibited growth of this group. Exposure to either CFCF did not significantly affect Vibrio spp. growth. In order to test whether disease symptoms can be induced in healthy corals, A. cervicornis was exposed to bacterial assemblages supplemented with exogenous, purified autoinducer. Incubation with autoinducer resulted in complete tissue loss in all corals tested in less than one week. These findings indicate that white band disease in A. cervicornis may be caused by opportunistic pathogenesis of resident microbes.

  5. Differential diagnosis of white matter diseases in the tropics: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Lekha

    2009-01-01

    In hospitals in the tropics, the availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilities in urban areas and especially in teaching institutions have resulted in white matter diseases being frequently reported in a variety of clinical settings. Unlike the west where multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest white matter disease encountered, in the tropics, there are myriad causes for the same. Infectious and post infectious disorders probably account for the vast majority of these diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection tops the list of infective conditions. Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis occasionally presents with patchy parenchymal lesions unaccompanied by meningeal involvement. Human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV) infection and cystic inflammatory lesions such as neurocysticercosis are important causes to be considered in the differential diagnosis. Diagnosing post infectious demyelinating disorders is equally challenging since more than a third of cases seen in the tropics do not present with history of past infection or vaccinations. Metabolic and deficiency disorders such as Wernicke's encephalopathy, osmotic demyelinating syndrome associated with extra pontine lesions and Vitamin B12 deficiency states can occassionaly cause confusion in diagnosis. This review considers a few important disorders which manifest with white matter changes on MRI and create diagnostic difficulties in a population in the tropics. PMID:20151003

  6. White Matter Changes Associated with Resting Sympathetic Tone in Frontotemporal Dementia vs. Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Mario F.; Joshi, Aditi; Daianu, Madelaine; Jimenez, Elvira; Thompson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Resting sympathetic tone, a measure of physiological arousal, is decreased in patients with apathy and inertia, such as those with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other frontally-predominant disorders. Objective To identify the neuroanatomical correlates of skin conductance levels (SCLs), an index of resting sympathetic tone and apathy, among patients with bvFTD, where SCLs is decreased, compared to those with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), where it is not. Methods This study analyzed bvFTD (n = 14) patients and a comparison group with early-onset AD (n = 19). We compared their resting SCLs with gray matter and white matter regions of interest and white matter measures of fiber integrity on magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Results As expected, bvFTD patients, compared to AD patients, had lower SCLs, which correlated with an apathy measure, and more gray matter loss and abnormalities of fiber integrity (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity) in frontal-anterior temporal regions. After controlling for group membership, the SCLs were significantly correlated with white matter volumes in the cingulum and inferior parietal region in the right hemisphere. Conclusion Among dementia patients, SCLs, and resting sympathetic tone, may correlate with quantity of white matter, rather than with gray matter or with white matter fiber integrity. Loss of white matter volumes, especially involving a right frontoparietal network, may reflect chronic loss of cortical axons that mediate frontal control of resting sympathetic tone, changes that could contribute to the apathy and inertia of bvFTD and related disorders. PMID:26606247

  7. Voxel-based assessment of gray and white matter volumes in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Zhiqun; Li, Kuncheng; Li, Ziyi; Qi, Zhigang; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Chen, Kewei

    2010-01-01

    Using the study-specific templates and optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study investigated abnormalities in gray and white matter to provide depiction of the concurrent structural changes in 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with 14 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Consistent with previous studies, patients with AD exhibited significant gray matter volume reductions mainly in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, superior/middle temporal gyrus, thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and superior/inferior parietal lobule. In addition, white matter volume reductions were found predominately in the temporal lobe, corpus callosum, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Furthermore, a number of additional white matter regions such as precentral gyrus, cingulate fasciculus, superior and inferior frontal gyrus, and sub-gyral in parietal lobe were also affected. The pattern of gray and white matter volume reductions helps us understand the underlying pathologic mechanisms in AD and potentially can be used as an imaging marker for the studies of AD in the future. PMID:19879920

  8. Voxel-based assessment of gray and white matter volumes in Alzheimers disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Zhiqun; Li, Kuncheng; Li, Ziyi; Qi, Zhigang; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Chen, Kewei

    2010-01-01

    Using the study-specific templates and optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study investigated abnormalities in gray and white matter to provide depiction of the concurrent structural changes in 13 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) compared with 14 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Consistent with previous studies, patients with AD exhibited significant gray matter volume reductions mainly in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, superior/middle temporal gyrus, thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and superior/inferior parietal lobule. In addition, white matter volume reductions were found predominately in the temporal lobe, corpus callosum, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Furthermore, a number of additional white matter regions such as precentral gyrus, cingulate fasciculus, superior and inferior frontal gyrus, and sub-gyral in parietal lobe were also affected. The pattern of gray and white matter volume reductions helps us understand the underlying pathologic mechanisms in AD and potentially can be used as an imaging marker for the studies of AD in the future. PMID:19879920

  9. Impacts of white-tailed deer on red trillium (Trillium recurvatum): defining a threshold for deer browsing pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impacts to supplement deer surveys. We analyzed experimental data about red trillium (Trillium recurvatum), large flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum), nodding trillium (T. cernuum), and declined trillium (T. flexipes) growth in paired exclosure (fenced) plots and control (unfenced) plots from 2002 to 2010 at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter two species lacked replication, so statistical analysis was not possible. All red trillium plants were surveyed for height-to-leaf, effects of browsing, and presence of flowers. Data from individuals in 2009 demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between height-to-leaf and probability of flowering. The relationship on moraine soils was shifted to taller plants compared to those on sand substrates, with respectively 50 percent flowering at 18 and 16 cm and 33 percent flowering at 16 and 14 cm height-to-leaf. On a plot basis, the proportion of plants flowering was influenced by height to leaf, duration of protection, and deviation in rainfall. The proportion of plants flowering increased ninefold in exclosures (28 percent) compared to control plots (3 percent) over the 8 years of protection. The mean height-to-leaf was a function of the interaction between treatment and duration, as well as red trillium density. Changes in height-to-leaf in control plots from year to year were significantly influenced by an interaction between change in deer density and change in snowfall depth. There was a significant negative correlation between change in deer density and snowfall depth. Plants in the exclosures increased in height at a rate of 1.5 cm yr?1 whereas control plants decreased in height by 0.9 cm yr?1. In all, 78 percent of the control plots lacked flowering individuals over the 9 years of study, indicating that red trillium is being negatively affected by deer throughout the East Unit of the park. Of the five deer management zones studied, only one showed pre-impact height-to-leaf and flowering percentages in control plots that then declined after 2005. The results of this study demonstrate that Trillium species growing in the lands of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore are being suppressed reproductively by deer browsing. Specifically, we demonstrate, for the first time, the utility of using red trillium (Trillium recurvatum) height-to-leaf and percentage of flowering as indicators of the impacts of deer browsing. Application of the recommended thresholds demonstrates their utility in adopting red trillium as a phytoindicator of deer impact. Responses of plants to protection from deer suggest that deer culling might be necessary for 6 or more years for red trillium populations and rare trillium species to recover.

  10. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): Early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of wild and farmed cervid ruminants, including Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or moose (Alces alces). Reliable data ...

  11. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease across corals and oceans indicates a conserved and distinct disease microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Roder, Cornelia; Arif, Chatchanit; Daniels, Camille; Weil, Ernesto; Voolstra, Christian R

    2014-01-01

    Coral diseases are characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue, but causes and consequences of these changes are vaguely understood due to the complexity and dynamics of coral-associated bacteria. We used 16S rRNA gene microarrays to assay differences in bacterial assemblages of healthy and diseased colonies displaying White Plague Disease (WPD) signs from two closely related Caribbean coral species, Orbicella faveolata and Orbicella franksi. Analysis of differentially abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed strong differences between healthy and diseased specimens, but not between coral species. A subsequent comparison to data from two Indo-Pacific coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) revealed distinct microbial community patterns associated with ocean basin, coral species and health state. Coral species were clearly separated by site, but also, the relatedness of the underlying bacterial community structures resembled the phylogenetic relationship of the coral hosts. In diseased samples, bacterial richness increased and putatively opportunistic bacteria were consistently more abundant highlighting the role of opportunistic conditions in structuring microbial community patterns during disease. Our comparative analysis shows that it is possible to derive conserved bacterial footprints of diseased coral holobionts that might help in identifying key bacterial species related to the underlying etiopathology. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that similar-appearing disease phenotypes produce microbial community patterns that are consistent over coral species and oceans, irrespective of the putative underlying pathogen. Consequently, profiling coral diseases by microbial community structure over multiple coral species might allow the development of a comparative disease framework that can inform on cause and relatedness of coral diseases. PMID:24350609

  12. Periventricular and white matter magnetic resonance imaging hyperintensities do not differ between Alzheimer's disease and normal aging.

    PubMed

    Leys, D; Soetaert, G; Petit, H; Fauquette, A; Pruvo, J P; Steinling, M

    1990-05-01

    We studied normotensive and nondiabetic subjects, free of cardiac disorders, to determine whether Alzheimer's disease is a possible factor of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) white matter or periventricular hyperintensities, and to investigate relationships between computed tomographic scan and MRI changes. We failed to reveal (1) any difference in the severity of MRI white matter and periventricular hyperintensities between patients and controls, (2) any correlation of MRI white matter and periventricular hyperintensities with either ages or Mini-Mental State Examination scores. We found (1) a poor interobserver agreement, and (2) a correlation between computed tomographic scan and MRI white matter changes but not between computed tomographic and MRI periventricular changes. We conclude that MRI periventricular and white matter hyperintensities are frequent incidental findings in the elderly and do not significantly differ between patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. PMID:2334300

  13. Genetic Susceptibility, Colony Size, and Water Temperature Drive White-Pox Disease on the Coral Acropora palmata

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Erinn M.; van Woesik, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of coral diseases are one of the greatest threats to reef corals in the Caribbean, yet the mechanisms that lead to coral diseases are still largely unknown. Here we examined the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-pox disease on Acropora palmata coral colonies of known genotypes. We took a Bayesian approach, using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation algorithms, to examine which covariates influenced the presence of white-pox disease over seven years. We showed that colony size, genetic susceptibility of the coral host, and high-water temperatures were the primary tested variables that were positively associated with the presence of white-pox disease on A. palmata colonies. Our study also showed that neither distance from previously diseased individuals, nor colony location, influenced the dynamics of white-pox disease. These results suggest that white-pox disease was most likely a consequence of anomalously high water temperatures that selectively compromised the oldest colonies and the most susceptible coral genotypes. PMID:25372835

  14. White Band Disease (type I) of endangered caribbean acroporid corals is caused by pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kline, David I; Vollmer, Steven V

    2011-01-01

    Diseases affecting coral reefs have increased exponentially over the last three decades and contributed to their decline, particularly in the Caribbean. In most cases, the responsible pathogens have not been isolated, often due to the difficulty in isolating and culturing marine bacteria. White Band Disease (WBD) has caused unprecedented declines in the Caribbean acroporid corals, resulting in their listings as threatened on the US Threatened and Endangered Species List and critically endangered on the IUCN Red List. Yet, despite the importance of WBD, the probable pathogen(s) have not yet been determined. Here we present in situ transmission data from a series of filtrate and antibiotic treatments of disease tissue that indicate that WBD is contagious and caused by bacterial pathogen(s). Additionally our data suggest that Ampicillin could be considered as a treatment for WBD (type I). PMID:22355526

  15. White-nose syndrome: is this emerging disease a threat to European bats?

    PubMed

    Puechmaille, Sbastien J; Frick, Winifred F; Kunz, Thomas H; Racey, Paul A; Voigt, Christian C; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Teeling, Emma C

    2011-11-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a newly emergent disease that potentially threatens all temperate bat species. A recently identified fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent of this disease. Until 2009, WNS and G. destructans were exclusively known from North America, but recent studies have confirmed this fungus is also present in Europe. We assembled an international WNS consortium of 67 scientists from 29 countries and identified the most important research and conservation priorities to assess the risk of WNS to European bats. Here, we review what is known about WNS and G. destructans and detail the conservation and research recommendations aimed at understanding and containing this emerging infectious disease. PMID:21835492

  16. Genetic Signature of Resistance to White Band Disease in the Caribbean Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis

    PubMed Central

    Libro, Silvia; Vollmer, Steven V.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are declining worldwide due to multiple factors including rising sea surface temperature, ocean acidification, and disease outbreaks. Over the last 30 years, White Band Disease (WBD) alone has killed up to 95% of the Caribbean`s dominant shallow-water corals—the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and the elkhorn coral A. palmata. Both corals are now listed on the US Endangered Species Act, and while their recovery has been slow, recent transmission surveys indicate that more than 5% of staghorn corals are disease resistant. Here we compared transcriptome-wide gene expression between resistant and susceptible staghorn corals exposed to WBD using in situ transmission assays. We identified constitutive gene expression differences underlying disease resistance that are independent from the immune response associated with disease exposure. Genes involved in RNA interference-mediated gene silencing, including Argonaute were up-regulated in resistant corals, whereas heat shock proteins (HSPs) were down-regulated. Up-regulation of Argonaute proteins indicates that post-transcriptional gene silencing plays a key, but previously unsuspected role in coral immunity and disease resistance. Constitutive expression of HSPs has been linked to thermal resilience in other Acropora corals, suggesting that the down-regulation of HSPs in disease resistant staghorn corals may confer a dual benefit of thermal resilience. PMID:26784329

  17. Genetic Signature of Resistance to White Band Disease in the Caribbean Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis.

    PubMed

    Libro, Silvia; Vollmer, Steven V

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are declining worldwide due to multiple factors including rising sea surface temperature, ocean acidification, and disease outbreaks. Over the last 30 years, White Band Disease (WBD) alone has killed up to 95% of the Caribbean`s dominant shallow-water corals-the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and the elkhorn coral A. palmata. Both corals are now listed on the US Endangered Species Act, and while their recovery has been slow, recent transmission surveys indicate that more than 5% of staghorn corals are disease resistant. Here we compared transcriptome-wide gene expression between resistant and susceptible staghorn corals exposed to WBD using in situ transmission assays. We identified constitutive gene expression differences underlying disease resistance that are independent from the immune response associated with disease exposure. Genes involved in RNA interference-mediated gene silencing, including Argonaute were up-regulated in resistant corals, whereas heat shock proteins (HSPs) were down-regulated. Up-regulation of Argonaute proteins indicates that post-transcriptional gene silencing plays a key, but previously unsuspected role in coral immunity and disease resistance. Constitutive expression of HSPs has been linked to thermal resilience in other Acropora corals, suggesting that the down-regulation of HSPs in disease resistant staghorn corals may confer a dual benefit of thermal resilience. PMID:26784329

  18. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework

    PubMed Central

    Roder, Cornelia; Arif, Chatchanit; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Daniels, Camille; Shibl, Ahmed; Chavanich, Suchana; Voolstra, Christian R

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral-associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. Here, we compare bacterial assemblages of samples from healthy (HH) colonies and such displaying signs of White Plague Disease (WPD) of two different coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) from the same reef in Koh Tao, Thailand, using 16S rRNA gene microarrays. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased (DD) corals, and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens (Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae). In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries. PMID:23924783

  19. Striatal Hypodensities, Not White Matter Hypodensities on CT, Are Associated with Late-Onset Depression in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brommelhoff, Jessica A.; Spann, Bryan M.; Go, John L.; Mack, Wendy J.; Gatz, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether there were neuroanatomical differences evident on CT scans of individuals with dementia who differed on depression history. Neuroanatomical variables consisted of visual ratings of frontal lobe deep white matter, subcortical white matter, and subcortical gray matter hypodensities in the CT scans of 182 individuals from the Study of Dementia in Swedish Twins who were diagnosed with dementia and had information on depression history. Compared to individuals with Alzheimer's disease and no depression, individuals with Alzheimer's disease and late-onset depression (first depressive episode at age 60 or over) had a greater number of striatal hypodensities (gray matter hypodensities in the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus). There were no significant differences in frontal lobe deep white matter or subcortical white matter. These findings suggest that late-onset depression may be a process that is distinct from the neurodegenerative changes caused by Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21949906

  20. Human sewage identified as likely source of white pox disease of the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Kathryn Patterson; Porter, James W; Turner, Jeffrey W; Thomas, Brian J; Looney, Erin E; Luna, Trevor P; Meyers, Meredith K; Futch, J Carrie; Lipp, Erin K

    2010-05-01

    Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, has been decimated in recent years, resulting in the listing of this species as threatened under the United States Endangered Species Act. A major contributing factor in the decline of this iconic species is white pox disease. In 2002, we identified the faecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as an etiological agent for white pox. During outbreaks in 2003 a unique strain of S. marcescens was identified in both human sewage and white pox lesions. This strain (PDR60) was also identified from corallivorious snails (Coralliophila abbreviata), reef water, and two non-acroporid coral species, Siderastrea siderea and Solenastrea bournoni. Identification of PDR60 in sewage, diseased Acropora palmata and other reef invertebrates within a discrete time frame suggests a causal link between white pox and sewage contamination on reefs and supports the conclusion that humans are a likely source of this disease. PMID:20132278

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in blacks and whites: pulmonary function norms and risk factors.

    PubMed Central

    Gillum, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are significant causes of illness and death in blacks. Racial differences in normal values of pulmonary function tests must be considered in both patient care and research. Assessment of risk factors is an important part of COPD management and prevention. An extensive review of data from the National Center for Health Statistics and from other population-based studies confirmed lower lung volumes in blacks compared to whites. However, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity was not lower in blacks; racial differences in flow rates were inconsistently reported. Thoracic dimensions were smaller in blacks than in whites in healthy populations. The cause and the physiologic and pathophysiologic significance of these racial differences are unknown. Population-based studies in blacks have firmly established only age and cigarette smoking as risk factors for COPD other than asthma. In 1987, 43% of black men aged 45 and older smoked cigarettes compared to only 30% of white men. Further research is needed on racial differences in pulmonary function and the effects of multiple risk factors to enhance understanding of COPD etiology and prevention. More vigorous smoking prevention and cessation efforts should be targeted for blacks by physicians and public health organizations. PMID:1875419

  2. Geographic variation in cardiovascular disease mortality in US blacks and whites.

    PubMed

    Pickle, L W; Gillum, R F

    1999-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease mortality rates have dropped significantly over the past several decades, but a shift has occurred over time in the geographic patterns of both coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke mortality. This article describes these patterns and discusses how they vary by sex, race, age, and over time. Death certificate information for Health Service Areas (HSAs) in 1988-1992 was used to analyze the geographic patterns of CHD and stroke death rates by race, sex, and age. Changes in these patterns from 1979-1993 also were examined. In 1988-1992, considerable geographic variation in both CHD and stroke mortality was demonstrated for each sex and race group. Coronary heart disease rates were particularly high in the lower Mississippi valley and Oklahoma for all four groups, in the Ohio River valley and New York for whites, and to a lesser extent for blacks. Areas of high rates among whites in the Carolinas resemble stroke mortality patterns. There were greater differences by racial group than by gender, by the definition of heart disease. Over time, rates have declined for both CHD and stroke, but regional differences in the rates of change give the appearance of a southwesternly movement of high heart disease rate clusters and a breakup of the "Stroke Belt." Further research is needed to elucidate the cause of regional variation in CHD and stroke mortality. Similar geographic patterns of high rates of CHD and stroke in the southeastern United States may reflect common risk factors. This knowledge can be used to help develop appropriate interventions to target these high-rate areas in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys. PMID:10599187

  3. JOINT DISEASE MAPPING OF CERVICAL AND MALE OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER INCIDENCE IN BLACKS AND WHITES IN SOUTH CAROLINA

    PubMed Central

    Onicescu, Georgiana; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Lawson, Andrew B.; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Gillespie, M. Boyd

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an established causal agent for cervical cancer and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. It is hypothesized that orogenital transmission results in oral cavity infection. In this paper we explore the geographical association between cervical and male oropharyngeal cancer incidence in blacks and whites in South Carolina using Bayesian joint disease mapping models fit to publicly available data. Our results suggest weak evidence for county-level association between the diseases, and different patterns of joint disease behavior for blacks and whites. PMID:20563237

  4. Executive function and diffusion in frontal white matter of adults with moyamoya disease.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Nakamizo A; Kikkawa Y; Hiwatashi A; Matsushima T; Sasaki T

    2014-03-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a frequent complication of moyamoya disease (MMD) in adults. Chronic hypoperfusion in frontal lobes can lead to subtle brain injury, resulting in cognitive dysfunctions. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in normal-appearing white matter on conventional magnetic resonance imaging correlates with cerebral hemodynamics in the frontal lobe.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of ADC with executive function in patients with MMD.METHODS: Thirty-one patients (25 women and 6 men; mean age, 32.6 10.4 years) were included in this study. Executive function was evaluated by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) at 21.5 7.5 years after disease onset. ADC was measured in the normal-appearing frontal white matter.RESULTS: ADC was statistically related to the occurrence of executive dysfunction in multivariate analysis (P = .0179). Total FAB score and ADC were negatively correlated (r(2) = .22; P = .0072; Spearman correlation coefficient, -.41; P = .024). Elevated ADC predicted executive dysfunction (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, .73; 95% confidence interval, .55-.91; P = .029).CONCLUSIONS: The association of ADC with executive function might suggest that ADC is useful in screening for executive dysfunction during follow-up in the outpatient setting.

  5. Effect of partial genetic resistance on efficacy of Topsin fungicide for control of white mold disease in pinto bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinto bean is the most important dry bean market class grown in the U.S., but is one of the most susceptible to white mold disease. Developing pinto bean with partial resistance is a major goal of plant breeders, but the effect of partial resistance on efficacy of fungicide application for disease m...

  6. Tail Buffeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdrashitov, G.

    1943-01-01

    An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

  7. White matter signal abnormality quality differentiates mild cognitive impairment that converts to Alzheimer's disease from nonconverters.

    PubMed

    Lindemer, Emily R; Salat, David H; Smith, Eric E; Nguyen, Khoa; Fischl, Bruce; Greve, Douglas N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess how longitudinal change in the quantity and quality of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSAs) contributes to the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Mahalanobis distance of WMSA from normal-appearing white matter using T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted MRI was defined as a quality measure for WMSA. Cross-sectional analysis of WMSA volume in 104 cognitively healthy older adults, 116 individuals with MCI who converted to AD within 3 years (mild cognitive impairment converter [MCI-C]), 115 individuals with MCI that did not convert in that time (mild cognitive impairment nonconverter [MCI-NC]), and 124 individuals with AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative revealed that WMSA volume was substantially greater in AD relative to the other groups but did not differ between MCI-NC and MCI-C. Longitudinally, MCI-C exhibited faster WMSA quality progression but not volume compared with matched MCI-NC beginning 18 months before MCI-C conversion to AD. The strongest difference in rate of change was seen in the time period starting 6 months before MCI-C conversion to AD and ending 6 months after conversion (p < 0.001). The relatively strong effect in this time period relative to AD conversion in the MCI-C was similar to the relative rate of change in hippocampal volume, a traditional imaging marker of AD pathology. These data demonstrate changes in white matter tissue properties that occur within WMSA in individuals with MCI that will subsequently obtain a clinical diagnosis of AD within 18 months. Individuals with AD have substantially greater WMSA volume than all MCI suggesting that there is a progressive accumulation of WMSA with progressive disease severity, and that quality change predates changes in this total volume. Given the timing of the changes in WMSA tissue quality relative to the clinical diagnosis of AD, these findings suggest that WMSAs are a critical component for this conversion and are a critical component of this clinical syndrome. PMID:26095760

  8. Body feathers as a potential new biomonitoring tool in raptors: a study on organohalogenated contaminants in different feather types and preen oil of West Greenland white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla).

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Veerle L B; Rodriguez, Francisco Soler; Boertmann, David; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Rasmussen, Lars Maltha; Eens, Marcel; Covaci, Adrian

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the variation in concentrations and profiles of various classes of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) in different feather types, muscle tissue and preen oil from 15 white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) carcasses from Greenland. The influence of moult patterns and potential external contamination onto the feather surface was examined, while the present study is also the first to investigate the use of body feathers for OHC monitoring. Concentrations of sum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in feathers from white tailed eagles ranged from 2.3 ng/g in a primary wing feather to 4200 ng/g in body feathers. Using 300 mg of body feathers, almost 50 different OHCs could be quantified and median concentrations in body feathers were 10 fold higher than concentrations in tail feathers (rectrices) or primary wing feathers. Body feathers could be very useful for biomonitoring taking into account their easy sampling, short preparation time and high levels of OHCs. In addition, the effects of confounding variables such as feather size, moult and age are also minimised using body feathers. Correlations with concentrations in muscle tissue and preen oil were high and significant for all feather types (r ranging from 0.81 to 0.87 for sum PCBs). Significant differences in concentrations and profiles of OHCs were found between different primary feathers, indicating that the accumulation of OHCs in feathers varies over the moulting period (maximum three years). Washing of feathers with an organic solvent (acetone) resulted in a significant decrease in the measured concentrations of OHCs in feathers. However, our results indicated that preen oil is probably not the only contributor to the external contamination that can be removed by washing with acetone. Possibly dust and other particles may be of importance and may be sticking to the preened feathers. Rectrices washed only with water showed high and significant correlations with concentrations in muscle and preen oil as well. Washing with acetone therefore does not seem to be of great influence when relating to internal tissue concentrations. We recommend washing feathers only with distilled water in order to remove dirt and dust particles before analysis. PMID:21733575

  9. Shedding of Infectious Borna Disease Virus-1 in Living Bicolored White-Toothed Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Nobach, Daniel; Bourg, Manon; Herzog, Sibylle; Lange-Herbst, Hildburg; Encarnação, Jorge A.; Eickmann, Markus; Herden, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Background Many RNA viruses arise from animal reservoirs, namely bats, rodents and insectivores but mechanisms of virus maintenance and transmission still need to be addressed. The bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon) has recently been identified as reservoir of the neurotropic Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1). Principal Findings Six out of eleven wild living bicoloured white-toothed shrews were trapped and revealed to be naturally infected with BoDV-1. All shrews were monitored in captivity in a long-term study over a time period up to 600 days that differed between the individual shrews. Interestingly, all six animals showed an asymptomatic course of infection despite virus shedding via various routes indicating a highly adapted host-pathogen interaction. Infectious virus and viral RNA were demonstrated in saliva, urine, skin swabs, lacrimal fluid and faeces, both during the first 8 weeks of the investigation period and for long time shedding after more than 250 days in captivity. Conclusions The various ways of shedding ensure successful virus maintenance in the reservoir population but also transmission to accidental hosts such as horses and sheep. Naturally BoDV-1-infected living shrews serve as excellent tool to unravel host and pathogen factors responsible for persistent viral co-existence in reservoir species while maintaining their physiological integrity despite high viral load in many organ systems. PMID:26313904

  10. Risk factor analysis of cerebral white matter hyperintensities in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    van der Land, Veronica; Mutsaerts, Henri J M M; Engelen, Marc; Heijboer, Harrit; Roest, Mark; Hollestelle, Martine J; Kuijpers, Taco W; Nederkoorn, Paul J; Cnossen, Marjon H; Majoie, Charles B L M; Nederveen, Aart J; Fijnvandraat, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is complicated by silent cerebral infarcts, visible as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Both local vaso-occlusion, elicited by endothelial dysfunction, and insufficiency of cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been proposed to be involved in the aetiology. We performed an explorative study to investigate the associations between WMHs and markers of endothelial dysfunction and CBF by quantifying WMH volume on 30Tesla MRI. We included 40 children with HbSS or HbS?(0) thalassaemia, with a mean age of 12126years. Boys demonstrated an increased risk for WMHs (odds ratio 45, 95% confidence interval 12-174), unrelated to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. In patients with WMHs, lower fetal haemoglobin (HbF) was associated with a larger WMH volume (regression coefficient=-062, R(2) =025, P=004). Lower ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) levels were associated with lower CBF in the white matter (regression coefficient=007, R(2) =015, P=003), suggesting that endothelial dysfunction could potentially hamper CBF. The findings of our explorative study suggest that a high level of HbF may be protective for WMHs and that endothelial dysfunction may contribute to the development of WMHs by reducing CBF. PMID:26492630

  11. Genetic determinants of white matter hyperintensities and amyloid angiopathy in familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Natalie S; Biessels, Geert-Jan; Kim, Lois; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Barber, Philip A; Walsh, Phoebe; Gami, Priya; Morris, Huw R; Bastos-Leite, António J; Schott, Jonathan M; Beck, Jon; Mead, Simon; Chavez-Gutierrez, Lucia; de Strooper, Bart; Rossor, Martin N; Revesz, Tamas; Lashley, Tammaryn; Fox, Nick C

    2015-12-01

    Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) treatment trials raise interest in the variable occurrence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA); an emerging important factor in amyloid-modifying therapy. Previous pathological studies reported particularly severe CAA with postcodon 200 PSEN1 mutations and amyloid beta coding domain APP mutations. As CAA may manifest as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging, particularly posteriorly, we investigated WMH in 52 symptomatic FAD patients for associations with mutation position. WMH were visually rated in 39 PSEN1 (18 precodon 200); 13 APP mutation carriers and 25 healthy controls. Ten PSEN1 mutation carriers (5 precodon 200) had postmortem examination. Increased WMH were observed in the PSEN1 postcodon 200 group and in the single APP patient with an amyloid beta coding domain (p.Ala692Gly, Flemish) mutation. WMH burden on MRI correlated with severity of CAA and cotton wool plaques in several areas. The precodon 200 group had younger ages at onset, decreased axonal density and/or integrity, and a greater T-lymphocytic response in occipital deep white matter. Mutation site contributes to the phenotypic and pathological heterogeneity witnessed in FAD. PMID:26410308

  12. A longitudinal field study of mortality and Marek's disease in Norwegian and imported white Leghorns.

    PubMed

    Heier, B T; Jarp, J; Kaldhusdal, M I; Schaller, G; Forus, I B

    1999-06-11

    High mortality during the first part of the laying period was observed in Norwegian White Leghorns during the period 1988-1992. A longitudinal field study with repeated measurement of cumulative mortality was undertaken in the period from January 1994 to January 1996 to investigate (1) the mortality and susceptibility to Marek's disease (MD) in the Norwegian strain (NB41) compared to two imported layers, (2) the effect of MD on the total cumulative mortality in the period from 16 to 32 weeks of age in White Leghorn flocks, and (3) the effect of MD as judged by repeated measurement of cumulative mortality in the same period. All five layer hatcheries and 67% of the pullet-rearing farms in Norway participated in the field study. The egg-production farms were sampled by convenience. Recordings for the whole period were completed for 169 flocks in 101 farms. The statistical analyses were performed using both a general fixed-effects linear model and a mixed model with repeated measurements, with total flock-level cumulative mortality and flock-level cumulative mortality in four-week intervals as outcome variables, respectively. The overall cumulative flock-level incidence of MD was 12% (24% and 8% in NB41 and Lohmann White, respectively). MD was not recorded in any of the Shaver White flocks. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found in (1) total cumulative mortality: 8.2% in the NB41 and 5.0% in the imported layers, and (2) 'interval-specific' cumulative mortality: 0.36% in the NB41 and 0.15% in the imported birds. A strong relationship was also demonstrated between MD and repeated measurements of 'interval-specific' cumulative mortality (p < 0.001) but not when cumulative mortality was used as an overall measure for the whole laying period (p = 0.11). The results from the repeated-measures analysis also indicated a stronger effect of MD on flock-level 'interval-specific' cumulative mortality in the NB41 than in the imported hens. The different cumulative mortality and susceptibility to MD observed in the NB41, compared to the imported hens, shows that the farmers will be able to reduce their losses by replacing the NB41 strain with one of the imported strains. PMID:10423775

  13. Poleward Expansion of the White-Footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) under Climate Change: Implications for the Spread of Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Dufresne, Emilie; Logan, Travis; Simon, Julie A.; Chmura, Gail L.; Millien, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) is an important reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, and its distribution is expanding northward. We used an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis to identify the climatic factors associated with the distribution shift of the white-footed mouse over the last 30 years at the northern edge of its range, and modeled its current and potential future (2050) distributions using the platform BIOMOD. A mild and shorter winter is favouring the northern expansion of the white-footed mouse in Québec. With more favorable winter conditions projected by 2050, the distribution range of the white-footed mouse is expected to expand further northward by 3° latitude. We also show that today in southern Québec, the occurrence of B. burgdorferi is associated with high probability of presence of the white-footed mouse. Changes in the distribution of the white-footed mouse will likely alter the geographical range of B. burgdorferi and impact the public health in northern regions that have yet to be exposed to Lyme disease. PMID:24260464

  14. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

  15. Identification of novel EIF2B mutations in Chinese patients with vanishing white matter disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ye; Pan, Yanxia; Du, Li; Wang, Jingmin; Gu, Qiang; Gao, Zhijie; Li, Jie; Leng, Xuerong; Qin, Jiong; Wu, Xiru; Jiang, Yuwu

    2009-02-01

    Vanishing white matter (VWM) disease, inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, is one of the most prevalent inherited leukoencephalopathies in childhood. It is a hereditary human disease resulting from the direct defects during protein synthesis, with the gene defects in EIF2B1-5 (identified in 2001-2002) encoding the five subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF2B alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon), respectively. Most of the published studies were carried out in the white population. The analysis of clinical features and EIF2B mutation screening were performed in 11 Chinese patients for the first time. Mutations were identified exclusively in EIF2B5 and EIF2B3 in these patients, with six novel mutations, including five missense mutations (EIF2B5: c.185A>T, p.D62V; c.1004G>C, p.C335S; c.1126A>G, p.N376D; EIF2B3: c.140G>A, p.G47E; c.1037T>C, p.I346T) and one deletion leading to amino-acid deletion (EIF2B5: c.1827-1838del, p.S610-D613del). EIF2B3 mutation, accounting for 20% of the total number of mutations found in this study, is more prevalent than expected according to an earlier report (7%). A hot spot mutation in EIF2B3 was identified in this study. A unique EIF2B mutation spectrum in Chinese VWM patients was shown. A systemic study to assess mutation spectrum in different populations needs to be carried out. PMID:19158808

  16. Genetic Analysis and QTL Detection for Resistance to White Tip Disease in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tong; Gao, Cunyi; Du, Linlin; Feng, Hui; Wang, Lijiao; Lan, Ying; Sun, Feng; Wei, Lihui; Fan, Yongjian; Shen, Wenbiao; Zhou, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    The inheritance of resistance to white tip disease (WTDR) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was analyzed with an artificial inoculation test in a segregating population derived from the cross between Tetep, a highly resistant variety that was identified in a previous study, and a susceptible cultivar. Three resistance-associated traits, including the number of Aphelenchoides besseyi (A. besseyi) individuals in 100 grains (NA), the loss rate of panicle weight (LRPW) and the loss rate of the total grains per panicle (LRGPP) were analyzed for the detection of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) in the population after construction of a genetic map. Six QTLs distributed on chromosomes 3, 5 and 9 were mapped. qNA3 and qNA9, conferring reproduction number of A. besseyi in the panicle, accounted for 16.91% and 12.54% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. qDRPW5a and qDRPW5b, associated with yield loss, were located at two adjacent marker intervals on chromosome 5 and explained 14.15% and 14.59% of the total phenotypic variation and possessed LOD values of 3.40 and 3.39, respectively. qDRPW9 was considered as a minor QTL and only explained 1.02% of the phenotypic variation. qLRGPP5 contributed to the loss in the number of grains and explained 10.91% of the phenotypic variation. This study provides useful information for the breeding of resistant cultivars against white tip disease in rice. PMID:25162680

  17. Regional white matter hyperintensity volume, not hippocampal atrophy, predicts incident Alzheimer disease in the community.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Adam M; Provenzano, Frank A; Muraskin, Jordan; Manly, Jennifer J; Blum, Sonja; Apa, Zoltan; Stern, Yaakov; Brown, Truman R; Luchsinger, Jos A; Mayeux, Richard

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND New-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) is often attributed to degenerative changes in the hippocampus. However, the contribution of regionally distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease, visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging, remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To determine whether regional WMHs and hippocampal volume predict incident AD in an epidemiological study. DESIGN A longitudinal community-based epidemiological study of older adults from northern Manhattan, New York. SETTING The Washington Heights/Inwood Columbia Aging Project. PARTICIPANTS Between 2005 and 2007, 717 participants without dementia received magnetic resonance imaging scans. A mean (SD) of 40.28 (9.77) months later, 503 returned for follow-up clinical examination and 46 met criteria for incident dementia (45 with AD). Regional WMHs and relative hippocampal volumes were derived. Three Cox proportional hazards models were run to predict incident dementia, controlling for relevant variables. The first included all WMH measurements; the second included relative hippocampal volume; and the third combined the 2 measurements. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Incident AD. RESULTS White matter hyperintensity volume in the parietal lobe predicted time to incident dementia (hazard ratio [HR]=1.194; P=.03). Relative hippocampal volume did not predict incident dementia when considered alone (HR=0.419; P=.77) or with the WMH measures included in the model (HR=0.302; P=.70). Including hippocampal volume in the model did not notably alter the predictive utility of parietal lobe WMHs (HR=1.197; P=.049). CONCLUSIONS The findings highlight the regional specificity of the association of WMHs with AD. It is not clear whether parietal WMHs solely represent a marker for cerebrovascular burden or point to distinct injury compared with other regions. Future work should elucidate pathogenic mechanisms linking WMHs and AD pathology. PMID:22945686

  18. Imaging evidence of early brain tissue degeneration in patients with vanishing white matter disease: a multimodal MR study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Qi; Bley, Annette; Ohlenbusch, Andreas; Kohlschtter, Alfried; Fiehler, Jens; Zhu, Wenzhen; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2012-04-01

    To find imaging signs of active degenerative processes in vanishing white matter disease (VWM), six VWM patients and six matched controls underwent MR examinations. The data were analyzed with modified Scheltens scales for morphological findings and determined quantitatively for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Single-voxel MR spectra were acquired at the parietal white matter and analyzed with LCModel. Typical VWM brain lesions were found in all patients accompanied by proton diffusion abnormalities: Increased ADC appeared in brain regions with severe myelin destruction in all patients, and reduced ADC in two of six younger patients in remaining white matter adjacent to the lesions or at the borders around the lesions, who had a short history of the disease (? 1 year). The MR spectroscopy revealed reductions of NAA, Cho, and Cr, which correlate to the grade of white matter abnormalities. An increase of myo-inositol as marker of reactive gliosis was missing. Thus, restricted proton diffusion was evident in younger VWM patients with short history of disease, which in combination with lack of reactive gliosis may reflect early white matter degeneration in VWM. The multimodal MR methods are useful for characterizing such tissue degeneration in brain in vivo. PMID:22128017

  19. Correlating Cognitive Decline with White Matter Lesion and Brain Atrophy MRI Measurements in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bilello, Michel; Doshi, Jimit; Nabavizadeh, S. Ali; Toledo, Jon B.; Erus, Guray; Xie, Sharon X.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Han, Xiaoyan; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Background Vascular risk factors are increasingly recognized as risks factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and early conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. While neuroimaging research in AD has focused on brain atrophy, metabolic function or amyloid deposition, little attention has been paid to the effect of cerebrovascular disease to cognitive decline. Objective To investigate the correlation of brain atrophy and white matter lesions with cognitive decline in AD, MCI, and control subjects. Methods Patients with AD and MCI, and healthy subjects were included in this study. Subjects had a baseline MRI scan, and baseline and follow-up neuropsychological battery (CERAD). Regional volumes were measured, and white matter lesion segmentation was performed. Correlations between rate of CERAD score decline and white matter lesion load and brain structure volume were evaluated. In addition, voxel-based correlations between baseline CERAD scores and atrophy and white matter lesion measures were computed. Results CERAD rate of decline was most significantly associated with lesion loads located in the fornices. Several temporal lobe ROI volumes were significantly associated with CERAD decline. Voxel-based analysis demonstrated strong correlation between baseline CERAD scores and atrophy measures in the anterior temporal lobes. Correlation of baseline CERAD scores with white matter lesion volumes achieved significance in multilobar subcortical white matter. Conclusion Both baseline and declines in CERAD scores correlate with white matter lesion load and gray matter atrophy. Results of this study highlight the dominant effect of volume loss, and underscore the importance of small vessel disease as a contributor to cognitive decline in the elderly. PMID:26402108

  20. Modeling the Impact of White-Plague Coral Disease in Climate Change Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Loya, Yossi; Stone, Lewi

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are in global decline, with coral diseases increasing both in prevalence and in space, a situation that is expected only to worsen as future thermal stressors increase. Through intense surveillance, we have collected a unique and highly resolved dataset from the coral reef of Eilat (Israel, Red Sea), that documents the spatiotemporal dynamics of a White Plague Disease (WPD) outbreak over the course of a full season. Based on modern statistical methodologies, we develop a novel spatial epidemiological model that uses a maximum-likelihood procedure to fit the data and assess the transmission pattern of WPD. We link the model to sea surface temperature (SST) and test the possible effect of increasing temperatures on disease dynamics. Our results reveal that the likelihood of a susceptible coral to become infected is governed both by SST and by its spatial location relative to nearby infected corals. The model shows that the magnitude of WPD epidemics strongly depends on demographic circumstances; under one extreme, when recruitment is free-space regulated and coral density remains relatively constant, even an increase of only 0.5°C in SST can cause epidemics to double in magnitude. In reality, however, the spatial nature of transmission can effectively protect the community, restricting the magnitude of annual epidemics. This is because the probability of susceptible corals to become infected is negatively associated with coral density. Based on our findings, we expect that infectious diseases having a significant spatial component, such as Red-Sea WPD, will never lead to a complete destruction of the coral community under increased thermal stress. However, this also implies that signs of recovery of local coral communities may be misleading; indicative more of spatial dynamics than true rehabilitation of these communities. In contrast to earlier generic models, our approach captures dynamics of WPD both in space and time, accounting for the highly seasonal nature of annual WPD outbreaks. PMID:26086846

  1. Impact of White Matter Lesions on Depression in the Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Seok Bum; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Tae Hui; Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Han, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective Comorbid depression is common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). An increase in white matter lesions (WMLs) has been associated with depression in both elderly individuals with normal cognition and patients with Alzheimer's disease. We investigated whether the severity and location of WMLs influence the association between WMLs and comorbid depression in AD. Methods We enrolled 93 AD patients from Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. We administered both the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI) and the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K) clinical and neuropsychological battery. Subjects also underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We diagnosed AD according to the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. We diagnosed depressive disorders according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, and evaluated the severity of depressive symptoms using the Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-K). We quantified the WML volumes from the brain MRI using a fully automated segmentation algorithm. Results The log of the WML volume in the frontal lobe was significantly associated with depressive disorders (odds ratio=1.905, 95% CI=1.027-3.533, p=0.041), but not with the severity of depressive symptoms as measured by the GDS-K. Conclusion The WML volume in the frontal lobe conferred a risk of comorbid depressive disorders in AD, which implies that comorbid depression in AD may be attributed to vascular causes. PMID:26508963

  2. Modeling the Impact of White-Plague Coral Disease in Climate Change Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Zvuloni, Assaf; Artzy-Randrup, Yael; Katriel, Guy; Loya, Yossi; Stone, Lewi

    2015-06-01

    Coral reefs are in global decline, with coral diseases increasing both in prevalence and in space, a situation that is expected only to worsen as future thermal stressors increase. Through intense surveillance, we have collected a unique and highly resolved dataset from the coral reef of Eilat (Israel, Red Sea), that documents the spatiotemporal dynamics of a White Plague Disease (WPD) outbreak over the course of a full season. Based on modern statistical methodologies, we develop a novel spatial epidemiological model that uses a maximum-likelihood procedure to fit the data and assess the transmission pattern of WPD. We link the model to sea surface temperature (SST) and test the possible effect of increasing temperatures on disease dynamics. Our results reveal that the likelihood of a susceptible coral to become infected is governed both by SST and by its spatial location relative to nearby infected corals. The model shows that the magnitude of WPD epidemics strongly depends on demographic circumstances; under one extreme, when recruitment is free-space regulated and coral density remains relatively constant, even an increase of only 0.5°C in SST can cause epidemics to double in magnitude. In reality, however, the spatial nature of transmission can effectively protect the community, restricting the magnitude of annual epidemics. This is because the probability of susceptible corals to become infected is negatively associated with coral density. Based on our findings, we expect that infectious diseases having a significant spatial component, such as Red-Sea WPD, will never lead to a complete destruction of the coral community under increased thermal stress. However, this also implies that signs of recovery of local coral communities may be misleading; indicative more of spatial dynamics than true rehabilitation of these communities. In contrast to earlier generic models, our approach captures dynamics of WPD both in space and time, accounting for the highly seasonal nature of annual WPD outbreaks. PMID:26086846

  3. Vanishing White Matter Disease: A Review with Focus on Its Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pronk, Jan C.; van Kollenburg, Barbara; Scheper, Gert C.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

    2006-01-01

    Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is an autosomal recessive brain disorder, most often with a childhood onset. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy indicate that, with time, increasing amounts of cerebral white matter vanish and are replaced by fluid. Autopsy confirms white matter rarefaction and cystic degeneration. The…

  4. Vanishing White Matter Disease: A Review with Focus on Its Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pronk, Jan C.; van Kollenburg, Barbara; Scheper, Gert C.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

    2006-01-01

    Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is an autosomal recessive brain disorder, most often with a childhood onset. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy indicate that, with time, increasing amounts of cerebral white matter vanish and are replaced by fluid. Autopsy confirms white matter rarefaction and cystic degeneration. The

  5. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Perception and Knowledge: A Comparison of Hispanic and White College Students in a Hispanic-Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahan, Shari; Cathorall, Michelle; Romero, Devan R.

    2007-01-01

    There are clear health conditions that disproportionately affect the Hispanic population. One hundred twenty-four (45%) Hispanic and 153 (55%) White college students completed a questionnaire on cardiovascular disease (CVD) awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of risk. Results indicated that Hispanic students rated themselves as poorer in health,

  6. Host and pathogen ecology drive the seasonal dynamics of a fungal disease, white-nose syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Langwig, Kate E.; Frick, Winifred F.; Reynolds, Rick; Parise, Katy L.; Drees, Kevin P.; Hoyt, Joseph R.; Cheng, Tina L.; Kunz, Thomas H.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal patterns in pathogen transmission can influence the impact of disease on populations and the speed of spatial spread. Increases in host contact rates or births drive seasonal epidemics in some systems, but other factors may occasionally override these influences. White-nose syndrome, caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is spreading across North America and threatens several bat species with extinction. We examined patterns and drivers of seasonal transmission of P. destructans by measuring infection prevalence and pathogen loads in six bat species at 30 sites across the eastern United States. Bats became transiently infected in autumn, and transmission spiked in early winter when bats began hibernating. Nearly all bats in six species became infected by late winter when infection intensity peaked. In summer, despite high contact rates and a birth pulse, most bats cleared infections and prevalence dropped to zero. These data suggest the dominant driver of seasonal transmission dynamics was a change in host physiology, specifically hibernation. Our study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to describe the seasonality of transmission in this emerging wildlife disease. The timing of infection and fungal growth resulted in maximal population impacts, but only moderate rates of spatial spread. PMID:25473016

  7. Reconsidering harbingers of dementia: Progression of parietal lobe white matter hyperintensities predicts Alzheimer's disease incidence

    PubMed Central

    Brickman, Adam M.; Zahodne, Laura B.; Guzman, Vanessa A.; Narkhede, Atul; Meier, Irene B.; Griffith, Erica Y.; Provenzano, Frank A.; Schupf, Nicole; Manly, Jennifer J.; Stern, Yaakov; Luchsinger, José A.; Mayeux, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates small vessel cerebrovascular disease, visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on T2-weighted MRI, in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cross-sectional volumetric measures of WMH, particularly in the parietal lobes, are associated with increased risk of AD. In the current study, we sought to determine whether the longitudinal regional progression of WMH predicts incident AD above-and-beyond traditional radiological markers of neurodegeneration (i.e., hippocampal atrophy, cortical thickness). Three hundred three non-demented older adults (mean age = 79.24±5.29) received high-resolution MRI at baseline and then again 4.6 years (SD=1.01) later. Over the follow-up interval 26 participants progressed to AD. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we calculated latent difference scores of parietal/non-parietal WMH, hippocampus volumes, and cortical thickness values in AD-related regions. Within the SEM framework, we determined whether baseline or change scores or both predicted AD conversion, while controlling for several time-invariant relevant variables. Smaller baseline hippocampus volume, change in hippocampus volume (i.e., atrophy), higher baseline parietal lobe WMH, and increasing parietal lobe WMH volume but not WMH in other regions or measures of cortical thickness, independently predicted progression to AD. The findings provide strong evidence that regionally accumulating WMH, in addition to degenerative changes in the medial temporal lobe, predict AD onset in addition to hallmark neurodegenerative changes typically associated with AD. PMID:25155654

  8. White paper of Italian Gastroenterology: delivery of services for digestive diseases in Italy: weaknesses and strengths.

    PubMed

    Buscarini, Elisabetta; Conte, Dario; Cannizzaro, Renato; Bazzoli, Franco; De Boni, Michele; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Farinati, Fabio; Ravelli, Paolo; Testoni, Pier Alberto; Lisiero, Manola; Spolaore, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    In 2011 the three major Italian gastroenterological scientific societies (AIGO, the Italian Society of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists; SIED, the Italian Society of Endoscopy; SIGE, the Italian Society of Gastroenterology) prepared their official document aimed at analysing medical care for digestive diseases in Italy, on the basis of national and regional data (Health Ministry and Lombardia, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna databases) and to make proposals for planning of care. Digestive diseases were the first or second cause of hospitalizations in Italy in 1999-2009, with more than 1,500,000 admissions/year; however only 5-9% of these admissions was in specialized Gastroenterology units. Reported data show a better outcome in Gastroenterology Units than in non-specialized units: shorter average length of stay, in particular for admissions with ICD-9-CM codes proxying for emergency conditions (6.7 days versus 8.4 days); better case mix (higher average diagnosis-related groups weight in Gastroenterology Units: 1 vs 0.97 in Internal Medicine units and 0.76 in Surgery units); lower inappropriateness of admissions (16-25% versus 29-87%); lower in-hospital mortality in urgent admissions (2.2% versus 5.1%); for patients with urgent admissions due to gastrointestinnal haemorrhage, in-hospital mortality was 2.3% in Gastroenterology units versus 4.0% in others. The present document summarizes the scientific societies' official report, which constitutes the "White paper of Italian Gastroenterology". PMID:24913902

  9. Reconsidering harbingers of dementia: progression of parietal lobe white matter hyperintensities predicts Alzheimer's disease incidence.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Adam M; Zahodne, Laura B; Guzman, Vanessa A; Narkhede, Atul; Meier, Irene B; Griffith, Erica Y; Provenzano, Frank A; Schupf, Nicole; Manly, Jennifer J; Stern, Yaakov; Luchsinger, Jos A; Mayeux, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates small vessel cerebrovascular disease, visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cross-sectional volumetric measures of WMH, particularly in the parietal lobes, are associated with increased risk of AD. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the longitudinal regional progression of WMH predicts incident AD above-and-beyond traditional radiological markers of neurodegeneration (i.e., hippocampal atrophy and cortical thickness). Three hundred three nondemented older adults (mean age = 79.24 5.29) received high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and then again 4.6 years (standard deviation = 1.01) later. Over the follow-up interval 26 participants progressed to AD. Using structural equation modeling, we calculated latent difference scores of parietal and nonparietal WMH, hippocampus volumes, and cortical thickness values in AD-related regions. Within the structural equation modeling framework, we determined whether baseline or change scores or both predicted AD conversion, while controlling for several time-invariant relevant variables. Smaller baseline hippocampus volume, change in hippocampus volume (i.e., atrophy), higher baseline parietal lobe WMH, and increasing parietal lobe WMH volume but not WMH in other regions or measures of cortical thickness, independently predicted progression to AD. The findings provide strong evidence that regionally accumulating WMH predict AD onset in addition to hallmark neurodegenerative changes typically associated with AD. PMID:25155654

  10. Host and pathogen ecology drive the seasonal dynamics of a fungal disease, white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Langwig, Kate E; Frick, Winifred F; Reynolds, Rick; Parise, Katy L; Drees, Kevin P; Hoyt, Joseph R; Cheng, Tina L; Kunz, Thomas H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-01-22

    Seasonal patterns in pathogen transmission can influence the impact of disease on populations and the speed of spatial spread. Increases in host contact rates or births drive seasonal epidemics in some systems, but other factors may occasionally override these influences. White-nose syndrome, caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is spreading across North America and threatens several bat species with extinction. We examined patterns and drivers of seasonal transmission of P. destructans by measuring infection prevalence and pathogen loads in six bat species at 30 sites across the eastern United States. Bats became transiently infected in autumn, and transmission spiked in early winter when bats began hibernating. Nearly all bats in six species became infected by late winter when infection intensity peaked. In summer, despite high contact rates and a birth pulse, most bats cleared infections and prevalence dropped to zero. These data suggest the dominant driver of seasonal transmission dynamics was a change in host physiology, specifically hibernation. Our study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to describe the seasonality of transmission in this emerging wildlife disease. The timing of infection and fungal growth resulted in maximal population impacts, but only moderate rates of spatial spread. PMID:25473016

  11. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or TSE of wild and farmed cervid ruminants in the North America, including white tailed, black tailed and mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and Shira's moose. CWD, like the other TSEs, is associated with accumulation of an abnorm...

  12. Experimental antibiotic treatment identifies potential pathogens of white band disease in the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Coral diseases have been increasingly reported over the past few decades and are a major contributor to coral decline worldwide. The Caribbean, in particular, has been noted as a hotspot for coral disease, and the aptly named white syndromes have caused the decline of the dominant reef building corals throughout their range. White band disease (WBD) has been implicated in the dramatic loss of Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata since the 1970s, resulting in both species being listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red list. The causal agent of WBD remains unknown, although recent studies based on challenge experiments with filtrate from infected hosts concluded that the disease is probably caused by bacteria. Here, we report an experiment using four different antibiotic treatments, targeting different members of the disease-associated microbial community. Two antibiotics, ampicillin and paromomycin, arrested the disease completely, and by comparing with community shifts brought about by treatments that did not arrest the disease, we have identified the likely candidate causal agent or agents of WBD. Our interpretation of the experimental treatments is that one or a combination of up to three specific bacterial types, detected consistently in diseased corals but not detectable in healthy corals, are likely causal agents of WBD. In addition, a histophagous ciliate (Philaster lucinda) identical to that found consistently in association with white syndrome in Indo-Pacific acroporas was also consistently detected in all WBD samples and absent in healthy coral. Treatment with metronidazole reduced it to below detection limits, but did not arrest the disease. However, the microscopic disease signs changed, suggesting a secondary role in disease causation for this ciliate. In future studies to identify a causal agent of WBD via tests of HenleKoch's postulates, it will be vital to experimentally control for populations of the other potential pathogens identified in this study. PMID:24943374

  13. Sporadic Pick's disease: a tauopathy characterized by a spectrum of pathological tau isoforms in gray and white matter.

    PubMed

    Zhukareva, Victoria; Mann, David; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Uryu, Kunihiro; Shuck, Theresa; Shah, Keyur; Grossman, Murray; Miller, Bruce L; Hulette, Christine M; Feinstein, Stuart C; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y

    2002-06-01

    Pick's disease is characterized neuropathologically by distinct tau-immunoreactive intraneuronal inclusions known as Pick bodies and by insoluble tau proteins with predominantly three microtubule-binding repeat tau isoforms. However, recent immunohistochemical studies showed that the antibody specific for exon 10, which encodes the fourth microtubule-binding repeat, detected other tau lesions in Pick's disease. To better define the spectrum of tau pathology in Pick's disease, we used biochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural techniques to analyze the tau isoform composition in 14 Pick's disease brains. Western blot analysis showed that both three and four microtubule-binding repeat pathological tau isoforms are present in gray and white matter of various brain regions. Using phosphorylation-dependent anti-tau antibodies, we show that major tau phosphoepitopes are present in sarcosyl-insoluble gray and white matter regions of Pick's disease brains. Also, for the first time to our knowledge, we demonstrated that isoforms with four microtubule-binding repeat tau isoforms are present in Pick bodies from selected brains. Isolated tau filaments were straight or twisted and formed by three microtubule-binding repeat or four microtubule-binding repeat tau isoforms. Major tau phosphorylation-dependent and exon 10-specific epitopes were present in filaments. Therefore, Pick's disease is characterized by an accumulations of Pick bodies in the hippocampal region and cortex as well as the presence of three and four microtubule-binding repeat tau pathology in both cortical gray and white matter that distinguish this tauopathy from other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:12112079

  14. Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of captive and free ranging white tailed deer, mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and moose in the some parts of the United States and Canada. The presence of the disease has sharply curtailed movement of captive...

  15. Humoral Immune Responses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Experimental Challenge with M. bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring serum antibody production kinetics to multiple mycobacterial antigens can be useful as a diagnostic tool for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection as well as for the characterization of disease progression and efficacy of intervention strategies in several species. In the presen...

  16. ANALYSIS OF INTERFERON-GAMMA PRODUCTION BY MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS INFECTED WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) USING AN IN-VITRO BLOOD BASED ASSAY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in captive Cervidae was identified as an important disease in the US in 1990 and prompted the addition of captive Cervidae to the USDA Uniform Methods and Rules for the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. As well, M. bovis infection was identified in free-rang...

  17. Humoral Immune Responses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Experimental Challenge with M. bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring serum antibody production kinetics to multiple mycobacterial antigens can be useful as a diagnostic tool for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection as well as for the characterization of disease progression and efficacy of intervention strategies in several species. Humoral immun...

  18. Pseudoepitheliomatous changes in a case of vegetating DarierWhite disease: a unique histopathological finding.

    PubMed

    Pezzini, Claudia; Vassallo, Camilla; Grasso, Vincenzo; Rivetti, Nicol; Borroni, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    DarierWhite disease (DWD) is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis, characterized by constant and typical histopathological findings, such as hyperkeratosis, dyskeratosis with corps ronds and grains and papillary microvilli formation with suprabasal clefting. Despite its nearly constant histopathological presentation, unusual clinical variants are reported, such as the vegetating and cornifying ones. These variants share the same histopathological features of the classic type, except for the striking hyperkeratosis and acanthosis. Here, unreported pseudoepitheliomatous features are described in an elderly male patient with a long history of vegetating and verrucous papules and nodules of DWD, associated with typical nail involvement. These unique histolopathological changes were closely in conjunction with the characteristic microscopic features of DWD. Differential diagnosis with other pseudoepitheliomatous and acantholytic conditions such as reticulated seborrheic keratosis, inverted follicular keratosis, and acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is also considered. Pseudoepitheliomatous features, in this case of vegetating DWD, could be regarded as a reactive epidermal phenomenon because of different stimuli, i.e. maceration, bacterial superinfection, and chronic scratching. PMID:25238450

  19. Treponema DNA in bovine 'non-healing' versus common sole ulcers and white line disease.

    PubMed

    Sykora, Sabine; Kofler, Johann; Glonegger-Reichert, Johanna; Dietrich, Johanna; Auersperg, Gloria; Brandt, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD)-associated 'non-healing' white line disease (nhWLD) and 'non-healing' sole ulcers (nhSU) are increasingly encountered in cattle. Using established PCR protocols, 42 nhWLD/nhSU, 25 BDD and 15 common WLD DNA isolates were screened for the presence of Treponema DNA. Obtained amplicons were identified by gel electrophoresis and sequencing. Independent from their source, Treponema DNA was isolated from all lesions, but the lesion type varied with the detected Treponema phylotypes. Whilst Treponema pedis was omnipresent, T.?medium was almost exclusively identified in BDD and associated nhWLD/nhSU lesions when compared to common WLD. This observation was confirmed by specific T.?medium PCR scoring positive for all BDD and nhWLD/nhSU lesions, but for only 1/15 (6.7%) common WLD lesions. It is suggested that T.?medium may have an active role in the pathogenesis of nhWLD/nhSU but further work is needed to verify this concept. PMID:26093913

  20. Molecular phylogeny of Rigidoporus microporus isolates associated with white rot disease of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Miettinen, Otto; Omorusi, Victor I; Evueh, Grace A; Farid, Mohd A; Gazis, Romina; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2014-01-01

    Rigidoporus microporus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) syn. Rigidoporus lignosus is the most destructive root pathogen of rubber plantations distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Our primary objective was to characterize Nigerian isolates from rubber tree and compare them with other West African, Southeast Asian and American isolates. To characterize the 20 isolates from Nigeria, we used sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and LSU, ?-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-? (tef1) gene sequences. Altogether, 40 isolates of R. microporus were included in the analyses. Isolates from Africa, Asia and South/Central America formed three distinctive clades corresponding to at least three species. No phylogeographic pattern was detected among R. microporus collected from West and Central African rubber plantations suggesting continuous gene flow among these populations. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of two distinctive species associated with the white rot disease. Phylogenetic analyses placed R. microporus in the Hymenochaetales in the vicinity of Oxyporus. This is the first study to characterize R. microporus isolates from Nigeria through molecular phylogenetic techniques, and also the first to compare isolates from rubber plantations in Africa and Asia. PMID:24863478

  1. Multimodal Voxel-Based Meta-Analysis of White Matter Abnormalities in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui-Hua; Tan, Lan; Liu, Yong; Wang, Wen-Ying; Wang, Hui-Fu; Jiang, Teng; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Junling; Canu, Elisa; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Filippi, Massimo; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of MRI investigations suggest that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show not only gray matter decreases but also white matter (WM) abnormalities, including WM volume (WMV) deficits and integrity disruption of WM pathways. In this study, we applied multimodal voxel-wise meta-analytical methods to study WMV and fractional anisotropy in AD. Fourteen studies including 723 participants (340 with AD and 383 controls) were involved. The meta-analysis was performed using effect size signed differential mapping. Significant WMV reductions were observed in bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, splenium of corpus callosum, right parahippocampal gyrus, and hippocampus. Decreased fractional anisotropy was identified mainly in left posterior limb of internal capsule, left anterior corona radiata, left thalamus, and left caudate nucleus. Significant decreases of both WMV and fractional anisotropy were found in left caudate nucleus, left superior corona radiata, and right inferior temporal gyrus. Most findings showed to be highly replicable in the jackknife sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, AD patients show widespread WM abnormalities mainly in bilateral structures related to advanced mental and nervous activities. PMID:26401571

  2. White Matter Integrity Linked To Functional Impairments in Aging and Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kavcic, Voyko; Ni, Hongyan; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Duffy, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with changes in cerebral white matter (WM) but the functional significance of such findings is not yet established. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) might reveal links between regional WM changes and specific neuropsychologically and psychophysically defined impairments in early AD. Methods Older adult control subjects (OA, n=18) and mildly impaired AD patients (n=14) underwent neuropsychological and visual perceptual testing along with DTI of cerebral WM. DTI yielded factional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity () maps for nine ROIs in three brain regions that were then compared to the performance measures. Results AD patients showed non-significant trends toward lower FAs in the posterior region’s callosal and sub-cortical ROIs. However, posterior callosal FA was significantly correlated with verbal fluency and figural memory impairments, whereas posterior subcortical FA was correlated with delayed verbal memory, figural memory, and optic flow perceptual impairments. Conclusions WM changes in early AD are concentrated in posterior cerebral areas with distributions that correspond to specific functional impairments. DTI can be used to assess regional pathology related to individual’s deficits in early AD. PMID:19012862

  3. Aquimarina hainanensis sp. nov., isolated from diseased Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanfen; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Li, Wentao; Yu, Mingchao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    One novel Gram-stain-negative, long rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-motile, non-flagellated and strictly aerobic strain, designated M124T, was isolated from diseased Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. Growth occurred at 16-37 °C (optimum 28 °C), in the presence of 2-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3 %) and at pH 7-8 (optimum pH 7). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain M124T belonged to the genus Aquimarina and showed highest sequence similarity to Aquimarina penaei P3-1T (96.4 %). The dominant fatty acids of the isolate were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major polar lipids comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown aminolipid, three unknown phospholipids, two unknown glycolipids and one unknown polar lipid. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The DNA G+C content of strain M124T was 33.7 mol%. Based on the polyphasic analyses in this study, strain M124T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina hainanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M124T ( = KCTC 42423T = MCCC 1K00498T). PMID:26463829

  4. Coronary Heart Disease and Cortical Thickness, Gray Matter and White Matter Lesion Volumes on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Vuorinen, Miika; Damangir, Soheil; Niskanen, Eini; Miralbell, Julia; Rusanen, Minna; Spulber, Gabriela; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been linked with cognitive decline and dementia in several studies. CHD is strongly associated with blood pressure, but it is not clear how blood pressure levels or changes in blood pressure over time affect the relation between CHD and dementia-related pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between CHD and cortical thickness, gray matter volume and white matter lesion (WML) volume on MRI, considering CHD duration and blood pressure levels from midlife to three decades later. The study population included 69 elderly at risk of dementia who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study. CAIDE participants were examined in midlife, re-examined 21 years later, and then after additionally 7 years (in total up to 30 years follow-up). MRIs from the second re-examination were used to calculate cortical thickness, gray matter and WML volume. CHD diagnoses were obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, follow-up time and scanner type, and additionally total intracranial volume in GM volume analyses. Adding diabetes, cholesterol or smoking to the models did not influence the results. CHD was associated with lower thickness in multiple regions, and lower total gray matter volume, particularly in people with longer disease duration (>10 years). Associations between CHD, cortical thickness and gray matter volume were strongest in people with CHD and hypertension in midlife, and those with CHD and declining blood pressure after midlife. No association was found between CHD and WML volumes. Based on these results, long-term CHD seems to have detrimental effects on brain gray matter tissue, and these effects are influenced by blood pressure levels and their changes over time. PMID:25302686

  5. Diversity of autoantibodies in avian scleroderma. An inherited fibrotic disease of White Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, D C; Gershwin, M E

    1984-01-01

    University of California, Davis line 200 White Leghorn chickens develop an inherited progressive fibrotic disease that includes the appearance of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). To further characterize these ANA, serial aged line 200 birds were studied. Greater than 50% of line 200 birds develop antinuclear and anticytoplasmic antibodies; fluorescent staining patterns included cytoplasmic spider web, most prevalent at 1 mo of age, and fine speckled patterns, characteristic of chickens 6 mo and older. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 40.4% of line 200 birds were found to have antibodies to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). In contrast, antibodies to histones, RNA, or poly A . poly U were not detected. Precipitating antibodies to saline extracts from chicken liver were noted in 33.3% of line 200 birds. Saline extracts from turkey, pheasant, and partridge liver but not rat, rabbit, or mouse tissues were also positive in immunodiffusion testing with these line 200 birds. The antigenicity of chicken liver extracts was sensitive to pronase, protease K. and pH variations greater than 10 and less than 5; however, they were resistant to trypsin. DNase. RNase, and incubation at 37 degrees C and 56 degrees C for 1 h. Cell fractionation in conjunction with column chromatographic techniques revealed that several protein antigens with apparent molecular weights in the range of 62,000-290,000 were present in cytoplasm but not in isolated nuclei. Line 200 sera were not reactive against nuclear ribonucleoprotein, Sm, Scl-70, or SS-B/La antigens. Thus, line 200 chickens develop antinuclear and anticytoplasmic antibodies at an early age, which recognize a unique group of protein antigenic determinants found only in avian species. Moreover, and of particular interest, the presence of autoantibodies to saline-extractable antigens correlated with positive ANA, antibodies in ssDNA, and to the clinical expression of disease. Images PMID:6202715

  6. The type localities of the mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817), and the Kansas white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus macrourus (Rafinesque, 1817), are not where we thought they were

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2013-01-01

    Among the iconic mammals of the North American West is the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). This species and a western subspecies of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus macrourus) were two of seven mammals originally named and described as new species in 1817 by Constantine S. Rafinesque. Rafinesque never saw the animals that he named. Instead, he followed the then-acceptable practice of basing his new species on animals characterized in another published work, in this case the putative journal of Charles Le Raye, a French Canadian fur trader who was said to have traversed the upper Missouri River region before the Lewis and Clark Expedition and whose journal described some of the wildlife in detail. Unlike the mule deer, whose existence has been established by generations of biologists, wildlife management professionals, and sportsmen, Le Raye and his journal have since been proven to be fraudulent. Because Rafinesque's names were published in accordance with the taxonomic conventions of his time, they remain available, but, based on the questionable source of his descriptions, the identities and type localities of the species must be viewed as unreliable. Fortunately, much of the Le Raye journal was derived from other, verifiable contemporary sources. In particular, the descriptions of the two deer were based on the published journal of Patrick Gass, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Using the Gass journal as the original source of Rafinesque's descriptions, the type localities for the two deer can be reliably placed in Lyman County, South Dakota.

  7. White matter disruption at the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease: relationships with hippocampal atrophy and episodic memory performance.

    PubMed

    Rémy, Florence; Vayssière, Nathalie; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Pariente, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    White matter tract alterations have been consistently described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, limbic fronto-temporal connections, which are critical to episodic memory function, may degenerate early in the course of the disease. However the relation between white matter tract degeneration, hippocampal atrophy and episodic memory impairment at the earliest stages of AD is still unclear. In this magnetic resonance imaging study, white matter integrity and hippocampal volumes were evaluated in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment due to AD (Albert et al., 2011) (n = 22) and healthy controls (n = 15). Performance in various episodic memory tasks was also evaluated in each participant. Relative to controls, patients showed a significant reduction of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) and increase of radial diffusivity (RD) in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, parahippocampal cingulum and fornix. Within the patient group, significant intra-hemispheric correlations were notably found between hippocampal grey matter volume and FA in the uncinate fasciculus, suggesting a relationship between atrophy and disconnection of the hippocampus. Moreover, episodic recognition scores were related with uncinate fasciculus FA across patients. These results indicate that fronto-hippocampal connectivity is reduced from the earliest pre-demential stages of AD. Disruption of fronto-hippocampal connections may occur progressively, in parallel with hippocampal atrophy, and may specifically contribute to early initial impairment in episodic memory. PMID:25685715

  8. Disease prevalence and use of health care among a national sample of black and white male state prisoners.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David L; Hammond, Wizdom P; Wohl, David A; Golin, Carol E

    2012-02-01

    U.S. prisons have a court-affirmed mandate to provide health care to prisoners. Given this mandate, we sought to determine whether use of prison health care was equitable across race using a nationally-representative sample of Black and White male state prisoners. We first examined the prevalence of health conditions by race. Then, across all health conditions and for each of 15 conditions, we compared the proportion of Black and White male prisoners with the condition who received health care. For most conditions including cancer, heart disease, and liver-related disorders, the age-adjusted prevalence of disease among Blacks was lower than among Whites (p<.05). Blacks were also modestly more likely than Whites to use health care for existing conditions (p<.05), particularly hypertension, cerebral vascular accident/brain injury, cirrhosis, flu-like illness, and injury. The observed racial disparities in health and health care use are different from those among non-incarcerated populations. PMID:22643475

  9. Obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in black and white girls: the NHLBI Growth and Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Obesity may be a possible explanation for the higher cardiovascular disease mortality in Black women compared with White women. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) is designed to assess factors associated with the development of obesity in Black and White preadolescent girls and its effects on major cardiovascular-disease risk factors. METHODS. NGHS is a 5-year cohort study of 2379 girls, aged 9 through 10 years at entry. Anthropometry, blood pressure, and maturation staging are measured annually, and blood lipids biannually. Information on education, income, and family composition is also obtained from parents. RESULTS. At baseline, compared with White girls, Black girls were slightly older, biologically more mature, taller, heavier, and had higher Quetelet Indices, skinfolds, and blood pressures. Black girls had lower triglycerides and higher HDL cholesterol than White girls. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS. Baseline descriptive characteristics of the NGHS cohort showed that, in subjects aged 9 and 10 years, racial differences in obesity and blood pressure were already present. PMID:1456335

  10. Altered whole-brain white matter networks in preclinical Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Florian Udo; Wolf, Dominik; Scheurich, Armin; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Surrogates of whole-brain white matter (WM) networks reconstructed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are novel markers of structural brain connectivity. Global connectivity of networks has been found impaired in clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to cognitively healthy aging. We hypothesized that network alterations are detectable already in preclinical AD and investigated major global WM network properties. Other structural markers of neurodegeneration typically affected in prodromal AD but seeming largely unimpaired in preclinical AD were also examined. 12 cognitively healthy elderly with preclinical AD as classified by florbetapir-PET (mean age 73.4 ± 4.9) and 31 age-matched controls without cerebral amyloidosis (mean age 73.1 ± 6.7) from the ADNI were included. WM networks were reconstructed from DTI using tractography and graph theory. Indices of network capacity and the established imaging markers of neurodegeneration hippocampal volume, and cerebral glucose utilization as measured by fludeoxyglucose-PET were compared between the two groups. Additionally, we measured surrogates of global WM integrity (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, volume). We found an increase of shortest path length and a decrease of global efficiency in preclinical AD. These results remained largely unchanged when controlling for WM integrity. In contrast, neither markers of neurodegeneration nor WM integrity were altered in preclinical AD subjects. Our results suggest an impairment of WM networks in preclinical AD that is detectable while other structural imaging markers do not yet indicate incipient neurodegeneration. Moreover, these findings are specific to WM networks and cannot be explained by other surrogates of global WM integrity. PMID:26288751

  11. Subjects harboring presenilin familial Alzheimer's disease mutations exhibit diverse white matter biochemistry alterations.

    PubMed

    Roher, Alex E; Maarouf, Chera L; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Wilson, Jeffrey; Kokjohn, Tyler A; Daugs, Ian D; Whiteside, Charisse M; Kalback, Walter M; Macias, Mimi P; Jacobson, Sandra A; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Ghetti, Bernardino; Beach, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia impacts all facets of higher order cognitive function and is characterized by the presence of distinctive pathological lesions in the gray matter (GM). The profound alterations in GM structure and function have fostered the view that AD impacts are primarily a consequence of GM damage. However, the white matter (WM) represents about 50% of the cerebrum and this area of the brain is substantially atrophied and profoundly abnormal in both sporadic AD (SAD) and familial AD (FAD). We examined the WM biochemistry by ELISA and Western blot analyses of key proteins in 10 FAD cases harboring mutations in the presenilin genes PSEN1 and PSEN2 as well as in 4 non-demented control (NDC) individuals and 4 subjects with SAD. The molecules examined were direct substrates of PSEN1 such as Notch-1 and amyloid precursor protein (APP). In addition, apolipoproteins, axonal transport molecules, cytoskeletal and structural proteins, neurotrophic factors and synaptic proteins were examined. PSEN-FAD subjects had, on average, higher amounts of WM amyloid-beta (A?) peptides compared to SAD, which may play a role in the devastating dysfunction of the brain. However, the PSEN-FAD mutations we examined did not produce uniform increases in the relative proportions of A?42 and exhibited substantial variability in total A? levels. These observations suggest that neurodegeneration and dementia do not depend solely on enhanced A?42 levels. Our data revealed additional complexities in PSEN-FAD individuals. Some direct substrates of ?-secretase, such as Notch, N-cadherin, Erb-B4 and APP, deviated substantially from the NDC group baseline for some, but not all, mutation types. Proteins that were not direct ?-secretase substrates, but play key structural and functional roles in the WM, likewise exhibited varied concentrations in the distinct PSEN mutation backgrounds. Detailing the diverse biochemical pathology spectrum of PSEN mutations may offer valuable insights into dementia progression and the design of effective therapeutic interventions for both SAD and FAD. PMID:24093083

  12. Structural covariance of superficial white matter in mild Alzheimer's disease compared to normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Carmeli, Cristian; Fornari, Eleonora; Jalili, Mahdi; Meuli, Reto; Knyazeva, Maria G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Interindividual variations in regional structural properties covary across the brain, thus forming networks that change as a result of aging and accompanying neurological conditions. The alterations of superficial white matter (SWM) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are of special interest, since they follow the AD-specific pattern characterized by the strongest neurodegeneration of the medial temporal lobe and association cortices. Methods Here, we present an SWM network analysis in comparison with SWM topography based on the myelin content quantified with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) for 39 areas in each hemisphere in 15 AD patients and 15 controls. The networks are represented by graphs, in which nodes correspond to the areas, and edges denote statistical associations between them. Results In both groups, the networks were characterized by asymmetrically distributed edges (predominantly in the left hemisphere). The AD-related differences were also leftward. The edges lost due to AD tended to connect nodes in the temporal lobe to other lobes or nodes within or between the latter lobes. The newly gained edges were mostly confined to the temporal and paralimbic regions, which manifest demyelination of SWM already in mild AD. Conclusion This pattern suggests that the AD pathological process coordinates SWM demyelination in the temporal and paralimbic regions, but not elsewhere. A comparison of the MTR maps with MTR-based networks shows that although, in general, the changes in network architecture in AD recapitulate the topography of (de)myelination, some aspects of structural covariance (including the interhemispheric asymmetry of networks) have no immediate reflection in the myelination pattern. PMID:25328848

  13. Dietary fat purchasing habits in whites, blacks and Asian peoples in England--implications for heart disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Lip, G Y; Malik, I; Luscombe, C; McCarry, M; Beevers, G

    1995-03-01

    The mortality and morbidity from coronary heart disease (CHD) is higher in people of South Asian origin than in whites, but is significantly lower in the black (Afro-Caribbean origin) community in the United Kingdom. To investigate whether this may be related to differences in fatty food intake, we performed a questionnaire survey of the weekly food purchasing habits and preparation methods in white, black (Caribbean) and Asian households in Birmingham. We interviewed 224 housewives from three ethnic groups (84 white, 76 black/Afro-Caribbean and 72 Asian). The highest quantity of fat in foods purchased per week was found in the Asian population (median 1409 g/week per person, interquartile range (IQR) 850-1952), which was significantly greater than black subjects, who had the lowest quantity of fat in foods purchased (1012 g/week per person, IQR 835-1388) (Mann-Whitney test:median differences 300.5, 95% C.I. 23.3-600.4, P = 0.029). The median quantity of fat in foods purchased by the white households was intermediate, at 1186 g/week per person (IQR 861-1711). There was a higher quantity of fat in foods purchased in the lower social classes (IV and V) in both the white and Asian populations. Butter, egg and milk consumption was significantly greater in Asians; with ghee consumption almost exclusive amongst this group (98%). Amongst whites and blacks, the commonest food preparation methods were grilling, boiling or poaching; whilst amongst Asians, frying was more common (chi 2 = 81.25, d.f. = 4, P < 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7782144

  14. Improved Sensitivity to Cerebral White Matter Abnormalities in Alzheimers Disease with Spherical Deconvolution Based Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Reijmer, Yael D.; Leemans, Alexander; Heringa, Sophie M.; Wielaard, Ilse; Jeurissen, Ben; Koek, Huiberdina L.; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based fiber tractography (FT) is the most popular approach for investigating white matter tracts in vivo, despite its inability to reconstruct fiber pathways in regions with crossing fibers. Recently, constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) has been developed to mitigate the adverse effects of crossing fibers on DTI based FT. Notwithstanding the methodological benefit, the clinical relevance of CSD based FT for the assessment of white matter abnormalities remains unclear. In this work, we evaluated the applicability of a hybrid framework, in which CSD based FT is combined with conventional DTI metrics to assess white matter abnormalities in 25 patients with early Alzheimers disease. Both CSD and DTI based FT were used to reconstruct two white matter tracts: one with regions of crossing fibers, i.e., the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and one which contains only one fiber orientation, i.e. the midsagittal section of the corpus callosum (CC). The DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), obtained from these tracts were related to memory function. Our results show that in the tract with crossing fibers the relation between FA/MD and memory was stronger with CSD than with DTI based FT. By contrast, in the fiber bundle where one fiber population predominates, the relation between FA/MD and memory was comparable between both tractography methods. Importantly, these associations were most pronounced after adjustment for the planar diffusion coefficient, a measure reflecting the degree of fiber organization complexity. These findings indicate that compared to conventionally applied DTI based FT, CSD based FT combined with DTI metrics can increase the sensitivity to detect functionally significant white matter abnormalities in tracts with complex white matter architecture. PMID:22952880

  15. The Bicolored White-Toothed Shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) Is an Indigenous Host of Mammalian Borna Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Drrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenbck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV. PMID:24699636

  16. The bicolored white-toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) is an indigenous host of mammalian Borna disease virus.

    PubMed

    Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV. PMID:24699636

  17. Black-Tailed Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

  18. Appraisal, Coping, and Social Support as Mediators of Well-Being in Black and White Family Caregivers of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, William E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) commonly have high levels of psychological distress. Black caregivers often report less depression than white caregivers, but the process underlying this difference is poorly understood. With the use of a stress process model, 123 white and 74 black family caregivers of patients with AD…

  19. BLUETONGUE AND EPIZOOTIC HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE VIRUS INFECTIONS OF PULMONARY ARTERY ENDOTHELIAL CELLS FROM CATTLE, SHEEP AND DEER: COMPARISON OF REPLICATION KINETICS AND CELLULAR INJURY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replication of Bluetongue (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHDV) viruses in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (ECs) cultured from cattle, sheep, black-tailed (BTD) and white-tailed (WTD) deer was compared Purified EC cultures from the pulmonary arteries of cattle, sheep, BTD and WTD were u...

  20. Preferential loss of myelin-associated glycoprotein reflects hypoxia-like white matter damage in stroke and inflammatory brain diseases.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Enein, Fahmy; Rauschka, Helmut; Kornek, Barbara; Stadelmann, Christine; Stefferl, Andreas; Brck, Wolfgang; Lucchinetti, Claudia; Schmidbauer, Manfred; Jellinger, Kurt; Lassmann, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes leading to the formation of large demyelinated plaques is the hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. In a subset of MS patients termed pattern III, actively demyelinating lesions show preferential loss of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and apoptotic-like oligodendrocyte destruction, whereas other myelin proteins remain well preserved. MAG is located in the most distal periaxonal oligodendrocyte processes and primary "dying back" oligodendrogliopathy may be the initial step of myelin degeneration in pattern III lesions. In the present study, various human white matter pathologies, including acute and chronic white matter stroke, virus encephalitis, metabolic encephalopathy, and MS were studied. In addition to a subset of MS cases, a similar pattern of demyelination was found in some cases of virus encephalitis as well as in all lesions of acute white matter stroke. Brain white matter lesions presenting with MAG loss and apoptotic-like oligodendrocyte destruction, irrespective of their primary disease cause, revealed a prominent nuclear expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha in various cell types, including oligodendrocytes. Our data suggest that a hypoxia-like tissue injury may play a pathogenetic role in a subset of inflammatory demyelinating brain lesions. PMID:12528815

  1. Sugarcane White Leaf Disease Incidences and Population Dynamic of Leafhopper Insect Vectors in Sugarcane Plantations in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rattanabunta, Chiranan; Hanboonsong, Yupa

    2015-04-01

    The work consisted of two experiments, i.e. Experiment 1 was conducted under controlled environments where sugarcane plants were used as hosts. This investigation aimed to monitor the occurrence of the Sugarcane White Leaf disease and the abundance of Leafhopper insect vectors and also the work aimed to provide useful information in understanding some aspects on epidemiology of the Sugarcane White Leaf disease. A Completely Randomized Design with three replications was used to justify growth and development of Leafhopper insects as affected by different temperatures: 20 (T1), 25 (T2), 30 (T3) and 35 degrees C (T4). Experiment 2 was carried out to determine the numbers of Leafhopper insects with the use of light traps in the sugarcane Field 1 (ratoon plants), Field 2 (newly planted), Field 3 (newly planted) and Field 4 (ratoon plants). The results of Experiment 1 showed that growth and development of Leafhopper insects were highly affected by temperatures i.e. the higher the environmental temperature the faster the growth and development of the insects to reach its full adulthood. At 20 degrees C, Leafhopper insects took 12 days to lay eggs whereas at 25 degrees C the insects took only 6 days. Male reached its adulthood approximately 9 days earlier than female when cultured at 25 degrees C and became approximately one week at 30 degrees C or higher. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the majority of Leafhopper insects were found within the months of June and July for both newly planted and ratoon crops. A small amount was found in May and August with an exceptional case of Field 4 where the highest number of Leafhopper insects was found in April followed by June and July. For Sugarcane White Leaf disease, the disease was found in all months of the year except February for Fields 2 and 3. Newly planted sugarcane plants attained much smaller percentages of disease than those of the ratoon plants. PMID:26506649

  2. Cerebral white matter lesions are not associated with apoE genotype but with age and female sex in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, H.; Udaka, F.; Izumi, Y.; Nishinaka, K.; Kawakami, H.; Nakamura, S.; Kameyama, M.

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions, such as leukoaraiosis, may be a result of damage from cerebral ischaemia, and may also be associated with the degenerative process in Alzheimer's disease. The apolipoprotein ε4 (apoε4) genotype is a genetic risk factor for both Alzheimer's disease and ischaemic brain damage through acceleration of atherosclerosis. The aim was to determine whether apoε4 may be related to the formation of cerebral white matter lesions in Alzheimer's disease. The association of apoE genotype, sex, age, and the presence of several vascular risk factors, with the presence of white matter lesions in 55patients clinically diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease was investigated. The cerebral white matter lesions were identified by T2 weighted MRI and classified on a 4 grade scale from no lesion to diffuse lesion. The odds ratio (OR) of the factors mentioned above to the presence of white matter lesions was determined and tested by Fisher's exact test. The association of the lesion grades with these factors was analysed by non-parametric tests. The apoE 4genotype was strongly associated with Alzheimer's disease (p=0.0001), but not associated with the presence or the degree of cerebral white matter lesions in Alzheimer's disease (OR=1.09, p>0.99). Aging (>70 years old) was a significant risk factor for white matter lesions (OR=7.2, p=0.0006) and age was significantly correlated with the lesion (p=0.0075). The OR of female sex to the lesion grades was 2.89 (p=0.084) and the lesion grade of female sex was significantly higher than that of the male sex (p=0.047). Other vascular risk factors were not significantly associated with the presence of white matter lesions. These findings suggest that there is a sex difference in white matter pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

 PMID:10766901

  3. Review of the 2012 Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in Domestic Ruminants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, G.; McCluskey, B.; King, A.; O’Hearn, E.; Mayr, G.

    2015-01-01

    An unusually large number of cases of Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) were observed in United States cattle and white-tailed deer in the summer and fall of 2012. USDA APHIS Veterinary Services area offices were asked to report on foreign animal disease investigations and state diagnostic laboratory submissions which resulted in a diagnosis of EHD based on positive PCR results. EHD was reported in the following species: cattle (129 herds), captive white-tailed deer (65 herds), bison (8 herds), yak (6 herds), elk (1 herd), and sheep (1 flock). A majority of the cases in cattle and bison were found in Nebraska, South Dakota, and Iowa. The majority of cases in captive white-tailed deer were found in Ohio, Iowa, Michigan, and Missouri. The most common clinical sign observed in the cattle and bison herds was oral lesions. The major observation in captive white-tailed deer herds was death. Average within-herd morbidity was 7% in cattle and bison herds, and 46% in captive white-tailed deer herds. The average within-herd mortality in captive white-tailed deer herds was 42%. PMID:26244773

  4. Review of the 2012 Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in Domestic Ruminants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stevens, G; McCluskey, B; King, A; O'Hearn, E; Mayr, G

    2015-01-01

    An unusually large number of cases of Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) were observed in United States cattle and white-tailed deer in the summer and fall of 2012. USDA APHIS Veterinary Services area offices were asked to report on foreign animal disease investigations and state diagnostic laboratory submissions which resulted in a diagnosis of EHD based on positive PCR results. EHD was reported in the following species: cattle (129 herds), captive white-tailed deer (65 herds), bison (8 herds), yak (6 herds), elk (1 herd), and sheep (1 flock). A majority of the cases in cattle and bison were found in Nebraska, South Dakota, and Iowa. The majority of cases in captive white-tailed deer were found in Ohio, Iowa, Michigan, and Missouri. The most common clinical sign observed in the cattle and bison herds was oral lesions. The major observation in captive white-tailed deer herds was death. Average within-herd morbidity was 7% in cattle and bison herds, and 46% in captive white-tailed deer herds. The average within-herd mortality in captive white-tailed deer herds was 42%. PMID:26244773

  5. Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection in the Reservoir Host (White-Tailed Deer) and in an Incidental Host (Dog) Is Impacted by Its Prior Growth in Macrophage and Tick Cell Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Arathy D. S.; Cheng, Chuanmin; Jaworski, Deborah C.; Willard, Lloyd H.; Sanderson, Michael W.; Ganta, Roman R.

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis, transmitted from Amblyomma americanum ticks, causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis. It also infects white-tailed deer, dogs and several other vertebrates. Deer are its reservoir hosts, while humans and dogs are incidental hosts. E. chaffeensis protein expression is influenced by its growth in macrophages and tick cells. We report here infection progression in deer or dogs infected intravenously with macrophage- or tick cell-grown E. chaffeensis or by tick transmission in deer. Deer and dogs developed mild fever and persistent rickettsemia; the infection was detected more frequently in the blood of infected animals with macrophage inoculum compared to tick cell inoculum or tick transmission. Tick cell inoculum and tick transmission caused a drop in tick infection acquisition rates compared to infection rates in ticks fed on deer receiving macrophage inoculum. Independent of deer or dogs, IgG antibody response was higher in animals receiving macrophage inoculum against macrophage-derived Ehrlichia antigens, while it was significantly lower in the same animals against tick cell-derived Ehrlichia antigens. Deer infected with tick cell inoculum and tick transmission caused a higher antibody response to tick cell cultured bacterial antigens compared to the antibody response for macrophage cultured antigens for the same animals. The data demonstrate that the host cell-specific E. chaffeensis protein expression influences rickettsemia in a host and its acquisition by ticks. The data also reveal that tick cell-derived inoculum is similar to tick transmission with reduced rickettsemia, IgG response and tick acquisition of E. chaffeensis. PMID:25303515

  6. Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in the reservoir host (white-tailed deer) and in an incidental host (dog) is impacted by its prior growth in macrophage and tick cell environments.

    PubMed

    Nair, Arathy D S; Cheng, Chuanmin; Jaworski, Deborah C; Willard, Lloyd H; Sanderson, Michael W; Ganta, Roman R

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis, transmitted from Amblyomma americanum ticks, causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis. It also infects white-tailed deer, dogs and several other vertebrates. Deer are its reservoir hosts, while humans and dogs are incidental hosts. E. chaffeensis protein expression is influenced by its growth in macrophages and tick cells. We report here infection progression in deer or dogs infected intravenously with macrophage- or tick cell-grown E. chaffeensis or by tick transmission in deer. Deer and dogs developed mild fever and persistent rickettsemia; the infection was detected more frequently in the blood of infected animals with macrophage inoculum compared to tick cell inoculum or tick transmission. Tick cell inoculum and tick transmission caused a drop in tick infection acquisition rates compared to infection rates in ticks fed on deer receiving macrophage inoculum. Independent of deer or dogs, IgG antibody response was higher in animals receiving macrophage inoculum against macrophage-derived Ehrlichia antigens, while it was significantly lower in the same animals against tick cell-derived Ehrlichia antigens. Deer infected with tick cell inoculum and tick transmission caused a higher antibody response to tick cell cultured bacterial antigens compared to the antibody response for macrophage cultured antigens for the same animals. The data demonstrate that the host cell-specific E. chaffeensis protein expression influences rickettsemia in a host and its acquisition by ticks. The data also reveal that tick cell-derived inoculum is similar to tick transmission with reduced rickettsemia, IgG response and tick acquisition of E. chaffeensis. PMID:25303515

  7. Alzheimer disease periventricular white matter lesions exhibit specific proteomic profile alterations.

    PubMed

    Castao, Eduardo M; Maarouf, Chera L; Wu, Terence; Leal, Maria Celeste; Whiteside, Charisse M; Lue, Lih-Fen; Kokjohn, Tyler A; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Beach, Thomas G; Roher, Alex E

    2013-01-01

    The white matter (WM) represents approximately half the cerebrum volume and is profoundly affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, both the WM responses to AD as well as potential influences of this compartment to dementia pathogenesis remain comparatively neglected. Neuroimaging studies have revealed WM alterations are commonly associated with AD and renewed interest in examining the pathologic basis and importance of these changes. In AD subjects, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy revealed changes in astrocyte morphology and myelin loss as well as up to 30% axonal loss in areas of WM rarefaction when measured against non-demented control (NDC) tissue. Comparative proteomic analyses were performed on pooled samples of periventricular WM (PVWM) obtained from AD (n=4) and NDC (n=5) subjects with both groups having a mean age of death of 86 years. All subjects had an apolipoprotein E ?3/3 genotype with the exception of one NDC subject who was ?2/3. Urea-detergent homogenates were analyzed using two different separation techniques: 2-dimensional isoelectric focusing/reverse-phase chromatography and 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Proteins with different expression levels between the 2 diagnostic groups were identified using MALDI-Tof/Tof mass spectrometry. In addition, Western blots were used to quantify proteins of interest in individual AD and NDC cases. Our proteomic studies revealed that when WM protein pools were loaded at equal amounts of total protein for comparative analyses, there were quantitative differences between the 2 groups. Molecules related to cytoskeleton maintenance, calcium metabolism and cellular survival such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, tropomyosin, collapsin response mediator protein-2, calmodulin, S100-P, annexin A1, ?-internexin, ?- and ?-synuclein, ?-B-crystalline, fascin-1, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase and thymosine were altered between AD and NDC pools. Our experiments suggest that WM activities become globally impaired during the course of AD with significant morphological, biochemical and functional consequential implications for gray matter function and cognitive deficits. These observations may endorse the hypothesis that WM dysfunction is not only a consequence of AD pathology, but that it may precipitate and/or potentiate AD dementia. PMID:23231993

  8. Alzheimer Disease Periventricular White Matter Lesions Exhibit Specific Proteomic Profile Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Castao, Eduardo M.; Maarouf, Chera L.; Wu, Terence; Leal, Maria Celeste; Whiteside, Charisse M.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Kokjohn, Tyler A.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Beach, Thomas G.; Roher, Alex E.

    2013-01-01

    The white matter (WM) represents approximately half the cerebrum volume and is profoundly affected in Alzheimers disease (AD). However, both the WM responses to AD as well as potential influences of this compartment to dementia pathogenesis remain comparatively neglected. Neuroimaging studies have revealed WM alterations are commonly associated with AD and renewed interest in examining the pathologic basis and importance of these changes. In AD subjects, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy revealed changes in astrocyte morphology and myelin loss as well as up to 30% axonal loss in areas of WM rarefaction when measured against non-demented control (NDC) tissue. Comparative proteomic analyses were performed on pooled samples of periventricular WM (PVWM) obtained from AD (n = 4) and NDC (n = 5) subjects with both groups having a mean age of death of 86 years. All subjects had an apolipoprotein E ?3/3 genotype with the exception of one NDC subject who was ?2/3. Urea-detergent homogenates were analyzed using two different separation techniques: 2-dimensional isoelectric focusing/reverse-phase chromatography and 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Proteins with different expression levels between the 2 diagnostic groups were identified using MALDI-Tof/Tof mass spectrometry. In addition, Western blots were used to quantify proteins of interest in individual AD and NDC cases. Our proteomic studies revealed that when WM protein pools were loaded at equal amounts of total protein for comparative analyses, there were quantitative differences between the 2 groups. Molecules related to cytoskeleton maintenance, calcium metabolism and cellular survival such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, tropomyosin, collapsin response mediator protein-2, calmodulin, S100-P, annexin A1, ?-internexin, ?-and ?-synuclein, ?-B-crystalline, fascin-1, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase and thymosine were altered between AD and NDC pools. Our experiments suggest that WM activities become globally impaired during the course of AD with significant morphological, biochemical and functional consequential implications for gray matter function and cognitive deficits. These observations may endorse the hypothesis that WM dysfunction is not only a consequence of AD pathology, but that it may precipitate and/or potentiate AD dementia. PMID:23231993

  9. Ciliate and bacterial communities associated with White Syndrome and Brown Band Disease in reef-building corals

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael; Bythell, John

    2012-01-01

    White Syndrome (WS) and Brown Band Disease (BrB) are important causes of reef coral mortality for which causal agents have not been definitively identified. Here we use culture-independent molecular techniques (DGGE and clone libraries) to characterize ciliate and bacterial communities in these diseases. Bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and ciliate (18S rRNA gene) communities were highly similar between the two diseases. Four bacterial and nine ciliate ribotypes were observed in both diseases, but absent in non-diseased specimens. Only one of the bacteria, Arcobacter sp. (JF831360) increased substantially in relative 16S rRNA gene abundance and was consistently represented in all diseased samples. Four of the eleven ciliate morphotypes detected contained coral algal symbionts, indicative of the ingestion of coral tissues. In both WS and BrB, there were two ciliate morphotypes consistently represented in all disease lesion samples. Morph1 (JN626268) was observed to burrow into and underneath the coral tissues at the lesion boundary. Morph2 (JN626269), previously identified in BrB, appears to play a secondary, less invasive role in pathogenesis, but has a higher population density in BrB, giving rise to the visible brown band. The strong similarity in bacterial and ciliate community composition of these diseases suggests that they are actually the same syndrome. PMID:22507379

  10. White spot disease risk factors associated with shrimp farming practices and geographical location in Chanthaburi province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Piamsomboon, Patharapol; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Wongtavatchai, Janenuj

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 2 decades, shrimp aquaculture in Thailand has been impacted by white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Described here are results of a survey of 157 intensive shrimp farms in Chanthaburi province, Thailand, to identify potential farm management and location risk factors associated with the occurrence of WSD outbreaks. Logistic regression analysis of the survey responses identified WSD risks to be associated with farms sharing inlet water and culturing shrimp year round and with a single owner operating more than 1 farm. The analysis also showed WSD risks to be reduced at farms that used probiotics and applied lime to pond bottoms when fallow to neutralize acidity and kill microorganisms. Regression modeling identified no association of geographical location with WSD. The data should assist shrimp farms in mitigating the effects of WSD in Thailand. PMID:26648106

  11. Unilaterally and rapidly progressing white matter lesion and elevated cytokines in a patient with Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    Hayase, Tomomi; Shimizu, Jun; Goto, Tamako; Nozaki, Yasuyuki; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Naoto; Namba, Eiji; Yamagata, Takanori; Momoi, Mariko Y

    2010-03-01

    We report the case of a girl with Tay-Sachs disease who had convulsions and deteriorated rapidly after an upper respiratory infection at the age of 11 months. At the age of 16 months, her seizures became intractable and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and marked swelling in the white matter and basal nucelei of the right hemisphere. Her seizures and right hemisphere lesion improved with glycerol and dexamethasone treatment. When dexamethasone was discontinued, her symptoms worsened and lesions later appeared in the left hemisphere. Her cerebrospinal fluid showed elevated levels of the cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-5. It is considered that inflammation contributes to disease progression in Tay-Sachs disease. PMID:19278800

  12. Thalamic fractional anisotropy predicts accrual of cerebral white matter damage in older subjects with small-vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Michele; Moscufo, Nicola; Meier, Dominik; Skudlarski, Pawel; Pearlson, Godfrey D; White, William B; Wolfson, Leslie; Guttmann, Charles RG

    2014-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and lacunes are magnetic resonance imaging hallmarks of cerebral small-vessel disease, which increase the risk of stroke, cognitive, and mobility impairment. Although most studies of cerebral small-vessel disease have focused on white matter abnormalities, the gray matter (GM) is also affected, as evidenced by frequently observed lacunes in subcortical GM. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to subtle neurodegenerative changes in deep GM structures. We explored the relationship between baseline DTI characteristics of the thalamus, caudate, and putamen, and the volume and subsequent accrual of WMHs over a 4-year period in 56 community-dwelling older (?75 years) individuals. Baseline thalamic fractional anisotropy (FA) was an independent predictor of WMH accrual. WMH accrual also correlated with baseline lacune count and baseline WMH volume, the latter showing the strongest predictive power, explaining 27.3% of the variance. The addition of baseline thalamic FA in multivariate modeling increased this value by 70%, which explains 46.5% of the variance in WMH accrual rate. Thalamic FA might serve as a novel predictor of cerebral small-vessel disease progression in clinical settings and trials. Furthermore, our findings point to the possibility of a causal relationship between thalamic damage and the accrual of WMHs. PMID:24824915

  13. Mechanisms of oligodendrocyte regeneration from ventricular-subventricular zone-derived progenitor cells in white matter diseases

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Takakuni; Liang, Anna C.; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Lo, Eng H.; Arai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    White matter dysfunction is an important part of many CNS disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS) and vascular dementia. Within injured areas, myelin loss and oligodendrocyte death may trigger endogenous attempts at regeneration. However, during disease progression, remyelination failure may eventually occur due to impaired survival/proliferation, migration/recruitment, and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) are the main sources of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), which can give rise to neurons as well as OPCs. Under normal conditions in the adult brain, the V-SVZ progenitors generate a large number of neurons with a small number of oligodendrocyte lineage cells. However, after demyelination, the fate of V-SVZ-derived progenitor cells shifts from neurons to OPCs, and these newly generated OPCs migrate to the demyelinating lesions to ease white matter damage. In this mini-review, we will summarize the recent studies on extrinsic (e.g., vasculature, extracellular matrix (ECM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)) and intrinsic (e.g., transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers) factors, which mediate oligodendrocyte generation from the V-SVZ progenitor cells. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the fate of V-SVZ progenitor cells may lead to new therapeutic approaches for ameliorating white matter dysfunction and damage in CNS disorders. PMID:24421755

  14. Tail gut cyst.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision. PMID:12546176

  15. Atypical sporadic CJD-MM phenotype with white matter kuru plaques associated with intranuclear inclusion body and argyrophilic grain disease.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Anna S; Trummert, Anita; Unterberger, Ursula; Ströbel, Thomas; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2015-08-01

    We describe an atypical neuropathological phenotype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a 76-year-old man. The clinical symptoms were characterized by progressive dementia, gait ataxia, rigidity and urinary incontinence. The disease duration was 6 weeks. MRI did not show prominent atrophy or hyperintensities in cortical areas, striatum or thalamus. Biomarker examination of the cerebrospinal fluid deviated from that seen in pure Alzheimer's disease. Triphasic waves in the EEG were detected only later in the disease course, while 14-3-3 assay was positive. PRNP genotyping revealed methionine homozygosity (MM) at codon 129. Neuropathology showed classical CJD changes corresponding to the MM type 1 cases. However, a striking feature was the presence of abundant kuru-type plaques in the white matter. This rare morphology was associated with neuropathological signs of intranuclear inclusion body disease and advanced stage of argyrophilic grain disease. These alterations did not show correlation with each other, thus seemed to develop independently. This case further highlights the complexity of neuropathological alterations in the ageing brain. PMID:25783686

  16. Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes

    PubMed Central

    Work, Thierry M.; Russell, Robin; Aeby, Greta S.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue loss diseases or white syndromes (WS) are some of the most important coral diseases because they result in significant colony mortality and morbidity, threatening dominant Acroporidae in the Caribbean and Pacific. The causes of WS remain elusive in part because few have examined affected corals at the cellular level. We studied the cellular changes associated with WS over time in a dominant Hawaiian coral, Montipora capitata, and showed that: (i) WS has rapidly progressing (acute) phases mainly associated with ciliates or slowly progressing (chronic) phases mainly associated with helminths or chimeric parasites; (ii) these phases interchanged and waxed and waned; (iii) WS could be a systemic disease associated with chimeric parasitism or a localized disease associated with helminths or ciliates; (iv) corals responded to ciliates mainly with necrosis and to helminths or chimeric parasites with wound repair; (v) mixed infections were uncommon; and (vi) other than cyanobacteria, prokaryotes associated with cell death were not seen. Recognizing potential agents associated with disease at the cellular level and the host response to those agents offers a logical deductive rationale to further explore the role of such agents in the pathogenesis of WS in M. capitata and helps explain manifestation of gross lesions. This approach has broad applicability to the study of the pathogenesis of coral diseases in the field and under experimental settings. PMID:22951746

  17. Genetic population structure and relatedness of Colorado mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and incidence of chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of farmed and free ranging mule deer, white tailed deer, Rocky Mountain elk, and moose in some areas of the United States. The disease is enzootic in herds of free ranging mule deer in the Rocky Mountain National ...

  18. White Matter Microstructure and Cognition in Adolescents with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Caitlin K.; Watson, Christopher G.; Asaro, Lisa A.; Wypij, David; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Bellinger, David C.; DeMaso, David R.; Robertson, Richard L.; Newburger, Jane W.; Rivkin, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the relationship between altered white matter microstructure and neurodevelopment in children with d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA). Study design We report correlations between regional white matter microstructure as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) and cognitive outcome in a homogeneous group of adolescents with d-TGA. Subjects with d-TGA (n=49) and controls (n=29) underwent diffusion tensor imaging and neurocognitive testing. In the group with d-TGA, we correlated neurocognitive scores with FA in 14 composite regions of interest in which subjects with d-TGA had lower FA than controls. Results Among the patients with d-TGA, mathematics achievement correlated with left parietal FA (r=0.39, p=0.006), inattention/hyperactivity symptoms with right precentral FA (r=−0.39, p=0.006) and left parietal FA (r=−0.30, p=0.04), executive function with right precentral FA (r=−0.30, p=0.04), and visual-spatial skills with right frontal FA(r=0.30, p=0.04). We also found an unanticipated correlation between memory and right posterior limb of the internal capsule FA (r=0.29, p=0.047). Conclusion Within the group with d-TGA, regions of reduced white matter microstructure are associated with cognitive performance in a pattern similar to healthy adolescents and adults. Diminished white matter microstructure may contribute to cognitive compromise in adolescents who underwent open-heart surgery in infancy. PMID:25217200

  19. Genetics and Vaccine Efficacy: Host Genetic Variation Affecting Marek's Disease Vaccine Efficacy in White Leghorn Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a T cell lymphoma disease of domestic chickens induced by Marek’s disease viruses (MDV), a naturally oncogenic and highly contagious cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus. Earlier reports have shown that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype as well as non-MHC gene...

  20. Mutation C3256T of mitochondrial genome in white blood cells: novel genetic marker of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sobenin, Igor A; Sazonova, Margarita A; Ivanova, Maria M; Zhelankin, Andrey V; Myasoedova, Veronika A; Postnov, Anton Y; Nurbaev, Serik D; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the association between the level of heteroplasmy for the mutation C3256T in human white blood cells and the extent of carotid atherosclerosis, as well as the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD), the major clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis. Totally, 191 participants (84 men, 107 women) aged 65.0 years (SD 9.4) were recruited in the study; 45 (24%) of them had CHD. High-resolution B-mode ultrasonography of carotids was used to estimate the extent of carotid atherosclerosis by measuring of the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). DNA samples were obtained from whole venous blood, and then PCR and pyrosequencing were carried out. On the basis of pyrosequencing data, the levels of C3256T heteroplasmy in DNA samples were calculated. The presence of the mutant allele was detected in all study participants; the level of C3256T heteroplasmy in white blood cells ranged from 5% to 74%. The highly significant relationship between C3256T heteroplasmy level and predisposition to atherosclerosis was revealed. In individuals with low predisposition to atherosclerosis the mean level of C3256T heteroplasmy was 16.8%, as compared to 23.8% in moderately predisposed subjects, and further to 25.2% and 28.3% in significantly and highly predisposed subjects, respectively. The level of C3256T heteroplasmy of mitochondrial genome in human white blood cells is a biomarker of mitochondrial dysfunction and risk factor for atherosclerosis; therefore, it can be used as an informative marker of genetic susceptibility to atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. PMID:23056349