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1

Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

- year-old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin, USA. We evaluated how); density dependence; disease management; disease transmission; frequency dependence; Odocoileus virginianus

2

Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

Joly, D.O.; Ribic, C.A.; Langenberg, J.A.; Beheler, K.; Batha, C.A.; Dhuey, B.J.; Rolley, R.E.; Bartelt, G.; VanDeelen, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

2003-01-01

3

SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN WISCONSIN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus

Mladenoff, David

4

Wetland cover dynamics drive hemorrhagic disease patterns in white-tailed deer in the United States.  

PubMed

While vector-borne diseases are known to be particularly influenced by environmental factors, the impact of land-cover change on vector-borne wildlife disease patterns is poorly understood, largely due to the paucity of data on disease occurrence at extensive spatial and temporal scales. Widespread and rapid anthropogenic land-cover change, especially urbanization, has transformed the US landscape during the last century. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and blue tongue virus, vectored by Culicoides biting midges, are two RNA viruses in the Orbivirus genus that cause severe hemorrhagic disease (HD) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We examine the spatial dynamics of HD affecting white-tailed deer in the contiguous United States in two periods covering 1980 to 2007 in connection with land-cover change over the same time. Using spatial statistical modeling, wetland cover emerges as a critical driver of HD morbidity, whereas the drivers of mortality patterns are more complex. Increasing wetland cover is positively associated with HD morbidity, which is consistent with the ecologic requirements of the Culicoides vector. Wetland cover is inherently dynamic due to its importance to biodiversity and water quality as well as its utility for other purposes when drained. Accordingly this analysis helps in understanding the consequences of changing wetlands on vector-borne disease patterns, to identify disease hotspots in a large landscape, and to forecast the spatial spread of HD and related diseases. PMID:23778598

Berry, Brett S; Magori, Krisztian; Perofsky, Amanda C; Stallknecht, David E; Park, Andrew W

2013-07-01

5

Molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease.  

PubMed

Molecular genetic data provide powerful tools for genealogy reconstruction to reveal mechanisms underlying disease ecology. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) congregate in matriarchal groups; kin-related close social spacing may be a factor in the spread of infectious diseases. Spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of deer and their cervid relatives, is presumed to be associated with direct contact between individuals and by exposure to shared food and water sources contaminated with prions shed by infected deer. Key aspects of disease ecology are yet unknown. DNA tools for pedigree reconstruction were developed to fill knowledge gaps in disease dynamics in prion-infected wild animals. Kinship indices using data from microsatellite loci and sequence haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA were employed to assemble genealogies. Molecular genealogy tools will be useful for landscape-level population genetic research and monitoring, in addition to epidemiologic studies examining transmission of CWD in captive and free-ranging cervids. PMID:20592847

Ernest, Holly B; Hoar, Bruce R; Well, Jay A; O'Rourke, Katherine I

2010-04-01

6

Prion protein polymorphisms in white-tailed deer influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease.  

PubMed

The primary sequence of the prion protein affects susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, in mice, sheep and humans. The Prnp gene sequence of free-ranging, Wisconsin white-tailed deer was determined and the Prnp genotypes of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-positive and CWD-negative deer were compared. Six amino acid changes were identified, two of which were located in pseudogenes. Two alleles, a Q-->K polymorphism at codon 226 and a single octapeptide repeat insertion into the pseudogene, have not been reported previously. The predominant alleles--wild-type (Q95, G96 and Q226) and a G96S polymorphism--comprised almost 98% of the Prnp alleles in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Comparison of the allelic frequencies in the CWD-positive and CWD-negative deer suggested that G96S and a Q95H polymorphism were linked to a reduced susceptibility to CWD. The G96S allele did not, however, provide complete resistance, as a CWD-positive G96S/G96S deer was identified. The G96S allele was also linked to slower progression of the disease in CWD-positive deer based on the deposition of PrP(CWD) in the obex region of the medulla oblongata. Although the reduced susceptibility of deer with at least one copy of the Q95H or G96S allele is insufficient to serve as a genetic barrier, the presence of these alleles may modulate the impact of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:16760415

Johnson, Chad; Johnson, Jody; Vanderloo, Joshua P; Keane, Delwyn; Aiken, Judd M; McKenzie, Debbie

2006-07-01

7

Disease risk surface for Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Coxiella burnetii is considered a re-emerging zoonosis in many countries. The bacterium is enzootic in livestock and wildlife in the United States, and environmental contamination is widespread. Despite the potential for exposure, the estimated prevalence of Q fever in humans and animals is not well elucidated, and reported human infections in the United States are relatively rare. Zoonotic transmission of the bacterium is usually associated with abortions in domestic ruminants, but other modes of transmission, such as contact with infected blood and/or milk during field dressing of infected wildlife, have not been thoroughly investigated. Studies of zoonotic pathogen transmission between animal reservoir hosts and humans are usually established in response to documented emergence or re-emergence of a zoonosis in a particular locale, and, as such, the prevalence of infection in wildlife is largely unknown for many zoonotic pathogens, including C. burnetii. The objective of this study was to create a disease risk surface for C. burnetii seroprevalence in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State. Blood samples were collected from hunter-harvested deer from across New York State in 2009 and 2010. The samples were processed and tested for the presence of anti-C. burnetii antibodies via indirect microimmunofluorescence assays using phase II C. burnetii strain RSA439. Overall, 14.50% of the tested white-tailed deer were C. burnetii phase II seropositive. The dual Kernel density estimation method was used to create a smoothed disease risk surface, which revealed variation in seroprevalence ranging from 0% to 32.0%. Areas of higher seroprevalence were detected in four discrete areas of Central New York and in one additional area in the southwest corner of the northern part of the state. This suggests certain locales where humans may be at increased risk for exposure to the bacterium secondary to contact with potentially infected deer. PMID:23176671

Kirchgessner, M S; Dubovi, E J; Whipps, C M

2013-11-01

8

Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P < 0.01) feeding at pile (49%) and spread (61%) treatments than at natural feeding areas (36%). We found higher deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

Thompson, A.K.; Samuel, M.D.; VanDeelen, T.R.

2008-01-01

9

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in captive bison, elk, white-tailed deer, cattle, and goats from Colorado  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissue...

10

Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

2008-01-01

11

Demographic patterns and harvest vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected white-tailed deer in Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500-km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310-km2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and noninfected deer. Our results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) free-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible nonlinear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found, as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, D.A.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Keane, D.

2006-01-01

12

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a potential sentinel for human Lyme disease in Indiana.  

PubMed

We assessed the potential of white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) to be a sentinel for human cases of Lyme disease (LD) in Indiana using location data from a 3-year survey of approximately 3400 hunted deer with associated tick Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) data. Data on human LD cases at the county level were obtained from the Indiana Department of Health. All data were assigned to county centroids to match the resolution of the LD data before creating optimized trend surfaces for LD incidence, hunted deer count, Ixodes scapularis and Bb prevalence. To determine whether LD was spatially associated with the areas of high densities of deer, deer with Ixodes scapularis and deer with ticks infected with Bb, we used spatial analysis with distance indices (SADIE). The SADIE analysis found significant spatial association between LD and the distribution of three organismal predictor variables, that is, WTD, Ixodes ticks and Bb. Lyme disease incident rate varied between 0.08 cases per 10,000 habitants (Johnson county) and 5.9 cases per 10,000 habitants (Warren county). In conclusion, WTD can be used as an accurate and cost-effective sentinel for human LD. This method will permit public health workers to identify potentially endemic areas independently of human case reports. PMID:22776734

Raizman, E A; Holland, J D; Shukle, J T

2013-05-01

13

Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management  

PubMed Central

Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:24658535

Jennelle, Christopher S.; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E.; Samuel, Michael D.

2014-01-01

14

EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) OF ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSONI), WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS), AND MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS HEMIONUS) TO WHITE-TAILED DEER BY INTRACEREBRAL ROUTE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting elk, white-tailed deer, and mule deer. Intra-species transmission of CWD is readily accomplished via oral administration of CWD-affected brain. And while the exact mode of natural transmission is unclear, ho...

15

Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To compare clinicopathological findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, three groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with WTD, mule deer or elk isolates of CWD. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months pos...

16

Managing forests for white-tailed eagles  

E-print Network

Managing forests for white-tailed eagles White-tailed eagles (sea eagles) were re and carry out forestry operations and other activities in relation to the statutory protection of white-tailed eagles (sea eagles). It replaces general guidance relating to white-tailed eagles contained in Forestry

17

Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (CWD) was evaluated. Disease was tracked in a CWD-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of

Margaret A. Wild; Terry R. Spraker; Christina J. Sigurdson; Katherine I. O'Rourke; Michael W. Miller

18

Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management Zone  

PubMed Central

Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin’s area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular. PMID:23437171

Magle, Seth B.; Samuel, Michael D.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Robinson, Stacie J.; Mathews, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

19

Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Rigg, Tara D.; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C.; Bowen, Richard

2013-01-01

20

Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Rigg, Tara D; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C; Bowen, Richard; Zabel, Mark D; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2013-01-01

21

Distribution, density, and Lyme disease spirochete infection in Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) on white-tailed deer in Maryland.  

PubMed

A Statewide survey of ticks parasitizing white-tailed deer was carried out in Maryland during November 1989 to assess the status of the deer tick, Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin, the major vector of Lyme disease in the northeastern United States. Ticks were collected from deer carcasses brought in by hunters at 23 check stations (one per county). A total of 3,437 I. dammini were collected from 538 of 1,281 deer (42%), together with 2,013 Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) and 23 Amblyomma americanum (L.) from 34 and 0.5% of deer respectively. I. dammini prevalence ranged from 0 to 79% of deer and mean abundance from 0 to 7.3 ticks per deer at different check stations. Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner, infection rates in ticks ranged from 0 to 21%, with a mean of 8%. Deer-tick density and spirochete infection rates varied with physiographic region and were low in the Appalachian, intermediate in the Piedmont, and high in the Western and Eastern Coastal Plains regions. County-based human case rates correlated positively with I. dammini abundance. We concluded that I. dammini was well established except in the mountainous western region of Maryland and was involved in Lyme disease transmission. PMID:1552529

Amerasinghe, F P; Breisch, N L; Azad, A F; Gimpel, W F; Greco, M; Neidhardt, K; Pagac, B; Piesman, J; Sandt, J; Scott, T W

1992-01-01

22

Peer Reviewed White-Tailed Deer Harvest From the Chronic Wasting  

E-print Network

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus chronic wasting disease, deer herd reduction, harvest, Odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer-ranging and captive wildlife including elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (O

Mladenoff, David

23

Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer from Virginia and subsequent surveillance for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.  

PubMed

Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) was diagnosed in a 2-yr-old, male, free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Fauquier County, Virginia, USA, based on histopathology and culture for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Clinical and pathologic findings included emaciation; loss of body fat; chronic diarrhea; severe, chronic, diffuse granulomatous colitis with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli; moderate, chronic granulomatous lymphadenitis with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli; as well as moderate chronic, multifocal, lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis. These findings are consistent with previous reports of Johne's disease in cervids. Subsequent targeted surveillance of 10 emaciated deer with diarrhea, as well as sampling of 72 asymptomatic deer for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using culture of multiple tissue types, as well as serology using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) optimized for cervid antibody detection, did not reveal any additional cases of infection in this geographic region. To date, this appears to be an isolated case of Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer, and infection with the causative agent for Johne's disease appears to be an infrequent occurrence in deer from this region. The origin of infection was most likely domestic ruminants. This is the first report of clinical Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer outside of the Florida Keys, USA. Stressors, such as high deer population density and low selenium levels, may have contributed to the development of clinical disease in this case and warrant further investigation. PMID:19204350

Sleeman, Jonathan M; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Rohm, John H; Sims, Jerry P; Sanchez, Susan; Gerhold, Richard W; Keel, M Kevin

2009-01-01

24

Demodectic mange, dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975 to 2012.  

PubMed

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential. PMID:23912715

Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K

2014-05-01

25

Characterization and detection of BVDV related reproductive disease in white tail deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are the causative agent of reproductive and respiratory disease in cattle resulting in significant economic loss to the beef and dairy industries. The primary consequences of reproductive infection are due to the direct infection of the fetus and th...

26

Aerosol Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer  

PubMed Central

While the facile transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) remains incompletely elucidated, studies in rodents suggest that exposure of the respiratory mucosa may be an efficient pathway. The present study was designed to address this question in the native cervid host. Here, we demonstrate aerosol transmission of CWD to deer with a prion dose >20-fold lower than that used in previous oral inoculations. Inhalation of prions may facilitate transmission of CWD and, perhaps, other prion infections. PMID:23175370

Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Anderson, Kelly R.; Seelig, Davis M.; Haley, Nicholas J.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mathiason, Candace K.

2013-01-01

27

Characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus from a bovine with clinical disease with high nucleotide sequence identity to white-tailed deer isolates.  

PubMed

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was isolated from a pregnant cow in Indiana, USA, exhibiting excessive salivation, pyrexia and abortion. VP2, VP5, and VP7 sequences of the isolated bovine EHDV showed 97.7, 97.4, and 97.9 % identity to a serotype 2 reference virus. Bovine EHDV was closely related (>99.9 %) to white tailed deer (WTD) EHDV collected from Iowa in 2013 and showed less than 2.1 % divergence from EHDV collected from WTD across the USA in 2013. The high degree of sequence identity between bovine and WTD EHDV isolates demonstrates that similar viruses concurrently circulate in both species and suggests possible further incursions into bovines. PMID:24852073

Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Hause, Ben M

2014-10-01

28

Prion protein in cardiac muscle of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) infected with chronic wasting disease.  

PubMed

To investigate the possible presence of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) in striated muscle of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-affected cervids, samples of diaphragm, tongue, heart and three appendicular skeletal muscles from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (Alces alces shirasi) were examined by ELISA, Western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). PrP(d) was detected in samples of heart muscle from seven of 16 CWD-infected white-tailed deer, including one free-ranging deer, and in 12 of 17 CWD-infected elk, but not in any of 13 mule deer samples, nor in the single CWD-infected moose. For white-tailed deer, PrP(d) was detected by Western blot at multiple sites throughout the heart; IHC results on ventricular sections of both elk and white-tailed deer showed positive staining in cardiac myocytes, but not in conduction tissues or nerve ganglia. Levels of PrP(d) in cardiac tissues were estimated from Western blot band intensity to be lower than levels found in brain tissue. PrP(d) was not detected in diaphragm, triceps brachii, semitendinosus, latissiumus dorsi or tongue muscles for any of the study subjects. This is the first report of PrP(d) in cardiac tissue from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy-infected ruminants in the human food chain and the first demonstration by immunological assays of PrP(d) in any striated muscle of CWD-infected cervids. PMID:17030881

Jewell, Jean E; Brown, Jeremy; Kreeger, Terry; Williams, Elizabeth S

2006-11-01

29

Vanishing White Matter Disease  

MedlinePLUS

What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? Vanishing White Matter Disease (VWM) is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that it is a ... information about this). Other Clinical Names for Vanishing White Matter Disease Other clinical names of Vanishing White ...

30

Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route.  

PubMed

To compare clinical and pathologic findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, 3 groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with a CWD prion of WTD, mule deer, or elk origin. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months postinoculation (MPI), 1 deer from each of the 3 inoculated groups was necropsied and their tissues were examined for lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (SE) and for the presence of abnormal prion protein (PrP(d)) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB). The remaining deer were allowed to live until they developed clinical signs of the disease which began approximately 18 MPI. By 26 MPI, all deer were euthanatized on humane grounds. Obvious differences in clinical signs or the incubation periods were not observed between the 3 groups of deer given CWD. In 1 of 3 nonclinical deer euthanatized at 10 MPI, minimal microscopic lesions of SE were seen in the central nervous system (CNS) tissues, and PrP(d) was observed by IHC in tissues of all 3 deer. In the clinical deer, CNS lesions of SE and PrP(d) accumulations were more severe and extensive. It is concluded that the 3 sources of CWD prion did not induce significant differences in time to clinical disease or qualitative differences in signs or lesions in WTD. However, this observation does not imply that these CWD agents would necessarily behave similarly in other recipient species. PMID:18487485

Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Miller, J M; Kunkle, R A; Hall, S M; Nicholson, E M; O'Rourke, K I; Greenlee, J J; Williams, E S

2008-05-01

31

Broad and fine-scale genetic analysis of white-tailed deer populations: estimating the relative risk of chronic wasting disease spread  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, similar to sheep scrapie that has only recently been detected in wild populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in western Canada. Relatively little is known about local transmission dynamics of the disease or the potential for long-distance spread. We analysed the population genetic structure of over 2000 white-tailed deer sampled from Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan using microsatellite profiles and mtDNA sequencing to assess the relative risk of disease spread. There was very little differentiation among subpopulations and a weak trend of increasing differentiation with geographic distance. This suggests that the potential for long-distance disease spread through the dispersal of infected individuals is possible, yet the risk of spread should gradually diminish with distance from infection foci. Within subpopulations, females were more related than expected by chance (R > 0) within a radius of approximately 500 m. Sex-biased philopatry and social interactions among related females may facilitate local disease transmission within social groups. Local herd reduction may therefore be an effective tool for reducing the disease prevalence when implemented at the appropriate spatial scale. PMID:25567957

Cullingham, Catherine I; Merrill, Evelyn H; Pybus, Margo J; Bollinger, Trent K; Wilson, Gregory A; Coltman, David W

2011-01-01

32

Broad and fine-scale genetic analysis of white-tailed deer populations: estimating the relative risk of chronic wasting disease spread.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, similar to sheep scrapie that has only recently been detected in wild populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in western Canada. Relatively little is known about local transmission dynamics of the disease or the potential for long-distance spread. We analysed the population genetic structure of over 2000 white-tailed deer sampled from Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan using microsatellite profiles and mtDNA sequencing to assess the relative risk of disease spread. There was very little differentiation among subpopulations and a weak trend of increasing differentiation with geographic distance. This suggests that the potential for long-distance disease spread through the dispersal of infected individuals is possible, yet the risk of spread should gradually diminish with distance from infection foci. Within subpopulations, females were more related than expected by chance (R > 0) within a radius of approximately 500 m. Sex-biased philopatry and social interactions among related females may facilitate local disease transmission within social groups. Local herd reduction may therefore be an effective tool for reducing the disease prevalence when implemented at the appropriate spatial scale. PMID:25567957

Cullingham, Catherine I; Merrill, Evelyn H; Pybus, Margo J; Bollinger, Trent K; Wilson, Gregory A; Coltman, David W

2011-01-01

33

Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America:Effects of age,sex,polymorphism at PRNP codon 96,and disease progression  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa ...

34

Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) ........................... 13-1 13.1 Introduction virginianus leucurus) 13.1 Introduction The Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus............................................................................. 13-20 #12;COLUMBIAN WHITE-TAILED DEER III, 13-1 May 2004 13.0 Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus

35

Microsatellite markers in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

A genomic library of DNA from white-tailed deer was constructed for the isolation of d(AC)n microsatellite repeats. PCR primers were designed from regions flanking each repeat and used to amplify DNA samples from a pedigreed herd of white-tailed deer and other artiodactyls. Allelic frequencies, PIC values, and heterozygosity values are reported for five polymorphic markers scored in 41 animals. Homologs of two of the five markers were assigned to bovine chromosomes 4 and 23, respectively, using a panel of bovine+hamster hybrid somatic cell lines. PMID:7658002

DeWoody, J A; Honeycutt, R L; Skow, L C

1995-01-01

36

Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms.  

PubMed

The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case-control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n=68) and CWD-negative (n=91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p<0.05. After controlling for Prnp, we found weak support for an elevated risk of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility. PMID:19723593

Blanchong, Julie A; Heisey, Dennis M; Scribner, Kim T; Libants, Scot V; Johnson, Chad; Aiken, Judd M; Langenberg, Julia A; Samuel, Michael D

2009-12-01

37

Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: Complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case-control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n = 68) and CWD-negative (n = 91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p < 0.05. After controlling for Prnp, we found weak support for an elevated risk of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Blanchong, J.A.; Heisey, D.M.; Scribner, K.T.; Libants, S.V.; Johnson, C.; Aiken, J.M.; Langenberg, J.A.; Samuel, M.D.

2009-01-01

38

Epethelial Presence of Trueperella pyogenes Predicts Site-Level Presence of Cranial Abscess Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Cranial/intracranial abscess disease is an emerging source of significant mortality for male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of cranial/intracranial abscess disease are associated with infection by the opportunistic pathogen Trueperella pyogenes although the relationship between the prevalence of the bacteria and occurrence of disease is speculative. We examined 5,612 hunter-harvested deer from 29 sites across all physiographic provinces in Georgia for evidence of cranial abscess disease and sampled the forehead, lingual, and nasal surfaces from 692 deer. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine presence of T. pyogenes from these samples. We found T. pyogenes prevalence at a site was a predictor for the occurrence of cranial abscess disease. Prevalence of T. pyogenes did not differ between samples from the nose or tongue although prevalence along the forehead was greater for males than females (p = 0.04), particularly at sites with high occurrence of this disease. Socio-sexual behaviors, bacterial prevalence, or physiological characteristics may predispose male deer to intracranial/cranial abscess disease. Determination of factors that affect T. pyogenes prevalence among sites may help explain the occurrence of this disease among populations. PMID:25803047

Belser, Emily H.; Cohen, Bradley S.; Keeler, Shamus P.; Killmaster, Charles H.; Bowers, John W.; Miller, Karl V.

2015-01-01

39

Prion protein gene heterogeneity in free-ranging white-tailed deer within the chronic wasting disease affected region of Wisconsin.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was first identified in Wisconsin (USA) in whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in February 2002. To determine if prion protein gene (Prnp) allelic variability was associated with CWD in white-tailed deer from Wisconsin, we sequenced Prnp from 26 CWD-positive and 100 CWD-negative deer. Sequence analysis of Prnp suggests that at least 86-96% of the white-tailed deer in this region have Prnp allelic combinations that will support CWD infection. Four Prnp alleles were identified in the deer population, one of which, resulting in a glutamine to histidine change at codon 95, has not been previously reported. The predominant allele in the population encodes for glutamine at codon 95, glycine at codon 96, and serine at codon 138 (QGS). Less abundant alleles encoded QSS, QGN, and HGS at the three variable positions. Comparison of CWD-positive with CWD-negative deer suggested a trend towards an over-representation of the QGS allele and an under-representation of the QSS allele. PMID:14567218

Johnson, Chad; Johnson, Jody; Clayton, Murray; McKenzie, Debbie; Aiken, Judd

2003-07-01

40

Influence of landscape factors and management decisions on spatial and temporal patterns of the transmission of chronic wasting disease transmission in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been reported in white-tailed deer at the border of the US states of Illinois and Wisconsin since 2002. Transmission of infectious prions between animals and from the environment has resulted in spatial and temporal structure observable in the spatio-temporal patterns of reported cases. Case locations of 382 positive cases from 28,954 deer tested between 2002 and 2009 provided insight into the potential risk factors and landscape features associated with transmission using a combination of clustering, generalised linear modelling and descriptive evaluations of a risk map of predicted cases of CWD. A species distribution map of white-tailed deer developed using MaxEnt provided an estimate of deer locations. We found that deer probability increased in areas with larger forests and less urban and agricultural lands. Spatial clustering analysis revealed a core area of persistent CWD transmission in the northern part of the region. The regression model indicated that larger and more compact forests were associated with higher risk for CWD. High risk areas also had soils with less clay and more sand than other parts of the region. The transmission potential was higher where landscape features indicated the potential for higher deer concentrations. The inclusion of spatial lag variables improved the model. Of the 102 cases reported in the study area in the two years following the study period, 89 (87%) of those were in the 32% of the study area with the highest 50% of predicted risk of cases. PMID:24258897

O'Hara Ruiz, Marilyn; Kelly, Amy C; Brown, William M; Novakofski, Jan E; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E

2013-11-01

41

Polymorphisms in the prion precursor functional gene but not the pseudogene are associated with susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) status and PrP genotypes were determined for a group of 133 wild white-tailed deer in a 780 acre enclosure in western Nebraska, USA. Approximately half of the deer tested showed evidence of PrPd in the brainstem or lymphoid tissues. Four PRNP alleles encoding amino acid substitutions were identified, with substitutions at residues 95 (Q-->H), 96 (G-->S) or 116 (A-->G), each with serine (S) at residue 138. In addition, a processed pseudogene with two alleles encoding five or six copies of the octapeptide repeat was identified in 26 % of the deer. Both alleles encoded asparagine (N) at residue 138. The functional gene alleles sorted into five major diploid genotypes and four rare genotypes. Although all five major diploid genotypes were found in deer with CWD, unaffected deer were less likely to have the allele QGAS and more likely to have QSAS compared with CWD-affected deer. Late-stage disease (PrPd in brainstem) was noted in deer less than 1 year of age, although no single genotype was associated with this rapid neuroinvasion. Early-stage disease (PrPd distribution limited to the lymphoid system) was observed in deer estimated to be more than 5 years old, suggesting that they were infected as adults or that the incubation time might be extremely long in some individuals. The pseudogene was found in deer of all major PRNP genotypes and was not correlated with CWD status. The large number of susceptible genotypes and the possibility of adult-to-adult transmission suggest that much of the white-tailed deer population may be at risk for disease following exposure to CWD, despite the association of specific genotypes with CWD noted here. PMID:15105552

O'Rourke, Katherine I; Spraker, Terry R; Hamburg, Linda K; Besser, Thomas E; Brayton, Kelly A; Knowles, Donald P

2004-05-01

42

Research Article Spotlight Surveys for White-Tailed Deer  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Many monitoring programs for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on both private and public, Odocoileus virginianus, spot- light surveys, variance components, white-tailed deer. One of the primary the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A suite of approaches have been used to look at deer

Ditchkoff, Steve

43

Management and Conservation Immobilization of White-Tailed Deer With  

E-print Network

and effective alternative for immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). During a 2-stage Society. KEY WORDS anesthesia, ketamine, Odocoileus virginianus, telazol, tolazoline, white-tailed deer and Wilson 2002). Currently, few drug combinations meet these criteria for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus

44

Population Ecology Spotlight Surveys for White-Tailed Deer  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Many monitoring programs for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on both private and public, Odocoileus virginianus, spot- light surveys, variance components, white-tailed deer. One of the primary the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A suite of approaches have been used to look at deer

Ditchkoff, Steve

45

Prevalence of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in deer ticks (Ixodes dammini) collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Saint Croix State Park, Minnesota.  

PubMed

During a special two-day hunt (11, 12 November 1989) in Saint Croix State Park, Minnesota (USA), one side of the neck for each of 146 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was examined for ticks. Of the 5,442 ticks collected, 90% (4,893) were the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus, and 10% (549) were the deer tick, Ixodes dammini, the primary vector of the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. Adult males had the greatest frequency of infestation of either D. albipictus (100%) or I. dammini (88%) and had on average more ticks, compared to other deer. Based on an examination of midgut material from 435 I. dammini by polyclonal antibody analysis, spirochetes were observed in 22% of the ticks. Species-specific monoclonal antibody analysis of the spirochetes confirmed that the bacteria were B. burgdorferi. PMID:8445791

Gill, J S; Johnson, R C; Sinclair, M K; Weisbrod, A R

1993-01-01

46

Effectiveness of Spayvac for reducing white-tailed deer fertility.  

PubMed

Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations have been reported in many urban and suburban communities across the United States. Large populations of deer can potentially increase the risk of human-wildlife conflicts, such as deer-vehicle collisions, transmission of disease to humans, and vegetation damage. In 2003, efforts to control white-tailed deer numbers were initiated at the National Aeronautical and Space Agency's (NASA) Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas, using the long-lasting, single-dose contraceptive SpayVac. Our objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of SpayVac for reducing white-tailed deer fertility and determine the partial cost for treatment. Between 2003 and 2004, we monitored 45 adult female deer (34 treated with SpayVac, 11 controls treated with a placebo). Fawning rate over 2 yr for deer treated with SpayVac >30 days prior to the rut was 0% (n=31), whereas the fawning rate for control deer was 78% (n=11). Inoculation 1 mo prior to the breeding season was sufficient time to achieve fertility control. We conclude that SpayVac can effectively reduce the fertility of urban white-tailed deer. PMID:17984269

Locke, Shawn L; Cook, Matthew W; Harveson, Louis A; Davis, Donald S; Lopez, Roel R; Silvy, Nova J; Fraker, Mark A

2007-10-01

47

Experimental Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) from Elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Fallow Deer (Dama dama) by Intracerebral Route: Final Report  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this communication we report final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (Dama dama). The study was terminated 5 years after it was initiated. Thirteen fawns were i...

48

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

49

Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, Daniel A.

2006-01-01

50

Acaricidal Treatment of White-Tailed Deer to Control Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme Disease-Endemic Community  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...

51

Research Article Survival of White-Tailed Deer Neonates  

E-print Network

, landscape, Minnesota, mortality, neonate, Odocoileus virginianus, predation, South Dakota, survival. Understanding white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population dynamics requires knowledge of survival

52

Neospora caninum antibodies detected in Midwestern white-tailed deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve to maintain the Neospora caninum life cycle in the wild. Sera from white tailed deer from south central Wisconsin and southeastern Missouri, USA were tested for antibodies to N. caninum. Seroreactivity against N. caninum surface antigens was observe...

53

SPONTANEOUS CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1994, cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in a diarrheic fawn from a captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd maintained for research purposes at The Uni- versity of Georgia's Warnell School of Forest Resources in Athens, Georgia (USA). From June through August 1995, 11 captive female white-tailed deer were housed in individual barn stalls where they gave birthto 18 fawns. Feces

Ronald Fayer; John R. Fischer; Christopher T. Sewell; Darrell M. Kavanaugh; David A. Osborn

54

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak in a captive facility housing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), cattle (Bos taurus), and goats (Capra hircus) in Colorado, U.S.A.  

PubMed

An ungulate research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.A., experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) because of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection from 20 August 2007 through 26 September 2007. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from the spleen and lung tissues of two white-tailed deer. Virus neutralization tests were performed on pre- and postoutbreak sera from other species maintained in the same facility, including bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), domestic cattle (Bos taurus), and domestic goats (Capra hircus), as well as postoutbreak sera from the surviving white-tailed deer. Serum samples that represented all species in the facility neutralized EHDV-1 and EHDV-2 either before or after the outbreak. The animals that neutralized EHDV-1 did not neutralize EHDV-2. No clinical signs attributable to EHDV infection were noted in any of the species other than the deer during the outbreak. Although experimental EHDV infections have been reported in bison and elk, natural exposures have not been previously documented in these species in North America. The roles that elk, bison, cattle, and goats might play in the epidemiology of EHDV in a close-contact multispecies situation remain unknown. PMID:20945651

Nol, Pauline; Kato, Cecilia; Reeves, Will K; Rhyan, Jack; Spraker, Terry; Gidlewski, Thomas; VerCauteren, Kurt; Salman, Mo

2010-09-01

55

GASTROINTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER: EFFECTS OF FIRE,  

E-print Network

; and intestinal tissue weight of reproductive and nonreproductive female white- tailed (Odocoileus virginianus, Odocoileus hemionus, Odocoileus virginianus, papillae, South Dakota, white-tailed deer Limited information

56

Survival patterns in white-tailed and mule deer after oral inoculation with a standardized, conspecific prion dose.  

PubMed

We orally inoculated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with a standardized, conspecific prion dose and collected biologic samples throughout the disease course. Mule deer (PRNP genotype 225SS) and PRNP genotype 96GG white-tailed deer succumbed along similar trajectories, but 96GS- and 96SS-genotype individuals tended to survive longer. PMID:22493138

Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Jewell, Jean E; Williams, Elizabeth S

2012-04-01

57

WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA --On 25 November 2002, the South Dakota Department of  

E-print Network

177 NOTES WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA -- On 25 November plate was positive (Table 1). Based on these results, Staphylococcus hyicus was identified with white-tailed deer. Staphylococcus hyicus causes exudative epidermitis, or greasy pig disease, in young

58

Selenium toxicosis in a white-tailed deer herd  

PubMed Central

Chronic selenium (Se) toxicosis was found in a herd of white-tailed deer showing signs of anorexia, weight loss, and lameness. Concentration of Se in the liver ranged from 2.7 to 8.97 mg/kg wet weight. Myocardial necrosis, mineralization, and fibroplasia were seen histologically. This is the first report of this toxicosis in white-tailed deer. PMID:21461211

Al-Dissi, Ahmad N.; Blakley, Barry R.; Woodbury, Murray R.

2011-01-01

59

Wasting and neurologic signs associated with cerebrovascular mineralization in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileu virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A case of wasting and neurologic syndrome (WANS) of white-tailed deer was evaluated by histopathology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for disease associated prion protein (PrP**d). Some of the clinical and pathological features of this case were similar to chronic wasting disease (CWD) of w...

60

Prevalence of infectious agents in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Mexico.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Mexico. Deer (n=521) were captured from helicopter using a netgun on 15 ranches covering 62,114 ha in the states of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas during spring 2004. The prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, BVDV, and brucellosis were 5.6, 41.1, 63.5, and 0%, respectively, indicating that white-tailed deer and cattle may share disease agents when cohabiting in northeastern Mexico. PMID:18957659

Cantu, Antonio; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; Mosqueda, Juan; Garcia-Vazquez, Zeferino; Henke, Scott E; George, John E

2008-10-01

61

Malignant mesenchymal tumors in two white-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus townsendii).  

PubMed

Two white-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus townsendii) with proliferative lesions in their internal organs were submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada) for necropsy because of concern that dogs that had contact with the hares might have been exposed to an infectious disease. In both hares, the primary diagnosis was neoplasia. One hare had metastatic leiomyosarcoma and uterine fibroma, the other had metastatic mesenchymal tumors involving the liver and mesentery. These cases represent the only reports of malignant mesenchymal tumors in white-tailed jack rabbits that we have found in the literature. PMID:15650095

Jardine, Claire; Wobeser, Gary A; Simko, Elemir

2004-10-01

62

Social rank and winter forage quality affect aggressiveness in white-tailed deer fawns  

E-print Network

-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fawns during two winters. Within diet-quality treatments, fawns were status; forage intake; Odocoileus virginianus; resource competition; social behaviour; white-tailed deer

Laval, Université

63

Update on vaccination of white-tailed deer with Mycobacterium bovis BCG: Safety and Efficacy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1994, white-tailed deer in northeast Michigan were found to be harboring Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in most animals including humans. Although deer likely contracted tuberculosis from cattle in the early 20th century, when the disease was present in Michigan cattle, ...

64

White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Sheep Scrapie by Intracerebral Inoculation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesi...

65

Adoption in rock and white-tailed ptarmigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reports of adoption in birds are widespread, but few studies report rates of adoption or possible mechanisms for this phenomenon, particularly in the Order Galliformes. We report incidents of adoption in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. leucura) from two sites in western Canada. Adoption rates for White-tailed Ptarmigan on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Ruby Ranges, Yukon Territory were 13% (n = 16 broods) and 4% (n = 27), respectively, while rates for Rock Ptarmigan were 14% (n = 29) in the Ruby Ranges. Low brood densities may result in lower rates of adoption for ptarmigan. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

Wong, M.M.L.; Fedy, B.C.; Wilson, S.; Martin, K.M.

2009-01-01

66

Adrenal weight in a Texas white-tailed deer herd  

E-print Network

ADRENAL WEIGHT IN A TEXAS WHITE-TAILED DEER HERD A Thesis by CHARLES WARREN RAMSEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1975 Major... Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences ADRENAL WEIGHT IN A TEXAS WHITE-TAILED DEER HERD A Thesis by CHARLES WARREN RAMSEY Approved as to style and content by: ( airman o Committ ) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) December 1975 1. 1, 1...

Ramsey, Charles Warren

1975-01-01

67

BVDV infection of pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aim: Serological, experimental and individual case studies have explored the presence and pathogenesis of the virus in wild ungulates; however there remain large gaps in knowledge regarding BVDV infection in non-bovine species. Previously we have shown that inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odoco...

68

IDENTIFICATION OF ASSEMBLAGE A GIARDIA IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fecal samples were collected from hunter killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during a managed hunt in a central Maryland county. Fecal samples were cleaned of debris and concentrated by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and stained with MerIFluor reagents. Stained samples were exami...

69

Ehrlichia ewingii Infection in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii, are transmitted by Ambl- yomma americanum, the lone star tick. Because white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of A. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of E. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with E. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans

Michael J. Yabsley; Andrea S. Varela; Cynthia M. Tate; Vivien G. Dugan; David E. Stallknecht; Susan E. Little; William R. Davidson

70

AGGRESSIVE DEFENSIVE BEHAVIOR BY FREE-RANGING WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

male and female white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45. Key words: defensive behavior, maternal investment, neonate, Odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer ungulates (Lent 1974; Lingle et al. 2005; Smith 1987), including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus

71

MOVEMENT OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND INTENSIVE ROW-CROP AGRICULTURE  

E-print Network

Abstract: Movements (e.g., migration, dispersal) of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) vary greatly, Minnesota, movement, Odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer. Seasonal migration is common among cervids

72

HEPATIC MINERALS OF WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, Odocoileus virginianus, reproduction, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. INTRODUCTION Limited information status, and species. Key words: Black Hills, elements, fire, liver, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus

73

Unusual Migration by a White-Tailed Deer Fawn in South Dakota  

E-print Network

migration by a flVe-day-old white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) fawn in the central Black winter and summer ranges by white-tailed deer (Odocoi/eus virginianus) is most pronounced in northern

74

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer. PMID:23568932

Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-04-01

75

Research Article Habitat Use by Sympatric Mule and White-Tailed  

E-print Network

competition, compositional analysis, habitat use, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, O. virginianus, sympatry, Texas, white- tailed deer. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) occur, and Fisheries Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA Abstract White-tailed deer (Odocoileus

Wallace, Mark C.

76

Human Dimensions Article Survival of Neonatal White-Tailed Deer in an Exurban  

E-print Network

. In this study, we examined causes and timing of deaths of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus mortality, Odocoileus virginianus, predation, survival rates, white-tailed deer. As humans continue to move). White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have caused considerable concern in these areas due

Ditchkoff, Steve

77

Influence of Body Size on Dietary Nutrition of White-Tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus  

E-print Network

Articles Influence of Body Size on Dietary Nutrition of White-Tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus masses (14­76 kg) in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus (n = 108) in a 2,628-ha enclosure at Kerr, Weckerly FW. 2013. Influence of body size on dietary nutrition of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

78

Does uctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow  

E-print Network

Does uctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; £uctuating asymmetry; handicap hypothesis; Odocoileus virginianus; sexual selection; white-tailed deer 1

Ditchkoff, Steve

79

Tools and Technology Article Blind Count Surveys of White-Tailed  

E-print Network

. We conducted blind count surveys of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 214-ha enclosure, bootstrap, Bowden's estimator, computer simulations, Odocoileus virginianus, sex ratio, white-tailed deer, there are 4,657 permits to manage white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hunting operations on small (i

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

80

Short communication Experimental persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovineviraldiarrheavirus (BVDV) infections cause substantialeconomic losses tothe cattle industries. Persistentlyinfected (PI) cattle are the most important reservoir for BVDV. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most abundant species of wild ruminants in the United States and contact between cattle and deer is common. If the outcome offetal infection of white- tailed deer is similar to cattle, PI white-tailed deer may

Thomas Passler; Paul H. Walz; Stephen S. Ditchkoff; M. Daniel Givens; Herris S. Maxwell; Kenny V. Brock

81

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Thirty white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One gr...

82

Ehrlichia ewingii Infection in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii, are transmitted by Amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. Because white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of A. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of E. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with E. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans and dogs. To test for E. ewingii infection, we used polymerase chain reaction and inoculation of fawns with whole blood from wild deer. Of 110 deer tested from 20 locations in 8 U.S. states, 6 (5.5%) were positive for E. ewingii. In addition, natural E. ewingii infection was confirmed through infection of captive fawns. These findings expand the geographic distribution of E. ewingii, along with risk for human infection, to include areas of Kentucky, Georgia, and South Carolina. These data suggest that white-tailed deer may be an important reservoir for E. ewingii. PMID:12095432

Varela, Andrea S.; Tate, Cynthia M.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Stallknecht, David E.; Little, Susan E.; Davidson, William R.

2002-01-01

83

PREDATOR URINES AS CHEMICAL BARRIERS TO WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assessed whether bobcat (Lynx rufus) or coyote (Canis latrans) urine could reduce white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of established feeding areas or trails. A four-week experiment evaluating deer use of eight feeding stations, four each with coyote or bobcat urine was conducted at a 2,200 ha fenced facility in northern Ohio with high deer densities (38\\/km2). At this

Jerrold L. Belant; Thomas W. Seamans; Laura A. Tyson

1998-01-01

84

Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Globally, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that affect livestock, wildlife, companion animals, and humans, potentially causing serious and economically important disease problems. Little is known about hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. prevalence, host-specificity, or route of transmission in most species, including wildlife. DNA amplification by PCR targeting the 16SrRNA and the RNaseP genes was used to establish the presence and prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina. Sixty-five deer (89%) tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. where sequence analysis of the 16SsRNA and the RNaseP genes indicated the presence of at least three distinct species. This study represents the first detection of three distinct hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer and the first report of two novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species. PMID:24018179

Maggi, Ricardo G; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-12-01

85

Spatial interactions of yarded White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the spatial interactions of nine female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in two deeryards (winter aggregations) in northeastern Minnesota during February-April 1999. Global positioning system (GPS) collars yielded seven pair-wise comparisons of deer that were located at the same time (???1 minute apart) and mat used overlapping areas. Deer traveled separately and did not associate with one another. Within overlapping areas, comparisons of distances between deer and distances between random locations indicated deer moved without regard to each other. Similarly, comparisons of observed and expected probabilities of deer using areas overlapping those of other deer also evinced that deer moved independently.

Nelson, M.E.; Sargeant, G.A.

2008-01-01

86

ABNORMAL PRION PROTEIN IN ECTOPIC LYMPHOID TISSUE IN A KIDNEY OF AN ASYMPTOMATIC WHITE-TAILED DEER EXPERIMENTALLY INOCULATED WITH THE AGENT OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk is one of a group of fatal, neurologic disease that affects several mammalian species, including human beings. Infection by the causative agent induces accumulations of an abnormal form of prion protein (...

87

Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...

88

Assessing fluctuating asymmetry of white-tailed deer antlers in a three-dimensional context  

E-print Network

-dimensional computer models of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) antlers to measure visual. Key words: antlers, fluctuating asymmetry, modeling, Odocoileus virginianus, 3-dimensional asymmetry

Ditchkoff, Steve

89

GROWTH OF MALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: CONSEQUENCES OF MATERNAL EFFECTS  

E-print Network

quantified growth and development of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) originating from environmental conditions. Key words: antler growth, body mass, gestation, nutrition, Odocoileus virginianus

90

Predator evasion by white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite their importance for understanding predator–prey interactions, factors that affect predator evasion behaviours of offspring of large ungulates are poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the influence of selection and availability of escape cover and maternal presence on predator evasion by white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fawns in the northern Great Plains, U.S.A. We observed 45 coyote, Canis latrans, chases of fawns, and we participated in 83 human chases of fawns during 2007–2009, of which, 19 and 42 chases, respectively, ended with capture of the fawn. Evasive techniques used by fawns were similar for human and coyote chases. Likelihood of a white-tailed deer fawn escaping capture, however, was influenced by deer group size and a number of antipredator behaviours, including aggressive defence by females, initial habitat and selection of escape cover, all of which were modified by the presence of parturient females. At the initiation of a chase, fawns in grasslands were more likely to escape, whereas fawns in forested cover, cultivated land or wheat were more likely to be captured by a coyote or human. Fawns fleeing to wetlands and grasslands also were less likely to be captured compared with those choosing forested cover, wheat and cultivated land. Increased probability of capture was associated with greater distance to wetland and grassland habitats and decreased distance to wheat. Use of wetland habitat as a successful antipredator strategy highlights the need for a greater understanding of the importance of habitat complexity in predator avoidance.

Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

2012-01-01

91

White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation  

PubMed Central

Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to the agent of scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesions to those reported for chronic wasting disease (CWD). Deer (n = 5) were inoculated with 1 mL of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. A non-inoculated deer was maintained as a negative control. Deer were observed daily for clinical signs of disease and euthanized and necropsied when unequivocal signs of scrapie were noted. One animal died 7 months post inoculation (pi) due to intercurrent disease. Examinations of brain tissue for the presence of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) by western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were negative whereas IHC of lymphoid tissues was positive. Deer necropsied at 15-22 months pi were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Deer necropsied after 20 months pi had clinical signs of depression and progressive weight loss. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain (at levels of cerebrum, hippocampus, colliculus, cerebellum, and brainstem), trigeminal ganglion, neurohypophysis, retina, spinal cord, and various lymphoid tissues including tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation. To further test the susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie these experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation. PMID:21988781

2011-01-01

92

Surveillance for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in Scavengers of White-Tailed Deer Carcasses in the Chronic Wasting Disease Area of Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative

Christopher S. Jennelle; Michael D. Samuel; Cherrie A. Nolden; Delwyn P. Keane; Daniel J. Barr; Chad Johnson; Joshua P. Vanderloo; Judd M. Aiken; Amir N. Hamir; Edward A. Hoover

2009-01-01

93

Preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease (CWD) to fallow deer (Dama dama) and to provide information about clinical course, lesions and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of CWD in this species, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with CWD brai...

94

Surveillance for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in Scavengers of White-Tailed Deer Carcasses in the Chronic Wasting Disease Area of Wisconsin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains an...

95

Culture and Serologic Survey for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection among Southeastern White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From July 1998 through October 2002, radiometric culture (ileocecal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, and feces) and serologic testing by enzyme-linked immunosor- bent assay (ELISA) were used to survey white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the southeastern United States for infection by My- cobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was

William R. Davidson; Elizabeth J. B. Manning; Victor F. Nettles; D. B. Warnell

96

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, a chronic enteric disease of domestic ruminants as well as some nondomestic ruminants. Paratuberculosis is characterized by a protracted subclinical phase followed by clinical signs such as diarrhea, weight loss, and hypoproteinemia. Fecal shedding of Map is characteristic of both the subclinical and clinical phases, and it is important in disease transmission. Lesions of paratuberculosis are characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis and mesenteric lymphadenitis. Animal models of paratuberculosis that simulate all aspects of the disease are rare. Oral inoculation of 9-day-old white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on 3 June 2002 with 1.87 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Map strain K10 resulted in clinical disease (soft to diarrheic feces) as early as 146 days after inoculation; lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were observed in animals at the termination of the study. Intermittent fecal shedding of Map was seen between 28 and 595 days (4 March 2004) after inoculation. These findings suggest that experimental oral inoculation of white-tailed deer fawns may mimic all aspects of subclinical and clinical paratuberculosis. PMID:17984254

Palmer, Mitchell V; Stabel, Judith R; Waters, W Ray; Bannantine, John P; Miller, Janice M

2007-10-01

97

Liquid Chromatographic Detection of Permethrin from Filter Paper Wipes of White-tailed Deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A simple, small-scale method for the determination of the presence or absence of permethrin on the hair coat of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), by high performance liquid chromatography was developed. White-tailed deer in South Texas and the northeastern U.S. are routinely tr...

98

EFFICACY OF TRICLABENDAZOLE AGAINST FASCIOLOIDIASIS (FASCIOLOIDES MAGNA) IN NATURALLY INFECTED WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of triclabendazole was evaluated in the treatment of naturally acquired Fascioloides magna infections in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginlanus). Twenty white-tailed deer were captured on the Welder Wildlife Refuge (Sinton, San Patricio County, Texas, USA) and maintained in a 64 X 64 m deer enclosure. Ten deer were given a 5% suspension of tricla- bendazole orally at a dosage

Tariq Qureshi; Thomas M. Craig; D. Lynn Drawe; Donald S. Davis

1989-01-01

99

NOTE / NOTE Winter habitat selection by white-tailed deer on  

E-print Network

are important questions for winter habi- tat management of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann. Résumé : Pour aménager l'habitat hivernal du cerf de Virginie, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780 and Boots 676 Introduction At northern latitudes, white-tailed deer, Odocoileus vir- ginianus (Zimmermann

Laval, Université

100

Experimental persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the most important reservoir for BVDV. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most abundant species of wild ruminants in the United States and contact between cattle and deer is common. If the outcome of fetal infection of white-tailed deer is similar

Thomas Passler; Paul H. Walz; Stephen S. Ditchkoff; M. Daniel Givens; Herris S. Maxwell; Kenny V. Brock

2007-01-01

101

WHITE-TAILED EAGLE (HALIAEETUS ALBICILLA) IN LITHUANIA: POPULATION NUMBERS AND TRENDS 1900-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to literature sources, the White-tailed Eagle was a common bird in Lithuania in the middle of the 19 century; however, the species became rare and ceased to breed in the first half of the 20 century. Today, the White-tailed Eagle is listed in the Red Data Book of Lithuania, category 3 (R). Estimation of species abundance is based on

Deivis Dementavi?ius

2007-01-01

102

Dispersal Patterns of Male White-tailed Deer in Centre County, PA  

E-print Network

: Dispersal direction of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been hypothesized (Greenwood 1980) and dispersal is most prevalent among yearling bucks in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus. hemionus), and elk (Cervus elaphus) and is caused by transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins (Joly

Omiecinski, Curtis

103

First Modern Record of the White-tailed Eagle in Hawaii  

E-print Network

... First Modern Record of the White-tailed Eagle in Hawaii Brenda J. Zaun, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Kauai National Wildlife Refuge Complex, P. O. Box 1128, Kilauea, Hawaii 96754; Brenda_Zaun@fws.gov The White-tailed Eagle ( Haliaeetus ...

104

Surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin, for TSE infection using the IDEXX HerdChek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the collected mammals tested positive using the ELISA, but these were negative when tested by Western blot. While our sample sizes permitted high probabilities of detecting TSE assuming 1% population prevalence in several common scavengers (93%, 87%, and 87% for raccoons, opossums, and coyotes, respectively), insufficient sample sizes for other species precluded similar conclusions. One cannot rule out successful cross-species TSE transmission to scavengers, but the results suggest that such transmission is not frequent in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin. The need for further surveillance of scavenger species, especially those known to be susceptible to TSE (e.g., cat, American mink, raccoon), is highlighted in both a field and laboratory setting.

Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Johnson, C.; Vanderloo, J.P.; Aiken, J.M.; Hamir, A.N.; Hoover, E.A.

2009-01-01

105

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Twenty-two white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One group (n=5) received 109 colony-forming units (cfu) BCG via a lipid-formulated oral bait; one group (n=5) received 109 cfu

P. Nol; M. V. Palmer; W. R. Waters; F. E. Aldwell; B. M. Buddle; J. M. Triantis; L. M. Linke; G. E. Phillips; T. C. Thacker; J. C. Rhyan; M. D. Salman; M. R. Dunbar

2008-01-01

106

Journal of Environmental Management (1996) 48, 299303 Estimating 24-h Habitat Use Patterns of White-Tailed Deer from  

E-print Network

habitat use patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, habitat use, Odocoileus virginianus, radio telemetry, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. 1. Introduction

107

The University of Notre Dame Effects of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) on Plants, Plant Populations and  

E-print Network

The University of Notre Dame Effects of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) on Plants, Plant 78712 ABSTRACT.-Largeeffects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) upon individual plants, plant, Indiana Vol. 146 July, 2001 No. 1 Am. Midi. Nat. 146:1-26 Effects of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

108

HumanWildlife Interactions 5(1):3246, Spring 2011 Preference of white-tailed deer for corn  

E-print Network

(Zea mays) by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can be substantial, resulting in millions­wildlife conflicts, Odocoileus virginianus, South Dakota, white-tailed deer 1 Badlands National Park, 25216 Ben Reifel Road, Box 6, Interior, SD 57750, USA White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) feed extensively

109

Bovine viral diarrhea virus multiorgan infection in two white-tailed deer in southeastern South Dakota.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of wild ruminants, especially cervids, to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has remained an enigma. Two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were submitted to the Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL) in the fall of 2003 by the South Dakota Game Fish and Parks for chronic wasting disease (CWD) testing. Both animals were CWD negative. The animals were necropsied and histopathology, viral antigen detection, and virus isolation were performed. A noncytopathic (NCP) BVDV was isolated from the lungs and several other tissues of both animals. Formalin-fixed ear notches from both animals were positive for BVDV antigen by immunohistochemistry. The BVDV isolates were typed with the use of polymerase chain reaction in 5' untranslated region (UTR) and one isolate was typed a Type 2a and the other a Type 1b. Future field surveys to determine the incidence of BVDV along with experimental studies to determine if white-tailed deer fawns can be persistently infected with BVDV are needed. PMID:18689667

Chase, Christopher C L; Braun, Lyle J; Leslie-Steen, Pamela; Graham, Tanya; Miskimins, Dale; Ridpath, Julia F

2008-07-01

110

Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.  

SciTech Connect

D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

D'Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

2003-12-31

111

Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2014-01-01

112

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

2014-01-01

113

Development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I examined the development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1975 to 1996 by radio-tracking adult females and their fawns. Of 40 migratory fawns with radio-collared mothers, all returned from winter ranges to their mothers' summer ranges, as did 36 fawns with unknown mothers. Of 1.5- to 3.0-year-old daughters with radio-collared mothers, 67-80% continued migrating with mothers to their traditional summer ranges. Eighty-four percent (16/19) of yearling dispersers continued migratory behavior after replacing their natal summer ranges with their dispersal ranges, and 88% (14/16) of these continued migrating to their natal winter ranges, some through at least 6.5 years of age. Twenty percent (4/20) of nonmigratory fawns dispersed as yearlings, and two became migratory between their dispersal summer ranges and new winter ranges, one through 4.9 years of age and another through 6.5 years. Seven fawns changed their movement behavior from migratory to nonmigratory or vice versa as yearlings or when older, indicating that migratory behavior is not under rigid genetic control. Thus, the adaptiveness of migration must depend upon natural selection operating upon varying capacities and propensities to learn and mimic long-distance movements and not upon migratory behavior directly.

Nelson, M.E.

1998-01-01

114

Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline  

SciTech Connect

The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

2003-02-26

115

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from the lungs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia.  

PubMed

In vitro susceptibilities of 29 strains of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from lung lesions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia were determined using the broth microdilution method to ascertain efficacious treatment options for pneumonic white-tailed deer. All 29 A. pyogenes strains tested were susceptible to ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but were resistant to both danofloxacin and sulfadimethoxine. Likewise, all 29 isolates were either fully susceptible or intermediately susceptible to gentamicin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate) and tulathromycin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate). At least one isolate of A. pyogenes tested was resistant to ampicillin, chlortetracycline, clindamycin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and tilmicosin suggesting their ineffectiveness in treating A. pyogenes-associated lung infections in white-tailed deer. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for tylosin and neomycin could not be interpreted due to unavailability of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-approved breakpoints for these 2 agents. In summary, based on MIC values, ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are more efficacious than other antimicrobial agents for treating A. pyogenes-related pneumonia in white-tailed deer. However, ceftiofur may be preferred over the other 4 drugs as it is being widely used to treat respiratory disease in cattle and other animal species, as well as is available for single dose parenteral administration. PMID:21908365

Tell, Lisa A; Brooks, Jason W; Lintner, Valerie; Matthews, Tammy; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

2011-09-01

116

Photoperiod and melatonin effects on growth and endocrine response in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

E-print Network

Captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns (4-11 mo) were utilized to establish the role of endogenous versus exogenous melatonin on patterns of growth. A deuterium oxide (D20) dilution system was developed with I I fawns...

Moritz, Jonathan Theodore

1995-01-01

117

Seasonal movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota  

E-print Network

patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) inhabiting landscapes intensively Virginie (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)), il est important de connai^tre les patrons de de (Odocoi- leus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) inhabiting Midwest agricultural areas generally include

118

GENETIC STRUCTURING OF COUES WHITE-TAILED DEER IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

patterns of genetic relatedness for Coues white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus couesi) in Arizona. hemionus eremicus). Both species are sympatric in many areas of the southwestern United States. Hybrid

119

VARIABLE ACORN CROPS: RESPONSES OF WHITE-TAILED DEER AND OTHER MAST CONSUMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined movements and behavior of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) relative to the acorn mast-fall from 1986 through 1989 in a mature deciduous forest in Front Royal, Virginia. Ten white-tailed deer with radiotransmitters increased their home range to incorporate acorn-producing areas during mast-fall. Consumption of acorns by deer con­ stituted ca. 50% of foraging time during peak mast-fall; average

WILLIAM J. MCSHEA; GEORG SCHWEDE

120

Movements of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Texanus (Mearns), on the Welder Wildlife Refuge  

E-print Network

MOVEMENTS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER, ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS TEXANUS (MEARNS), ON THE WELDER WILDLIFE REFUGE A Thesis By EDWIN DARYL MICHAEL Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1963 Major Subject: Wildlife Management MOVEMENTS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER, ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS TEXANUS (MaARNS), Ol THE WELDER WILDLIFE REFUGE A Thesis EDWIN DARYL MICHAEL Appr e as to tyle a...

Michael, Edwin Daryl

1963-01-01

121

Effects of immunocontraception on a suburban population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in North America have altered the structure of some forest communities and caused serious conflicts with farmers, gardeners, and motorists, encouraging the search for novel techniques to control populations of deer and other wildlife. We administered the porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraceptive vaccine to female white-tailed deer living on the 233-ha campus of

Allen T. Rutberg; Ricky E. Naugle; Lori A. Thiele; Irwin K. M. Liu

2004-01-01

122

White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) develop spirochetemia following experimental infection with Borrelia lonestari  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borrelia lonestari is considered a putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) and is known to occur naturally only in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We used a low passage isolate of B. lonestari (LS-1) to inoculate white-tailed deer, C3H mice, Holstein cattle, and beagles. Animals were monitored via examination of Giemsa and acridine

P. L. Moyer; A. S. Varela; M. P. Luttrell; V MOOREIV; D. E. Stallknecht; S. E. Little

2006-01-01

123

Lesion Development in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of tuberculosis in free-living white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan underscores the need for increased understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in wildlife species. To investigate lesion development in white-tailed deer, 32 deer were experimentally infected by intratonsilar instillation of 300 colony-forming units of Mycobacterium bovis. Three deer each were euthanatized and examined at days 15, 28, 42,

M. V. Palmer; W. R. Waters; D. L. Whipple

2002-01-01

124

Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

125

137 WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 8:2 (2002) Traditional approaches for studying white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

nutritional status of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus populations in Maine, USA Stephen S. Ditchkoff-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus populations in Maine, USA. - Wildl. Biol. 8: 137-143. We used urinary Odocoileus virginianus in nine wintering areas in northern and central Maine, USA. Winter severity

Ditchkoff, Steve

126

Detection and Multigenic Characterization of a Herpesvirus Associated with Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1998 and 2001, tissues from four captive white-tailed deer were observed to have histologic lesions of systemic lymphocytic vasculitis. These lesions suggested malignant catarrhal fever, although epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue were included in the differential diagnosis. Initial diagnostic efforts, including virus isolation and reverse transcription-PCR for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and blue- tongue virus, failed to identify an

Steven B. Kleiboeker; Margaret A. Miller; Susan K. Schommer; Jose A. Ramos-Vara; Magalie Boucher; Susan E. Turnquist

2002-01-01

127

53 WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 6:1 (2000) Using cast antler characteristics to profile quality of white-tailed  

E-print Network

-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus populations Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Edgar R. Welch, Jr. & Robert L to profile quality of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus populations. - Wildl. Biol. 6: 53-58. Cast white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus antlers from the McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (Mc

Ditchkoff, Steve

128

Experimental persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the most important reservoir for BVDV. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most abundant species of wild ruminants in the United States and contact between cattle and deer is common. If the outcome of fetal infection of white-tailed deer is similar to cattle, PI white-tailed deer may pose a threat to BVDV control programs. The objective of this study was to determine if experimental infection of pregnant white-tailed deer with BVDV would result in the birth of PI offspring. Nine female and one male white-tailed deer were captured and housed at a captive deer isolation facility. After natural mating had occurred, all does were inoculated intranasally at approximately 50 days of pregnancy with 10(6) CCID(50) each of a BVDV 1 (BJ) and BVDV 2 (PA131) strain. Although no clinical signs of BVDV infection were observed or abortions detected, only one pregnancy advanced to term. On day 167 post-inoculation, one doe delivered a live fawn and a mummified fetus. The fawn was translocated to an isolation facility to be hand-raised. The fawn was determined to be PI with BVDV 2 by serial virus isolation from serum and white blood cells, immunohistochemistry on skin biopsy, and RT-PCR. This is the first report of persistent infection of white-tailed deer with BVDV. Further research is needed to assess the impact of PI white-tailed deer on BVDV control programs in cattle. PMID:17353103

Passler, Thomas; Walz, Paul H; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Givens, M Daniel; Maxwell, Herris S; Brock, Kenny V

2007-06-21

129

Hematology, blood chemistry and selenium values of captive pronghorn antelope, white-tailed deer and American bison.  

PubMed

Pronghorn were observed to have a significantly higher whole blood selenium concentration than either the white-tailed deer or bison. Pronghorn colloid values were significantly less than those of the bison, and approached statistical significance for the white-tailed deer. Differential white blood cell counts for the white-tailed deer were markedly different from those of the pronghorn and bison. The American bison had significantly higher cortisol values and lower T3 values than either the white-tailed deer or pronghorn. PMID:2885128

Clemens, E T; Meyer, K L; Carlson, M P; Schneider, N R

1987-01-01

130

Management and Conservation Spatial Ecology of White-Tailed Deer  

E-print Network

(Odocoileus virginianus) in particular, respond to Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands. We conducted range, movement, northern Great Plains, Odocoileus virginianus, resource selection, South Dakota, white

131

Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P., Jr.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

2009-01-01

132

Plant Disease Lesson: White pine blister rust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on White pine blister rust (caused by Cronartium ribicola (Peridermium strobi)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Otis C. Maloy (Washington State University; )

2003-09-08

133

Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010, brains of 155 white-tailed deer fetuses were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. Viable N. caninum (NcWTDMn1, NcWTDMn2) was isolated from the brains of two fetuses by bioassays in mice, and subsequent propagation in cell culture. Dams of these two infected fetuses had antibodies to N. caninum by Neospora agglutination test at 1:100 serum dilution. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates with Nc5 PCR confirmed diagnosis. Results prove congenital transmission of N. caninum in the white tailed deer for the first time. PMID:23566408

Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Villena, I; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

2013-09-23

134

Ecological studies of the white-tailed deer in western Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Activity patterns and microhabitat utilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are being studied at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant in Carroll and Gibson counties, Tennessee. Ten white-tailed deer have been fitted with radio-collars, and locations are being monitored using standard techniques. Home ranges and daily activity patterns are being determined. Preliminary analyses have shown that white-tailed deer are readily located using radio-techniques. Microhabitat utilization is being assessed by pellet transects and radio locations. Pellet counts from transects located in pastures and old fields are significantly different from those in other habitat types. Use of honeysuckle (Lonicera sp.) is being examined by observing the degree of browse along transects. No significant difference in utilization has been seen between the honeysuckle transects.

Frederick, R.D.; Kennedy, M.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States))

1993-04-01

135

Spatial analysis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA.  

PubMed

The wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population in Michigan, USA, has endemic Mycobacterium bovis. We determined whether there were spatial clusters of retrospective TB cases in white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan and identified specific factors associated with the spatial clusters. Data from hunter-harvested deer (age, gender, TB status, and geographic section) were collected by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during TB surveillance from 1995 to 2002. Land cover (vegetation, land-use) and land type (soil types and drainage characteristics, landforms) described potential deer habitats. Specific locations of large-scale supplemental feeding sites were collected from the MDNR aerial surveillance program from 1997 to 2002. Analyses were conducted using principal components derived from environmental data (and other risk factors) on spatial clusters of disease (identified by the spatial scan statistic). Spatial effects were incorporated into the multivariable analyses by using a neighborhood approach. A total of 420 deer with M. bovis infection were identified from 1995 to 2002, out of 39,451 harvested deer from 3216 TRS units, and spatial clusters of cases were identified. A total of seven principal components of environmental data were generated. Clusters were associated with the presence of large expanses of deciduous forests on moraine ridges separated by low areas of forested wetlands, and the presence of many small lakes. Factors that promoted congregation of deer for extended periods of time (natural cover, access to water, and less human contact) appeared to be associated with increased odds of TB positivity. This suggests that there are specific areas where interventions can be implemented to reduce congregation of animals and disrupt the cycle of infection transmission. PMID:17597240

Miller, RoseAnn; Kaneene, John B; Schmitt, Stephen M; Lusch, David P; Fitzgerald, Scott D

2007-11-15

136

Detection of PrP**CWD in retinal tissues in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with CWD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction. Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, has been reported in captive and free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). An abnormal isoform of a prion p...

137

Humoral Immune Responses of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Experimental Challenge with M. bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of the kinetics of production of serum antibodies to multiple mycobacterial antigens can be useful as a diagnostic tool for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection as well as for the characterization of disease progression and the efficacy of intervention strategies in several species. The humoral immune responses to multiple M. bovis antigens by white-tailed deer vaccinated with BCG

P. Nol; K. P. Lyashchenko; R. Greenwald; J. Esfandiari; W. R. Waters; M. V. Palmer; B. J. Nonnecke; T. J. Keefe; T. C. Thacker; J. C. Rhyan; F. E. Aldwell; M. D. Salman

2009-01-01

138

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG Danish Strain 1331) in Protecting White-tailed Deer (Odecoileus Virginianus) against Bovine Tuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wildlife Disease Association Annual Conference, August 6-10, 2006 Terry Amundson Student Presentation Award Oral Presentation EFFICACY OF ORAL AND PARENTERAL BACILLE CALMETTE-GUERIN (BCG DANISH STRAIN 1331) IN PROTECTING WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODECOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AGAINST BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS Paulin...

139

Papillomavirus genomes in experimentally induced fibromas in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Cutaneous fibromas of white-tailed deer were transmitted successfully to 5 young deer. Serial biopsy specimens of the induced lesions were analyzed for white-tailed deer papillomavirus, using Southern blot hybridization. Viral genomes were found in all specimens taken 1 to 7 weeks after inoculation and, in some cases, from specimens of the inoculation site obtained later. Viral DNA was found before histologic evidence of fibroblast proliferation and persisted in low copy number, compared with viral DNA of naturally developing fibromas. PMID:2823650

O'Banion, M K; Sundberg, J P

1987-10-01

140

Complement fixation antigen production for Theileria in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1968 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology COMPLEMENT FIXATION ANTIGEN PRODUCTION FOR THEILERIA IN WHITE- TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) A Thesis By FAISAL ABDEL GADIR Approved as to style and content... deer (Dama virginiana) native to Missouri. Schaeffler (25) 'd t'1'tdth g ' Th'1 1 '. Rh' . t 1. I22I dhd thTh'1''T. ThyydTh'1'p in 57 per cent of 1, 630 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) killed in Texas. They also determined the seriousness...

Gadir, Faisal Abdel

1968-01-01

141

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 84 (2005) 119 POPULATION MODELS FOR WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

Models were developed for the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population inhabiting the Black-tailed deer in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Keywords Black Hills, Odocoileus virginianus, population model-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule (O. hemionus) deer make up a significant portion of this wildlife

142

Effects of short duration grazing on white-tailed deer in the Edwards PLateau and Rio Grande Plain of Texas  

E-print Network

Ranch, April 1984 ? December 1985 55 Fig. 14. Relationship between KFI and FMF in white-tailed does in Manitoba, Canada (after Ransom 1965) 56 Fig. 15. Relationship between KFI and FMF in adult white- tailed deer, Welder Wildlife Refuge, Texas...

Richardson, Calvin Lemuiel

1986-01-01

143

Immunological response of tick-naive white-tailed deer to infestation with Dermacentor albipictus, a one host tick  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White-tailed deer are competent alternative hosts for cattle fever ticks, and their abundance throughout south Texas is compromising efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP). We artificially infested white-tailed deer with a model one-host tick, Dermacentor albipictus (winter tic...

144

Do Wolves Affect White-Tailed Buck Harvest In Northeastern Minnesota?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In early 2000 the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center posted this resource on wolves at their Website. "Do Wolves Affect White-Tailed Buck Harvest In Northeastern Minnesota?" summarizes wolf impacts on deer hunting in northeastern Minnesota from 1975 to 1977. The resource may be downloaded as a .zip file.

Mech, L. David.

145

Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2...

146

Wounding Rates of White-tailed Deer with Traditional Archery Equipment  

E-print Network

Wounding Rates of White-tailed Deer with Traditional Archery Equipment Stephen S. Ditchkoff virginianus) during 1995-1997 to ascertain the wounding rate and propor- tion of deer that die from hunter-inflicted wounds. Our study population was hunted only with traditional archery equipment (recurve and longbows

Ditchkoff, Steve

147

WHITE-TAILED DEER IMPACT ON THE VEGETATION DYNAMICS OF A NORTHERN HARDWOOD FOREST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable controversy has arisen over the management of white-tailed deer in eastern landscapes where there is evidence of damage to forest vegetation, crops, and wildlife habitat attributable to deer. We examined the impact of 4, 8, 15, and 25 deer\\/ km2 on herbaceous layer abundance and tree seedling density, height development, species composition, and diversity for 10 yr in a

Stephen B. Horsley; Susan L. Stout; David S. deCalesta

2003-01-01

148

Effects of White-Tailed Deer on Populations of an Understory Forb in Fragmented Deciduous Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of grazing by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) on populations of Trillium spp. were examined in remnant, old-growth patches of the highly fragmented Big Woods forest ecosystem in south- eastern Minnesota. We conducted three separate studies involving an exclosure experiment, transplant exper- iments, and comparisons of Trillium populations among study sites. The highest grazing intensity was ob-

David J. Augustine; Lee E. Frelich

1998-01-01

149

Site and landscape conditions at white-tailed deer\\/vehicle collision locations in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle collisions with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) present several problems including danger to humans, vehicle damage, and deer mortality. Knowledge of factors influencing deer movements onto or across roads and highways may reduce deer\\/vehicle collisions on existing roads, and improve planning for future roads. We used remotely sensed data to determine characteristics associated with high accident areas. Topographic features

Rebecca A. Finder; John L. Roseberry; Alan Woolf

1999-01-01

150

SEASONAL VARIATION IN SEX RATIOS AND SURVIVAL RATES OF WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS  

E-print Network

on maternal condition as the driving factor concerning sex ratio variation. In this study, we investigated how. In this study, we found that maternal condition did not influence offspring sex ratios, while birth date didSEASONAL VARIATION IN SEX RATIOS AND SURVIVAL RATES OF WHITE- TAILED DEER FAWNS Except where

Ditchkoff, Steve

151

Modelling the impact of toxic and disturbance stress on white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) populations.  

PubMed

Several studies have related breeding success and survival of sea eagles to toxic or non-toxic stress separately. In the present investigation, we analysed single and combined impacts of both toxic and disturbance stress on populations of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), using an analytical single-species model. Chemical and eco(toxico)logical data reported from laboratory and field studies were used to parameterise and validate the model. The model was applied to assess the impact of ?PCB, DDE and disturbance stress on the white-tailed eagle population in The Netherlands. Disturbance stress was incorporated through a 1.6% reduction in survival and a 10-50% reduction in reproduction. ?PCB contamination from 1950 up to 1987 was found to be too high to allow the return of white-tailed eagle as a breeding species in that period. ?PCB and population trends simulated for 2006-2050 suggest that future population growth is still reduced. Disturbance stress resulted in a reduced population development. The combination of both toxic and disturbance stress varied from a slower population development to a catastrophical reduction in population size, where the main cause was attributed to the reduction in reproduction of 50%. Application of the model was restricted by the current lack of quantitative dose-response relationships between non-toxic stress and survival and reproduction. Nevertheless, the model provides a first step towards integrating and quantifying the impacts of multiple stressors on white-tailed eagle populations. PMID:21861166

Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; Lenders, H J Rob; Foppen, Ruud P B; Hendriks, A Jan

2012-01-01

152

ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 AND SALMONELLA IN WHITE-TAILED DEER AND LIVESTOCK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella spp. are among the leading causes of food-borne illness in the United States and these bacteria have been isolated from numerous ruminant animal sources. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of E. coli O157 and Salmonella spp. in white-tailed ...

153

Proportion of White-tailed deer using medicated bait sites in Southern Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, have been found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) complicating eradication efforts of the USDA’s Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Our objective was to assess patterns of deer visitation to medicated bait...

154

Volatile Compounds from the Forehead Region of Male White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretions produced by sebaceous and apocrine glands of cervids may be important in identifying individuals, establishing dominance, and signaling sexual readiness. The secretions from these glands are transferred to the hair for both lubrication and scent communication via forehead rubbing. We collected hair samples from the forehead and back of 10 male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of various ages and

J. W. Gassett; D. P. Wiesler; A. G. Baker; D. A. Osborn; K. V. Miller; R. L. Marchinton; M. Novotny

1997-01-01

155

White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Predation on Grassland Songbird Nestlings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) continues to place scientific/ management resources online for general viewing. This resource, by Pamela J. Pietz and Diane A. Granfors, was published in 2000 in American Midland Naturalist [144(2):419-422] and reports on four instances of nest depredation by white-tailed deer. It may be browsed online or downloaded as a .zip file.

Granfors, Diane A.

156

Immunohistological localization of testosterone in the growing antler of the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using immunohistological methods (fluorescein and peroxidase labeled double antibody technique), the localization of testosterone in the antlers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at the beginning of the period of accelerated calcification was examined. The most intense reaction for testosterone was found in the prochondral blastema layer and in the growing follicles of the velvet. The findings may indicate the importance

G. A. Bubenik; G. M. Brown; A. B. Bubenik; L. J. Grota

1974-01-01

157

Evaluation of Two Survey Methods for Detection of Helminth Infections in \\\\White? tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, from central Pennsyl- vania were examined for helminth parasites by regular autopsy pro- cedures supplemented by a direct centrifugal flotation technique. The two methods were compared and evaluated for suitability in diagnosis and survey work. The reliability and repeatability of the flotation method were studied. Prevalence of most nematodes encountered was increased as a direct result

W. M. SAMUEL; R. L. BEAUDOIN

1966-01-01

158

Aversive responses of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus , to predator urines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urine from bobcats (Lyra rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of Japanese yews (Taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. Urine of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting

Robert K. Swihart; Joseph J. Pignatello; Mary Jane I. Mattina

1991-01-01

159

Proximity of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, ranges to wolf Canis lupus, pack homesites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven adult female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota lived within 1.8 km of Wolf pack (Canis lupus) homesites without vacating their home ranges. Six of these deer and at least three of their fawns survived through the Wolf homesite period.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2001-01-01

160

Evaluation of an electrified mat as a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) pose economic and safety problems for agricultural and transportation industries. We tested an electronic mat to determine if it would reduce deer crossing through fence openings. We measured deer intrusions and corn consumption at five sites with charged mats and five sites with non-charged mats. Weekly intrusions at treated sites decreased an average of 95% from

Thomas W. Seamans; David A. Helon

2008-01-01

161

Newly Recognized Herpesvirus Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify

HONG LI; NEIL DYER; JANICE KELLER; TIMOTHY B. CRAWFORD

162

Modeling white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus population control by contraception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large populations of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus present conservation problems in suburban landscapes because of limited population control options. We used the GAPPS II modeling system to simulate temporal effects of contraception on deer population control and the interaction between contraception and uncertain immigration rates. Contraception rates less than 50% of female deer curbed population growth with a long (30

Steven W. Seagle; John D. Close

1996-01-01

163

Body mass, age, and reproductive influences on liver mass of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

E-print Network

on liver mass to gain insight into liver-mass variation in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus body mass is controlled. Key words: Odocoileus virginianus, ruminant, scaling relationships, visceral. [Traduit par la Rédaction] Mots-clés : Odocoileus virginianus, ruminant, relation d'échelle, organe

Weckerly, Floyd "Butch" - Department of Biology, Texas State University

164

HumanWildlife Conflicts 2(1):2833, Spring 2008 Sharpshooting suburban white-tailed  

E-print Network

when white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) become abundant in urban and suburban environments (Ng to demonstrate that a reduction in deer (Odocoileus spp.) densities will result in a decline in DVCs. We can significantly reduce DVCs. Key words: deer­vehicle collisions, human­wildlife conflict, Odocoileus

165

Proximity of White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Ranges to Wolf, Canis lupus, Pack Homesites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is among the recent postings at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) Website. Michael E. Nelson and L. David Mech authored the article, which focuses on White-tailed Deer in northeastern Minnesota living close to Wolf pack homesites. The article was first published in the Canadian Field-Naturalist [114(3):503-504].

Mech, L. David.

166

Transmission of Babesia odocoilel in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) by Ixodes scapularis (Acari: lxodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory reared Ixodes scapu- laris proved to be an efficient vector of Babesia odocoilei Emerson and Wright between white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virgin janus ). Transta- dial survival of the babesia occurred between nymph and adult stages of the tick, and the adult stage transmitted the babesia.

K. A. Waldrup; A. A. Kocan; R. W. Barker; G. G. Wagner

167

Impact of BVDV infection of white-tailed deer during second and third trimesters of pregnancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While it has been demonstrated that persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections can be established in white-tailed deer following in utero exposure in the first trimester of gestation, there is little to no information regarding the outcome of infection, in deer, in later stages of preg...

168

VACINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS BACILLUS CALMETTE GUERIN (BCG)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

169

VACCINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS BACILLUS CALMETTE GUERIN (BCG)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

170

EXPERIMENTAL CONTAGIOUS ECTHYMA IN MULE DEER, WHITE-TAILED DEER, PRONGHORN AND WAPITI1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ocis cana- densis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species devel- oped mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly

William R. Lance; Charles P. Hibler; James DeMartini

171

Prevalence of Granulocytic Ehrlichia Infection among White-Tailed Deer in Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is caused by an agent that is nearly indistinguishable from the veterinary pathogens Ehrlichia equi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila. The deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of the HGE agent, and the white-tailed deer is the primary host for adult Ixodes ticks. We assessed the distribution of granulocytic Ehrlichia infection among deer living within (Wisconsin) and

EDWARD A. BELONGIA; KURT D. REED; PAUL D. MITCHELL; CHRIS P. KOLBERT; DAVID H. PERSING; JAMES S. GILL; JAMES J. KAZMIERCZAK

1997-01-01

172

ORAL BACILLE CALMETTE-GUERIN (BCG) VACCINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER AGAINST BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

173

WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) CYTOKINE EXPRESSION IN RESPONSE TO INFECTION WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium bovis infected white-tailed deer were detected in Michigan in 1994. Subsequent survey's revealed a focus of infection. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in a population of free ranging wildlife in North America posing a threat to domestic livestock and humans. Relat...

174

Vaccination of White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis BCG  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer in order to interrupt...

175

NESTING DOCUMENTATION FOR THE WHITE-TAILED PTARMIGAN IN THE SANGRE DE CRISTO MOUNTAINS, NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southernmost extent of the range of White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) reaches into north-central New Mexico. Although known to occur in New Mexico since around 1865, their exact distribution and abundance is not well known. This is primarily because the species is an alpine obligate, which has made efforts to survey difficult. Here I describe the first nest of the

Donald H. Wolfe

176

Bluetongue Virus: (1) In Pregnant White-tailed Deer (2) A Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were infected with bluetongue virus (BT,, vaccinal strain) approximately one-third of the way through their gestation period. One deer died of bluetongue 21 days after inoculation. Of the five surviving the infection, one had two mummified fetuses, and the others no fetuses upon euthanasia two weeks after term. Fetuses were present in two control deer

F. C. THOMAS

177

A PLAGUE EPIZOOTIC IN THE WHITE-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LEUCURUS) OF MEETEETSE, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance for sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted near Meeteetse, Wyoming (USA) from 24 May to 14 june 1985. Ten species of fleas were collected from white- tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus), and from their burrows and associated rodents. Five of these flea species and two adult prairie dogs were positive for plague. The progression of this plague epizootic appeared

Sonya R. Ubico; Kathleen A. Fagerstone; Robert G. McLean

178

IMPACTS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER ON FOREST REGENERATION IN NORTHWEST ERN PENNSYLVANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a major cause of regeneration failure in Allegheny hardwood forests of northwestern Pennsylvania. I examined the impact of deer at 5 different densities (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 deer\\/259 ha) on tree seedlings, woody shrubs, and herbaceous plants in large enclosures over 5 years. I examined 3 silvicultural treatments (clearcut, thinning, and

NANCY G. TILGHMAN

179

Lack of social hierarchy in wintering white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) when scavenging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied agonistic interactions and the influence of dominance relationships on access to food in groups of wintering white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) when scavenging fish carcasses in Eastern Poland. The data did not conform to the arrangements of a linear hierarchy. No winner-loser effect on fight success was observed: winners of aggressive encounters could turn into losers at repeated interactions

M. Kolodziejczyk; J. Kloskowski; J. Krogulec

2005-01-01

180

Persistent pollutants in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Federal Republic of Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the possible relationship between persistent pollutants and the decline in reproductive success of the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Schleswig Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany. Chemical analyses were made of Eagle's eggs, of one adult Eagle which was found dead, and of specimens of several species of predatory animals and of two Sparrow Hawks which

J. H. Koeman; R. H. Hadderingh; M. F. I. J. Bijleveld

1972-01-01

181

Avian poxvirus infection in a white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adult female white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), over 12 years old, was found moribund and sent to the Wildlife Rescue Center in Kushiro, Japan. Grossly, the bird had multifocal yellow to black nodules in the beak, tongue, mucosa of the oral cavity, eyelids, and legs. Histologically, the cutaneous nodules revealed severe epidermal hyperplasia. The thickened epithelium, from prickle cell

Keisuke Saito; Atsushi Kodama; Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi; Yukari Gotoh; Hiroki Sakai; Hideto Fukushi; Toshiaki Masegi; Tokuma Yanai

2009-01-01

182

Correlations between melanin pigmentation and element concentration in feathers of White-tailed Eagles ( Haliaeetus albicilla )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The element concentration of moult feathers of White-tailed Eagles was investigated. Using the 2- MeV Hamburg proton microprobe we tried to differentiate between elements incorporated into the feather via the food chain and those which are deposited externally onto the feather vane. Regarding incorporated elements, special attention has been given to a possible correlation between element concentration and feather

Manfred Niecke; Matthias Heid; Andreas Kriiger

1999-01-01

183

White-tailed Deer Visitation Rates at Medicated Bait Sites in Southern Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has been found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) complicating eradication efforts of the USDA’s Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Our objective was to assess patterns of deer visitation to medicated bait sites used to treat...

184

J Vet Diagn Invest 20:7982 (2008) Evaluation of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer for evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus  

E-print Network

(Odocoileus virginianus) for evidence of BVDV infection. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 2; immunohistochemistry; Odocoileus virginianus; seroprevalence; white-tailed deer. Artiodactyla, as has recently been reviewed.25 White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most abundant

Ditchkoff, Steve

185

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.  

PubMed

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

2013-10-25

186

Prevalence and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus in the white-tailed deer population in Indiana.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the economically important diseases of cattle. For many years, different types of vaccines have been commercially available, yet this disease is hard to control in high-density population areas. Detection and isolation of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from any potential reservoir is vital, especially when considering virus eradication from a herd or locale. One potential source is wild ruminants. Ear notches and lymph nodes were collected from the wild population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during deer hunting season in Indiana and tested for BVDV with a commercial BVD antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two samples out of 745 collected samples were positive, and subsequently cp and ncp BVDV was isolated from 1 ear notch and 1 lymph node. These isolates were genotyped as type 1a and 1b based on sequence analysis of the 5' untranslated region (UTR). The results of the present study indicate that the prevalence of BVDV in the white-tailed deer population of Indiana is about 0.3%. Wild ruminants infected with BVDV should be taken into consideration during an eradication program of BVDV from the livestock population. PMID:18182513

Pogranichniy, Roman M; Raizman, Eran; Thacker, H Leon; Stevenson, Gregory W

2008-01-01

187

Annotated Bibliography of Methodologies to Census, Estimate, and Monitor the Size of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting annotated bibliography, from Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, describes methodologies to census, estimate, and monitor the size of white-tailed deer populations. The bibliography is organized into three sections: a decade-by-decade summary of measuring/ monitoring techniques; techniques for biological populations (52 annotated references); and techniques for white-tailed deer (160 annotated references). In each section, earliest publications (1889) appear first, culminating in 1997. While the database emphasizes methodologies specific to white-tailed deer, it also does an excellent job documenting the historical evolution of techniques to measure wildlife populations. An author and keyword index completes the resource.

188

Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

1984-01-01

189

Aversive responses of white-tailed deer,Odocoileus virginianus, to predator urines.  

PubMed

We tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urine from bobcats (Lyra rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of Japanese yews (Taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. Urine of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting that deer do not respond aversively to odors of nonpredatory mammals or occasional predators with which they lack a long evolutionary association. Bobcat and coyote urine were more effective in tests conducted with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), which is less palatable to white-tailed deer than Japanese yew. A dichloromethane extract of bobcat urine was as effective as unextracted urine in reducing damage to hemlocks. Testing of the organic components of bobcat urine, particularly the volatile components, may enable identification of the compounds responsible for the repellency we observed. PMID:24258921

Swihart, R K; Pignatello, J J; Mattina, M J

1991-04-01

190

Development and initial assessment of Texas Cooperative Extension's white-tailed dear management module  

E-print Network

?s (TCE) White-tailed Deer Management Module (WDMM) delivered over the Internet. The results of this study will provide suggestions about future online wildlife management modules. Data were collected from two populations using questionnaires. A... Face-to-Face vs. Internet Delivery 17 Distance Wildlife Education 19 Internet Surveys vs. Paper Mail-Out Surveys 22 III METHODS/PROCEDURES 24 Research n 24 Samples...

Bedgood, Mark Andrew

2005-02-17

191

Field testing of commercially manufactured capture collars on white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted 31 tests of commercially manufactured capture collars on female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, under temperatures from -37C to 22C. Deer were recaptured in 28 of the 31 tests; in the 3 failures, we remotely released the collars from the deer. Communication with the collars was achieved from up to 3.0 km on the ground and 26.5 km from the air.

Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Kreeger, T.J.

1990-01-01

192

Within-yard habitat use by white-tailed deer at varying winter severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetative, topological, and spatial features that were associated with habitat use of radio-collared white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, n=17 in 1996–1997 and n=13 in 1997–1998) were identified as snow depth changed in the Odell Deeryard, NB, Canada. Logistic regressions and classification trees revealed that use of forest stands varied with snow depth, and between the 1996–1997 and 1997–1998 yarding periods. Stand

Shawn F. Morrison; Graham J. Forbes; Steven J. Young; Stewart Lusk

2003-01-01

193

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PREDATOR REMOVAL AND WHITE-TAILED DEER NET PRODUCTIVITY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the impact of predation on productivity of white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in South Texas by removing predators from one area and compar- ing the results to a control area. A total of 188 coyotes (Canis latrans) and 120 bobcats (Lynx rufus) were removed during predator removal efforts on the approximately 5,400-acre (2,186-ha) experimental

SAMUEL L. BEASOM

194

The ossification process of the developing antler in the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsy samples were obtained from the growing tips of the main beam and tines of two-and three-year-old, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout the active growing season. The samples were prepared by routine and special histological techniques. The histological differentiation of the antler proceeded through a complex series of changes. The series originated with reserve mesenchymal tissue, progressed through the differentiation

W. J. Banks

1974-01-01

195

Isolation of Neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts were made to isolate Neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A total of 110 deer killed during the 2003 hunting season in Virginia region were used for the isolation of N. caninum. Of these, brains from 28 deer that had NAT titer of 1:200 were inoculated into interferon-gamma gene knock out (KO) mice. N. caninum was

M. C. B. Vianna; C. Sreekumar; K. B. Miska; D. E. Hill; J. P. Dubey

2005-01-01

196

Ultrastructure of Sarcocystic sp. from the muscle of a white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis sp. from the muscle of naturally infected whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The primary cyst wall forms regularly spaced protrusions filled with electron-lucent ground substance; no fibrils are present in the protrusions. The cysts are divided by septa into compartments containing typical coccidian metrocytes and merozoites. Taxonomy of the protozoon from the white-tailed deer-dog

R. Entzeroth; B. Chobotar; E. Scholtyseck

1982-01-01

197

Volatile compounds from interdigital gland of male white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdigital secretions were collected from eight male white-tailed deer of various ages. Analysis of volatiles was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a modified headspace technique. Forty-six volatile compounds were found including alkanes, arenes, aldehydes, ketones, aliphatic acids, esters, pyrroles, furans, and sulfur compounds. Eleven occurred in higher concentrations (P0.10) in dominant (3.5-year-old) than in subordinate (1.5-year-old) animals. Dominant males

J. W. Gassett; D. P. Wiesler; A. G. Baker; D. A. Osborn; K. V. Miller; R. L. Marchinton; M. Novotny

1996-01-01

198

EFFICACY OF IVERMECTIN AGAINST PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS ANDERSON! (NEMATODA, METASTRONGYLOIDEA) IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lvermectin was injected subcutaneously at 200 and 400 big\\/kg of body weight into seven white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in an attempt to control the muscle nematode Parelaphostrongylus andersoni. Counts of first-stage larvae in feces dropped to zero at 17 to 18 days posttreatment. Larvae reappeared in feces 1.5 to 6 wk later in six deer. Four deer were treated again

W. M. Samuel; J. Brent Gray

199

Food access by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) at winter feeding sites in eastern Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, we studied aggressive behaviour of White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at winter feeding stations in the Pohénégamook wintering area, Québec (47°29?N 69°14?W). The study aimed at determining if aggressive behaviour was related to priority of access to food by various age–sex classes. Deer were observed daily at four feeding sites and weekly at six others. More than 100 deer

Diane Grenier; Cyrille Barrette; Michel Crête

1999-01-01

200

High prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples of 400 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 16 preserves in northeastern Illinois were tested for Neospora caninum antibodies in the N. caninum agglutination test using mouse-derived N. caninum tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Antibodies were found in 162 deer with titres of 1:40 (47 deer), 1:80 (32 deer), 1:160 (17 deer), 1:200 (eight deer), 1:400 (19 deer), 1:800 (17 deer)

J. P Dubey; K Hollis; S Romand; P Thulliez; O. C. H Kwok; L Hungerford; C Anchor; D Etter

1999-01-01

201

New infectious spirochete isolated from short-tailed shrews and white-footed mice.  

PubMed

A spirochete with two periplasmic flagella was isolated from the blood or tissues of spleens and kidneys from short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in Connecticut and Minnesota. After inoculation, the shrew-mouse spirochete infected Swiss mice and Syrian hamsters. This spirochete is morphologically and serologically distinct from the species of Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, and Spirochaeta examined. PMID:3305565

Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W; Andreadis, T G

1987-08-01

202

Coyotes as Sentinels for Monitoring Bovine Tuberculosis Prevalence in White-Tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), is endemic in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 5 counties (Alcona, Alpena, Montmorency, Oscoda, and Presque Isle) in the northeastern Lower Peninsula of Michigan, USA. The presence of a wildlife reservoir of tuberculosis in Michigan and the incidence of bTB in cattle (Bos taurus) resulted in Michigan losing its bTB

TODD C. ATWOOD; KURT C. VERCAUTEREN; THOMAS J. DELIBERTO; HOLLY J. SMITH; JUSTIN S. STEVENSON

2007-01-01

203

Observation of the cervix and artificial insemination in captive white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

et al. 1982) and allows for the use of male germ cells in an AI program. The collected semen can be analyzed for the following parameters: volume, motility (0 to 100%), concentration, and morphology according to Bierschwal et al. (1970). The sperm... from several white-tailed deer bucks on another research project. These bucks were manually restrained, and the semen collected by electroejaculation. The collected semen was analyzed for the following parameters: volume, per cent motility (0 to 100...

Magyar, Stephen John

1986-01-01

204

Natal and breeding dispersal in a reintroduced population of White?tailed Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule Natal dispersal distance was significantly shorter in males than in females.Aim To examine the correlates of variation in dispersal in a reintroduced population of White?tailed Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla in western Scotland.Methods Observations of natal (or release) sites and subsequent breeding sites of individually marked birds were used to calculate natal dispersal distance (NDD; the distance between natal (or release)

D. Philip Whitfield; Andrew Douse; Richard J. Evans; Justin Grant; John Love; David R. A. McLeod; Robin Reid; Jeremy D. Wilson

2009-01-01

205

Recovery dynamics and viability of the white-tailed eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla ) in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the effect of protection measures on recovery of endangered populations is crucial for assessing the efficiency\\u000a of management plans. Following the ban of DDT, PCB and other detrimental chemicals in the 1970s, the German white-tailed eagle\\u000a population recovered rapidly. Using nest monitoring data, dead recovery data and population dynamics models, we examined both\\u000a short and long-term viabilities of the

Justine Sulawa; Alexandre Robert; Ulrich Köppen; Peter Hauff; Oliver Krone

2010-01-01

206

Morphological and genetic sex identification of white-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the sex of bird nestlings is relevant to studies of behaviour and ecology and is often a central issue in the\\u000a management of endangered or captive populations. The white-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla is a formerly threatened Eurasian raptor which is closely monitored in many countries due to its high exposure to environmental\\u000a pollutants in the food chain. The aim

Björn Helander; Frank Hailer

2007-01-01

207

Survival rates, mortality causes, and habitats of Pennsylvania white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimates of survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns are important to population management. We quantified cause-specific mortality, survival rates, and habitat characteristics related to fawn survival in a forested landscape and an agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania. We captured and radiocollared neonatal (0.05). Predation accounted for 46.2% (95% Cl = 37.6-56.7%) of 106 mortalities through 34 weeks. We attributed 32.7% (95% Cl = 21.9-48.6%) and 36.7% (95% Cl = 25.5-52.9%) of 49 predation events to black bears (Ursus americanus) and coyotes (Canis latrans], respectively. Natural causes, excluding predation, accounted for 27.4% (95% Cl = 20.1-37.3) of mortalities. Fawn survival in Pennsylvania was comparable to reported survival in forested and agricultural regions in northern portions of the white-tailed deer range. We have no evidence to suggest that the fawn survival rates we observed were preventing population growth. Because white-tailed deer are habitat generalists, home-range-scale habitat characteristics may be unrelated to fawn survival; therefore, future studies should consider landscape-related characteristics on fawn survival.

Vreeland, J.K.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.

2004-01-01

208

Isolation of Neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Attempts were made to isolate Neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A total of 110 deer killed during the 2003 hunting season in Virginia region were used for the isolation of N. caninum. Of these, brains from 28 deer that had NAT titer of 1:200 were inoculated into interferon-gamma gene knock out (KO) mice. N. caninum was isolated from the tissues of three deer and all three isolates were mildly virulent to KO mice. Only one of the isolates could be adapted to in vitro growth. Protozoa in the tissues of KO mice reacted with N. caninum-specific polyclonal antibodies and N. caninum DNA was demonstrated in infected tissues by PCR assays; sequences of portions of the ITS-1 and gene 5 loci were identical to those in the public database. This is the first record of in vitro isolation of N. caninum from white-tailed deer and lends credence to the white-tailed deer as an intermediate host for this parasite. PMID:15845280

Vianna, M C B; Sreekumar, C; Miska, K B; Hill, D E; Dubey, J P

2005-05-15

209

White-tailed deer vigilance: the influence of social and environmental factors.  

PubMed

Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer. PMID:24599090

Lashley, Marcus A; Chitwood, M Colter; Biggerstaff, Michael T; Morina, Daniel L; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

2014-01-01

210

White-Tailed Deer Vigilance: The Influence of Social and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer. PMID:24599090

Lashley, Marcus A; Chitwood, M. Colter; Biggerstaff, Michael T.; Morina, Daniel L.; Moorman, Christopher E.; DePerno, Christopher S.

2014-01-01

211

Effects of climate change on nutrition and genetics of White-tailed Ptarmigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are well suited as a focal species for the study of climate change because they are adapted to cool, alpine environments that are expected to undergo unusually rapid climate change. We compared samples collected in the late 1930s, the late 1960s, and the late 2000s using molecular genetic and stable isotope methods in an effort to determine whether White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans, Colorado, have experiences recent environmental changes resulting in shifts in genetic diversity, gene frequency, and nutritional ecology. We genotyped 115 individuals spanning the three time periods, using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in our genetic analysis. These samples were also analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition. We found a slight trend of lower heterozygosity through time, and allelic richness values were significantly lower in more recent times, but not significantly using an alpha of 0.05 (P 13C and ?15N values decreased significantly across time periods, whereas the range in isotope values increased consistently from the late 1930s to the late time periods. Inferred changes in the nutritional ecology of White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans relate primarily to increased atmospheric deposition of nutrients that likely influenced foraging habits and tundra plant composition and nutritional quality. Future work seeks to integrate genetic and isotopic data with long-term demographics to develop a detailed understanding of the interaction among environmental stressors on the long-term viability of ptarmigan populations.

Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Stricker, Craig A.; St. John, Judy, Braun, Clait E.; Wann, Gregory T.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

2011-01-01

212

Effect of paved road density on abundance of white-tailed deer Keith G. MunroA  

E-print Network

­vehicle collisions, habitat fragmentation, Odocoileus virginianus, Ontario, Pennsylvania, reproductive rate, road mammal is the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus. For example, Conover et al. (1995) estimated

213

Effects of grazing pressure by Angora goats on intra/interspecific foraging competition with white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF GRAZING PRESSURE BY ANGORA GOATS ON INTRA/INTERSPECIFIC FORAGING COMPETITION WITH WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by RHONDA LYNNE HERVEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Range Science EFFECTS OF GRAZING PRESSURE BY ANGORA GOATS ON INTRA/INTERSPECIFIC FORAGING COMPETITION WITH WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by RHONDA LYNNE HERVEY Approved...

Hervey, Rhonda Lynne

1989-01-01

214

SEROLOGICAL PREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF BABESIA ODOCOILE! AMONG WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN TEXAS AND OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples collected from 581 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Texas and from 124 white-tailed deer from Oklahoma were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique against Babesia odocoilei. Prevalence of seropositive reactors varied from site to site in both states. Prevalence rates were statistically ranked as high, intermediate or low. Deer <12-mo-old had a significantly lower prevalence than all

K. A. Waldrup; A. A. Kocan; T. Qureshi; D. S. Davis; D. Baggett; G. G. Wagner

215

Isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from Wild White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Confirms Their Role as Natural Reservoir Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular,

J. MITCHELL LOCKHART; WILLIAM R. DAVIDSON; DAVID E. STALLKNECHT; JACQUELINE E. DAWSON; ELIZABETH W. HOWERTH

1997-01-01

216

Comparative nest habitat characteristics of sympatric White?tailed Haliaeetus albicilla and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in western Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule Golden and White?tailed Eagles selected different habitats for nesting.Aim To investigate differences in nesting habitat used by sympatrically breeding eagles in western Scotland, following reintroduction of White?tailed Eagles from 1975 onwards.Methods Nest?site locations from national surveys in 2003–05 were entered into a geographical information system (GIS) in order to measure a set of geographic parameters for each nest site.

Richard J. Evans; D. Philip Whitfield; Justin R. Grant; Alison MacLennan; Robin Reid

2010-01-01

217

Breeding habitat selection of sympatric White-tailed, Rock and Willow Ptarmigan in the southern Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined breeding habitat selection at two scales for White-tailed (Lagopus leucura), Rock (L. muta), and Willow Ptarmigan (L. lagopus) at an alpine site in the Ruby Range Mountains of the Yukon Territory, Canada. To infer species-specific preferences, we\\u000a used logistic regression and AIC model selection to compare nest habitat of White-tailed (n = 43) and Rock Ptarmigan (n = 58). Only descriptive statistics

Scott Wilson; Kathy Martin

2008-01-01

218

Culture and serologic survey for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection among southeastern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

From July 1998 through October 2002, radiometric culture (ileocecal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, and feces) and serologic testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to survey white-tailed deer (Odocoilens virgianus) from the soutlheastern United States for infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the ileocecal lymph node of one of 313 deer (0.3%) originating from 63 populations in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and West Virginia (USA). Six deer (2%), all from different populations, had ELISA results above a 0.25 sample-to-positive cutoff value, but none of the ELISA reactors originated from the population from which the single Mptb isolation was made. These six deer were seronegative when tested by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID). Collectively, these data indicate that white-tailed deer currently do not constitute a broad regional reservoir for Mptb; however, further study is warranted to clarify the significance, if any, of infected deer to the epizootiology of paratuberculosis on a local scale. Adaptation and validation of an ELISA or another serologic assay for use with deer and other wildlife would markedly enhance Mptb surveillanece among wild populations and would be a powerful tool for gaining information on the role of wild species in epidemiology of paratuberculosis. PMID:15362831

Davidson, William R; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Nettles, Victor F

2004-04-01

219

COMPARISON OF TWO AUTOMATED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL PROCEDURES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF SCRAPIE IN DOMESTIC SHEEP AND CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN NORTH AMERICAN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AND MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of sheep and cervid ruminants respectively. These diseases are often diagnosed by immunohistochemistry using one or a cocktail of two monoclonal antibodies on an automated immunostainer that delivers commercially avai...

220

Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM) disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM) and Quality Deer Management (QDM), a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the six regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of antler and nasal swabs from deer were positive for A. pyogenes, respectively. On the Upper Eastern Shore, prevalence of A. pyogenes cultured from deer did not differ between management areas, and was abundant among both sexes and across all age classes. No A. pyogenes was cultured from a small sample of neonates. Conclusion Our study indicates A. pyogenes may be carried widely among white-tailed deer regardless of sex or age class, but we found no evidence the pathogen is acquired in utero. The distribution of A. pyogenes across regions and concentration in a region with low livestock levels suggests the potential for localized endemicity of the organism and the possibility that deer may serve as a maintenance reservoir for an emerging one health concern. PMID:23930157

Turner, Melissa M.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Conner, Mark C.; Eyler, T. Brian; Lancia, Richard A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

2013-01-01

221

Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

2010-01-01

222

CORRELATION OF CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION WITH PATHOLOGY IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) INFECTED WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium bovis infected white-tailed deer (WTD) were detected in northeast Michigan in 1994. Subsequent surveys revealed a focus of infection that represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in North America. Relatively little work has been done to characterize the immune response of white...

223

Genome Sequence of a Presumptive Mannheimia haemolytica Strain with an A1/A6-Cross-Reactive Serotype from a White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Mannheimia haemolytica is a Gram-negative bacterium and the principal etiological agent associated mostly with bovine respiratory disease complex. However, we report here the sequence of a strain with the novel A1/A6-cross-reactive serotype, strain PKL10, isolated from white-tailed deer. PKL10 was isolated from the spleen of farmed white-tailed deer showing clinical signs of pneumonia. The genome structure of PKL10 is dramatically different from that of previously sequenced isolates, which was demonstrated by genome alignments. In addition, the coding sequences in PKL10 share approximately 86% sequence identity with the coding sequences in other fully sequenced M. haemolytica strains. This suggests that PKL10 is a novel Mannheimia species. PMID:24675846

Bey, Russell F.; Wiener, Brittanny; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Bumgarner, Roger E.

2014-01-01

224

Genome Sequence of a Presumptive Mannheimia haemolytica Strain with an A1/A6-Cross-Reactive Serotype from a White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Mannheimia haemolytica is a Gram-negative bacterium and the principal etiological agent associated mostly with bovine respiratory disease complex. However, we report here the sequence of a strain with the novel A1/A6-cross-reactive serotype, strain PKL10, isolated from white-tailed deer. PKL10 was isolated from the spleen of farmed white-tailed deer showing clinical signs of pneumonia. The genome structure of PKL10 is dramatically different from that of previously sequenced isolates, which was demonstrated by genome alignments. In addition, the coding sequences in PKL10 share approximately 86% sequence identity with the coding sequences in other fully sequenced M. haemolytica strains. This suggests that PKL10 is a novel Mannheimia species. PMID:24675846

Lawrence, Paulraj K; Bey, Russell F; Wiener, Brittanny; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Bumgarner, Roger E

2014-01-01

225

Genetic consequences of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) restoration in Mississippi.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were nearly extirpated from the southeastern USA during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Recovery programmes, including protection of remnant native stocks and transplants from other parts of the species' range, were initiated in the early 1900's. The recovery programmes were highly successful and deer are presently numerous and continuously distributed throughout the southeastern USA. However, the impact of the recovery programmes on the present genetic structure of white-tailed deer remains to be thoroughly investigated. We used 17 microsatellite DNA loci to assess genetic differentiation and diversity for 543 white-tailed deer representing 16 populations in Mississippi and three extra-state reference populations. There was significant genetic differentiation among all populations and the majority of genetic variation (> or = 93%) was contained within populations. Patterns of genetic structure, genetic similarity and isolation by distance within Mississippi were not concordant with geographical proximity of populations or subspecies delineations. We detected evidence of past genetic bottlenecks in nine of the 19 populations examined. However, despite experiencing genetic bottlenecks or founder events, allelic diversity and heterozygosity were uniformly high in all populations. These exceeded reported values for other cervid species that experienced similar population declines within the past century. The recovery programme was successful in that deer were restored to their former range while maintaining high and uniform genetic variability. Our results seem to confirm the importance of rapid population expansion and habitat continuity in retaining genetic variation in restored populations. However, the use of diverse transplant stocks and the varied demographic histories of populations resulted in fine-scale genetic structuring. PMID:14629342

DeYoung, Randy W; Demarais, Stephen; Honeycutt, Rodney L; Rooney, Alejandro P; Gonzales, Robert A; Gee, Kenneth L

2003-12-01

226

Evaluating the effect of predators on white-tailed deer: Movement and diet of coyotes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coyotes (Canis latrans) may affect adult and neonate white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) survival and have been implicated as a contributor to the decline of deer populations. Additionally, coyote diet composition is influenced by prey availability, season, and region. Because coyote movement and diet vary by region, local data are important to understand coyote population dynamics and their impact on prey species. In southeast Minnesota, we investigated the effect of coyotes on white-tailed deer populations by documenting movement rates, distances moved, and habitats searched by coyotes during fawning and non-fawning periods. Additionally, we determined survival, cause-specific mortality, and seasonal diet composition of coyotes. From 2001 to 2003, we captured and radiocollared 30 coyotes. Per-hour rate of movement averaged 0.87 km and was greater (P = 0.046) during the fawning (1.07 km) than the nonfawning period (0.80 km); areas searched were similar (P = 0.175) between seasons. Coyote habitat use differed during both seasons; habitats were not used in proportion to their availability (P < 0.001). Croplands were used more (P < 0.001) than their proportional availability during both seasons. Use of grasslands was greater during the fawning period (P = 0.030), whereas use of cropland was greater in the nonfawning period (P < 0.001). We collected 66 fecal samples during the nonfawning period; coyote diets were primarily composed of Microtus spp. (65.2%), and consumption of deer was 9.1%. During the study, 19 coyotes died; annual survival rate range was 0.33-0.41, which was low compared with other studies. Consumption of deer was low and coyotes searched open areas (i.e., cropland) more than fawning areas with dense cover. These factors in addition to high coyote mortality suggested that coyote predation was not likely limiting white-tailed deer populations in southeast Minnesota. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

Turner, M.M.; Rockhill, A.P.; Deperno, C.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.; Jarding, A.R.; Grovenburg, T.W.; Pollock, K.H.

2011-01-01

227

Comparing protein and energy status of winter-fed white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although nutritional status in response to controlled feeding trials has been extensively studied in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), there remains a considerable gap in understanding the influence of variable supplemental feeding protocols on free-ranging deer. Consequently, across the northern portion of the white-tailed deer range, numerous property managers are investing substantial resources into winter supplemental-feeding programs without adequate tools to assess the nutritional status of their populations. We studied the influence of a supplemental winter feeding gradient on the protein and energy status of free-ranging white-tailed deer in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. We collected blood and fecal samples from 31 captured fawns across 3 sites that varied considerably in the frequency, quantity, and method of supplemental feed distribution. To facilitate population-wide comparisons, we collected fresh fecal samples off the snow at each of the 3 sites with supplemental feeding and 1 reference site where no feeding occurred. Results indicated that the method of feed distribution, in addition to quantity and frequency, can affect the nutritional status of deer. The least intensively fed population showed considerable overlap in diet quality with the unfed population in a principal components ordination, despite the substantial time and financial resources invested in the feeding program. Data from fecal samples generally denoted a gradient in diet quality and digestibility that corresponded with the availability of supplements. Our results further demonstrated that fecal nitrogen and fecal fiber, indices of dietary protein and digestibility, can be estimated using regressions of fecal pellet mass, enabling a rapid qualitative assessment of diet quality.

Page, B.D.; Underwood, H.B.

2006-01-01

228

Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.

1985-01-01

229

Notes and Discussion: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.

2000-01-01

230

Heavy metals in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.

1985-01-01

231

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.

2000-01-01

232

Twenty-year Home-range Dynamics of a White-tailed Deer Matriline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted five newly online resources at the Center's homepage. These scientific articles were originally published in print journals, but are fully (and freely) available here, complete with figures. The second resource, by Michael E. Nelson and L. David Mech, was published in 1999 in Canadian Journal of Zoology [77:1128-1135]. The paper examines home-range dynamics and seasonal migration of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) matriline. All papers may be downloaded as .zip files.

233

Experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.  

PubMed

Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with contagious ecthyma. The limited clinical responses to the virus indicated that contagious ecthyma would not seriously impact free-ranging individuals. PMID:6685778

Lance, W R; Hibler, C P; DeMartini, J

1983-07-01

234

A plague epizootic in the white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) of Meeteetse, Wyoming.  

PubMed

Surveillance for sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted near Meeteetse, Wyoming (USA) from 24 May to 14 June 1985. Ten species of fleas were collected from white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus), and from their burrows and associated rodents. Five of these flea species and two adult prairie dogs were positive for plague. The progression of this plague epizootic appeared to be slower and the intensity was less than in previous epizootics in other prairie dog colonies. The plague epizootic occurred within the only known colony of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) and was a potential threat to the food source of this endangered species. PMID:3411698

Ubico, S R; Maupin, G O; Fagerstone, K A; McLean, R G

1988-07-01

235

Molecular detection of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from Tom Green County in central Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serologic and molecular evidence suggest that white-tailed deer in South Texas and North Mexico carry the agents of bovine babesiosis, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. To determine if white-tailed deer in central Texas, which is outside the known occurrence of the vector tick at this time, harbor these parasites, blood samples from free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in

Patricia J. Holman; Juliette E. Carroll; Roberta Pugh; Donald S. Davis

2011-01-01

236

Control of Ticks on White-tailed Deer and Other Ungulate Wildlife - Host-targeted Control of Field Populations of Blacklegged and Lone Star Ticks to Reduce the Risk of Tick-borne Disease Transmission  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the continuing progression of blacklegged ticks and the agents causing Lyme disease from infestations in Maryland southward into Virginia, many citizens living in northern Virginia have asked the Governor for ARS-Patented ‘4-Poster’ Deer Treatment Stations to be deployed as an aid in reducing t...

237

WILDLIFE DISEASES SURVEILLANCE TO DETECT CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN  

E-print Network

of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer wasting disease, disease surveillance, Odocoileus virginianus, white- tailed deer, Wisconsin. INTRODUCTION), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus) associated with the presence

Mladenoff, David

238

Daily movements of female white-tailed deer relative to parturition and breeding.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: To assess how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd demographics influence reproductive behaviors, we examined 24-h diel movements of female whitetailed deer relative to parturition and breeding in a low-density population with a near even sex ratio at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. We conducted a series of intensive, 24-h radio-tracking periods of 13 females during spring and fall 2002. We compared daily range (ha), rate of travel (m/h), and distance between extreme daily locations (m), among the periods of pre-parturition and post-parturition and pre-, peak-, and post-rut. From pre-parturition to post-parturition, we observed decreases in diel range size (�¢����38.2%), distance between extreme diel locations (�¢����17.0%), and diel rate of travel (�¢����18.2%). Diel range size, distance between extreme diel locations, and diel rate of travel during the pre-rut and rut exceeded those observed during post-rut. We further identified substantial increases in mobility during 12 24-h diel periods for eight females during our fall monitoring. Our data suggest that female white-tailed deer reduce mobility post-fawning following exaggerated movements during pre-parturition. Furthermore, despite a near equal sex ratio, estrous does may be required to actively seek potential mates due to low population density.

Gino J. D'Angelo; Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Cory D. Drennan; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller

2005-10-01

239

Hydrology of the White Tail Butte area, northern Campbell County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantity of runoff and peak discharge from one small basin in the White Tail Butte area, determined from a calibrated rainfall-runoff model, is less than the quantity computed using results of a regional study. The difference is caused by the extensive beds of exposed, permeable clinker in the area. Potentiometric surfaces in the White Tail Butte area indicate that, regionally, it is a discharge area. This is consistent with the conceptual model developed elsewhere in Campbell County , Wyo. The chemical quality of water from springs and alluvium, however, is characteristic of water found in recharge areas, so movement of water in the regional system is apparently small compared to local recharge. If surface coal mining occurs in the area, the principal adverse impact to the groundwater system would be the destruction of springs and seeps in the mined area. These could be restored with special reclamation procedures. There are adequate quantities of water of suitable quality for stock or domestic use below the coal so postreclamation supplies could be obtained. Impacts of surface mining on runoff could not be evaluated, but sensitivity of runoff to infiltration indicates a 10% change in runoff for a 1% change in infiltration. (USGS)

Lowry, M.E.; Rankl, J.G.

1987-01-01

240

Evidence for neandertal jewelry: modified white-tailed eagle claws at krapina.  

PubMed

We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla) talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian. PMID:25760648

Radov?i?, Davorka; Sršen, Ankica Oros; Radov?i?, Jakov; Frayer, David W

2015-01-01

241

Factors influencing reproduction of female white-tailed deer on the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Data were taken on 1103 pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina from 1965--1985 to describe temporal, age-specific, and habitat effects on fetal number. Time periods represented intervals of high and low density. Age significantly affected fetal number both with and without the data from fawns included. Low fetal numbers in yearlings and a high incidence of twinning in older deer were responsible for this effect. Mean number of fetuses per pregnant doe for the 0.5 year old deer (/bar X/ = 1.06) was less than for 1.5 (/bar X/ = 1.56), 2.5 (/bar X/ = 1.73), and greater than or equal to3.5 (/bar X/ = 1.76) year age classes. Temporal and age-specific effects on fetal number among time periods were significant using data from all age classes. These effects were probably not due to density-dependent feedback mechanisms, but to a sampling bias due to differential representation of age classes or habitat of origin in the statistical analyses. Significant differences were observed in fetal numbers between females from the swamp and upland areas both with and without fawn data. Differences between the densities and/or habitat quality in the 2 areas were responsible for this effect. Data were gathered on 2542 female white-tailed deer harvested on the SRP from 1967 to 1985. 48 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Rhodes, O.E. Jr.

1987-05-01

242

Aggressive defensive behavior by free-ranging white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Maternal investment plays a critical role in neonate survival, and adults can improve survival of offspring by defending them against predators. However, limited information exists documenting ungulate aggression toward humans in defense of neonates. During captures of neonates in spring 2007 and 2008 in north-central South Dakota, we documented 24 aggressive encounters by adult female and yearling male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45.8%) aggressive encounters included yearlings accompanying adult females. Mean ages and weights of neonates that were aggressively defended were greater (P < 0.0001) than ages and weights of those that were not; adults began protecting neonates at approximately 4 days of age. Male fawns were more likely (P = 0.013) to be defended than female fawns. Examination of our data suggests that sex- and age-biased maternal defensive behavior exists in white-tailed deer, and that deer biased maternal investment toward older, male neonates. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

Grovenburg, T.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Swanson, C.C.

2009-01-01

243

Evidence for Neandertal Jewelry: Modified White-Tailed Eagle Claws at Krapina  

PubMed Central

We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla) talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian. PMID:25760648

2015-01-01

244

Nutritional restriction and acid-base balance in white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effect of progressive nutritional restriction on acid-base balance in seven captive, adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 4 February to 5 May 1988 in north central Minnesota (USA). Metabolic acidosis was indicated by low mean blood pH (7.25 to 7.33) in deer throughout the study. Mean urinary pH values declined (P = 0.020) from a mean (+SE) baseline of 8.3 +0.1 to 6.7 + 0.3 as restriction progressed. Acidemia and aciduria were associated with significant variations in mean blood CO2 (P = 0.006) and pO2 (P = 0.032), serum potassium (P = 0.004) concentrations, and with a significant (P = 0.104) handling date times group interaction in urinary potassium:creatinine values. Mean bicarbonate:carbonic acid ratios were consistently below 20:1 during nutritional restriction. Mean packed cell volume increased (P = 0.019) and serum total protein decreased (P = 0.001); thus there was evidence for progressive dehydration and net protein catabolism, respectively. Blood pCO2, serum sodium, and urinary sodium:creatinine were stable throughout the study. We propose that acidosis and aciduria are metabolic complications associated with nutritional restriction of white-tailed deer.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

1994-01-01

245

SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY IN FREE-RANGING MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HE\\/Id\\/ONUS), WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSON\\/) IN NORTHCENTRAL COLORADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between March 1981 and June 1995, a neurological disease characterized histolog- ically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral Colorado (USA). Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and ac- counted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six Rocky Mountain elk (Cerous eluphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus oirginianus) were also

T. R. Spraker; M. W. Miller; E. S. Williams; D. M. Getzy; W. J. Adrian; G. G. Schoonveld; R. A. Spowart; K. I. O'Rourke; J. M. Miller; P. A. Merz

246

Effects of a short duration grazing system on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Rio Grande Plain, Texas  

E-print Network

of the requirement for the degree of YASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1980 Major Subject: Pange Science EFFECTS OF' A SHORT DURATION GRAZING SYSTEM ON WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN THE RIO GRANDE PLAIN, TEXAS A Thesis by KEVIN LEIGH ALLRED Approved...EF'FECTS OF A SHCRT DURATION GRAZING SYSIKN ON WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VZRGINIANUS) ZN THE RIO GRANDE PLAIN, TEXAS A Thesis by VIN LEIGH ALLRED Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AdH University in partial fulfillment...

Allred, Kevin Leigh

1980-01-01

247

The use of fecal nitrogen as an indicator of dietary protein content in white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

THE USE 01' FEC. " L NITROGEN AS AN 1NDICATOR OF DIETARy PROTEIN CONTENT IN WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis PE UL EUGENE NASCORRO Submitted to the Grarluate College of Texas A6, N University . n partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1982 Na jor Subject: Nildlife and Fisheries Sciences THE USE OF FECAL NITROGEN AS AN INDICATOR OF DIETARY PROTEIN CONTENT IN WHITE-TAILED DEER Thesis by PAUL EUGENE MASCORRO Approved as to style and content by: '(Chairman...

Mascorro, Paul Eugene

1982-01-01

248

Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in white tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from Iowa and Minnesota using four serologic tests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoir of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in the US. Sera from white-tailed deer from Minnesota and Iowa were tested for antibodies to N. caninum by four serologic tests including the indi...

249

Muscleworms, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), discovered in Columbia white-tailed deer from Oregon and Washington: Implications for biogeography and host associations.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host and geographic distribution for Parelaphostrongylus andersoni, considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer, remain poorly defined particularly in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from the northern population of Columbia white-tailed deer (Odocoi...

250

Preliminary findings of a molecular survey for the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle fever ticks and white-tailed deer from south Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White-tailed deer are an alternative host for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, collectively referred to as cattle fever ticks. Dense white-tailed deer populations in south Texas complicate efforts by the National Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program to keep the U.S. free o...

251

Prevalence of antibody titers to leptospira spp. in Minnesota white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Serum samples (n = 204) from 124 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota (USA) were collected from 1984 through 1989 and tested for antibodies to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohemorrhagiae, and pomona) using a microtiter agglutination test. Eighty-eight (43%) sera were positive at greater than or equal to 1:100 for antibodies against serovars pomona and/or bratislava; none was positive for any of the other four serovars. None of the 31 sera collected in 1984-85 was positive, whereas all 54 sera collected from 1986 through 1988 had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. During 1989, only 34 (29%) of 119 sera had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. Based on these results, we believe there to be wide variability in exposure of Minnesota deer to Leptospira interrogans.

Goyal, S.M.; Mech, L.D.; Nelson, M.E.

1992-01-01

252

Efficacy of clorsulon and albendazole against Fascioloides magna in naturally infected white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

The efficacy of clorsulon and of albendazole against Fascioloides magna were evaluated in 36 naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in southern Texas. A single oral dose of clorsulon suspension (12 to 30 mg/kg of body weight; mean = 24 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 153 (92%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (80%) of 5 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. A single oral dose of albendazole paste (17 to 46 mg/kg; mean = 26 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 148 (89%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (67%) of 6 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. In 82 nontreated control deer, 271 live flukes were recovered; dead flukes were not recovered. PMID:4077630

Foreyt, W J; Drawe, D L

1985-12-01

253

Aerial tracking of radio-marked white-tailed tropicbirds over the Caribbean Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We radio-marked nesting white-tailed tropicbirds at Culebra National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico, and tracked them from a Cessna 182 during flights over the open sea. Locations of the birds were determined using standard aerial telemetry techniques for side-facing Yagi antennas. We used strut-mounted, 4-element Yagi antennas connected to a switchbox and scanning receiver. By recording bearing and distance from at least 1 of 3 aeronautical navigation beacons, the position of the aircraft and the bird could be estimated with an error of about 2 km. On several occasions we plotted the general heading of a bird and then relocated and tracked the same bird on the following day. Our method of aerial tracking and navigation was useful for tracking birds over the sea to at least 116 km from the breeding colony

Fuller, M.R.; Obrecht, H.H., III; Pennycuick, C.J.; Schaffner, F.C.

1989-01-01

254

Effects of winter fasting and refeeding on white-tailed deer blood profiles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examined the effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on blood characteristics of 9 nonpregnant, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in captivity from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Percent weight loss was greater in fasted deer than in deer fed diets of 2 crude protein levels. Fasting effects were also observed for hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), cholesterol, triglycerides, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), potassium (K), glucose, phosphorus (P), insulin, thyroxine (T4), and total protein (TP). Refeeding influenced cholesterol, sodium (Na), and calcium (Ca). Hemoglobin, PCV, Ca, P, and albumin varied with time in fasted deer. Changes over time in the fed deer occurred for several hematological and serum characteristics. Data are presented to serve as reference values for better understanding of data collected from free-ranging deer under less known conditions.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

1987-01-01

255

Antleroma in a free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

A 2-year-old male free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was diagnosed with bilateral expansile tumors of antler origin. The deer was found dead by a landowner in High Springs, Florida. Two roughly spherical, multilobular, broad-based, bony, velvet-covered masses originated from each antler pedicle. These masses replaced or displaced many of the bones and soft tissues of the skull and extended through the left cribriform plate and the right petrous temporal bone, compressing portions of the brain. Microscopically, the masses closely resembled normal-growing antler, containing all the elements thereof but with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage suggestive of ischemi or trauma. Tumorlike outgrowths termed antleromas have been described in free-ranging and captive cervids and typically are associated with disruptions in the seasonal rise and fall of circulating testosterone necessary for normal antler growth, casting, and regeneration. PMID:24686388

Munk, B A; Garrison, E; Clemons, B; Keel, M Kevin

2015-01-01

256

Foraging flights of the white-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus): Radiotracking and doubly-labelled water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radiotracking transmitters were fitted to White-tailed Tropicbirds nesting at Culebra, Puerto Rico. Foragers were located by light aircraft out to 89 km SSW of the nesting colony, over a deep-water foraging area south of Vieques Island, Puerto Rico and west of St Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands. Two birds were followed out to 176 km NNW from the colony, over the Puerto Rico Trench, but these did not subsequently return. Foragers carrying radio transmitters performed similarly to those without, in terms of duration of absence from the colony, and mass of food brought for the chick. However, measuremetns of energy consumption by the doubly labelled water method indicated that birds with transmitters consumed significantly more energy than those without.

Pennycuick, C.J.; Shaffner, F.C.; Fuller, M.R.; Obrecht, H.H., III; Sternberg, L.

1990-01-01

257

Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (n = 14 treated, n = 7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated in 1998, and 3 of 6 (50%) revaccinated in 2000. The 2000 revaccinates without oophoritis, had significantly fewer normal secondary follicles than control females (P = 0.03), and deer in the1998 treatment group (P = 0.04). PZP immunocontraceptive vaccine elicited ovarian pathologies in deer similar to those observed in other species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Curtis, P.D.; Richmond, M.E.; Miller, L.A.; Quimby, F.W.

2007-01-01

258

Natal dispersal and gene flow in white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I documented natal dispersal and gene flow in 79 yearling white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota during 1974-1988. Sixty-four percent (n = 28) of 44 males and 20?/0 (n = 7) of 35 females dispersed from their natal home ranges when 1.0-1.5-years old. Eighty-six percent and 95%, of all yearlings including nondispersers, dispersed 526 and 538 km, respectively. Minimum gene flow was estimated to be 40 deer per generation, based on a circular subpopulation defined by a 26-km radius. Gene flow estimated from allele frequencies for five polymorphic loci averaged 15 deer per generation among five subpopulations. These values of gene flow were concomitant with significant allele frequency heterogeneity at the subpopulation level.

Nelson, M.E.

1993-01-01

259

Infections of granulocytic ehrlichiae and Borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer in Connecticut.  

PubMed

Serum or whole blood samples, obtained from 141 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Connecticut (USA) during 1980, 1991, and 1996, were analyzed to detect past or current infections of Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup organisms and Borrelia burgdorferi. When the BDS or NCH-1 strains of granulocytic ehrlichiae were used separately in indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) staining methods, antibody positivity rates varied from 25 to 64% in 1991 and 1996, respectively. All 50 sera tested from 1980 collections were negative. Although percentages of sera with B. burgdorferi antibodies, as detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, also differed (23 to 53%), there were coexisting antibodies to both bacteria in 20 (49%) of 41 sera. In tests on specificity, 19 deer sera with ehrlichial antibodies also were tested by IFA staining procedures for Anaplasma marginale antibodies; one serum with a titer of 1:5,120 to ehrlichial antigen reacted to A. marginale antigen at a serum dilution of 1:320. In parallel analyses of 69 sera, results of Western blot analyses for ehrlichial infections in deer were concordant (72% agreement) with those of IFA staining methods containing ehrlichial antigen. All positive immunoblots showed bands to peptides of the NCH-1 strain of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent having molecular masses of about 44, 105, or 110 kDa. In polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies of blood samples from 63 deer, 11 (18%) specimens were positive for 16S ribosomal DNA of an Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup organism, whereas 23 (37%) samples were positive for the DNA of the 44 kDa gene of the HGE agent. White-tailed deer are exposed to different tick-borne bacteria in areas where Ixodes scapularis ticks are abundant and may, in some instances, have had concurrent infections. PMID:10231753

Magnarelli, L A; Ijdo, J W; Stafford, K C; Fikrig, E

1999-04-01

260

Evaluation of an expandable, breakaway radiocollar for white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated an expandable, breakaway VHF radiocollar design for use on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from birth to about 1 year of age. A similar collar design has been used on caribou (Rangifer tarandus), but we found that the collar did not expand quickly enough to accommodate increase in neck circumference of fawns during the first 2 months of life. Consequently, we modified the stitching pattern so that the first expansion fold opened faster. We monitored performance of this modification on free-ranging and captive fawns. Also, we collected data on neck growth in fawns to document design requirements of expandable collars for white-tailed deer. Mean neck circumference at ???14 days of age of free-ranging fawns in Pennsylvania was 17.8 cm (SD=1.67, n=62) for males and 17.3 cm (SD=1.50, n=52) for females. Based on measurements of captive fawns, neck circumference increased 8.8 cm from birth to August, 2.5 cm from August to October, and 2.6 cm from October to March. Observations of captive fawns fitted with dummy radiocollars indicated that collars expanded when needed and caused no apparent discomfort to fawns. We detected no problems with use of 86 collars on 113 free-ranging fawns for >270 days and recovered radiocollars expanded as designed. The elastic collar material failed on 3 collars (3%) after 142, 207, and 226 days on fawns, and 1-5 radiocollars (???4%) were cast by fawns. Our modification to this radiocollar design reduced fawn discomfort or suffering, allowing researchers to better comply with principles of the Animal Welfare Act.

Diefenbach, D.R.; Kochanny, C.O.; Vreeland, J.K.; Wallingford, B.D.

2003-01-01

261

The Effects of Population Density on Juvenile Growth Rate in White-Tailed Deer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer growth and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of growth rate to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates growth rate only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in growth rate over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in growth rate. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in growth rate that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal growth and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn.

Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve

2014-10-01

262

The effects of population density on juvenile growth rate in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer growth and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of growth rate to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates growth rate only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in growth rate over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in growth rate. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in growth rate that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal growth and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn. PMID:25148782

Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve

2014-10-01

263

Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.  

PubMed

Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P

Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

2008-04-01

264

Predation of artificial ground nests on white-tailed prairie dog colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies are unique to prairie and shrub-steppe landscapes. However, widespread eradication, habitat loss, and sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) have reduced their numbers by 98% since historical times. Birds associated with prairie dogs also are declining. Potential nest predators, such as coyotes (Canis latrans), swift foxes (Vulpes velox), and badgers (Taxidea taxus), may be attracted to colonies where a high concentration of prairie dogs serve as available prey. Increased abundance of small mammals, including prairie dogs, also may increase the risk of predation for birds nesting on colonies. Finally, because grazing by prairie dogs may decrease vegetation height and canopy cover, bird nests may be easier for predators to locate. In this study, we placed 1,444 artificial ground nests on and off 74 white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) colonies to test the hypothesis that nest predation rates are higher on colonies than at nearby off sites (i.e., uncolonized habitat). We sampled colonies from 27 May to 16 July 1997 at the following 3 complexes: Coyote Basin, Utah and Colorado; Moxa Arch, Wyoming; and Shirley Basin, Wyoming. Differences in daily predation rates between colonies and paired off sites averaged 1.0% (P = 0.060). When converted to a typical 14-day incubation period, predation rates averaged 14% higher on colonies (57.7 ?? 2.7%; ?? ?? SE) than at off sites (50.4 ?? 3.1%). Comparisons of habitat variables on colonies to off sites showed percent canopy cover of vegetation was similar (P = 0.114), percent bare ground was higher on colonies (P 0.288). Although we found the risk of nest predation was higher on white-tailed prairie dog colonies than at off sites, fitness of birds nesting on colonies might depend on other factors that influence foraging success, reproductive success, or nestling survival.

Baker, B.W.; Stanley, T.R.; Sedgwick, J.A.

1999-01-01

265

Humoral immune responses of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination and experimental challenge with M. bovis.  

PubMed

Monitoring of the kinetics of production of serum antibodies to multiple mycobacterial antigens can be useful as a diagnostic tool for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection as well as for the characterization of disease progression and the efficacy of intervention strategies in several species. The humoral immune responses to multiple M. bovis antigens by white-tailed deer vaccinated with BCG orally via a lipid-formulated bait (n=5), orally in liquid form (n=5), and subcutaneously (n=6) were evaluated over time after vaccination and after experimental challenge with virulent M. bovis and were compared to the responses by unvaccinated deer (n=6). Antibody responses were evaluated by using a rapid test (RT), a multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), a lipoarabinomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LAM-ELISA), and immunoblotting to whole-cell sonicate and recombinant antigen MPB83. MAPIA and RT detected minimal to no antibody responses over those at the baseline to multiple M. bovis antigens in vaccinated white-tailed deer after challenge. This was in contrast to the presence of more readily detectable antibody responses in nonvaccinated deer with more advanced disease. The LAM-ELISA results indicated an overall decrease in the level of production of detectable antibodies against lipoarabinomannan-enriched mycobacterial antigen in vaccinated animals compared to that in nonvaccinated animals after challenge. Immunoblot data were inconsistent but did suggest the occurrence of unique antibody responses by certain vaccinated groups to Ag85 and HSP70. These findings support further research toward the improvement and potential use of antibody-based assays, such as MAPIA, RT, and LAM-ELISA, as tools for the antemortem assessment of disease progression in white-tailed deer in both experimental and field vaccine trials. PMID:19129468

Nol, P; Lyashchenko, K P; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Waters, W R; Palmer, M V; Nonnecke, B J; Keefe, T J; Thacker, T C; Rhyan, J C; Aldwell, F E; Salman, M D

2009-03-01

266

EFFECT OF PINEALECTOMY ON SEASONAL ANDROGEN TITERS, ANTLER GROWTH AND FEED INTAKE IN WHITE-TAILED DEER 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A 1-year experiment was conducted to determine the role of the pineal gland in the seasonal sexual, antler development and feeding patterns of deer. Three mature male white- tailed deer were pinealectomized. These animals along with four normal bucks were housed in individual outdoor pens. Blood samples were drawn bi-weekly and analyzed for calcium and phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and

R. D. Brown; R. L. Cowan; J. F. Kavanaugh

2010-01-01

267

Short-term Care of White-tailed Deer Fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) in a Conventional Laboratory Animal Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory animal medicine professionals are often required to develop husbandry practices for species not com- monly considered for use as laboratory animals. Although protocols exist for management of captive white-tailed deer in an outdoor facility, it was necessary to modify those procedures to house fawns in an indoor facility. Four abandoned fawns were acquired through a cooperative effort with the

LON V. KENDALL; MARY J. KENNETT; RICHARD E. FISH

1998-01-01

268

THE IMPACT OF TRANSLOCATION AND RESTOCKING PROGRAMS ON THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN MISSISSIPPI.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The majority of wildlife population genetics studies have focused on model species representing threatened or endangered populations. However, there are several species that exemplify remarkable "success stories" due to past conservation efforts, but have received little attention. White-tailed de...

269

Genome-Wide Polymorphism and Comparative Analyses in the White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Model for Conservation Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) represents one of the most successful and widely distributed large mammal species within North America, yet very little nucleotide sequence information is available. We utilized massively parallel pyrosequencing of a reduced representation library (RRL) and a random shotgun library (RSL) to generate a complete mitochondrial genome sequence and identify a large number of putative single

Christopher M. Seabury; Eric K. Bhattarai; Jeremy F. Taylor; Ganesh G. Viswanathan; Susan M. Cooper; Donald S. Davis; Scot E. Dowd; Mitch L. Lockwood; Paul M. Seabury; Rudy A. Hartskeerl

2011-01-01

270

White-tailed Deer Browsing and Rubbing Preferences for Trees and Shrubs That Produce Nontimber Forest Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nontimber forest products (food, herbal medicinals, and woody floral and handicraft products) produced in forest, agroforestry, and horticultural systems can be important sources of income to landowners. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can reduce the quality, quantity, and profitability of forest products by browsing twigs and rubbing stems, resulting in direct and indirect losses to production enterprises. We evaluated deer damage

Scott E. Hygnstrom; Peter D. Skelton; Scott J. Josiah; Jason M. Gilsdorf; Dallas R. Virchow; James A. Brandle; Anil K. Jayaprakash; Kent M. Eskridge; Kurt C. VerCauteren

2009-01-01

271

THE LIVER FLUKE METORCHIS BILIS - A NEW THREAT FOR THE WHITE-TAILED SEA EAGLE (HALIAEETUS ALBICILLA) IN MIDDLE EUROPE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extendet abstract: The white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) an endangered species in Germany suffers a lot of threats in the highly civilised landscape. Amongst the main causes of death such as traumata due to interference with human structures, i.e. collisions with trains, wire, electrocution, and poisoning, parasites do also play an important role in the health status of these birds

O. KRONE; R. SCHUSTER

272

Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla collected in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners including highly toxic non-, mono-, and di-ortho coplanar members as well as their pattern were determined in breast muscles of white-tailed sea eagles collected dead between 1982 and 1990 in Poland. There was a wide variation in total PCB residue concentrations among eagles from various breeding sites, with the Baltic Sea coast registering

J. Falandysz; N. Yamashita; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; L. Rucifiska; T. Mizera; B. Jakuczun

1994-01-01

273

Serum 25-Hydroxvitamin D Concentrations in Captive and Free-Ranging, White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ABSTRACT: Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined for free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus). Effects of gender, season, and age on 25(OH)D concentrations were determined as well as comparisons to concentrations in serum from captive re...

274

Forest regeneration and the influences of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) in cool temperate New Zealand rain forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cool temperate rain forests on Stewart Island, southern New Zealand, have had little direct human modification, but introduced white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have influenced forest understoreys. Changes in life stages (seedlings, saplings and adult trees) of common tree and shrub species were recorded over at least 18 years in permanent plots in these forests. Faecal pellet indices of deer frequency

P. J Bellingham; C. N Allan

2003-01-01

275

Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.  

PubMed

Sera collected from 299 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested in New York State by hunters in November 2010 were assayed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. White-tailed deer are a useful sentinel for risk of human and domestic animal exposure to Toxoplasma oocysts and pose a potential risk for infection to humans and other animals by ingestion of the meat. White-tailed deer share grazing space with domestic animals raised for meat and are likely to be exposed by horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption, similar to other grazing species of economic concern. Overall, 42.2% of samples were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating a true prevalence of 38.5%, with a significantly higher proportion of adult than immature deer antibody positive. No significant difference in prevalence was found between male and female deer nor was there a significant effect of local human population density on deer antibody prevalence. These results provide insight into the risk of environmental Toxoplasma exposure in New York State and support horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption as the most common mechanism of white-tailed deer infection. PMID:24502721

Schaefer, John J; Kirchgessner, Megan S; Whipps, Christopher M; Mohammed, Hussni O; Bunting, Elizabeth M; Wade, Susan E

2013-10-01

276

Occurrence, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White tailed deer (WTD) is an important reservoir host for Toxoplasma gondii. Each yr hundreds of thousands WTD are hunted or die in road accidents in the U.S.A. Humans and animals can become infected with T. gondii by eating infected venison. Wild felids that eat infected deer tissues can shed oocy...

277

Correlation of Cytokine Gene Expression with Pathology in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer (WTD) in northeast Michigan are a reservoir of mycobacteria that pose a threat to both domestic animals and humans. Relatively little work has been done to characterize the immune response of WTD to M. bovis infection; however, an understanding of the immune response to infection and pathogenesis may be critical to the development of an effective

Tyler C. Thacker; Mitchell V. Palmer; W. Ray Waters

2006-01-01

278

Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

Nelson, Michael E.

2011-01-01

279

SEROCONVERSION RATES TO JAMESTOWN CANYON VIRUS AMONG SIX POPULATIONS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN INDIANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual seroconversion of fawns, yearlings, and adult white-tailed deer (Odocoi- leus virginianus) to Jamestown Canyon virus (California group) was followed at six Indiana sites from 1981 through 1984. In all, sera from 1,642 deer (515 fawns, 618 yearlings, and 509 adults) were tested for neutralizing antibody to three California serogroup viruses: Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, and trivittatus. Virtually all

Robert D. Boromisa; Paul R. Grimstad

280

Total and methylmercury in soft tissues of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) collected in Poland.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) contamination in piscivorous birds, especially methylmercury (MeHg), has been drawing much attention worldwide in regard to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. In this study on Hg in the soft tissues of white-tailed eagles (n = 22) and ospreys (n = 2) from Poland, total Hg (THg) range was 0.15-47.6 while MeHg range was 0.11-8.05 mg kg?¹ dry weight. In both species, median THg and MeHg concentrations were lower in the muscle and brain than in the liver and kidney. Median nephric residues were just under 3 and 5 mgTHg kg?¹ or 0.9 and 3.7 mgMeHg kg?¹ for white-tailed eagle and osprey, respectively. In Norwegian data from the 1970s and in our results, MeHg in the muscle of white-tailed eagle was ~60 % THg (%MeHg = MeHg/THg × 100), lower than in other piscivorous birds. A clear similarity in THg tissue levels was found between Polish and German populations of white-tailed eagles. PMID:24870933

Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Gorecki, Jerzy; Lanocha, Natalia; Okonska, Anna; Melgarejo, Javier B; Budis, Halina; Rzad, Izabella; Golas, Jerzy

2014-11-01

281

Oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccina...

282

Testing a molasses-based bait for oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against Mycobacterium bovis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA are wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) with documented spread to cattle. In vaccine efficacy trials, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) administered orally reduces colonization and bTB-associated lesions in whi...

283

Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and

Christopher Shannon Deperno

1998-01-01

284

Evaluation of Blood Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium Bovis in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) in Michigan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surveillance and control activities for bovine tuberculosis (TB) in free-ranging Michigan white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been underway for over a decade, with significant progress. However, foci of higher TB prevalence on private land, and limited agency ability to eliminate them ...

285

Browse Preference and Browsing Intensity of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Allegheny High Plateau Riparian Forests, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and

Eric V. Mosbacher; Charles Williams

2009-01-01

286

Investigations on the aetiology of pinching off syndrome in four white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the aetiology of the pinching off syndrome (POS), a generalized feather abnormality affecting free-living nestling of the white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Europe. For the first time, extensive clinical, haematological, biochemical, virological, bacteriological, nutritional, histopathological, parasitological and electron microscopical examinations were performed on three females and one male suffering from POS.

Kerstin Müller; Elvira Schettler; Helga Gerlach; Leo Brunnberg; Hafez Mohamed Hafez; Kim Hattermann; Reimar Johne; Rainer Kollmann; Oliver Krone; Michael Lierz; Sonja Linke; Dörte Lueschow; Annette Mankertz; Hermann Müller; Christina Prusas; Rüdiger Raue; Dirk Soike; Stephanie Speck; Petra Wolf; Kai Frölich

2007-01-01

287

Nesting of the black stork ( Ciconia nigra) and white-tailed eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla) in relation to forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1957, 200m zones around known nests of the black stork (Ciconia nigra) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) have been strictly protected in Estonia. Yet, the black stork population has recently suffered a large decline, which coincides with the intensification of forestry. To check whether higher disturbance levels could have caused the decline, we related the extent of forestry operations

Raul Rosenvald; Asko Lõhmus

2003-01-01

288

SURVIVAL OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS ON FEEDSTUFFS COMMONLY USED AS SUPPLEMENTAL FEED FOR WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has become established in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan. Although, it is generally accepted that deer were originally infected with M. bovis through contact with cattle, deer to deer and deer to catt...

289

Sensitive detection of PrPCWD in rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue from preclinical white-tailed deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in four white-tailed deer test populations: from Wisconsin, a sample of free-ranging deer and a captive herd; and from Saskatchewan, Canada, two captive herds. Th...

290

Clostridium piliforme infection in two farm-raised white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) and association with copper toxicosis.  

PubMed

Necropsy of 2 white-tailed deer fawns who died acutely revealed diarrhea and melena in case No. 1 and no gross changes in case No. 2. Histologically, the livers of both deer displayed multifocal coagulative necrosis, with infiltrations of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. By Warthin-Starry staining, bundles of filamentous bacteria were identified within hepatocytes at the periphery of the necrotic foci in case No. 1. There was multifocal myocardiocyte necrosis in case No. 1 and multifocal lymphoid necrosis of the Peyer's patches in case No. 2. Clostridium piliforme 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene was detected in both livers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with C. piliforme-specific primers. The liver copper levels in both cases were normal to slightly elevated. The kidney copper level in case No. 2 was elevated. This represents the first published cases of Tyzzer's disease in deer, a novel use of PCR for the diagnosis of C. piliforme infection, and a possible association between copper toxicosis and Tyzzer's disease. PMID:16966457

Brooks, J W; Whary, M T; Hattel, A L; Shaw, D P; Ge, Z; Fox, J G; Poppenga, R H

2006-09-01

291

White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  

PubMed Central

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P = 0.002), axial (P = 0.0003) and radial (P = 0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (P < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons), with a generally symmetric pattern of involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P = 0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean diffusivity, however, was apparent visibly on the quantitative attenuation coefficient maps compared to healthy control subjects. Neuropathological analysis showed diffuse astrocytic gliosis and activated microglia in the white matter, rare prion deposition and subtle subcortical microvacuolization, and patchy foci of demyelination with no evident white matter axonal degeneration. Decreased mean diffusivity on attenuation coefficient maps might be associated with astrocytic gliosis. We show for the first time significant global reduced mean diffusivity within the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, suggesting possible primary involvement of the white matter, rather than changes secondary to neuronal degeneration/loss. PMID:25367029

Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Hess, Christopher P.; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L.; Lobach, Irina V.; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D.; Henry, Roland G.

2014-01-01

292

White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.  

PubMed

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P=0.002), axial (P=0.0003) and radial (P=0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (P<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons), with a generally symmetric pattern of involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P=0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean diffusivity, however, was apparent visibly on the quantitative attenuation coefficient maps compared to healthy control subjects. Neuropathological analysis showed diffuse astrocytic gliosis and activated microglia in the white matter, rare prion deposition and subtle subcortical microvacuolization, and patchy foci of demyelination with no evident white matter axonal degeneration. Decreased mean diffusivity on attenuation coefficient maps might be associated with astrocytic gliosis. We show for the first time significant global reduced mean diffusivity within the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, suggesting possible primary involvement of the white matter, rather than changes secondary to neuronal degeneration/loss. PMID:25367029

Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

2014-12-01

293

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1980 status report  

SciTech Connect

Ninety-eight white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1980, an increase of twenty-five over 1979. Both spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. November and December were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road-kills was about 1.1 from January through October but shifted to a high male kill (4.8:1) during November and December, presumably the result of the rutting season. Reproductive data collected from does indicated that breeding occurred as early as October 20 and as late as December 21. Records kept on rutting condition in bucks indicated a breeding season from October through January; antlers were shed from January through April with the peak of shedding activity occurring in March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed a good general condition of the animals with only a few abnormalities or indications of sickness or disease. Abomasal parasite counts indicate that Reservation deer population has reached optimum density. Other parasites found include brainworms, body worms, and botfly larvae; papillomas were observed in two deer during 1980. Data from heart girth and weight measurements were presented and compared to similar data from elsewhere in the Southeastern United States.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1982-08-01

294

Plant Disease Lesson: Southern blight, Southern stem blight, White mold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on southern blight, Southern stem blight, white mold (caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (teleomorph: Athelia rolfsii)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Jackie Mullen (Auburn University; )

2001-01-04

295

Deep White Matter in Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

White matter (WM) abnormalities have already been shown in presymptomatic (Pre-HD) and symptomatic HD subjects using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In the present study, we examined the microstructure of the long-range large deep WM tracts by applying two different MRI approaches: Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) -based tractography, and T2*weighted (iron sensitive) imaging. We collected Pre-HD subjects (n?=?25), HD patients (n?=?25) and healthy control subjects (n?=?50). Results revealed increased axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) and iron levels in Pre-HD subjects compared to controls. Fractional anisotropy decreased between the Pre-HD and HD phase and AD/RD increased and although impairment was pervasive in HD, degeneration occurred in a pattern in Pre-HD. Furthermore, iron levels dropped for HD patients. As increased iron levels are associated with remyelination, the data suggests that Pre-HD subjects attempt to repair damaged deep WM years before symptoms occur but this process fails with disease progression. PMID:25340651

Phillips, Owen; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Elifani, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

2014-01-01

296

Mother knows best: functionally referential alarm calling in white-tailed ptarmigan.  

PubMed

Functionally referential alarm calls have stimulus specificity, distinct acoustic structure, and elicit different escape responses that are appropriate to the threat. The mechanisms by which escape responses are evoked are not fully understood and may range from eliciting innate responses to conveying representational information. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) are a long-lived alpine tundra grouse, which are preyed upon by aerial and terrestrial predators. We investigated the hypothesis that alarm calls of ptarmigan hens with chicks are functionally referential. We recorded hens' alarm calls in response to naturally occurring and model predators in California's Sierra Nevada alpine tundra for two summer seasons. We conducted playback experiments in the field to determine chick responses to alarm calls. Alarm calls commenced with an extended 'alerting' note followed by a series of staccato notes grouped into elements. Fundamental and dominant frequencies in element notes were significantly higher in terrestrial compared to aerial threat alarm calls. Playbacks of terrestrial threat alarm calls elicited an upright/alert position by chicks (75 % of responses). In response to aerial threat alarm call playbacks, chicks flattened to the ground and froze (80 % of responses). To our knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence of functionally referential alarm calling, including the responses of the receivers, in an avian species in the wild. PMID:24132414

Ausmus, Desa M; Clarke, Jennifer A

2014-05-01

297

Borrelia burgdorferi in an urban environment: white-tailed deer with infected ticks and antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Ticks and blood samples were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in forests located in an insular, urban area of Bridgeport, Conn., and in rural south central Connecticut during 1992 and 1993. Immature and adult Ixodes scapularis ticks were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining methods. Deer sera were analyzed for antibodies to this bacterium by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infected ticks parasitized deer in Bridgeport from May through December; the prevalence of infection varied from 1.1% of 93 larvae to 28.1% of 114 adult females. The percentages of infected males (10.5% of 380 ticks) and females (13.7% of 328 ticks) were relatively lower in south central Connecticut. In antibody tests, the prevalence of seropositive specimens collected in Bridgeport (61% of 146 serum specimens) was more than twofold greater than that of specimens obtained in south central Connecticut (26.7% of 116 serum specimens). Foci for Lyme borreliosis can occur in forested, urban settings as well as in rural areas if there are ticks, rodents, birds, and large mammals present. Human exposure to ticks in such sites should be considered as a possible source of B. burgdorferi infection. PMID:7751354

Magnarelli, L A; Denicola, A; Stafford, K C; Anderson, J F

1995-01-01

298

White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity.  

PubMed

Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H'), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H' and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059

Begley-Miller, Danielle R; Hipp, Andrew L; Brown, Bethany H; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P

2014-01-01

299

Characterization of Fusobacterium isolates from the respiratory tract of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

A total of 23 clinical isolates of Fusobacterium spp. were recovered at necropsy over a 2-year period from the respiratory tract of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Isolates were identified as Fusobacterium varium (18/23), Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme (3/23), and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum (2/23). Using polymerase chain reaction-based detection of virulence genes, all F. necrophorum isolates were positive for the promoter region of the leukotoxin operon and the hemagglutinin-related protein gene, while all F. varium isolates were negative. The presence of the leukotoxin gene in F. necrophorum isolates and the absence of this gene in F. varium isolates were confirmed by Southern hybridization using 2 separate probes. Toxicity to bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes was observed with all F. necrophorum isolates, but was not observed in any F. varium isolates. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was markedly different for F. varium as compared to F. necrophorum. In summary, no evidence of leukotoxin production was detected in any of the 23 F. varium isolates used in the current study. The data suggests that F. varium, the most common species isolated, may be a significant pathogen in deer with a different virulence mechanism than F. necrophorum. PMID:24590666

Brooks, Jason W; Kumar, Amit; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Myers, Suzanne; Brown, Kayla; Nagaraja, T G; Jayarao, Bhushan M

2014-03-01

300

White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity  

PubMed Central

Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H?), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H? and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059

Begley-Miller, Danielle R.; Hipp, Andrew L.; Brown, Bethany H.; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P.

2014-01-01

301

Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food habits of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an “island” habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer needles) was the predominant food type in all seasons except fall. Acorns and graminoids (grasses and sedges) were important food resources in fall and spring, respectively. Use of woody browse (twigs) was similar among seasons. Field use was relatively high during fall, winter without snow cover (<20 cm), and spring when food resources in fields were readily available. In contrast, use of fields was lowest in summer when preferred woodland foods were available and in winter with snow cover when food in fields was not readily accessible. Patterns of food-type use by deer at VFNHP indicate the year-round importance of nonwoody foods and field habitats to deer populations on public lands such as national parks in the northeastern United States.

Cypher, Brian L.; Yahner, Richard H.; Cypher, Ellen A.

1988-03-01

302

Response of urinary hydroxyproline to dietary protein and fasting in white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary hydroxyproline of nine captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from 23 February to 3 May 1984 in northern Minnesota. In the fasted group, mean hydroxyproline:creatinine (OHP:C) was greater (P less than 0.05) at week 4 compared to baseline at week 0. Between fasted deer and deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) and low protein-high energy (LPHE) diets, no difference in OHP:C ratios was detected during the initial 4 wk of the study. Urinary OHP:C ratios were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater in the fasted group during refeeding, concomitant with greater feed consumption and weight gain. There was also a significant (P less than 0.02) time effect in the fasted-refed group; OHP:C ratios increased during these two phases of the study. There was no difference between the HPHE and LPHE fed deer in renal OHP excretion. However, mean OHP:C ratios in yearlings (16.8 +/- 2.2) were greater (P less than 0.001) than in the adults (7.5 +/- 1.2) of those groups, indicating a higher collagen turnover rate. Urinary OHP:C shows potential as an indicator of growth and starvation, and the data presented may serve as reference values.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

1988-01-01

303

Evidence for competition between Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor albipictus feeding concurrently on white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Competition among ticks, and among ectoparasites generally, has rarely been demonstrated. Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor albipictus are both hard ticks commonly found feeding on deer harvested at Letterkenny Army Depot, in south central Pennsylvania, USA. The two species have contrasting life histories resulting in D. albipictus spending notably more time on the shared host. We hypothesized that this would give D. albipictus an advantage in locating and occupying optimal attachment sites (highly vascularized areas like the head and ears). Ticks were collected from 224 hunter-killed deer in December 2005 and November 2006 to determine if there is evidence of competition for attachment sites when these two species concurrently infest deer. A timed sample (3 min per region) of representative ticks was collected from the head (ears, face and neck regions) and body (axillae regions). Ixodes scapularis was more abundant and prevalent overall than D. albipictus. Dermacentor albipictus was found almost exclusively on the head, whereas I. scapularis was more evenly distributed, but somewhat more abundant on the body than on the head. The proportion of I. scapularis on the head was reduced at high D. albipictus abundances, but I. scapularis abundance did not alter the distribution of D. albipictus. This study supports the hypothesis of competition for preferred attachment sites between these two species of ticks, and suggests that D. albipictus may be competitively dominant over I. scapularis on the head region of concurrently infested white-tailed deer. PMID:22644381

Baer-Lehman, Marcie L; Light, Theo; Fuller, Nathan W; Barry-Landis, Katherine D; Kindlin, Craig M; Stewart, Richard L

2012-11-01

304

Genetic diversity and connectivity of white-tailed jackrabbit populations in Iowa with notes on seasonal home ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss and fragmentation of Iowa’s native prairies has had varied effects on different species as some move more easily through unsuitable habitat than others. Small mammals may be highly affected by isolation as they may not move easily among habitat patches. I studied white–tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) as a representative of Iowa’s grassland–adapted species to determine effects of habitat

Irma Irene Tapia

2010-01-01

305

Genome-wide polymorphism and comparative analyses in the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): a model for conservation genomics.  

PubMed

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) represents one of the most successful and widely distributed large mammal species within North America, yet very little nucleotide sequence information is available. We utilized massively parallel pyrosequencing of a reduced representation library (RRL) and a random shotgun library (RSL) to generate a complete mitochondrial genome sequence and identify a large number of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed throughout the white-tailed deer nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. A SNP validation study designed to test specific classes of putative SNPs provides evidence for as many as 10,476 genome-wide SNPs in the current dataset. Based on cytogenetic evidence for homology between cow (Bos taurus) and white-tailed deer chromosomes, we demonstrate that a divergent genome may be used for estimating the relative distribution and density of de novo sequence contigs as well as putative SNPs for species without draft genome assemblies. Our approach demonstrates that bioinformatic tools developed for model or agriculturally important species may be leveraged to support next-generation research programs for species of biological, ecological and evolutionary importance. We also provide a functional annotation analysis for the de novo sequence contigs assembled from white-tailed deer pyrosequencing reads, a mitochondrial phylogeny involving 13,722 nucleotide positions for 10 unique species of Cervidae, and a median joining haplotype network as a putative representation of mitochondrial evolution in O. virginianus. The results of this study are expected to provide a detailed template enabling genome-wide sequence-based studies of threatened, endangered or conservationally important non-model organisms. PMID:21283515

Seabury, Christopher M; Bhattarai, Eric K; Taylor, Jeremy F; Viswanathan, Ganesh G; Cooper, Susan M; Davis, Donald S; Dowd, Scot E; Lockwood, Mitch L; Seabury, Paul M

2011-01-01

306

Factors contributing to the success of a single-shot, multiyear PZP immunocon- traceptive vaccine for white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated 6 different porcine zona pellucida (PZP) preparations used as a single-shot vaccine for multiyear contraception of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus vir- ginianus). The study compared 2 PZP preparation technologies from ImmunoVaccine Tech- nologies™ (IVT) and National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) over a 7-year period. The study compared both the use of oil in an emulsion and in suspension

LOWELL A. MILLER; KATHLEEN A. FAGERSTONE; DONALD C. WAGNER; GARY J. KILLIAN

2009-01-01

307

Coexistence of protected avian predators: does a recovering population of White-tailed Eagle threaten to exclude other avian predators?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of competition and predation determine the degree to which species can coexist; the importance of competition\\u000a in particular has been emphasized at high trophic levels. Competition exclusion will occur when habitat overlap between sympatric\\u000a species is high. In this study, we investigated nesting habitat overlap between internationally protected diurnal tree-nesting\\u000a avian predators of central Europe, namely, White-tailed Eagle

Rimgaudas Treinys; Deivis Dementavi?ius; Gintautas Mozgeris; Saulis Skuja; Saulius Rumbutis; Darius Ston?ius

308

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from instrumental chemical analyses in fractions containing polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Toxic equivalents were calculated by use of an additive model in which the product of the concentrations of instrumentally measured individual congeners were multiplied by their TCDD equivalency factors and were summed to give a total concentration of TEQs. The TCDD-EQs were compared with TEQs to develop a mass balance to determine whether all the TCDD-like activity was accounted for. The TEQs determined by chemical analyses for coplanar PCBs was 770 pg/g fw, and that of PCDD/PCDFs was 270 pg/g fw in this eagle. Thus, concentrations of TCDD-EQs were approx. 20% greater than those of TEQs. The true difference in activities is probably greater because of lower recoveries and infra-additivities among congeners in the bioassay. This indicates that there are compounds present in the extracts that can contribute to the total concentrations of TCDD-EQs in white-tailed sea eagle eggs to the no-observable-adverse-effect concentration, ranged from 7.3 to 141. This indicates that current concentrations of TCDD-EQs in these eggs are likely causing adverse effects in the Baltic populations of white-tailed sea eagles. This study indicated that the H4IIE bioassay is useful for monitoring the presence and biological activity of TCDD-like compounds in environmental samples like white-tailed sea eagles.

Koistinen, J.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Koivusaari, J. [Western Finland Regional Environment Centre, Vaasa (Finland); Nuuja, I. [Milieu-Data Cc, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Vuorinen, P.J. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Paasivirta, J. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-07-01

309

Genetic variability in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and its relationship to environmental parameters and herd origin (Cervidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme variation was examined in 1571 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 29 localities in Tennessee by starch gel electrophoresis. For 11 polymorphic loci, sex-related, age-related and temporal differences were minimal. However, significant spatial hererogeneity was evident in genotypes (contingency table results), allele frequencies (FST=0.057) and heterozygosity. Heterozygosity ranged from 16.9% to 26.8% with a mean of 22.9%. The spatial pattern

P. K. Kennedy; M. L. Kennedy; M. L. Beck

1987-01-01

310

Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

2011-01-01

311

Putative Chemical Signals from White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ): Social and Seasonal Effects on Urinary Volatile Excretion in Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine samples collected from dominant and subordinate male white-tailed deer during the breeding and nonbreeding season were analyzed by combined gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-five volatiles were found in measurable quantities. Ketones were most numerous, followed by alcohols and alkanes. Nine compounds were common to both dominants and subordinates during the breeding season. Of these nine, three were present in

K. V. Miller; B. Jemiolo; J. W. Gassett; I. Jelinek; D. Wiesler; M. Novotny

1998-01-01

312

Antigen Recognition by Serum Antibodies in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have emerged as reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis in northern America. For tuberculosis surveillance of deer, antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because deer are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. Sera collected sequentially from 25 Mycobacterium bovis-infected and 7 noninfected deer were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and multiantigen

W. R. Waters; M. V. Palmer; J. P. Bannantine; D. L. Whipple; R. Greenwald; J. Esfandiari; P. Andersen; J. McNair; J. M. Pollock; K. P. Lyashchenko

2004-01-01

313

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs)

Janna Koistinen; J. P. Giesy; J. Koivusaari; I. Nuuja; P. J. Vuorinen; J. Paasivirta

1997-01-01

314

Investigating variation in the nutritional ecology and genetics of White-tailed Ptarmigan: implications for climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are well suited as a focal species for the study of climate change because they are adapted to cool, alpine environments that are expected to undergo unusually rapid climate change. We compared samples collected in the late 1930s, the late 1960s, and the late 2000s using molecular genetic and stable isotope methods in an effort to

S. J. Oyler-McCance; C. A. Stricker; C. E. Braun; G. T. Wann; C. L. Aldridge

2010-01-01

315

Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles ( Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (>6µg\\/gd.w.) lead concentrations,

B. Helander; J. Axelsson; H. Borg; K. Holm; A. Bignert

2009-01-01

316

Common Buzzard (Buteo Buteo) and White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus Albicilla): Breeding Parasitism or Atypical Feeding Behaviour?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the long-term research on White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) conducted in the continental part of Lithuania since 1995, live Common Buzzard's (Buteo buteo) nestlings were found in nests of two pairs of eagles in 2002. On the one hand, this could have been atypical feeding behaviour of eagles: adult birds used to bring buzzard.s nestlings to their nests, keep them

Deivis Dementavi?ius

2004-01-01

317

The return of the white-tailed eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla) to northern Germany: Modelling the past to predict the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linking age-specific vital rates to population growth through demographic matrix models can enhance our understanding of crucial population processes, vital in a conservation context. The white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) population in the Federal State of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, has been monitored since re-colonisation in 1947 and provides a well-documented example of a recovery. We test how demographic models capture growth trajectories

Oliver Krüger; Thomas Grünkorn; Bernd Struwe-Juhl

2010-01-01

318

Population size, distribution and habitat selection of the white-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla in the alluvial wetlands of Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2003–2006, research on the breeding distribution of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) was conducted in Croatia in order to assess the size of the national population. In 125 locations, clear signs of breeding\\u000a activity were found. An additional 10 presumably active territories were detected but it was not possible to locate the exact\\u000a position of the nests and confirm

Andreja Radovi?; Tibor Mikuska

2009-01-01

319

Congener-specific analysis of chloronaphthalenes in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla breeding in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-four congeners of higher chlorinated naphthalenes were identified and quantified in the breast muscles, liver and adipose fat of a few specimens of white-tailed sea eagle collected from the Baltic coastal and inland breeding areas in Poland in 1991–1992. Many of the identified chloronaphthalenes (CNs) were well resolved as single peaks on the Rtx-5 HRGC-MS\\/EI-SIR chromatograms; but still some of

Jerzy Falandysz; Lidia Strandberg; Sten Erik Kulp; Bo Strandberg; Per-Anders Bergqvist; Christoffer Rappe

1996-01-01

320

Recording movement and activity pattern of a White-tailed Sea Eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla ) by a GPS datalogger  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, we measured the home range size and activity pattern of a White-tailed Sea Eagle (WTSE) by GPS telemetry.\\u000a Positions were recorded three times a day and the activity pattern were continuously recorded by two acceleration sensors.\\u000a From July to January, we obtained 475 positions and calculated a 95% kernel home range of 4.53 km2 and a 95%

Oliver Krone; Anne Berger; Robert Schulte

2009-01-01

321

Genome-Wide Polymorphism and Comparative Analyses in the White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Model for Conservation Genomics  

PubMed Central

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) represents one of the most successful and widely distributed large mammal species within North America, yet very little nucleotide sequence information is available. We utilized massively parallel pyrosequencing of a reduced representation library (RRL) and a random shotgun library (RSL) to generate a complete mitochondrial genome sequence and identify a large number of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed throughout the white-tailed deer nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. A SNP validation study designed to test specific classes of putative SNPs provides evidence for as many as 10,476 genome-wide SNPs in the current dataset. Based on cytogenetic evidence for homology between cow (Bos taurus) and white-tailed deer chromosomes, we demonstrate that a divergent genome may be used for estimating the relative distribution and density of de novo sequence contigs as well as putative SNPs for species without draft genome assemblies. Our approach demonstrates that bioinformatic tools developed for model or agriculturally important species may be leveraged to support next-generation research programs for species of biological, ecological and evolutionary importance. We also provide a functional annotation analysis for the de novo sequence contigs assembled from white-tailed deer pyrosequencing reads, a mitochondrial phylogeny involving 13,722 nucleotide positions for 10 unique species of Cervidae, and a median joining haplotype network as a putative representation of mitochondrial evolution in O. virginianus. The results of this study are expected to provide a detailed template enabling genome-wide sequence-based studies of threatened, endangered or conservationally important non-model organisms. PMID:21283515

Seabury, Christopher M.; Bhattarai, Eric K.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Viswanathan, Ganesh G.; Cooper, Susan M.; Davis, Donald S.; Dowd, Scot E.; Lockwood, Mitch L.; Seabury, Paul M.

2011-01-01

322

[Forage use and availability for white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in an experimental unit of Campeche, Mexico].  

PubMed

Forage use and availability for white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in an experimental unit of Campeche, Mexico. In Campeche state, 122 Wildlife Conservation and Management Units have been recently conformed. In these units, eventhough the white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi is a game species, no studies on its diet have been undertaken. The objectives of this work were to estimate the botanical composition of the diet and its seasonal change, to determine forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate of O. virginianus thomasi. The study was conducted in the experimental unit of Colegio de Postgraduados in Campeche, Mexico, from October 2010 to May 2012. The diet was determined through microhistological analyses of the white tailed deer feces by the use of reference material. Forage availability was determined through the Adelaide's method; the stocking rate, using the grazing pressure factor; and carrying capacity considering forage availability and 35% of utilization efficiency. In this experimental unit, the deer diet included 40 species belonging to 15 families. The highest species richness ocurred during the rainy season with 29 species. However, deers preferred shrubs during all seasons, and herbaceous species during the rainy season. The diet composition, forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate varied throughout the year. Carrying capacity ranged from 0.04 to 1.08deer/ha. Additional studies are required to detail about the composition of the diet, habitat availability and use throughout its geographical range, and to detail on nutritional and health aspects. PMID:25102651

Granados, Danilo; Tarango, Luis; Olmos, Genaro; Palacio, Jorge; Clemente, Fernando; Mendoza, Germán

2014-06-01

323

Investigating variation in the nutritional ecology and genetics of White-tailed Ptarmigan: implications for climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are well suited as a focal species for the study of climate change because they are adapted to cool, alpine environments that are expected to undergo unusually rapid climate change. We compared samples collected in the late 1930s, the late 1960s, and the late 2000s using molecular genetic and stable isotope methods in an effort to determine whether White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans, Colorado have experienced recent environmental changes resulting in shifts in genetic diversity, gene frequency, and nutritional ecology. We genotyped 115 individuals spanning the three time periods using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in our genetic analysis. These samples were also analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition. We found a slight trend of lower heterozygosity through time and allelic richness values were lower in more recent times. We found no changes in allele frequencies across time periods suggesting that population sizes have not changed dramatically. Feather ?13C and ?15N values decreased significantly across time periods, whereas the range in isotope values increased consistently from the late 1930s to the later time periods. Inferred changes in the nutritional ecology of White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans relates primarily to increased atmospheric deposition of nutrients that likely influenced foraging habits and tundra plant composition and nutritional quality. We briefly discuss similar ongoing work on the neighboring population in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado and tie in genetic results from across the species range.

Oyler-McCance, S. J.; Stricker, C. A.; Braun, C. E.; Wann, G. T.; Aldridge, C. L.

2010-12-01

324

Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Danish in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) vaccinated with a lipid-formulated oral vaccine.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in animals, has a broad host range, including humans. Historically, public health concerns prompted programs to eradicate tuberculosis from cattle in many nations. Eradication efforts decreased the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis; nevertheless, some countries encountered significant obstacles, not least of which was a wildlife reservoir of M. bovis. Efforts to decrease the size of the affected wildlife populations have neither eliminated disease nor eliminated transmission to cattle. Consequently, the use of a vaccine for wildlife is being explored. The vaccine most studied is M. bovis BCG, an attenuated live vaccine, first developed 100 years ago. The most efficient and effective means of vaccinating wildlife will be an oral vaccine. White-tailed deer in Michigan, USA, constitute a reservoir of M. bovis. White-tailed deer are a popular game species, and as such, represent a food animal to many hunters. BCG persistence in deer tissues could result in human exposure to BCG. Although non-pathogenic, BCG exposure could induce false-positive skin test results, confounding the central component of public health surveillance for TB. The objective of the present study in white-tailed deer was to evaluate persistence of lipid-encapsulated BCG and a liquid suspension of BCG after oral administration at two different dosages. Vaccine was not recovered at any time after oral consumption of a bait containing a single dose (1 × 10(8) CFU) of lipid-encapsulated BCG. However, persistence was consistent in deer consuming 10 lipid-encapsulated baits (1 × 10(9) CFU), with BCG recovered from at least one deer at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after consumption. Persistence of up to 9 months was seen in deer vaccinated with orally with a liquid suspension. Persistence of BCG was limited to lymphoid tissue and never found in samples of muscle collected at each time point. Although the risk of exposure to hunters is low, BCG persistence should be considered prior to field use in white-tailed deer. PMID:23173832

Palmer, M V; Thacker, T C; Waters, W R; Robbe-Austerman, S; Aldwell, F E

2014-06-01

325

Contrasting gray and white matter changes in preclinical Huntington disease  

E-print Network

Contrasting gray and white matter changes in preclinical Huntington disease An MRI study DD ABSTRACT Background: In Huntington disease (HD), substantial striatal atrophy precedes clinical motor of view; GM gray matter; HD Huntington disease; MRI magnetic resonance imaging; pre-HD preclinical HD

Aron, Adam

326

A genetic approach to the study of population structure in white-tailed deer :: evidence from the Noble Foundation Wildlife Unit  

E-print Network

studies (De Young et al. 2002) population genetics studies (Skow et al. 1999), and wildlife management (Smith et al. 1976). Southern Oklahoma is a region of contact between two subspecies of white-tailed deer. O. v. macroura occurs in the eastern... among adjacent populations may be a consequence ofboth geological/physiographical barriers and demographic effects that limit dispersal. Southern Oklahoma is a region of contact between two subspecies of white-tailed deer (Hall 1981). O. v. macroura...

Anderson, Joel David

2003-01-01

327

TWO THEILERIA CERVI SSU RRNA GENE SEQUENCE TYPES FOUND IN ISOLATES FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER AND ELK IN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT :T woTheileria cervi SSU rRNA gene sequence Types, F and G, from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) isolates in North America were confirmed. Previously, nucleotide sequencing through a single variable (V4) region showed the presence of SSU rRNA gene Types F and G in T. cervi isolates from white-tailed deer and an elk. In this

Joon-seok Chae; Suryakant D. Waghela; Thomas M. Craig; Alan A. Kocan; G Gerald; Patricia J. Holman

1999-01-01

328

Individual based modeling of animal populations using object oriented simulation techniques: investigating the effects of bonding, predation and birth cover on white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

INDIVIDUAL BASED MODELING OP ANIMAL POPULATIONS USING OBJECT ORIENTED SIMULATION TECHNIQUES : INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OP BONDING, PREDATION AND BIRTH COVER ON WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by CARL DUANE GERMAN Submitted to the Office... SIMULATION TECHNIQUES : INVESTIGATING THE EF'FECTS O( BONDING, PREDATION AND BIRTH COVER ON WHITE-TAILED DEER P, Thesis by CARL DUANE GERMAN Approved as t. o style and content Ly L. sep Folse (Cha r of Committee) /L, w c we+ &/ William E. Grant...

German, Carl Duane

1992-01-01

329

INFECTION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN MICHIGAN WITH JAMESTOWN CANYON VIRUS (CALIFORNIA SEROGROUP) AND THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERNAL ANTIBODY IN VIRAL MAINTENANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera collected from a captive population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileusvirgini- anus) penned in the lower peninsula of Michigan were assayed over a 29-mo period for neutral- izing antibody to California serogroup viruses. In all, 130 individual white-tailed deer were bled one to 22 times between June 1983 and November 1985. Of the 130 sampled after active trans- mission had ceased,

Paul R. Grimstad; Diane G. Williams; Stephen M. SchmiW

330

Origin and genetic structure of white-tailed sea eagles ( Haliaeetus albicilla ) in the Czech Republic: an analysis of breeding distribution, ringing data and DNA microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Czech Republic declined dramatically during the twentieth century. None were observed in the area for more than 60 years\\u000a until population recoveries were observed beginning in the 1980s. It is currently estimated that 25–30 breeding pairs of white-tailed\\u000a sea eagles nest in the Czech Republic. This article analyses surveillance data from

I. Literák; V. Mrlík; A. Hovorková; P. Mikulí?ek; J. Lengyel; K. Št’astný; J. Cepák; L. Dubská

2007-01-01

331

Spirochetes in ticks and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer from Connecticut, New York State, and North Carolina.  

PubMed

Ticks were screened for spirochetes and serum samples from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were assayed for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi during 1983-1984. Using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit antibodies produced to B. burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, spirochetes were detected in Ixodes dammini (10.5% of 1,193) and Dermacentor albipictus (0.6% of 157) adults from Connecticut, I. dammini nymphs (49.1% of 108) and adults (64.7% of 99) from Armonk, New York, and in I. scapularis (0.4% of 531) and Amblyomma americanum (3.5% of 173) adults from North Carolina. Infected ticks were either seeking hosts or feeding on deer during the summer and fall. Direct fluorescent antibody staining also revealed spirochetes in two larvae of I. scapularis that emerged from eggs deposited by separate females in the laboratory. Using indirect immunofluorescence tests, antibodies to B. burgdorferi were identified in white-tailed deer living in tick-infested areas of all three states. Aside from minor cross-reactivity, there was no serologic evidence of Treponema or Leptospira infections. Ixodes dammini is a primary vector of B. burgdorferi in northeastern United States, but in North Carolina, other ixodid ticks may transmit this spirochete to humans and wildlife. PMID:3520030

Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Apperson, C S; Fish, D; Johnson, R C; Chappell, W A

1986-04-01

332

Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989--1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 and 10.6 years, respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer, dieldrin was found in fat, liver, and brain, and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal. Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin and mercury. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C. [Geological Survey, Madison, WI (United States). National Wildlife Health Center; Whittaker, D.G. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (United States); Roy, R.R. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Commerce City, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge]|[Fish and Wildlife Service, Moses Lake, WA (United States). Moses Lake Field Office; Baker, D.L. [Colorado Div. of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1999-02-01

333

Distribution of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral protein and nucleic acid within central nervous tissue lesions in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

An outbreak of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) occurred in Michigan free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during late summer and fall of 2005. Brain tissue from 7 deer with EEE, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was studied. Detailed microscopic examination, indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to characterize the lesions and distribution of the EEE virus within the brain. The main lesion in all 7 deer was a polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis, which was more prominent within the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. In 3 deer, multifocal microhemorrhages surrounded smaller vessels with or without perivascular cuffing, although vasculitis was not observed. Neuronal necrosis, associated with perineuronal satellitosis and neutrophilic neuronophagia, was most prominent in the thalamus and the brainstem. Positive IHC labeling was mainly observed in the perikaryon, axons, and dendrites of necrotic and intact neurons and, to a much lesser degree, in glial cells, a few neutrophils in the thalamus and the brainstem, and occasionally the cerebral cortex of the 7 deer. There was minimal IHC-based labeling in the cerebellum and hippocampus. ISH labeling was exclusively observed in the cytoplasm of neurons, with a distribution similar to IHC-positive neurons. Neurons positive by IHC and ISH were most prominent in the thalamus and brainstem. The neuropathology of EEE in deer is compared with other species. Based on our findings, EEE has to be considered a differential diagnosis for neurologic disease and meningoencephalitis in white-tailed deer. PMID:23686767

Kiupel, M; Fitzgerald, S D; Pennick, K E; Cooley, T M; O'Brien, D J; Bolin, S R; Maes, R K; Del Piero, F

2013-11-01

334

Spatial point pattern analyses of Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in domestic livestock herds and concomitant seroprevalence in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important disease of domestic cattle that is capable of infecting cervids. A first step in the formulation of a regional BVDV management plan is a local assessment of the likelihood of pathogen transmission from wildlife to domestic livestock. To achieve this, blood samples were collected from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout New York State in the fall of 2009 and 2010. The SVANOVIR BVDV p80-AB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Svanova Biotech AV, Uppsala, Sweden) was used to screen sera for anti-BVDV antibodies. Because this ELISA is not validated for use in white-tailed deer, sera that tested positive were tested again using serum neutralization to verify the presence of antibodies. Spatial data describing the geographic location of BVDV antigen-positive cattle and camelid herds and BVDV-seropositive white-tailed deer were analyzed via the dual kernel density estimation method. In white-tailed deer, 7.48% (80/1,069) were BVDV-seropositive, whereas 3.43% (144/4,195) of tested herds were positive for BVDV antigen. An exploratory cluster analysis revealed 1 significant cluster of BVDV antigen-positive herds and 2 significant clusters of BVDV-seropositive deer. There was no spatial overlap between the clusters. The spatial point pattern and exploratory cluster analyses suggest that BVDV is maintained independently in domestic livestock herds in the western part of the state and in the white-tailed deer population in the northwestern part of the state. PMID:23512919

Kirchgessner, Megan S; Dubovi, Edward J; Whipps, Christopher M

2013-03-01

335

Do Biological and Bedsite Characteristics Influence Survival of Neonatal White-Tailed Deer?  

PubMed Central

Coyotes recently expanded into the eastern U.S. and potentially have caused localized white-tailed deer population declines. Research has focused on quantifying coyote predation on neonates, but little research has addressed the potential influence of bedsite characteristics on survival. In 2011 and 2012, we radiocollared 65 neonates, monitored them intensively for 16 weeks, and assigned mortality causes. We used Program MARK to estimate survival to 16 weeks and included biological covariates (i.e., sex, sibling status [whether or not it had a sibling], birth weight, and Julian date of birth). Survival to 16 weeks was 0.141 (95% CI = 0.075-0.249) and the top model included only sibling status, which indicated survival was lower for neonates that had a sibling. Predation was the leading cause of mortality (35 of 55; 64%) and coyotes were responsible for the majority of depredations (30 of 35; 86%). Additionally, we relocated neonates for the first 10 days of life and measured distance to firebreak, visual obstruction, and plant diversity at bedsites. Survival of predation to 10 days (0.726; 95% CI = 0.586-0.833) was weakly associated with plant diversity at bedsites but not related to visual obstruction. Our results indicate that neonate survival was low and coyote predation was an important source of mortality, which corroborates several recent studies from the region. Additionally, we detected only weak support for bedsite cover as a covariate to neonate survival, which indicates that mitigating effects of coyote predation on neonates may be more complicated than simply managing for increased hiding cover. PMID:25734333

Chitwood, M. Colter; Lashley, Marcus A.; Kilgo, John C.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Moorman, Christopher E.; DePerno, Christopher S.

2015-01-01

336

White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger  

PubMed Central

The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles, in addition to posting advisory speed limits. PMID:25333922

Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; DeVault, Travis L.

2014-01-01

337

Effects of capture-related injury on postcapture movement of white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Capture-related injuries or deaths of wildlife study subjects pose concerns to researchers, from considerations for animal welfare to inflated project costs and biased data. Capture myopathy (CM) is an injury that can affect an animal's survival ? 30 days postrelease, but is often difficult to detect without close monitoring and immediate necropsy. We evaluated the influence of capture and handling on postcapture movement in an attempt to characterize movement rates of animals suffering from CM. We captured and global positioning system-collared 95 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central and northern New York during 2006-2008. Six juveniles died within 30 days postrelease, and necropsy reports indicated that two suffered CM (2%). We compared postcapture movement rates for juveniles that survived >30 days with those that died ? 30 days postcapture. Survivor movement rates (43.74 m/hr, SD = 3.53, n = 28) were significantly higher than rates for deer that died within 30 days (17.70 m/hr, SD = 1.57, n = 6) (P<0.01). Additionally, movement rates of juveniles that died of CM (15.1 m/hr) were 5.1 m/hr lower than those for juveniles that died of other causes ? 30 days postcapture (20.2 m/hr), but we were unable to evaluate this statistically because of insufficient sample size. We found no difference in vital rates (temperature, heart rate, respiration rate) during handling between survivors and juveniles that died within 30 days postcapture but observed that survivors were in better body condition at capture. These results suggest that deer likely to die within the 30-day CM window can be identified soon after capture, provided that intensive movement data are collected. Further, even if necropsy reports are unavailable, these animals should be censored from analysis because their behavior is not representative of movements of surviving animals. PMID:24484502

Dechen Quinn, Amy C; Williams, David M; Porter, William F; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Hynes, Kevin

2014-04-01

338

Escherichia coli survival in, and release from, white-tailed deer feces.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer are an important reservoir for pathogens that can contribute a large portion of microbial pollution in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. The scarcity of experimental data on survival of microorganisms in and release from deer feces makes prediction of their fate and transport less reliable and development of efficient strategies for environment protection more difficult. The goal of this study was to estimate parameters for modeling Escherichia coli survival in and release from deer (Odocoileus virginianus) feces. Our objectives were as follows: (i) to measure survival of E. coli in deer pellets at different temperatures, (ii) to measure kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets at different rainfall intensities, and (iii) to estimate parameters of models describing survival and release of microorganisms from deer feces. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study E. coli survival in deer pellets at three temperatures and to estimate parameters of Chick's exponential model with temperature correction based on the Arrhenius equation. Kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets were measured at two rainfall intensities and used to derive the parameters of Bradford-Schijven model of bacterial release. The results showed that parameters of the survival and release models obtained for E. coli in this study substantially differed from those obtained by using other source materials, e.g., feces of domestic animals and manures. This emphasizes the necessity of comprehensive studies of survival of naturally occurring populations of microorganisms in and release from wildlife animal feces in order to achieve better predictions of microbial fate and transport in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. PMID:25480751

Guber, Andrey K; Fry, Jessica; Ives, Rebecca L; Rose, Joan B

2015-02-01

339

White-tailed deer response to vehicle approach: evidence of unclear and present danger.  

PubMed

The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles, in addition to posting advisory speed limits. PMID:25333922

Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; DeVault, Travis L

2014-01-01

340

Winter range arrival and departure of white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I analyzed 364 spring and 239 fall migrations by 194 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1975 to 1993 in northeastern Minnesota to determine the proximate cause of arrivals on and departures from winter ranges. The first autumn temperatures below -7?C initiated fall migrations for 14% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0-30) of female deer prior to snowfall in three autumns, but only 2% remained on winter ranges. During 14 autumns, the first temperatures below -7?C coincidental with snowfalls elicited migration in 45% (95% CI = 34-57) of females, and 91 % remained on winter ranges. Arrival dates failed to correlate with independent variables of temperature and snow depth, precluding predictive modeling of arrival on winter ranges. During 13 years, a mean of 80% of females permanently arrived on winter ranges by 31 December. Mean departure dates from winter ranges varied annually (19 March - 4 May) and between winter ranges (14 days) and according to snow depth (15-cm differences). Only 15 - 41 % of deer departed when snow depths were> 30 cm but 80% had done so by the time of lO-cm depths. Mean weekly snow depths in March (18-85 cm) and mean temperature in April (0.3 -8.1 ?c) explained most of the variation in mean departure dates from two winter ranges (Ely, R2 = 0.87, P < 0.0005, n = 19 springs; Isabella, R2 = 0.85, P = 0.0001, n = 12 springs). Mean differences between observed mean departure dates and mean departure dates predicted from equations ranged from 3 days (predictions within the study area) to 8 days (predictions for winter ranges 100-440 km distant).

Nelson, M.E.

1995-01-01

341

Survival of white-tailed deer neonates in Minnesota and South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, birth mass, and sex) and habitat factors on survival of neonate white-tailed deer improves understanding of population ecology. During 2002-2004, we captured and radiocollared 78 neonates in eastern South Dakota and southwestern Minnesota, of which 16 died before 1 September. Predation accounted for 80% of mortality; the remaining 20% was attributed to starvation. Canids (coyotes [Canis latrans], domestic dogs) accounted for 100% of predation on neonates. We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to estimate survival rates and investigate the influence of intrinsic and habitat variables on survival. We developed 2 a priori model sets, including intrinsic variables (model set 1) and habitat variables (model set 2; forested cover, wetlands, grasslands, and croplands). For model set 1, model {Sage-interval} had the lowest AICc (Akaike's information criterion for small sample size) value, indicating that age at mortality (3-stage age-interval: 0-2 weeks, 2-8 weeks, and >8 weeks) best explained survival. Model set 2 indicated that habitat variables did not further influence survival in the study area; ??-estimates and 95% confidence intervals for habitat variables in competing models encompassed zero; thus, we excluded these models from consideration. Overall survival rate using model {Sage-interval} was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.83-0.91); 61% of mortalities occurred at 0-2 weeks of age, 26% at 2-8 weeks of age, and 13% at >8 weeks of age. Our results indicate that variables influencing survival may be area specific. Region-specific data are needed to determine influences of intrinsic and habitat variables on neonate survival before wildlife managers can determine which habitat management activities influence neonate populations. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Brinkman, T.J.; Burris, B.M.; Deperno, C.S.; Jenks, J.A.

2011-01-01

342

Evaluation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as natural sentinels for Anaplasma phagocytophilum.  

PubMed

Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, can infect white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus), and this species is a crucial host for adult Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of A. phagocytophilum. The goal of this study was to determine the geographic distribution of A. phagocytophilum among WTD across a 19 state region and to evaluate the utility of WTD as natural sentinels. Serologic testing using the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay was conducted on WTD serum samples and molecular and xenodiagnostic tests were performed to confirm serologic results. The surveillance system was assessed through examination of vital attributes including WTD age and gender associations with serologic status, sample size adequacy for accurate infection status classification, and presence of the vector, I. scapularis. Six hundred thirty-three of 2,666 (24%) WTD in 17 states tested positive for antibodies (>or=128) when tested by IFA assay. Testing for p44 and/or 16S rRNA gene targets identified 73 (16%) PCR positive WTD among 458 animals tested, all of which originated from seropositive populations. Attempts to culture A. phagocytophilum from WTD were unsuccessful; however, xenodiagnostic mice inoculated with blood from 3 WTD became infected. Seroprevalence did not differ by deer age or gender; however, WTD

Dugan, Vivien G; Yabsley, Michael J; Tate, Cynthia M; Mead, Daniel G; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Herron, Michael J; Stallknecht, David E; Little, Susan E; Davidson, William R

2006-01-01

343

Effects of winter undernutrition on body composition and physiological profiles of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of undernutrition and recovery on body composition and blood and urinary profiles of 6 captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) between 18 December 1984 and 3 May 1985. Deer were weighed, and blood and urine were collected every 2 weeks from 10 January to 3 May. At Weeks 2, 8, and 14, body composition was estimated by the dilution of tritiated water technique and standard predictive equations. Feed intake decreased and cumulative mass loss increased during nutritional restriction. Baseline body composition included 62.1 .+-. 0.9 (SE)% water, 11.9 .+-. 1.0% fat, 20.5 .+-. 0.7% protein, and 4.5 .+-. 0.0% ash. Percent protein loss was linearly related (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) to percent mass loss. Peak mass loss from the beginning of the study (12.8 .+-. 2.0%) occurred at Week 12; estimated protein loss was 12.5%. Fat reserves were 85% depleted from Week 2 to Week 14. Elevated packed cell volume (PCV), serum calcium (Ca), cholesterol, triglycerides, and cortisol; and diminished serum urea nitrogen, thyroxine (T4), urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine and potassium:creatinine were associated with reduced food intake, mass loss, and decreases in body water, fat, and protein. Altered values of most of these blood and urinary characteristics reflected initiation of nutritional recovery after nutrition improved. Sequential data collection and the use of a combination of indices in blood or urine will yield the most useful assessments of animal nutrition and condition.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

1990-01-01

344

Borrelia burgdorferi not detected in widespread Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from white-tailed deer in Tennessee.  

PubMed

Lyme disease (LD), caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted in the eastern United States by blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, is classified as nonendemic in Tennessee and surrounding states in the Southeast. Low incidence of LD in these states has been attributed, in part, to vector ticks being scarce or absent; however, tick survey data for many counties are incomplete or out of date. To improve our knowledge of the distribution, abundance, and Borrelia spp. prevalence of I. scapularis, we collected ticks from 1,018 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman)) from 71 of 95 Tennessee counties in fall 2007 and 2008. In total, 160 deer (15.7%) from 35 counties were infested with adult I. scapularis; 30 of these counties were new distributional records for this tick. The mean number of I. scapularis collected per infested deer was 5.4 +/- 0.6 SE. Of the 883 I. scapularis we removed from deer, none were positive for B. burgdorferi and one tested positive for B. miyamotoi. Deer are not reservoir hosts for B. burgdorferi; nevertheless, past surveys in northern LD-endemic states have readily detected B. burgdoreferi in ticks collected from deer. We conclude that I. scapularis is far more widespread in Tennessee than previously reported. The absence of detectable B. burgdorferi infection among these ticks suggests that the LD risk posed by I. scapularis in the surveyed areas of Tennessee is much lower than in LD-endemic areas of the Northeast and upper Midwest. PMID:23270178

Rosen, M E; Hamer, S A; Gerhardt, R R; Jones, C J; Muller, L I; Scott, M C; Hickling, G J

2012-11-01

345

Familiarity breeds contempt: combining proximity loggers and gps reveals female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) avoiding close contact with neighbors.  

PubMed

Social interactions can influence infectious disease dynamics, particularly for directly transmitted pathogens. Therefore, reliable information on contact frequency within and among groups can better inform disease modeling and management. We compared three methods of assessing contact patterns: (1) space-use overlap (volume of interaction [VI]), (2) direct contact rates measured by simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) locations (<10 m apart), and (3) direct contact rates measured by proximity loggers (PLs; 1-m detection) among female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We calculated the PL?GPS contact ratios to see whether both devices reveal similar contact patterns and thus predict similar pathogen transmission patterns. Contact rates measured by GPS and PLs were similarly high for two within-group dyads (pairs of deer in the same social groups). Dyads representing separate but neighboring groups (high VI) had PL?GPS contact ratios near zero, whereas dyads further apart (intermediate VI) had higher PL?GPS contact ratios. Social networks based on PL contacts showed the fewest connected individuals and lowest mean centrality measures; network metrics were intermediate when based on GPS contacts and greatest when based on VI. Thus, the VI network portrayed animals to be more uniformly and strongly connected than did the PL network. We conclude that simultaneous GPS locations, compared with PLs, substantially underestimate the impact of group membership on direct contact rates of female deer and make networks appear more connected. We also present evidence that deer coming within the general vicinity of each other are less likely to come in close contact if they are in neighboring social groups than deer whose home ranges overlap little if at all. Combined, these results provide evidence that direct transmission of disease agents among female and juvenile white-tailed deer is likely to be constrained both spatially and by social structure, more so than GPS data alone would suggest. PMID:25398000

Tosa, Marie I; Schauber, Eric M; Nielsen, Clayton K

2015-01-01

346

Canavan Disease: A White Matter Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Breakdown of oligodendrocyte-neuron interactions in white matter (WM), such as the loss of myelin, results in axonal dysfunction and hence a disruption of information processing between brain regions. The major feature of leukodystrophies is the lack of proper myelin formation during early development or the onset of myelin loss late in life.…

Kumar, Shalini; Mattan, Natalia S.; de Vellis, Jean

2006-01-01

347

Tail beat frequency as a predictor of swimming speed and oxygen consumption of saithe ( Pollachius virens ) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus ) during forced swimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption and tail beat frequency were measured on saithe (Pollachius virens) and whiting (Merlangius merlangus) during steady swimming. Oxygen consumption increased exponentially with swimming speed, and the relationship was described by a power function. The extrapolated standard metabolic rates (SMR) were similar for saithe and whiting, whereas the active metabolic rate (AMR) was twice as high for saithe. The

Maria Faldborg Steinhausen; John Fleng Steffensen; Niels Gerner Andersen

2005-01-01

348

Muscleworms, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), discovered in Columbia white-tailed deer from Oregon and Washington: implications for biogeography and host associations.  

PubMed

Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Host and geographic distribution for this parasite, however, remain poorly defined in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from Columbia white-tailed deer (O. v. leucurus) in a restricted range endemic to Oregon and Washington, USA, were examined for dorsal-spined larvae characteristic of many protostrongylid nematodes. Multilocus DNA sequence data (internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) established the identity and a new record for P. andersoni in a subspecies of white-tailed deer previously unrecognized as hosts. Populations of P. andersoni are now recognized along the basin of the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington and from south-central Oregon on the North Umpqua River. Current data indicate a potentially broad zone of sympatry for P. andersoni and Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in the western region of North America, although these elaphostrongylines seem to be segregated, respectively, in white-tailed deer or in black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) at temperate latitudes. The geographic range for P. andersoni in white-tailed deer is extended substantially to the west of the currently defined limit in North America, and we confirm an apparently extensive range for this elpahostrongyline. These observations are explored in the broader context of host and geographic associations for P. andersoni and related elaphostrongylines in North American cervids. PMID:18263818

Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Mortenson, Jack A; Hoberg, Eric P

2008-01-01

349

Research Note Winter Forage Selection in White-Tailed Deer at High  

E-print Network

consume 70% balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and 20% white spruce (Picea glauca), even though spruce is much are being replaced by white spruce (Picea glauca) stands (Potvin et al. 2003). Deer overbrowsing

Laval, Université

350

Myelin Basic Protein Autoantibodies, White Matter Disease and Stroke Outcome  

PubMed Central

Antibodies to brain antigens are present in stroke survivors. In this study, we assessed autoantibody responses to white matter antigens, their correlation to white matter disease and stroke outcome. Antibody titers (immunoglobulin G [igG]) to myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP) and tetanus toxoid (TT) were available at one or more time points for 112 subjects with ischemic stroke. In comparison to the control subjects (N=40), there was a global decrease in IgG titers to TT early after stroke. Patients with white matter disease on magnetic resonance imaging had elevated titers of antibodies to both MBP and PLP at 30 days after stroke, and anti-MBP antibodies were associated with worse outcome. The potential pathologic consequences of antibodies to white matter, especially MBP, is deserving of further investigation. PMID:22939639

Shibata, Dean; Cain, Kevin; Tanzi, Patricia; Zierath, Dannielle; Becker, Kyra

2012-01-01

351

Predation by coyotes on White-Tailed Deer neonates in South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Coyotes (Canis latrans) are novel predators throughout the southeastern United States and their depredation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates may explain observed declines in some deer populations in the region, but direct evidence for such a relationship is lacking. Our objective was to quantify neonate survival rates and causes of mortality at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina to directly evaluate degree of predation in this deer population. From 2006 to 2009, we radio-monitored 91 neonates captured with the aid of vaginal implant transmitters in pregnant adult females and opportunistic searches. Overall Kaplan�¢����Meier survival rate to 16 weeks of age was 0.230 (95% CI = 0.155-0.328), and it varied little among years. Our best-fitting model estimated survival at 0.220 (95% CI = 0.144-0.320). This model included a quadratic time trend variable (lowest survival rate during the first week of life and increasing to near 1.000 around week 10), and Julian date of birth (survival probability declining as date of birth increased). Predation by coyotes was the most frequent cause of death among the 70 monitored neonates that died, definitively accounting for 37% of all mortalities and potentially accounting for as much as 80% when also including probable coyote predation. Predation by bobcats (Felis rufus) accounted for 7% (definitive) to 9% (including probable bobcat predation) of mortalities. The level of coyote-induced mortality we observed is consistent with the low recruitment rates exhibited in the SRS deer population since establishment of coyotes at the site. If representative of recruitment rates across South Carolina, current harvest levels appear unsustainable. This understanding is consistent with the recent declining trend in the statewide deer population. The effects of coyote predation on recruitment should be considered when setting harvest goals, regardless of whether local deer population size is currently above or below desired levels, because coyotes can substantially reduce fawn recruitment. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Kilgo, John, C.; Ray, Scott, H.; Vukovich, Mark; Goode, Mathew, J.; Ruth, Charles.

2012-05-07

352

Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with <40% canopy cover. Bedding locations were represented by saw-timber pine structural stages with >40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined males selected areas that were characterized by greater levels of horizontal cover than females. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper (Juniperus communis), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0--40%, 41--70%, 71--100%) of canopy cover. All habitat types (i.e., pine, aspen, and spruce) were used as bedding locations with pine sapling-pole structural stages with >70% canopy cover used most, whereas pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover was primarily used for feeding. Females bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites, whereas male feeding sites had greater horizontal cover characteristics than bedding or random locations.

Deperno, Christopher Shannon

353

Active and latent ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) infection in a herd of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is the clinical manifestation of infection of certain ruminant species with one of a group of pathogenic gammaherpesviruses known as MCF viruses. Cattle and numerous exotic ruminant species are susceptible to clinical disease that may be sporadic or occasionally epidemic in nature. The most common MCF virus worldwide is ovine herpesvirus (OvHV)-2. Reservoir hosts such as sheep, carry and excrete OvHV-2, but do not develop clinical signs, while clinically susceptible species develop severe and often fatal disease. The existence of latent infection in clinically susceptible hosts is poorly understood, but is documented in some ruminant species. Twenty-six animals from a captive herd of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) died and were examined from October 2006 to December 2010. Fifteen of these animals (58%) showed clinical signs and gross and microscopical lesions consistent with MCF, while 11 (42%) did not. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification yielded product consistent with OvHV-2 DNA in samples of spleen from all 26 deer. To examine the possibility of latent infection in this herd, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were examined by PCR for OvHV-2 DNA, and the test was positive in 23/32 (72%) clinically normal deer. Archived serum samples were used to examine the history of MCF exposure in the herd using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which demonstrated that 10/40 (25%) deer tested had MCF viral antibodies, with nine deer being seropositive over multiple years. Combined with previous observations in deer and other species, these results suggest the existence of latent infection of white-tailed deer with OvHV-2. PMID:23453492

Palmer, M V; Thacker, T C; Madison, R J; Koster, L G; Swenson, S L; Li, H

2013-01-01

354

Yohimbine hydrochloride as an antagonist to xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilization of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirteen captive and one free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were immobilized one to six times each with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride during winter and spring in northern Minnesota. Administration of 0.09 to 0.53 mg of yohimbine hydrochloride per kg IV after each trial reversed the immobilization. The deer raised their heads within a median time of 2.0 min, stood in 6.0 min and walked away in 9.5 min. No adverse side effects were observed for several weeks following the immobilization.

Mech, L.D.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Karns, P.D.; Seal, U.S.

1985-01-01

355

Excursive Behaviors by Female White-tailed Deer during Estrus at Two Mid-Atlantic Sites  

E-print Network

(Odocoileus virginianus) will adopt sedentary breeding strategies in populations with an abundance of males-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) likely play a passive role in mate selection. However, Ozoga and Verme

Muller, Lisa

356

Management and Conservation Note Alternative Feeding Strategies and Potential Disease  

E-print Network

, Odocoileus virginianus, supplemental feeding, white-tailed deer. Supplemental feeding contributes baiting of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) results in undesirable ecological effects (Casey and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus

Mladenoff, David

357

Two Theileria cervi SSU RRNA gene sequence types found in isolates from white-tailed deer and elk in North America.  

PubMed

Two Theileria cervi SSU rRNA gene sequence Types, F and G, from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) isolates in North America were confirmed. Previously, nucleotide sequencing through a single variable (V4) region showed the presence of SSU rRNA gene Types F and G in T. cervi isolates from white-tailed deer and an elk. In this study, both sequence types were found in four T. cervi isolates (two from deer and two from elk). Microheterogeneity only appeared in the Type G gene, resulting in Subtypes G1, G2 and G3. Subtype G1 was found in two elk and one white-tailed deer T. cervi isolate; Subtypes G2 and G3 were found in a white-tailed deer T. cervi isolate. The Type F SSU rRNA genes were identical in nucleotide sequence in both elk and white-tailed deer T. cervi isolates. The high degree of conservation in the Type F variable regions may be exploited to design specific oligonucleotide primers for parasite detection by the polymerase chain reaction in cervine or tick hosts. PMID:10479079

Chae, J S; Waghela, S D; Craig, T M; Kocan, A A; Wagner, G G; Holman, P J

1999-07-01

358

Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA analysis of a hybrid zone between white-tailed deer and mule deer (Odocoileus) in west Texas.  

PubMed

Thirty allozyme loci and 35 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction sites were examined in 24 white-tailed deer and 46 mule deer from a hybrid zone in West Texas. A common mtDNA genotype is shared by all of the mule deer with 67% of the white-tailed deer. At the albumin locus, 13% of the white-tailed deer and 24% of the mule deer are heterozygous, sharing alleles that are otherwise species-specific in allopatric populations; 7% of the mule deer are homozygous for the allele that is characteristic of allopatric white-tailed deer. Gene flow appears to have been bidirectional, with greater genetic introgression into mule deer. The mtDNA data suggest that matings between white-tailed and mule deer have occurred in the past. Despite evidence of genetic introgression, analysis of multilocus genotypes indicates that none of the deer examined is an F1 hybrid. Production of such hybrids appears to be generally uncommon in North American deer; management plans that assume otherwise should be reconsidered. PMID:1325774

Ballinger, S W; Blankenship, L H; Bickham, J W; Carr, S M

1992-02-01

359

Does fluctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns predicted for sexually selected traits?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Secondary sexual characters have been hypothesized to signal male quality and should demonstrate a negative relationship between the size of the trait and degree of fluctuating asymmetry because they are costly to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Oklahoma, USA, in order to determine whether measures of antler asymmetry follow the patterns predicted for sexually selected characters. Relative fluctuating asymmetry was negatively related to antler size for all deer and within age groups up to five and a half years of age. We did not detect an association between asymmetry and antler size among deer that were six and a half years or older. When categorizing deer by antler size, we found that deer with small antlers (???33rd percentile) had greater levels of relative asymmetry than deer with large antlers (???67th percentile). The relative asymmetry of antlers was negatively related to age and was greatest in deer that were one and a half years old. Relative asymmetry was also negatively related to carcass mass, inside spread, skull length and body length. These data suggest that asymmetry in the antlers of white-tailed deer may be a reliable signal of quality and, as such, may be important in maintaining honesty in intrasexual advertisements during the breeding season.

Ditchkoff, S.S.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.; Starry, W.R.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.

2001-01-01

360

Oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG).  

PubMed

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n = 17); and non-vaccinated (n = 16). One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts. PMID:24804678

Palmer, Mitchell V; Thacker, Tyler C; Waters, W Ray; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

2014-01-01

361

Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns on a north Atlantic coastal island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns (n=29) were studied from birth to 1 year of age during 1991-95 on Mount Desert Island (MDI), Maine where deer hunting is prohibited, coyotes Canis latrans have become recently established, and protected U. S. National Park lands are interspersed with private property. Rate of predator-caused mortality was 0.52, with coyote predation (n=8) accounting for at least 47% of mortalities from all causes (n=17). Mortality rate from drowning was 0.24 (n=3), and from vehicles was 0.14 (n=3). Of fawns radio-collared as neonates, 10 of 14 mortalities occurred during the first 2 months of life. Annual rate of fawn survival was 0.26. Survival rate from 6 months to 1 year was 0.65 and 4 mortalities (2 predation, 2 drowning) were observed during this interval. A subgroup of fawns (n = 11) captured near a residential area and along the edge of a coyote territory had a higher (P = 0.002) rate of survival to 1 year of age (S = 0.67) than did fawns from all other areas (n = 18, S = 0.00). Recruitment to 1 year of age was lower than has been observed in other deer populations in the northeastern United States. Low recruitment associated with coyote predation and mortality sources influenced by humans appears to be limiting white-tailed deer populations in this insular landscape.

Long, R.A.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Harrison, D.J.

1998-01-01

362

Oral Vaccination of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)  

PubMed Central

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1×108 colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n?=?17); and non-vaccinated (n?=?16). One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts. PMID:24804678

Palmer, Mitchell V.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Waters, W. Ray; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

2014-01-01

363

Serum leptin as an indicator of fat levels in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the southeastern USA.  

PubMed

Leptin is a hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake, appetite, and metabolism. In some mammals, leptin has been shown to circulate at levels proportional to body fat, which could make it useful for nonlethal evaluation of body condition. Leptin's usefulness for estimating fat levels (i.e., body condition) of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is unknown. We quantified serum leptin concentrations in a sample of free-ranging, female deer collected in July 2008 and March 2009 from coastal North Carolina, USA. We compared leptin concentrations with kidney fat index, femur marrow fat index, and kidney fat mass. Additionally, we assessed differences in leptin concentrations between the two seasons, lactating and nonlactating females, and gestating and nongestating females. Leptin concentrations were similar between seasons but were lower in lactating and gestating females. We did not detect significant relationships between leptin and the body fat metrics, indicating that leptin may have limited value for estimating fat reserves in white-tailed deer. PMID:24949928

Chitwood, M Colter; Phillips, Shannon P; Whisnant, Scott; Tyndall, James; Lashley, Marcus A; DePerno, Christopher S

2014-10-01

364

Drought effect on selection of conservation reserve program grasslands by white-tailed deer on the Northern Great Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P < 0.001) and home range (P < 0.001) levels. Deer selected for Conservation Reserve Program grasslands and corn during both summers and shifted selection temporally within summer. Use of CRP grasslands occurred during early summer; 73.1 and 88.9% of locations in CRP were documented prior to 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Conversely, selection for corn occurred during late summer; 86.0 and 68.4% of locations in corn were documented after 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Additionally, deer selected for forested cover and rural development areas containing permanent water sources during extreme drought conditions during 2006. Deer likely selected for fields of CRP grasslands during early summer for cover and natural forages, such as clover (Trifolium sp.), prior to the period when agricultural crops become available. Drought conditions occurring in semiarid prairie grassland regions may reduce food and water availability and contribute to subsequent changes in deer habitat selection across the range of the species.

Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

2011-01-01

365

Disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, following the dietary  

E-print Network

to Schizophyllum commune glucan significantly increased resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSVDisease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, following the dietary for its impact on disease resistance in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Animals were fed

Burnett, Louis E.

366

Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia Ciconia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross?neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate sérologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotra?cheitis), turkey, duck

E. F. Kaleta; N. Kummerfeld

1983-01-01

367

SCARE TACTICS IN A NEOTROPICAL WARBLER: WHITE TAIL FEATHERS ENHANCE FLUSH–PURSUIT FORAGING PERFORMANCE IN THE SLATE-THROATED REDSTART (MYIOBORUS MINIATUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flush-pursuit foragers use exaggerated and animated foraging movements to flush potential prey that are then pursued and captured in flight. The Myioborus redstarts comprise 12 species of flush-pursuit warblers found in montane forests of the American tropics and subtropics. All members of the genus have contrasting black-and-white tail feathers that are exposed by spreading the tail during animated foraging displays.

Ronald L. Mumme

2002-01-01

368

AN EPIZOOTIC OF ADENOVIRUS-INDUCED HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE IN CAPTIVE BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten fawns and four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in a captive herd died as a result of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease. Acute, systemic infections were characterized by hemorrhagic enteropathy, pulmonary edema, and occasional ulceration of the upper alimentary tract. Localized infections were limited to the upper alimentary tract and included stomatitis, pharyngitis, mandibular osteomyelitis, and rumenitis. In deer with acute,

Walter M. Boyce; Leslie W. Woods; M. Kevin Keel; N. James MacLachlan; Charles O. Porter; Howard D. Lehmkuhl

369

Comparison among three approaches to evaluate winter habitat selection by white-tailed deer on  

E-print Network

-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (374 animals) were counted in a 270-km2 block. We compared the selection (Odocoileus virginianus) (374 animaux) ont été dénombrés dans un bloc de 270 km2 . Nous avons comparé les

Laval, Université

370

Memory binding and white matter integrity in familial Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Binding information in short-term and long-term memory are functions sensitive to Alzheimer's disease. They have been found to be affected in patients who meet criteria for familial Alzheimer's disease due to the mutation E280A of the PSEN1 gene. However, only short-term memory binding has been found to be affected in asymptomatic carriers of this mutation. The neural correlates of this dissociation are poorly understood. The present study used diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether the integrity of white matter structures could offer an account. A sample of 19 patients with familial Alzheimer's disease, 18 asymptomatic carriers and 21 non-carrier controls underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological and memory binding assessment. The short-term memory binding task required participants to detect changes across two consecutive screens displaying arrays of shapes, colours, or shape-colour bindings. The long-term memory binding task was a Paired Associates Learning Test. Performance on these tasks were entered into regression models. Relative to controls, patients with familial Alzheimer's disease performed poorly on both memory binding tasks. Asymptomatic carriers differed from controls only in the short-term memory binding task. White matter integrity explained poor memory binding performance only in patients with familial Alzheimer's disease. White matter water diffusion metrics from the frontal lobe accounted for poor performance on both memory binding tasks. Dissociations were found in the genu of corpus callosum which accounted for short-term memory binding impairments and in the hippocampal part of cingulum bundle which accounted for long-term memory binding deficits. The results indicate that white matter structures in the frontal and temporal lobes are vulnerable to the early stages of familial Alzheimer's disease and their damage is associated with impairments in two memory binding functions known to be markers for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25762465

Parra, Mario A; Saarimäki, Heini; Bastin, Mark E; Londoño, Ana C; Pettit, Lewis; Lopera, Francisco; Della Sala, Sergio; Abrahams, Sharon

2015-05-01

371

Early effects of an 80% herbicide strip treatment on habitat use by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Northern Rio Grande Plain, Texas  

E-print Network

EARLY EFFECTS OF AN HOT HERBICIDE STRIP TREATMENT QN P~ITAT USE BY WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) ON THE NORTHERN RIO GRANDE PLAIN, TEXAS A Thesis bv GEORGE WALDEN TAIPi~ER Submitted to the Graduate College oz Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement ror the d gree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 19/6 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences EARLY EFFECTS OF AN SOB HERBICIDE STRIP TREATMENT ON HABITAT USE BY WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS...

Tanner, George Walden

1976-01-01

372

Browsing of tree regeneration by white-tailed deer in large clearcuts on Anticosti Island, Quebec  

E-print Network

's original fir stands have gradually been replaced by stands of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss's original fir stands intowhite spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) stands, as this species is rarely browsed

Laval, Université

373

A survey of white line disease in Japanese racehorses.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out into white line disease in 1781 Thoroughbred racehorses kept in stables at the Japan Racing Association (JRA) Miho Training Center (MTC) September-October 1996. The survey was conducted while horses were being shod by farriers. The horses that still exhibited damaged white lines after regular trimming were diagnosed as having white line disease. The factors recorded were age, sex, number of diseased horses, number of diseased hooves, number of lesions by region over the bearing border of the hoof and the classified length of such lesions. The percentage of total diseased horses was 11.5% (204 animals), with incidence increasing significantly with age (P< or =0.01). Occurrence was independent of sex (P>0.05) was more frequent in the fore- than in the hindhoof and developed more frequently at the toe than at any other region of the forehoof-bearing border. Most lesions ranged from 20 to 30 mm in length. PMID:10596935

Kuwano, A; Tanaka, K; Kawabata, M; Ooi, Y; Takahashi, T; Yoshihara, T; Reilly, J D

1999-11-01

374

Distinguishing nonhuman predation on birds: pattern of damage done by the white-tailed eagle Haliaetus albicilla, with comments on the punctures made by the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presents criteria to distinguish some of the nonhuman predation on birds whose remains may also be found at archaeological sites. Specifically, it deals with fragmentation patterns of bird bones in uneaten food remains of the white-tailed eagle Haliaetus albicilla and discusses perforations in victims' bones done by the white-tailed and golden eagles. The food remains show very low

Zbigniew M. Bochenski; Teresa Tomek; Risto Tornberg; Krzysztof Wertz

2009-01-01

375

Comparison of white-tailed kite food web dynamics among various habitats in California using stable isotope analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) was once a common raptor species in the southern United States. However, by the 1930s, the species was considered on the verge of extinction until the 1940s, when a trend towards recovery was apparent. These dramatic fluctuations may be related to changes in rodent prey base due to the conversion of native wetlands to agriculture. To investigate the effects of changes in habitat, land use practices, and prey base on kite populations, we collected tissue samples from kites, their prey, and vegetation at four different locations in California: Arcata, Coastal-Coniferous Forest; Davis, mixed Urban-Agricultural; Cosumnes, Mixed Wetland-Agriculture, and Santa Barbara, Coastal-Chaparral.

Iko, W.M.; Kester, C.L.; Bern, C.R.; Stendell, R.C.; Rye, R.O.

2003-01-01

376

A Paleozoological Perspective on White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) Population Density and Body Size in Central Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted, which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected, given that a lack of predation likely has increased intraspecific competition for forage among deer, resulting in smaller body size today. In fact, modern deer from settings without harvest pressure are significantly smaller than those from harvested areas and from prehistoric deer. From a natural history perspective, this research highlights potential evolutionary causes and effects of top-predator removal on deer populations and related components of biological communities in central Texas.

Wolverton, Steve; Kennedy, James H.; Cornelius, John D.

2007-04-01

377

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge reservation: 1981 status report  

SciTech Connect

One hundred fifteen white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1981, an increase of seventeen over 1980. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. October and November were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road kills was 0.8:1 (males to females) from January through September but shifted to 3:1 during October, November, and December, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movement. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season spanning the September through February period. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that the animals were in good condition with only a few abnormalities observed. Abomasal parasite counts reflected an optimum density situation between the deer population and its habitat, although browse surveys made during the winter of 1981-1982 indicated a tendency toward an overpopulated condition.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1982-11-01

378

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1982 status report  

SciTech Connect

One hundred nine white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1982, a decrease of six from the vehicle kills in 1981. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. The highest number of deer killed was recorded during November. The sex ratio of road-kills was 0.6:1 (males to females) from January through September, but it shifted to 3.6:1 for the October through December period, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movements. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season from early October through late March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that animals were in good condition (only a few abnormalities were observed), and endoparasite burdens continue to reflect no overcrowding in the deer population. 5 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1985-06-01

379

Butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine anesthesia in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using radiotransmitter darts.  

PubMed

Fourteen free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were successfully anesthetized for a total of 15 anesthetic events using a combination of butorphanol (mean+/-SD, 0.58+/-0.1 mg/kg), azaperone (0.37+/-0.06 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.19+/-0.03 mg/kg) (BAM) administered by radiotelemetry darts from hunting blinds between November 2006 and May 2007. Mean time to locate deer (mean+/-SD, 17. 3+/-7 min), to recumbency (21.4+/-5 min), to initiation of data acquisition (27.5+/-8 min), total down time (37+/-6 min), and average distance run (161+/-82 m) were recorded. Physiologic monitoring was done every 5 min for a total of 20 min. Arterial blood gases were collected every 10 min. Mild to moderate hypoxemia and mildly depressed ventilation occurred in some animals. Muscle relaxation and plane of anesthesia were adequate for completion of all procedures; two deer were administered intravenous butorphanol supplementation to achieve light anesthesia (mean+/-SD, 0.19 mg/kg; 0.12 mg/kg). Recovery following intramuscular administration of naltrexone (1.34+/-0.42 mg/kg; 2x butorphanol dose) and atipamezole (0.93+/-0.14 mg/kg; 5x medetomidine dose) was rapid, smooth, and complete. Mean+/-SD recovery time was 4.5+/-1.5 min. Overall efficacy of the Pneu-Dart radiotelemetry system was 65%. Negative attributes of this protocol included long induction time and dart failure. No known mortalities occurred as a result of the study. This drug combination provided safe, reliable, short-term anesthesia of free-ranging white-tailed deer. Further evaluation for use in field procedures in other cervids is warranted. PMID:19395756

Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Citino, Scott B; Wade, Scotty; Elder, Laura; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Lance, William R

2009-04-01

380

Does the use of vaginal-implant transmitters affect neonate survival rate of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared survival of neonate white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus captured using vaginal-implant transmitters (VITs) and traditional ground searches to determine if capture method affects neonate survival. During winter 2003, 14 adult female radio-collared deer were fitted with VITs to aid in the spring capture of neonates; neonates were captured using VITs (N = 14) and traditional ground searches (N = 7). Of the VITs, seven (50%) resulted in the location of birth sites and the capture of 14 neonates. However, seven (50%) VITs were prematurely expelled prior to parturition. Predation accounted for seven neonate mortalities, and of these, five were neonates captured using VITs. During summer 2003, survival for neonates captured using VITs one. two, and three months post capture was 0.76 (SE = 0.05; N = 14). 0.64 (SE = 0.07; N = 11) and 0.64 (SE = 0.08; N = 9), respectively. Neonate survival one, two and three months post capture for neonates captured using ground searches was 0.71 (SE = 0.11 N = 7), 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5) and 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5), respectively. Although 71% of neonates that died were captured <24 hours after birth using VITs, survival did not differ between capture methods. Therefore, use of VITs to capture neonate white-tailed deer did not influence neonate survival. VITs enabled us to capture neonates in dense habitats which would have been difficult to locate using traditional ground searches. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.; DePerno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Tardiff, J.A.

2008-01-01

381

White matter integrity and reaction time intraindividual variability in healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

Aging and early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) have been shown to be associated with increased RT intraindividual variability (IIV, as reflected by the coefficient of variation) and an exaggeration of the slow tail of the reaction time (RT) distribution in attentional control tasks, based on ex-Gaussian analyses. The current study examined associations between white matter volume, IIV, and ex-Gaussian RT distribution parameters in cognitively normal aging and early-stage AD. Three RT attention tasks (Stroop, Simon, and a consonant-vowel odd-even switching task) in conjunction with MRI-based measures of cerebral and regional white matter volume were obtained in 133 cognitively normal and 33 early-stage AD individuals. Larger volumes were associated with less IIV and less slowing in the tail of the RT distribution, and larger cerebral and inferior parietal white matter volumes were associated with faster modal reaction time. Collectively, these results support a role of white matter integrity in IIV and distributional skewing, and are consistent with the hypothesis that IIV and RT distributional skewing are sensitive to breakdowns in executive control processes in normal and pathological aging. PMID:22172547

Jackson, Jonathan D; Balota, David A; Duchek, Janet M; Head, Denise

2012-02-01

382

Long-term decline in white-tailed deer browse supply: can lichens and litterfall act as alternative food sources that preclude density-dependent feedbacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective browsing by cervids has persistent impacts on forest ecosystems. On Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada, introduced white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) have caused massive changes to the native boreal forest. Despite the apparent stability of the deer population over recent decades, we suspected that they were not at equilibrium with their browse supply and that further degradation of the

Jean-Pierre Tremblay; Isabel Thibault; Christian Dussault; Jean Huot; Steeve D. Côté

2005-01-01

383

Efficacy of amitraz collars on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) against free-living populations of Lone Star Ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Collars containing the acaricide amitraz were fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) confined in a 38.8 ha deer-fenced, densely vegetated plot in south Texas to determine efficacy in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (...

384

Depletion Rates of Injected and Ingested Ivermectin from Blood Serum of Penned White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus Virginianus (Zimmermann) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Depletion rates of ivermectin from blood serum of penned doe and buck white-tailed deer that were administered ivermectin both by direct subcutaneous injection and by ingestion of ivermectin-medicated whole kernel corn were determined by bi-weekly and weekly assays of sampled blood. No statistical ...

385

Food partitioning between breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

I examined the diet of breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in an agrarian area of southern Brazil by analyzing regurgitated prey remains. The objective was to evaluate how these raptors, which differ markedly in their hunting activity periods (owls are nocturnal and kites diurnal), share their mammalian food component. 2,087 prey consumed by Barn Owls and 1,276 by White-tailed Kites were identified. They presented a high overlap of food-niches (Piankas index was 0.98). Based on the daily activity period of their main small mammal prey, a lower overlap would be expected. The crepuscular/nocturnal Mus musculus was the main prey for the diet of breeding Barn Owls (81%) and White-tailed Kites (63%). This small exotic rodent provided 63% of the small mammal biomass ingested by owls and 44% by kites. Larger native small mammals were also considered important for the diet of kites, mainly because of their biomass contribution. Although these raptors differ markedly in their hunting activity periods, Barn Owls and White-tailed Kites are very similar predators in southern Brazil, overlapping their diets. PMID:17505751

Scheibler, D R

2007-02-01

386

Effects of Harvesting Intensity and Herbivory by White-tailed Deer on Vegetation and Nutrient Uptake in a Northern Hardwood Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified the response of vegetation and nutrient uptake in a northern hardwood forest in southeastern New York for three to four years after three intensities of harvesting: clearcutting, heavy timber stand improvement (TSI), light TSI (97, 29, and 10% basal area reductions, respectively). We also quantified effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on nutrient retention by vegetation. Total

T. E. Yorks; D. J. Leopold; D. J. Raynal; P. S. Murdoch; D. A. Burns

2003-01-01

387

Topical Treatment of White-Tailed Deer with an Acaricide for the Control of Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Connecticut Lyme Borreliosis Hyperendemic Community  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), against ticks using the acaricide amitraz, was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distrib...

388

Effects of fluoride emissions from a modern primary aluminum smelter on a local population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of fluoride emissions from a modern aluminum smelter on concentrations of skeletal fluoride and dental fluorosis in a resident population of white-tailed deer was studied. The smelter was located on Mount Holly Plantation in South Carolina, and concentrations of skeletal fluoride in the deer collected at Mount Holly increased approximately five-fold 3 yr after the operation began. Increases

J. S. Suttie; R. Dickie; A. B. Clay; Per Nielsen; W. E. Mahan; D. P. Baumann; R. J. Hamilton

1987-01-01

389

Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over a seven year period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around the neck of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). St...

390

EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) ON THE PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN THE MICHIGAN WILD DEER POPULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was conducted to test the hypothesis that supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1995 to 1997 was associated with the preva- lence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in free-ranging deer in northeastern Michigan. Bovine TB prevalence data were obtained from an ongoing surveillance program, while data relating to supplemental feeding and other risk factors were collected

RoseAnn Miller; John B. Kaneene; Scott D. Fitzgerald; Steven M. Schmitt

391

Development of a spatially targeted field sampling technique for the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by mapping white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, habitat in South Texas.  

PubMed

The objective of our study was to determine whether satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in South Texas. Two methods for mapping white-tailed deer habitat were used, an object-oriented method to identify closed canopies and waterways for deer movement and two vegetation indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to identify forage for deer. These two data sets of favorable white-tailed deer habitat were combined within a geographic information system to identify locations for sampling ticks. Larvae of R. (B.) microplus, were sampled in Zapata County, Texas, by walking transects with attached flannel panels to jeans. Although the data set and sampling period were limited, data analysis demonstrated that sampling of free-living larvae of R. (B.) microplus can be conducted in South Texas, and larvae were most abundant in areas that harbored O. virginianus. Spatial analysis of satellite imagery to classify white-tailed deer/southern cattle tick habitat proved efficacious and may be useful in directing sampling activities in the field. PMID:25368044

Phillips, Pamela L; Welch, John B; Kramer, Matthew

2014-01-01

392

Corresponding author email address: troy.grovenburg@sdstate.edu Use of Late Season Standing Corn by Female White-tailed Deer in the  

E-print Network

(Odocoileus virginianus) have been studied extensively throughout their northern range. However, limited eigenanalysis, Northern Great Plains, Odocoileus virginianus, resource selection, standing corn, South Dakota and Wielgus 2005). Winter habitat use of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; hereafter deer) has been

393

HOME RANGES OF SYMPATRIC MULE DEER AND WHITE-TAILED DEER KRISTINA J. BRUNJES, WARREN B. BALLARD,* MARY H. HUMPHREY, FIELDLING HARWELL,  

E-print Network

of sympatric female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) in west bura (Odocoileus hemionus) y venado cola blanca (O. virginianus) en el centro-oeste de Texas´fico fue menos en la primavera. In Texas, geographic distributions of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus

Wallace, Mark C.

394

T-cell mRNA Expression in Response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Mycobacterium bovis Infection of White-tailed deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding immune responses of white-tailed deer (WTD) to infection with Mycobacterium bovis provides insight into mechanisms of pathogen control and may provide clues to development of effective vaccine strategies. WTD were vaccinated with either BCG strain Pasteur or BCG Danish. Both vaccinates...

395

Chlorinated hydrocarbons and total mercury in the prey of the white-tailed eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla L. ) in the quarken straits of the gulf of bothnia, Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of the white-tailed eagle population and its prey were collected from the Quarken straits area of the Gulf of Bothnia, Finland, and were analyzed for DDT, DDD, PCBs, aldrin, lindane, and mercury. Mercury, PCB, and DDE were detected in all animals studied. It was concluded that one of the most important reasons for the poor breeding results of the

Juhani Koivusaari; Ismo Nuuja; Risto Palokangas; Marja-Liisa Hattula

1976-01-01

396

Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many plant species in eastern North America, short observed seed dispersal distances (ranging up to a few tens of meters) fail to explain rapid rates of invasion and migration. This discrepancy points to a substantial gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms by which seeds are dispersed long distances. We investigated the potential for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimm.),

Jonathan A. Myers; Mark Vellend; Sana Gardescu; P. L. Marks

2004-01-01

397

Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high, but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 531 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio, and and 485 W...

398

Survey for Hemoparasites in Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca), Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis), and White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Kazakhstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence of hemoparasites has been investigated in many avian species throughout Europe and North America. Basic hematologic surveys are the first step toward evaluating whether host-parasite prevalences observed in North America and Europe occur elsewhere in the world. We collected blood smears from 94 nestling imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca), five nestling steppe eagles (Aquila ni- palensis), and 14 nestling white-tailed

Lynda L. Leppert; Seth Layman; Evgeny A. Bragin; Todd Katzner

399

Development and multiplex PCR amplification of novel microsatellite markers in the White-tailed Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla (Aves: Falconiformes, Accipitridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development of 14 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers cloned from the White-tailed Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla , a formerly threatened raptor that has received much conservation attention throughout Eurasia. We also present a protocol for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the loci. Among 40 unrelated H. albicilla individuals from southern Sweden, the markers produced two to

FRANK HAILER; BARBARA GAUTSCHI; BJORN HELANDER

2005-01-01

400

Comparison of food habits and prey selection of the white?tailed kite, Elanus leucurus, between natural and disturbed areas in central Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the food habits of white?tailed kites (Elanus leucurus, Accipitridae) in central Argentina during austral spring and summer (November to March) and compared prey captured in two different habitat types. Diet was determined by analysing pellets and prey remains collected under nests and roost sites. During the same period small mammals were trapped using pit?fall traps in Parque Luro

José Hernán Sarasola; Miguel Angel Santillán; Maximiliano Adrián Galmes

2007-01-01

401

Isotope variations in white-tailed kites from various habitats in California: Possible limitations in assessing prey utilization and population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed kite (Elanus leucurus) populations in the 1930s were close to extirpation in the United States. But by the 1940s, an upward trend towards recovery was apparent and continued to their current stable population levels. These dramatic fluctuations in kite numbers may have been related to changes in rodent prey populations due to the conversion of native habitats to agriculture.

W. M. Iko; C. L. Kester; C. R. Bern; R. C. Stendell; R. O. Rye

2003-01-01

402

Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over a seven year period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study...

403

The walk is never random: subtle landscape effects shape gene flow in a continuous white-tailed deer population in the Midwestern United States.  

PubMed

One of the pervasive challenges in landscape genetics is detecting gene flow patterns within continuous populations of highly mobile wildlife. Understanding population genetic structure within a continuous population can give insights into social structure, movement across the landscape and contact between populations, which influence ecological interactions, reproductive dynamics or pathogen transmission. We investigated the genetic structure of a large population of deer spanning the area of Wisconsin and Illinois, USA, affected by chronic wasting disease. We combined multiscale investigation, landscape genetic techniques and spatial statistical modelling to address the complex questions of landscape factors influencing population structure. We sampled over 2000 deer and used spatial autocorrelation and a spatial principal components analysis to describe the population genetic structure. We evaluated landscape effects on this pattern using a spatial autoregressive model within a model selection framework to test alternative hypotheses about gene flow. We found high levels of genetic connectivity, with gradients of variation across the large continuous population of white-tailed deer. At the fine scale, spatial clustering of related animals was correlated with the amount and arrangement of forested habitat. At the broader scale, impediments to dispersal were important to shaping genetic connectivity within the population. We found significant barrier effects of individual state and interstate highways and rivers. Our results offer an important understanding of deer biology and movement that will help inform the management of this species in an area where overabundance and disease spread are primary concerns. PMID:22882236

Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Lopez, Davin L; Shelton, Paul

2012-09-01

404

An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

Hollmen, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Docherty, D.E.; Wilson, H.M.

2003-01-01

405

Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease  

PubMed Central

White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline. PMID:23949663

Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne MS; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

2014-01-01

406

Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease.  

PubMed

White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline. PMID:23949663

Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne M S; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

2014-02-01

407

Characterization of Mhc-DRB allelic diversity in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) provides insight into Mhc-DRB allelic evolution within Cervidae.  

PubMed

Although white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are one of North America's best studied mammals, no information is available concerning allelic diversity at any locus of the major histocompatibility complex in this taxon. Using the polymerase chain reaction, single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis, and DNA sequencing techniques, 15 DRB exon 2 alleles were identified among 150 white-tailed deer from a single population in southeastern Oklahoma. These alleles represent a single locus and exhibit a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid polymorphism, with most amino acid variation occurring at positions forming the peptide binding sites. Furthermore, twenty-seven amino acid residues unique to white-tailed deer DRB alleles were detected, with 19 of these occurring at residues forming contact points of the peptide binding region. Significantly higher rates of nonsynonymous than synonymous substitutions were detected among these DRB alleles. In contrast to other studies of Artiodactyla DRB sequences, interallelic recombination does not appear to be playing a significant role in the generation of allelic diversity at this locus in white-tailed deer. To examine evolution of white-tailed deer (Odvi-DRB) alleles within Cervidae, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of all published red deer (Ceel-DRB), roe deer (Caca-DRB), and moose (Alal-DRB) DRB alleles. The phylogenetic tree clearly shows a trans-species persistence of DRB lineages among these taxa. Moreover, this phylogenetic tree provides insight into evolution of DRB allelic lineages within Cervidae and may aid in assignment of red deer DRB alleles to specific loci. PMID:10199919

Van Den Bussche, R A; Hoofer, S R; Lochmiller, R L

1999-05-01

408

Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).  

PubMed

Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross-neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate serologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotracheitis), turkey, duck and pigeon as well as from the blue-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Lake Victoria cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and desmoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) did not react with the stork herpesviruses. Neutralising antibodies against stork herpesvirus were detected in the majority of 72 blood samples from white and black storks. In addition, three Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) could be isolated from white storks. One isolate was highly virulent the two others were avirulent for the chicken. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that some storks have antibodies against Paramyxovirus- (PMV)-1 (NDV), PMV-2 and PMV-3. No antibodies could be detected in stork sera against PMV-4, -6 and -7. PMID:18766791

Kaleta, E F; Kummerfeld, N

1983-01-01

409

Experimental Infection of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric disease of domestic ruminants as well as some non-domestic ruminants. Paratuberculosis is characterized by a protracted subclinical phase followed by clinical signs such...

410

White Band Disease transmission in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis  

PubMed Central

The global rise in coral diseases has severely impacted coral reef ecosystems, yet often little is known about these diseases, including how they are transmitted. White Band Disease (WBD), for example, has caused unparalleled declines in live Acropora cover, spreading rapidly throughout the Caribbean by unknown means. Here we test four putative modes of WBD transmission to the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: two animal vectors (Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea) and waterborne transmission to intact and injured coral tissues. Using aquarium-based infection experiments, we determine that C. abbreviata, but not C. caribaea, acts as both a vector and reservoir for transmission of the WBD pathogen. We also demonstrate waterborne transmission to injured, but not intact staghorn coral tissues. The combination of transmission by both animal vectors and through the water column helps explain how WBD is spread locally and across the Caribbean. PMID:23150775

Gignoux-Wolfsohn, S. A.; Marks, Christopher J.; Vollmer, Steven V.

2012-01-01

411

White Band Disease transmission in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis.  

PubMed

The global rise in coral diseases has severely impacted coral reef ecosystems, yet often little is known about these diseases, including how they are transmitted. White Band Disease (WBD), for example, has caused unparalleled declines in live Acropora cover, spreading rapidly throughout the Caribbean by unknown means. Here we test four putative modes of WBD transmission to the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: two animal vectors (Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea) and waterborne transmission to intact and injured coral tissues. Using aquarium-based infection experiments, we determine that C. abbreviata, but not C. caribaea, acts as both a vector and reservoir for transmission of the WBD pathogen. We also demonstrate waterborne transmission to injured, but not intact staghorn coral tissues. The combination of transmission by both animal vectors and through the water column helps explain how WBD is spread locally and across the Caribbean. PMID:23150775

Gignoux-Wolfsohn, S A; Marks, Christopher J; Vollmer, Steven V

2012-01-01

412

Mobuck virus genome sequence and phylogenetic analysis: identification of a novel Orbivirus isolated from a white-tailed deer in Missouri, USA.  

PubMed

The genus Orbivirus includes a diverse group of segmented dsRNA viruses that are transmitted via arthropods, have a global distribution and affect a wide range of hosts. A novel orbivirus was co-isolated with epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) exhibiting clinical signs characteristic of EHDV. Using antiserum generated against EHDV, a pure isolate of the novel non-cytopathic orbivirus was obtained in Aedes albopictus cell culture. Genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of predicted ORFs showed that eight of the ten ORFs were most homologous to Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV), with amino acid identities of 44.3-73.7?%. The remaining two ORFs, VP3 and VP5, were most similar to Middle Point orbivirus (35.9?%) and Yunnan orbivirus (59.8?%), respectively. Taxonomic classification of orbiviruses is largely based on homology of the major subcore structural protein VP2(T2), encoded by segment 2 for mobuck virus. With only 69.1?% amino acid identity to PHSV, we propose mobuck virus as the prototype of a new species of Orbivirus. PMID:24114792

Cooper, Elyse; Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Klumper, Patricia; Scherba, Gail; Simonson, Randy R; Hause, Ben M

2014-01-01

413

Candidates for Symbiotic Control of Sugarcane White Leaf Disease  

PubMed Central

The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri.” Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri” colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. PMID:22798373

Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

414

A universal carrier test for the long tail of Mendelian disease.  

PubMed

Mendelian disorders are individually rare but collectively common, forming a 'long tail' of genetic disease. A single highly accurate assay for this long tail would allow the scaling up of the Jewish community's successful campaign of population screening for Tay-Sachs disease to the general population, thereby improving millions of lives, greatly benefiting minority health and saving billions of dollars. This need has been addressed by designing a universal carrier test: a non-invasive, saliva-based assay for more than 100 Mendelian diseases across all major population groups. The test has been exhaustively validated with a median of 147 positive and 525 negative samples per variant, demonstrating a multiplex assay whose performance compares favourably with the previous standard of care, namely blood-based single-gene carrier tests. Because the test represents a dramatic reduction in the cost and complexity of large-scale population screening, an end to many preventable genetic diseases is now in sight. Moreover, given that the assay is inexpensive and requires only a saliva sample, it is now increasingly feasible to make carrier testing a routine part of preconception care. PMID:20729146

Srinivasan, Balaji S; Evans, Eric A; Flannick, Jason; Patterson, A Scott; Chang, Christopher C; Pham, Tuan; Young, Sharon; Kaushal, Amit; Lee, James; Jacobson, Jessica L; Patrizio, Pasquale

2010-10-01

415

The Dutch strain of BTV-8 in white-tailed deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bluetongue virus (BTV), family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, contains ten double stranded RNA segments encoding at least ten viral proteins. Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne disease; transmission to ruminants, including cattle, sheep, goats, and deer species by bites of species of Culicoides. In...

416

Vaccination of White-tailed Deer with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in captive and free-ranging wildlife remains one of the greatest challenges to eradication of tuberculosis in the United States. A possible addition to current control measures could be vaccination of deer to prevent infection, disease, or tran...

417

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the count...

418

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1979 status report  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1979, an increase of twenty-eight over 1978. Patterns of mortality were similar to those reported in previous documents. During the year, the highest number of deer was killed in October, November, and December. Throughout the year almost twice as many males as females were killed. Reproductive data collected from 19 does revealed that breeding during 1979 probably occurred from early December through early January. Night-lighting showed the same general trends in population increase that were apparent in the road-kill sample. The number of deer night-lighted in 1976 was 11/110 km, while in 1979 the number rose to 40/100 km. the habitat evaluation which began in 1978 was continued in 1979, with a survey of the number of deer trails from a given habitat-type supplementing the radiotelemetry work. Results indicated a preference for cutover areas where immature pine, eastern red cedar, and grasses dominated and for pine plantations where shelter was provided. Upland hardwoods areas were the least preferred.

Kitchings, J.T.; Story, J.D.

1980-10-01

419

Occurrence, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey.  

PubMed

The ingestion of uncooked infected white-tailed deer (WTD) tissues can transmit Toxoplasma gondii infection to humans and mesocarnivores, including cats. In the present study, we tested 264 WTD from New Jersey for T. gondii infection during the 2011-2012 hunting season. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cutoff titer, 25); 76 (28.7%) of 264 WTD were seropositive. Heart muscle samples from 64 seropositive WTD were digested in pepsin, and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii . Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of 9 WTD; tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. One of the 9 strains was highly virulent for outbred Swiss Webster mice. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these 9 T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Six genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant), no. 4 (Type 12), no. 216, no. 220, and no. 221. The last 2 were new genotypes that were reported for the first time. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in deer from this region of the United States. PMID:23574007

Dubey, J P; Randall, A R; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Verma, S K; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

2013-10-01

420

Changes during the holocene in the size of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from central Illinois  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from central Illinois varied in size during the Holocene. The record, which extends back to 8450 yr B.P., indicates small deer through the mid-Holocene until 3650 yr B.P., after which size increases. Although influences of winter climate, seasonality, anthropogenic effects, and other ecological factors should not be discounted, an intriguing possible cause of the deer size shifts is insolation-driven summer climate and its influence on food resources. In the Holocene, small deer size is correlated with high summer insolation and with low winter insolation. Climatic models indicate that in spite of changes in insolation, Holocene winters did not vary greatly through time, especially in contrast to summers, which were dynamic. Physiological constraints peculiar to O. virginianus make critical the quality of summer forage for determining final adult size. Summer temperature averaged 2°C warmer than present during the middle Holocene, which increased evaporation and probably reduced the period of availability of high-quality forage low in fiber and high in protein. Consequently, less fuel for growth was consumed by mid-Holocene deer and only small body size was achieved. Other possible causes (e.g., Bergmann's rule, seasonality) of clinal variation are considered with reference to central Illinois deer, but at present the most parsimonious explanation appears to be the summer insolation hypothesis.

Purdue, James R.

1989-11-01

421

[Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].  

PubMed

White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic. PMID:23894977

Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Ramírez-Pulido, José; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; López, Georgina Isabel García; Janczur, Mariusz

2013-03-01

422

Landscape influence on spatial patterns of meningeal worm and liver fluke infection in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Parasites that primarily infect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), such as liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) and meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis), can cause morbidity and mortality when incidentally infecting moose (Alces alces). Ecological factors are expected to influence spatial variation in infection risk by affecting the survival of free-living life stages outside the host and the abundance of intermediate gastropod hosts. Here, we investigate how ecology influenced the fine-scale distribution of these parasites in deer in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Deer pellet groups (N = 295) were sampled for the presence of P. tenuis larvae and F. magna eggs. We found that deer were significantly more likely to be infected with P. tenuis in habitats with less upland deciduous forest and more upland mixed conifer forest and shrub, a pattern that mirrored microhabitat differences in gastropod abundances. Deer were also more likely to be infected with F. magna in areas with more marshland, specifically rooted-floating aquatic marshes (RFAMs). The environment played a larger role than deer density in determining spatial patterns of infection for both parasites, highlighting the importance of considering ecological factors on all stages of a parasite's life cycle in order to understand its occurrence within the definitive host. PMID:25498206

Vanderwaal, Kimberly L; Windels, Steve K; Olson, Bryce T; Vannatta, J Trevor; Moen, Ron

2015-04-01

423

Field testing of immunocontraception on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Fire Island National Seashore, New York, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Application of contraception for the control of suburban populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been much debated, but few data are available on field applications and even fewer on population effects. Between 1993 and 1997, 74-164 individually known female deer living on Fire Island, New York, USA, were treated remotely with an initial shot of 65 microg porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in Freund's complete adjuvant followed by booster injections of 65 microg PZP in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Starting in 1996, progressively increasing numbers of deer were treated with vaccinating/marking darts. Estimates of population density and composition, using distance sampling methods, began in 1995 in selected portions of the study area. Between 1993 and 1997, fawning rates among individually known, treated adult females decreased by 78.9% from pretreatment rates. Population density in the most heavily treated area increased by 11% per year from 1995 to March 1998 and then decreased at 23% per year to October 2000. In 1999-2000 surveys, fawns comprised 13-14% of the total population in the most heavily treated area, versus 16-33% in nearby untreated areas. These results show that PZP can be delivered effectively to sufficient deer to affect population density and composition in some environments, but that technical and logistical improvements are needed before contraception can be used widely to manage suburban deer populations.

Naugle, R.E.; Rutberg, A.T.; Underwood, H.B.; Turner, J.W., Jr.; Liu, I.K.

2002-01-01

424

Clinical aspects of Alzheimer's disease in black and white patients.  

PubMed Central

This article examines the association between ethnicity and psychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Data from a cross-sectional study of patients evaluated at nine California Department of Health Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers (ADDTCs) were used. Using the ADDTC patient database, sociodemographic and clinical variables in 207 black patients and 1818 white patients with probable and possible Alzheimer's disease were compared. Logistic and linear regression analysis indicated the following results: 1) black patients had fewer years of education and more often had hypertension, 2) black patients reported shorter duration of illness at the time of initial diagnosis of dementia, 3) black patients had lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher Blessed Roth Dementia Rating Scale scores at the time of initial diagnosis, and 4) black patients more frequently reported insomnia and less frequently reported anxiety. Additional studies are needed to validate these findings and to generate hypotheses about the role of cardiovascular disease and pathophysiology of psychiatric symptoms in ethnic populations with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:9510621

Hargrave, R.; Stoeklin, M.; Haan, M.; Reed, B.

1998-01-01

425

Porites white patch syndrome: associated viruses and disease physiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, coral reefs worldwide have undergone significant changes in response to various environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Among the numerous causes of reef degradation, coral disease is one factor that is to a large extent still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the physiology of white patch syndrome (WPS), a disease affecting poritid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. WPS manifests as small, generally discrete patches of tissue discolouration. Physiological analysis revealed that chlorophyll a content was significantly lower in lesions than in healthy tissues, while host protein content remained constant, suggesting that host tissue is not affected by WPS. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, which showed intact host tissue within lesions. TEM also revealed that Symbiodinium cells are lost from the host gastrodermis with no apparent harm caused to the surrounding host tissue. Also present in the electron micrographs were numerous virus-like particles (VLPs), in both coral and Symbiodinium cells. Small (<50 nm diameter) icosahedral VLPs were significantly more abundant in coral tissue taken from diseased colonies, and there was an apparent, but not statistically significant, increase in abundance of filamentous VLPs in Symbiodinium cells from diseased colonies. There was no apparent increase in prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbial abundance in diseased colonies. Taken together, these results suggest that viruses infecting the coral and/or its resident Symbiodinium cells may be the causative agents of WPS.

Lawrence, S. A.; Davy, J. E.; Wilson, W. H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Davy, S. K.

2015-03-01

426

SEROLOGIC SURVEY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER ON ANTICOSTI ISLAND, QUEBEC FOR BOVINE HERPESVIRUS 1, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA, AND PARAINFLUENZA 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1985 unusual mortality was observed among the 3- to 4-yr-old white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Anticosti Island, Qu#{233}bec (Canada). A viral pathogen was suspected to be the cause of the deaths. Thus, a serologic survey for bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus and parainfluenza-3 (P1-3) virus was conducted. We examined 396 deer sera from 1985. Results

Leila Sadi; Robert Joyal; Mario St-Georges; Lucie Lamontagne

427

Rapid detection of serum antibody by dual-path platform VetTB assay in white-tailed deer infected with Mycobacterium bovis.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cervids remains a significant problem affecting farmed herds and wild populations. Traditional skin testing has serious limitations in certain species, whereas emerging serological assays showed promising diagnostic performance. The recently developed immunochromatographic dual-path platform (DPP) VetTB assay has two antigen bands, T1 (MPB83 protein) and T2 (CFP10/ESAT-6 fusion protein), for antibody detection. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of this test by using serum samples collected from groups of white-tailed deer experimentally inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, or M. bovis BCG Pasteur. In addition, we used serum samples from farmed white-tailed deer in herds with no history of TB, as well as from free-ranging white-tailed deer culled during field surveillance studies performed in Michigan known to have bovine TB in the wild deer population. The DPP VetTB assay detected antibody responses in 58.1% of experimentally infected animals within 8 to 16 weeks postinoculation and in 71.9% of naturally infected deer, resulting in an estimated test sensitivity of 65.1% and a specificity of 97.8%. The higher seroreactivity found in deer with naturally acquired M. bovis infection was associated with an increased frequency of antibody responses to the ESAT-6 and CFP10 proteins, resulting in a greater contribution of these antigens, in addition to MPB83, to the detection of seropositive animals, compared with experimental M. bovis infection. Deer experimentally inoculated with either M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. bovis BCG Pasteur did not produce cross-reactive antibodies that could be detected by the DPP VetTB assay. The present findings demonstrate the relatively high diagnostic accuracy of the DPP VetTB test for white-tailed deer, especially in the detection of naturally infected animals. PMID:23595504

Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; O'Brien, Daniel J; Schmitt, Stephen M; Palmer, Mitchell V; Waters, W Ray

2013-06-01

428

Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America.  

PubMed

For many plant species in eastern North America, short observed seed dispersal distances (ranging up to a few tens of meters) fail to explain rapid rates of invasion and migration. This discrepancy points to a substantial gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms by which seeds are dispersed long distances. We investigated the potential for white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus Zimm.), the dominant large herbivore in much of eastern North America, to disperse seeds via endozoochory. This is the first comprehensive study of seed dispersal by white-tailed deer, despite a vast body of research on other aspects of their ecology. More than 70 plant species germinated from deer feces collected over a 1-year period in central New York State, USA. Viable seeds included native and alien herbs, shrubs, and trees, including several invasive introduced species, from the full range of habitat types in the local flora. A mean of >30 seeds germinated per fecal pellet group, and seeds were dispersed during all months of the year. A wide variety of presumed dispersal modes were represented (endo- and exozoochory, wind, ballistic, ant, and unassisted). The majority were species with small-seeded fruits having no obvious adaptations for dispersal, underscoring the difficulty of inferring dispersal ability from diaspore morphology. Due to their broad diet, wide-ranging movements, and relatively long gut retention times, white-tailed deer have tremendous potential for effecting long-distance seed dispersal via ingestion and defecation. We conclude that white-tailed deer represent a significant and previously unappreciated vector of seed dispersal across the North American landscape, probably contributing an important long-distance component to the seed shadows of hundreds of plant species, and providing a mechanism to help explain rapid rates of plant migration. PMID:14740288

Myers, Jonathan A; Vellend, Mark; Gardescu, Sana; Marks, P L

2004-03-01

429

The potential for transmission of BCG from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to cattle (Bos taurus) through a contaminated environment: experimental findings.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis have been shown to transmit the bacterium to other deer and cattle (Bos taurus) by sharing of pen waste and feed. The risk of transmission of M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer to other deer and cattle, however, is not well understood. In order to evaluate this risk, we orally vaccinated 14 white-tailed deer with 1×10(9) colony forming units BCG in lipid-formulated baits and housed them with nine non-vaccinated deer. Each day we exposed the same seven naïve cattle to pen space utilized by the deer to look for transmission between the two species. Before vaccination and every 60 days until the end of the study, we performed tuberculin skin testing on deer and cattle, as well as interferon-gamma testing in cattle, to detect cellular immune response to BCG exposure. At approximately 27 weeks all cattle and deer were euthanized and necropsied. None of the cattle converted on either caudal fold, comparative cervical tests, or interferon-gamma assay. None of the cattle were culture positive for BCG. Although there was immunological evidence that BCG transmission occurred from deer to deer, we were unable to detect immunological or microbiological evidence of transmission to cattle. This study suggests that the risk is likely to be low that BCG-vaccinated white-tailed deer would cause domestic cattle to react to the tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma test through exposure to a BCG-contaminated environment. PMID:23565211

Nol, Pauline; Rhyan, Jack C; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; McCollum, Matt P; Rigg, Tara D; Saklou, Nadia T; Salman, Mo D

2013-01-01

430

The Potential for Transmission of BCG from Orally Vaccinated White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Cattle (Bos taurus) through a Contaminated Environment: Experimental Findings  

PubMed Central

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis have been shown to transmit the bacterium to other deer and cattle (Bos taurus) by sharing of pen waste and feed. The risk of transmission of M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer to other deer and cattle, however, is not well understood. In order to evaluate this risk, we orally vaccinated 14 white-tailed deer with 1×109 colony forming units BCG in lipid-formulated baits and housed them with nine non-vaccinated deer. Each day we exposed the same seven naïve cattle to pen space utilized by the deer to look for transmission between the two species. Before vaccination and every 60 days until the end of the study, we performed tuberculin skin testing on deer and cattle, as well as interferon-gamma testing in cattle, to detect cellular immune response to BCG exposure. At approximately 27 weeks all cattle and deer were euthanized and necropsied. None of the cattle converted on either caudal fold, comparative cervical tests, or interferon-gamma assay. None of the cattle were culture positive for BCG. Although there was immunological evidence that BCG transmission occurred from deer to deer, we were unable to detect immunological or microbiological evidence of transmission to cattle. This study suggests that the risk is likely to be low that BCG-vaccinated white-tailed deer would cause domestic cattle to react to the tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma test through exposure to a BCG-contaminated environment. PMID:23565211

Nol, Pauline; Rhyan, Jack C.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; McCollum, Matt P.; Rigg, Tara D.; Saklou, Nadia T.; Salman, Mo D.

2013-01-01

431

Influence of size and density of browse patches on intake rates and foraging decisions of young moose and white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the functional response and foraging behavior of young moose (Alces alces) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) relative to animal size and the size and distribution of browse patches. The animals were offered one, three, or nine stems of dormant red maple (Acer rubrum) in hand-assembled patches spaced 2.33, 7, 14, or 21 m apart along a runway. Moose

Lisa A. Shipley; Donald E. Spalinger

1995-01-01

432

Serologic Evidence of West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infections in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from New Jersey, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples from 689 hunter-killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) collected during the 2001 fall hunting season in New Jersey were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis en- cephalitis virus (SLEV) by plaque-reduction neutralization tests. WNV-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six (0.9%) of the samples, and SLEV-neutralizing antibodies were found in 11 (1.6%) of the

Ary Farajollahi; Robert Gates; Wayne Crans; Nicholas Komar

2004-01-01

433

The Effect of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E on Biochemical Parameters and Survival of Young Among White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two adult female white-tailed deer were assigned to four complete pelleted diets (±45ppm vitamin E; ±0.2ppm selenium). Selenium and vitamin E concentration in the unsupplemented diet was 0.04 and 5.5 ppm, respectively. Biochemical parameters of the erythrocyte ( RBC ) glutathione peroxidase system and survival of off-spring to wean ing were followed for 2 years. At the end of the

PAUL S. BRADY; LINDA J. BRADY

434

Detection of Borrelia lonestari, Putative Agent of Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness, in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if white-tailed deer may serve as a reservoir host for Borrelia lonestari, we used a nested PCR for the Borrelia flagellin gene to evaluate blood samples collected from deer from eight southeastern states. Seven of 80 deer (8.7%) from 5 of 17 sites (29.4%) had sequence-confirmed evidence of a B. lonestari flagellin gene by PCR, indicating that deer

Victor A. Moore; Andrea S. Varela; Michael J. Yabsley; William R. Davidson; Susan E. Little

2003-01-01

435

CACHE VALLEY AND POTOSI VIRUSES ( BUNYAVIRIDAE ) IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS ): EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS AND ANTIBODY PREVALENCE IN NATURAL POPULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache Valley virus (CVV) and Potosi virus (POTV) are two closely related mosquito-borne viruses (Bunyaviridae: Bunyamwera group) that appear to circulate in several regions of the United States, especially the Midwest. We determined the prevalence of specific neutralizing antibodies to both viruses in Indiana white-tailed deer and conducted infection experiments to assess whether deer could serve as an vertebrate-amplifying host.

CARINA G. M. BLACKMOREAND; PAUL R. GRIMSTAD

436

Electrophysiological measurements of spectral mechanisms in the retinas of two cervids: white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) and fallow deer ( Dama dama )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroretinogram (ERG) flicker photometry was used to study the spectral mechanisms in the retinas of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and fallow deer (Dama dama). In addition to having a rod pigment with maximum sensitivity (?max) of about 497 nm, both species appear to have two classes of photopic receptors. They share in common a short-wavelength-sensitive cone mechanism having ?max in

G. H. Jacobs; J. F. Deegan; J. Neitz; B. P. Murphy; K. V. Miller; R. L. Marchinton

1994-01-01

437

Putative chemical signals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urinary and vaginal mucus volatiles excreted by females during breeding season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine and vaginal mucus samples from female white-tailed deer in estrus and mid-cycle were analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty-four volatiles were found in mucus and 63 in urine. The volatiles common to both vaginal mucus and urine included alcohols, aldehydes, furans, ketones, alkanes, and alkenes. Aromatic hydrocarbons were present only in the vaginal mucus, whereas pyrans, amines,

B. Jemiolo; K. V. Miller; D. Wiesler; I. Jelinek; M. Novotny; R. L. Marchinton

1995-01-01

438

Rapid Detection of Serum Antibody by Dual-Path Platform VetTB Assay in White-Tailed Deer Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cervids remains a significant problem affecting farmed herds and wild populations. Traditional skin testing has serious limitations in certain species, whereas emerging serological assays showed promising diagnostic performance. The recently developed immunochromatographic dual-path platform (DPP) VetTB assay has two antigen bands, T1 (MPB83 protein) and T2 (CFP10/ESAT-6 fusion protein), for antibody detection. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of this test by using serum samples collected from groups of white-tailed deer experimentally inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, or M. bovis BCG Pasteur. In addition, we used serum samples from farmed white-tailed deer in herds with no history of TB, as well as from free-ranging white-tailed deer culled during field surveillance studies performed in Michigan known to have bovine TB in the wild deer population. The DPP VetTB assay detected antibody responses in 58.1% of experimentally infected animals within 8 to 16 weeks postinoculation and in 71.9% of naturally infected deer, resulting in an estimated test sensitivity of 65.1% and a specificity of 97.8%. The higher seroreactivity found in deer with naturally acquired M. bovis infection was associated with an increased frequency of antibody responses to the ESAT-6 and CFP10 proteins, resulting in a greater contribution of these antigens, in addition to MPB83, to the detection of seropositive animals, compared with experimental M. bovis infection. Deer experimentally inoculated with either M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. bovis BCG Pasteur did not produce cross-reactive antibodies that could be detected by the DPP VetTB assay. The present findings demonstrate the relatively high diagnostic accuracy of the DPP VetTB test for white-tailed deer, especially in the detection of naturally infected animals. PMID:23595504

Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; O'Brien, Daniel J.; Schmitt, Stephen M.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Waters, W. Ray

2013-01-01

439

The Role of DDE, PCB, Coplanar PCB and Eggshell Parameters for Reproduction in the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproduction of white-tailed sea eagles was monitored in1964-1999 in 3 differently contaminated sub-populations: Baltic Sea coast (Bp), inland central Sweden (Ip) and Lapland (Lp). 249 dead eggs from 205 clutches were obtained for analyses of DDE and PCBs and for eggshell measurements. A desiccation index (Di) value was calculated for each egg as a measure of water loss through

Björn Helander; Anders Olsson; Anders Bignert; Lillemor Asplund; Kerstin Litzén

2002-01-01

440

LEAD POISONING OF STELLER'S SEA-EAGLE (HALIAEETUS PELAGICUS) AND WHITE-TAILED EAGLE (HALIAEETUS ALBICILLA) CAUSED BY THE INGESTION OF LEAD BULLETS AND SLUGS, IN HOKKAIDO, JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Steller's Sea-Eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) and the White-tailed Eagle (H.albicilla) are among the largest eagles. The total population of the Steller's Sea-Eagle is estimated at 5,000 to 6,000 in- dividuals, and these eagles winter in large numbers in northern Japan, on the island of Hokkaido. Lead poi- soning of Steller's Sea-Eagles in Japan was first confirmed in 1996. By 2007,

KEISUKE SAITO

441

Harvested white-tailed deer as sentinel hosts for early establishing Ixodes scapularis populations and risk from vector-borne zoonoses in southeastern Canada.  

PubMed

Due to recent establishment of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in southeastern Canada, tick-borne zoonoses (Lyme disease, human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis) are of growing concern for public health. Using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) culled in southwestern Quebec during 2007-2008, we investigated whether hunter-killed deer could act as sentinels for early establishing tick populations and for tick-borne pathogens. Accounting for environmental characteristics of culling sites, and age and sex of deer, we investigated whether their tick infestation levels could identify locations of known tick populations detected in active surveillance, presumed tick populations detected by passive surveillance, or both. We also used spatial cluster analyses to identify spatial patterns of tick infestation and occurrence of tick-borne zoonoses infection in ticks collected from the deer. Adult ticks were found on 15% of the 583 deer examined. Adult male deer had the greatest number (approximately 90%) of adult ticks. Overall, 3, 15, and 0% of the ticks collected were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. Our statistical analyses suggest that sex and age of deer, temperature, precipitation, and an index of tick dispersion by migratory birds were significantly associated with tick infestation levels. Cluster analysis identified significant clusters of deer carrying ticks PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum, and for deer carrying two or more I. scapularis. Our study suggests that hunter-killed deer may be effective as sentinels for emerging areas of tick-borne anaplasmosis. They may have limited use as sentinels for early emerging I. scapularis tick populations and emerging Lyme disease risk. PMID:23540128

Bouchard, C; Leighton, P A; Beauchamp, G; Nguon, S; Trudel, L; Milord, F; Lindsay, L R; Bélanger, D; Ogden, N H

2013-03-01

442

Prevalence of five tick-borne bacterial genera in adult Ixodes scapularis removed from white-tailed deer in western Tennessee.  

PubMed

BackgroundIn the northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States Ixodes scapularis Say transmits the causal agents of anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), babesiosis (Babesia microti), and borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi). In the southeastern United States, none of those pathogens are considered endemic and two other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) (ehrlicihosis and rickettiosis) are more common. Our objective was to determine baseline presence and absence data for three non-endemic bacterial agents (Anaplasma, Borrelia and Babesia) and two commonly reported bacterial agents (Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia) in southern I. scapularis (n = 47) collected from 15 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in western Tennessee. FindingsOf the 47 ticks, 27 tested PCR positive for non-pathogenic Rickettsia species, two for Ehrlichia ewingii, one for Ehrlichia sp. ¿Panola Mountain¿, and one for Anaplasma phagocytophilum variant 1 strain. None of these ticks were positive for Babesia or Borrelia (including B. burgdorferi).ConclusionsFinding human pathogens in host-fed I. scapularis merits additional studies surveying pathogen prevalence in questing ticks. Collection of questing I. scapularis in their peak activity months should be undertaken to determine the overall encounter rates and relative risk of pathogenic Ehrlichia in southern I. scapularis. Ehrlichia sequences were homologous to previous human isolates, but neither Babesia nor B. burgdorferi were identified in these ticks. With the identification of pathogenic bacteria in this relatively small collection of I. scapularis from western Tennessee, the study of the absence of Lyme disease in the south should be refocused to evaluate the role of pathogenic Ehrlichia in southern I. scapularis. PMID:25331818

Mays, Sarah E; Hendricks, Brian M; Paulsen, David J; Houston, Allan E; Trout Fryxell, Rebecca T

2014-10-22

443

Febrile response and decrease in circulating lymphocytes following acute infection of white-tailed deer fawns with either a BVDV1 or a BVDV2 strain.  

PubMed

Although commonly associated with infection in cattle, bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) also replicate in many domestic and wildlife species, including cervids. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses have been isolated from a number of cervids, including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus), but little information is available regarding clinical presentation and progression of infection in these species. In preliminary studies of experimental infection of deer with BVDV, researchers noted seroconversion but no clinical signs. In this study, we infected white-tailed deer fawns that were negative for BVDV and for antibodies against BVDV, with either a type 1 or a type 2 BVDV that had been isolated from white-tailed deer. Fawns were monitored for changes in basal temperature, circulating lymphocytes, and platelets. The clinical progression following inoculation in these fawns was similar to that seen with BVDV infections in cattle and included fever and depletion of circulating lymphocytes. Because free-ranging cervid populations are frequently in contact with domestic cattle in the United States, possible transfer of BVDV between cattle and cervids has significant implications for proposed BVDV control programs. PMID:17984260

Ridpath, Julia F; Mark, C Scott; Chase, Christopher C L; Ridpath, Alanson C; Neill, John D

2007-10-01

444

Choroid plexitis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in southern New York State.  

PubMed

Brains, spinal cords, nerve roots, nerves and muscle tissues were removed from deer in southern New York State and examined for histologic evidence of infection by the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. There was no histologic evidence of this infection and only four of 26 deer had serologic evidence of past infection despite the fact that all were parasitized by the tick vector, Ixodes dammini. Of these ticks, 21% were carrying B. burgdorferi. In contrast, most of the deer had choroid plexitis. All but one of 48 deer tested were infected with Trypanosoma cervi, 20 of 24 deer had sarcocystis in skeletal muscles and two had dural lesions probably due to the nematode Pneumostrongylus tenuis. The causal relationship between choroid plexitis and trypanosomiasis is discussed. PMID:3603961

Levine, S; Fish, D; Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F

1987-05-01

445

ANTIBODY PREVALENCE OF EIGHT RUMINANT INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN CALIFORNIA MULE AND BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested 276 sera from 18 free-ranging black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) herds in California (USA) collected from 1987 to 1991 in five biogeographical habitat types, for antibodies against eight infectious disease agents. Overall antibody prevalence was 56% for Anaplasma marginale, 31% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 16% for bluetongue virus serotype 17, 15% for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, 7% for

Bruno B. Chomel; Marius L. Carniciu; Rickie W. Kasten; Paolo M. Castelli; Thierry M. Work; David A. Jessup

446

Serologic survey of selected zoonotic disease agents in black-tailed jack rabbits from western Texas.  

PubMed

A serologic survey for the agents of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) (Rickettsia rickettsii), Borrelia spp. including the causative agent for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted on blood samples collected from 30 and 46 black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) from an urban environment in Lubbock, Texas (USA) during winter 1987 and the following spring 1988, respectively. Antibody titers to the agents of RMSF and borreliosis were detected in sera of 28 and 1% of the jack rabbits, respectively. Neither organisms (rickettsiae and/or spirochetes) nor their associated antigens were detected in any of the tissue or whole blood samples; plague antibodies were not detected in the 76 jack rabbits sampled. Four of 18 ticks (Dermacentor parumapertus) removed from 12 jack rabbits were positive for RMSF using the fluorescent antibody test. The black-tailed jack rabbit is a common wildlife species living in close proximity to higher density human populations in many areas of the southwestern United States. Our results indicate the potential importance of urban populations of this mammal as reservoirs for at least one important zoonotic disease, RMSF, in western Texas. PMID:2106044

Henke, S E; Pence, D B; Demarais, S; Johnson, J R

1990-01-01

447

Reconstruction and morphometric analysis of the nasal airway of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and implications regarding respiratory and olfactory airflow.  

PubMed

Compared with other mammals (e.g., primates, rodents, and carnivores), the form and function of the ungulate nasal fossa, in particular the ethmoidal region, has been largely unexplored. Hence, the nasal anatomy of the largest prey species remains far less understood than that of their predators, rendering comparisons and evolutionary context unclear. Of the previous studies of nasal anatomy, none have investigated the detailed anatomy and functional morphology of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), a species that is ubiquitous throughout North and Central America and in northern regions of South America. Here, nasal form and function is quantitatively investigated in an adult white-tailed deer using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, combined with anatomical reconstruction and morphometric analysis techniques. The cross-sectional anatomy of the airway is shown and a three-dimensional anatomical model of the convoluted nasal fossa is reconstructed from the image data. A detailed morphometric analysis is presented that includes quantitative distributions of airway size and shape (e.g., airway perimeter, cross-sectional area, surface area) and the functional implications of these data regarding respiratory and olfactory airflow are investigated. The white-tailed deer is shown to possess a long, double scroll maxilloturbinal that occupies approximately half of the length of the nasal fossa and provides a large surface area for respiratory heat and moisture exchange. The ethmoidal region contains a convoluted arrangement of folded ethmoturbinals that appear to be morphologically distinct from the single and double scroll ethmoturbinals found in most other non-primates. This complex folding provides a large surface area in the limited space available for chemical sensing, due to the expansive maxilloturbinal. Morphologically, the white-tailed deer is shown to possess a dorsal meatus that leads to an olfactory recess, a nasal architecture that has been shown in other non-primate species to cause unique nasal airflow patterns to develop during sniffing that are optimized for odorant delivery to the sensory part of the nose. Additionally, we demonstrate that, during respiration, airflow in the nasal vestibule and the anterior maxilloturbinal region may be transitional or turbulent, in which case turbulent mixing is expected to enhance respiratory heat and moisture exchange, which could be an important contribution to thermoregulation and water conservation in the white-tailed deer. PMID:25312370

Ranslow, Allison N; Richter, Joseph P; Neuberger, Thomas; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Rumple, Christopher R; Quigley, Andrew P; Pang, Benison; Krane, Michael H; Craven, Brent A

2014-11-01

448

Testosterone and estradiol concentrations in serum, velvet skin, and growing antler bone of male white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

The growth and mineralization of antlers correlate with the seasonal variation of serum androgens. Whereas seasonal levels of testosterone (T) in plasma are well established, steroid concentrations have not yet been determined in the tissues of growing antlers. Therefore, RIA was used to determine T and 17beta estradiol (E2) in serum, and three areas (tip, middle, and base) of the antler bone and the antler skin, called velvet. Blood and antler tissues of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were collected from May to August. The difference between levels of T and E2 among the sites was calculated using the square root transformation followed by a mixed model analysis with individual deer and an interaction of individual and year (individual(*)year) as a random factor. Concentrations of T in serum (799+/-82 pg/ml) were higher than T values in the velvet (589+/-58 pg/ml, P<0.01) and in the antler bone (538+/-58 pg/ml, P<0.001). Estradiol concentrations differed among antler tissues and serum (P<0.001) and between years (P<0.01). Estradiol concentrations in serum (25+/-25 pg/ml) were consistently lower than those in antler bone (208+/-11 pg/ml, P<0.001) and velvet (150+/-12 pg/ml, P<0.001). The E2:T ratio in serum was 1:10-60. The same ratio for the antler bone was only 1:2-3 and for the velvet 1:3.5. It is concluded that higher T and lower E2 concentrations found in plasma, as compared to antler bone or antler velvet, may indicate a partial metabolism of systemic androgens into estrogens xin the tissues of growing antlers. PMID:15726635

Bubenik, George A; Miller, Karl V; Lister, Andrea L; Osborn, David A; Bartos, Ludek; van der Kraak, Glen J

2005-03-01

449

Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival  

PubMed Central

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May–31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

2014-01-01

450

Effects of maternal nutrition, resource use and multi-predator risk on neonatal white-tailed deer survival.  

PubMed

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

Duquette, Jared F; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Lederle, Patrick E

2014-01-01

451

Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden.  

PubMed

In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (>6 microg/gd.w.) lead concentrations, indicating exposure to leaded ammunition, and 14% of the individuals had either liver or kidney lead concentrations diagnostic of lethal lead poisoning (>20 microg/gd.w.). Lead concentrations in liver and kidney were significantly correlated. In individuals with lead levels <6 microg/g, concentrations were significantly higher in kidney than in liver; in individuals with lead levels >20 microg/g, concentrations were significantly higher in liver. The lead isotope ratios indicate that the source of lead in individuals with lethal concentrations is different from that of individuals exhibiting background concentrations of lead (<6 microg/gd.w.) There were no significant sex or age differences in lead concentrations. A study from the Baltic reported in principle no biomagnification of lead, but background lead concentrations in WSE liver in this study were still four to >10 times higher than concentrations reported for Baltic fish from the same time period. In contrast to other biota there was no decrease in lead concentrations in WSE over the study period. The proportion of lead poisoned WSE remained unchanged over the study period, including two years after a partial ban of lead shot was enforced in 2002 for shallow wetlands. The use of lead in ammunition poses a threat to all raptors potentially feeding on shot game or offal. The removal of offal from shot game and alternatives to leaded ammunition needs to be implemented in order to prevent mortality from lead in raptors and scavengers. PMID:19683793

Helander, B; Axelsson, J; Borg, H; Holm, K; Bignert, A

2009-10-15

452

Detection of white matter lesions in cerebral small vessel disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White matter lesions (WML) are diffuse white matter abnormalities commonly found in older subjects and are important indicators of stroke, multiple sclerosis, dementia and other disorders. We present an automated WML detection method and evaluate it on a dataset of small vessel disease (SVD) patients. In early SVD, small WMLs are expected to be of importance for the prediction of disease progression. Commonly used WML segmentation methods tend to ignore small WMLs and are mostly validated on the basis of total lesion load or a Dice coefficient for all detected WMLs. Therefore, in this paper, we present a method that is designed to detect individual lesions, large or small, and we validate the detection performance of our system with FROC (free-response ROC) analysis. For the automated detection, we use supervised classification making use of multimodal voxel based features from different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, including intensities, tissue probabilities, voxel locations and distances, neighborhood textures and others. After preprocessing, including co-registration, brain extraction, bias correction, intensity normalization, and nonlinear registration, ventricle segmentation is performed and features are calculated for each brain voxel. A gentle-boost classifier is trained using these features from 50 manually annotated subjects to give each voxel a probability of being a lesion voxel. We perform ROC analysis to illustrate the benefits of using additional features to the commonly used voxel intensities; significantly increasing the area under the curve (Az) from 0.81 to 0.96 (p<0.05). We perform the FROC analysis by testing our classifier on 50 previously unseen subjects and compare the results with manual annotations performed by two experts. Using the first annotator results as our reference, the second annotator performs at a sensitivity of 0.90 with an average of 41 false positives per subject while our automated method reached the same level of sensitivity at approximately 180 false positives per subject.

Riad, Medhat M.; Platel, Bram; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Karssemeijer, Nico

2013-02-01

453

Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: Use of GIS to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt,and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighboring regions, RVFV is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat forhumans, livestock, and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for ‘exotic’ viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVFV is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep, and goats, if RVFV is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVFV transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)in a typical northeastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare, but these potentially susceptible ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human, and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, or 42 %) of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVFV transmission during the late summermonths. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVFV-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, orby 89%. PMID:21080319

Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A. Desirée; King, Charles H.

2011-01-01

454

Neuropathology of White Matter Changes in Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological white matter changes were investigated in clinically and neuropathologically diagnosed cases of Alzheimer’s disease (AD; 60 cases) and vascular dementia (VaD; 40 cases). In 33 of 60 AD cases, a white matter disease (WMD) characterized by tissue rarefaction, mild gliosis and a non-amyloid small-vessel sclerosis occurred in the central, preferentially frontal deep white matter. The mean vessel density was

Elisabet Englund

1998-01-01

455

HumanWildlife Conflicts 3(1):129135, Spring 2009 White-tailed deer attacking humans during  

E-print Network

-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations have increased in the last 20 years. Primary threats to human: animal attacks, deer attacks, fawning season, human­wildlife conflicts, Odocoileus virginianus, Illinois-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations have proliferated in suburban areas during the last 20 years

456

Loss of white matter integrity is associated with gait disorders in cerebral small vessel disease.  

PubMed

Gait disturbances are common in the elderly. Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter lesions and lacunars infarcts, is thought to disrupt white matter tracts that connect important motor regions, hence resulting in gait disturbances. Pathological studies have demonstrated abnormalities in white matter that may appear normal on brain imaging. The loss of integrity in such normal-appearing white matter may partly be due to small vessel disease and may play a role in causing gait disturbances. The white matter regions involved in these gait disturbances, both in white matter lesions and normal-appearing white matter, remain unclear. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the relation between the location of white matter lesions and gait using voxel-based morphometry analysis, as well as between white matter integrity and gait by applying tract-based spatial statistics to diffusion tensor imaging parameters. Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out on 429 individuals in the age range of 50 and 85 years, with cerebral small vessel disease without dementia or parkinsonism. Gait was assessed quantitatively. White matter lesions, especially in the centrum semiovale and periventricular frontal lobe, were related to a lower gait velocity, shorter stride length and broader stride width. Loss of white matter integrity, as indicated by a lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean diffusivity, in numerous regions was related to a lower gait performance. Most of these regions were located in the normal-appearing white matter. The strongest significant association was found in the corpus callosum, particularly the genu. Most of the associations in the normal-appearing white matter disappeared after controlling for white matter lesions and lacunar infarcts, except for some in the corpus callosum. In conclusion, our study showed that using a combination of voxel-based morphometry analysis of the white matter lesions and diffusion tensor imaging is of added value in investigating the pathophysiology of gait disturbances in subjects with small vessel disease. Our data demonstrate that, in elderly subjects with small vessel disease, widespread disruption of white matter integrity, predominantly in the normal-appearing white matter, is involved in gait disturbances. In particular, loss of fibres interconnecting bilateral cortical regions, especially the prefrontal cortex that is involved in cognitive control on motor performance, may be important. The most important mechanisms underlying affected normal-appearing white matter are probably a direct effect of small vessel disease or, indirectly, remote effects of white matter lesions and lacunar infarcts. PMID:21156660

de Laat, Karlijn F; Tuladhar, Anil M; van Norden, Anouk G W; Norris, David G; Zwiers, Marcel P; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

2011-01-01

457

White matter changes on ct brain scan are associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction in children with symptomatic HIV disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of white matter abnormalities on neurobehavioral dysfunction was investigated in 58 children with symptomatic HIV-1 disease, 28 with CT white matter abnormalities and 30 matched (for age, gender, route of infection, and stage of disease) control patients with comparable levels of cortical atrophy, but no white matter abnormalities. Children with white matter abnormalities were more impaired on measures

Pim Brouwers; Harry van der Vlugt; Howard Moss; Pamela Wolters; Philip Pizzo

1995-01-01

458

Short-tailed shrews as reservoirs of the agents of Lyme disease and human babesiosis.  

PubMed

To determine whether short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) serve as reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and the agent of human babesiosis (Babesia microti), we examined nymphal ticks that had fed as larvae on shrews collected from 3 enzootic sites in coastal Massachusetts for evidence of infection by either or both of these agents. Xenodiagnosis indicated that 11 of 14 shrews were infected by B. burgdorferi. One of 3 piroplasm-infected shrews also infected ticks with B. microti. In a site where the piroplasm is endemic, 11 of 17 shrews showed patent parasitemias by thin blood smears. Of these, 4 had parasitemias exceeding 40%. Few immature ticks infested shrews, however, suggesting that B. brevicauda, although abundant in some endemic sites and serving as a competent reservoir, would contribute minimally to the population of infected nymphs. PMID:2213411

Telford, S R; Mather, T N; Adler, G H; Spielman, A

1990-10-01

459

Single-treatment porcine zona pellucida immunocontraception associated with reduction of a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Previous reports have demonstrated gradual reductions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations through immunocontraception, with stabilization occurring after 2-4 yr of treatment, and subsequent reductions of 6-10% annually. These studies employed porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccines that required two initial treatments and annual retreatments. From 2005 to 2010, 258 adult and yearling female deer on Fripp Island, South Carolina, were treated with one of several PZP preparations designed to produce 2+ yr of effective contraception with a single treatment. These included several preparations of SpayVac and of native PZP-adjuvant emulsion plus PZP and QA-21 in timed-release pellets. Deer were chemically immobilized, ear-tagged, and administered initial treatments by hand in February-March. Some treated deer were boosted remotely with PZP-adjuvant emulsion 1.5 - 4.5 yr after initial treatments. Ground-based distance sampling was used to estimate deer population density at Fripp Island, a resort community, and at a relatively undeveloped neighboring control site, Hunting Island. Most vaccine preparations tested reduced fawning rates by 75% to 95% for at least 1 yr. From 2005 to 2011, deer density on Fripp Island declined by 50%, from 72 deer/km(2) to 36 deer/km(2), an average annual reduction of 11%. In contrast, population density on the Hunting Island control site fluctuated between 2005 and 2011, averaging 23 deer/km(2) (range, 19-28 deer/km(2)). Population declines on Fripp Island were associated with an increase in the proportion of treated females and with a progressive decrease in winter fawn:doe ratios, from 1.21 fawns/doe in 2005 to 0.19 fawns/doe in 2010. Winter fawn:doe ratios averaged 1.36 fawns/doe (range, 0.84 - 1.62 fawns/doe) at the Hunting Island control site. Annual survivorship averaged approximately 79% among ear-tagged females. The rate at which deer populations diminished in association with PZP treatments on Fripp Island was higher than that seen at other study sites, although the reasons for the more rapid decline on Fripp Island are not well understood. PMID:24437087

Rutberg, Allen T; Naugle, Ricky E; Verret, Frank

2013-12-01

460

MHC class II-restricted, CD4(+) T-cell proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer are significant wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis for cattle, predators, and, potentially, humans. Infection of cattle with M. bovis stimulates an antigen-specific T-cell response, with both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells implicated in protective immunity. Few studies, however, have examined lymphocyte subset responses to experimental M. bovis infection of white-tailed deer. In this study, a flow cytometric proliferation assay was used to determine the relative contribution of individual peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets of M. bovis-infected white-tailed deer in the recall response to M. bovis antigen. Naive deer were challenged with M. bovis by cohabitation with infected deer. These M. bovis-challenged deer developed significant in vivo (delayed-type hypersensitivity) and in vitro (proliferative) responses to M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD). At necropsy, typical tuberculous lesions containing M. bovis were detected within lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes of infected deer. The predominant subset of lymphocytes that proliferated in response to in vitro stimulation with PPD was the CD4(+) subset. Minimal proliferative responses were detected from CD8(+), gamma delta TCR(+), and B-cells. Addition of monoclonal antibodies specific for MHC II antigens, but not MHC I or CD1 antigens, abrogated the proliferative response. Together, these findings indicate that while CD4(+) cells from infected deer proliferate in the recall response to M. bovis antigens, this response is not sufficient to clear M. bovis and immunologic intervention may require stimulation of alternate subsets of lymphocytes. PMID:11044555

Waters, W R; Palmer, M V; Pesch, B A; Olsen, S C; Wannemuehler, M J; Whipple, D L

2000-10-31

461

Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.  

PubMed

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations and dispersal in regions where deer are relevant hosts for these ectoparasites. PMID:22079077

Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

2012-01-01

462

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak. PMID:24807363

Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

2014-07-01

463

Sex identification of elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis), moose (Alces alces), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

We have developed a PCR-based protocol to determine the gender of tissue samples originating from elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis), moose (Alces alces) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The technique simultaneously amplifies a conserved region of the sex-determining gene on the Y-chromosome (Sry) and a region of the Fragile X mental retardation gene (Fmr-1). The multiplex nature of this protocol allows the determination of gender using the Sry marker with the Fmr-1 marker providing an internal control. This technique is applicable to the enforcement of the validation tag system for game species. Data are provided from a wildlife investigation in Ontario. PMID:9608686

Wilson, P J; White, B N

1998-05-01

464

A comparison of non-destructive sampling strategies to assess the exposure of white-tailed eagle nestlings ( Haliaeetus albicilla) to persistent organic pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To circumvent difficulties associated with monitoring adult predatory birds, we investigated the feasibility of different non-destructive strategies for nestling white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla). We were able to quantify polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) in body feathers (16.92, 3.37 and 7.81ngg?1 dw, respectively), blood plasma (8.37, 0.32 and 5.22ngmL?1 ww, respectively), and preen oil (1157.95,

Igor Eulaers; Adrian Covaci; Jelle Hofman; Torgeir Nygård; Duncan J. Halley; Rianne Pinxten; Marcel Eens; Veerle L. B. Jaspers

2011-01-01

465

The panzootic white-nose syndrome: an environmentally constrained disease?  

PubMed

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating bats probably caused by a pathogenic fungus, Geomyces destructans. The fungus has dispersed rapidly in the Northeastern United States and Canada and is presently a serious risk to hibernating bats of the mid-southern United States. Our objectives were to investigate how the environmental factors of temperature and resources impact the physiology of bats and apply this to explore possible effects of the fungus G. destructans on bats. Using a dynamic, physiologically based model parameterized for little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), we found that the survival region defined in terms of minimal and maximal cave temperatures and bat lipid reserve levels exhibits plasticity as a function of cave temperature. During the pre-hibernation period, constellations of increased availability of fall and winter prey, reduced energy expenditure and lipogenic factors provide fat deposition in hibernator species that engender survival throughout the hibernation period. The model-derived survival region is used to demonstrate that small increases in lipid reserves allow survival under increasing maximum temperatures, which provides flexibility of bat persistence at the higher cave temperature ranges that may occur in the Southern United States. Antipodally, the lower-temperature survival range is bounded with minimum temperatures. Our results suggest that there is an environmental distinction between survival of bats in Southern and Northern US states, a relationship that could prove very important in managing WNS and its dispersal. PMID:22044513

Hallam, T G; Federico, P

2012-06-01

466

Morphological and Genetic Comparisons between Babesia bovis and Trypanosoma spp. Found in Cattle and White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

(Cervus canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus), WTD (Odocoileus virginianus), moose (Alces alces shirasi), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and bison 14 (Bison bison) in Wyoming (Kingston et al., 1986...

Fisher, Amanda

2012-10-19

467

In vivo parahippocampal white matter pathology as a biomarker of disease progression to Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Noninvasive diagnostic tests for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are limited. Postmortem diagnosis is based on density and distribution of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and amyloid-rich neuritic plaques. In preclinical stages of AD, the cells of origin for the perforant pathway within the entorhinal cortex are among the first to display NFTs, indicating its compromise in early stages of AD. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the integrity of the parahippocampal white matter in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, as a first step in developing a noninvasive tool for early diagnosis. Subjects with AD (N = 9), MCI (N = 8), or no cognitive impairment (NCI; N = 20) underwent DTI-MRI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean (MD) and radial (RD) diffusivity measured from the parahippocampal white matter in AD and NCI subjects differed greatly. Discriminant analysis in the MCI cases assigned statistical membership of 38% of MCI subjects to the AD group. Preliminary data 1 year later showed that all MCI cases assigned to the AD group either met the diagnostic criteria for probable AD or showed significant cognitive decline. Voxelwise analysis in the parahippocampal white matter revealed a progressive change in the DTI patterns in MCI and AD subjects: whereas converted MCI cases showed structural changes restricted to the anterior portions of this region, in AD the pathology was generalized along the entire anterior-posterior axis. The use of DTI for in vivo assessment of the parahippocampal white matter may be useful for identifying individuals with MCI at highest risk for conversion to AD and for assessing disease progression. PMID:23839862

Solodkin, Ana; Chen, E Elinor; Van Hoesen, Gary W; Heimer, Lennart; Shereen, Ahmed; Kruggel, Frithjof; Mastrianni, James

2013-12-15

468

Major-histocompatibility-complex-associated variation in secondary sexual traits of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): evidence for good-genes advertisement.  

PubMed

Good-genes hypotheses predict that development of secondary sexual characters can be an honest advertisement of heritable male quality. We explored this hypothesis using a cervid model (adult, male white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus) to determine whether antler development could provide an honest signal of a male's genetic quality and condition to adversaries. We compared antler, morphometric, hormonal, and parasitic data collected from hunter-harvested deer to characteristics of the Mhc-DRB (Odvi), the most widely studied gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in Artiodactyla. We detected associations between genetic characteristics at Odvi-DRB and antler development and body mass, suggesting that antler development and body mass may be associated with pathogen resistance in deer and thus may be an honest signal of genetic quality. We also detected associations between Odvi-DRB characteristics and serum testosterone during the breeding season, suggesting that certain MHC characteristics may help deer cope with stresses related to breeding activity. In addition, we observed a negative relationship between degree of antler development and overall abundance of abomasal helminths. Our observations provide support for the hypothesis that antler development in white-tailed deer is an honest signal of quality. PMID:11327168

Ditchkoff, S S; Lochmiller, R L; Masters, R E; Hoofer, S R; Van Den Bussche, R A

2001-03-01

469

Using heterozygosity–fitness correlations to study inbreeding depression in an isolated population of white-tailed deer founded by few individuals  

PubMed Central

A heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFCs) may reflect inbreeding depression, but the extent to which they do so is debated. HFCs are particularly likely to occur after demographic disturbances such as population bottleneck or admixture. We here study HFC in an introduced and isolated ungulate population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus in Finland founded in 1934 by four individuals. A total of 422 ? 1-year-old white-tailed deer were collected in the 2012 hunting season in southern Finland and genotyped for 14 microsatellite loci. We find significant identity disequilibrium as estimated by g2. Heterozygosity was positively associated with size- and age-corrected body mass, but not with jaw size or (in males) antler score. Because of the relatively high identity disequilibrium, heterozygosity of the marker panel explained 51% of variation in inbreeding. Inbreeding explained approximately 4% of the variation in body mass and is thus a minor, although significant source of variation in body mass in this population. The study of HFC is attractive for game- and conservation-oriented wildlife management because it presents an affordable and readily used approach for genetic monitoring that allowing identification of fitness costs associated with genetic substructuring in what may seem like a homogeneous population. PMID:25691963

Brommer, Jon E; Kekkonen, Jaana; Wikström, Mikael

2015-01-01

470

Using heterozygosity-fitness correlations to study inbreeding depression in an isolated population of white-tailed deer founded by few individuals.  

PubMed

A heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) may reflect inbreeding depression, but the extent to which they do so is debated. HFCs are particularly likely to occur after demographic disturbances such as population bottleneck or admixture. We here study HFC in an introduced and isolated ungulate population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus in Finland founded in 1934 by four individuals. A total of 422 ? 1-year-old white-tailed deer were collected in the 2012 hunting season in southern Finland and genotyped for 14 microsatellite loci. We find significant identity disequilibrium as estimated by g 2. Heterozygosity was positively associated with size- and age-corrected body mass, but not with jaw size or (in males) antler score. Because of the relatively high identity disequilibrium, heterozygosity of the marker panel explained 51% of variation in inbreeding. Inbreeding explained approximately 4% of the variation in body mass and is thus a minor, although significant source of variation in body mass in this population. The study of HFC is attractive for game- and conservation-oriented wildlife management because it presents an affordable and readily used approach for genetic monitoring that allowing identification of fitness costs associated with genetic substructuring in what may seem like a homogeneous population. PMID:25691963

Brommer, Jon E; Kekkonen, Jaana; Wikström, Mikael

2015-01-01