Sample records for white tail disease

  1. Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management

    E-print Network

    Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White- tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management Zone. PLoS ONE 8 and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We

  2. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

    E-print Network

    Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer DANIEL J. STORM,1,7, MICHAEL D. SAMUEL,2 ROBERT E. ROLLEY,3 PAUL SHELTON,4 NICHOLAS S. KEULER,5. Richards, and T. R. Van Deelen. 2013. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of chronic

  3. White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

    2012-09-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437

  4. Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joly, D.O.; Ribic, C.A.; Langenberg, J.A.; Beheler, K.; Batha, C.A.; Dhuey, B.J.; Rolley, R.E.; Bartelt, G.; VanDeelen, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

  5. SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN WISCONSIN WHITE-TAILED DEER

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN WISCONSIN WHITE-TAILED DEER Damien O. Joly,1 to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD

  6. Demographic Patterns and Harvest Vulnerability of Chronic Wasting Disease Infected White-Tailed Deer in Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL A. GREAR; MICHAEL D. SAMUEL; JULIE A. LANGENBERG; DELWYN KEANE

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a .2,500-km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest

  7. Scraping Behavior in Male White-tailed Deer as a Potential Means of Transmitting Chronic Wasting Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis C Kinsell

    2010-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has become a concern for wildlife managers and hunters across the United States. High prevalence of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in older male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) suggests that sex-specific social behavior may contribute to the spread of the disease among males. Scraping is a marking behavior performed by male white-tailed deer during the rut in

  8. Monitoring for Chronic Wasting Disease in Mule Deer and White-tailed Deer at Wind Cave National Park: Investigating an Emerging Epizootic

    E-print Network

    Monitoring for Chronic Wasting Disease in Mule Deer and White-tailed Deer at Wind Cave National University 2006 #12;11 Monitoring for Chronic Wasting Disease in Mule Deer and White-tailed Deer at Wind Cave would bring in a dead deer or need some veterinary expertise. I also would like to thank Dr. April

  9. Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: Complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: Complement wasting disease Complement system Conditional logistic regression Prion Prnp Transmissible spongiform of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic

  10. PRION PROTEIN GENE HETEROGENEITY IN FREE-RANGING WHITE-TAILED DEER WITHIN THE CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE AFFECTED REGION OF WISCONSIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad Johnson; Jody Johnson; Murray Clayton; Debbie McKenzie; Judd Aiken

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was first identified in Wisconsin (USA) in white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in February 2002. To determine if prion protein gene (Prnp) allelic variability was associated with CWD in white-tailed deer from Wisconsin, we sequenced Prnp from 26 CWD-positive and 100 CWD-negative deer. Sequence analysis of Prnp suggests that at least 86-96% of the white-tailed deer

  11. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  12. Spatial epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Blanchong, Julie A.; Batha, C.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Keane, D.P.; Ribic, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD prevalence declined with distance from a central location, was locally correlated at a scale of 3.6 km, and was correlated with deer habitat abundance. The latter result is consistent with patterns expected for a positive relationship between density and prevalence of CWD. We recommend management activities focused on culling in geographic areas with high prevalence to have the greatest probability of removing infected individuals. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors in envolved in CWD spread and infection rates, especially the role of density-dependent transmission. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  13. Demographic patterns and harvest vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected white-tailed deer in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, D.A.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Keane, D.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500-km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310-km2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and noninfected deer. Our results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) free-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible nonlinear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found, as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  14. Transmission of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer: implications for disease spread and management.

    PubMed

    Jennelle, Christopher S; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:24658535

  15. Spatial epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Joly, Damien O; Samuel, Michael D; Langenberg, Julia A; Blanchong, Julie A; Batha, Carl A; Rolley, Robert E; Keane, Delwyn P; Ribic, Christine A

    2006-07-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD prevalence declined with distance from a central location, was locally correlated at a scale of 3.6 km, and was correlated with deer habitat abundance. The latter result is consistent with patterns expected for a positive relationship between density and prevalence of CWD. We recommend management activities focused on culling in geographic areas with high prevalence to have the greatest probability of removing infected individuals. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors involved in CWD spread and infection rates, especially the role of density-dependent transmission. PMID:17092889

  16. Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare clinicopathological findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, three groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with WTD, mule deer or elk isolates of CWD. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months pos...

  17. EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) OF ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSONI), WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS), AND MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS HEMIONUS) TO WHITE-TAILED DEER BY INTRACEREBRAL ROUTE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting elk, white-tailed deer, and mule deer. Intra-species transmission of CWD is readily accomplished via oral administration of CWD-affected brain. And while the exact mode of natural transmission is unclear, ho...

  18. Reproductive disease associated with inoculation of pregnant white-tailed deer with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose was to study the effects of BVDV infection in pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). To this end 11 white-tailed deer was purchased and housed in BSL2 containment. Pregnancy status was confirmed and the calculated stage of pregnancy was based on date of contact with buck....

  19. Presence and Seeding Activity of Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin L. Daus; Johanna Breyer; Katja Wagenfuehr; Wiebke M. Wemheuer; Achim Thomzig; Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer; Michael Beekes

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), or prion disease, occurring in cervids such as white tailed-deer (WTD), mule deer or elk in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report for the first time a

  20. Diversity and Distribution of White-Tailed Deer mtDNA Lineages in Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Outbreak Areas in Southern Wisconsin, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kip G. Rogers; Stacie J. Robinson; Michael D. Samuel; Daniel A. Grear

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity

  1. Landscape influences on dispersal of white-tailed deer and attendant risk of chronic wasting disease spread as assessed by a landscape genetics approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krista Renee Lang

    2010-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence the spread of wildlife diseases is crucial for designing effective surveillance programs and appropriate management strategies. The potential introduction of chronic wasting disease (CWD) to Iowa is of significant management concern because it is found in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations in several bordering states, including Wisconsin. To address this concern, I used a landscape

  2. Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret A. Wild; Terry R. Spraker; Christina J. Sigurdson; Katherine I. O'Rourke; Michael W. Miller

    The usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (CWD) was evaluated. Disease was tracked in a CWD-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of

  3. The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations.

    PubMed

    Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Green, Michelle L; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Novakofski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to contain the spread of disease often are developed with incomplete knowledge of the possible outcomes but are intended to minimize the risks associated with delaying control. Culling of game species by government agencies is one approach to control disease in wild populations but is unpopular with hunters and wildlife enthusiasts, politically unpalatable, and erodes public support for agencies responsible for wildlife management. We addressed the functional differences between hunting and government culling programs for managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer by comparing prevalence over a 10-year period in Illinois and Wisconsin. When both Illinois and Wisconsin were actively culling from 2003 - 2007, there were no statistical differences between state CWD prevalence estimates. Wisconsin government culling concluded in 2007 and average prevalence over the next five years was 3.09 ± 1.13% with an average annual increase of 0.63%. During that same time period, Illinois continued government culling and there was no change in prevalence throughout Illinois. Despite its unpopularity among hunters, localized culling is a disease management strategy that can maintain low disease prevalence while minimizing impacts on recreational deer harvest. PMID:24128754

  4. Evaluating spatial overlap and relatedness of white-tailed deer in a chronic wasting disease management zone.

    PubMed

    Magle, Seth B; Samuel, Michael D; Van Deelen, Timothy R; Robinson, Stacie J; Mathews, Nancy E

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin's area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular. PMID:23437171

  5. Effects of chronic wasting disease on reproduction and fawn harvest vulnerability in Wisconsin white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Blanchong, Julie A; Grear, Daniel A; Weckworth, Byron V; Keane, Delwyn P; Scribner, Kim T; Samuel, Michael D

    2012-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects free-ranging and captive North American cervids. Although the impacts of CWD on cervid survival have been documented, little is known about the disease impacts on reproduction and recruitment. We used genetic methods and harvest data (2002-04) to reconstruct parentage for a cohort of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns born in spring 2002 and evaluate the effects of CWD infection on reproduction and fawn harvest vulnerability. There was no difference between CWD-positive and CWD-negative male deer in the probability of being a parent. However, CWD-positive females were more likely to be parents than CWD-negative females. Because our results are based on harvested animals, we evaluated the hypothesis that higher parentage rates occurred because fawns with CWD-positive mothers were more vulnerable to harvest. Male fawns with CWD-positive mothers were harvested earlier (>1 mo relative to their mother's date of harvest) and farther away from their mothers than male fawns with CWD-negative mothers. Male fawns with CWD-positive mothers were also harvested much earlier and farther away than female fawns from CWD-positive mothers. Most female fawns (86%) with CWD-positive mothers were harvested from the same section as their mothers, while almost half of male and female fawns with CWD-negative mothers were farther away. We conclude that preclinical stages of CWD infection do not prohibit white-tailed deer from successfully reproducing. However, apparently higher harvest vulnerability of male fawns with CWD-positive mothers suggests that CWD infection may make females less capable of providing adequate parental care to ensure the survival and recruitment of their fawns. PMID:22493111

  6. White-tailed deer harvest from the chronic wasting disease eradication zone in south-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Sausen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin in 2002. The current control method for CWD in the state is the harvest of deer from affected areas to reduce population density and lower CWD transmission. We used spatial regression methods to identify factors associated with deer harvest across south-central Wisconsin. Harvest of deer by hunters was positively related to deer density (slope=0.003, 95% CI=0.0001-0.006), the number of landowners that requested harvest permits (slope=0.071, 95% CI=0.037-0.105), and proximity to the area of highest CWD infection (slope=-0.041, 95% CI=-0.056- -0.027). Concomitantly, harvest was not impacted in areas where landowners signed a petition protesting intensive deer reduction (slope=-0.00006, 95% CI=-0.0005-0.0003). Our results suggest that the success of programs designed to reduce deer populations for disease control or to reduce overabundance in Wisconsin are dependent on landowner and hunter participation. We recommend that programs or actions implemented to eradicate or mitigate the spread of CWD should monitor and assess deer population reduction and evaluate factors affecting program success to improve methods to meet management goals.

  7. From the field: Efficacy of detecting Chronic Wasting Disease via sampling hunter-killed white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Boyd, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Surveillance programs for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids often use a standard of being able to detect 1% prevalence when determining minimum sample sizes. However, 1% prevalence may represent >10,000 infected animals in a population of 1 million, and most wildlife managers would prefer to detect the presence of CWD when far fewer infected animals exist. We wanted to detect the presence of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Pennsylvania when the disease was present in only 1 of 21 wildlife management units (WMUs) statewide. We used computer simulation to estimate the probability of detecting CWD based on a sampling design to detect the presence of CWD at 0.1% and 1.0% prevalence (23-76 and 225-762 infected deer, respectively) using tissue samples collected from hunter-killed deer. The probability of detection at 0.1% prevalence was <30% with sample sizes of ???6,000 deer, and the probability of detection at 1.0% prevalence was 46-72% with statewide sample sizes of 2,000-6,000 deer. We believe that testing of hunter-killed deer is an essential part of any surveillance program for CWD, but our results demonstrated the importance of a multifaceted surveillance approach for CWD detection rather than sole reliance on testing hunter-killed deer.

  8. Genetic Analysis of White-tailed Deer Population Structure in Iowa: Identifying Potential Patterns and Rates of Disease Spread

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    Genetic Analysis of White-tailed Deer Population Structure in Iowa: Identifying Potential Patterns and Objectives: o Conduct a statewide assessment of deer population genetic structure in Iowa to determine the degree of genetic connectivity between free-ranging deer populations in Iowa and free-ranging deer

  9. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer and elk in North America. All diseases in this family are characterized by long preclinical incubation periods following by a relatively short clinical course. Endpoint disease is characterized by ext...

  10. Molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer, elk, and moose. CWD is a fatal neurologic disease with a long preclinical incubation period, during which the disease is probably transmitted to healthy animals through direct exposure or environ...

  11. Mucosal immunization with an attenuated Salmonella vaccine partially protects white-tailed deer from chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Fernando; Mathiason, Candace K; Yim, Lucia; Wong, Kinlung; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Nalls, Amy; Peyser, Daniel; Estevez, Veronica; Denkers, Nathaniel; Xu, Jinfeng; Osborn, David A; Miller, Karl V; Warren, Robert J; Brown, David R; Chabalgoity, Jose A; Hoover, Edward A; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2015-01-29

    Prion disease is a unique category of illness, affecting both animals and humans, in which the underlying pathogenesis is related to a conformational change of a normal, self-protein called PrP(C) (C for cellular) to a pathological and infectious conformer known as PrP(Sc) (Sc for scrapie). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a prion disease believed to have arisen from feeding cattle with prion contaminated meat and bone meal products, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) infects large numbers of deer and elk, with the potential to infect humans. Currently no prionosis has an effective treatment. Previously, we have demonstrated we could prevent transmission of prions in a proportion of susceptible mice with a mucosal vaccine. In the current study, white-tailed deer were orally inoculated with attenuated Salmonella expressing PrP, while control deer were orally inoculated with vehicle attenuated Salmonella. Once a mucosal response was established, the vaccinated animals were boosted orally and locally by application of polymerized recombinant PrP onto the tonsils and rectal mucosa. The vaccinated and control animals were then challenged orally with CWD-infected brain homogenate. Three years post CWD oral challenge all control deer developed clinical CWD (median survival 602 days), while among the vaccinated there was a significant prolongation of the incubation period (median survival 909 days; p=0.012 by Weibull regression analysis) and one deer has remained CWD free both clinically and by RAMALT and tonsil biopsies. This negative vaccinate has the highest titers of IgA in saliva and systemic IgG against PrP. Western blots showed that immunoglobulins from this vaccinate react to PrP(CWD). We document the first partially successful vaccination for a prion disease in a species naturally at risk. PMID:25539804

  12. Demodectic mange, dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K

    2014-05-01

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential. PMID:23912715

  13. SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN WISCONSIN WHITE-TAILED DEER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien O. Joly; Michael D. Samuel; Julia A. Langenberg; Julie A. Blanchong; Carl A. Batha; Robert E. Rolley; Delwyn P. Keane; Christine A. Ribic

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD- contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We

  14. Polymorphisms in the prion precursor functional gene but not the pseudogene are associated with susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine I. O'Rourke; Terry R. Spraker; Linda K. Hamburg; Thomas E. Besser; Kelly A. Brayton; Donald P. Knowles

    2004-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) status and PrP genotypes were determined for a group of 133 wild white-tailed deer in a 780 acre enclosure in western Nebraska, USA. Approximately half of the deer tested showed evidence of PrPd in the brainstem or lymphoid tissues. Four PRNP alleles encoding amino acid substitutions were identified, with substitutions at residues 95 (QRH), 96 (GRS)

  15. Aerosol transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Denkers, Nathaniel D; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Anderson, Kelly R; Seelig, Davis M; Haley, Nicholas J; Dahmes, Sallie J; Osborn, David A; Miller, Karl V; Warren, Robert J; Mathiason, Candace K; Hoover, Edward A

    2013-02-01

    While the facile transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) remains incompletely elucidated, studies in rodents suggest that exposure of the respiratory mucosa may be an efficient pathway. The present study was designed to address this question in the native cervid host. Here, we demonstrate aerosol transmission of CWD to deer with a prion dose >20-fold lower than that used in previous oral inoculations. Inhalation of prions may facilitate transmission of CWD and, perhaps, other prion infections. PMID:23175370

  16. Prion protein in cardiac muscle of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) infected with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jean E; Brown, Jeremy; Kreeger, Terry; Williams, Elizabeth S

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the possible presence of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) in striated muscle of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-affected cervids, samples of diaphragm, tongue, heart and three appendicular skeletal muscles from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (Alces alces shirasi) were examined by ELISA, Western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). PrP(d) was detected in samples of heart muscle from seven of 16 CWD-infected white-tailed deer, including one free-ranging deer, and in 12 of 17 CWD-infected elk, but not in any of 13 mule deer samples, nor in the single CWD-infected moose. For white-tailed deer, PrP(d) was detected by Western blot at multiple sites throughout the heart; IHC results on ventricular sections of both elk and white-tailed deer showed positive staining in cardiac myocytes, but not in conduction tissues or nerve ganglia. Levels of PrP(d) in cardiac tissues were estimated from Western blot band intensity to be lower than levels found in brain tissue. PrP(d) was not detected in diaphragm, triceps brachii, semitendinosus, latissiumus dorsi or tongue muscles for any of the study subjects. This is the first report of PrP(d) in cardiac tissue from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy-infected ruminants in the human food chain and the first demonstration by immunological assays of PrP(d) in any striated muscle of CWD-infected cervids. PMID:17030881

  17. Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route.

    PubMed

    Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Miller, J M; Kunkle, R A; Hall, S M; Nicholson, E M; O'Rourke, K I; Greenlee, J J; Williams, E S

    2008-05-01

    To compare clinical and pathologic findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, 3 groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with a CWD prion of WTD, mule deer, or elk origin. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months postinoculation (MPI), 1 deer from each of the 3 inoculated groups was necropsied and their tissues were examined for lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (SE) and for the presence of abnormal prion protein (PrP(d)) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB). The remaining deer were allowed to live until they developed clinical signs of the disease which began approximately 18 MPI. By 26 MPI, all deer were euthanatized on humane grounds. Obvious differences in clinical signs or the incubation periods were not observed between the 3 groups of deer given CWD. In 1 of 3 nonclinical deer euthanatized at 10 MPI, minimal microscopic lesions of SE were seen in the central nervous system (CNS) tissues, and PrP(d) was observed by IHC in tissues of all 3 deer. In the clinical deer, CNS lesions of SE and PrP(d) accumulations were more severe and extensive. It is concluded that the 3 sources of CWD prion did not induce significant differences in time to clinical disease or qualitative differences in signs or lesions in WTD. However, this observation does not imply that these CWD agents would necessarily behave similarly in other recipient species. PMID:18487485

  18. Broad and fine-scale genetic analysis of white-tailed deer populations: estimating the relative risk of chronic wasting disease spread.

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Merrill, Evelyn H; Pybus, Margo J; Bollinger, Trent K; Wilson, Gregory A; Coltman, David W

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, similar to sheep scrapie that has only recently been detected in wild populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in western Canada. Relatively little is known about local transmission dynamics of the disease or the potential for long-distance spread. We analysed the population genetic structure of over 2000 white-tailed deer sampled from Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan using microsatellite profiles and mtDNA sequencing to assess the relative risk of disease spread. There was very little differentiation among subpopulations and a weak trend of increasing differentiation with geographic distance. This suggests that the potential for long-distance disease spread through the dispersal of infected individuals is possible, yet the risk of spread should gradually diminish with distance from infection foci. Within subpopulations, females were more related than expected by chance (R > 0) within a radius of approximately 500 m. Sex-biased philopatry and social interactions among related females may facilitate local disease transmission within social groups. Local herd reduction may therefore be an effective tool for reducing the disease prevalence when implemented at the appropriate spatial scale. PMID:25567957

  19. Evaluation of a wild white-tailed deer population management program for controlling chronic wasting disease in Illinois, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated population management programs for controlling chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild white-tailed deer in Illinois between November 2002 and March 2008. The intervention consisted of measures of deer removal from three deer population control programs: Illinois Department of Natural Resources culling, deer population control permits and nuisance deer removal permits. We included in the analysis a total of 14,650 white-tailed deer CWD test results. These data also included location and demographic data collected from both deer harvested in the interventions as well as deer from hunter harvests and deer vehicle collisions. We quantified intervention pressures as the number of years of intervention, the total number of deer removed and the average number of deer removed per year. We accounted for temporal and spatial variations of intervention by using mixed logistic regression to model the association between intervention pressures and CWD prevalence change. The results showed that deer population management intervention as practiced in Illinois during the study period was negatively associated with CWD prevalence and the strength of association varied depending on age of deer and the measure of intervention pressure. The population management programs showed a more consistent association with reduced CWD prevalence in fawn and yearling white-tailed deer than in adult deer. Our results also suggested that frequent and continuing intervention events with at least moderate intensity of culling were needed to reduce CWD prevalence. A longer study period, however, is needed to make a more definite conclusion about the effectiveness of similar population management programs for controlling CWD in wild white-tailed deer. PMID:23558033

  20. Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, K.G.; Robinson, S.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Grear, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  1. Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer

    E-print Network

    Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 13.0 Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) ........................... 13-1 13.1 Introduction............................................................................. 13-20 #12;COLUMBIAN WHITE-TAILED DEER III, 13-1 May 2004 13.0 Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus

  2. Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scribner, Kim T.; Libants, Scot V.; Johnson, Chad; Aiken, Judd M.; Langenberg, Julia A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case–control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n = 68) and CWD-negative (n = 91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p < 0.05. After controlling for Prnp, we found weak support for an elevated risk of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility.

  3. Peer Reviewed White-Tailed Deer Harvest From the Chronic Wasting

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    Peer Reviewed White-Tailed Deer Harvest From the Chronic Wasting Disease Eradication Zone in South Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin in 2002. The current control method for CWD in the state is the harvest of deer

  4. Epethelial Presence of Trueperella pyogenes Predicts Site-Level Presence of Cranial Abscess Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Belser, Emily H.; Cohen, Bradley S.; Keeler, Shamus P.; Killmaster, Charles H.; Bowers, John W.; Miller, Karl V.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial/intracranial abscess disease is an emerging source of significant mortality for male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of cranial/intracranial abscess disease are associated with infection by the opportunistic pathogen Trueperella pyogenes although the relationship between the prevalence of the bacteria and occurrence of disease is speculative. We examined 5,612 hunter-harvested deer from 29 sites across all physiographic provinces in Georgia for evidence of cranial abscess disease and sampled the forehead, lingual, and nasal surfaces from 692 deer. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine presence of T. pyogenes from these samples. We found T. pyogenes prevalence at a site was a predictor for the occurrence of cranial abscess disease. Prevalence of T. pyogenes did not differ between samples from the nose or tongue although prevalence along the forehead was greater for males than females (p = 0.04), particularly at sites with high occurrence of this disease. Socio-sexual behaviors, bacterial prevalence, or physiological characteristics may predispose male deer to intracranial/cranial abscess disease. Determination of factors that affect T. pyogenes prevalence among sites may help explain the occurrence of this disease among populations. PMID:25803047

  5. Influence of landscape factors and management decisions on spatial and temporal patterns of the transmission of chronic wasting disease transmission in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    O'Hara Ruiz, Marilyn; Kelly, Amy C; Brown, William M; Novakofski, Jan E; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E

    2013-11-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been reported in white-tailed deer at the border of the US states of Illinois and Wisconsin since 2002. Transmission of infectious prions between animals and from the environment has resulted in spatial and temporal structure observable in the spatio-temporal patterns of reported cases. Case locations of 382 positive cases from 28,954 deer tested between 2002 and 2009 provided insight into the potential risk factors and landscape features associated with transmission using a combination of clustering, generalised linear modelling and descriptive evaluations of a risk map of predicted cases of CWD. A species distribution map of white-tailed deer developed using MaxEnt provided an estimate of deer locations. We found that deer probability increased in areas with larger forests and less urban and agricultural lands. Spatial clustering analysis revealed a core area of persistent CWD transmission in the northern part of the region. The regression model indicated that larger and more compact forests were associated with higher risk for CWD. High risk areas also had soils with less clay and more sand than other parts of the region. The transmission potential was higher where landscape features indicated the potential for higher deer concentrations. The inclusion of spatial lag variables improved the model. Of the 102 cases reported in the study area in the two years following the study period, 89 (87%) of those were in the 32% of the study area with the highest 50% of predicted risk of cases. PMID:24258897

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America: effects of age, sex, polymorphism at PRNP codon 96, and disease progression.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Bruce V; Schneider, David A; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Gidlewski, Thomas; McLane, James; Allen, Robert W; McIsaac, Alex A; Mitchell, Gordon B; Keane, Delwyn P; Spraker, Terry R; Balachandran, Aru

    2012-09-01

    An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy sample testing was determined in white-tailed deer from 4 CWD-infected captive herds. Specifically, the current study compared the immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated prion protein in postmortem rectal mucosa biopsy samples to the CWD status of each deer as determined by immunodiagnostic evaluations of the brainstem at the obex, the medial retropharyngeal lymph node, and the palatine tonsil. The effects of age, sex, genotype, and disease progression were also evaluated. Diagnostic sensitivity on rectal biopsy samples for CWD in white-tailed deer ranged from 63% to 100%; the pooled estimate of sensitivity was 68% with 95% confidence limits (95% CLs) of 49% and 82%. However, diagnostic sensitivity was dependent on genotype at prion protein gene (PRNP) codon 96 and on disease progression as assessed by obex grade. Diagnostic sensitivity was 76% (95% CLs: 49%, 91%) for 96GG deer but only 42% (95% CLs: 13%, 79%) for 96GS deer. Furthermore, diagnostic sensitivity was only 36% for deer in the earliest stage of disease (obex grade 0) but was 100% for deer in the last 2 stages of preclinical disease (obex grades 3 and 4). The overall diagnostic specificity was 99.8%. Selective use of antemortem rectal biopsy sample testing would provide valuable information during disease investigations of CWD-suspect deer herds. PMID:22914819

  7. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

  8. Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, Daniel A.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  9. Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delwyn Keane; Daniel Barr; Rebecca Osborn; Julie Langenberg; Katherine O'Rourke; David Schneider; Philip Bochsler

    The examination of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has been described in sheep, elk, and small numbers of mule and white-tailed deer. Previous sample numbers have been too small to validate examination of this type of tissue as a viable antemortem diagnostic test. In this study, we examined RAMALT collected postmor-

  10. Acaricidal Treatment of White-Tailed Deer to Control Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme Disease-Endemic Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...

  11. Host culling as an adaptive management tool for chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: a modelling study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gideon Wasserberg; Erik E. Osnas; Robert E. Rolley; Michael D. Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Summary 1. Emerging wildlife diseases pose a significant threat to natural and human systems. Because of real or perceived risks of delayed actions, disease management strategies such as culling are often implemented before thorough scientific knowledge of disease dynamics is available. Adaptive management is a valuable approach in addressing the uncertainty and complexity associated with wildlife disease problems and can

  12. Neospora caninum antibodies detected in Midwestern white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve to maintain the Neospora caninum life cycle in the wild. Sera from white tailed deer from south central Wisconsin and southeastern Missouri, USA were tested for antibodies to N. caninum. Seroreactivity against N. caninum surface antigens was observe...

  13. Managing White-Tailed Deer in Suburban Environments

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    Managing White-Tailed Deer in Suburban Environments A Technical Guide Anthony J. DeNicola, Kurt C University of Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68583 ISBN 1-57753-296-1 Acknowledgments The Suburban Deer Technical. 2); R. Pooler (Figs. 16, 20). #12;About This Guide 2 Introduction 3 Biology of the White-Tailed Deer

  14. CAUSES OF MORTALITY IN WHITE-TAILED SEA EAGLES FROM GERMANY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Krone; Torsten Langgemach; Paul Sömmer; Norbert Kenntner

    White-tailed Sea Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla found moribund or dead in the field were submitted for necropsy to the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) and to the Institute for Food, Drugs and Animal Diseases (ILAT), Berlin, Germany. The moribund eagles had died in rehabilitation stations or were euthanized. Onehundred-twenty White-tailed Sea Eagles were examined between 1990 and 2000, comprising

  15. WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA --On 25 November 2002, the South Dakota Department of

    E-print Network

    177 NOTES WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA -- On 25 November plate was positive (Table 1). Based on these results, Staphylococcus hyicus was identified with white-tailed deer. Staphylococcus hyicus causes exudative epidermitis, or greasy pig disease, in young

  16. Survival patterns in white-tailed and mule deer after oral inoculation with a standardized, conspecific prion dose.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Jewell, Jean E; Williams, Elizabeth S

    2012-04-01

    We orally inoculated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with a standardized, conspecific prion dose and collected biologic samples throughout the disease course. Mule deer (PRNP genotype 225SS) and PRNP genotype 96GG white-tailed deer succumbed along similar trajectories, but 96GS- and 96SS-genotype individuals tended to survive longer. PMID:22493138

  17. Forest cover influences dispersal distance of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Grund, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.001, d.f. = 9) and maximum (r2 = 0.86, P = 0.001, d.f. = 7) dispersal distances of juvenile male deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  18. MULTIPLE ANOMALIES IN A WHITE-TAILED DEER FETUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. WOBESER; W. RUNGE

    Multiple defects consisting of disproportionate dwarfism, internal hydro- cephalus,porencephaly,inferiorbrachygnathia,multiple hepatic cysts and renal dysplasiawith cystictubulardilation, were diagnosed in a fetus from an apparently normal wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus z'irginianus).

  19. Texas white-tailed deer Internet harvest model

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Jennifer Nicole

    2009-05-15

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is an intensively managed game species throughout Texas and the United States. Modeling is a tool that has been used to evaluate various management practices and their potential impacts on wildlife...

  20. Texas white-tailed deer Internet harvest model 

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Jennifer Nicole

    2009-05-15

    TEXAS WHITE-TAILED DEER INTERNET HARVEST MODEL A Thesis by JENNIFER NICOLE GARRETT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2006 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences TEXAS WHITE-TAILED DEER INTERNET HARVEST MODEL A Thesis by JENNIFER NICOLE GARRETT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  1. Wasting and neurologic signs associated with cerebrovascular mineralization in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileu virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A case of wasting and neurologic syndrome (WANS) of white-tailed deer was evaluated by histopathology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for disease associated prion protein (PrP**d). Some of the clinical and pathological features of this case were similar to chronic wasting disease (CWD) of w...

  2. SEMI-MELANISTIC WHITE-TAILED DEER IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN --Melanistic color morphs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are

    E-print Network

    125 SEMI-MELANISTIC WHITE-TAILED DEER IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN -- Melanistic color morphs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are differentiated from other recognized color morphs by having uniform melanin and is considered rare in white-tailed deer populations (Severinghaus and Cheatum 1956, Sauer 1984

  3. White-Tailed Deer Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determ...

  4. White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Sheep Scrapie by Intracerebral Inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesi...

  5. White-Tailed Deer Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of an ongoing study is to...

  6. Mark-Recapture of White-Tailed Deer Using DNA

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    11/10/2010 1 Mark-Recapture of White-Tailed Deer Using DNA Sampling from Scat Matthew J. Goode M and biases Lost Marks Equal Catchability Closed Population Scat Randomly Dispersed Goal Determine if genetic markers from scat can give reliable population estimates 543 2 1 O B J E C TI V E 1 - D E N S I TY

  7. BVDV infection of pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: Serological, experimental and individual case studies have explored the presence and pathogenesis of the virus in wild ungulates; however there remain large gaps in knowledge regarding BVDV infection in non-bovine species. Previously we have shown that inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odoco...

  8. Theileriosis in a White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Fawn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Yabsley; Tracie C. Quick; Susan E. Little

    A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn was collected in Missouri (USA) and submitted for diagnostic evaluation. Necropsy and histologic examination revealed severe Amblyomma americanum infestation, pronounced icterus, and marked hemosiderin deposition in the liver and spleen. Whole blood evaluation revealed a normocytic normochro- mic anemia and a piroplasm parasitemia of ap- proximately 70%. The piroplasm was identified as Theileria cervi

  9. 4-Poster Tick Management and White-tailed Deer Management

    E-print Network

    Homes, Christopher C.

    Update on: 4-Poster Tick Management and White-tailed Deer Management Tim Green Environmental · Is a delivery system to kill ticks on deer NYSDEC required supplemental testing · Experiments conducted 2010: · Car deer accidents didn't really change · Deer didn't move out of home ranges · Raccoons, squirrels

  10. HEPATIC MINERALS OF WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus status, and species. Key words: Black Hills, elements, fire, liver, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, Odocoileus virginianus, reproduction, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. INTRODUCTION Limited information

  11. Blood Chemistry of Free-Ranging and Captive White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Melanie Love

    2012-07-16

    Blood samples were collected from 602 white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) between October 2008 – October 2009, from 15 different counties throughout Texas. White-tailed deer were evaluated for serum biochemical parameters (total...

  12. MOVEMENT OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND INTENSIVE ROW-CROP AGRICULTURE

    E-print Network

    1099 MOVEMENT OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND INTENSIVE ROW-CROP AGRICULTURE Abstract: Movements (e.g., migration, dispersal) of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) vary greatly to effectively manage deer populations. Movements of white-tailed deer have been well documented in forest

  13. GENETIC STRUCTURING OF COUES WHITE-TAILED DEER IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES

    E-print Network

    GENETIC STRUCTURING OF COUES WHITE-TAILED DEER IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES By Roy G. Lopez STRUCTURING OF COUES WHITE-TAILED DEER IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES Roy G. Lopez The manuscripts in this thesis examine different aspects of white-tailed deer. In the first manuscript I used microsatellite DNA

  14. D. Aaron Haines Student Projects Fecal Testing, Baiting & White-tailed Deer

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    D. Aaron Haines Student Projects Fecal Testing, Baiting & White-tailed Deer January 2013 ­ Present Due to the potential negative impacts of baiting on white­tailed deer, and the philosophy of fair as internationally. The objective of this study is to determine whether baiting activity on white-tailed deer can

  15. Evaluation of Reproductive Behavior in White-tailed Deer through Genetic Parentage Analysis

    E-print Network

    Ditchkoff, Steve

    Evaluation of Reproductive Behavior in White-tailed Deer through Genetic Parentage Analysis of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science Auburn, Alabama August 6, 2011 Keywords: White-tailed deer have utilized genetic technology to examine reproductive behavior in white-tailed deer through

  16. Research Article Habitat Use by Sympatric Mule and White-Tailed

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark C.

    competition, compositional analysis, habitat use, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, O. virginianus, sympatry, Texas, white- tailed deer. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) occur, and Fisheries Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA Abstract White-tailed deer (Odocoileus

  17. CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS TYPE A ENTEROTOXEMIA IN A CAPTIVE ADULT WHITE-TAILED DEER --On the morning of 6 June 2005, a captive adult

    E-print Network

    2006 All deer removed from the captive facility also were tested for chronic wasting disease197 CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS TYPE A ENTEROTOXEMIA IN A CAPTIVE ADULT WHITE-TAILED DEER -- On the morning of 6 June 2005, a captive adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was found dead

  18. [Trematodes parasitizing the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla L.)].

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, J; Sitko, J; Mellin, M

    1993-01-01

    Five white-tailed eagles were dissected--3 from the Czech Republic and 2 from Poland. 4 specimens were infected with trematodes only: Strigea falconis, Neodiplostomum (Conodiplostomum) perlatum, and Paracoenogonimus ovatus. S. falconis was found for the first time in an eagle from the Czech Republic, whereas N. (C.) perlatum and P. ovatus were detected for the first time in eagle from Poland. Moreover, N. (C.) perlatum is a new species for the Polish parasite fauna. PMID:8122425

  19. PREDATOR URINES AS CHEMICAL BARRIERS TO WHITE-TAILED DEER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerrold L. Belant; Thomas W. Seamans; Laura A. Tyson

    1998-01-01

    The authors assessed whether bobcat (Lynx rufus) or coyote (Canis latrans) urine could reduce white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of established feeding areas or trails. A four-week experiment evaluating deer use of eight feeding stations, four each with coyote or bobcat urine was conducted at a 2,200 ha fenced facility in northern Ohio with high deer densities (38\\/km2). At this

  20. ARTHROPATHY IN WHITE-TAILED DEER AND A MOOSE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. WOBESER; W. RUNGE

    A bstract: Degenerative lesions were found in the skeletal system of 20 of 128 white-tailed deer (Odocoi!eus virginianus) examined. Similar changes were found in an aged male moose (A ices alces). Arthropathy involving the stifle joint was present in 60% (15\\/25) of male deer 4 years of age or older, and in 16.7% (4\\/25) of females in the same age

  1. Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: Complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Blanchong; Dennis M. Heisey; Kim T. Scribner; Scot V. Libants; Chad Johnson; Judd M. Aiken; Julia A. Langenberg; Michael D. Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease

  2. White-tailed deer population dynamics and management on the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    E-print Network

    Whisenant, Shane Weston

    2004-11-15

    -tailed deer: ecology and management. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA. 26 Miller, L. A., B. E. Johns, and G. J. Killian. 2000. Immunocontraception of white-tailed deer using native and recombinant zona pellucida vaccines. Animal...

  3. White-tailed Deer Browse Preferences for South Texas and the Edwards Plateau 

    E-print Network

    Wright, Byron D.; Lyons, Robert K.; Cooper, Susan; Cathey, James

    2003-01-06

    White--tailed Deer Browse Preferences for South Texas and the Edwards Plateau Byron D. Wright, Robert K. Lyons, James C. Cathey and Susan Cooper* available, browse tends to be the most sta- ble food source for white-tailed deer in South Texas... in the 2 Figure 1. Seasonal white-tailed deer diets in Texas by plant group (percent). 3 Table 1. White-tailed deer preference for woody plants, vines and cactus of the Edwards Plateau. High Moderate Low Least Used Carolina buckthorn Bumelia Black...

  4. White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Justin J; Smith, Jodi D; Kunkle, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to the agent of scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesions to those reported for chronic wasting disease (CWD). Deer (n = 5) were inoculated with 1 mL of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. A non-inoculated deer was maintained as a negative control. Deer were observed daily for clinical signs of disease and euthanized and necropsied when unequivocal signs of scrapie were noted. One animal died 7 months post inoculation (pi) due to intercurrent disease. Examinations of brain tissue for the presence of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)) by western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were negative whereas IHC of lymphoid tissues was positive. Deer necropsied at 15-22 months pi were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Deer necropsied after 20 months pi had clinical signs of depression and progressive weight loss. Tissues with PrP(Sc) immunoreactivity included brain (at levels of cerebrum, hippocampus, colliculus, cerebellum, and brainstem), trigeminal ganglion, neurohypophysis, retina, spinal cord, and various lymphoid tissues including tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation. To further test the susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie these experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation. PMID:21988781

  5. Lead content in soft tissues of white-tailed deer

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T. [Tuskegee Univ., AL (United States). School of Veterinary Medicine

    1995-12-31

    The white-tailed deer is one of the North America`s most abundant game animals and can be used to monitor the quality of the environment. During the 1994 and 1995 hunting seasons, twenty-nine white-tailed deer were harvested with the permission of the Game Biologist of the Alabama Cooperative Deer Management Assistance Program and their liver and kidney samples were analyzed for lead levels. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys, were 0.35 and 0.37 ppm, respectively. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys did not show any significant difference. The lead levels in the livers of males and females were 0.49 and 0.28 ppm and in the kidneys of males and females were 0.36 and 0.38 ppm, respectively. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys of males and females also did not show any significant difference. Likewise, the lead level neither in the livers nor in the kidneys of young and old deer showed any significant difference.

  6. Surveillance for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in Scavengers of White-Tailed Deer Carcasses in the Chronic Wasting Disease Area of Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains an...

  7. Preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer (Dama dama)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease (CWD) to fallow deer (Cervus dama) and to provide information about clinical course, lesions and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of CWD in this species, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with CWD br...

  8. Surveillance for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in Scavengers of White-Tailed Deer Carcasses in the Chronic Wasting Disease Area of Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher S. Jennelle; Michael D. Samuel; Cherrie A. Nolden; Delwyn P. Keane; Daniel J. Barr; Chad Johnson; Joshua P. Vanderloo; Judd M. Aiken; Amir N. Hamir; Edward A. Hoover

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative

  9. Bovine viral diarrhea virus multi-organ infection in two white-tailed deer in southeastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of wild ruminants especially cervids in the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has remained an enigma. Two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were submitted to the Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL) in the fall of 2003 by the South Dakota Game ...

  10. Nesting habitat relationships of sympatric Crested Caracaras, Red-tailed Hawks, and White-tailed Hawks in South Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P., Jr.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

    2007-01-01

    We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus) (n = 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis) (n = 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) (n = 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed Hawk nest sites were in shrubs and trees that were shorter (3.5 ?? 1.0 m) and had smaller canopy diameters (5.5 ?? 2.1 m) than those of Red-tailed Hawks (10.1 ?? 2.0 m, 13.7 ?? 5.8 m) and Crested Caracaras (5.6 ?? 1.7 m, 8.5 ?? 3.5 m). Red-tailed Hawk nest sites had higher woody densities (15.7 ?? 9.6 plants) and more woody cover (84 ?? 19%) than those of White-tailed Hawks (5.6 ?? 5.8 plants, 20 ?? 21%) and Crested Caracaras (9.9 ?? 6.7 plants, 55 ?? 34%). Crested Caracara nest sites were in dense, multi-branched shrubs composed of more living material (97 ?? 3%) than those of White-tailed (88 ?? 18%) and Red-tailed hawks (88 ?? 18%). Nest sites of White-tailed Hawks, Red-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras were similar to random samples from the surrounding habitat indicating that preferred nesting habitat was available for each of these species at least within 60 m of active nest sites. Nest tree height, along with woody plant and native grass cover best discriminated nest sites among the three raptor species. There was no overlap at Red-tailed and White-tailed hawk nest sites in vegetation structure, while Crested Caracara nests were in habitat intermediate between the two other species. Partitioning of nesting habitat may be how these raptor species co-exist at the broader landscape scale of our study area in the Coastal Sand Plain of Texas.

  11. Modelling spread of foot-and-mouth disease in wild white-tailed deer and feral pig populations using a geographic-automata model and animal distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Ward; Shawn W. Laffan; Linda D. Highfield

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how the size and distribution of wild deer and feral pigs – species that might act as potential foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus maintenance hosts – might affect the persistence and spread of FMD. We used a susceptible-latent-infected-recovered geographic-automata model and spatially referenced data from southern Texas, USA. Within this study area, 100 locations were randomly selected and FMD

  12. MOVEMENT AND ASSOCIATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHWEST MINNESOTA

    E-print Network

    MOVEMENT AND ASSOCIATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHWEST MINNESOTA BY CHRISTOPHER C. SWANSON and Fisheries Sciences South Dakota State University 2005 #12;11 MOVEMENT AND ASSOCIATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER with this project, especially T. Brinkman, B. Bigalke, and B. Burris for their collaborative efforts to improve deer

  13. SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA 1 ROLLIN D. SPARROWE, South Research Unit, Brookings3 -,!.. Abstract: Seasonal activity patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus-three deer were.'i marked individually with ear tags, streamers, and collars, and 461 locations were recorded

  14. Browsing of tree regeneration by white-tailed deer in large clearcuts on Anticosti Island, Quebec

    E-print Network

    Laval, Université

    Browsing of tree regeneration by white-tailed deer in large clearcuts on Anticosti Island, Quebec of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) on Anticosti Island hampers the regeneration of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), which is both the deer's preferred food and shelter. The island

  15. Dispersal Patterns of Male White-tailed Deer in Centre County, PA

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    39 39 Dispersal Patterns of Male White-tailed Deer in Centre County, PA Milton G. Newberry, III: Dispersal direction of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been hypothesized periods 2002-2003 using radio telemetry. We hypothesized that the dispersal direction of deer would

  16. Wounding Rates of White-tailed Deer with Traditional Archery Equipment

    E-print Network

    Ditchkoff, Steve

    Wounding Rates of White-tailed Deer with Traditional Archery Equipment Stephen S. Ditchkoff 73105 Abstract: We captured and affixed radio collars to 80 male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during 1995-1997 to ascertain the wounding rate and propor- tion of deer that die from hunter

  17. GASTROINTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER: EFFECTS OF FIRE,

    E-print Network

    GASTROINTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER: EFFECTS OF FIRE, REPRODUCTION) and mule deer (O. hemionus) using similar burned and unburned habitat. Deer were collected from study areas and enlargement factor of papillae surface of white-tailed deer and mule deer were greater in burned than unburned

  18. MOVEMENT AND MORTALITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHWEST MINNESOTA

    E-print Network

    MOVEMENT AND MORTALITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHWEST MINNESOTA BY TODD J. BRINKMAN A thesis State University 2003 #12;11 MOVEMENT AND MORTALITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHWEST MINNESOTA area who granted permission to access their land during deer capture operations. In addition, thank you

  19. Research Note Winter Forage Selection in White-Tailed Deer at High

    E-print Network

    Laval, Université

    Research Note Winter Forage Selection in White-Tailed Deer at High Density: Balsam Fir is the Best forage selection by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada, using cafeteria-feeding trials. Winter habitat on Anticosti is degraded and free-ranging deer at high densities

  20. Liquid Chromatographic Detection of Permethrin from Filter Paper Wipes of White-tailed Deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, small-scale method for the determination of the presence or absence of permethrin on the hair coat of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), by high performance liquid chromatography was developed. White-tailed deer in South Texas and the northeastern U.S. are routinely tr...

  1. 77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ...Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park AGENCY...Statement (FEIS) for the White-tailed Deer Management Plan (Plan), Rock Creek Park...alternatives for managing white- tailed deer in the park. The document describes...

  2. 77 FR 74204 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Final White-Tailed Deer Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ...of Decision for the Final White-Tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact...Decision (ROD) for the Final White-tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact...issued a ROD for the Final White-tailed Deer Management Plan/EIS for Indiana...

  3. 77 FR 24734 - Final White-tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Indiana Dunes National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ...6065-4000-409] Final White-tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact...availability of the Final White-tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact...Indiana. DATES: The Final White-tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental...

  4. 78 FR 46603 - Notice of Availability of a Draft White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...Availability of a Draft White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Environmental Impact...availability of the Draft White-tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact...alternatives for the management of white-tailed deer at the Park. Under Alternative A...

  5. The University of Notre Dame Effects of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) on Plants, Plant Populations and

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    The University of Notre Dame Effects of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) on Plants, Plant, Indiana Vol. 146 July, 2001 No. 1 Am. Midi. Nat. 146:1-26 Effects of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus 78712 ABSTRACT.-Largeeffects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) upon individual plants, plant

  6. Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

  7. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

    2003-12-31

    D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

  8. Development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    I examined the development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1975 to 1996 by radio-tracking adult females and their fawns. Of 40 migratory fawns with radio-collared mothers, all returned from winter ranges to their mothers' summer ranges, as did 36 fawns with unknown mothers. Of 1.5- to 3.0-year-old daughters with radio-collared mothers, 67-80% continued migrating with mothers to their traditional summer ranges. Eighty-four percent (16/19) of yearling dispersers continued migratory behavior after replacing their natal summer ranges with their dispersal ranges, and 88% (14/16) of these continued migrating to their natal winter ranges, some through at least 6.5 years of age. Twenty percent (4/20) of nonmigratory fawns dispersed as yearlings, and two became migratory between their dispersal summer ranges and new winter ranges, one through 4.9 years of age and another through 6.5 years. Seven fawns changed their movement behavior from migratory to nonmigratory or vice versa as yearlings or when older, indicating that migratory behavior is not under rigid genetic control. Thus, the adaptiveness of migration must depend upon natural selection operating upon varying capacities and propensities to learn and mimic long-distance movements and not upon migratory behavior directly.

  9. White-tailed deer population dynamics and management on the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center 

    E-print Network

    Whisenant, Shane Weston

    2004-11-15

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) numbers on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas have increased in recent years and are a cause of urban-related accidents (e.g., deer...

  10. Habitat selection and movement patterns of cattle and white-tailed deer in a temperate savanna

    E-print Network

    Depew, Jarrod Jason

    2005-11-01

    This study investigated the use of high resolution satellite imagery in research involving habitat selection, and movement patterns of white-tailed deer and cattle in a semi-arid landscape. Vegetation classification was developed based on Ikonos...

  11. Unusual Migration by a White-Tailed Deer Fawn in South Dakota

    E-print Network

    migration by a flVe-day-old white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) fawn in the central Black deer (0. hemionus) fawns in their study made movements greater than 1 km prior to one month of age

  12. Habitat selection and movement patterns of cattle and white-tailed deer in a temperate savanna 

    E-print Network

    Depew, Jarrod Jason

    2005-11-01

    This study investigated the use of high resolution satellite imagery in research involving habitat selection, and movement patterns of white-tailed deer and cattle in a semi-arid landscape. Vegetation classification was ...

  13. Comparative foraging ecology of white-tailed deer and Angora goats on the Edwards Plateau, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Jacobson, Roy Arthur

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated how seasonal patterns in forage abundance and quality influenced the feeding behavior of white-tailed deer ( Odocolieus virginianus) and Angora goats; two similar-sized ungulates with different digestive morphologies. I...

  14. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  15. Regional assessment on influence of landscape configuration and connectivity on range size of white-tailed deer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. David Walter; Kurt C. VerCauteren; Henry Campa; William R. Clark; Justin W. Fischer; Scott E. Hygnstrom; Nancy E. Mathews; Clayton K. Nielsen; Eric M. Schauber; Timothy R. Van Deelen; Scott R. Winterstein

    2009-01-01

    Variation in the size of home range of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has broad implications for managing populations, agricultural damage, and disease spread and transmission. Size of home\\u000a range of deer also varies seasonally because plant phenology dictates the vegetation types that are used as foraging or resting\\u000a sites. Knowledge of the landscape configuration and connectivity that contributes to variation

  16. Movements of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Texanus (Mearns), on the Welder Wildlife Refuge 

    E-print Network

    Michael, Edwin Daryl

    1963-01-01

    MOVEMENTS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER, ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS TEXANUS (MEARNS), ON THE WELDER WILDLIFE REFUGE A Thesis By EDWIN DARYL MICHAEL Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1963 Major Subject: Wildlife Management MOVEMENTS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER, ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS TEXANUS (MaARNS), Ol THE WELDER WILDLIFE REFUGE A Thesis EDWIN DARYL MICHAEL Appr e as to tyle a...

  17. Allozymic and mitochondrial DNA analysis of sympatric white-tailed and mule deer in West Texas 

    E-print Network

    Ballinger, Scott Webster

    1987-01-01

    white-tailed deer, 20 or 3) relictual Ab100 alleles that were present in the mule deer Evidence from preliminary studies of these speci. es from the western United States (J. N. Derr, pere. comm. ) suggest that the latter hypothesis is unlikely..., there is some considerable concern regarding the western range expansion of white-tailed deer. Data from deer on the Longfellow Ranch indicate subdivision of populations, reflected primarily by locality data. Game management strategies should consider...

  18. HumanWildlife Interactions 5(2):321332, Fall 2011 Factors affecting white-tailed deer-

    E-print Network

    Human­Wildlife Interactions 5(2):321­332, Fall 2011 Factors affecting white-tailed deer- browsing-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus) damage to soybean crops is a concern for soybean producers. Although researchers have documented decreases in the intensity of deer-browse on soybean plants as the growing season

  19. THE SOUTHWESTERN NATURALIST 48(4):654660 DECEMBER 2003 IMPLICATIONS OF HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN WHITE-TAILED DEER

    E-print Network

    Baker, Robert J.

    -TAILED DEER AND MULE DEER ROBERT D. BRADLEY,* FRED C. BRYANT, LISA C. BRADLEY, MICHELLE L. HAYNIE, AND ROBERT.bradley@ttu.edu ABSTRACT Frequency of interspecific hybridization between mule deer and white-tailed deer was investigated of mating between a mule deer doe and a white-tailed deer buck, whereas the second individual resulted from

  20. Hematology, blood chemistry and selenium values of captive pronghorn antelope, white-tailed deer and American bison.

    PubMed

    Clemens, E T; Meyer, K L; Carlson, M P; Schneider, N R

    1987-01-01

    Pronghorn were observed to have a significantly higher whole blood selenium concentration than either the white-tailed deer or bison. Pronghorn colloid values were significantly less than those of the bison, and approached statistical significance for the white-tailed deer. Differential white blood cell counts for the white-tailed deer were markedly different from those of the pronghorn and bison. The American bison had significantly higher cortisol values and lower T3 values than either the white-tailed deer or pronghorn. PMID:2885128

  1. Kidney structure and function of obligate and facultative hibernators: the white-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys leucurus ) and the black-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Harlow; E. J. Braun

    1995-01-01

    The white-tailed prairie dog is an obligate hibernator that enters a heterothermic phase when maintained in the cold with low intensity light and ad libitum food and water. The black-tailed prairie dog (a facultative hibernator) will not hibernate under similar conditions. It has been suggested that the black tailed prairie dog remains active during the winter because it can conserve

  2. Ixodid ticks on white-tailed deer and feral swine in Florida.

    PubMed

    Allan, S A; Simmons, L A; Burridge, M J

    2001-06-01

    A state-wide survey was conducted in Florida during the 1997-99 hunting seasons to examine white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and feral swine (Sus scrofa) for potential indigenous vectors of the rickettsial agent of heartwater, Cowdria ruminantium. A total of 504 white-tailed deer and 166 feral swine was examined from 30 wildlife management areas across the state. Amblyomma maculatum, an experimental vector of C. ruminantium, was common on both deer and feral swine throughout the state. Of the collection of 3,169 ticks, 34.5% were Ixodes scapularis Say, 34.0% Amblyomma americanum (L.), 25.5% Amblyomma maculatum Koch, 5.8% Dermacentor variabilis (Say), 0.4% Ixodes affinis Neumann, 0.03% Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) and 0.01% Amblyomma auricularium (Conil). The only exotic tick collected was A. auricularium, which is found on armadillos in Central and South America and is not known to be associated with any disease. Overall, the most prevalent species on deer were I. scapularis (51.1%) and A. maculatum (35.8%), with A. americanum less prevalent (16.0%) and D. variabilis (3.0%) and I. affinis (1.9%) rare. On feral swine, the most prevalent species were I. scapularis (69.7%) and D. variabilis (56.9%), with A. maculatum (16.2%) and A. americanum (4.6%) less common. The geographic distribution of ticks differed significantly throughout the state. Both A. maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis were more prevalent on deer from southern Florida compared to northern and central Florida. In contrast, A. americanum were more prevalent in northern and central Florida but rare in southern Florida, and I. scapularis were more common in southern compared to northern Florida. These geographic differences may reflect differences in the risk of tick-borne diseases to domestic animals, wildlife and humans within Florida. PMID:11469190

  3. Plant Disease Lesson: White pine blister rust

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Otis C. Maloy (Washington State University; )

    2003-09-08

    This plant disease lesson on White pine blister rust (caused by Cronartium ribicola (Peridermium strobi)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  4. Adrenal weight in a Texas white-tailed deer herd 

    E-print Network

    Ramsey, Charles Warren

    1975-01-01

    corresponded to the quality of the range. Taber (1953) found that following improvement in forage conditions, black-tailed deer had greater ovulation rates, He also correlated nutrition levels with population changes (Taber 1956). Robinette et al. (1955...

  5. Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P., Jr.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  6. Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG Danish Strain 1331) in Protecting White-tailed Deer (Odecoileus Virginianus) against Bovine Tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildlife Disease Association Annual Conference, August 6-10, 2006 Terry Amundson Student Presentation Award Oral Presentation EFFICACY OF ORAL AND PARENTERAL BACILLE CALMETTE-GUERIN (BCG DANISH STRAIN 1331) IN PROTECTING WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODECOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AGAINST BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS Paulin...

  7. Influence of roads, rivers, and mountains on natal dispersal of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.; Rosenberry, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic landscape features, such as rivers, mountain ranges, and roads can alter animal dispersal paths and movement patterns. Consequently landscape, through its effects on dispersal, may influence many ecological processes, including disease transmission, invasion dynamics, and gene flow. To investigate influences of landscape features on dispersal patterns of a large mammal, we captured and radiomarked 363 juvenile male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), including 212 confirmed dispersers, in 2 topographically dissimilar study areas in Pennsylvania, USA. Dispersal azimuths were uniformly distributed in the western study area (WSA), where there was irregular, hilly topography. Mean dispersal azimuths paralleled ridge direction in the eastern study area, where long parallel ridges were aligned northeastsouthwest. Major roads in both areas and a large river in the WSA were semipermeable barriers to dispersal of juvenile males; dispersal paths were less likely to intersect these linear features. Dispersal movements were direct and brief, typically lasting <12 hours. For all dispersers, we found no evidence for preference or avoidance of establishing adult, postdispersal ranges in proximity to roads; however, deer that encountered roads near the terminus of their dispersal path were more likely to stop on the near side. Further, for deer that established postdispersal home ranges near major roads, these features influenced range placement such that locations were typically clustered on one side of the road. The influence of roads, rivers, and mountains on dispersal paths and postdispersal locations of white-tailed deer suggest that landscape-specific features should be considered in conservation and management of this and possibly other species of large mammals. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  8. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Dubay, Shelli; Jacques, Christopher; Golden, Nigel; Kern, Bryant; Mahoney, Kathleen; Norton, Andrew; Patnayak, Devi; Van Deelen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland) in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3). We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens) variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%), IBR (7.9%), Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%), L. i. bratislava (1.0%), L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5%) and L. i. hardjo (0.3%). Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119) were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens. PMID:26030150

  9. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Bryant; Mahoney, Kathleen; Norton, Andrew; Patnayak, Devi; Van Deelen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland) in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3). We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens) variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010–2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%), IBR (7.9%), Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%), L. i. bratislava (1.0%), L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5%) and L. i. hardjo (0.3%). Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119) were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens. PMID:26030150

  10. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, T.J.; Jenks, J.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Neiger, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n=42) and mule deer (n=41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (T1), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P???0.05) between habitats. Because of the nutritional demands of gestation and lactation, we hypothesized that elemental concentrations would vary depending on reproductive status; Cd, Cu, Ca, P, Mn, Mo, Na, and Zn values differed (P???0.05) by reproductive status. We also hypothesized that, due to variation in feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P???0.05) between species. Further research is needed to determine causes of variation in hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  11. Ecological studies of the white-tailed deer in western Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, R.D.; Kennedy, M.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Activity patterns and microhabitat utilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are being studied at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant in Carroll and Gibson counties, Tennessee. Ten white-tailed deer have been fitted with radio-collars, and locations are being monitored using standard techniques. Home ranges and daily activity patterns are being determined. Preliminary analyses have shown that white-tailed deer are readily located using radio-techniques. Microhabitat utilization is being assessed by pellet transects and radio locations. Pellet counts from transects located in pastures and old fields are significantly different from those in other habitat types. Use of honeysuckle (Lonicera sp.) is being examined by observing the degree of browse along transects. No significant difference in utilization has been seen between the honeysuckle transects.

  12. Observation of the cervix and artificial insemination in captive white-tailed deer 

    E-print Network

    Magyar, Stephen John

    1986-01-01

    OBSERVATION OF THE CERVIX AliD ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by STEPHEN JOHN MAGYAR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Veterinary Physiology OBSERVATION OF THE CERVIX AND ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by STEPHEN JOHN MAGYAR Approved as to style and content by: Stephen W. J. Sea er (Chairman of Co...

  13. Observation of the cervix and artificial insemination in captive white-tailed deer

    E-print Network

    Magyar, Stephen John

    1986-01-01

    semen proved to be successful in white-tailed deer. Due to the small size of the cervix and tight cervical rings in white-tailed deer one could only pass the AI catheter up to the first cervical ring and deposit the semen at that site. Depositing... in cervical mucus, and the onset of estrus as guides for determining the optimum time at which to carry out artificial insemination, and to determine what type of AI catheter allows effective semen deposition into the cervix. 3. To observe and record buck...

  14. Metals in obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes of Illinois white-tailed deer and their variations associated with CWD status.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Nelda A; Novakofski, Jan; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Kelly, Amy; Satterthwaite-Phillips, Damian; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra

    2015-01-01

    Prion proteins (PrP(C)) are cell membrane glycoproteins that can be found in many cell types, but specially in neurons. Many studies have suggested PrP(C)'s participation in metal transport and cellular protection against stress in the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand PrP(Sc), the misfolded isoform of PrP(C) and the pathogenic agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), has been associated with brain metal dyshomeostasis in prion diseases. Thus, changes in metal concentration associated with protein misfolding and aggregation have been reported for human and animal prion diseases, as well as for other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The use of metal concentrations in tissues as surrogate markers for early detection of TSEs has been suggested. Studies on the accumulation of metals in free-ranging white-tailed deer have not been conducted. This study established concentrations of copper, iron, manganese, and magnesium in 2 diagnostic tissues used for CWD testing (obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN)). We compared these concentrations between tissues and in relation to CWD status. We established reference intervals (RIs) for these metals and explored their ability to discriminate between CWD-positive and CWD-negative animals. Our results indicate that independent of CWD status, white-tailed deer accumulate higher concentrations of Fe, Mn and Mg in RLN than in obex. White-tailed deer infected with CWD accumulated significantly lower concentrations of Mn and Fe than CWD-negative deer. These patterns differed from other species infected with prion diseases. Overlapping values between CWD positive and negative groups indicate that evaluation of these metals in obex and RLN may not be appropriate as a diagnostic tool for CWD infection in white-tailed deer. Because the CWD-negative deer were included in constructing the RIs, high specificities were expected and should be interpreted with caution. Due to the low sensitivity derived from the RIs, we do not recommend using metal concentrations for disease discrimination. PMID:25695915

  15. HumanWildlife Interactions 5(1):3246, Spring 2011 Preference of white-tailed deer for corn

    E-print Network

    Human­Wildlife Interactions 5(1):32­46, Spring 2011 Preference of white-tailed deer for corn (Zea mays) by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can be substantial, resulting in millions of dollars lost annually. Numerous methods exist to minimize deer depredation, but all have met with varying

  16. Effect of paved road density on abundance of white-tailed deer Keith G. MunroA

    E-print Network

    Effect of paved road density on abundance of white-tailed deer Keith G. MunroA , Jeff Bowman author. Email: lenore_fahrig@carleton.ca Abstract Context. Although ~3% of white-tailed deer are killed on roads each year, no previous study has tested for an effect of roads on deer abundance

  17. Site and landscape conditions at white-tailed deer\\/vehicle collision locations in Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca A. Finder; John L. Roseberry; Alan Woolf

    1999-01-01

    Motor vehicle collisions with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) present several problems including danger to humans, vehicle damage, and deer mortality. Knowledge of factors influencing deer movements onto or across roads and highways may reduce deer\\/vehicle collisions on existing roads, and improve planning for future roads. We used remotely sensed data to determine characteristics associated with high accident areas. Topographic features

  18. ANALYSIS OF LYMPHOCYTES ISOLATED FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) FAWNS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from female white-tailed deer fawns at 48 hours of age and every two weeks there after until the fawns were three months of age. Lymphocytes were phenotyped to examine the expression of specific surface receptors as the fawns aged. Three-color...

  19. A PLAGUE EPIZOOTIC IN THE WHITE-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LEUCURUS) OF MEETEETSE, WYOMING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonya R. Ubico; Kathleen A. Fagerstone; Robert G. McLean

    Surveillance for sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted near Meeteetse, Wyoming (USA) from 24 May to 14 june 1985. Ten species of fleas were collected from white- tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus), and from their burrows and associated rodents. Five of these flea species and two adult prairie dogs were positive for plague. The progression of this plague epizootic appeared

  20. Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2...

  1. WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) CYTOKINE EXPRESSION IN RESPONSE TO INFECTION WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis infected white-tailed deer were detected in Michigan in 1994. Subsequent survey's revealed a focus of infection. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in a population of free ranging wildlife in North America posing a threat to domestic livestock and humans. Relat...

  2. Body mass, age, and reproductive influences on liver mass of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    E-print Network

    Weckerly, Floyd "Butch" - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    ARTICLE Body mass, age, and reproductive influences on liver mass of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus restriction. There have been few investigations into how liver mass is coupled to body mass, body condition body mass and liver mass and the influences of age, sex, body condition (back fat), and lactation

  3. Plasma gossypol dynamics in white-tailed deer: Implications for whole cottonseed as a supplemental feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole cottonseed (WCS) is a potential supplemental feed for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in rangeland conditions because of its high digestible energy and protein content, moderate fiber content, and resistance to degradation in moist conditions. WCS also contains the polyphenolic sec...

  4. Prevalence of Granulocytic Ehrlichia Infection among White-Tailed Deer in Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDWARD A. BELONGIA; KURT D. REED; PAUL D. MITCHELL; CHRIS P. KOLBERT; DAVID H. PERSING; JAMES S. GILL; JAMES J. KAZMIERCZAK

    1997-01-01

    Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is caused by an agent that is nearly indistinguishable from the veterinary pathogens Ehrlichia equi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila. The deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of the HGE agent, and the white-tailed deer is the primary host for adult Ixodes ticks. We assessed the distribution of granulocytic Ehrlichia infection among deer living within (Wisconsin) and

  5. VACCINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS BACILLUS CALMETTE GUERIN (BCG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

  6. Proximity of White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Ranges to Wolf, Canis lupus, Pack Homesites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mech, L. David.

    This article is among the recent postings at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) Website. Michael E. Nelson and L. David Mech authored the article, which focuses on White-tailed Deer in northeastern Minnesota living close to Wolf pack homesites. The article was first published in the Canadian Field-Naturalist [114(3):503-504].

  7. The Netherlands strain of BTV serotype 8 in white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the susceptibility of U.S. white-tailed deer to the European strain of BTV-8 (EU-BTV-8) isolated in The Netherlands, eight seronegative deer were injected subcutaneously in the neck and intradermally in the inner left leg. Two deer were sham inoculated to serve as uninfected controls an...

  8. Effects of White-Tailed Deer on Populations of an Understory Forb in Fragmented Deciduous Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Augustine; Lee E. Frelich

    1998-01-01

    The effects of grazing by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) on populations of Trillium spp. were examined in remnant, old-growth patches of the highly fragmented Big Woods forest ecosystem in south- eastern Minnesota. We conducted three separate studies involving an exclosure experiment, transplant exper- iments, and comparisons of Trillium populations among study sites. The highest grazing intensity was ob-

  9. Impact of BVDV infection of white-tailed deer during second and third trimesters of pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While it has been demonstrated that persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections can be established in white-tailed deer following in utero exposure in the first trimester of gestation, there is little to no information regarding the outcome of infection, in deer, in later stages of preg...

  10. White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Predation on Grassland Songbird Nestlings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Granfors, Diane A.

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) continues to place scientific/ management resources online for general viewing. This resource, by Pamela J. Pietz and Diane A. Granfors, was published in 2000 in American Midland Naturalist [144(2):419-422] and reports on four instances of nest depredation by white-tailed deer. It may be browsed online or downloaded as a .zip file.

  11. White-tailed Deer Visitation Rates at Medicated Bait Sites in Southern Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has been found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) complicating eradication efforts of the USDA’s Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Our objective was to assess patterns of deer visitation to medicated bait sites used to treat...

  12. ORAL BACILLE CALMETTE-GUERIN (BCG) VACCINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER AGAINST BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

  13. White-tailed Deer Management Employee Survey Results and Path Forward

    E-print Network

    Homes, Christopher C.

    White-tailed Deer Management Employee Survey Results and Path Forward Community Advisory Council Timothy M. Green #12;2 Quick History Mid-1980s ­ Onsite hunting suspended 1997 ­ Deer population estimated begin 2003 ­ Management discussions seek "Regional Approach" to deer management 2007 ­ Issue

  14. IMPACTS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER ON FOREST REGENERATION IN NORTHWEST ERN PENNSYLVANIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NANCY G. TILGHMAN

    Browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a major cause of regeneration failure in Allegheny hardwood forests of northwestern Pennsylvania. I examined the impact of deer at 5 different densities (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 deer\\/259 ha) on tree seedlings, woody shrubs, and herbaceous plants in large enclosures over 5 years. I examined 3 silvicultural treatments (clearcut, thinning, and

  15. Effect of metabolic acidosis on white-tailed deer antler development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T A; Hewitt, D G

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis can result when herbivores consume browse diets high in plant secondary compounds. One mechanism for buffering excess acid is the mobilization of calcium and other alkaline salts from the skeletal system. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other cervids consuming browse during antler formation may use minerals essential for antler development as buffers, resulting in altered antler characteristics. Our research objectives were to examine the effects of metabolic acidosis on mineral metabolism, acid-base homeostasis, and antler development in white-tailed deer. Fifteen male white-tailed deer were assigned to one of three diets: 2% NH(4)Cl, 3% commercial tannic acid, or a basal ration without additive. Two feeding trials were completed on each deer to determine nutrient use. Urine pH and the percentage of urinary nitrogen excreted as NH+4 varied by diet. No significant diet or trial effects occurred for nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, or sodium use. Urinary calcium excretion varied between diets. No dietary differences were observed for antler characteristics. The NH(4)Cl diet induced metabolic acidosis but did not alter antler development in white-tailed deer. Skeletal mineral reserves and mineral intake appeared sufficient to buffer excess acids and support antler development. PMID:11121351

  16. MOVEMENT PATTERNS, SURVIVAL, AND SIGHTABILITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    MOVEMENT PATTERNS, SURVIVAL, AND SIGHTABILITY OF WHITE- TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS for your comical relieve, elaborate trapping ideas, and working fingers during extremely cold temperatures with this project. You provided much needed comical relieve and a keen eye during aerial surveys. Thanks to all

  17. Correlations between melanin pigmentation and element concentration in feathers of White-tailed Eagles ( Haliaeetus albicilla )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Niecke; Matthias Heid; Andreas Kriiger

    1999-01-01

    Summary The element concentration of moult feathers of White-tailed Eagles was investigated. Using the 2- MeV Hamburg proton microprobe we tried to differentiate between elements incorporated into the feather via the food chain and those which are deposited externally onto the feather vane. Regarding incorporated elements, special attention has been given to a possible correlation between element concentration and feather

  18. NESTING DOCUMENTATION FOR THE WHITE-TAILED PTARMIGAN IN THE SANGRE DE CRISTO MOUNTAINS, NEW MEXICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald H. Wolfe

    The southernmost extent of the range of White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) reaches into north-central New Mexico. Although known to occur in New Mexico since around 1865, their exact distribution and abundance is not well known. This is primarily because the species is an alpine obligate, which has made efforts to survey difficult. Here I describe the first nest of the

  19. Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) after oral or parenteral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M V; Thacker, T C; Waters, W R; Robbe-Austerman, S; Lebepe-Mazur, S M; Harris, N B

    2010-12-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in cattle and a serious zoonotic pathogen, most commonly contracted through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. To control this zoonosis, many countries have developed bovine tuberculosis eradication programmes. Although relatively successful, efforts are hindered in many regions by spillover from wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis to cattle. Such is the case in the United States where spillover of M. bovis from free-ranging white-tailed deer to cattle occurs. One approach to control such inter-species transmission is vaccination of wildlife. The live, attenuated human vaccine M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to reduce disease severity in white-tailed deer; however, vaccine persistence within tissues has also been noted. Consumption of venison containing BCG by hunters may present a public health concern as BCG exposure, although unlikely to cause disease, could cause false positive tuberculin skin test results. To examine BCG persistence further, 42 white-tailed deer were vaccinated orally or subcutaneously (SC) with BCG Danish. Three deer from each group were killed and examined at periods ranging from 2 weeks to 11 months after vaccination. BCG was recovered from orally vaccinated deer as late as 3 months after vaccination, while BCG persisted in SC vaccinated deer for as long as 9 months. At no time was BCG isolated from meat; however, prolonged persistence was seen in lymphoid organs. Although vaccine persistence was noted, especially in SC vaccinated deer, the distribution of culture-positive tissues makes human exposure through consumption unlikely. PMID:20707863

  20. HOME RANGES OF SYMPATRIC MULE DEER AND WHITE-TAILED DEER KRISTINA J. BRUNJES, WARREN B. BALLARD,* MARY H. HUMPHREY, FIELDLING HARWELL,

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark C.

    HOME RANGES OF SYMPATRIC MULE DEER AND WHITE-TAILED DEER IN TEXAS KRISTINA J. BRUNJES, WARREN B of sympatric female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) in west-central Texas. We captured 50 mule deer and 53 white-tailed deer, fitted them with radiocollars, and monitored

  1. Using wild white-tailed deer to detect eastern equine encephalitis virus activity in Maine.

    PubMed

    Mutebi, John-Paul; Lubelczyk, Charles; Eisen, Rebecca; Panella, Nicholas; Macmillan, Katherine; Godsey, Marvin; Swope, Bethany; Young, Ginger; Smith, Robert P; Kantar, Lee; Robinson, Sara; Sears, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Serum from 226 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was screened for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) antibodies using plaque reduction neutralization tests. EEEV antibodies were detected in 7.1% of samples. This is the first time EEEV antibodies have been detected in O. virginianus populations in the state of Maine (ME). The highest percentage of EEEV positive sera was in Somerset County (19%) in central ME, and this is the first time that EEEV activity has been detected in that County. EEEV RNA was not detected in any of the 150 harvested deer brain samples submitted to the ME Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife as a part of screening for Chronic Wasting Disease. This suggests that screening deer brains is not an efficient method to detect EEEV activity. For each serum sample tested, the geographic location in which the deer was harvested was recorded. Significant spatial clustering of antibody-positive sera samples was not detected. Relative to seronegative deer, seropositive deer were slightly more likely to be harvested in nonforested areas compared with forested areas. Results indicate that screening of free-ranging deer sera can be a useful tool for detecting EEEV activity in ME and other parts of North America. PMID:21736489

  2. Effects of short duration grazing on white-tailed deer in the Edwards PLateau and Rio Grande Plain of Texas 

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Calvin Lemuiel

    1986-01-01

    Plateau and Rio Grande Plain of Texas. (December 1986) Calvin Lemuiel Richardson, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Nova Silvy Effects of short duration grazing (SDG) on white-tailed deer (Od cl ~) b d b dy dct' 1 t d 2... Ranch, April 1984 ? December 1985 55 Fig. 14. Relationship between KFI and FMF in white-tailed does in Manitoba, Canada (after Ransom 1965) 56 Fig. 15. Relationship between KFI and FMF in adult white- tailed deer, Welder Wildlife Refuge, Texas...

  3. Annotated Bibliography of Methodologies to Census, Estimate, and Monitor the Size of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Populations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interesting annotated bibliography, from Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, describes methodologies to census, estimate, and monitor the size of white-tailed deer populations. The bibliography is organized into three sections: a decade-by-decade summary of measuring/ monitoring techniques; techniques for biological populations (52 annotated references); and techniques for white-tailed deer (160 annotated references). In each section, earliest publications (1889) appear first, culminating in 1997. While the database emphasizes methodologies specific to white-tailed deer, it also does an excellent job documenting the historical evolution of techniques to measure wildlife populations. An author and keyword index completes the resource.

  4. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jeanne M.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Scoles, Glen A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock. PMID:26083429

  5. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Ueti, Massaro W; Olafson, Pia U; Freeman, Jeanne M; Johnson, Wendell C; Scoles, Glen A

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock. PMID:26083429

  6. GnRH immunocontraception of male and female white-tailed deer fawns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LOWELL A. MILLER; JAMES P. G IONFRIDDO; JACK C. RHYAN; KATHLEEN A. FAGERSTONE; DONALD C. WAGNER; GARY J. KILLIAN

    Immunocontraceptive vaccines based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) have been tested in adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), but their effects on fawns are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if early immunization against GnRH would induce a long-lasting immune response in fawns, and if it would delay or prevent sexual development. We gave primary and subsequent booster injections

  7. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PREDATOR REMOVAL AND WHITE-TAILED DEER NET PRODUCTIVITY1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SAMUEL L. BEASOM

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of predation on productivity of white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in South Texas by removing predators from one area and compar- ing the results to a control area. A total of 188 coyotes (Canis latrans) and 120 bobcats (Lynx rufus) were removed during predator removal efforts on the approximately 5,400-acre (2,186-ha) experimental

  8. PREVALENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SARCOCYSTIS SPP. AMONG WHITE-TAILED DEER OF THE SOUTHEASTERN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    JAMES M. (RUM and ANNIE K. PRESTWOOI), Southeastern ('ooperative Wildlifi' l)is-asi' Stud. I lepartmi'nt of Parasitiiliigv, (iilk'gt- if Veterinar Medicine, 1'he University if (eiirgia. Athens, Geiirgia II )bll2, ISA. Abstract: Sarcocysts were found by light microscopic examination of muscle in 199 (51%) of 390 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the southeastern United States. Sarcocystis infections were detected more frequently in

  9. Morphological and genetic sex identification of white-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Helander; Frank Hailer

    2007-01-01

    Identifying the sex of bird nestlings is relevant to studies of behaviour and ecology and is often a central issue in the\\u000a management of endangered or captive populations. The white-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla is a formerly threatened Eurasian raptor which is closely monitored in many countries due to its high exposure to environmental\\u000a pollutants in the food chain. The aim

  10. Modelling the impact of toxic and disturbance stress on white-tailed eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla ) populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Korsman; Aafke M. Schipper; H. J. Rob Lenders; Ruud P. B. Foppen; A. Jan Hendriks

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have related breeding success and survival of sea eagles to toxic or non-toxic stress separately. In the present\\u000a investigation, we analysed single and combined impacts of both toxic and disturbance stress on populations of white-tailed\\u000a eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), using an analytical single-species model. Chemical and eco(toxico)logical data reported from laboratory and field studies\\u000a were used to parameterise and

  11. Recovery dynamics and viability of the white-tailed eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla ) in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justine Sulawa; Alexandre Robert; Ulrich Köppen; Peter Hauff; Oliver Krone

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the effect of protection measures on recovery of endangered populations is crucial for assessing the efficiency\\u000a of management plans. Following the ban of DDT, PCB and other detrimental chemicals in the 1970s, the German white-tailed eagle\\u000a population recovered rapidly. Using nest monitoring data, dead recovery data and population dynamics models, we examined both\\u000a short and long-term viabilities of the

  12. Allozymic and mitochondrial DNA analysis of sympatric white-tailed and mule deer in West Texas

    E-print Network

    Ballinger, Scott Webster

    1987-01-01

    Nontana support this conclusion. Social interaction between the two species does not appear to result in the displacement of mule deer. Studies in southern Alberta (Kramer, 1972), and Big Bend National Park in West Texas (Krausman, 1978) indicate... of ecological relationships between mule and white-tailed deer. Alberta Dept. Lands and Forests, Occasional paper, Edmonton, Alberta. 54 pp. Krausman, P. R. 1978. Forage relationships between two deer species in Big Bend National Park. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 42...

  13. Field testing of commercially manufactured capture collars on white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    We conducted 31 tests of commercially manufactured capture collars on female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, under temperatures from -37C to 22C. Deer were recaptured in 28 of the 31 tests; in the 3 failures, we remotely released the collars from the deer. Communication with the collars was achieved from up to 3.0 km on the ground and 26.5 km from the air.

  14. Comparative nest habitat characteristics of sympatric White?tailed Haliaeetus albicilla and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in western Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Evans; D. Philip Whitfield; Justin R. Grant; Alison MacLennan; Robin Reid

    2010-01-01

    Capsule Golden and White?tailed Eagles selected different habitats for nesting.Aim To investigate differences in nesting habitat used by sympatrically breeding eagles in western Scotland, following reintroduction of White?tailed Eagles from 1975 onwards.Methods Nest?site locations from national surveys in 2003–05 were entered into a geographical information system (GIS) in order to measure a set of geographic parameters for each nest site.

  15. Isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from Wild White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Confirms Their Role as Natural Reservoir Hosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. MITCHELL LOCKHART; WILLIAM R. DAVIDSON; DAVID E. STALLKNECHT; JACQUELINE E. DAWSON; ELIZABETH W. HOWERTH

    1997-01-01

    Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular,

  16. Breeding habitat selection of sympatric White-tailed, Rock and Willow Ptarmigan in the southern Yukon Territory, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Wilson; Kathy Martin

    2008-01-01

    We examined breeding habitat selection at two scales for White-tailed (Lagopus leucura), Rock (L. muta), and Willow Ptarmigan (L. lagopus) at an alpine site in the Ruby Range Mountains of the Yukon Territory, Canada. To infer species-specific preferences, we\\u000a used logistic regression and AIC model selection to compare nest habitat of White-tailed (n = 43) and Rock Ptarmigan (n = 58). Only descriptive statistics

  17. Effects of grazing pressure by Angora goats on intra/interspecific foraging competition with white-tailed deer 

    E-print Network

    Hervey, Rhonda Lynne

    1989-01-01

    EFFECTS OF GRAZING PRESSURE BY ANGORA GOATS ON INTRA/INTERSPECIFIC FORAGING COMPETITION WITH WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by RHONDA LYNNE HERVEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Range Science EFFECTS OF GRAZING PRESSURE BY ANGORA GOATS ON INTRA/INTERSPECIFIC FORAGING COMPETITION WITH WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by RHONDA LYNNE HERVEY Approved...

  18. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Cully, Jack F; Johnson, Tammi L; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

  19. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, Jack F., Jr.; Johnson, T.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  20. TIDAL TAIL EJECTION AS A SIGNATURE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM WHITE DWARF MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Cody; Kasen, Daniel [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-07-20

    The merger of two white dwarfs may be preceded by the ejection of some mass in ''tidal tails,'' creating a circumstellar medium around the system. We consider the variety of observational signatures from this material, which depend on the lag time between the start of the merger and the ultimate explosion (assuming one occurs) of the system in a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). If the time lag is fairly short, then the interaction of the supernova ejecta with the tails could lead to detectable shock emission at radio, optical, and/or X-ray wavelengths. At somewhat later times, the tails produce relatively broad NaID absorption lines with velocity widths of the order of the white dwarf escape speed ({approx}1000 km s{sup -1}). That none of these signatures have been detected in normal SNe Ia constrains the lag time to be either very short ({approx}< 100 s) or fairly long ({approx}> 100 yr). If the tails have expanded and cooled over timescales {approx}10{sup 4} yr, then they could be observable through narrow NaID and Ca II H and K absorption lines in the spectra, which are seen in some fraction of SNe Ia. Using a combination of three-dimensional and one-dimensional hydrodynamical codes, we model the mass loss from tidal interactions in binary systems, and the subsequent interactions with the interstellar medium, which produce a slow-moving, dense shell of gas. We synthesize NaID line profiles by ray casting through this shell, and show that in some circumstances tidal tails could be responsible for narrow absorptions similar to those observed.

  1. Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Melissa M.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Conner, Mark C.; Eyler, T. Brian; Lancia, Richard A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM) disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM) and Quality Deer Management (QDM), a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the six regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of antler and nasal swabs from deer were positive for A. pyogenes, respectively. On the Upper Eastern Shore, prevalence of A. pyogenes cultured from deer did not differ between management areas, and was abundant among both sexes and across all age classes. No A. pyogenes was cultured from a small sample of neonates. Conclusion Our study indicates A. pyogenes may be carried widely among white-tailed deer regardless of sex or age class, but we found no evidence the pathogen is acquired in utero. The distribution of A. pyogenes across regions and concentration in a region with low livestock levels suggests the potential for localized endemicity of the organism and the possibility that deer may serve as a maintenance reservoir for an emerging one health concern. PMID:23930157

  2. Experimental Infection of White-Tailed Deer with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Etiologic Agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Cynthia M.; Mead, Daniel G.; Luttrell, M. Page; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Davidson, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Serologic and molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been demonstrated in white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus), and deer are an important host for the tick vector Ixodes scapularis. In this study, we describe experimental infection of WTD with A. phagocytophilum. We inoculated four WTD with a human isolate of A. phagocytophilum propagated in tick cells. Two additional deer served as negative controls. All inoculated deer developed antibodies (titers, ?64) to A. phagocytophilum, as determined by an indirect fluorescent antibody test, between 14 and 24 days postinfection [p.i.]), and two deer maintained reciprocal titers of ?64 through the end of the 66-day study. Although morulae were not observed in granulocytes and A. phagocytophilum was not reisolated via tick cell culture of blood, 16S reverse transcriptase nested PCR (RT-nPCR) results indicated that A. phagocytophilum circulated in peripheral blood of three deer through at least 17 days p.i. and was present in two deer at 38 days p.i. Femoral bone marrow from one deer was RT-nPCR positive for A. phagocytophilum at 66 days p.i. There was no indication of clinical disease. These data confirm that WTD are susceptible to infection with a human isolate of A. phagocytophilum and verify that WTD produce detectable antibodies upon exposure to the organism. Because adults are the predominant life stage of I. scapularis found on deer and because adult I. scapularis ticks do not transmit A. phagocytophilum transovarially, it is unlikely that WTD are a significant source of A. phagocytophilum for immature ticks even though deer have a high probability of natural infection. However, the susceptibility and immunologic response of WTD to A. phagocytophilum render them suitable candidates as natural sentinels for this zoonotic tick-borne organism. PMID:16081884

  3. A novel bipolar electric fence for excluding white-tailed deer from stored livestock feed.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G E; Lavelle, M J; Fischer, J W; White, J J; Wells, S J; Vercauteren, K C

    2012-11-01

    Where cattle (Bos taurus) and free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) coexist, they frequently share space and resources, potentially resulting in damage to stores of livestock feed and risk of interspecies disease transmission. Preventing use of stored feed by deer can be an important objective in farm management, depending on amount of damage experienced and perceived risk of disease transmission. Woven wire fences (2.4 to 3.0 m high) are generally considered to be the most effective means for excluding deer. However, rapidly deployable temporary means of excluding deer could be useful, especially during late winter when deer are most physiologically stressed and motivated to consume feed meant for cattle. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate a novel 1.2-m-tall electric fence consisting of 4 strands of bipolar tape (not requiring separate ground wires or animal contact with ground) for excluding deer from artificially established feed piles during late winter 2008 in northwestern Minnesota. To induce deer to pause, investigate the fence, and receive negative stimuli before attempting to jump the fence, the bipolar tape was baited with a viscous fluid attractive to deer. The fence was estimated to be >80% effective at reducing deer presence at feed piles (10 treatment sites and 11 control sites) given the late winter to early spring conditions. Despite the efficacy, using the fence as a primary means of protecting stored feed from deer in areas with known disease transmission risk (e.g., presence of bovine tuberculosis) is not recommended because risk could remain unacceptably high if even low numbers of deer access stored feed. Yet, the fence could be effective as immediate protection of stored feed in winter before a more permanent and effective deterrence strategy, such as woven-wire fencing, could be installed during the subsequent summer. The fence would also be effective for reducing deer depredation of stored feed, as well as gardens, small orchards, or other localized or seasonal resources. PMID:22859758

  4. Is winter diet quality related to body condition of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )? An experiment using urine profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel G. Sauveand; Steeve D. Côté

    2006-01-01

    During winter, boreal forest herbivores have access to only poor-quality forage. On Anticosti Island (Quebec, Canada), the ongoing reduction of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) P. Mill.) owing to overbrowsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) may force deer to include a higher proportion of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), a browse normally avoided, in their winter diet.

  5. CORRELATION OF CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION WITH PATHOLOGY IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) INFECTED WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis infected white-tailed deer (WTD) were detected in northeast Michigan in 1994. Subsequent surveys revealed a focus of infection that represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in North America. Relatively little work has been done to characterize the immune response of white...

  6. A plague epizootic in the white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) of Meeteetse, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Ubico, S R; Maupin, G O; Fagerstone, K A; McLean, R G

    1988-07-01

    Surveillance for sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted near Meeteetse, Wyoming (USA) from 24 May to 14 June 1985. Ten species of fleas were collected from white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus), and from their burrows and associated rodents. Five of these flea species and two adult prairie dogs were positive for plague. The progression of this plague epizootic appeared to be slower and the intensity was less than in previous epizootics in other prairie dog colonies. The plague epizootic occurred within the only known colony of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) and was a potential threat to the food source of this endangered species. PMID:3411698

  7. Visual counts as an index of White-Tailed Prairie Dog density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menkens, George E., Jr.; Biggins, Dean E.; Anderson, Stanley H.

    1990-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) are depended on prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) for food and shelter and were historically restricted to prairie dog towns (Anderson et al. 1986). Because ferrets and prairie dogs are closely associated, successful ferret management and conservation depends on successful prairie dog management. A critical component of any management program for ferrets will be monitoring prairie dog population dynamics on towns containing ferrets or on towns proposed as ferret reintroduction sites. Three techniques for estimating prairie dog population size and density are counts of plugged and reopened burrows (Tietjen and Matschke 1982), mark-recapture (Otis et al. 1978; Seber 1982, 1986; Menkens and Anderson 1989), and visual counts (Fagerstone and Biggins 1986, Knowles 1986). The technique of plugging burrows and counting the number reopened by prairie dogs is too time and labor intensive for population evaluation on a large number of towns or over large areas. Total burrow counts are not correlated with white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) densities and thus cannot be used for populated evaluation (Menkens et al. 1988). Mark-recapture requires trapping that is expensive and time and labor intensive. Monitoring a large number of prairie dog populations using mark-recapture would be difficult. Alternatively a large number of populations could be monitored in short periods of time using the visual count technique (Fagerstone and Biggins 1986, Knowles 1986). However, the accuracy of visual counts has only been evaluated in a few locations. Thus, it is not known whether the relationship between counts and prairie dog density is consistent throughout the prairie dog's range. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of using visual counts as a rapid means of estimating white-tailed prairie dog density in prairie dog towns throughout Wyoming. We studied 18 white-tailed prairie dog towns in 4 white-tailed prairie dog complexes in Wyoming near Laramie (105°40'W, 41°20'N, 3 grids), Pathfinder reservoir (106°55'W, 42°30'N, 6 grids), Shirley Basin (106°10'W, 42°20'N, 6 grids), and Meeteetse (108°10'W, 44°10'N, 3 grids). All towns were dominated by grasses, forbs, and shrubs (details in Collins and Lichvar 1986). Topography of towns ranged from flat to gently rolling hills.

  8. Experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.

    PubMed

    Lance, W R; Hibler, C P; DeMartini, J

    1983-07-01

    Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with contagious ecthyma. The limited clinical responses to the virus indicated that contagious ecthyma would not seriously impact free-ranging individuals. PMID:6685778

  9. White-Tailed Deer Browse Preferences in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Castleberry, S.B.; Ford, W.M.; Miller, K.V.; Smith, W.P.

    1997-09-04

    The authors examined spring and summer use of browse by white-tailed deer in forest gaps created by group selection timber harvest at the SRS. Total percentage browse was low in both years, averaging 2.5% of the available browse. Six species were rated high use, 4 species as proportional use and 10 species as low use. Ratings were in agreement to others in the Southeast. Preferred species were maple, winged elm, greenbriar and black willow. Deer browse had very little impact on regeneration of most species.

  10. Twenty-year Home-range Dynamics of a White-tailed Deer Matriline

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted five newly online resources at the Center's homepage. These scientific articles were originally published in print journals, but are fully (and freely) available here, complete with figures. The second resource, by Michael E. Nelson and L. David Mech, was published in 1999 in Canadian Journal of Zoology [77:1128-1135]. The paper examines home-range dynamics and seasonal migration of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) matriline. All papers may be downloaded as .zip files.

  11. A comparison of utilization of two forages by sheep, goats, and white-tailed deer 

    E-print Network

    Allen, Marsha Lynn

    1981-01-01

    as for the other deer and sheep. The goats had a lower intake than the other two species and the ash content is higher for goats than deer or sheep which may have had some inhibitory effect on the NDF, though it is rather unlikely. These same forages were...A COMPARISON OF UTILIZATION OF TWO FORAGES BY SHEEP, GOATS, AND WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by MARSHA LYNN ALLEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  12. Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson

    1985-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

  13. Daily movements of female white-tailed deer relative to parturition and breeding.

    SciTech Connect

    Gino J. D'Angelo; Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Cory D. Drennan; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller

    2005-10-01

    Abstract: To assess how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd demographics influence reproductive behaviors, we examined 24-h diel movements of female whitetailed deer relative to parturition and breeding in a low-density population with a near even sex ratio at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. We conducted a series of intensive, 24-h radio-tracking periods of 13 females during spring and fall 2002. We compared daily range (ha), rate of travel (m/h), and distance between extreme daily locations (m), among the periods of pre-parturition and post-parturition and pre-, peak-, and post-rut. From pre-parturition to post-parturition, we observed decreases in diel range size (�¢����38.2%), distance between extreme diel locations (�¢����17.0%), and diel rate of travel (�¢����18.2%). Diel range size, distance between extreme diel locations, and diel rate of travel during the pre-rut and rut exceeded those observed during post-rut. We further identified substantial increases in mobility during 12 24-h diel periods for eight females during our fall monitoring. Our data suggest that female white-tailed deer reduce mobility post-fawning following exaggerated movements during pre-parturition. Furthermore, despite a near equal sex ratio, estrous does may be required to actively seek potential mates due to low population density.

  14. Evidence for Neandertal Jewelry: Modified White-Tailed Eagle Claws at Krapina

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla) talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian. PMID:25760648

  15. Aggressive defensive behavior by free-ranging white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Swanson, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal investment plays a critical role in neonate survival, and adults can improve survival of offspring by defending them against predators. However, limited information exists documenting ungulate aggression toward humans in defense of neonates. During captures of neonates in spring 2007 and 2008 in north-central South Dakota, we documented 24 aggressive encounters by adult female and yearling male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45.8%) aggressive encounters included yearlings accompanying adult females. Mean ages and weights of neonates that were aggressively defended were greater (P < 0.0001) than ages and weights of those that were not; adults began protecting neonates at approximately 4 days of age. Male fawns were more likely (P = 0.013) to be defended than female fawns. Examination of our data suggests that sex- and age-biased maternal defensive behavior exists in white-tailed deer, and that deer biased maternal investment toward older, male neonates. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  16. Movement patterns of rural and suburban white-tailed deer in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaughan, C.R.; DeStefano, S.

    2005-01-01

    We used satellite land cover data and the program FRAGSTATS toquantify land cover types and calculate the amount of forest edge available in suburban and rural regions of northeastern and northwestern Massachusetts. Cover categories included forest cover, open canopy vegetation, and non-deer habitat. We calculated all edge segments where forest cover abutted open canopy cover. Our open canopy vegetation category was calculated both with and without low intensity suburban development. We then compared these findings to movement data from 53 (13 males, 40 females) adult radio-marked white-tailed deerOdocoileus virginianusmonitored biweekly and diurnally from January 2001 to January 2003. The range of movements of suburban deer in eastern Massachusetts showed no difference to that of suburban deer in western Massachusetts (P = 0.7). However, the ranges for suburban deer in both eastern and western Massachusetts were 10 times less than those of deer in rural western Massachusetts (P = 0.001).Our findings suggest that landscape configuration, as described by the amount and distribution of edge due to suburban development, which is related to the amount and distribution of resources such as food and cover, affects migratory behavior of white-tailed deer, allowsdeer to have smaller ranges, and contributes to high deer densities.Inclusion of suburban edge in habitat models will increase our understanding of deer-habitat relationships for management of deer in urbanizing environments. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  17. Newly Recognized Herpesvirus Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Dyer, Neil; Keller, Janice; Crawford, Timothy B.

    2000-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify viral sequences from DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and/or spleens of the deer with primers specific for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) or specific for alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AHV-1). By using degenerate primers targeting a conserved region of a herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, a DNA fragment was amplified from the PBL or spleens of all six deer and sequenced. Alignment of the sequences demonstrated that the virus in the deer belongs to the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, exhibiting 82% identity to OHV-2, 71% to AHV-1, and 60% to a newly identified bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus. This virus, which causes classical MCF in white-tailed deer, is a newly recognized agent belonging to the MCF group of gammaherpesviruses. It is the third reported pathogenic MCF virus, genetically distinct but closely related to OHV-2 and AHV-1. The reservoir for the virus has not been identified. PMID:10747100

  18. Nutritional restriction and acid-base balance in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the effect of progressive nutritional restriction on acid-base balance in seven captive, adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 4 February to 5 May 1988 in north central Minnesota (USA). Metabolic acidosis was indicated by low mean blood pH (7.25 to 7.33) in deer throughout the study. Mean urinary pH values declined (P = 0.020) from a mean (+SE) baseline of 8.3 +0.1 to 6.7 + 0.3 as restriction progressed. Acidemia and aciduria were associated with significant variations in mean blood CO2 (P = 0.006) and pO2 (P = 0.032), serum potassium (P = 0.004) concentrations, and with a significant (P = 0.104) handling date times group interaction in urinary potassium:creatinine values. Mean bicarbonate:carbonic acid ratios were consistently below 20:1 during nutritional restriction. Mean packed cell volume increased (P = 0.019) and serum total protein decreased (P = 0.001); thus there was evidence for progressive dehydration and net protein catabolism, respectively. Blood pCO2, serum sodium, and urinary sodium:creatinine were stable throughout the study. We propose that acidosis and aciduria are metabolic complications associated with nutritional restriction of white-tailed deer.

  19. SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY IN FREE-RANGING MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HE\\/Id\\/ONUS), WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSON\\/) IN NORTHCENTRAL COLORADO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Spraker; M. W. Miller; E. S. Williams; D. M. Getzy; W. J. Adrian; G. G. Schoonveld; R. A. Spowart; K. I. O'Rourke; J. M. Miller; P. A. Merz

    Between March 1981 and June 1995, a neurological disease characterized histolog- ically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral Colorado (USA). Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and ac- counted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six Rocky Mountain elk (Cerous eluphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus oirginianus) were also

  20. The use of fecal nitrogen as an indicator of dietary protein content in white-tailed deer

    E-print Network

    Mascorro, Paul Eugene

    1982-01-01

    THE USE 01' FEC. " L NITROGEN AS AN 1NDICATOR OF DIETARy PROTEIN CONTENT IN WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis PE UL EUGENE NASCORRO Submitted to the Grarluate College of Texas A6, N University . n partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1982 Na jor Subject: Nildlife and Fisheries Sciences THE USE OF FECAL NITROGEN AS AN INDICATOR OF DIETARY PROTEIN CONTENT IN WHITE-TAILED DEER Thesis by PAUL EUGENE MASCORRO Approved as to style and content by: '(Chairman...

  1. Habitat use and population fluctuations of white-tailed deer at La Copita Research Area, Jim Wells County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Walsh, Patrick Brendan

    1985-01-01

    predator of white-tailed deer. Deer ar e moderately abun- dant, with a year-round density of approximately one deer per 9 ha. Historically, La Copita has been used as a cattle ranch and livestock operations continued as the focus of the research effort...HABITAT USE AND POPULATION FLUCTUATIONS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER AT LA COPITA RESEARCH AREA, JIM WELLS COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by PATRICK BRENDAN WALSH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  2. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:7982 (2008) Evaluation of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer for evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    E-print Network

    Ditchkoff, Steve

    2008-01-01

    J Vet Diagn Invest 20:79­82 (2008) Evaluation of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer for evidence. The objective of this study was to evaluate blood and skin samples from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer of 165 serum samples. Skin biopsy immunohis- tochemistry (IHC) was performed on samples from 406 deer

  3. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in white tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from Iowa and Minnesota using four serologic tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoir of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in the US. Sera from white-tailed deer from Minnesota and Iowa were tested for antibodies to N. caninum by four serologic tests including the indi...

  4. Effects of winter fasting and refeeding on white-tailed deer blood profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on blood characteristics of 9 nonpregnant, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in captivity from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Percent weight loss was greater in fasted deer than in deer fed diets of 2 crude protein levels. Fasting effects were also observed for hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), cholesterol, triglycerides, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), potassium (K), glucose, phosphorus (P), insulin, thyroxine (T4), and total protein (TP). Refeeding influenced cholesterol, sodium (Na), and calcium (Ca). Hemoglobin, PCV, Ca, P, and albumin varied with time in fasted deer. Changes over time in the fed deer occurred for several hematological and serum characteristics. Data are presented to serve as reference values for better understanding of data collected from free-ranging deer under less known conditions.

  5. Aerial tracking of radio-marked white-tailed tropicbirds over the Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, M.R.; Obrecht, H.H., III; Pennycuick, C.J.; Schaffner, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    We radio-marked nesting white-tailed tropicbirds at Culebra National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico, and tracked them from a Cessna 182 during flights over the open sea. Locations of the birds were determined using standard aerial telemetry techniques for side-facing Yagi antennas. We used strut-mounted, 4-element Yagi antennas connected to a switchbox and scanning receiver. By recording bearing and distance from at least 1 of 3 aeronautical navigation beacons, the position of the aircraft and the bird could be estimated with an error of about 2 km. On several occasions we plotted the general heading of a bird and then relocated and tracked the same bird on the following day. Our method of aerial tracking and navigation was useful for tracking birds over the sea to at least 116 km from the breeding colony

  6. Evaluation of an expandable, breakaway radiocollar for white-tailed deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Kochanny, C.O.; Vreeland, J.K.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated an expandable, breakaway VHF radiocollar design for use on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from birth to about 1 year of age. A similar collar design has been used on caribou (Rangifer tarandus), but we found that the collar did not expand quickly enough to accommodate increase in neck circumference of fawns during the first 2 months of life. Consequently, we modified the stitching pattern so that the first expansion fold opened faster. We monitored performance of this modification on free-ranging and captive fawns. Also, we collected data on neck growth in fawns to document design requirements of expandable collars for white-tailed deer. Mean neck circumference at ???14 days of age of free-ranging fawns in Pennsylvania was 17.8 cm (SD=1.67, n=62) for males and 17.3 cm (SD=1.50, n=52) for females. Based on measurements of captive fawns, neck circumference increased 8.8 cm from birth to August, 2.5 cm from August to October, and 2.6 cm from October to March. Observations of captive fawns fitted with dummy radiocollars indicated that collars expanded when needed and caused no apparent discomfort to fawns. We detected no problems with use of 86 collars on 113 free-ranging fawns for >270 days and recovered radiocollars expanded as designed. The elastic collar material failed on 3 collars (3%) after 142, 207, and 226 days on fawns, and 1-5 radiocollars (???4%) were cast by fawns. Our modification to this radiocollar design reduced fawn discomfort or suffering, allowing researchers to better comply with principles of the Animal Welfare Act.

  7. Experimental and field studies of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Fischer, J R; Zhao, T; Doyle, M P; Goldberg, M R; Brown, C A; Sewell, C T; Kavanaugh, D M; Bauman, C D

    2001-03-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a small group of inoculated deer, determine the prevalence of the bacterium in free-ranging white-tailed deer, and elucidate relationships between E. coli O157:H7 in wild deer and domestic cattle at the same site. Six young, white-tailed deer were orally administered 10(8) CFU of E. coli O157:H7. Inoculated deer were shedding E. coli O157:H7 by 1 day postinoculation (DPI) and continued to shed decreasing numbers of the bacteria throughout the 26-day trial. Horizontal transmission to an uninoculated deer was demonstrated. Although E. coli O157:H7 bacteria were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of deer necropsied from 4 to 26 DPI, attaching and effacing lesions were not apparent in any deer. Results are similar to those of inoculation studies in calves and sheep. In field studies, E. coli O157 was not detected in 310 fresh deer fecal samples collected from the ground. It was detected in feces, but not in meat, from 3 of 469 free-ranging deer in 1997. In 1998, E. coli O157 was not detected in 140 deer at the single positive site found in 1997; however, it was recovered from 13 of 305 dairy and beef cattle at the same location. Isolates of E. coli O157:H7 from deer and cattle at this site differed with respect to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and genes encoding Shiga toxins. The low overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and the identification of only one site with positive deer suggest that wild deer are not a major reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 in the southeastern United States. However, there may be individual locations where deer sporadically harbor the bacterium, and venison should be handled with the same precautions recommended for beef, pork, and poultry. PMID:11229913

  8. Predation of artificial ground nests on white-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, B.W.; Stanley, T.R.; Sedgwick, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies are unique to prairie and shrub-steppe landscapes. However, widespread eradication, habitat loss, and sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) have reduced their numbers by 98% since historical times. Birds associated with prairie dogs also are declining. Potential nest predators, such as coyotes (Canis latrans), swift foxes (Vulpes velox), and badgers (Taxidea taxus), may be attracted to colonies where a high concentration of prairie dogs serve as available prey. Increased abundance of small mammals, including prairie dogs, also may increase the risk of predation for birds nesting on colonies. Finally, because grazing by prairie dogs may decrease vegetation height and canopy cover, bird nests may be easier for predators to locate. In this study, we placed 1,444 artificial ground nests on and off 74 white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) colonies to test the hypothesis that nest predation rates are higher on colonies than at nearby off sites (i.e., uncolonized habitat). We sampled colonies from 27 May to 16 July 1997 at the following 3 complexes: Coyote Basin, Utah and Colorado; Moxa Arch, Wyoming; and Shirley Basin, Wyoming. Differences in daily predation rates between colonies and paired off sites averaged 1.0% (P = 0.060). When converted to a typical 14-day incubation period, predation rates averaged 14% higher on colonies (57.7 ?? 2.7%; ?? ?? SE) than at off sites (50.4 ?? 3.1%). Comparisons of habitat variables on colonies to off sites showed percent canopy cover of vegetation was similar (P = 0.114), percent bare ground was higher on colonies (P 0.288). Although we found the risk of nest predation was higher on white-tailed prairie dog colonies than at off sites, fitness of birds nesting on colonies might depend on other factors that influence foraging success, reproductive success, or nestling survival.

  9. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

    2008-04-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P

  10. Evaluation of Blood Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium Bovis in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveillance and control activities for bovine tuberculosis (TB) in free-ranging Michigan white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been underway for over a decade, with significant progress. However, foci of higher TB prevalence on private land, and limited agency ability to eliminate them ...

  11. THE LIVER FLUKE METORCHIS BILIS - A NEW THREAT FOR THE WHITE-TAILED SEA EAGLE (HALIAEETUS ALBICILLA) IN MIDDLE EUROPE?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. KRONE; R. SCHUSTER

    Extendet abstract: The white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) an endangered species in Germany suffers a lot of threats in the highly civilised landscape. Amongst the main causes of death such as traumata due to interference with human structures, i.e. collisions with trains, wire, electrocution, and poisoning, parasites do also play an important role in the health status of these birds

  12. THE IMPACT OF TRANSLOCATION AND RESTOCKING PROGRAMS ON THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN MISSISSIPPI.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of wildlife population genetics studies have focused on model species representing threatened or endangered populations. However, there are several species that exemplify remarkable "success stories" due to past conservation efforts, but have received little attention. White-tailed de...

  13. Investigations on the aetiology of pinching off syndrome in four white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Müller; Elvira Schettler; Helga Gerlach; Leo Brunnberg; Hafez Mohamed Hafez; Kim Hattermann; Reimar Johne; Rainer Kollmann; Oliver Krone; Michael Lierz; Sonja Linke; Dörte Lueschow; Annette Mankertz; Hermann Müller; Christina Prusas; Rüdiger Raue; Dirk Soike; Stephanie Speck; Petra Wolf; Kai Frölich

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aetiology of the pinching off syndrome (POS), a generalized feather abnormality affecting free-living nestling of the white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Europe. For the first time, extensive clinical, haematological, biochemical, virological, bacteriological, nutritional, histopathological, parasitological and electron microscopical examinations were performed on three females and one male suffering from POS.

  14. Browse Preference and Browsing Intensity of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Allegheny High Plateau Riparian Forests, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric V. Mosbacher; Charles Williams

    2009-01-01

    Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and

  15. SURVIVAL OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS ON FEEDSTUFFS COMMONLY USED AS SUPPLEMENTAL FEED FOR WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has become established in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan. Although, it is generally accepted that deer were originally infected with M. bovis through contact with cattle, deer to deer and deer to catt...

  16. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Shannon Deperno

    1998-01-01

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and

  17. Total and methylmercury in soft tissues of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) collected in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Gorecki, Jerzy; Lanocha, Natalia; Okonska, Anna; Melgarejo, Javier B; Budis, Halina; Rzad, Izabella; Golas, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in piscivorous birds, especially methylmercury (MeHg), has been drawing much attention worldwide in regard to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. In this study on Hg in the soft tissues of white-tailed eagles (n = 22) and ospreys (n = 2) from Poland, total Hg (THg) range was 0.15-47.6 while MeHg range was 0.11-8.05 mg kg?¹ dry weight. In both species, median THg and MeHg concentrations were lower in the muscle and brain than in the liver and kidney. Median nephric residues were just under 3 and 5 mgTHg kg?¹ or 0.9 and 3.7 mgMeHg kg?¹ for white-tailed eagle and osprey, respectively. In Norwegian data from the 1970s and in our results, MeHg in the muscle of white-tailed eagle was ~60 % THg (%MeHg = MeHg/THg × 100), lower than in other piscivorous birds. A clear similarity in THg tissue levels was found between Polish and German populations of white-tailed eagles. PMID:24870933

  18. Effects of SpayVac� on urban white-tailed deer at Johnson Space Center

    E-print Network

    Hernandez, Saul

    2007-04-25

    of overabundance: deer ecology and population management. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA. Miller, L.A., B.E. Johns, and G.J. Killian. 2000. Immunocontraception of white-tailed deer using native and recombinant zona pellucida vaccines...

  19. Serum 25-Hydroxvitamin D Concentrations in Captive and Free-Ranging, White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT: Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined for free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus). Effects of gender, season, and age on 25(OH)D concentrations were determined as well as comparisons to concentrations in serum from captive re...

  20. Occurrence, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White tailed deer (WTD) is an important reservoir host for Toxoplasma gondii. Each yr hundreds of thousands WTD are hunted or die in road accidents in the U.S.A. Humans and animals can become infected with T. gondii by eating infected venison. Wild felids that eat infected deer tissues can shed oocy...

  1. Effects of Hunting and Loss of Escape Cover on Movements and Activity of Female White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus

    E-print Network

    Effects of Hunting and Loss of Escape Cover on Movements and Activity of Female White-tailed Deer of escape cover on movements and aClivily of female While-Iailed Deer. O,/ocoileus \\·irginianus. Canadian Field-NalUraiisl 111(4): 595-600. We monitored radio-collared female While-Iailed Deer (Odowileu.r \\'irg

  2. Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla collected in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Falandysz; N. Yamashita; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; L. Rucifiska; T. Mizera; B. Jakuczun

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners including highly toxic non-, mono-, and di-ortho coplanar members as well as their pattern were determined in breast muscles of white-tailed sea eagles collected dead between 1982 and 1990 in Poland. There was a wide variation in total PCB residue concentrations among eagles from various breeding sites, with the Baltic Sea coast registering

  3. Plant Disease Lesson: Southern blight, Southern stem blight, White mold

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jackie Mullen (Auburn University; )

    2001-01-04

    This plant disease lesson on southern blight, Southern stem blight, white mold (caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (teleomorph: Athelia rolfsii)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  4. Deep White Matter in Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Elifani, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities have already been shown in presymptomatic (Pre-HD) and symptomatic HD subjects using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In the present study, we examined the microstructure of the long-range large deep WM tracts by applying two different MRI approaches: Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) -based tractography, and T2*weighted (iron sensitive) imaging. We collected Pre-HD subjects (n?=?25), HD patients (n?=?25) and healthy control subjects (n?=?50). Results revealed increased axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) and iron levels in Pre-HD subjects compared to controls. Fractional anisotropy decreased between the Pre-HD and HD phase and AD/RD increased and although impairment was pervasive in HD, degeneration occurred in a pattern in Pre-HD. Furthermore, iron levels dropped for HD patients. As increased iron levels are associated with remyelination, the data suggests that Pre-HD subjects attempt to repair damaged deep WM years before symptoms occur but this process fails with disease progression. PMID:25340651

  5. WILDLIFE DISEASES SURVEILLANCE TO DETECT CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer wasting disease, disease surveillance, Odocoileus virginianus, white- tailed deer, Wisconsin. INTRODUCTION

  6. White-tailed deer alter specialist and generalist insect herbivory through plant traits.

    PubMed

    Lind, Eric M; Myron, Emily P; Giaccai, Jennifer; Parker, John D

    2012-12-01

    Within a plant species, leaf traits can vary across environmental, genetic, spatial, and temporal gradients, even showing drastic differences within individuals. Herbivory can also induce variation in leaf morphology, defensive structure, and chemistry including nutritional content. Indirect effects of prior insect herbivory on later herbivores have been well documented, but the induction of trait changes after vertebrate herbivory has been little explored. Here, we examined how browsing of spicebush (Lindera benzoin L.), a dominant understory shrub in eastern mesic forests, by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus L.) altered plant quality and subsequent foliar herbivory by insects. Browsing history explained ? 10% of overall leaf trait variation; regenerated leaves had greater water content and specific leaf area (P = 0.009), but were lower in nitrogen and greater in carbon (P < 0.001), than leaves on unbrowsed plants. However, browsing did not shift terpene chemistry as revealed by GC-MS. In the lab, caterpillars of the specialist spicebush swallowtail (Papilio troilus L.) preferred (P = 0.02) and grew 20% faster (P = 0.02) on foliage from browsed plants; whereas total herbivory in the field, including generalist insect herbivory, was twice as high on unbrowsed plants (P = 0.016). These results suggest that the ecological impacts of deer in forest understories can have cascading impacts on arthropod communities by changing the suitability of host-plants to insect herbivores. PMID:23321087

  7. Response of urinary hydroxyproline to dietary protein and fasting in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary hydroxyproline of nine captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from 23 February to 3 May 1984 in northern Minnesota. In the fasted group, mean hydroxyproline:creatinine (OHP:C) was greater (P less than 0.05) at week 4 compared to baseline at week 0. Between fasted deer and deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) and low protein-high energy (LPHE) diets, no difference in OHP:C ratios was detected during the initial 4 wk of the study. Urinary OHP:C ratios were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater in the fasted group during refeeding, concomitant with greater feed consumption and weight gain. There was also a significant (P less than 0.02) time effect in the fasted-refed group; OHP:C ratios increased during these two phases of the study. There was no difference between the HPHE and LPHE fed deer in renal OHP excretion. However, mean OHP:C ratios in yearlings (16.8 +/- 2.2) were greater (P less than 0.001) than in the adults (7.5 +/- 1.2) of those groups, indicating a higher collagen turnover rate. Urinary OHP:C shows potential as an indicator of growth and starvation, and the data presented may serve as reference values.

  8. Minimizing capture-related stress on white-tailed deer with a capture collar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1990-01-01

    We compared the effect of 3 capture methods for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on blood indicators of acute excitement and stress from 1 February to 20 April 1989. Eleven adult females were captured by Clover trap or cannon net between 1 February and 9 April 1989 in northeastern Minnesota [USA]. These deer were fitted with radio-controlled capture collars, and 9 deer were recaptured 7-33 days later. Trapping method affected serum cortisol (P < 0.0001), hemoglobin (Hb) (P < 0.06), and packed cell volume (PCV) (P < 0.07). Cortisol concentrations were lower (P < 0.0001) in capture-collared deer (0.54 .+-. 0.07 [SE] .mu.g/dL) compared to Clover-trapped (4.37 .+-. 0.69 .mu.g/dL) and cannon-netted (3.88 .+-. 0.82 .mu.g/dL) deer. Capture-collared deer were minimally stressed compared to deer captured by traditional methods. Use of the capture collar should permit more accurate interpretation of blood profiles of deer for assessement of condition and general health.

  9. Testing releasable GPS radiocollars on wolves and white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, S.B.; Adams, L.G.; Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    We tested prototype GPS collars on 8 free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) and 3 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for varying periods between February and August 1997. We programmed the 920-gm collars to make a location attempt 6-96 times per day. The collars were designed to be remotely released from the animal and the data were then downloaded to a desktop computer. The collars produced 47-1,549 locations each during 11-41 days; locations were successful in 26-95% of the attempts (x?? = 70%). Eight collars released successfully. Three collar-release failures were caused by condensation. Two collars had GPS antennas that were improperly attached and did not collect data. Life was as long as, or longer than, expected in 4 collars, less than expected in 5 collars, and unknown in 2 collars. Limitations of this type of collar include brief life if programmed at short location-attempt intervals (???1 hr) and possible drop-off failure. Nevertheless, the large volume of data we collected with no field telemetry effort demonstrates the potential for this type of GPS collar to answer questions about movements of medium-sized mammals.

  10. Associating seasonal range characteristics with survival of female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Deperno, C.S.; Griffin, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Delineating populations is critical for understanding population dynamics and managing habitats. Our objective was to delineate subpopulations of migratory female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, USA, on summer and winter ranges. We used fuzzy classification to assign radiocollared deer to subpopulations based on spatial location, characterized subpopulations by trapping sites, and explored relationships among survival of subpopulations and habitat variables. In winter, Kaplan-Meier estimates for subpopulations indicated 2 groups: high (S = 0.991 ?? 0.005 [x- ?? SE]) and low (S = 0.968 ?? 0.007) weekly survivorship. Survivorship increased with basal area per hectare of trees, average diameter at breast height of trees, percent cover of slash, and total point-center quarter distance of trees. Cover of grass and forbs were less for the high survivorship than the lower survivorship group. In summer, deer were spaced apart with mixed associations among subpopulations. Habitat manipulations that promote or maintain large trees (i.e., basal area = 14.8 m2/ha and average dbh of trees = 8.3 cm) would seem to improve adult survival of deer in winter.

  11. White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Begley-Miller, Danielle R.; Hipp, Andrew L.; Brown, Bethany H.; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H?), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H? and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059

  12. Recording movement and activity pattern of a White-tailed Sea Eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla ) by a GPS datalogger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Krone; Anne Berger; Robert Schulte

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, we measured the home range size and activity pattern of a White-tailed Sea Eagle (WTSE) by GPS telemetry.\\u000a Positions were recorded three times a day and the activity pattern were continuously recorded by two acceleration sensors.\\u000a From July to January, we obtained 475 positions and calculated a 95% kernel home range of 4.53 km2 and a 95%

  13. Enzymes of Adenylate Metabolism and Their Role in Hibernation of the White-Tailed Prairie Dog, Cynomys leucurus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara E. English; Kenneth B. Storey

    2000-01-01

    AMP deaminase (AMPD) and adenylate kinase (AK) were purified from skeletal muscle of the white-tailed prairie dog, Cynomus leucurus, and enzyme properties were assayed at temperatures characteristic of euthermia (37°C) and hibernation (5°C) to analyze their role in adenylate metabolism during hibernation. Total adenylates decreased in muscle of torpid individuals from 6.97 ± 0.31 to 4.66 ± 0.58 ?mol\\/g of

  14. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janna Koistinen; J. P. Giesy; J. Koivusaari; I. Nuuja; P. J. Vuorinen; J. Paasivirta

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs)

  15. PCDEs, PCBs, PCDDs AND PCDFs in black guillemots and white-tailed sea eagles from the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Koistinen; J. Koivusaari; I. Nuuja; J. Paasivirta

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations and patterns of several chloro compounds including polychlorinated dibenzo p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), biphenyls (PCB) and diphenyl ethers (PCDE) were determined in black guillemots (Cepphus grylle L.) and white-tailed sea-eagles (Hallaeetus albicilla L.) from the Baltic Sea environment. Three breast muscles of eagles were analyzed and had different concentrations and patterns of the studied compounds, whereas the three guillemot

  16. Congener-specific analysis of chloronaphthalenes in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla breeding in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerzy Falandysz; Lidia Strandberg; Sten Erik Kulp; Bo Strandberg; Per-Anders Bergqvist; Christoffer Rappe

    1996-01-01

    Forty-four congeners of higher chlorinated naphthalenes were identified and quantified in the breast muscles, liver and adipose fat of a few specimens of white-tailed sea eagle collected from the Baltic coastal and inland breeding areas in Poland in 1991–1992. Many of the identified chloronaphthalenes (CNs) were well resolved as single peaks on the Rtx-5 HRGC-MS\\/EI-SIR chromatograms; but still some of

  17. Investigating variation in the nutritional ecology and genetics of White-tailed Ptarmigan: implications for climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Oyler-McCance; C. A. Stricker; C. E. Braun; G. T. Wann; C. L. Aldridge

    2010-01-01

    White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are well suited as a focal species for the study of climate change because they are adapted to cool, alpine environments that are expected to undergo unusually rapid climate change. We compared samples collected in the late 1930s, the late 1960s, and the late 2000s using molecular genetic and stable isotope methods in an effort to

  18. Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging white-tailed deer, Michigan, USA, 1995–2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J O’Brien; Stephen M Schmitt; Jean S Fierke; Stephanie A Hogle; Scott R Winterstein; Thomas M Cooley; William E Moritz; Kelly L Diegel; Scott D Fitzgerald; Dale E Berry; John B Kaneene

    2002-01-01

    An endemic area of bovine tuberculosis (TB) (Mycobacterium bovis) currently affecting wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northern lower Michigan, USA, constitutes the first self-sustaining outbreak of the infection in free-ranging North American cervids. Given this precedent, epidemiologic insights gained from the outbreak afford the opportunity to guide not only current surveillance and intervention but also control efforts for future

  19. [Forage use and availability for white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in an experimental unit of Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Granados, Danilo; Tarango, Luis; Olmos, Genaro; Palacio, Jorge; Clemente, Fernando; Mendoza, Germán

    2014-06-01

    Forage use and availability for white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in an experimental unit of Campeche, Mexico. In Campeche state, 122 Wildlife Conservation and Management Units have been recently conformed. In these units, eventhough the white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi is a game species, no studies on its diet have been undertaken. The objectives of this work were to estimate the botanical composition of the diet and its seasonal change, to determine forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate of O. virginianus thomasi. The study was conducted in the experimental unit of Colegio de Postgraduados in Campeche, Mexico, from October 2010 to May 2012. The diet was determined through microhistological analyses of the white tailed deer feces by the use of reference material. Forage availability was determined through the Adelaide's method; the stocking rate, using the grazing pressure factor; and carrying capacity considering forage availability and 35% of utilization efficiency. In this experimental unit, the deer diet included 40 species belonging to 15 families. The highest species richness ocurred during the rainy season with 29 species. However, deers preferred shrubs during all seasons, and herbaceous species during the rainy season. The diet composition, forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate varied throughout the year. Carrying capacity ranged from 0.04 to 1.08deer/ha. Additional studies are required to detail about the composition of the diet, habitat availability and use throughout its geographical range, and to detail on nutritional and health aspects. PMID:25102651

  20. Investigating variation in the nutritional ecology and genetics of White-tailed Ptarmigan: implications for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyler-McCance, S. J.; Stricker, C. A.; Braun, C. E.; Wann, G. T.; Aldridge, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are well suited as a focal species for the study of climate change because they are adapted to cool, alpine environments that are expected to undergo unusually rapid climate change. We compared samples collected in the late 1930s, the late 1960s, and the late 2000s using molecular genetic and stable isotope methods in an effort to determine whether White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans, Colorado have experienced recent environmental changes resulting in shifts in genetic diversity, gene frequency, and nutritional ecology. We genotyped 115 individuals spanning the three time periods using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in our genetic analysis. These samples were also analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition. We found a slight trend of lower heterozygosity through time and allelic richness values were lower in more recent times. We found no changes in allele frequencies across time periods suggesting that population sizes have not changed dramatically. Feather ?13C and ?15N values decreased significantly across time periods, whereas the range in isotope values increased consistently from the late 1930s to the later time periods. Inferred changes in the nutritional ecology of White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans relates primarily to increased atmospheric deposition of nutrients that likely influenced foraging habits and tundra plant composition and nutritional quality. We briefly discuss similar ongoing work on the neighboring population in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado and tie in genetic results from across the species range.

  1. Histopathology of crustose coralline algae affected by white band and white patch diseases

    PubMed Central

    Meistertzheim, Anne-Leila; Steneck, Robert S.; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2015-01-01

    Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are major benthic calcifiers that play crucial roles in marine ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. Over the past two decades, epizootics have been reported for several CCA species on coral reefs worldwide. However, their causes remain often unknown in part because few studies have investigated CCA pathologies at a microscopic scale. We studied the cellular changes associated with two syndromes: Coralline White Band Syndrome (CWBS) and Coralline White Patch Disease (CWPD) from samples collected in Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Healthy-looking tissue of diseased CCA did not differ from healthy tissue of healthy CCA. In diseased tissues of both pathologies, the three characteristic cell layers of CCA revealed cells completely depleted of protoplasmic content, but presenting an intact cell wall. In addition, CWBS showed a transition area between healthy and diseased tissues consisting of cells partially deprived of protoplasmic material, most likely corresponding to the white band characterizing the disease at the macroscopic level. This transition area was absent in CWPD. Regrowth at the lesion boundary were sometimes observed in both syndromes. Tissues of both healthy and diseased CCA were colonised by diverse boring organisms. Fungal infections associated with the diseased cells were not seen. However, other bioeroders were more abundant in diseased vs healthy CCA and in diseased vs healthy-looking tissues of diseased CCA. Although their role in the pathogenesis is unclear, this suggests that disease increases CCA susceptibility to bioerosion. Further investigations using an integrated approach are needed to carry out the complete diagnosis of these diseases. PMID:26157617

  2. Histopathology of crustose coralline algae affected by white band and white patch diseases.

    PubMed

    Quéré, Gaëlle; Meistertzheim, Anne-Leila; Steneck, Robert S; Nugues, Maggy M

    2015-01-01

    Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are major benthic calcifiers that play crucial roles in marine ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. Over the past two decades, epizootics have been reported for several CCA species on coral reefs worldwide. However, their causes remain often unknown in part because few studies have investigated CCA pathologies at a microscopic scale. We studied the cellular changes associated with two syndromes: Coralline White Band Syndrome (CWBS) and Coralline White Patch Disease (CWPD) from samples collected in Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Healthy-looking tissue of diseased CCA did not differ from healthy tissue of healthy CCA. In diseased tissues of both pathologies, the three characteristic cell layers of CCA revealed cells completely depleted of protoplasmic content, but presenting an intact cell wall. In addition, CWBS showed a transition area between healthy and diseased tissues consisting of cells partially deprived of protoplasmic material, most likely corresponding to the white band characterizing the disease at the macroscopic level. This transition area was absent in CWPD. Regrowth at the lesion boundary were sometimes observed in both syndromes. Tissues of both healthy and diseased CCA were colonised by diverse boring organisms. Fungal infections associated with the diseased cells were not seen. However, other bioeroders were more abundant in diseased vs healthy CCA and in diseased vs healthy-looking tissues of diseased CCA. Although their role in the pathogenesis is unclear, this suggests that disease increases CCA susceptibility to bioerosion. Further investigations using an integrated approach are needed to carry out the complete diagnosis of these diseases. PMID:26157617

  3. Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C. [Geological Survey, Madison, WI (United States). National Wildlife Health Center; Whittaker, D.G. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (United States); Roy, R.R. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Commerce City, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge]|[Fish and Wildlife Service, Moses Lake, WA (United States). Moses Lake Field Office; Baker, D.L. [Colorado Div. of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-02-01

    The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989--1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 and 10.6 years, respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer, dieldrin was found in fat, liver, and brain, and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal. Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin and mercury. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

  4. A genetic approach to the study of population structure in white-tailed deer :: evidence from the Noble Foundation Wildlife Unit 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Joel David

    2003-01-01

    described herein provide a foundation upon which studies of genetics in white-tailed deer using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers may be based. CHAPTER II DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIPLEXED FLUORESCENT-LABELED DNA MICROSATELLITE PANEL FOR GENETIC... EXCLUSION STUDIES OF WHITE-TAILED DEER INTRODUCTION Population genetic analyses in large mammals are based on the distribution of polymorphism across the range of a population or species. Several methods are currently available for analysis...

  5. Canavan Disease: A White Matter Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shalini; Mattan, Natalia S.; de Vellis, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Breakdown of oligodendrocyte-neuron interactions in white matter (WM), such as the loss of myelin, results in axonal dysfunction and hence a disruption of information processing between brain regions. The major feature of leukodystrophies is the lack of proper myelin formation during early development or the onset of myelin loss late in life.…

  6. Effects of winter undernutrition on body composition and physiological profiles of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effects of undernutrition and recovery on body composition and blood and urinary profiles of 6 captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) between 18 December 1984 and 3 May 1985. Deer were weighed, and blood and urine were collected every 2 weeks from 10 January to 3 May. At Weeks 2, 8, and 14, body composition was estimated by the dilution of tritiated water technique and standard predictive equations. Feed intake decreased and cumulative mass loss increased during nutritional restriction. Baseline body composition included 62.1 .+-. 0.9 (SE)% water, 11.9 .+-. 1.0% fat, 20.5 .+-. 0.7% protein, and 4.5 .+-. 0.0% ash. Percent protein loss was linearly related (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) to percent mass loss. Peak mass loss from the beginning of the study (12.8 .+-. 2.0%) occurred at Week 12; estimated protein loss was 12.5%. Fat reserves were 85% depleted from Week 2 to Week 14. Elevated packed cell volume (PCV), serum calcium (Ca), cholesterol, triglycerides, and cortisol; and diminished serum urea nitrogen, thyroxine (T4), urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine and potassium:creatinine were associated with reduced food intake, mass loss, and decreases in body water, fat, and protein. Altered values of most of these blood and urinary characteristics reflected initiation of nutritional recovery after nutrition improved. Sequential data collection and the use of a combination of indices in blood or urine will yield the most useful assessments of animal nutrition and condition.

  7. Prevalence of granulocytic Ehrlichia infection among white-tailed deer in Wisconsin.

    PubMed Central

    Belongia, E A; Reed, K D; Mitchell, P D; Kolbert, C P; Persing, D H; Gill, J S; Kazmierczak, J J

    1997-01-01

    Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is caused by an agent that is nearly indistinguishable from the veterinary pathogens Ehrlichia equi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila. The deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of the HGE agent, and the white-tailed deer is the primary host for adult Ixodes ticks. We assessed the distribution of granulocytic Ehrlichia infection among deer living within (Wisconsin) and outside (western and southern Iowa) the geographic range of L. scapularis. Whole-blood samples were tested for HGE 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) by PCR, and E. equi antibody was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Antibody titers of > or = 1:64 were defined as positive, and all positive samples were retested with a second lot of substrate antigen. E. equi antibody was present in 14 (8%) of 187 Wisconsin deer and 0 of 60 Iowa specimens (rate ratio undefined; P = 0.025). An additional 30 serum samples from Wisconsin deer were excluded because IFA results were discrepant between substrate lots. The reciprocal antibody titers ranged from 64 to 512 (geometric mean, 141) for positive samples. PCR results were positive for 27 (15%) of 181 Wisconsin deer. The prevalence of infection in northwestern Wisconsin deer was not significantly different from that in central Wisconsin deer, as determined by IFA and PCR. In two samples that were sequenced, the 16S rDNA was nearly identical to that of the granulocytic Ehrlichia species but distinct from that of Anaplasma marginale. The DNA sequences of the samples differed from the published sequences for E. equi, E. phagocytophila, and the HGE agent by 1 or 2 nucleotides (> or = 99.1% homology) at phylogenetically informative sites. Granulocytic Ehrlichia organisms in deer are widely distributed within the geographic range of L. scapularis in Wisconsin. Deer may serve as useful sentinels for areas where HGE transmission to humans may occur. PMID:9163463

  8. White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; DeVault, Travis L.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles, in addition to posting advisory speed limits. PMID:25333922

  9. Familiarity breeds contempt: combining proximity loggers and gps reveals female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) avoiding close contact with neighbors.

    PubMed

    Tosa, Marie I; Schauber, Eric M; Nielsen, Clayton K

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions can influence infectious disease dynamics, particularly for directly transmitted pathogens. Therefore, reliable information on contact frequency within and among groups can better inform disease modeling and management. We compared three methods of assessing contact patterns: (1) space-use overlap (volume of interaction [VI]), (2) direct contact rates measured by simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) locations (<10 m apart), and (3) direct contact rates measured by proximity loggers (PLs; 1-m detection) among female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We calculated the PL?GPS contact ratios to see whether both devices reveal similar contact patterns and thus predict similar pathogen transmission patterns. Contact rates measured by GPS and PLs were similarly high for two within-group dyads (pairs of deer in the same social groups). Dyads representing separate but neighboring groups (high VI) had PL?GPS contact ratios near zero, whereas dyads further apart (intermediate VI) had higher PL?GPS contact ratios. Social networks based on PL contacts showed the fewest connected individuals and lowest mean centrality measures; network metrics were intermediate when based on GPS contacts and greatest when based on VI. Thus, the VI network portrayed animals to be more uniformly and strongly connected than did the PL network. We conclude that simultaneous GPS locations, compared with PLs, substantially underestimate the impact of group membership on direct contact rates of female deer and make networks appear more connected. We also present evidence that deer coming within the general vicinity of each other are less likely to come in close contact if they are in neighboring social groups than deer whose home ranges overlap little if at all. Combined, these results provide evidence that direct transmission of disease agents among female and juvenile white-tailed deer is likely to be constrained both spatially and by social structure, more so than GPS data alone would suggest. PMID:25398000

  10. The walk is never random: subtle landscape effects shape gene flow in a continuous white-tailed deer

    E-print Network

    of a large population of deer spanning the area of Wisconsin and Illinois, USA, affected by chronic wasting-tailed deer population in the Midwestern United States STACIE J. ROBINSON,* MICHAEL D. SAMUEL, DAVIN L. LOPEZ disease. We combined multiscale investigation, landscape genetic techniques and spatial statistical

  11. Muscleworms, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), discovered in Columbia white-tailed deer from Oregon and Washington: implications for biogeography and host associations.

    PubMed

    Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Mortenson, Jack A; Hoberg, Eric P

    2008-01-01

    Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Host and geographic distribution for this parasite, however, remain poorly defined in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from Columbia white-tailed deer (O. v. leucurus) in a restricted range endemic to Oregon and Washington, USA, were examined for dorsal-spined larvae characteristic of many protostrongylid nematodes. Multilocus DNA sequence data (internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) established the identity and a new record for P. andersoni in a subspecies of white-tailed deer previously unrecognized as hosts. Populations of P. andersoni are now recognized along the basin of the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington and from south-central Oregon on the North Umpqua River. Current data indicate a potentially broad zone of sympatry for P. andersoni and Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in the western region of North America, although these elaphostrongylines seem to be segregated, respectively, in white-tailed deer or in black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) at temperate latitudes. The geographic range for P. andersoni in white-tailed deer is extended substantially to the west of the currently defined limit in North America, and we confirm an apparently extensive range for this elpahostrongyline. These observations are explored in the broader context of host and geographic associations for P. andersoni and related elaphostrongylines in North American cervids. PMID:18263818

  12. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with <40% canopy cover. Bedding locations were represented by saw-timber pine structural stages with >40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined males selected areas that were characterized by greater levels of horizontal cover than females. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper (Juniperus communis), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0--40%, 41--70%, 71--100%) of canopy cover. All habitat types (i.e., pine, aspen, and spruce) were used as bedding locations with pine sapling-pole structural stages with >70% canopy cover used most, whereas pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover was primarily used for feeding. Females bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites, whereas male feeding sites had greater horizontal cover characteristics than bedding or random locations.

  13. Follicular changes and reproductive hormones in captive white- tailed deer during the breeding season 

    E-print Network

    Biediger, Timothy Gerard

    1986-01-01

    . 1969), goats (Thornburn and Schneider 1972), cattle (Hansel 1959, Donaldson et al. 1970), bighorn ewes ( Ovis censdensi s) (Norrison 1960), black-tailed deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) (Thomas and Cowan 1975), and red deer (Guineas et al. 1971). Most...

  14. Memory binding and white matter integrity in familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Parra, Mario A; Saarimäki, Heini; Bastin, Mark E; Londoño, Ana C; Pettit, Lewis; Lopera, Francisco; Della Sala, Sergio; Abrahams, Sharon

    2015-05-01

    Binding information in short-term and long-term memory are functions sensitive to Alzheimer's disease. They have been found to be affected in patients who meet criteria for familial Alzheimer's disease due to the mutation E280A of the PSEN1 gene. However, only short-term memory binding has been found to be affected in asymptomatic carriers of this mutation. The neural correlates of this dissociation are poorly understood. The present study used diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether the integrity of white matter structures could offer an account. A sample of 19 patients with familial Alzheimer's disease, 18 asymptomatic carriers and 21 non-carrier controls underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological and memory binding assessment. The short-term memory binding task required participants to detect changes across two consecutive screens displaying arrays of shapes, colours, or shape-colour bindings. The long-term memory binding task was a Paired Associates Learning Test. Performance on these tasks were entered into regression models. Relative to controls, patients with familial Alzheimer's disease performed poorly on both memory binding tasks. Asymptomatic carriers differed from controls only in the short-term memory binding task. White matter integrity explained poor memory binding performance only in patients with familial Alzheimer's disease. White matter water diffusion metrics from the frontal lobe accounted for poor performance on both memory binding tasks. Dissociations were found in the genu of corpus callosum which accounted for short-term memory binding impairments and in the hippocampal part of cingulum bundle which accounted for long-term memory binding deficits. The results indicate that white matter structures in the frontal and temporal lobes are vulnerable to the early stages of familial Alzheimer's disease and their damage is associated with impairments in two memory binding functions known to be markers for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25762465

  15. Does fluctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns predicted for sexually selected traits?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ditchkoff, S.S.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.; Starry, W.R.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Secondary sexual characters have been hypothesized to signal male quality and should demonstrate a negative relationship between the size of the trait and degree of fluctuating asymmetry because they are costly to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Oklahoma, USA, in order to determine whether measures of antler asymmetry follow the patterns predicted for sexually selected characters. Relative fluctuating asymmetry was negatively related to antler size for all deer and within age groups up to five and a half years of age. We did not detect an association between asymmetry and antler size among deer that were six and a half years or older. When categorizing deer by antler size, we found that deer with small antlers (???33rd percentile) had greater levels of relative asymmetry than deer with large antlers (???67th percentile). The relative asymmetry of antlers was negatively related to age and was greatest in deer that were one and a half years old. Relative asymmetry was also negatively related to carcass mass, inside spread, skull length and body length. These data suggest that asymmetry in the antlers of white-tailed deer may be a reliable signal of quality and, as such, may be important in maintaining honesty in intrasexual advertisements during the breeding season.

  16. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in hunter-killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in four regions of Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Vanek, J A; Dubey, J P; Thulliez, P; Riggs, M R; Stromberg, B E

    1996-02-01

    Sera from 1,367 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 4 geographic regions in Minnesota collected during 4 hunting seasons (1990-1993) were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified direct agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol. Sera from 30% of the deer had antibody titers > or = 25; 8.6% were positive at a titer of 25, 11% at a titer of 50, and 10% at a titer > or = 500. There was a significant increase in seropositivity with age (P < 0.0001). Adult deer were twice as likely to be positive as yearlings; yearlings were 2.5 times as likely to be positive as fawns. There was no difference in prevalence by sex when adjusted for age (P = 0.316), nor was there age-sex interaction. Only males showed a slight increase in titer with age (P = 0.049). There were no significant differences in prevalence among the regions of northeast pine/aspen forest, southwest tall-grass prairie, southeast mixed-hardwood forest, and aspen/oak suburban park land. There were no statistically significant differences by year of collection. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in white-tailed deer remains high and deer hunters and consumers should ensure that venison is well-cooked or frozen prior to consumption. PMID:8627499

  17. Serosurvey of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer from Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Olamendi-Portugal, María; Caballero-Ortega, Heriberto; Correa, Dolores; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel A; Cruz-Vázquez, Carlos; Medina-Esparza, Leticia; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; Cantu, Antonio; García-Vázquez, Zeferino

    2012-10-26

    The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer from Northern Mexico. Sera from 532 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from three Northern states of Mexico were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by ELISA and western blot. From these samples, 368 were available to test for N. caninum antibodies by ELISA. The overall prevalence for T. gondii antibodies was 13.9% (74/532; CI(95) 11-17) and for N. caninum 8.4% (31/368; CI(95) 6-12). There was a significant association between positive ELISA results for T. gondii, with management factors within ranches, such number of deer per hectare and geographic location of deer, but none for N. caninum. T. gondii infection in the deer from Guerrero, Coahuila had an increased risk than those from Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas (OR, 8.3; CI(95) 1.9-35.4; P<0.05) and ranches with one deer in 15 ha had increased risk of positive association (OR, 2.61; CI(95) 1.5-4.4; P<0.05). These findings may have environmental or public health implications because venison can be an important meat source of T. gondii infections for humans and feral cats. PMID:22633992

  18. Drought effect on selection of conservation reserve program grasslands by white-tailed deer on the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P < 0.001) and home range (P < 0.001) levels. Deer selected for Conservation Reserve Program grasslands and corn during both summers and shifted selection temporally within summer. Use of CRP grasslands occurred during early summer; 73.1 and 88.9% of locations in CRP were documented prior to 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Conversely, selection for corn occurred during late summer; 86.0 and 68.4% of locations in corn were documented after 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Additionally, deer selected for forested cover and rural development areas containing permanent water sources during extreme drought conditions during 2006. Deer likely selected for fields of CRP grasslands during early summer for cover and natural forages, such as clover (Trifolium sp.), prior to the period when agricultural crops become available. Drought conditions occurring in semiarid prairie grassland regions may reduce food and water availability and contribute to subsequent changes in deer habitat selection across the range of the species.

  19. Oral Vaccination of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Mitchell V.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Waters, W. Ray; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1×108 colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n?=?17); and non-vaccinated (n?=?16). One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts. PMID:24804678

  20. AN EPIZOOTIC OF ADENOVIRUS-INDUCED HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE IN CAPTIVE BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter M. Boyce; Leslie W. Woods; M. Kevin Keel; N. James MacLachlan; Charles O. Porter; Howard D. Lehmkuhl

    Ten fawns and four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in a captive herd died as a result of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease. Acute, systemic infections were characterized by hemorrhagic enteropathy, pulmonary edema, and occasional ulceration of the upper alimentary tract. Localized infections were limited to the upper alimentary tract and included stomatitis, pharyngitis, mandibular osteomyelitis, and rumenitis. In deer with acute,

  1. Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the rocky mountain arsenal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creekmore, T.E.; Whittaker, D.G.; Roy, R.R.; Franson, J.C.; Baker, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989-1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 (range 4-12) and 10.6 years (range 5-17), respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer (range 0.055-0.096 ??g/g), dieldrin was found in fat (n = 9) (range 0.02-0.72 ??g/g), liver (n = 4) (range 0.017-0.12 ??g/g), and brain (n = 1, 0.018 ??g/g), and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal (0.02 ??g/g). Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin (p < 0.001) and mercury (p = 0.05). Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

  2. SCARE TACTICS IN A NEOTROPICAL WARBLER: WHITE TAIL FEATHERS ENHANCE FLUSH–PURSUIT FORAGING PERFORMANCE IN THE SLATE-THROATED REDSTART (MYIOBORUS MINIATUS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Mumme

    2002-01-01

    Flush-pursuit foragers use exaggerated and animated foraging movements to flush potential prey that are then pursued and captured in flight. The Myioborus redstarts comprise 12 species of flush-pursuit warblers found in montane forests of the American tropics and subtropics. All members of the genus have contrasting black-and-white tail feathers that are exposed by spreading the tail during animated foraging displays.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of white matter diseases of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Mary A; Supramaniam, Veena; Ederies, Ashraf; Chew, Andrew; Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Anjari, Mustafa; Counsell, Serena; Ramenghi, Luca A

    2010-06-01

    Periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) and parenchymal venous infarction complicating germinal matrix/intraventricular haemorrhage have long been recognised as the two significant white matter diseases responsible for the majority of cases of cerebral palsy in survivors of preterm birth. However, more recent studies using magnetic resonance imaging to assess the preterm brain have documented two new appearances, adding to the spectrum of white matter disease of prematurity: punctate white matter lesions, and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI). These appear to be more common than PVL but less significant in terms of their impact on individual neurodevelopment. They may, however, be associated with later cognitive and behavioural disorders known to be common following preterm birth. It remains unclear whether PVL, punctate lesions, and DEHSI represent a continuum of disorders occurring as a result of a similar injurious process to the developing white matter. This review discusses the role of MR imaging in investigating these three disorders in terms of aetiology, pathology, and outcome. PMID:20422407

  4. Distinguishing nonhuman predation on birds: pattern of damage done by the white-tailed eagle Haliaetus albicilla, with comments on the punctures made by the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zbigniew M. Bochenski; Teresa Tomek; Risto Tornberg; Krzysztof Wertz

    2009-01-01

    The study presents criteria to distinguish some of the nonhuman predation on birds whose remains may also be found at archaeological sites. Specifically, it deals with fragmentation patterns of bird bones in uneaten food remains of the white-tailed eagle Haliaetus albicilla and discusses perforations in victims' bones done by the white-tailed and golden eagles. The food remains show very low

  5. Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease

    PubMed Central

    Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne MS; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2014-01-01

    White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline. PMID:23949663

  6. Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease.

    PubMed

    Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne M S; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2014-02-01

    White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline. PMID:23949663

  7. Comparison of white-tailed kite food web dynamics among various habitats in California using stable isotope analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iko, W.M.; Kester, C.L.; Bern, C.R.; Stendell, R.C.; Rye, R.O.

    2003-01-01

    The White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) was once a common raptor species in the southern United States. However, by the 1930s, the species was considered on the verge of extinction until the 1940s, when a trend towards recovery was apparent. These dramatic fluctuations may be related to changes in rodent prey base due to the conversion of native wetlands to agriculture. To investigate the effects of changes in habitat, land use practices, and prey base on kite populations, we collected tissue samples from kites, their prey, and vegetation at four different locations in California: Arcata, Coastal-Coniferous Forest; Davis, mixed Urban-Agricultural; Cosumnes, Mixed Wetland-Agriculture, and Santa Barbara, Coastal-Chaparral.

  8. The walk is never random: subtle landscape effects shape gene flow in a continuous white-tailed deer population in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Lopez, Davin L; Shelton, Paul

    2012-09-01

    One of the pervasive challenges in landscape genetics is detecting gene flow patterns within continuous populations of highly mobile wildlife. Understanding population genetic structure within a continuous population can give insights into social structure, movement across the landscape and contact between populations, which influence ecological interactions, reproductive dynamics or pathogen transmission. We investigated the genetic structure of a large population of deer spanning the area of Wisconsin and Illinois, USA, affected by chronic wasting disease. We combined multiscale investigation, landscape genetic techniques and spatial statistical modelling to address the complex questions of landscape factors influencing population structure. We sampled over 2000 deer and used spatial autocorrelation and a spatial principal components analysis to describe the population genetic structure. We evaluated landscape effects on this pattern using a spatial autoregressive model within a model selection framework to test alternative hypotheses about gene flow. We found high levels of genetic connectivity, with gradients of variation across the large continuous population of white-tailed deer. At the fine scale, spatial clustering of related animals was correlated with the amount and arrangement of forested habitat. At the broader scale, impediments to dispersal were important to shaping genetic connectivity within the population. We found significant barrier effects of individual state and interstate highways and rivers. Our results offer an important understanding of deer biology and movement that will help inform the management of this species in an area where overabundance and disease spread are primary concerns. PMID:22882236

  9. Spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in northcentral Colorado.

    PubMed

    Spraker, T R; Miller, M W; Williams, E S; Getzy, D M; Adrian, W J; Schoonveld, G G; Spowart, R A; O'Rourke, K I; Miller, J M; Merz, P A

    1997-01-01

    Between March 1981 and June 1995, a neurological disease characterized histologically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral Colorado (USA). Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and accounted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were also affected. Clinical signs included emaciation, excessive salivation, behavioral changes, ataxia, and weakness. Emaciation with total loss of subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue and serous atrophy of remaining fat depots were the only consistent gross findings. Spongiform encephalopathy characterized by microcavitation of gray matter, intraneuronal vacuolation and neuronal degeneration was observed microscopically in all cases. Scrapie-associated prion protein or an antigenically indistinguishable protein was demonstrated in brains from 26 affected animals, 10 using an immunohistochemical staining procedure, nine using electron microscopy, and seven using Western blot. Clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions and ancillary test findings in affected deer and elk were indistinguishable from those reported in chronic wasting disease of captive cervids. Prevalence estimates, transmissibility, host range, distribution, origins, and management implications of spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging deer and elk remain undetermined. PMID:9027685

  10. Immunologic and molecular identification of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northern Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suitability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as hosts for the cattle ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, has been well documented. These ticks have a wide host range, and both transmit Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina, the agents resp...

  11. Depletion Rates of Injected and Ingested Ivermectin from Blood Serum of Penned White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus Virginianus (Zimmermann) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depletion rates of ivermectin from blood serum of penned doe and buck white-tailed deer that were administered ivermectin both by direct subcutaneous injection and by ingestion of ivermectin-medicated whole kernel corn were determined by bi-weekly and weekly assays of sampled blood. No statistical ...

  12. The impact of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on Estonian Common Carp Cyprinus carpio production: How large is the economic loss?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joosep Tuvia; Ülo Välia

    Protected bird species have been suspected to be a cause of a significant economic loss at Estonian fish farms, but its extent has remained unexplored. We counted the number of White-tailed Eagles and Ospreys, and the quantity of fish they take, and analysed the economic loss in five carp farms in 2001-2004. Each of Estonian four larger carp farms was

  13. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over a seven year period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around the neck of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). St...

  14. Effects of Harvesting Intensity and Herbivory by White-tailed Deer on Vegetation and Nutrient Uptake in a Northern Hardwood Forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Yorks; D. J. Leopold; D. J. Raynal; P. S. Murdoch; D. A. Burns

    2003-01-01

    We quantified the response of vegetation and nutrient uptake in a northern hardwood forest in southeastern New York for three to four years after three intensities of harvesting: clearcutting, heavy timber stand improvement (TSI), light TSI (97, 29, and 10% basal area reductions, respectively). We also quantified effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on nutrient retention by vegetation. Total

  15. Long-term decline in white-tailed deer browse supply: can lichens and litterfall act as alternative food sources that preclude density-dependent feedbacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Tremblay; Isabel Thibault; Christian Dussault; Jean Huot; Steeve D. Côté

    2005-01-01

    Selective browsing by cervids has persistent impacts on forest ecosystems. On Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada, introduced white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) have caused massive changes to the native boreal forest. Despite the apparent stability of the deer population over recent decades, we suspected that they were not at equilibrium with their browse supply and that further degradation of the

  16. Development and multiplex PCR amplification of novel microsatellite markers in the White-tailed Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla (Aves: Falconiformes, Accipitridae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANK HAILER; BARBARA GAUTSCHI; BJORN HELANDER

    2005-01-01

    We report the development of 14 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers cloned from the White-tailed Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla , a formerly threatened raptor that has received much conservation attention throughout Eurasia. We also present a protocol for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the loci. Among 40 unrelated H. albicilla individuals from southern Sweden, the markers produced two to

  17. Development of a spatially targeted field sampling technique for the Southern Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by mapping white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, habitat in South Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether remote sensed data (Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery) could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman), and habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of Southern Cattle Ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) mi...

  18. Topical Treatment of White-Tailed Deer with an Acaricide for the Control of Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Connecticut Lyme Borreliosis Hyperendemic Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), against ticks using the acaricide amitraz, was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distrib...

  19. EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) ON THE PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN THE MICHIGAN WILD DEER POPULATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RoseAnn Miller; John B. Kaneene; Scott D. Fitzgerald; Steven M. Schmitt

    A retrospective study was conducted to test the hypothesis that supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1995 to 1997 was associated with the preva- lence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in free-ranging deer in northeastern Michigan. Bovine TB prevalence data were obtained from an ongoing surveillance program, while data relating to supplemental feeding and other risk factors were collected

  20. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Docherty, D.E.; Wilson, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  1. Experimental Infection of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric disease of domestic ruminants as well as some non-domestic ruminants. Paratuberculosis is characterized by a protracted subclinical phase followed by clinical signs such...

  2. A virulent babesia bovis strain failed to infect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus...

  3. Susceptibility of North American white-tailed deer to the Netherlands strain of BTV serotype 8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World-wide there are at least 24 serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), a complex non-enveloped virus in the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus. Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne disease of cattle, sheep, goats, and deer and is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. In 2006, bluetongue serotype ...

  4. The Dutch strain of BTV-8 in white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, contains ten double stranded RNA segments encoding at least ten viral proteins. Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne disease; transmission to ruminants, including cattle, sheep, goats, and deer species by bites of species of Culicoides. In...

  5. Seasonal patterns of weight, hematology, and serum characteristics of free-ranging female white-tailed deer in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Gese, E.M.; Seal, U.S.

    1992-01-01

    Weights, hematology, and serum profIles of white-tailed does in the central Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota were examined year-around to determine seasonal patterns of nutritional condition and metabolism. Deer were initially captured by Clover trap or rocket net. Between 15 February 1989 and 23 January 1990, we recaptured 12 adult (> 1.5 years) female deer 1-9 times each (a total of 59 recaptures) using a radio-controlled capture collar. Monthly weights of deer exhibited a cyclic seasonal pattern. Mean weight declined 22 % from February to an annual minimum during May, then steadily increased 45 % to a maximum in October. Seasonal patterns were most evident for hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells, packed cell volume, serum total protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the urea N to creatinine ratio, triiodothyronine, cortisol, and potassium. Wide seasonal variations of these characteristics were indicative of shifts in the deer's metabolic physiology. Although seasonal metabolic shifts are partially attributable to an endogenous rhythm, the intensity of, their expression was most likely affected by nutritional changes and concomitant alterations of body condition. Annual changes in seasonal trends of blood characteristics may be useful in investigating nutritional effects of specific environmental and demographic factors. We compare our findings with those reported for deer on ranges farther south.

  6. The influence of fine-scale habitat features on regional variation in population performance of alpine White-tailed Ptarmigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, B.; Martin, K.

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed (explicitly or implicitly) that animals select habitat features to maximize fitness. However, there is often a mismatch between preferred habitats and indices of individual and population measures of performance. We examined the influence of fine-scale habitat selection on the overall population performance of the White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura), an alpine specialist, in two subdivided populations whose habitat patches are configured differently. The central region of Vancouver Island, Canada, has more continuous and larger habitat patches than the southern region. In 2003 and 2004, using paired logistic regression between used (n = 176) and available (n = 324) sites, we identified food availability, distance to standing water, and predator cover as preferred habitat components . We then quantified variation in population performance in the two regions in terms of sex ratio, age structure (n = 182 adults and yearlings), and reproductive success (n = 98 females) on the basis of 8 years of data (1995-1999, 2002-2004). Region strongly influenced females' breeding success, which, unsuccessful hens included, was consistently higher in the central region (n = 77 females) of the island than in the south (n = 21 females, P = 0.01). The central region also had a much higher proportion of successful hens (87%) than did the south (55%, P < 0.001). In light of our findings, we suggest that population performance is influenced by a combination of fine-scale habitat features and coarse-scale habitat configuration. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  7. [Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Ramírez-Pulido, José; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; López, Georgina Isabel García; Janczur, Mariusz

    2013-03-01

    White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic. PMID:23894977

  8. Landscape influence on spatial patterns of meningeal worm and liver fluke infection in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Vanderwaal, Kimberly L; Windels, Steve K; Olson, Bryce T; Vannatta, J Trevor; Moen, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Parasites that primarily infect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), such as liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) and meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis), can cause morbidity and mortality when incidentally infecting moose (Alces alces). Ecological factors are expected to influence spatial variation in infection risk by affecting the survival of free-living life stages outside the host and the abundance of intermediate gastropod hosts. Here, we investigate how ecology influenced the fine-scale distribution of these parasites in deer in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Deer pellet groups (N = 295) were sampled for the presence of P. tenuis larvae and F. magna eggs. We found that deer were significantly more likely to be infected with P. tenuis in habitats with less upland deciduous forest and more upland mixed conifer forest and shrub, a pattern that mirrored microhabitat differences in gastropod abundances. Deer were also more likely to be infected with F. magna in areas with more marshland, specifically rooted-floating aquatic marshes (RFAMs). The environment played a larger role than deer density in determining spatial patterns of infection for both parasites, highlighting the importance of considering ecological factors on all stages of a parasite's life cycle in order to understand its occurrence within the definitive host. PMID:25498206

  9. Windows of opportunity: white-tailed deer and the dynamics of northern hardwood forests of the northeastern US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sage, R.W.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Herbivory, lighting regimes, and site conditions are among the most important determinants of forest regeneration success, but these are affected by a host of other factors such as weather, predation, human exploitation, pathogens, wind and fire. We draw together > 50 years of research on the Huntington Wildlife Forest in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York to explore regeneration of northern hardwoods. A series of studies each of which focused on a single factor failed to identify the cause of regeneration failure. However, integration of these studies led to broader understanding of the process of forest stand development and identified at least three interacting factors: lighting regime, competing vegetation and selective browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The diverse 100-200 year-old hardwood stands present today probably reflect regeneration during periods of low deer density (< 2.0 deer/km super(2)) and significant forest disturbance. If this hypothesis is correct, forest managers can mimic these 'natural windows of opportunity' through manipulation of a few sensitive variables in the system. Further, these manipulations can be conducted on a relatively small geographic scale. Control of deer densities on a scale of 500 ha and understory American beech (Fagus grandifolia) on a scale of < 100 ha in conjunction with an even-aged regeneration system consistently resulted in successful establishment of desirable hardwood regeneration.

  10. Harvested white-tailed deer as sentinel hosts for early establishing Ixodes scapularis populations and risk from vector-borne zoonoses in southeastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, C; Leighton, P A; Beauchamp, G; Nguon, S; Trudel, L; Milord, F; Lindsay, L R; Bélanger, D; Ogden, N H

    2013-03-01

    Due to recent establishment of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in southeastern Canada, tick-borne zoonoses (Lyme disease, human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis) are of growing concern for public health. Using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) culled in southwestern Quebec during 2007-2008, we investigated whether hunter-killed deer could act as sentinels for early establishing tick populations and for tick-borne pathogens. Accounting for environmental characteristics of culling sites, and age and sex of deer, we investigated whether their tick infestation levels could identify locations of known tick populations detected in active surveillance, presumed tick populations detected by passive surveillance, or both. We also used spatial cluster analyses to identify spatial patterns of tick infestation and occurrence of tick-borne zoonoses infection in ticks collected from the deer. Adult ticks were found on 15% of the 583 deer examined. Adult male deer had the greatest number (approximately 90%) of adult ticks. Overall, 3, 15, and 0% of the ticks collected were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. Our statistical analyses suggest that sex and age of deer, temperature, precipitation, and an index of tick dispersion by migratory birds were significantly associated with tick infestation levels. Cluster analysis identified significant clusters of deer carrying ticks PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum, and for deer carrying two or more I. scapularis. Our study suggests that hunter-killed deer may be effective as sentinels for emerging areas of tick-borne anaplasmosis. They may have limited use as sentinels for early emerging I. scapularis tick populations and emerging Lyme disease risk. PMID:23540128

  11. Individual based modeling of animal populations using object oriented simulation techniques: investigating the effects of bonding, predation and birth cover on white-tailed deer

    E-print Network

    German, Carl Duane

    1992-01-01

    /or captured by a predator. The effects of predation on the population dynamics of the deer were investigated by varying the percentage of the deer population controlling the number of predators. The birthing habitat is randomized 19 for the run, each type...INDIVIDUAL BASED MODELING OP ANIMAL POPULATIONS USING OBJECT ORIENTED SIMULATION TECHNIQUES : INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OP BONDING, PREDATION AND BIRTH COVER ON WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by CARL DUANE GERMAN Submitted to the Office...

  12. The Role of DDE, PCB, Coplanar PCB and Eggshell Parameters for Reproduction in the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Helander; Anders Olsson; Anders Bignert; Lillemor Asplund; Kerstin Litzén

    2002-01-01

    The reproduction of white-tailed sea eagles was monitored in1964-1999 in 3 differently contaminated sub-populations: Baltic Sea coast (Bp), inland central Sweden (Ip) and Lapland (Lp). 249 dead eggs from 205 clutches were obtained for analyses of DDE and PCBs and for eggshell measurements. A desiccation index (Di) value was calculated for each egg as a measure of water loss through

  13. Individual based modeling of animal populations using object oriented simulation techniques: investigating the effects of bonding, predation and birth cover on white-tailed deer 

    E-print Network

    German, Carl Duane

    1992-01-01

    years old. This was what was found in wild populations that were not hunted or subject to other non-natural causes of mortality. Pawns and deer in poor condition were most susceptible to predation. The model did not reach a stable age distribution...), and (4) variation in the quality of birthing cover on the population dynamics of white-tailed deer. Emergent population behavior arose from the interaction of the individual deer. The population size decreased as predation pressure increased. The fawn...

  14. Febrile response and decrease in circulating lymphocytes following acute infection of white-tailed deer fawns with either a BVDV1 or a BVDV2 strain.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Julia F; Mark, C Scott; Chase, Christopher C L; Ridpath, Alanson C; Neill, John D

    2007-10-01

    Although commonly associated with infection in cattle, bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) also replicate in many domestic and wildlife species, including cervids. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses have been isolated from a number of cervids, including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus), but little information is available regarding clinical presentation and progression of infection in these species. In preliminary studies of experimental infection of deer with BVDV, researchers noted seroconversion but no clinical signs. In this study, we infected white-tailed deer fawns that were negative for BVDV and for antibodies against BVDV, with either a type 1 or a type 2 BVDV that had been isolated from white-tailed deer. Fawns were monitored for changes in basal temperature, circulating lymphocytes, and platelets. The clinical progression following inoculation in these fawns was similar to that seen with BVDV infections in cattle and included fever and depletion of circulating lymphocytes. Because free-ranging cervid populations are frequently in contact with domestic cattle in the United States, possible transfer of BVDV between cattle and cervids has significant implications for proposed BVDV control programs. PMID:17984260

  15. ANTIBODY PREVALENCE OF EIGHT RUMINANT INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN CALIFORNIA MULE AND BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno B. Chomel; Marius L. Carniciu; Rickie W. Kasten; Paolo M. Castelli; Thierry M. Work; David A. Jessup

    We tested 276 sera from 18 free-ranging black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) herds in California (USA) collected from 1987 to 1991 in five biogeographical habitat types, for antibodies against eight infectious disease agents. Overall antibody prevalence was 56% for Anaplasma marginale, 31% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 16% for bluetongue virus serotype 17, 15% for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, 7% for

  16. Detection of white matter lesions in cerebral small vessel disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riad, Medhat M.; Platel, Bram; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-02-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are diffuse white matter abnormalities commonly found in older subjects and are important indicators of stroke, multiple sclerosis, dementia and other disorders. We present an automated WML detection method and evaluate it on a dataset of small vessel disease (SVD) patients. In early SVD, small WMLs are expected to be of importance for the prediction of disease progression. Commonly used WML segmentation methods tend to ignore small WMLs and are mostly validated on the basis of total lesion load or a Dice coefficient for all detected WMLs. Therefore, in this paper, we present a method that is designed to detect individual lesions, large or small, and we validate the detection performance of our system with FROC (free-response ROC) analysis. For the automated detection, we use supervised classification making use of multimodal voxel based features from different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, including intensities, tissue probabilities, voxel locations and distances, neighborhood textures and others. After preprocessing, including co-registration, brain extraction, bias correction, intensity normalization, and nonlinear registration, ventricle segmentation is performed and features are calculated for each brain voxel. A gentle-boost classifier is trained using these features from 50 manually annotated subjects to give each voxel a probability of being a lesion voxel. We perform ROC analysis to illustrate the benefits of using additional features to the commonly used voxel intensities; significantly increasing the area under the curve (Az) from 0.81 to 0.96 (p<0.05). We perform the FROC analysis by testing our classifier on 50 previously unseen subjects and compare the results with manual annotations performed by two experts. Using the first annotator results as our reference, the second annotator performs at a sensitivity of 0.90 with an average of 41 false positives per subject while our automated method reached the same level of sensitivity at approximately 180 false positives per subject.

  17. Serologic survey of selected zoonotic disease agents in black-tailed jack rabbits from western Texas.

    PubMed

    Henke, S E; Pence, D B; Demarais, S; Johnson, J R

    1990-01-01

    A serologic survey for the agents of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) (Rickettsia rickettsii), Borrelia spp. including the causative agent for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted on blood samples collected from 30 and 46 black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) from an urban environment in Lubbock, Texas (USA) during winter 1987 and the following spring 1988, respectively. Antibody titers to the agents of RMSF and borreliosis were detected in sera of 28 and 1% of the jack rabbits, respectively. Neither organisms (rickettsiae and/or spirochetes) nor their associated antigens were detected in any of the tissue or whole blood samples; plague antibodies were not detected in the 76 jack rabbits sampled. Four of 18 ticks (Dermacentor parumapertus) removed from 12 jack rabbits were positive for RMSF using the fluorescent antibody test. The black-tailed jack rabbit is a common wildlife species living in close proximity to higher density human populations in many areas of the southwestern United States. Our results indicate the potential importance of urban populations of this mammal as reservoirs for at least one important zoonotic disease, RMSF, in western Texas. PMID:2106044

  18. Reconstruction and morphometric analysis of the nasal airway of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and implications regarding respiratory and olfactory airflow.

    PubMed

    Ranslow, Allison N; Richter, Joseph P; Neuberger, Thomas; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Rumple, Christopher R; Quigley, Andrew P; Pang, Benison; Krane, Michael H; Craven, Brent A

    2014-11-01

    Compared with other mammals (e.g., primates, rodents, and carnivores), the form and function of the ungulate nasal fossa, in particular the ethmoidal region, has been largely unexplored. Hence, the nasal anatomy of the largest prey species remains far less understood than that of their predators, rendering comparisons and evolutionary context unclear. Of the previous studies of nasal anatomy, none have investigated the detailed anatomy and functional morphology of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), a species that is ubiquitous throughout North and Central America and in northern regions of South America. Here, nasal form and function is quantitatively investigated in an adult white-tailed deer using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, combined with anatomical reconstruction and morphometric analysis techniques. The cross-sectional anatomy of the airway is shown and a three-dimensional anatomical model of the convoluted nasal fossa is reconstructed from the image data. A detailed morphometric analysis is presented that includes quantitative distributions of airway size and shape (e.g., airway perimeter, cross-sectional area, surface area) and the functional implications of these data regarding respiratory and olfactory airflow are investigated. The white-tailed deer is shown to possess a long, double scroll maxilloturbinal that occupies approximately half of the length of the nasal fossa and provides a large surface area for respiratory heat and moisture exchange. The ethmoidal region contains a convoluted arrangement of folded ethmoturbinals that appear to be morphologically distinct from the single and double scroll ethmoturbinals found in most other non-primates. This complex folding provides a large surface area in the limited space available for chemical sensing, due to the expansive maxilloturbinal. Morphologically, the white-tailed deer is shown to possess a dorsal meatus that leads to an olfactory recess, a nasal architecture that has been shown in other non-primate species to cause unique nasal airflow patterns to develop during sniffing that are optimized for odorant delivery to the sensory part of the nose. Additionally, we demonstrate that, during respiration, airflow in the nasal vestibule and the anterior maxilloturbinal region may be transitional or turbulent, in which case turbulent mixing is expected to enhance respiratory heat and moisture exchange, which could be an important contribution to thermoregulation and water conservation in the white-tailed deer. PMID:25312370

  19. Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May–31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

  20. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: Use of GIS to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A. Desirée; King, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt,and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighboring regions, RVFV is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat forhumans, livestock, and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for ‘exotic’ viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVFV is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep, and goats, if RVFV is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVFV transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)in a typical northeastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare, but these potentially susceptible ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human, and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, or 42 %) of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVFV transmission during the late summermonths. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVFV-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, orby 89%. PMID:21080319

  1. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

    2014-07-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak. PMID:24807363

  2. The panzootic white-nose syndrome: an environmentally constrained disease?

    PubMed

    Hallam, T G; Federico, P

    2012-06-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating bats probably caused by a pathogenic fungus, Geomyces destructans. The fungus has dispersed rapidly in the Northeastern United States and Canada and is presently a serious risk to hibernating bats of the mid-southern United States. Our objectives were to investigate how the environmental factors of temperature and resources impact the physiology of bats and apply this to explore possible effects of the fungus G. destructans on bats. Using a dynamic, physiologically based model parameterized for little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), we found that the survival region defined in terms of minimal and maximal cave temperatures and bat lipid reserve levels exhibits plasticity as a function of cave temperature. During the pre-hibernation period, constellations of increased availability of fall and winter prey, reduced energy expenditure and lipogenic factors provide fat deposition in hibernator species that engender survival throughout the hibernation period. The model-derived survival region is used to demonstrate that small increases in lipid reserves allow survival under increasing maximum temperatures, which provides flexibility of bat persistence at the higher cave temperature ranges that may occur in the Southern United States. Antipodally, the lower-temperature survival range is bounded with minimum temperatures. Our results suggest that there is an environmental distinction between survival of bats in Southern and Northern US states, a relationship that could prove very important in managing WNS and its dispersal. PMID:22044513

  3. Preliminary Evidence of Sturgeon Density and Other Stressors on Manifestation of White Sturgeon Iridovirus Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. LaPatra; J. M. Groff; T. L. Patterson; W. D. Shewmaker; M. Casten; J. Siple; A. K. Hauck

    1996-01-01

    Two studies were conducted using 5- to 6-month-old juvenile (mean weight: 3-4 g) white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to examine the effects of density and other stressors on manifestation of disease caused by the white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV). In the first study, replicate groups of Snake River white sturgeon were stocked at three densities (953, 1,907, and 3,178 fish\\/m) in 0.31-m

  4. MHC class II-restricted, CD4(+) T-cell proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Waters, W R; Palmer, M V; Pesch, B A; Olsen, S C; Wannemuehler, M J; Whipple, D L

    2000-10-31

    White-tailed deer are significant wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis for cattle, predators, and, potentially, humans. Infection of cattle with M. bovis stimulates an antigen-specific T-cell response, with both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells implicated in protective immunity. Few studies, however, have examined lymphocyte subset responses to experimental M. bovis infection of white-tailed deer. In this study, a flow cytometric proliferation assay was used to determine the relative contribution of individual peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets of M. bovis-infected white-tailed deer in the recall response to M. bovis antigen. Naive deer were challenged with M. bovis by cohabitation with infected deer. These M. bovis-challenged deer developed significant in vivo (delayed-type hypersensitivity) and in vitro (proliferative) responses to M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD). At necropsy, typical tuberculous lesions containing M. bovis were detected within lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes of infected deer. The predominant subset of lymphocytes that proliferated in response to in vitro stimulation with PPD was the CD4(+) subset. Minimal proliferative responses were detected from CD8(+), gamma delta TCR(+), and B-cells. Addition of monoclonal antibodies specific for MHC II antigens, but not MHC I or CD1 antigens, abrogated the proliferative response. Together, these findings indicate that while CD4(+) cells from infected deer proliferate in the recall response to M. bovis antigens, this response is not sufficient to clear M. bovis and immunologic intervention may require stimulation of alternate subsets of lymphocytes. PMID:11044555

  5. Nutritive value of forage species in the Rio Grande Plain of Texas for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) and domestic livestock 

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Gregory William

    1977-01-01

    NUTRIT IVE VALUE OF FORAGE SPEC IES IN THE RI 0 GRANDE PLAIN OF TEXAS FOR WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRG I NIANUS TEXANUS) AND DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK A Thesis GREGORY WILLIAM LYNCH Submitted to the Graduate College of' Texas AEM University... Plain of Texas for Mhi te-ta i 1 ed Deer (Odoco i 1 eus v i rg i ni anus texanus) and Domestic Livestock. (May 1977) Gregory Mill iam Lynch, B. S. , University of Idaho Cha i rman of Advi sory Commi t tee: Dr. Lyt 1 e Bl ankenshi p Samples of 26...

  6. White matter integrity in small vessel disease is related to cognition

    PubMed Central

    Tuladhar, Anil M.; van Norden, Anouk G.W.; de Laat, Karlijn F.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; van Dijk, Ewoud J.; Norris, David G.; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunes of presumed vascular origin, is common in elderly people and is related to cognitive impairment and dementia. One possible mechanism could be the disruption of white matter tracts (both within WMH and normal-appearing white matter) that connect distributed brain regions involved in cognitive functions. Here, we investigated the relation between microstructural integrity of the white matter and cognitive functions in patients with small vessel disease. The Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion tensor and Magnetic resonance Cohort study is a prospective cohort study among 444 independently living, non-demented elderly with cerebral small vessel disease, aged between 5500 and 85 years. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging scanning and an extensive neuropsychological assessment. We showed that loss of microstructural integrity of the white matter at specific locations was related to specific cognitive disturbances, which was mainly located in the normal-appearing white matter (p < 0.05, FWE-corrected for multiple comparisons). The microstructural integrity in the genu and splenium showed the highest significant relation with global cognitive function and executive functions, in the cingulum bundle with verbal memory performance. Associations between diffusion tensor imaging parameters and most cognitive domains remained present after adjustment for WMH and lacunes. In conclusion, cognitive disturbances in subjects with cerebral small vessel disease are related to microstructural integrity of multiple white matter fibers (within WMH and normal-appearing white matter) connecting different cortical and subcortical regions. PMID:25737960

  7. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with severe involvement of cerebral white matter and cerebellum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Berciano; M. T. Berciano; J. M. Polo; J. Figols; J. Ciudad; M. Lafarga

    1990-01-01

    Summary We describe a patient with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) of the ataxic and panencephalopathic type. Postmortem examination revealed the characteristic lesions of CJD in the grey matter and profound white matter involvement was seen with immunocytochemical techniques. Ultrastructural white matter lesions were identical to those described in experimentally transmitted CJD. There was marked loss of cerebellar granule cells with virtual

  8. Uncertainty in the Tail of the Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Epidemic in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Garske, Tini; Ghani, Azra C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite low case numbers the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease epidemic poses many challenges for public health planning due to remaining uncertainties in disease biology and transmission routes. We develop a stochastic model for variant CJD transmission, taking into account the known transmission routes (food and red-cell transfusion) to assess the remaining uncertainty in the epidemic. We use Bayesian methods to obtain scenarios consistent with current data. Our results show a potentially long but uncertain tail in the epidemic, with a peak annual incidence of around 11 cases, but the 95% credibility interval between 1 and 65 cases. These cases are predicted to be due to past food-borne transmissions occurring in previously mostly unaffected genotypes and to transmissions via blood transfusion in all genotypes. However, we also show that the latter are unlikely to be identifiable as transfusion-associated cases by case-linking. Regardless of the numbers of future cases, even in the absence of any further control measures, we do not find any self-sustaining epidemics. PMID:21203419

  9. Morphological and Genetic Comparisons between Babesia bovis and Trypanosoma spp. Found in Cattle and White-tailed Deer

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Amanda

    2012-10-19

    (Cervus canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus), WTD (Odocoileus virginianus), moose (Alces alces shirasi), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and bison 14 (Bison bison) in Wyoming (Kingston et al., 1986...

  10. Effects of fluoride emissions from a modern primary aluminum smelter on a local population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    SciTech Connect

    Suttie, J.S.; Dickie, R.; Clay, A.B.; Nielsen, P.; Mahan, W.E.; Baumann, D.P.; Hamilton, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of fluoride emissions from a modern aluminum smelter on concentrations of skeletal fluoride and dental fluorosis in a resident population of white-tailed deer was studied. The smelter was located on Mount Holly Plantation in South Carolina, and concentrations of skeletal fluoride in the deer collected at Mount Holly increased approximately five-fold 3 yr after the operation began. Increases in skeletal fluoride of less than two-fold were observed in deer obtained from Medway Plantation which has its nearest boundary 1.6 km from the smelter site. No dental fluorosis was observed in deer collected at Medway Plantation, but mild dental fluorosis was observed in a significant number of deer collected at Mount Holly Plantation. The dental fluorosis that was observed was not associated with incisor wear or with fluoride-induced molar wear. Osteofluorosis of mandibles or metacarpals was not observed in any of the deer obtained from either plantation. The data obtained from this study indicated that the presence of a modern aluminum smelter caused a detectable increase in concentration of skeletal fluoride in the resident population of white-tailed deer, but that no adverse health effects were seen.

  11. Identification and pathogenicity of Aeromonas sobria on tail-rot disease in juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Cai, Shuang-Hu

    2011-02-01

    Thirty-six strains, numbered from PY01 to PY36, were isolated from six moribund Oreochromis niloticus. The biochemical characteristics of all strains conformed to the species description of Aeromonas sobria on the basis of API 20E and Biolog GN system. Furthermore, gyrB sequence of strain PY36 was sequenced and showed high similarity (99.8%) with A. sobria in Genbank. Antibiotic-resistance of strain PY36 was assessed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and the results showed it was susceptible and moderately susceptible to 12 and 3 of the 19 antimicrobials tested. Virulence of strain PY36 to juvenile tilapia was also tested, and we found that LD?? was about 4.17 × 10³ CFU per fish in intraperitoneal injection. This is the first article to report that A. sobria was the pathogenic agent of tail-rot disease in juvenile tilapia. A. sobria was multi-resistant to the most frequently used antimicrobial drugs in China, so the antimicrobial resistance test should be carried out when these bacteria are isolated from biological samples in order to avoid therapeutic failures and spread of the pathogenic organisms in the environment. PMID:20853167

  12. The Ecology of ‘Acroporid White Syndrome', a Coral Disease from the Southern Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    Roff, George; Kvennefors, E. Charlotte E.; Fine, Maoz; Ortiz, Juan; Davy, Joanne E.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Outbreaks of coral disease have increased worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, remarkably little is known about the ecology of disease in the Indo-Pacific Region. Here we report the spatiotemporal dynamics of a coral disease termed ‘Acroporid white syndrome’ observed to affect tabular corals of the genus Acropora on the southern Great Barrier Reef. The syndrome is characterised by rapid tissue loss initiating in the basal margins of colonies, and manifests as a distinct lesion boundary between apparently healthy tissue and exposed white skeleton. Surveys of eight sites around Heron Reef in 2004 revealed a mean prevalence of 8.1±0.9%, affecting the three common species (Acropora cytherea, A. hyacinthus, A. clathrata) and nine other tabular Acropora spp. While all sizes of colonies were affected, white syndrome disproportionately affected larger colonies of tabular Acroporids (>80 cm). The prevalence of white syndrome was strongly related to the abundance of tabular Acroporids within transects, yet the incidence of the syndrome appears unaffected by proximity to other colonies, suggesting that while white syndrome is density dependant, it does not exhibit a strongly aggregated spatial pattern consistent with previous coral disease outbreaks. Acroporid white syndrome was not transmitted by either direct contact in the field or by mucus in aquaria experiments. Monitoring of affected colonies revealed highly variable rates of tissue loss ranging from 0 to 1146 cm?2 week?1, amongst the highest documented for a coral disease. Contrary to previous links between temperature and coral disease, rates of tissue loss in affected colonies increased threefold during the winter months. Given the lack of spatial pattern and non-infectious nature of Acroporid white syndrome, further studies are needed to determine causal factors and longer-term implications of disease outbreaks on the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:22163267

  13. ETIOLOGY OF WHITE POX, A LETHAL DISEASE OF THE CARIBBEAN ELKHORN CORAL, ACROPORA PALMATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of the shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are being decimated by white pox disease, with losses in the Florida Keys typically in excess of 70%. Tissue loss is rapid, averaging 2.5 cm2 day-1. A bacterium isolated from diseased A. palmata was shown...

  14. Insight into a bad omen for white men: coronary artery disease--the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Berenson, G S; Srinivasan, S R; Wattigney, W; Webber, L S; Newman, W P; Tracy, R E

    1989-08-01

    Clinical experience of diagnostic and interventional procedures, including cardiac surgery, indicates a greater prevalence of coronary heart disease in white men than in other race-gender groups. Studies of children and young adults in the Bogalusa Heart Study have provided evidence that might account for this race-gender contrast. A variety of anthropometric and metabolic parameters influencing serum lipid and lipoprotein levels places white boys and young white men selectively at high risk for the development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Obesity and greater central body fat, subtle aberrations in carbohydrate-lipid metabolic relations and variability in sex hormone profiles appear to underlie a trend to adverse lipoprotein changes in white men. A lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and apolipoprotein A-l at puberty and a dramatic increase of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are seen in young white men; such adverse changes identify them to be at greater risk. It is noteworthy that children whose fathers had myocardial infarction tend to be white. These children also have relatively high ratios of apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-l and apolipoprotein B/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Studies of risk factors in children emphasize their importance in the early natural history of coronary artery disease. These findings show the need for beginning prevention of adult heart disease in childhood. PMID:2756897

  15. Benefits to rare plants and highway safety from annual population reductions of a "native invader," white-tailed deer, in a Chicago-area woodland.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard M; Guerrant, Travis; Dunn, Glen; Beckerman, Scott F; Anchor, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer are one of the most serious threats to woodland plant communities in the Chicago area. Moreover, the abundant deer in a highly populated area causes economic harm and poses hazards to human safety through collisions with vehicles. The artificial conditions causing the overabundance and resulting consequences qualify the white-tailed deer in the Chicago area to be considered as "native invaders". We examined the benefits of culling deer at a Chicago-area woodland preserve by comparing browse rates on four endangered plant species from years before culling began with years with culling. We also examined deer-vehicle collision and traffic flow rates on area roads from years before culling began and years with culling to assess whether population reductions may have benefited road safety in the area. All four endangered plant species (three orchid species and sweet fern) had lower browse rates in years with culls, although the decreased browsing rates were statistically distinguishable for only two of the species (grass pink orchid and sweet fern). After first verifying that traffic flow rates did not decrease from pre-cull years to years with culls, we analyzed the Illinois Department of Transportation data from area roads based on deer-vehicle collisions causing >US$500 in damage and showed a one-third reduction in deer-vehicle collisions. An economic analysis showed a cost savings during the cull years of US$0.6 million for reducing browsing to just these four monitored plant species and the reduction in deer-vehicle collisions. PMID:23943081

  16. Genetic and ecological data provide incongruent interpretations of population structure and dispersal in naturally subdivided populations of white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura).

    PubMed

    Fedy, B C; Martin, K; Ritland, C; Young, J

    2008-04-01

    The dispersal of individuals among populations affects the demographic and adaptive trajectories of animal populations and is fundamental to understanding population dynamics. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are a high elevation grouse species that live year-round in patchily distributed alpine areas in western North America. We investigated the patterns of dispersal and identified barriers to gene flow for a threatened subspecies (L. l. saxatilis) endemic to Vancouver Island, Canada. Connectivity among seven sites was examined using nine microsatellite loci (n = 133 individuals, H(O) = 0.62, mean number of alleles = 10) and direct movement observations using radio-telemetry (n = 118 individuals). Average movement distances of individuals measured by radio-telemetry were 0.63-3.23 km and considerably less than the shortest distance between sampling sites (18 km). Furthermore, despite extensive radio-telemetry data, movement was never observed between any of the seven sampling sites. In contrast, genetic results (STRUCTURE, TESS) showed connectivity among most of the seven sampling sites and suggested that genetic variation is best explained by two clusters of individuals which separated the South sampling site from all other areas of Vancouver Island. Analysis of molecular data also showed a generally consistent pattern of isolation by distance (Mantel test r = 0.11, P < 0.01) with large areas of unsuitable low elevation habitat possibly acting as barriers to gene flow. Despite the naturally subdivided distribution of populations, white-tailed ptarmigan do not fit well into any common definition of a metapopulation. We conclude the incongruities between the genetic and radio-telemetry data are best explained by episodic dispersal patterns. In this study, we demonstrated the importance of combining genetic and ecological data in understanding patterns of dispersal and population structure. PMID:18363666

  17. Comparative Plasma and Urine Chemistry of Fasting White-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys-Leucurus) and American Martens (Martes-Americana) : Representative Fat-Bodied and Lean-Bodied Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Harlow; Steven Buskirk

    1991-01-01

    American martens and white-tailed prairie dogs are mammals of similar body mass, exposed to periods of food deprivation, but of vastly different body fat content. While both species demonstrated a protein conservation phase during a short-term fast, martens had a greater reliance on protein as depicted by greater loss of body weight, higher daily urine volume, and glomerular clearance rates,

  18. Effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatement of white-tailed deer on host-seeking tick infection prevalence and entomologic risk for Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on the infection prevalence and entomologic risk for three I. scapularis-borne bacteria in host-seeking ticks. Ticks were collected from vegetation in areas treated with the ‘4-Poster’ device and from control a...

  19. The brain in myotonic dystrophy 1 and 2: evidence for a predominant white matter disease

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Bernd; Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Roeske, Sandra; Mirbach, Sandra; Anspach, Christian; Schneider-Gold, Christiane; Betz, Regina C.; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Klockgether, Thomas; Kornblum, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2 are progressive multisystemic disorders with potential brain involvement. We compared 22 myotonic dystrophy type 1 and 22 myotonic dystrophy type 2 clinically and neuropsychologically well-characterized patients and a corresponding healthy control group using structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T (T1/T2/diffusion-weighted). Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics were applied for voxel-wise analysis of cerebral grey and white matter affection (Pcorrected?White matter lesions rated visually were more prevalent and severe in myotonic dystrophy type 1 compared with controls, with frontal white matter most prominently affected in both disorders, and temporal lesions restricted to myotonic dystrophy type 1. Voxel-based morphometry analyses demonstrated extensive white matter involvement in all cerebral lobes, brainstem and corpus callosum in myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2, while grey matter decrease (cortical areas, thalamus, putamen) was restricted to myotonic dystrophy type 1. Accordingly, we found more prominent white matter affection in myotonic dystrophy type 1 than myotonic dystrophy type 2 by diffusion tensor imaging. Association fibres throughout the whole brain, limbic system fibre tracts, the callosal body and projection fibres (e.g. internal/external capsules) were affected in myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2. Central motor pathways were exclusively impaired in myotonic dystrophy type 1. We found mild executive and attentional deficits in our patients when neuropsychological tests were corrected for manual motor dysfunctioning. Regression analyses revealed associations of white matter affection with several clinical parameters in both disease entities, but not with neuropsychological performance. We showed that depressed mood and fatigue were more prominent in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 with less white matter affection (early disease stages), contrary to patients with myotonic dystrophy type 2. Thus, depression in myotonic dystrophies might be a reactive adjustment disorder rather than a direct consequence of structural brain damage. Associations of white matter affection with age/disease duration as well as patterns of cerebral water diffusion parameters pointed towards an ongoing process of myelin destruction and/or axonal loss in our cross-sectional study design. Our data suggest that both myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2 are serious white matter diseases with prominent callosal body and limbic system affection. White matter changes dominated the extent of grey matter changes, which might argue against Wallerian degeneration as the major cause of white matter affection in myotonic dystrophies. PMID:22131273

  20. European Foul Brood: a Disease of the Larval Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) caused by a Combination of Streptococcus pluton (Bacillus pluton White) and Bacterium eurydice White

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bailey

    1957-01-01

    RESULTS of preliminary experiments1 have shown that European foul brood disease of the larval honeybee can be caused in bee colonies by spraying their brood with suspensions of Streptococcus pluton (Bacillus pluton White) and Bacterium eurydice White if the two organisms are grown together in mixed anaerobic culture ; fifth subcultures of a mixed culture were usually virulent, although virulence

  1. A clinical, histopathological, and immuno-fluorescent study of Babesia spp. infection in white-tailed deer 

    E-print Network

    Emerson, Harold Ray

    1969-01-01

    University; D. V. M. , Texas AtxM University Directed by. Dr. C. A. Gleiser Babesia cervi produced a fulminant, hemolytic disease in splenectomized deer and a chronic disease, characterised by emaciation and anemia after 6 to 12 xnonths in intact deer... fulminant, hemolytic disease in splenectomized deer and a chronic disease characterized by the development of an emaciated condition and anemia after 6 to 12 months in intact deer which apparently were the primary hosts of the hemoprotozoan. Attempts...

  2. Small Vessel Disease/White Matter Disease of the Brain and Its Association With Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Hsueh, Jenny; Zhang, Edwin; Khan, Khurshid; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence now suggests the role of neural effect on bone mass control. The effect of small vessel disease of the brain on osteoporosis has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of white matter disease (WMD) of the brain with osteoporosis in the elderly. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 780 consecutive patient charts between 2010 and 2011 were reviewed in the Senior’s Outpatient Clinic at the University of Alberta Hospital. Subjects with brain computerized tomography (CT) were included in the study. Subjects with incomplete information, intracranial hemorrhage, acute stroke, cerebral edema, and/or normal pressure hydrocephalus on the CT were excluded. WMD was quantified on CT using Wahlund’s scoring protocol. Osteoporosis information was obtained from the chart, which has been diagnosed based on bone mineral density (BMD) information. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the association of WMD severity with osteoporosis after controlling for confounding vascular risk factors. Results Of the 505 subjects who were included in the study, 188 (37%) had osteoporosis and 171 (91%) of these osteoporotic subjects were females. The mean age was 79.8 ± 7.04 years. The prevalence of WMD in osteoporosis subjects was 73%. In the unadjusted logistic regression analysis, there was a significant association between WMD severity and osteoporosis (odds ratio (OR): 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05 - 1.14; P < 0.001) and the significance remained in the adjusted model, after correcting for age, sex and all vascular risk factors (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.05 - 1.18; P < 0.001). Conclusion WMD severity of the brain was associated with osteoporosis in the elderly. PMID:25780476

  3. White matter diffusion alterations in normal women at risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles D; Chebrolu, Himachandra; Andersen, Anders H; Powell, David A; Lovell, Mark A; Xiong, Shuling; Gold, Brian T

    2010-07-01

    Increased white matter mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) has been observed in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to determine whether similar alterations of white matter occur in normal individuals at risk of AD. Diffusion tensor images were acquired in 42 cognitively normal right-handed women with both a family history of dementia and at least one apolipoprotein E4 allele. These were compared with images from 23 normal women without either AD risk factor. Group analyses were performed using tract-based spatial statistics. Reduced FA was observed in the fronto-occipital and inferior temporal fasciculi (particularly posteriorly), the splenium of the corpus callosum, subcallosal white matter and the cingulum bundle. These findings demonstrate that specific white matter pathways are altered in normal women at increased risk of AD years before the expected onset of cognitive symptoms. PMID:18801597

  4. RNA-seq Profiles of Immune Related Genes in the Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis Infected with White Band Disease

    PubMed Central

    Libro, Silvia; Kaluziak, Stefan T.; Vollmer, Steven V.

    2013-01-01

    Coral diseases are among the most serious threats to coral reefs worldwide, yet most coral diseases remain poorly understood. How the coral host responds to pathogen infection is an area where very little is known. Here we used next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to produce a transcriptome-wide profile of the immune response of the Staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis to White Band Disease (WBD) by comparing infected versus healthy (asymptomatic) coral tissues. The transcriptome of A. cervicornis was assembled de novo from A-tail selected Illumina mRNA-seq data from whole coral tissues, and parsed bioinformatically into coral and non-coral transcripts using existing Acropora genomes in order to identify putative coral transcripts. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified in the coral and non-coral datasets to identify genes that were up- and down-regulated due to disease infection. RNA-seq analyses indicate that infected corals exhibited significant changes in gene expression across 4% (1,805 out of 47,748 transcripts) of the coral transcriptome. The primary response to infection included transcripts involved in macrophage-mediated pathogen recognition and ROS production, two hallmarks of phagocytosis, as well as key mediators of apoptosis and calcium homeostasis. The strong up-regulation of the enzyme allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase suggests a key role of the allene oxide pathway in coral immunity. Interestingly, none of the three primary innate immune pathways - Toll-like receptors (TLR), Complement, and prophenoloxydase pathways, were strongly associated with the response of A. cervicornis to infection. Five-hundred and fifty differentially expressed non-coral transcripts were classified as metazoan (n = 84), algal or plant (n = 52), fungi (n = 24) and protozoans (n = 13). None of the 52 putative Symbiodinium or algal transcript had any clear immune functions indicating that the immune response is driven by the coral host, and not its algal symbionts. PMID:24278460

  5. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti in mice on islands inhabited by white-tailed deer.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W; Myers, J E

    1987-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti were isolated from 35 of 51 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) captured on two Narragansett Bay, R.I., islands inhabited by deer, the principal host for the adult stages of the vector tick, Ixodes dammini. Immature ticks parasitized mice from both islands. From 105 mice captured on four other islands not inhabited by deer neither pathogen was isolated, nor were I. dammini found. PMID:3555339

  6. Fungal disease and the developing story of bat white-nose syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Two recently emerged cutaneous fungal diseases of wildlife, bat white-nose syndrome (WNS) and amphibian chytridiomycosis, have devastated affected populations. Fungal diseases are gaining recognition as significant causes of morbidity and mortality to plants, animals, and humans, yet fewer than 10% of fungal species are known. Furthermore, limited antifungal therapeutic drugs are available, antifungal therapeutics often have associated toxicity, and there are no approved antifungal vaccines. The unexpected emergence of WNS, the rapidity with which it has spread, and its unprecedented severity demonstrate both the impacts of novel fungal disease upon naïve host populations and challenges to effective management of such diseases.

  7. White Matter Changes in Bipolar Disorder, Alzheimer Disease, and Mild Cognitive Impairment: New Insights from DTI

    PubMed Central

    Xekardaki, Aikaterini; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Haller, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have reported significant changes in white matter in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a recently developed technique, enables the detection of microstructural changes in white matter. It is a noninvasive in vivo technique that assesses water molecules' diffusion in brain tissues. The most commonly used parameters are axial and radial diffusivity reflecting diffusion along and perpendicular to the axons, as well as mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy representing global diffusion. Although the combination of these parameters provides valuable information about the integrity of brain circuits, their physiological meaning still remains controversial. After reviewing the basic principles of DTI, we report on recent contributions that used this technique to explore subtle structural changes in white matter occurring in elderly patients with bipolar disorder and Alzheimer disease. PMID:22187647

  8. Loss of connectivity in Alzheimer's disease: an evaluation of white matter tract integrity with colour coded MR diffusion tensor imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E Rose; Fang Chen; Jonathan B Chalk; Fernando O Zelaya; Wendy E Strugnell; Mark Benson; James Semple; David M Doddrell

    2000-01-01

    A NOVEL MRI METHODdiffusion tensor imaging—was used to compare the integrity of several white matter fibre tracts in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Relative to normal controls, patients with probable Alzheimer's disease showed a highly significant reduction in the integrity of the association white matter fibre tracts, such as the splenium of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and cingulum.

  9. Pathogenesis study of selected velogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus in White Leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groups of 4-week old White Leghorn chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with three Newcastle disease viruses isolated from natural outbreaks (Vietnam, Australia, both velogenic; and U.S., mesogenic) and two strains rescued by reverse genetics (ZJ1 and ZJ1-GFP). The parent ZJ1, a velogen, wa...

  10. Adaptive Disease Management Strategies for the Endangered Population of Kootenai River White Sturgeon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott E. LaPatra; Susan C. Ireland; Joseph M. Groff; Kathy M. Clemens; John T. Siple

    1999-01-01

    For the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson) population, conservation aquaculture was identified as a prudent and necessary recovery tool due to the biological status of the population and the demonstrated uncertainties of other recovery efforts. Conservation aquaculture programs need to address potential impacts on the genetic variability, artificial selection, and effects of disease on the native population

  11. Disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, following the dietary

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Louis E.

    feed supplement (Diamond V XP Yeast CultureR, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, Iowa [IA]) was assessed for its impact on disease resistance in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Animals were fed a standard shrimp pellet diet supplemented with 0% (control with 1% grain carrier), 0.5% (with 0.5% carrier

  12. Differences Between African Americans and Whites in Their Attitudes Toward Genetic Testing for Alzheimer's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne G. Hipps; J. Scott Roberts; Lindsay A. Farrer; Robert C. Green

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of predictive genetic testing for Alzheimer' s disease (AD) has prompted examination of pub- lic attitudes toward this controversial new health-care option. This is the first study to examine differences between Whites and African Americans with regard to: (1) interest in pursuing genetic testing for AD, (2) reasons for pursuing testing, (3) anticipated consequences of testing, and (4)

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BACTERIUM SUSPECTED IN THE INCIDENCE OF WHITE BAND DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The common staghorn coral, Acropora cervicomis, has been critically impacted in the U.S. Virgin Islands by a condition described as white band disease, a malady accompanied by the presence of abundant finely granular ovoid basophilic bodies within degenerating tissues of this sto...

  14. Air pollution and the chlorotic dwarf disease of eastern white pine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Dochinger; C. E. Seliskar

    1970-01-01

    Chlorotic dwarf is a serious disorder of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) in young plantations. Diseased trees are stunted, with mottled foliage, and have only the current-year needles. In a series of experiments in which chambers were erected around living trees to regulate airflow and filter out pollutants, it was found that dispersoid pollutants, through their harmful effect on

  15. Efficacy of Ichthyophthirius vaccines in channel catfish against white spot disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius (Ich) is a protozoan that causes white spot disease in many cultured fish and lead to severe losses in aquaculture. Two trials were conducted to determine the efficacy and serum antibody response of different formulation of Ich vaccines in channel catfish. In trial I, catfish were i...

  16. Tract-based analysis of white matter degeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-H; Coutu, J-P; Wilkens, P; Yendiki, A; Rosas, H D; Salat, D H

    2015-08-20

    Although much prior work has focused on the known cortical pathology that defines Alzheimer's disease (AD) histologically, recent work has additionally demonstrated substantial damage to the cerebral white matter in this condition. While there is large evidence of diffuse damage to the white matter in AD, it is unclear whether specific white matter tracts exhibit a more accelerated pattern of damage and whether the damage is associated with the classical neurodegenerative changes of AD. In this study, we investigated microstructural differences in the large fascicular bundles of the cerebral white matter of individuals with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), using recently developed automated diffusion tractography procedures in the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. Eighteen major fiber bundles in a total of 36 individuals with AD, 81 MCI and 60 control participants were examined with the TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy (TRACULA) procedure available as part of the FreeSurfer image processing software package. For each fiber bundle, the mean fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean, radial and axial diffusivities were calculated. Individuals with AD had increased diffusivities in both left and right cingulum-angular bundles compared to control participants (p<0.001). Individuals with MCI also had increased axial and mean diffusivities and increased FA in both cingulum-angular bundles compared to control participants (p<0.05) and decreased radial diffusivity compared to individuals with AD (p<0.05). We additionally examined how white matter deterioration relates to hippocampal volume, a traditional imaging measure of AD pathology, and found the strongest negative correlations in AD patients between hippocampal volume and the diffusivities of the cingulum-angular and cingulum-cingulate gyrus bundles and of the corticospinal tracts (p<0.05). However, statistically controlling for hippocampal volume did not remove all group differences in white matter measures, suggesting a unique contribution of white matter damage to AD unexplained by this disease biomarker. These results suggest that (1) AD-associated deterioration of white matter fibers is greatest in tracts known to be connected to areas of pathology in AD and (2) lower white matter tract integrity is more diffusely associated with lower hippocampal volume indicating that the pathology in the white matter follows to some degree the neurodegenerative staging and progression of this condition. PMID:26026680

  17. Phage therapy of the white plague-like disease of Favia favus in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atad, I.; Zvuloni, A.; Loya, Y.; Rosenberg, E.

    2012-09-01

    Coral disease is a major factor in the global decline of coral reefs. At present, there are no known procedures for preventing or treating infectious diseases of corals. Immunization is not possible because corals have a restricted adaptive immune system and antibiotics are neither ecologically safe nor practical in an open system. Thus, we tested phage therapy as an alternative therapeutic method for treating diseased corals. Phage BA3, specific to the coral pathogen Thalassomonas loyana, inhibited the progression of the white plague-like disease and transmission to healthy corals in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Only one out of 19 (5 %) of the healthy corals became infected when placed near phage-treated diseased corals, whereas 11 out of 18 (61 %) healthy corals were infected in the no-phage control. This is the first successful treatment for a coral disease in the sea. We posit that phage therapy of certain coral diseases is achievable in situ.

  18. Microstructural changes in white matter associated with freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, Sarah; Leunissen, Inge; Vervoort, Griet; Vandenberghe, Wim; Swinnen, Stephan; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2015-04-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), freezing of gait (FOG) is associated with widespread functional and structural gray matter changes throughout the brain. Previous study of freezing-related white matter changes was restricted to brainstem and cerebellar locomotor tracts. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial distribution of white matter damage associated with FOG by combining whole brain and striatofrontal seed-based diffusion tensor imaging. Diffusion-weighted images were collected in 26 PD patients and 16 age-matched controls. Parkinson's disease groups with (n?=?11) and without freezing of gait (n?=?15) were matched for age and disease severity. We applied tract-based spatial statistics to compare fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of white matter structure across the whole brain between groups. Probabilistic tractography was used to evaluate fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of key subcortico-cortical tracts. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed decreased fractional anisotropy in PD with FOG in bilateral cerebellar and superior longitudinal fascicle clusters. Increased mean diffusivity values were apparent in the right internal capsule, superior frontal cortex, anterior corona radiata, the left anterior thalamic radiation, and cerebellum. Tractography showed consistent white matter alterations in striatofrontal tracts through the putamen, caudate, pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, and in connections of the cerebellar peduncle with subthalamic nucleus and pedunculopontine nucleus bilaterally. We conclude that FOG is associated with diffuse white matter damage involving major cortico-cortical, corticofugal motor, and several striatofrontal tracts in addition to previously described cerebello-pontine connectivity changes. These distributed white matter abnormalities may contribute to the motor and non-motor correlates of FOG. PMID:25640958

  19. PYGM expression analysis in white blood cells: a complementary tool for diagnosing McArdle disease?

    PubMed

    de Luna, Noemí; Brull, Astrid; Lucia, Alejandro; Santalla, Alfredo; Garatachea, Nuria; Martí, Ramon; Andreu, Antoni L; Pinós, Tomàs

    2014-12-01

    McArdle disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme myophosphorylase, resulting in exercise intolerance from childhood and acute crises of early fatigue and contractures. In severe cases, these manifestations can be accompanied by rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and fatal renal failure. Diagnosis of McArdle disease is based on clinical diagnostic tests, together with an absence of myophosphorylase activity in skeletal muscle biopsies and genetic analysis of the myophosphorylase-encoding gene, PYGM. The recently reported association between myophosphorylase and Rac1 GTPase in a T lymphocyte cell line prompted us to study myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells (WBCs) from 20 healthy donors and 30 McArdle patients by flow cytometry using a fluorescent-labeled PYGM antibody. We found that T lymphocytes expressed myophosphorylase in healthy donors, but expression was significantly lower in McArdle patients (p<0.001). PYGM mRNA levels were also lower in white blood cells from McArdle patients. Nevertheless, in 13% of patients (who were either heterozygotes or homozygotes for the most common PYGM pathogenic mutation among Caucasians (p.R50X)), the percentage of myophosphorylase-positive white blood cells was not different compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that analysis of myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells might be a useful, less-invasive, complementary test for diagnosing McArdle disease. PMID:25240406

  20. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa. PMID:25776548

  1. Black–White Differences in Severity of Coronary Artery Disease Among Individuals with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Jeff; Conigliaro, Joseph; Good, C Bernie; Hanusa, Barbara H; Macpherson, David S

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether the extent of coronary obstructive disease is similar among black and white patients with acute coronary syndromes. DESIGN Retrospective chart review. PATIENTS We used administrative discharge data to identify white and black male patients, 30 years of age or older, who were discharged between October 1, 1989 and September 30, 1995 from 1 of 6 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals with a primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or unstable angina (UnA) and who underwent coronary angiography during the admission. We excluded patients if they did not meet standard clinical criteria for AMI or UnA or if they had had prior percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Physician reviewers classified the degree of coronary obstruction from blinded coronary angiography reports. Obstruction was considered significant if there was at least 50% obstruction of the left main coronary artery, or if there was 70% obstruction in 1 of the 3 major epicardial vessels or their main branches. Of the 628 eligible patients, 300 (48%) had AMI. Among patients with AMI, blacks were more likely than whites to have no significant coronary obstructions (28/145, or 19%, vs 10/155 or 7%, P = .001). Similarly, among patients with UnA, 33% (56/168) of blacks but just 17% (27/160) of whites had no significant stenoses (P = .012). There were no racial differences in severity of coronary disease among veterans with at least 1 significant obstruction. Racial differences in coronary obstructions remained after correcting for coronary disease risk factors and characteristics of the AMI. CONCLUSIONS Black veterans who present with acute coronary insufficiency are less likely than whites to have significant coronary obstruction. Current understanding of coronary disease does not provide an explanation for these differences.

  2. NESTING HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS OF SYMPATRIC CRESTED CARACARAS, RED-TAILED HAWKS, ANDWHITE-TAILED HAWKS IN SOUTH TEXAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Actkinson; WILLIAM P. KUVLESKY JR; Clint W. Boal; Leonard A. Brennan; Fidel Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus )( n 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis )( n 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway )( n 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed

  3. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): Early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of wild and farmed cervid ruminants, including Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or moose (Alces alces). Reliable data ...

  4. Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle and white-tailed deer: Translational research of relevance to human tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a premier example of a disease complex with pathogens primarily affecting humans (i.e., Mycobacterium tuberculosis) or livestock and wildlife (i.e., Mycobacterium bovis) and with a long history of inclusive collaborations between physicians and veterinarians. Advances with the s...

  5. Transmission of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Acutely Infected White Tailed Deer to Cattle via Indirect Contact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are found worldwide, and acute infections in cattle results in enteric, respiratory, and reproductive diseases of varying severity, depending on the BVDV strain, the immune and reproductive status of the host and the presence of secondary pathogens. While most c...

  6. Cache Valley and Potosi viruses (Bunyaviridae) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): experimental infections and antibody prevalence in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, C G; Grimstad, P R

    1998-11-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV) and Potosi virus (POTV) are two closely related mosquito-borne viruses (Bunyaviridae: Bunyamwera group) that appear to circulate in several regions of the United States, especially the Midwest. We determined the prevalence of specific neutralizing antibodies to both viruses in Indiana white-tailed deer and conducted infection experiments to assess whether deer could serve as an vertebrate-amplifying host. Cross-infection experiments also were carried out to investigate the level of antibody cross-reactivity and cross-protection between the two viruses. The seroprevalence rate was high for both CVV (> 66%) and POTV (> 43%) in adult deer statewide. Antibodies neutralizing CVV were more common among deer harvested in the northern part of Indiana whereas the prevalence of POTV antibodies suggested a more southern distribution for this virus. Experimental infections of captive deer showed that they may serve as amplifying hosts for either virus. Deer infected with CVV or POTV developed a 1-3-day viremia with 3.0 and 4.1 log10 plaque-forming units/ml mean peak titers, respectively. However, significant levels of antibody cross-reactivity between the two viruses were observed. Viremia was lower and shorter when animals immune to either CVV or POTV were cross-infected with the alternate virus and antibody responses following cross-infections resembled original antigenic sin with higher titers of antibodies against the primary agent. PMID:9840585

  7. Tail-flick test response in 3×Tg-AD mice at early and advanced stages of disease.

    PubMed

    Baeta-Corral, Raquel; Defrin, Ruti; Pick, Chagi G; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2015-07-23

    Despite the impact of pain in cognitive dysfunctions and affective disorders has been largely studied, the research that examines pain dimensions in cognitive impairment or dementia is still scarce. In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias, management of pain is challenging. While the sensory-discriminative dimension of pain is preserved, the cognitive-evaluative and the affective-motivational pain dimensions are affected. Due to the complexity of the disease and the poor self-reports, pain is underdiagnosed and undertreated. In confluence with an impaired thermoregulatory behavior, the patients' ability to confront environmental stressors such as cold temperature can put them at risk of fatal accidental hypothermia. Here, 3xTg-AD mice demonstrate that the sensorial-discriminative threshold to a noxious cold stimulus, as measured by the latency of tail-flicking, was preserved at early and advances stages of disease (7 and 11 month-old, respectively) as compared to age-matched (adulthood and middle aged, respectively) non-transgenic mice (NTg). In both genotypes, the sensory deterioration and poor thermoregulatory behavior associated to age was observed as an increase of tail-flick response and poor sensorimotor performance. At both stages studied, 3xTg-AD mice exhibited BPSD (Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia)-like alterations in the corner, open-field, dark-light box and the T-maze tests. In the adult NTg mice, this nociceptive withdrawal response was correlated with copying with stress-related behaviors. This integrative behavioral profile was lost in both groups of 3xTg-AD mice and middle aged controls, suggesting derangements in their subjacent networks and the complex interplay between the pain dimensions in the elderly with dementia. PMID:26091881

  8. Evidence for Autoinduction and Quorum Sensing in White Band Disease-Causing Microbes on Acropora cervicornis.

    PubMed

    Certner, Rebecca H; Vollmer, Steven V

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs have entered a state of global decline party due to an increasing incidence of coral disease. However, the diversity and complexity of coral-associated bacterial communities has made identifying the mechanisms underlying disease transmission and progression extremely difficult. This study explores the effects of coral cell-free culture fluid (CFCF) and autoinducer (a quorum sensing signaling molecule) on coral-associated bacterial growth and on coral tissue loss respectively. All experiments were conducted using the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis. Coral-associated microbes were grown on selective media infused with CFCF derived from healthy and white band disease-infected A. cervicornis. Exposure to diseased CFCF increased proliferation of Cytophaga-Flavobacterium spp. while exposure to healthy CFCF inhibited growth of this group. Exposure to either CFCF did not significantly affect Vibrio spp. growth. In order to test whether disease symptoms can be induced in healthy corals, A. cervicornis was exposed to bacterial assemblages supplemented with exogenous, purified autoinducer. Incubation with autoinducer resulted in complete tissue loss in all corals tested in less than one week. These findings indicate that white band disease in A. cervicornis may be caused by opportunistic pathogenesis of resident microbes. PMID:26047488

  9. Evidence for Autoinduction and Quorum Sensing in White Band Disease-Causing Microbes on Acropora cervicornis

    PubMed Central

    Certner, Rebecca H.; Vollmer, Steven V.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs have entered a state of global decline party due to an increasing incidence of coral disease. However, the diversity and complexity of coral-associated bacterial communities has made identifying the mechanisms underlying disease transmission and progression extremely difficult. This study explores the effects of coral cell-free culture fluid (CFCF) and autoinducer (a quorum sensing signaling molecule) on coral-associated bacterial growth and on coral tissue loss respectively. All experiments were conducted using the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis. Coral-associated microbes were grown on selective media infused with CFCF derived from healthy and white band disease-infected A. cervicornis. Exposure to diseased CFCF increased proliferation of Cytophaga-Flavobacterium spp. while exposure to healthy CFCF inhibited growth of this group. Exposure to either CFCF did not significantly affect Vibrio spp. growth. In order to test whether disease symptoms can be induced in healthy corals, A. cervicornis was exposed to bacterial assemblages supplemented with exogenous, purified autoinducer. Incubation with autoinducer resulted in complete tissue loss in all corals tested in less than one week. These findings indicate that white band disease in A. cervicornis may be caused by opportunistic pathogenesis of resident microbes. PMID:26047488

  10. Hypertensive vascular disease as a cause of death in blacks versus whites: autopsy findings in 587 adults.

    PubMed

    Onwuanyi, A; Hodges, D; Avancha, A; Weiss, L; Rabinowitz, D; Shea, S; Francis, C K

    1998-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of excess mortality among urban US blacks, but autopsy data comparing black-white differences in underlying pathological causes of cardiovascular death are lacking. We reviewed all 720 adult cases autopsied in 1991 in the New York City Medical Examiner's Office in which the coded cause of death was cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes 391, 393 to 398, 401 to 404, 410, 411, 414 to 417, 420 to 438, and 440 to 444). After exclusion of 133 cases because race was missing or coded as other than black or white, gender was not coded, or there was an unusual circumstances of death or extreme obesity, 587 cases were available for analysis. There were 314 black and 273 white subjects. Black women were younger than white women at time of death (mean age, 54.7 versus 61.5 years; P<.001), whereas black and white men did not differ in mean age at death. Hypertensive vascular disease was the autopsy cause of death in 42% of blacks compared with 23% of whites (P<.001). Conversely, atherosclerotic heart disease was the autopsy cause of death in 64% of white subjects but only 38% of blacks. These patterns were consistent in both sexes and after adjustment for age. Hypertensive vascular disease was far more common than atherosclerotic heart disease as the cause of death at autopsy among blacks compared with whites in New York City, whereas atherosclerotic heart disease was more common in whites. These findings suggest that ineffective control of hypertension is a major factor contributing to excess cardiovascular mortality among urban blacks. PMID:9576116

  11. Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity in Blacks and Whites: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer C. Lovejoy; Masa Sasagawa

    2010-01-01

    Rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, and obesity-related CVD risk factors such as hypertension are higher in blacks\\u000a than whites in the United States. Obesity, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity as well as psychosocial and environmental\\u000a factors may contribute to ethnic differences in CVD. Survey data from the United States show that black populations consume\\u000a fewer vegetables and CVD-protective micronutrients

  12. Differential diagnosis of white matter diseases in the tropics: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Lekha

    2009-01-01

    In hospitals in the tropics, the availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilities in urban areas and especially in teaching institutions have resulted in white matter diseases being frequently reported in a variety of clinical settings. Unlike the west where multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest white matter disease encountered, in the tropics, there are myriad causes for the same. Infectious and post infectious disorders probably account for the vast majority of these diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection tops the list of infective conditions. Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis occasionally presents with patchy parenchymal lesions unaccompanied by meningeal involvement. Human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV) infection and cystic inflammatory lesions such as neurocysticercosis are important causes to be considered in the differential diagnosis. Diagnosing post infectious demyelinating disorders is equally challenging since more than a third of cases seen in the tropics do not present with history of past infection or vaccinations. Metabolic and deficiency disorders such as Wernicke's encephalopathy, osmotic demyelinating syndrome associated with extra pontine lesions and Vitamin B12 deficiency states can occassionaly cause confusion in diagnosis. This review considers a few important disorders which manifest with white matter changes on MRI and create diagnostic difficulties in a population in the tropics. PMID:20151003

  13. Shifts in bacterial communities of two caribbean reef-building coral species affected by white plague disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anny Cárdenas; Luis M Rodriguez-R; Valeria Pizarro; Luis F Cadavid; Catalina Arévalo-Ferro

    2012-01-01

    Coral reefs are deteriorating at an alarming rate mainly as a consequence of the emergence of coral diseases. The white plague disease (WPD) is the most prevalent coral disease in the southwestern Caribbean, affecting dozens of coral species. However, the identification of a single causal agent has proved problematic. This suggests more complex etiological scenarios involving alterations in the dynamic

  14. Hypertensive Vascular Disease as a Cause of Death in Blacks Versus Whites Autopsy Findings in 587 Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anekwe Onwuanyi; David Hodges; Amarnath Avancha; Linda Weiss; Daniel Rabinowitz; Steven Shea; Charles K. Francis

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of excess mortality among urban US blacks, but autopsy data comparing black-white differences in underlying pathological causes of cardiovascular death are lacking. We reviewed all 720 adult cases autopsied in 1991 in the New York City Medical Examiner's Office in which the coded cause of death was cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases, 9th

  15. Rose Questionnaire responses among black and white inpatients admitted for coronary heart disease: findings from the Birmingham-BHS Project.

    PubMed

    Raczynski, J M; Taylor, H; Cutter, G; Hardin, M; Rappaport, N; Oberman, A

    1993-01-01

    Evidence of higher coronary heart disease mortality rates among blacks than among whites raises questions concerning differences in health care-seeking for heart disease between blacks and whites. As part of a larger project evaluating health care-seeking behavior for coronary heart disease, we interviewed hospitalized patients who had diagnoses of coronary artery disease, ischemic heart disease, chest pain, or myocardial infarction, or who were admitted to rule out myocardial infarction. The sample included 1140 white men, 347 black men, 574 white women, and 355 black women. The interview included demographic information, usual care, access to usual care, and chest pain items. Demographic and medical care access differences emerged between African-American and white participants. We also compared the prevalence of Rose Questionnaire angina between blacks and whites. Among patients who scored positively for Rose angina, black men reported more recent onset of their angina and fewer episodes during the past 6 months compared to all other groups, and they sought medical care less often compared with white men. Multiple logistic regression analyses suggest that African-American respondents were less likely to score positively for Rose angina and were less likely to seek treatment for their symptoms among those who had angina, when controlled for demographic, risk factor, and access to care variables. Blacks and whites in our sample also differed in factors associated with scoring positive for angina and seeking medical care for their symptoms, among those who reported angina. We interpret these findings as suggesting that promoting routine usual care among whites may be an important approach for increasing care-seeking for coronary heart disease symptoms. For blacks, improved coronary heart disease case identification and/or educational approaches to promote greater awareness of symptoms and of the need for seeking treatment for symptoms may be important to increase the likelihood that they will seek medical care for their symptoms. PMID:8167545

  16. On-Farm Mitigation of Transmission of Tuberculosis from White-Tailed Deer to Cattle: Literature Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Anderson, Charles W.; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; Averill, James J.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2012-01-01

    The Animal Industry Division of the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) has been challenged with assisting farmers with modifying farm practices to reduce potential for exposure to Mycobacterium bovis from wildlife to cattle. The MDARD recommendations for on-farm risk mitigation practices were developed from experiences in the US, UK and Ireland and a review of the scientific literature. The objectives of our study were to review the present state of knowledge on M. bovis excretion, transmission, and survival in the environment and the interactions of wildlife and cattle with the intention of determining if the current recommendations by MDARD on farm practices are adequate and to identify additional changes to farm practices that may help to mitigate the risk of transmission. This review will provide agencies with a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature on mitigation of disease transmission between wildlife and cattle and to identify lacunae in published research. PMID:22991687

  17. Incidence and predictors of end stage renal disease among low-income blacks and whites.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Loren; Mumma, Michael T; Cavanaugh, Kerri L; Edwards, Todd L; Ikizler, T Alp; Tarone, Robert E; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Blot, William J

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated whether black race is associated with higher incidence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) among a cohort of blacks and whites of similar, generally low socioeconomic status, and whether risk factor patterns differ among blacks and whites and explain the poorly understood racial disparity in ESRD. Incident diagnoses of ESRD among 79,943 black and white participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS) were ascertained by linkage with the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) from 2002 through 2009. Person-years of follow up were calculated from date of entry into the SCCS until date of ESRD diagnosis, date of death, or September 1, 2009, whichever occurred first. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident ESRD among black and white participants in relation to baseline characteristics. After 329,003 person-years of follow-up, 687 incident cases of ESRD were identified in the cohort. The age-adjusted ESRD incidence rate was 273 (per 100,000) among blacks, 3.5-fold higher than the rate of 78 among whites. Risk factors for ESRD included male sex (HR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.9), low income (HR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.8 for income below vs. above $15,000), smoking (HR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.02-1.4) and histories of diabetes (HRs increasing to 9.4 (95% CI 7.4-11.9) among those with ?20 years diabetes duration) and hypertension (HR = 2.9; 95% CI 2.3-3.7). Patterns and magnitudes of association were virtually identical among blacks and whites. After adjustment for these risk factors, blacks continued to have a higher risk for ESRD (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.9-3.0) relative to whites. The black-white disparity in risk of ESRD was attenuated but not eliminated after control for known risk factors in a closely socioeconomically matched cohort. Further research characterizing biomedical factors, including CKD progression, in ESRD occurrence in these two racial groups is needed. PMID:23110237

  18. Incidence and Predictors of End Stage Renal Disease among Low-Income Blacks and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Lipworth, Loren; Mumma, Michael T.; Cavanaugh, Kerri L.; Edwards, Todd L.; Ikizler, T. Alp; E.Tarone, Robert; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Blot, William J.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated whether black race is associated with higher incidence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) among a cohort of blacks and whites of similar, generally low socioeconomic status, and whether risk factor patterns differ among blacks and whites and explain the poorly understood racial disparity in ESRD. Incident diagnoses of ESRD among 79,943 black and white participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS) were ascertained by linkage with the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) from 2002 through 2009. Person-years of follow up were calculated from date of entry into the SCCS until date of ESRD diagnosis, date of death, or September 1, 2009, whichever occurred first. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident ESRD among black and white participants in relation to baseline characteristics. After 329,003 person-years of follow-up, 687 incident cases of ESRD were identified in the cohort. The age-adjusted ESRD incidence rate was 273 (per 100,000) among blacks, 3.5-fold higher than the rate of 78 among whites. Risk factors for ESRD included male sex (HR?=?1.6; 95% CI 1.4–1.9), low income (HR?=?1.5; 95% CI 1.2–1.8 for income below vs. above $15,000), smoking (HR?=?1.2; 95% CI 1.02–1.4) and histories of diabetes (HRs increasing to 9.4 (95% CI 7.4–11.9) among those with ?20 years diabetes duration) and hypertension (HR?=?2.9; 95% CI 2.3–3.7). Patterns and magnitudes of association were virtually identical among blacks and whites. After adjustment for these risk factors, blacks continued to have a higher risk for ESRD (HR?=?2.4; 95% CI?=?1.9–3.0) relative to whites. The black-white disparity in risk of ESRD was attenuated but not eliminated after control for known risk factors in a closely socioeconomically matched cohort. Further research characterizing biomedical factors, including CKD progression, in ESRD occurrence in these two racial groups is needed. PMID:23110237

  19. Genetic Susceptibility, Colony Size, and Water Temperature Drive White-Pox Disease on the Coral Acropora palmata

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Erinn M.; van Woesik, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of coral diseases are one of the greatest threats to reef corals in the Caribbean, yet the mechanisms that lead to coral diseases are still largely unknown. Here we examined the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-pox disease on Acropora palmata coral colonies of known genotypes. We took a Bayesian approach, using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation algorithms, to examine which covariates influenced the presence of white-pox disease over seven years. We showed that colony size, genetic susceptibility of the coral host, and high-water temperatures were the primary tested variables that were positively associated with the presence of white-pox disease on A. palmata colonies. Our study also showed that neither distance from previously diseased individuals, nor colony location, influenced the dynamics of white-pox disease. These results suggest that white-pox disease was most likely a consequence of anomalously high water temperatures that selectively compromised the oldest colonies and the most susceptible coral genotypes. PMID:25372835

  20. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Cattle and White-Tailed Deer: Translational Research of Relevance to Human Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Waters, W Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V

    2015-05-19

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a premier example of a disease complex with pathogens primarily affecting humans (i.e., Mycobacterium tuberculosis) or livestock and wildlife (i.e., Mycobacterium bovis) and with a long history of inclusive collaborations between physicians and veterinarians. Advances in the study of bovine TB have been applied to human TB, and vice versa. For instance, landmark discoveries on the use of Koch's tuberculin and interferon-? release assays for diagnostic purposes, as well as Calmette and Guérin's attenuated M. bovis strain as a vaccine, were first evaluated in cattle for control of bovine TB prior to wide-scale use in humans. Likewise, recent discoveries on the role of effector/memory T cell subsets and polyfunctional T cells in the immune response to human TB, particularly as related to vaccine efficacy, have paved the way for similar studies in cattle. Over the past 15 years, substantial funding for development of human TB vaccines has led to the emergence of multiple promising candidates now in human clinical trials. Several of these vaccines are being tested for immunogenicity and efficacy in cattle. Also, the development of population-based vaccination strategies for control of M. bovis infection in wildlife reservoirs will undoubtedly have an impact on our understanding of herd immunity with relevance to the control of both bovine and human TB in regions of the world with high prevalence of TB. Thus, the one-health approach to research on TB is mutually beneficial for our understanding and control of TB in humans, livestock, and wildlife. PMID:25991696

  1. Fecal Volatile Organic Ccompound Profiles from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as Indicators of Mycobacterium bovis Exposure or Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Randal S; Ellis, Christine K; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W Ray; Palmer, Mitchell; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no method exists to non-invasively monitor the presence of bovine tuberculosis in deer. In this study, volatile organic compound profiles of BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated deer, before and after experimental challenge with M. bovis strain 95-1315, were generated using solid phase microextraction fiber head-space sampling over suspended fecal pellets with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chromatograms were processed using XCMS Online to characterize ion variation among treatment groups. The principal component scores resulting from significant (? = 0.05) ion responses were used to build linear discriminant analysis models. The sensitivity and specificity of these models were used to evaluate the feasibility of using this analytical approach to distinguish within group comparisons between pre- and post-M. bovis challenge: non-vaccinated male or female deer, BCG-vaccinated male deer, and the mixed gender non-vaccinated deer data. Seventeen compounds were identified in this analysis. The peak areas for these compounds were used to build a linear discriminant classification model based on principal component analysis scores to evaluate the feasibility of discriminating between fecal samples from M. bovis challenged deer, irrespective of vaccination status. The model best representing the data had a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 91.4%. The fecal head-space sampling approach presented in this pilot study provides a non-invasive method to discriminate between M. bovis challenged deer and BCG-vaccinated deer. Additionally, the technique may prove invaluable for BCG efficacy studies with free-ranging deer as well as for use as a non-invasive monitoring system for the detection of tuberculosis in captive deer and other livestock. PMID:26060998

  2. Accumulation patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Steller's sea eagles and white-tailed sea eagles, threatened species, in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Mafumi; Masuda, Yasushi; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Akahori, Fumiaki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2002-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including coplanar congeners, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, chlordane-related compounds, and hexachlorobenzene, were found in the breast muscle of Steller's sea eagles (SSE) and white-tailed sea eagles (WSE) threatened species, collected in Hokkaido, Japan, during the two years from 1998 to 1999. Both PCBs and DDTs were the most notable compounds, with concentrations one to two orders of magnitude higher than the other compounds, that is, from 120 to 39,000 and from 68 to 15,000 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Non-ortho (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [IUPAC] 77, 126, and 169) and mono-ortho (IUPAC 105, 118, and 156)-substituted coplanar PCB congeners amounted to 9.2 to 740 pg/g of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents derived from the World Health Organization, Paris, France (WHO), toxic equivalent factors. The atmospheric PCBs and DDTs in eastern Siberian cities, such as Khabarovsk and Magadan, have been reported to be much higher than Hokkaido and the North Pacific. Thus, we speculated that the eagles might have been contaminated in these areas, where they spend most of the year except winter, which they spend in eastern Siberia. Adult eagles accumulated more PCBs and DDTs than younger ones. The patterns of PCB congeners were also found to change, depending on the age of the eagle examined; adult eagles showed relatively higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCBs thanjuvenile eagles did. This difference would be related to the efficiency of the excretion and the metabolism of each PCB congener in the eagles. PMID:11951960

  3. Molecular study of free-ranging mule deer and white-tailed deer from British Columbia, Canada, for evidence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp.

    PubMed

    Lobanov, V A; Gajadhar, A A; Al-Adhami, B; Schwantje, H M

    2012-06-01

    Twenty-three free-ranging white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and six mule deer (MD; Odocoileus hemionus) from south-central British Columbia, Canada, were tested for Anaplasma marginale by msp5 gene-specific PCR and Ehrlichia spp. by 16S rRNA or citrate synthase (gltA) gene-specific PCR, as well as by PCR with universal 16S rRNA primers detecting a wide range of bacteria. No deer tested positive for A. marginale. Amplification with universal 16S rRNA primers followed by sequencing of cloned fragments detected an Anaplasma sp. in one of 23 (4.3%) WTD and six of six (100%) MD and Bartonella sp. in four of 23 (17.4%) WTD. The Anaplasma sp. was genetically distinct from A. marginale and all other recognized members of the genus. Four of six (66.7%) MD and 0 of 23 (0%) WTD were Ehrlichia positive by PCR with primers for 16S rRNA and gltA genes. The sequences of gltA PCR fragments were identical to each other and to the respective region of the gltA gene of an Ehrlichia sp. which we detected previously in naturally infected cattle from the same area, suggesting the possibility of biological transmission of this rickettsia between cattle and wild cervids. Antibodies reactive with the MSP5 protein of A. marginale were detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in two of six (33.3%) MD, but not in WTD. The two seropositive MD were PCR positive for both the Anaplasma sp. and Ehrlichia sp. detected in this study, suggesting a reaction of antibodies against one or both of these rickettsias with the MSP5 antigen. PMID:21933360

  4. Brominated and phosphorus flame retardants in White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings: bioaccumulation and associations with dietary proxies (?¹³C, ?¹?N and ?³?S).

    PubMed

    Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Halley, Duncan J; Lepoint, Gilles; Nygård, Torgeir; Pinxten, Rianne; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel

    2014-04-15

    Very little is known on the exposure of high trophic level species to current-use brominated (BFRs) and phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), although observations on their persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity have been made. We investigated the accumulation of BFRs and PFRs, and their associations with dietary proxies (?(13)C, ?(15)N and ?(34)S), in plasma and feathers of White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings from Trøndelag, Norway. In addition to accumulation of a wide range of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in both plasma and feathers, all non-PBDE BFRs and PFRs could be measured in feathers, while in plasma only two of six PFRs, i.e. tris-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCPP) were detected. PFR concentrations in feathers (0.95-3,000 ng g(-1)) were much higher than selected organochlorines (OCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (CB 153; 2.3-15 ng g(-1)) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE; 2.3-21 ng g(-1)), PBDEs (0.03-2.3 ng g(-1)) and non-PBDE BFRs (0.03-1.5 ng g(-1)). Non-significant associations of PFR concentrations in feathers with those in plasma (P ? 0.74), and their similarity to reported atmospheric PFR concentrations, may suggest atmospheric PFR deposition on feathers. Most OCs and PBDEs, as well as tris(chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPHP) and tri-(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were associated to ?(15)N and/or ?(13)C (all P ? 0.02). Besides ?(15)N enrichment, ?(34)S was depleted in nestlings from fjords, inherently close to an urbanised centre. As such, both may have been a spatial proxy for anthropogenic disturbance, possible confounding their use as dietary proxy. PMID:24530584

  5. Fecal Volatile Organic Ccompound Profiles from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as Indicators of Mycobacterium bovis Exposure or Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Randal S.; Ellis, Christine K.; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitchell; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no method exists to non-invasively monitor the presence of bovine tuberculosis in deer. In this study, volatile organic compound profiles of BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated deer, before and after experimental challenge with M. bovis strain 95–1315, were generated using solid phase microextraction fiber head-space sampling over suspended fecal pellets with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chromatograms were processed using XCMS Online to characterize ion variation among treatment groups. The principal component scores resulting from significant (? = 0.05) ion responses were used to build linear discriminant analysis models. The sensitivity and specificity of these models were used to evaluate the feasibility of using this analytical approach to distinguish within group comparisons between pre- and post-M. bovis challenge: non-vaccinated male or female deer, BCG-vaccinated male deer, and the mixed gender non-vaccinated deer data. Seventeen compounds were identified in this analysis. The peak areas for these compounds were used to build a linear discriminant classification model based on principal component analysis scores to evaluate the feasibility of discriminating between fecal samples from M. bovis challenged deer, irrespective of vaccination status. The model best representing the data had a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 91.4%. The fecal head-space sampling approach presented in this pilot study provides a non-invasive method to discriminate between M. bovis challenged deer and BCG-vaccinated deer. Additionally, the technique may prove invaluable for BCG efficacy studies with free-ranging deer as well as for use as a non-invasive monitoring system for the detection of tuberculosis in captive deer and other livestock. PMID:26060998

  6. Distinctive disruption patterns of white matter tracts in Alzheimer's disease with full diffusion tensor characterization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Fan, Xin; Weiner, Myron; Martin-Cook, Kristin; Xiao, Guanghua; Davis, Jeannie; Devous, Michael; Rosenberg, Roger; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2012-09-01

    To characterize the white matter structural changes at the tract level and tract group level, comprehensive analysis with 4 metrics derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AxD) and radial diffusivity (RD), was conducted. Tract groups, namely limbic, commissural, association, and projection tracts, include white matter tracts of similar functions. Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired from 61 subjects (26 Alzheimer's disease [AD], 11 subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment [aMCI], and 24 age-matched controls). An atlas-based approach was used to survey 30 major cerebral white matter tracts with the measurements of FA, MD, AxD, and RD. Regional cortical atrophy and cognitive functions of AD patients were also measured to correlate with the structural changes of white matter. Synchronized structural changes of cingulum bundle and fornix, both of which are part of limbic tract group, were revealed. Widespread yet distinctive structural changes were found in limbic, commissural, association, and projection tract groups between control and AD subjects. Specifically, FA, MD, and RD of limbic tracts, FA, MD, AxD, and RD of commissural tracts, MD, AxD, and RD of association tracts, and MD and AxD of projection tracts are significantly different between AD patients and control subjects. In contrast, the comparison between aMCI and control subjects shows disruption only in the limbic and commissural tract groups of aMCI subjects. MD values of all tract groups of AD patients are significantly correlated to cognitive functions. Difference between AD and control and that between aMCI and control indicates a progression pattern of white matter disruption from limbic and commissural tract group to other tract groups. High correlation between FA, MD, and RD measurements from limbic tracts and cortical atrophy suggests the disruption of the limbic tract group is caused by the neuronal damage. PMID:21872362

  7. Chronic Wasting Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Williams

    2005-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). The natural history of CWD is incompletely understood, but it differs from scrapie and bovine spon- giform encephalopathy (BSE) by virtue of its occurrence in nondomestic and free-ranging species. CWD has many features

  8. Factors relating to compliance with a gluten-free diet in patients with coeliac disease: comparison of white Caucasian and South Asian patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey R. Butterworth; Luke M. Banfield; Tariq H. Iqbal; Brian T. Cooper

    2004-01-01

    Background & aims: To identify factors relating to compliance with a gluten-free diet amongst white Caucasian and South Asians with coeliac disease.Methods: Cross-sectional survey, with case note review of 130 adult patients with coeliac disease (90 white Caucasian and 40 South Asians).Results: 87 (66.9%) of the 130 questionnaires were returned; whites: 73.3%, South Asians: 52.5% (P=0.02). White Caucasians’ assessment of

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in blacks and whites: pulmonary function norms and risk factors.

    PubMed Central

    Gillum, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are significant causes of illness and death in blacks. Racial differences in normal values of pulmonary function tests must be considered in both patient care and research. Assessment of risk factors is an important part of COPD management and prevention. An extensive review of data from the National Center for Health Statistics and from other population-based studies confirmed lower lung volumes in blacks compared to whites. However, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity was not lower in blacks; racial differences in flow rates were inconsistently reported. Thoracic dimensions were smaller in blacks than in whites in healthy populations. The cause and the physiologic and pathophysiologic significance of these racial differences are unknown. Population-based studies in blacks have firmly established only age and cigarette smoking as risk factors for COPD other than asthma. In 1987, 43% of black men aged 45 and older smoked cigarettes compared to only 30% of white men. Further research is needed on racial differences in pulmonary function and the effects of multiple risk factors to enhance understanding of COPD etiology and prevention. More vigorous smoking prevention and cessation efforts should be targeted for blacks by physicians and public health organizations. PMID:1875419

  10. Depression in small-vessel disease relates to white matter ultrastructural damage, not disability

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Vanessa; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Morris, Robin G.; Markus, Hugh S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) is a specific risk factor for depression, whether any association is mediated via white matter damage, and to study the role of depressive symptoms and disability on quality of life (QoL) in this patient group. Methods: Using path analyses in cross-sectional data, we modeled the relationships among depression, disability, and QoL in patients with SVD presenting with radiologically confirmed lacunar stroke (n = 100), and replicated results in a second SVD cohort (n = 100). We then compared the same model in a non-SVD stroke cohort (n = 50) and healthy older adults (n = 203). In a further study, to determine the role of white matter damage in mediating the association with depression, a subgroup of patients with SVD (n = 101) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Results: Reduced QoL was associated with depression in patients with SVD, but this association was not mediated by disability or cognition; very similar results were found in the replication SVD cohort. In contrast, the non-SVD stroke group and the healthy older adult group showed a direct relationship between disability and depression. The DTI study showed that fractional anisotropy, a marker of white matter damage, was related to depressive symptoms in patients with SVD. Conclusion: These results suggest that in stroke patients without SVD, disability is an important causal factor for depression, whereas in SVD stroke, other factors specific to this stroke subtype have a causal role. White matter damage detected on DTI is one factor that mediates the association between SVD and depression. PMID:25230999

  11. Detection and characterization of a phytoplasma associated with annual blue grass (Poa annua) white leaf disease in southern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I.-M. Lee; M. Pastore; M. Vibio; A. Danielli; S. Attathom; R. E. Davis; A. Bertaccini

    1997-01-01

    A phytoplasma was detected in annual blue grass (Poa annua L. Fienardo), exhibiting white leaf symptoms, that was grown in the fields near Caserta in southern Italy. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequences, the phytoplasma associated with annual blue grass white leaf disease was identified as a new member of phytoplasma 16S rRNA group

  12. White Matter Abnormalities and Structural Hippocampal Disconnections in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer’s disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer’s disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate and frontal regions only in the Alzheimer’s group. The severity of white matter degeneration appears to be higher in advanced clinical stages, supporting the construct that these abnormalities are part of the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24086371

  13. A Japanese girl with an early-infantile onset vanishing white matter disease resembling Cree leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kyoko; Tsuyusaki, Yu; Sato, Mutsumi; Takagi, Mariko; Anzai, Rie; Okuda, Mitsuko; Iai, Mizue; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Okabe, Tetsuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Osaka, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    Vanishing white matter disease (VWM)/childhood ataxia with central hypomyelination (CACH) is an autosomal recessive leukoencephalopathy caused by mutations in one of five genes, EIF2B1-5, encoding the 5 subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). The classical phenotype is characterized by early childhood onset and chronic progressive neurological deterioration with cerebellar ataxia, spasticity, optic atrophy and epilepsy. However, the onset of disease varies from antenatal period to adulthood. Cree leukoencephalopathy (CLE) is a severe variant of VWM and caused by a homozygous mutation (R195H) in the EIF2B5 gene. The patient reported in this study developed lethargy, vomiting and seizure 3days after an oral poliovirus vaccination at the age of 4months. She presented with rapid neurological deterioration within a month of onset. Brain MRI showed abnormal white matter intensity. Whole-exome sequencing identified two heterozygous mutations in the EIF2B5 gene: a known mutation, c.584G>A (R195H, which is homozygous in CLE), and a novel mutation, c.1223T>C (I408T, which resides in the "I-patch"). Mutations in the "I-patch" encoded region of eIF2B? may be related to an early-infantile onset phenotype. This patient exhibits an early-infantile onset and progressive disease course resembling CLE, suggesting a severe functional disruption of eIF2B? caused by R195H as well as by I408T mutations. PMID:25457085

  14. Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of captive and free ranging white tailed deer, mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and moose in the some parts of the United States and Canada. The presence of the disease has sharply curtailed movement of captive...

  15. Mutations in cytoplasmic dynein lead to a Huntington's disease-like defect in energy metabolism of brown and white adipose tissues

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    metabolism of brown and white adipose tissues Judith Eschbach, Anissa Fergani, Hugues Oudart, Jean to a Huntington's disease-like defect in energy metabolism of brown and white adipose tissues, BBA - Molecular in energy metabolism of brown and white adipose tissues Judith ESCHBACH1,2 , Anissa FERGANI1,2 , Hugues

  16. Selective reduction of diffusion anisotropy in white matter of Alzheimer disease brains measured by 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Takahashi; Hisashi Yonezawa; Junko Takahashi; Masako Kudo; Takashi Inoue; Hideo Tohgi

    2002-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by cortical atrophy. Changes in the white matter and their relation to the pathogenesis of AD remain to be studied. To quantitatively investigate the integrity and organization of white matter fiber tracts in patients with AD, we used diffusion tensor (DT) imaging to study the diffusion anisotropy of white matter regions. DT imaging was

  17. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or TSE of wild and farmed cervid ruminants in the North America, including white tailed, black tailed and mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and Shira's moose. CWD, like the other TSEs, is associated with accumulation of an abnorm...

  18. Longitudinal grey and white matter changes in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Frings, Lars; Yew, Belinda; Flanagan, Emma; Lam, Bonnie Y K; Hüll, Michael; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia are characterised by progressive brain atrophy. Longitudinal MRI volumetry may help to characterise ongoing structural degeneration and support the differential diagnosis of dementia subtypes. Automated, observer-independent atlas-based MRI volumetry was applied to analyse 102 MRI data sets from 15 bvFTD, 14 AD, and 10 healthy elderly control participants with consecutive scans over at least 12 months. Anatomically defined targets were chosen a priori as brain structures of interest. Groups were compared regarding volumes at clinic presentation and annual change rates. Baseline volumes, especially of grey matter compartments, were significantly reduced in bvFTD and AD patients. Grey matter volumes of the caudate and the gyrus rectus were significantly smaller in bvFTD than AD. The bvFTD group could be separated from AD on the basis of caudate volume with high accuracy (79% cases correct). Annual volume decline was markedly larger in bvFTD and AD than controls, predominantly in white matter of temporal structures. Decline in grey matter volume of the lateral orbitofrontal gyrus separated bvFTD from AD and controls. Automated longitudinal MRI volumetry discriminates bvFTD from AD. In particular, greater reduction of orbitofrontal grey matter and temporal white matter structures after 12 months is indicative of bvFTD. PMID:24595028

  19. Poleward Expansion of the White-Footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) under Climate Change: Implications for the Spread of Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Dufresne, Emilie; Logan, Travis; Simon, Julie A.; Chmura, Gail L.; Millien, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) is an important reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, and its distribution is expanding northward. We used an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis to identify the climatic factors associated with the distribution shift of the white-footed mouse over the last 30 years at the northern edge of its range, and modeled its current and potential future (2050) distributions using the platform BIOMOD. A mild and shorter winter is favouring the northern expansion of the white-footed mouse in Québec. With more favorable winter conditions projected by 2050, the distribution range of the white-footed mouse is expected to expand further northward by 3° latitude. We also show that today in southern Québec, the occurrence of B. burgdorferi is associated with high probability of presence of the white-footed mouse. Changes in the distribution of the white-footed mouse will likely alter the geographical range of B. burgdorferi and impact the public health in northern regions that have yet to be exposed to Lyme disease. PMID:24260464

  20. Poleward expansion of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) under climate change: implications for the spread of lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Roy-Dufresne, Emilie; Logan, Travis; Simon, Julie A; Chmura, Gail L; Millien, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) is an important reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, and its distribution is expanding northward. We used an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis to identify the climatic factors associated with the distribution shift of the white-footed mouse over the last 30 years at the northern edge of its range, and modeled its current and potential future (2050) distributions using the platform BIOMOD. A mild and shorter winter is favouring the northern expansion of the white-footed mouse in Québec. With more favorable winter conditions projected by 2050, the distribution range of the white-footed mouse is expected to expand further northward by 3° latitude. We also show that today in southern Québec, the occurrence of B. burgdorferi is associated with high probability of presence of the white-footed mouse. Changes in the distribution of the white-footed mouse will likely alter the geographical range of B. burgdorferi and impact the public health in northern regions that have yet to be exposed to Lyme disease. PMID:24260464

  1. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

  2. Impact of Age at Smoking Initiation, Dosage, and Time Since Quitting on Cardiovascular Disease in African Americans and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Huxley, Rachel R.; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Woodward, Mark; Alonso, Alvaro; Folsom, Aaron R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite reportedly having less tobacco exposure compared with whites, African Americans account for a disproportionate number of smoking-related deaths. The purpose of this study was to compare the prospective associations between smoking and cardiovascular risk in whites and African Americans. Smoking status was obtained on 14,200 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was ascertained from 1987 through 2007. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the CVD incidence associated with smoking behavior. Over 17 years’ follow-up, there were 2,777 cardiovascular events. In men, compared with never smoking, current smoking was independently associated with 67% (95% confidence interval (CI): 43, 95) and 72% (95% CI: 30, 126) greater risk of CVD in whites and African Americans, respectively. In women, the smoking-related cardiovascular risk was higher: 136% (95% CI: 88, 196) and 169% (95% CI: 126, 219) in African-American and white women, respectively. Early age at smoking initiation was independently associated with increased risk among all participants irrespective of race. Smoking cessation during follow-up was equally beneficial in both whites and African Americans. African Americans who smoke incur a similar level of cardiovascular risk as white smokers and would derive the same benefits from quitting as whites. PMID:22396389

  3. Genetic Analysis and QTL Detection for Resistance to White Tip Disease in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tong; Gao, Cunyi; Du, Linlin; Feng, Hui; Wang, Lijiao; Lan, Ying; Sun, Feng; Wei, Lihui; Fan, Yongjian; Shen, Wenbiao; Zhou, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    The inheritance of resistance to white tip disease (WTDR) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was analyzed with an artificial inoculation test in a segregating population derived from the cross between Tetep, a highly resistant variety that was identified in a previous study, and a susceptible cultivar. Three resistance-associated traits, including the number of Aphelenchoides besseyi (A. besseyi) individuals in 100 grains (NA), the loss rate of panicle weight (LRPW) and the loss rate of the total grains per panicle (LRGPP) were analyzed for the detection of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) in the population after construction of a genetic map. Six QTLs distributed on chromosomes 3, 5 and 9 were mapped. qNA3 and qNA9, conferring reproduction number of A. besseyi in the panicle, accounted for 16.91% and 12.54% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. qDRPW5a and qDRPW5b, associated with yield loss, were located at two adjacent marker intervals on chromosome 5 and explained 14.15% and 14.59% of the total phenotypic variation and possessed LOD values of 3.40 and 3.39, respectively. qDRPW9 was considered as a minor QTL and only explained 1.02% of the phenotypic variation. qLRGPP5 contributed to the loss in the number of grains and explained 10.91% of the phenotypic variation. This study provides useful information for the breeding of resistant cultivars against white tip disease in rice. PMID:25162680

  4. Regional white matter hyperintensity volume, not hippocampal atrophy, predicts incident Alzheimer disease in the community.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Adam M; Provenzano, Frank A; Muraskin, Jordan; Manly, Jennifer J; Blum, Sonja; Apa, Zoltan; Stern, Yaakov; Brown, Truman R; Luchsinger, José A; Mayeux, Richard

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND New-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) is often attributed to degenerative changes in the hippocampus. However, the contribution of regionally distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease, visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging, remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To determine whether regional WMHs and hippocampal volume predict incident AD in an epidemiological study. DESIGN A longitudinal community-based epidemiological study of older adults from northern Manhattan, New York. SETTING The Washington Heights/Inwood Columbia Aging Project. PARTICIPANTS Between 2005 and 2007, 717 participants without dementia received magnetic resonance imaging scans. A mean (SD) of 40.28 (9.77) months later, 503 returned for follow-up clinical examination and 46 met criteria for incident dementia (45 with AD). Regional WMHs and relative hippocampal volumes were derived. Three Cox proportional hazards models were run to predict incident dementia, controlling for relevant variables. The first included all WMH measurements; the second included relative hippocampal volume; and the third combined the 2 measurements. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Incident AD. RESULTS White matter hyperintensity volume in the parietal lobe predicted time to incident dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.194; P = .03). Relative hippocampal volume did not predict incident dementia when considered alone (HR = 0.419; P = .77) or with the WMH measures included in the model (HR = 0.302; P = .70). Including hippocampal volume in the model did not notably alter the predictive utility of parietal lobe WMHs (HR = 1.197; P = .049). CONCLUSIONS The findings highlight the regional specificity of the association of WMHs with AD. It is not clear whether parietal WMHs solely represent a marker for cerebrovascular burden or point to distinct injury compared with other regions. Future work should elucidate pathogenic mechanisms linking WMHs and AD pathology. PMID:22945686

  5. The potential role of /sup 111/In white blood cell scans in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kipper, M.S.; Williams, R.J.

    1982-10-01

    In many institutions, the use of /sup 111/In white blood cell (WBC) scans have become routine for abscess detection. Its use for the detection of bone and joint inflammation, renal disease, and myocardial infarction has also been reported. Two patients are presented whose /sup 111/In studies were of major clinical value in the management of their inflammatory bowel disease. In one, the diagnosis was suggested, and in the second, the extent of disease was defined. The potential role of /sup 111/In WBC imaging in inflammatory bowel disease--for diagnosis, staging, and monitoring response to therapy--are discussed. Possible pitfalls as well as a comprehensive prospective study are suggested.

  6. Problems and solutions with the design and execution of an epidemiological study of white spot disease in black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) in Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Corsin; T. T Phi; L. H Phuoc; N. T. N Tinh; N. V Hao; C. V Mohan; J. F Turnbull; K. L Morgan

    2002-01-01

    White spot disease (WSD) is caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and is an acutely fatal pandemic disease of crustaceans. It has resulted in massive losses to the shrimp-farming industry in Asia and has now spread to the Americas. This paper reports the problems and solutions associated with the design and execution of a longitudinal epidemiological study of shrimp

  7. Experimental antibiotic treatment identifies potential pathogens of white band disease in the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis.

    PubMed

    Sweet, M J; Croquer, A; Bythell, J C

    2014-08-01

    Coral diseases have been increasingly reported over the past few decades and are a major contributor to coral decline worldwide. The Caribbean, in particular, has been noted as a hotspot for coral disease, and the aptly named white syndromes have caused the decline of the dominant reef building corals throughout their range. White band disease (WBD) has been implicated in the dramatic loss of Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata since the 1970s, resulting in both species being listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red list. The causal agent of WBD remains unknown, although recent studies based on challenge experiments with filtrate from infected hosts concluded that the disease is probably caused by bacteria. Here, we report an experiment using four different antibiotic treatments, targeting different members of the disease-associated microbial community. Two antibiotics, ampicillin and paromomycin, arrested the disease completely, and by comparing with community shifts brought about by treatments that did not arrest the disease, we have identified the likely candidate causal agent or agents of WBD. Our interpretation of the experimental treatments is that one or a combination of up to three specific bacterial types, detected consistently in diseased corals but not detectable in healthy corals, are likely causal agents of WBD. In addition, a histophagous ciliate (Philaster lucinda) identical to that found consistently in association with white syndrome in Indo-Pacific acroporas was also consistently detected in all WBD samples and absent in healthy coral. Treatment with metronidazole reduced it to below detection limits, but did not arrest the disease. However, the microscopic disease signs changed, suggesting a secondary role in disease causation for this ciliate. In future studies to identify a causal agent of WBD via tests of Henle-Koch's postulates, it will be vital to experimentally control for populations of the other potential pathogens identified in this study. PMID:24943374

  8. Modeling the Impact of White-Plague Coral Disease in Climate Change Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Zvuloni, Assaf; Artzy-Randrup, Yael; Katriel, Guy; Loya, Yossi; Stone, Lewi

    2015-06-01

    Coral reefs are in global decline, with coral diseases increasing both in prevalence and in space, a situation that is expected only to worsen as future thermal stressors increase. Through intense surveillance, we have collected a unique and highly resolved dataset from the coral reef of Eilat (Israel, Red Sea), that documents the spatiotemporal dynamics of a White Plague Disease (WPD) outbreak over the course of a full season. Based on modern statistical methodologies, we develop a novel spatial epidemiological model that uses a maximum-likelihood procedure to fit the data and assess the transmission pattern of WPD. We link the model to sea surface temperature (SST) and test the possible effect of increasing temperatures on disease dynamics. Our results reveal that the likelihood of a susceptible coral to become infected is governed both by SST and by its spatial location relative to nearby infected corals. The model shows that the magnitude of WPD epidemics strongly depends on demographic circumstances; under one extreme, when recruitment is free-space regulated and coral density remains relatively constant, even an increase of only 0.5°C in SST can cause epidemics to double in magnitude. In reality, however, the spatial nature of transmission can effectively protect the community, restricting the magnitude of annual epidemics. This is because the probability of susceptible corals to become infected is negatively associated with coral density. Based on our findings, we expect that infectious diseases having a significant spatial component, such as Red-Sea WPD, will never lead to a complete destruction of the coral community under increased thermal stress. However, this also implies that signs of recovery of local coral communities may be misleading; indicative more of spatial dynamics than true rehabilitation of these communities. In contrast to earlier generic models, our approach captures dynamics of WPD both in space and time, accounting for the highly seasonal nature of annual WPD outbreaks. PMID:26086846

  9. Modeling the Impact of White-Plague Coral Disease in Climate Change Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Loya, Yossi; Stone, Lewi

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are in global decline, with coral diseases increasing both in prevalence and in space, a situation that is expected only to worsen as future thermal stressors increase. Through intense surveillance, we have collected a unique and highly resolved dataset from the coral reef of Eilat (Israel, Red Sea), that documents the spatiotemporal dynamics of a White Plague Disease (WPD) outbreak over the course of a full season. Based on modern statistical methodologies, we develop a novel spatial epidemiological model that uses a maximum-likelihood procedure to fit the data and assess the transmission pattern of WPD. We link the model to sea surface temperature (SST) and test the possible effect of increasing temperatures on disease dynamics. Our results reveal that the likelihood of a susceptible coral to become infected is governed both by SST and by its spatial location relative to nearby infected corals. The model shows that the magnitude of WPD epidemics strongly depends on demographic circumstances; under one extreme, when recruitment is free-space regulated and coral density remains relatively constant, even an increase of only 0.5°C in SST can cause epidemics to double in magnitude. In reality, however, the spatial nature of transmission can effectively protect the community, restricting the magnitude of annual epidemics. This is because the probability of susceptible corals to become infected is negatively associated with coral density. Based on our findings, we expect that infectious diseases having a significant spatial component, such as Red-Sea WPD, will never lead to a complete destruction of the coral community under increased thermal stress. However, this also implies that signs of recovery of local coral communities may be misleading; indicative more of spatial dynamics than true rehabilitation of these communities. In contrast to earlier generic models, our approach captures dynamics of WPD both in space and time, accounting for the highly seasonal nature of annual WPD outbreaks. PMID:26086846

  10. Joint disease mapping of cervical and male oropharyngeal cancer incidence in blacks and whites in South Carolina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgiana Onicescu; Elizabeth G. Hill; Andrew B. Lawson; Jeffrey E. Korte; M. Boyd Gillespie

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an established causal agent for cervical cancer and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. It is hypothesized that orogenital transmission results in oral cavity infection. In this paper we explore the geographical association between cervical and male oropharyngeal cancer incidence in blacks and whites in South Carolina using Bayesian joint disease mapping models fit to publicly

  11. 18 Sharp-tailed Grouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Johnsgard

    2008-01-01

    Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus) 1858 Other vernacular names: Brush grouse, pintail grouse, prairie grouse, prairie pheasant, sharptail, speckle-belly, spike-tail, spring-tail, whitebelly, white-breasted grouse. Range: Currently from north central Alaska, Yukon, northern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, and central Quebec south to eastern Washington, extreme eastern Oregon, Idaho, northeastern Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, and in the Great Plains from eastern Colorado and

  12. Host and pathogen ecology drive the seasonal dynamics of a fungal disease, white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Langwig, Kate E; Frick, Winifred F; Reynolds, Rick; Parise, Katy L; Drees, Kevin P; Hoyt, Joseph R; Cheng, Tina L; Kunz, Thomas H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-01-22

    Seasonal patterns in pathogen transmission can influence the impact of disease on populations and the speed of spatial spread. Increases in host contact rates or births drive seasonal epidemics in some systems, but other factors may occasionally override these influences. White-nose syndrome, caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is spreading across North America and threatens several bat species with extinction. We examined patterns and drivers of seasonal transmission of P. destructans by measuring infection prevalence and pathogen loads in six bat species at 30 sites across the eastern United States. Bats became transiently infected in autumn, and transmission spiked in early winter when bats began hibernating. Nearly all bats in six species became infected by late winter when infection intensity peaked. In summer, despite high contact rates and a birth pulse, most bats cleared infections and prevalence dropped to zero. These data suggest the dominant driver of seasonal transmission dynamics was a change in host physiology, specifically hibernation. Our study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to describe the seasonality of transmission in this emerging wildlife disease. The timing of infection and fungal growth resulted in maximal population impacts, but only moderate rates of spatial spread. PMID:25473016

  13. Tonsillar Biopsy Test for Chronic Wasting Disease: Two Sampling Approaches in Mule Deer and White-tailed Deer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krysten L. Schuler; Jonathan A. Jenks; Christopher S. DePerno; Margaret A. Wild

    Preclinical antemortem testing of deer (Odocoileus spp.) for chronic wasting dis- ease (CWD) can be important for determining prevalence rates and removing infected individ- uals from wild populations. Because samples with high numbers of tonsillar follicles are like- ly to provide earlier detection of CWD than samples with fewer follicles, the method of ob- taining follicular samples may be critical

  14. Do blacks and whites differ in their use of health care for symptoms of coronary heart disease?

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, S L; McGraw, S A; Smith, K W; McKinlay, J B; Pierson, J E

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of race in seeking and receipt of care for symptoms of coronary heart disease. METHODS. Data on medical care, sociodemographic characteristics, symptoms, risk factors, income, and insurance were collected in a telephone interview for a random sample of 2030 Black and White adults in inner-city Boston. Rates of care-seeking for symptoms, amounts of delay in seeking care, and rates of receipt of care were compared for Blacks and Whites after adjustment for other characteristics. RESULTS. Before and after adjustment for other factors, Blacks and Whites were equally likely to seek care. Average delay time was shorter for Blacks, particularly Black women. With the exception of a lower rate of referral to cardiologists among Blacks, receipt of care was similar for Blacks and Whites who sought medical attention for symptoms. CONCLUSIONS. In an urban population of Blacks and Whites who were similar in socioeconomic status and access to medical care, there were few racial differences in coronary heart disease-related care patterns. PMID:8203693

  15. Vanishing White Matter Disease: A Review with Focus on Its Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pronk, Jan C.; van Kollenburg, Barbara; Scheper, Gert C.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

    2006-01-01

    Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is an autosomal recessive brain disorder, most often with a childhood onset. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy indicate that, with time, increasing amounts of cerebral white matter vanish and are replaced by fluid. Autopsy confirms white matter rarefaction and cystic degeneration. The…

  16. Color discrimination deficits in Parkinson's disease are related to cognitive impairment and white-matter alterations.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Josie-Anne; Bedetti, Christophe; Postuma, Ronald B; Monchi, Oury; Génier Marchand, Daphné; Jubault, Thomas; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2012-12-01

    Color discrimination deficit is a common nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the pathophysiology of this dysfunction remains poorly understood. Although retinal structure changes found in PD have been suggested to cause color discrimination deficits, the impact of cognitive impairment and cortical alterations remains to be determined. We investigated the contribution of cognitive impairment to color discrimination deficits in PD and correlated them with cortical anomalies. Sixty-six PD patients without dementia and 20 healthy controls performed the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test and underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment for mild cognitive impairment diagnosis. In a subgroup of 26 PD patients, we also used high-definition neuroanatomical magnetic resonance imaging for cortical thickness and diffusion tensor analysis. PD patients with mild cognitive impairment performed poorly on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test compared with PD patients without mild cognitive impairment and controls. In PD patients, performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test was correlated with measures of visuospatial abilities and executive functions. Neuroimaging analysis revealed higher mean and radial diffusivity values in right posterior white-matter structures that correlated with poor performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. No cortical thickness correlation reached significance. This study showed that cognitive impairment makes a major contribution to the color discrimination deficits reported in PD. Thus, performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test may reflect cognitive impairment more than color discrimination deficits in PD. Poor performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test was also associated with white-matter alterations in right posterior brain regions. PMID:23147270

  17. MOTION-SENSITIVERADIOCOLLARSFORESTIMATING WHITE-TAILEDDEERACTIVITY

    E-print Network

    Beier, Paul

    -collared white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were compared toconcurrentvisualobservationsof deerbehaviorto of captive black-tailed deer (0. hemionus co- lumbianus), using 2 types of motion-sensitive collars

  18. Molecular phylogeny of Rigidoporus microporus isolates associated with white rot disease of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Miettinen, Otto; Omorusi, Victor I; Evueh, Grace A; Farid, Mohd A; Gazis, Romina; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2014-01-01

    Rigidoporus microporus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) syn. Rigidoporus lignosus is the most destructive root pathogen of rubber plantations distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Our primary objective was to characterize Nigerian isolates from rubber tree and compare them with other West African, Southeast Asian and American isolates. To characterize the 20 isolates from Nigeria, we used sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and LSU, ?-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-? (tef1) gene sequences. Altogether, 40 isolates of R. microporus were included in the analyses. Isolates from Africa, Asia and South/Central America formed three distinctive clades corresponding to at least three species. No phylogeographic pattern was detected among R. microporus collected from West and Central African rubber plantations suggesting continuous gene flow among these populations. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of two distinctive species associated with the white rot disease. Phylogenetic analyses placed R. microporus in the Hymenochaetales in the vicinity of Oxyporus. This is the first study to characterize R. microporus isolates from Nigeria through molecular phylogenetic techniques, and also the first to compare isolates from rubber plantations in Africa and Asia. PMID:24863478

  19. White Matter Integrity Linked To Functional Impairments in Aging and Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kavcic, Voyko; Ni, Hongyan; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Duffy, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with changes in cerebral white matter (WM) but the functional significance of such findings is not yet established. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) might reveal links between regional WM changes and specific neuropsychologically and psychophysically defined impairments in early AD. Methods Older adult control subjects (OA, n=18) and mildly impaired AD patients (n=14) underwent neuropsychological and visual perceptual testing along with DTI of cerebral WM. DTI yielded factional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity () maps for nine ROIs in three brain regions that were then compared to the performance measures. Results AD patients showed non-significant trends toward lower FAs in the posterior region’s callosal and sub-cortical ROIs. However, posterior callosal FA was significantly correlated with verbal fluency and figural memory impairments, whereas posterior subcortical FA was correlated with delayed verbal memory, figural memory, and optic flow perceptual impairments. Conclusions WM changes in early AD are concentrated in posterior cerebral areas with distributions that correspond to specific functional impairments. DTI can be used to assess regional pathology related to individual’s deficits in early AD. PMID:19012862

  20. Animal Tails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2003-01-01

    Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

  1. Landscape genetics and the spatial distribution of chronic wasting disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Blanchong; Michael D. Samuel; Kim T. Scribner; Byron V. Weckworth; Julia A. Langenberg; Kristine B. Filcek

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the spread of wildlife disease is critical for identifying populations at risk, tar- geting surveillance and designing proactive management programmes. We used a landscape genetics approach to identify landscape features that influenced gene flow and the distribution of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in Wisconsin white-tailed deer. CWD prevalence was nega- tively correlated with genetic differentiation of study area deer

  2. White matter disruption at the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease: Relationships with hippocampal atrophy and episodic memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Rémy, Florence; Vayssière, Nathalie; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Pariente, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    White matter tract alterations have been consistently described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, limbic fronto-temporal connections, which are critical to episodic memory function, may degenerate early in the course of the disease. However the relation between white matter tract degeneration, hippocampal atrophy and episodic memory impairment at the earliest stages of AD is still unclear. In this magnetic resonance imaging study, white matter integrity and hippocampal volumes were evaluated in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment due to AD (Albert et al., 2011) (n = 22) and healthy controls (n = 15). Performance in various episodic memory tasks was also evaluated in each participant. Relative to controls, patients showed a significant reduction of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) and increase of radial diffusivity (RD) in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, parahippocampal cingulum and fornix. Within the patient group, significant intra-hemispheric correlations were notably found between hippocampal grey matter volume and FA in the uncinate fasciculus, suggesting a relationship between atrophy and disconnection of the hippocampus. Moreover, episodic recognition scores were related with uncinate fasciculus FA across patients. These results indicate that fronto-hippocampal connectivity is reduced from the earliest pre-demential stages of AD. Disruption of fronto-hippocampal connections may occur progressively, in parallel with hippocampal atrophy, and may specifically contribute to early initial impairment in episodic memory. PMID:25685715

  3. Independent Component Analysis-Based Identification of Covariance Patterns of Microstructural White Matter Damage in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Xin; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Jiacai; Li, Ke; Jin, Zhen; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    The existing DTI studies have suggested that white matter damage constitutes an important part of the neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The present study aimed to identify the regional covariance patterns of microstructural white matter changes associated with AD. In this study, we applied a multivariate analysis approach, independent component analysis (ICA), to identify covariance patterns of microstructural white matter damage based on fractional anisotropy (FA) skeletonised images from DTI data in 39 AD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. The multivariate ICA decomposed the subject-dimension concatenated FA data into a mixing coefficient matrix and a source matrix. Twenty-eight independent components (ICs) were extracted, and a two sample t-test on each column of the corresponding mixing coefficient matrix revealed significant AD/HC differences in ICA weights for 7 ICs. The covariant FA changes primarily involved the bilateral corona radiata, the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the cingulum, the hippocampal commissure, and the corpus callosum in AD patients compared to HCs. Our findings identified covariant white matter damage associated with AD based on DTI in combination with multivariate ICA, potentially expanding our understanding of the neuropathological mechanisms of AD. PMID:25775003

  4. Obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in black and white girls: the NHLBI Growth and Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Obesity may be a possible explanation for the higher cardiovascular disease mortality in Black women compared with White women. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) is designed to assess factors associated with the development of obesity in Black and White preadolescent girls and its effects on major cardiovascular-disease risk factors. METHODS. NGHS is a 5-year cohort study of 2379 girls, aged 9 through 10 years at entry. Anthropometry, blood pressure, and maturation staging are measured annually, and blood lipids biannually. Information on education, income, and family composition is also obtained from parents. RESULTS. At baseline, compared with White girls, Black girls were slightly older, biologically more mature, taller, heavier, and had higher Quetelet Indices, skinfolds, and blood pressures. Black girls had lower triglycerides and higher HDL cholesterol than White girls. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS. Baseline descriptive characteristics of the NGHS cohort showed that, in subjects aged 9 and 10 years, racial differences in obesity and blood pressure were already present. PMID:1456335

  5. BLUETONGUE AND EPIZOOTIC HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE VIRUS INFECTIONS OF PULMONARY ARTERY ENDOTHELIAL CELLS FROM CATTLE, SHEEP AND DEER: COMPARISON OF REPLICATION KINETICS AND CELLULAR INJURY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replication of Bluetongue (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHDV) viruses in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (ECs) cultured from cattle, sheep, black-tailed (BTD) and white-tailed (WTD) deer was compared Purified EC cultures from the pulmonary arteries of cattle, sheep, BTD and WTD were u...

  6. Tail Buffeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdrashitov, G.

    1943-01-01

    An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

  7. Disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, following the dietary administration of a yeast culture food supplement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. Burgents; Karen G. Burnett; Louis E. Burnett

    2004-01-01

    A yeast culture feed supplement (Diamond V XP Yeast Culture®, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, Iowa [IA]) was assessed for its impact on disease resistance in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Animals were fed a standard shrimp pellet diet supplemented with 0% (control with 1% grain carrier), 0.5% (with 0.5% carrier), or 1.0% XP daily for 4 weeks. To

  8. Enhancement of immunity and disease resistance in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, by the probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deng-Yu Tseng; Pei-Lin Ho; Sung-Yan Huang; Sheng-Chi Cheng; Ya-Li Shiu; Chiu-Shia Chiu; Chun-Hung Liu

    2009-01-01

    Effects of Bacillus subtilis E20 isolated from fermented soybean on immune parameters and the disease resistance of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 98 days of B. subtilis E20 feeding were evaluated in this study. Shrimp fed B. subtilis E20-containing diets at concentrations of 106 (E206), 107 (E207), and 108 (E208)cfukg?1, respectively, had significantly increased survival rates of 13.3%, 16.7%,

  9. The Bicolored White-Toothed Shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) Is an Indigenous Host of Mammalian Borna Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV. PMID:24699636

  10. Appraisal, Coping, and Social Support as Mediators of Well-Being in Black and White Family Caregivers of Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Haley; David L. Roth; Marci I. Coleton; Greg R. Ford; Constance A. C. West; Robert P. Colllins; Teresa L. Isobe

    1996-01-01

    Family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) commonly have high levels of psychological distress. Black caregivers often report less depression than White caregivers, but the process underlying this difference is poorly understood. With the use of a stress process model, 123 White and 74 Black family caregivers of patients with AD and other progressive dementias were studied. Black caregivers

  11. Changes in White Matter Integrity before Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Defrancesco, Michaela; Egger, Karl; Marksteiner, Josef; Esterhammer, Regina; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A.; Schocke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may represent an early stage of dementia conferring a particularly high annual risk of 15–20% of conversion to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent findings suggest that not only gray matter (GM) loss but also a decline in white matter (WM) integrity may be associated with imminent conversion from MCI to AD. Objective In this study we used Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine if gray matter loss and/or an increase of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) reflecting mean diffusivity (MD) are an early marker of conversion from MCI to AD in a high risk population. Method Retrospective neuropsychological and clinical data were collected for fifty-five subjects (MCI converters n?=?13, MCI non-converters n?=?14, healthy controls n?=?28) at baseline and one follow-up visit. All participants underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline to analyse changes in GM density and WM integrity using VBM. Results At baseline MCI converters showed impaired performance in verbal memory and naming compared to MCI non-converters. Further, MCI converters showed decreased WM integrity in the frontal, parietal, occipital, as well as the temporal lobe prior to conversion to AD. Multiple regression analysis showed a positive correlation of gray matter atrophy with specific neuropsychological test results. Conclusion Our results suggest that additionally to morphological changes of GM a reduced integrity of WM indicates an imminent progression from MCI stage to AD. Therefore, we suggest that DWI is useful in the early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25153085

  12. Genetic population structure and relatedness of Colorado mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and incidence of chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of farmed and free ranging mule deer, white tailed deer, Rocky Mountain elk, and moose in some areas of the United States. The disease is enzootic in herds of free ranging mule deer in the Rocky Mountain National ...

  13. Susceptibility to infection and pathogenicity of White Spot Disease (WSD) in non-model crustacean host taxa from temperate regions.

    PubMed

    Bateman, K S; Tew, I; French, C; Hicks, R J; Martin, P; Munro, J; Stentiford, G D

    2012-07-01

    Despite almost two decades since its discovery, White Spot Disease (WSD) caused by White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still considered the most significant known pathogen impacting the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in tropical regions, the virus is also able to infect, cause disease and kill a wide range of other decapod crustacean hosts from temperate regions, including lobsters, crabs, crayfish and shrimp. For this reason, WSSV has recently been listed in European Community Council Directive 2006/88. Using principles laid down by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) we applied an array of diagnostic approaches to provide a definitive statement on the susceptibility to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection in seven ecologically or economically important crustacean species from Europe. We chose four marine species: Cancer pagurus, Homarus gammarus, Nephrops norvegicus and Carcinus maenas; one estuarine species, Eriocheir sinensis and two freshwater species, Austropotamobius pallipes and Pacifastacus leniusculus. Exposure trials based upon natural (feeding) and artificial (intra-muscular injection) routes of exposure to WSSV revealed universal susceptibility to WSSV infection in these hosts. However, the relative degree of susceptibility (measured by progression of infection to disease, and mortality) varied significantly between host species. In some instances (Type 1 hosts), pathogenesis mimicked that observed in penaeid shrimp hosts whereas in other examples (Types 2 and 3 hosts), infection did not readily progress to disease, even though hosts were considered as infected and susceptible according to accepted principles. Results arising from challenge studies are discussed in relation to the potential risk posed to non-target hosts by the inadvertent introduction of WSSV to European waters via trade. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for susceptible but relatively resistant hosts to serve as models to investigate natural mitigation strategies against WSSV in these hosts. We speculate that these non-model hosts may offer a unique insight into viral handling in crustaceans. PMID:22484233

  14. Chronic wasting disease in bank voles: characterisation of the shortest incubation time model for prion diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to assess the susceptibility of bank voles to chronic wasting disease (CWD), we inoculated voles carrying isoleucine or methionine at codon 109 (Bv109I and Bv109M, respectively) with CWD isolates from elk, mule deer and white-tailed deer. Efficient transmission rate (100%) was observed with...

  15. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 41(4), 2005, pp. 820824 Wildlife Disease Association 2005

    E-print Network

    disease, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, O. virginianus, pri- on, tonsillar biopsy, tonsillar follicles@yahoo.com) ABSTRACT: Preclinical antemortem testing of deer (Odocoileus spp.) for chronic wasting dis- ease (CWD) can) in southeast and southwest Minnesota and white-tailed and mule deer (O. hemionus) in Wind Cave National Park

  16. Alzheimer Disease Periventricular White Matter Lesions Exhibit Specific Proteomic Profile Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Castaño, Eduardo M.; Maarouf, Chera L.; Wu, Terence; Leal, Maria Celeste; Whiteside, Charisse M.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Kokjohn, Tyler A.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Beach, Thomas G.; Roher, Alex E.

    2013-01-01

    The white matter (WM) represents approximately half the cerebrum volume and is profoundly affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, both the WM responses to AD as well as potential influences of this compartment to dementia pathogenesis remain comparatively neglected. Neuroimaging studies have revealed WM alterations are commonly associated with AD and renewed interest in examining the pathologic basis and importance of these changes. In AD subjects, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy revealed changes in astrocyte morphology and myelin loss as well as up to 30% axonal loss in areas of WM rarefaction when measured against non-demented control (NDC) tissue. Comparative proteomic analyses were performed on pooled samples of periventricular WM (PVWM) obtained from AD (n = 4) and NDC (n = 5) subjects with both groups having a mean age of death of 86 years. All subjects had an apolipoprotein E ?3/3 genotype with the exception of one NDC subject who was ?2/3. Urea-detergent homogenates were analyzed using two different separation techniques: 2-dimensional isoelectric focusing/reverse-phase chromatography and 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Proteins with different expression levels between the 2 diagnostic groups were identified using MALDI-Tof/Tof mass spectrometry. In addition, Western blots were used to quantify proteins of interest in individual AD and NDC cases. Our proteomic studies revealed that when WM protein pools were loaded at equal amounts of total protein for comparative analyses, there were quantitative differences between the 2 groups. Molecules related to cytoskeleton maintenance, calcium metabolism and cellular survival such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, tropomyosin, collapsin response mediator protein-2, calmodulin, S100-P, annexin A1, ?-internexin, ?-and ?-synuclein, ?-B-crystalline, fascin-1, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase and thymosine were altered between AD and NDC pools. Our experiments suggest that WM activities become globally impaired during the course of AD with significant morphological, biochemical and functional consequential implications for gray matter function and cognitive deficits. These observations may endorse the hypothesis that WM dysfunction is not only a consequence of AD pathology, but that it may precipitate and/or potentiate AD dementia. PMID:23231993

  17. Chronic Wasting Disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

  18. Safety of Tailings Dams

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Contains information on different aspects of tailings dams; tailings dam properties, disasters, failure modes, slurry waves, stability analysis, and safe tailings disposal. Also includes a slope stability calculator and a tailings flow slide calculator.

  19. Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes

    PubMed Central

    Work, Thierry M.; Russell, Robin; Aeby, Greta S.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue loss diseases or white syndromes (WS) are some of the most important coral diseases because they result in significant colony mortality and morbidity, threatening dominant Acroporidae in the Caribbean and Pacific. The causes of WS remain elusive in part because few have examined affected corals at the cellular level. We studied the cellular changes associated with WS over time in a dominant Hawaiian coral, Montipora capitata, and showed that: (i) WS has rapidly progressing (acute) phases mainly associated with ciliates or slowly progressing (chronic) phases mainly associated with helminths or chimeric parasites; (ii) these phases interchanged and waxed and waned; (iii) WS could be a systemic disease associated with chimeric parasitism or a localized disease associated with helminths or ciliates; (iv) corals responded to ciliates mainly with necrosis and to helminths or chimeric parasites with wound repair; (v) mixed infections were uncommon; and (vi) other than cyanobacteria, prokaryotes associated with cell death were not seen. Recognizing potential agents associated with disease at the cellular level and the host response to those agents offers a logical deductive rationale to further explore the role of such agents in the pathogenesis of WS in M. capitata and helps explain manifestation of gross lesions. This approach has broad applicability to the study of the pathogenesis of coral diseases in the field and under experimental settings. PMID:22951746

  20. Predicting Deer Hunter Harvest Behavior in Wisconsin's Chronic Wasting Disease Eradication Zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Holsman; Jordan Petchenik

    2006-01-01

    Attempts to eradicate chronic wasting disease from free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin depend on gaining compliance of hunters to harvest deer at rates unprecedented in modern wildlife management. A mail questionnaire and hunter diaries were used to assess hunters' attitudes, effort, and harvest behavior in response to disease management strategies that have included an extended hunting season, removal

  1. Immunization with synthetic peptide vaccine fails to protect mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of deer and elk. The disorder is characterized by accumulation of an abnormally folded isoform of the normal cellular prion protein. Disease prevalence in farmed herds of white tailed deer can exceed 80%. Attempts to control ...

  2. The type localities of the mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817), and the Kansas white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus macrourus (Rafinesque, 1817), are not where we thought they were

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2013-01-01

    Among the iconic mammals of the North American West is the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). This species and a western subspecies of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus macrourus) were two of seven mammals originally named and described as new species in 1817 by Constantine S. Rafinesque. Rafinesque never saw the animals that he named. Instead, he followed the then-acceptable practice of basing his new species on animals characterized in another published work, in this case the putative journal of Charles Le Raye, a French Canadian fur trader who was said to have traversed the upper Missouri River region before the Lewis and Clark Expedition and whose journal described some of the wildlife in detail. Unlike the mule deer, whose existence has been established by generations of biologists, wildlife management professionals, and sportsmen, Le Raye and his journal have since been proven to be fraudulent. Because Rafinesque's names were published in accordance with the taxonomic conventions of his time, they remain available, but, based on the questionable source of his descriptions, the identities and type localities of the species must be viewed as unreliable. Fortunately, much of the Le Raye journal was derived from other, verifiable contemporary sources. In particular, the descriptions of the two deer were based on the published journal of Patrick Gass, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Using the Gass journal as the original source of Rafinesque's descriptions, the type localities for the two deer can be reliably placed in Lyman County, South Dakota.

  3. Blood Pressure, White Matter Lesions and Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy: Closing the Gap between Vascular Pathology and Alzheimer’s Disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther S. C. Korf; Philip Scheltens; Frederik Barkhof; Frank-Erik de Leeuw

    2005-01-01

    Background: Vascular factors are recognized as important risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease, although it is unknown whether these factors directly lead to the typical degenerative pathology such as medial temporal lobe atrophy. We set out to investigate the relation between blood pressure and medial temporal lobe atrophy in patients with senile and presenile Alzheimer’s disease with or without white matter

  4. White Matter Microstructure Changes in the Thalamus in Parkinson Disease with Depression

    E-print Network

    Tian, Jie

    with Depression: A Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging Study W. Li J. Liu F. Skidmore Y. Liu J. Tian K. Li BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Depression occurs frequently in PD; however the neural basis of depression in PD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize possible depression- related white matter microstructural

  5. Neurobiology of Disease Relationship of a Variant in the NTRK1 Gene to White Matter

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    in Young Adults Meredith N. Braskie,1 Neda Jahanshad,1,2 Jason L. Stein,1 Marina Barysheva,1 Kori Johnson,4 implicated in neurological function via links between the T allele at rs6336 (NTRK1-T) and schizophrenia risk. A variant in the neurotrophin gene, BDNF, was previously associated with white matter integrity in young

  6. Ganoderma disease of oil palm—A white rot perspective necessary for integrated control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. M. Paterson

    2007-01-01

    White rot fungi such as Ganoderma, are extraordinary organisms capable exclusively of degrading lignin to carbon dioxide and water: celluloses are then available as nutrients for the fungus. Oil palm (OP) is a highly significant crop in many countries and is prone to a rot caused by the fungus. It is necessary to consider this mode of attack as a

  7. Black-Tailed Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

  8. Linking disease and community ecology through behavioural indicators: immunochallenge of white-footed mice and its ecological impacts.

    PubMed

    Schwanz, Lisa E; Brisson, Dustin; Gomes-Solecki, Maria; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2011-01-01

    1. Pathogens and immune challenges can induce changes in host phenotype in ways that indirectly impact important community interactions, including those that affect host-pathogen interactions. 2. To explore host behavioural response to immune challenge, we exposed wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to an immunogen from an endemic, zoonotic pathogen, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. White-footed mice are a major reservoir host of Lyme disease (LD) spirochetes in northeastern USA and an abundant member of forest communities. The activity patterns, foraging behaviour, and space use of white-footed mice have implications for population growth rates of community members upon which mice incidentally prey (i.e. gypsy moths and native thrushes), as well as potentially determining host-vector encounter rates and human risk of LD. 3. Immunochallenge led to specific humoral (antibody) and cellular (i.e. elevated neutrophils and eosinophils) immune responses, supporting use of the immunogen as a surrogate for pathogenic infection. 4. Immunochallenged mice had reduced wheel-running activity early in the night when measured in the lab. However, mouse activity, as measured by track plates in natural field experiments, did not differ between mice exposed to the immunogen and unexposed mice. 5. Foraging behaviour of wild mice in the field - assessed with giving-up densities of seed at artificial feeding stations - was affected by exposure to the immunogen. Whereas immunochallenge did not influence whether foraging mice gained information on patch quality while foraging, it led to reductions in predator avoidance during foraging, suggesting that the proportion of space used by foraging mice may be greater as a result of immunochallenge. This increased space use is predicted to increase encounter rates with patchily distributed LD vectors (ticks) and with incidental prey items. 6. Thus, immunochallenge in white-footed mice, and potentially pathogenic infection, have the potential to indirectly impact community interactions, including those important for pathogen transmission. PMID:20796206

  9. Genetic structure of the white-footed mouse in the context of the emergence of Lyme disease in southern Québec

    PubMed Central

    Rogic, Anita; Tessier, Nathalie; Legendre, Pierre; Lapointe, François-Joseph; Millien, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) has expanded its northern limit into southern Québec over the last few decades. P. leucopus is a great disperser and colonizer and is of particular interest because it is considered a primary reservoir for the spirochete bacterium that causes Lyme disease. There is no current information on the gene flow between mouse populations on the mountains and forest fragments found scattered throughout the Montérégie region in southern Québec, and whether various landscape barriers have an effect on their dispersal. We conducted a population genetics analysis on eleven P. leucopus populations using eleven microsatellite markers and showed that isolation by distance was weak, yet barriers were effective. The agricultural matrix had the least effect on gene flow, whereas highways and main rivers were effective barriers. The abundance of ticks collected from mice varied within the study area. Both ticks and mice were screened for the presence of the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, and we predicted areas of greater risk for Lyme disease. Merging our results with ongoing Lyme disease surveillance programs will help determine the future threat of this disease in Québec, and will contribute toward disease prevention and management strategies throughout fragmented landscapes in southern Canada. PMID:23919153

  10. Genetic structure of the white-footed mouse in the context of the emergence of Lyme disease in southern Québec.

    PubMed

    Rogic, Anita; Tessier, Nathalie; Legendre, Pierre; Lapointe, François-Joseph; Millien, Virginie

    2013-07-01

    The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) has expanded its northern limit into southern Québec over the last few decades. P. leucopus is a great disperser and colonizer and is of particular interest because it is considered a primary reservoir for the spirochete bacterium that causes Lyme disease. There is no current information on the gene flow between mouse populations on the mountains and forest fragments found scattered throughout the Montérégie region in southern Québec, and whether various landscape barriers have an effect on their dispersal. We conducted a population genetics analysis on eleven P. leucopus populations using eleven microsatellite markers and showed that isolation by distance was weak, yet barriers were effective. The agricultural matrix had the least effect on gene flow, whereas highways and main rivers were effective barriers. The abundance of ticks collected from mice varied within the study area. Both ticks and mice were screened for the presence of the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, and we predicted areas of greater risk for Lyme disease. Merging our results with ongoing Lyme disease surveillance programs will help determine the future threat of this disease in Québec, and will contribute toward disease prevention and management strategies throughout fragmented landscapes in southern Canada. PMID:23919153

  11. Mortality patterns from lung cancer and nonneoplastic respiratory disease among white males in the Beryllium Case Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Infante, P.F. (Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC); Wagoner, J.K.; Sprince, N.L.

    1980-02-01

    Study was undertaken of mortality patterns among white males entered into the Beryllium Case Registry (BCR) while alive with a diagnosis of beryllium-related nonneoplastic respiratory symptoms or disease. Analyses demonstrate an excessive risk of lung cancer among those subjects in the BCR who had been previously diagnosed with acute chemical pneumonitis or bronchitis secondary to short-term beryllium exposure. In the evaluation of the excessive lung cancer risk in this population, consideration should be given to the competing effects from the high case fatality rate of nonneoplastic respiratory disease. This excessive risk of lung cancer could not be explained on the basis of cigarette smoking per se. The findings of the present study utilizing subjects in the BCR are consistent with results of animal studies that over 30 years ago first demonstrated beryllium to be a carcinogen and with numerous epidemiologic studies demonstrating an increased risk of lung cancer among workers occupationally exposed to beryllium and its compounds.

  12. Detection of acute osteomyelitis with indium-111 labeled white blood cells in a patient with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; Vasavada, P.J.; Black, R.R.

    1989-02-01

    A young patient with sickle cell disease (SCD) and multiple hospitalizations for crisis was admitted because of suspected osteomyelitis. Initial laboratory work, radiographs, and bone images were not contributory. An In-111 white blood cell (WBC) study demonstrated two areas of increased radionuclide uptake consistent with osteomyelitis. One of these had associated soft tissue infection. No other areas of active osteomyelitis were visualized, in spite of the presence of several additional infection sites. Imaging with In-111 WBC is probably not justified for routine diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in areas free of previous disease, where conventional bone images are highly efficient. In-111 WBC imaging, however, may be helpful in detecting osteomyelitis in selected patients with SCD in whom Tc-99m bone images and radiographs are usually abnormal and difficult to interpret due to previous bone infarcts. Localization of the infection focus is very important in choosing the aspiration site for bacteriologic studies. A negative study, however, should be interpreted cautiously.

  13. Role of indium-111 white blood cells in inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, J.W.; Field, S.A.

    1988-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease in patients may be difficult to diagnose because of the complex problems associated with this disease. Radionuclides are able to provide a rapid and effective method of imaging the bowel in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. In the past, clinical work-ups have included barium x-ray studies and endoscopy. Scarring and fistula formation have made it difficult to determine between the active disease and abscesses that may occur. Gallium-67 (67Ga) has been very useful in imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease, but the multiple-day imaging procedure has been a limitation for the clinicians when achieving a diagnosis. Recent results with Indium-111 (111In)--labeled WBCs have provided excellent correlation between clinical symptoms and colonoscopy findings in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. This technique has also allowed the differentiation between reoccurring inflammatory bowel disease and abscesses that accompany the disease within a 24-hour time period. The use of intravenous (IV) glucagon has increased the clarity of the images in the small bowel. Technetium 99m (99mTc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been used in patients with inflammatory bowel disease demonstrating promising results. Investigators feel labelling 99mTc with WBCs will be improved, therefore yielding a greater efficiency, which will have a major impact on imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease using radionuclides has yielded promising results. This is a significant advancement over barium radiography and endoscopy exams.24 references.

  14. Surveillance of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimi Shimada; Yoshifumi Iwamaru; Hiroko Hayashi; Morikazu Imamura; Masuhiro Takata; Yuko Ushiki; Kumiko Kimura; Yuichi Tagawa; Motohiro Horiuchi; Morikazu Shinagawa; Takashi Yokoyama

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids including elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer, is a member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). CWD is a serious problem in North America. The detection of abnormal isoforms of prion protein (PrPSc) is a key factor for the diagnosis of CWD, similar to other TSEs. The surveillance program for TSEs in animals is

  15. White matter microstructure in late middle-age: Effects of apolipoprotein E4 and parental family history of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Daniel J.; Lu, Sharon Yuan-Fu; Doran, Samuel T.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Melah, Kelsey E.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C.; Sager, Mark A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is still known about the effects of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) on white matter microstructure in cognitively healthy adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of two well-known risk factors for AD, parental family history and APOE4 genotype. Methods This study included 343 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A region of interest analysis was performed on fractional anisotropy maps, in addition to mean, radial, and axial diffusivity maps, aligned to a common template space using a diffeomorphic, tensor-based registration method. The analysis focused on brain regions known to be affected in AD including the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Analyses assessed the impact of APOE4, parental family history of AD, age, and sex on white matter microstructure in late middle-aged participants (aged 47–76 years). Results Both APOE4 and parental family history were associated with microstructural white matter differences. Participants with parental family history of AD had higher FA in the genu of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. We observed an interaction between family history and APOE4, where participants who were family history positive but APOE4 negative had lower axial diffusivity in the uncinate fasciculus, and participants who were both family history positive and APOE4 positive had higher axial diffusivity in this region. We also observed an interaction between APOE4 and age, whereby older participants (=65 years of age) who were APOE4 carriers, had higher MD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and in the portion of the cingulum bundle running adjacent to the cingulate cortex, compared to non-carriers. Older participants who were APOE4 carriers also showed higher radial diffusivity in the genu compared to non-carriers. Across all participants, age had an effect on FA, MD, and axial and radial diffusivities. Sex differences were observed in FA and radial diffusivity. Conclusion APOE4 genotype, parental family history of AD, age, and sex are all associated with microstructural white matter differences in late middle-aged adults. In participants at risk for AD, alterations in diffusion characteristics—both expected and unexpected—may represent cellular changes occurring at the earliest disease stages, but further work is needed. Higher mean, radial, and axial diffusivities were observed in participants who are more likely to be experiencing later stage preclinical pathology, including participants who were both older and carried APOE4, or who were positive for both APOE4 and parental family history of AD. PMID:24936424

  16. INHIBITION OF PROTEASE-RESISTANT PRION PROTEIN FORMATION IN A TRANSFORMED DEER CELL LINE INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of North American cervids, i.e., mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk (wapiti). To facilitate in vitro studies of CWD, we have developed a transformed deer cell line that is persistently infected wi...

  17. Inhibition of protease-resistant prion protein formation in a transformed deer cell line infected with chronic wasting disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Raymond; Emily A. Olsen; Kil Sun Lee; Lynne D. Raymond; P. Kruger Bryant III; Gerald S. Baron; Winslow S. Caughey; David A. Kocisko; Linda E. McHolland; Cynthia Favara; Jan P. M. Langeveld; Zijderveld van F. G; Richard T. Mayer; Michael W. Miller; Elizabeth S. Williams; Byron Caughey

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of North American cervids, i.e., mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk (wapiti). To facilitate in vitro studies of CWD, we have developed a transformed deer cell line that is persistently infected with CWD. Primary cultures derived from uninfected mule deer brain tissue were transformed by transfection with a

  18. Systematic Analysis of White Pox Disease in Acropora palmata of the Florida Keys and Role of Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Jessica L; Sutherland, Kathryn P; Kemp, Dustin W; Berry, Brett; Griffin, Ashton; Porter, James W; Amador, Molly H B; Noren, Hunter K G; Lipp, Erin K

    2015-07-01

    White pox disease (WPD) affects the threatened elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata. Owing in part to the lack of a rapid and simple diagnostic test, there have been few systematic assessments of the prevalence of acroporid serratiosis (caused specifically by Serratia marcescens) versus general WPD signs. Six reefs in the Florida Keys were surveyed between 2011 and 2013 to determine the disease status of A. palmata and the prevalence of S. marcescens. WPD was noted at four of the six reefs, with WPD lesions found on 8 to 40% of the colonies surveyed. S. marcescens was detected in 26.9% (7/26) of the WPD lesions and in mucus from apparently healthy colonies both during and outside of disease events (9%; 18/201). S. marcescens was detected with greater frequency in A. palmata than in the overlying water column, regardless of disease status (P = 0.0177). S. marcescens could not be cultured from A. palmata but was isolated from healthy colonies of other coral species and was identified as pathogenic pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type PDR60. WPD lesions were frequently observed on the reef, but unlike in prior outbreaks, no whole-colony death was observed. Pathogenic S. marcescens was circulating on the reef but did not appear to be the primary pathogen in these recent WPD episodes, suggesting that other pathogens or stressors may contribute to signs of WPD. Results highlight the critical importance of diagnostics in coral disease investigations, especially given that field manifestation of disease may be similar, regardless of the etiological agent. PMID:25911491

  19. Investigating and managing the rapid emergence of white-nose syndrome, a novel, fatal, infectious disease of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Janet; Clifford, Deana; Castle, Kevin; Cryan, Paul; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fatal disease of bats that hibernate. The etiologic agent of WNS is the fungus Geomyces destructans, which infects the skin and wing membranes. Over 1 million bats in six species in eastern North America have died from WNS since 2006, and as a result several species of bats may become endangered or extinct. Information is lacking on the pathogenesis of G. destructans and WNS, WNS transmission and maintenance, individual and site factors that contribute to the probability of an outbreak of WNS, and spatial dynamics of WNS spread in North America. We considered how descriptive and analytical epidemiology could be used to fill these information gaps, including a four-step (modified) outbreak investigation, application of a set of criteria (Hill's) for assessing causation, compartment models of disease dynamics, and spatial modeling. We cataloged and critiqued adaptive-management options that have been either previously proposed for WNS or were helpful in addressing other emerging diseases of wild animals. These include an ongoing program of prospective surveillance of bats and hibernacula for WNS, treatment of individual bats, increasing population resistance to WNS (through vaccines, immunomodulators, or other methods), improving probability of survival from starvation and dehydration associated with WNS, modifying hibernacula environments to eliminate G. destructans, culling individuals or populations, controlling anthropogenic spread of WNS, conserving genetic diversity of bats, and educating the public about bats and bat conservation issues associated with WNS.

  20. Impact of age at smoking initiation, dosage, and time since quitting on cardiovascular disease in african americans and whites: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Rachel R; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Lutsey, Pamela L; Woodward, Mark; Alonso, Alvaro; Folsom, Aaron R

    2012-04-15

    Despite reportedly having less tobacco exposure compared with whites, African Americans account for a disproportionate number of smoking-related deaths. The purpose of this study was to compare the prospective associations between smoking and cardiovascular risk in whites and African Americans. Smoking status was obtained on 14,200 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was ascertained from 1987 through 2007. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the CVD incidence associated with smoking behavior. Over 17 years' follow-up, there were 2,777 cardiovascular events. In men, compared with never smoking, current smoking was independently associated with 67% (95% confidence interval (CI): 43, 95) and 72% (95% CI: 30, 126) greater risk of CVD in whites and African Americans, respectively. In women, the smoking-related cardiovascular risk was higher: 136% (95% CI: 88, 196) and 169% (95% CI: 126, 219) in African-American and white women, respectively. Early age at smoking initiation was independently associated with increased risk among all participants irrespective of race. Smoking cessation during follow-up was equally beneficial in both whites and African Americans. African Americans who smoke incur a similar level of cardiovascular risk as white smokers and would derive the same benefits from quitting as whites. PMID:22396389

  1. Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Survival after Cord Blood Transplantation for Acute Leukemia: A Comparison of Japanese versus White Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Horowitz, Mary M.; Inagaki, Jiro; Kanda, Junya; Kato, Koji; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Eapen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    An earlier report identified higher risks of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in White children compared with the Japanese after HLA-matched sibling transplantations. The current analysis explored whether racial differences are associated with GVHD risks after unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation. Included are patients of Japanese descent (n = 257) and Whites (n = 260; 168 of 260 received antithymocyte globulin [ATG]). Transplants were performed in the United States or Japan between 2000 and 2009; patients were aged 16 years or younger, had acute leukemia, were in complete remission, and received a myeloablative conditioning regimen. The median ages of the Japanese and Whites who received ATG were younger at 5 years compared with 8 years for Whites who did not receive ATG. In all groups most transplants were mismatched at 1 or 2 HLA loci. Multivariate analysis found no differences in risks of acute GVHD between the Japanese and Whites. However, chronic GVHD was higher in Whites who did not receive ATG compared with the Japanese (hazard ratio, 2.16; P < .001), and treatment-related mortality was higher in Whites who received ATG compared with the Japanese (relative risk, 1.81; P = .01). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in overall survival between the 3 groups. PMID:24525277

  2. [The White man's burden - a case study caught between bipolar affective disorder and Huntington's disease].

    PubMed

    Nowidi, K; Kunisch, R; Bouna-Pyrrou, P; Meißner, D; Hennig-Fast, K; Weindl, A; Förster, S; Neuhann, T M; Falkai, P; Berger, M; Musil, R

    2013-06-01

    We report upon a case of a 55 year old patient with a bipolar affective disorder, presenting herself with a depressive symptomatology in addition to a severe motor perturbation. The main emphasis upon admittance was perfecting and improving her latest medication. Four weeks prior to her stay at our clinic a thorough neurological examination had taken place in terms of an invalidity pension trial which did not result in any diagnostic findings. Therefore a neurological disease seemed at first highly unlikely. Even though the prior testing was negative, the ensuing neurological examination at our clinic resulted in movement disorders very much indicative of Huntington's Disease. A detailed investigation in regards to the particular family history of the patient was positive for Huntington's Disease. However, whether the patient's mother had also been a genetic carrier of Huntington's Disease was still unknown at the time the patient was admitted to our clinic. It was nevertheless discovered that her mother had also suffered from a bipolar affective disorder. A genetic testing that followed the neurological examination of the patient proved positive for Huntington's Disease. Neuro-imaging resulted in a bicaudate-index of 2.4 (the critical value is 1.8). In a clinical psychological test battery the ensuing results were highly uncommon for patients with solely a bipolar affective disorder people. Under the medical regimen of Quetiapine, Citalopram and Tiaprid the patient's mood could be stabilized and there was some improvement of her motor pertubation. PMID:23612984

  3. Risk Factors for Chronic Liver Disease in Blacks, Mexican Americans, and Whites in the United States: Results From NHANES IV, 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Yvonne N.; Yee, Hal F.; Leng, Mei; Escarce, José J.; Bastani, Roshan; Salmerón, Jorge; Morales, Leo S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Morbidity and mortality due to liver disease and cirrhosis vary significantly by race/ethnicity in the United States. We examined the prevalence of liver disease risk factors among blacks, Mexican Americans, and whites, including elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activity, infection with viral hepatitis B or hepatitis C, alcohol intake, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. METHODS Data were obtained from the Fourth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES IV). A logistic regression was used to examine the association of race/ethnicity to liver disease risk factors, controlling for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. RESULTS Mexican-American men and women are the most likely to have elevated aminotransferase activity. Among men, Mexican Americans are more likely than whites to be heavy/binge drinkers, and blacks are more likely to have hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Among women, Mexican Americans are more likely than whites to be obese and diabetic, and less likely to be heavy/binge drinkers; blacks are more likely than whites to have hepatitis B or hepatitis C, be obese or diabetic, and less likely to be heavy/binge drinkers. CONCLUSIONS In this national sample, the prevalence of risk factors for liver disease varies by race/ethnicity. Mexican Americans and blacks have a greater risk of developing liver disease than their white counterparts. These findings are consistent with the observed racial/ethnic disparities in morbidity and mortality due to chronic liver disease and contribute to the efforts to identify the causes of these disparities. This information can be used by health professionals to tailor screening and intervention programs. PMID:18671818

  4. Beyond white light endoscopy: The role of optical biopsy in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Julia; Dlugosz, Aldona; Neumann, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we will discuss the use of two optical biopsy modalities in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The two techniques reviewed here are confocal laser endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy. We will describe the technical performance of the procedure, discuss the clinical indications for optical biopsy in IBD, and highlight active research areas with respect to the pathogenesis of IBD. Clinical indications for optical biopsies in IBD include assessment of mucosal inflammation, dysplasia detection and evaluation of cell shedding for disease relapse. Research application in the area of barrier dysfunction will also be discussed. PMID:24282344

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF A BACTERIAL STRAIN FROM CANADA THAT CAUSES WHITE-COLOR DISEASE IN CANADA THISTLE (CIRSIUM ARVENSE(L.) SCOP.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patches of white-colored Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) plants were recently found on roadsides, pastures, and market gardens in Devon, Mulhurst, Stony Plain, and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The diseased plants showed apical chlorosis, sometimes with dark and necrotic leaf spots. These s...

  6. 99mTc-Stannous Colloid White Cell Scintigraphy in Childhood Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Peacock; Ute Porn; Robert Howman-Giles; Edward O'Loughlin; Roger Uren; Kevin Gaskin; Stuart Dorney; Ramanand Kamath

    of children with suspected IBD. Methods: Diagnostic, endo- scopic, and contrast radiography results were retrospectively collected from the medical records. Two experienced nuclear physicians unaware of the patient data interpreted the WCS results, with agreement reached by consensus. Statistical anal- ysis was performed on the ability of WCS to detect active disease and localize it topographically and on a comparison

  7. An unusual white blood cell scan in a child with inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; O'Loughlin, E; Uren, R; Chaitow, J

    2000-10-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled leukocyte (WBC) imaging is a valuable screening method for inflammatory bowel disease, especially in children, because of its high rate of sensitivity, low cost, and ease of preparation. A 14-year-old girl is described who had juvenile arthritis and iritis complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. She was examined for recurrent abdominal pain. A Tc-99m stannous colloid WBC scan was performed, and tracer accumulation was seen in the small bowel in the region of the distal ileum on the initial 1-hour image. Delayed imaging at 3 hours also revealed tracer accumulation in the cecum and ascending colon, which was not seen on the early image. A biopsy of the colon during endoscopy showed no evidence of active inflammation in the colon. The small bowel was not seen. Computed tomography revealed changes suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease in the distal ileum. The appearance on the WBC study was most likely a result of inflammatory bowel disease involving the distal ileum, with transit of luminal activity into the large bowel. PMID:11043720

  8. The effect of serologically defined major histocompatibility complex haplotypes on Marek's disease resistance in commercially bred White Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Blankert, J J; Albers, G A; Briles, W E; Vrielink-van Ginkel, M; Groot, A J; te Winkel, G P; Tilanus, M G; van der Zijpp, A J

    1990-01-01

    In commercial pure white leghorn lines, A, B, and C, the effects on resistance against a virulent strain of Marek's disease virus were assessed for B19 and B21 haplotypes of the chicken major histocompatibility complex. B haplotypes were identified by direct hemagglutination using alloantisera raised against erythrocyte antigens. In homozygous B21 female chicks from lines A and B, mortality upon challenge with virus was 16% and 9%, respectively; in B19 chicks, mortality was 42% and 60%, respectively. Intermediate mortality was observed in heterozygous B19/B21 birds. When line A and B hens were crossed with B15/B15 or B5/B19 cocks from line C, differences between B19 and B21 were significant only in the progeny from B5/B19 sires. Therefore, it was concluded that selection for major histocompatibility complex-associated disease resistance markers may be useful only when B haplotypes complement each other in commercial line crosses and when interactions with genetic background do not severely obscure the differential haplotype effects, as are observed within pure lines. PMID:2282011

  9. Selective Impact of Disease on Coral Communities: Outbreak of White Syndrome Causes Significant Total Mortality of Acropora Plate Corals

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Wakefield, Corey B.

    2015-01-01

    Coral diseases represent a significant and increasing threat to coral reefs. Among the most destructive diseases is White Syndrome (WS), which is increasing in distribution and prevalence throughout the Indo-Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine taxonomic and spatial patterns in mortality rates of corals following the 2008 outbreak of WS at Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean. WS mainly affected Acropora plate corals and caused total mortality of 36% of colonies across all surveyed sites and depths. Total mortality varied between sites but was generally much greater in the shallows (0–96% of colonies at 5 m depth) compared to deeper waters (0–30% of colonies at 20 m depth). Site-specific mortality rates were a reflection of the proportion of corals affected by WS at each site during the initial outbreak and were predicted by the initial cover of live Acropora plate cover. The WS outbreak had a selective impact on the coral community. Following the outbreak, live Acropora plate coral cover at 5 m depth decreased significantly from 7.0 to 0.8%, while the cover of other coral taxa remained unchanged. Observations five years after the initial outbreak revealed that total Acropora plate cover remained low and confirmed that corals that lost all their tissue due to WS did not recover. These results demonstrate that WS represents a significant and selective form of coral mortality and highlights the serious threat WS poses to coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26147291

  10. Selective Impact of Disease on Coral Communities: Outbreak of White Syndrome Causes Significant Total Mortality of Acropora Plate Corals.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Frisch, Ashley J; Newman, Stephen J; Wakefield, Corey B

    2015-01-01

    Coral diseases represent a significant and increasing threat to coral reefs. Among the most destructive diseases is White Syndrome (WS), which is increasing in distribution and prevalence throughout the Indo-Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine taxonomic and spatial patterns in mortality rates of corals following the 2008 outbreak of WS at Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean. WS mainly affected Acropora plate corals and caused total mortality of 36% of colonies across all surveyed sites and depths. Total mortality varied between sites but was generally much greater in the shallows (0-96% of colonies at 5 m depth) compared to deeper waters (0-30% of colonies at 20 m depth). Site-specific mortality rates were a reflection of the proportion of corals affected by WS at each site during the initial outbreak and were predicted by the initial cover of live Acropora plate cover. The WS outbreak had a selective impact on the coral community. Following the outbreak, live Acropora plate coral cover at 5 m depth decreased significantly from 7.0 to 0.8%, while the cover of other coral taxa remained unchanged. Observations five years after the initial outbreak revealed that total Acropora plate cover remained low and confirmed that corals that lost all their tissue due to WS did not recover. These results demonstrate that WS represents a significant and selective form of coral mortality and highlights the serious threat WS poses to coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26147291

  11. White blood cell counts, leukocyte ratios, and eosinophils as inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. The leukocyte count has emerged as a marker of inflammation that is widely available in clinical practice. Since inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its end results, discovering new biomarkers of inflammation becomes important in order to help diagnostic accuracy and provide prognostic information about coronary cardiac disease. In acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention, elevated levels of almost all subtypes of white blood cell counts, including eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio constitute independent predictors of adverse outcomes. Eosinophil count and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio, in particular, emerge as novel biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. Since the presence of eosinophils denotes hypersensitivity inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with Kounis syndrome, this reality is essential for elucidating the etiology of inflammation in order to consider predictive and preventive measures and to apply the appropriate therapeutic methods. PMID:24770327

  12. Comparing bacterial community composition between healthy and white plague-like disease states in Orbicella annularis using PhyloChip™ G3 microarrays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Zawada, David G.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Coral disease is a global problem. Diseases are typically named or described based on macroscopic changes, but broad signs of coral distress such as tissue loss or discoloration are unlikely to be specific to a particular pathogen. For example, there appear to be multiple diseases that manifest the rapid tissue loss that characterizes ‘white plague.’ PhyloChip™ G3 microarrays were used to compare the bacterial community composition of both healthy and white plague-like diseased corals. Samples of lobed star coral (Orbicella annularis, formerly of the genus Montastraea [1]) were collected from two geographically distinct areas, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park, to determine if there were biogeographic differences between the diseases. In fact, all diseased samples clustered together, however there was no consistent link to Aurantimonas coralicida, which has been described as the causative agent of white plague type II. The microarrays revealed a large amount of bacterial heterogeneity within the healthy corals and less diversity in the diseased corals. Gram-positive bacterial groups (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes) comprised a greater proportion of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to healthy samples. Diseased samples were enriched in OTUs from the families Corynebacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Streptococcaceae. Much previous coral disease work has used clone libraries, which seem to be methodologically biased toward recovery of Gram-negative bacterial sequences and may therefore have missed the importance of Gram-positive groups. The PhyloChip™data presented here provide a broader characterization of the bacterial community changes that occur within Orbicella annularis during the shift from a healthy to diseased state.

  13. Leber’s optic neuropathy associated with disseminated white matter disease: A case report and review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Perez; O. Anne; S. Debruxelles; P. Menegon; V. Lambrecq; D. Lacombe; M. L. Martin-Negrier; B. Brochet; C. Goizet

    2009-01-01

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), a mitochondrial disease, is clinically characterized by a bilateral subacute loss of central vision consecutive to optic nerve involvement. In some cases of LHON, neurological features are reported including multiple sclerosis-like (MSL) phenotype. We report one additional male patient displaying LHON-MSL associated with the prevalent G11778A mutation and review the cases with expendable data published

  14. Atlas-based whole brain white matter analysis using large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping: application to normal elderly and Alzheimer's disease participants.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Kenichi; Faria, Andreia; Jiang, Hangyi; Li, Xin; Akhter, Kazi; Zhang, Jiangyang; Hsu, John T; Miller, Michael I; van Zijl, Peter C M; Albert, Marilyn; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur W; Pike, G Bruce; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Evans, Alan; Mazziotta, John; Mori, Susumu

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish single-participant white matter atlases based on diffusion tensor imaging. As one of the applications of the atlas, automated brain segmentation was performed and the accuracy was measured using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM). High-quality diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from a single-participant were B0-distortion-corrected and transformed to the ICBM-152 atlas or to Talairach coordinates. The deep white matter structures, which have been previously well documented and clearly identified by DTI, were manually segmented. The superficial white matter areas beneath the cortex were defined, based on a population-averaged white matter probability map. The white matter was parcellated into 176 regions based on the anatomical labeling in the ICBM-DTI-81 atlas. The automated parcellation was achieved by warping this parcellation map to normal controls and to Alzheimer's disease patients with severe anatomical atrophy. The parcellation accuracy was measured by a kappa analysis between the automated and manual parcellation at 11 anatomical regions. The kappa values were 0.70 for both normal controls and patients while the inter-rater reproducibility was 0.81 (controls) and 0.82 (patients), suggesting "almost perfect" agreement. A power analysis suggested that the proposed method is suitable for detecting FA and size abnormalities of the white matter in clinical studies. PMID:19385016

  15. Temporal and spatial dynamics of trypanosomes infecting the brush-tailed bettong (Bettongia penicillata): a cautionary note of disease-induced population decline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The brush-tailed bettong or woylie (Bettongia penicillata) is on the brink of extinction. Its numbers have declined by 90% since 1999, with their current distribution occupying less than 1% of their former Australian range. Woylies are known to be infected with three different trypanosomes (Trypanosoma vegrandis, Trypanosoma copemani and Trypanosoma sp. H25) and two different strains of T. copemani that vary in virulence. However, the role that these haemoparasites have played during the recent decline of their host is unclear and is part of ongoing investigation. Methods Woylies were sampled from five locations in southern Western Australia, including two neighbouring indigenous populations, two enclosed (fenced) populations and a captive colony. PCR was used to individually identify the three different trypanosomes from blood and tissues of the host, and to investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of trypanosome infections. Results The spatial pattern of trypanosome infection varied among the five study sites, with a greater proportion of woylies from the Perup indigenous population being infected with T. copemani than from the neighbouring Kingston indigenous population. For an established infection, T. copemani detection was temporally inconsistent. The more virulent strain of T. copemani appeared to regress at a faster rate than the less virulent strain, with the infection possibly transitioning from the acute to chronic phase. Interspecific competition may also exist between T. copemani and T. vegrandis, where an existing T. vegrandis infection may moderate the sequential establishment of the more virulent T. copemani. Conclusion In this study, we provide a possible temporal connection implicating T. copemani as the disease agent linked with the recent decline of the Kingston indigenous woylie population within the Upper Warren region of Western Australia. The chronic association of trypanosomes with the internal organs of its host may be potentially pathogenic and adversely affect their long term fitness and coordination, making the woylie more susceptible to predation. PMID:24708757

  16. Transmission and Adaptation of Chronic Wasting Disease to Hamsters and Transgenic Mice: Evidence for Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Raymond; Lynne D. Raymond; Kimberly D. Meade-White; Andrew G. Hughson; Cynthia Favara; Donald Gardner; Elizabeth S. Williams; Michael W. Miller; Richard E. Race; Byron Caughey

    2007-01-01

    In vitro screening using the cell-free prion protein conversion system indicated that certain rodents may be susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD). Therefore, CWD isolates from mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk were inoculated intracerebrally into various rodent species to assess the rodents' susceptibility and to develop new rodent models of CWD. The species inoculated were Syrian golden, Djungarian, Chinese,

  17. Associations between white matter microstructure and amyloid burden in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: A multimodal imaging investigation

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Annie M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Christian, Bradley T.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Oh, Jennifer; Cleary, Caitlin A.; Birdsill, Alex; Hillmer, Ansel T.; Murali, Dhanabalan; Barnhart, Todd E.; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Rowley, Howard A.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2014-01-01

    Some cognitively healthy individuals develop brain amyloid accumulation, suggestive of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the effect of amyloid on other potentially informative imaging modalities, such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), in characterizing brain changes in preclinical AD requires further exploration. In this study, a sample (N = 139, mean age 60.6, range 46 to 71) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP), a cohort enriched for AD risk factors, was recruited for a multimodal imaging investigation that included DTI and [C-11]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET). Participants were grouped as amyloid positive (A?+), amyloid indeterminate (A?i), or amyloid negative (A??) based on the amount and pattern of amyloid deposition. Regional voxel-wise analyses of four DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (Da), and radial diffusivity (Dr), were performed based on amyloid grouping. Three regions of interest (ROIs), the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum, hippocampal cingulum, and lateral fornix, were selected based on their involvement in the early stages of AD. Voxel-wise analysis revealed higher FA among A?+ compared to A?? in all three ROIs and in A?i compared to A?? in the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum. Follow-up exploratory whole-brain analyses were consistent with the ROI findings, revealing multiple regions where higher FA was associated with greater amyloid. Lower fronto-lateral gray matter MD was associated with higher amyloid burden. Further investigation showed a negative correlation between MD and PiB signal, suggesting that A? accumulation impairs diffusion. Interestingly, these findings in a largely presymptomatic sample are in contradistinction to relationships reported in the literature in symptomatic disease stages of Mild Cognitive Impairment and AD, which usually show higher MD and lower FA. Together with analyses showing that cognitive function in these participants is not associated with any of the four DTI metrics, the present results suggest an early relationship between PiB and DTI, which may be a meaningful indicator of the initiating or compensatory mechanisms of AD prior to cognitive decline. PMID:24936411

  18. Patterns of microRNA expression in normal and early Alzheimer's disease human temporal cortex: white matter versus gray matter

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wang-Xia; Huang, Qingwei; Hu, Yanling; Stromberg, Arnold J.

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) expression was assessed in human cerebral cortical gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in order to provide the first insights into the difference between GM and WM miRNA repertoires across a range of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. RNA was isolated separately from GM and WM portions of superior and middle temporal cerebral cortex (N = 10 elderly females, postmortem interval < 4 h). miRNA profiling experiments were performed using state-of-the-art Exiqon© LNA-microarrays. A subset of miRNAs that appeared to be strongly expressed according to the microarrays did not appear to be conventional miRNAs according to Northern blot analyses. Some well-characterized miRNAs were substantially enriched in WM as expected. However, most of the miRNA expression variability that correlated with the presence of early AD-related pathology was seen in GM. We confirm that downregulation of a set of miRNAs in GM (including several miR-15/107 genes and miR-29 paralogs) correlated strongly with the density of diffuse amyloid plaques detected in adjacent tissue. A few miRNAs were differentially expressed in WM, including miR-212 that is downregulated in AD and miR-424 which is upregulated in AD. The expression of certain miRNAs correlates with other miRNAs across different cases, and particular subsets of miRNAs are coordinately expressed in relation to AD-related pathology. These data support the hypothesis that patterns of miRNA expression in cortical GM may contribute to AD pathogenetically, because the aggregate change in miRNA expression observed early in the disease would be predicted to cause profound changes in gene expression. PMID:20936480

  19. A survey of the on-farm treatment of sole ulcer and white line disease in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Horseman, S V; Whay, H R; Huxley, J N; Bell, N J; Mason, C S

    2013-08-01

    A telephone survey of UK dairy farmers was conducted to investigate current on-farm practice in the treatment of mild sole ulcer (SU)/sole bruising (SB), and white line disease (WLD), and the potential barriers associated with therapy. A total of 84 dairy farmers were questioned about the process of detecting and treating lame cows on their farm as well as about the specific treatments they applied. Farmers were also canvassed for their views on the efficacy of different potential treatments for mild SU/SB and WLD. In general, respondents discussed treatments for SU and WLD rather than specifically for mild SU/SB and WLD. Furthermore, when describing treatment methods, farmers rarely differentiated between SU and WLD. Trimming the affected claw with or without the additional use of orthopaedic blocks was the most commonly reported treatment method considered effective and practical by the majority of farmers. Antibiotics and/or analgesics were used by a small number of farmers, and some housed their most severely lame cows in straw pens. Lack of time, inadequate equipment and poor farm layout were identified by many survey respondents as barriers to the prompt and/or effective treatment of their lame animals. PMID:23602930

  20. Unusual epileptic deterioration and extensive white matter lesion during treatment in Wilson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wilson’s disease (WD) is a genetic disorder which can be controlled fairly well with decupuration therapy. However, symptoms, on rare occasions, can worsen even when WD is being treated. Herein, we report a case involving unusual neurological deterioration during decupuration therapy for WD. Case presentation A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with WD 13 years prior to his clinical visit; however, his drug compliance has been poor over the years. He was treated with trientine because tremors and dysarthria have presented in recent years. However, dysarthria and dystonia developed in his limbs, which were worse on the right side and had been aggravated for several weeks despite good drug compliance. His symptoms were fluctuating. It was initially misdiagnosed as dystonia; although, it turned out to be a seizure due to cortical degeneration. These symptoms were completely resolved with antiepileptic drugs. Moreover, the cortical enhancement of bifrontal degeneration has disappeared on the MRI. Conclusion This case showed unusual epileptic neurologic deterioration due to cortical degeneration during decupuration therapy. Seizures in WD can easily be mistaken as part of dystonia. However, the fluctuating symptoms suggest a seizure. PMID:24067156

  1. Injurious tail biting in pigs: how can it be controlled in existing systems without tail docking?

    PubMed

    D'Eath, R B; Arnott, G; Turner, S P; Jensen, T; Lahrmann, H P; Busch, M E; Niemi, J K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2014-09-01

    Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some 'alternative' forms of pig production and certain countries do not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further investigation. The review identifies a number of knowledge gaps and promising avenues for future research into prevention and mitigation. We illustrate the diversity of hypotheses concerning how different proposed risk factors might increase tail biting through their effect on each other or on the proposed underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible, manipulable natural materials can be of considerable benefit. Further comparative research is needed into materials, such as ropes, which are compatible with slatted floors. Also, materials which double as fuel for anaerobic digesters could be utilised. As well as optimising housing and management to reduce risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked under, could in future be automatically detected using precision livestock farming methods enabling earlier reaction and prevention of tail damage. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on how best to respond to outbreaks: the effectiveness of, for example, removing biters and/or bitten pigs, increasing enrichment, or applying substances to tails should be investigated. Finally, some breeding companies are exploring options for reducing the genetic propensity to tail bite. If these various approaches to reduce tail biting are implemented we propose that the need for tail docking will be reduced. PMID:25130712

  2. Multifractal analysis of white matter structural changes on 3D magnetic resonance imaging between normal aging and early Alzheimer’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Huang-Jing; Zhou, Lu-Ping; Zeng, Peng; Huang, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Hong-Xing; Ning, Xin-Bao

    2015-07-01

    Applications of multifractal analysis to white matter structure changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have recently received increasing attentions. Although some progresses have been made, there is no evident study on applying multifractal analysis to evaluate the white matter structural changes on MRI for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research. In this paper, to explore multifractal analysis of white matter structural changes on 3D MRI volumes between normal aging and early AD, we not only extend the traditional box-counting multifractal analysis (BCMA) into the 3D case, but also propose a modified integer ratio based BCMA (IRBCMA) algorithm to compensate for the rigid division rule in BCMA. We verify multifractal characteristics in 3D white matter MRI volumes. In addition to the previously well studied multifractal feature, ??, we also demonstrated ?f as an alternative and effective multifractal feature to distinguish NC from AD subjects. Both ?? and ?f are found to have strong positive correlation with the clinical MMSE scores with statistical significance. Moreover, the proposed IRBCMA can be an alternative and more accurate algorithm for 3D volume analysis. Our findings highlight the potential usefulness of multifractal analysis, which may contribute to clarify some aspects of the etiology of AD through detection of structural changes in white matter. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61271079), the Vice Chancellor Research Grant in University of Wollongong, and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  3. Simultaneous changes in gray matter volume and white matter fractional anisotropy in Alzheimer's disease revealed by multimodal CCA and joint ICA.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, X; Chen, K; Yao, L; Hu, B; Wu, X; Ye, Q; Guo, X

    2015-08-20

    The prominent morphometric alterations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) occur both in gray matter and in white matter. Multimodal fusion can examine joint information by combining multiple neuroimaging datasets to identify the covariant morphometric alterations in AD in greater detail. In the current study, we conducted a multimodal canonical correlation analysis and joint independent component analysis to identify the covariance patterns of the gray and white matter by fusing structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data of 39 AD patients (23 males and 16 females, mean age: 74.91±8.13years) and 41 normal controls (NCs) (20 males and 21 females, mean age: 73.97±6.34years) derived from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. The results revealed 25 joint independent components (ICs), of which three joint ICs exhibited strong links between the gray matter volume and the white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) and significant differences between the AD and NC group. The joint IC maps revealed that the simultaneous changes in the gray matter and FA values primarily involved the following areas: (1) the temporal lobe/hippocampus-cingulum, (2) the frontal/cingulate gyrus-corpus callosum, and (3) the temporal/occipital/parietal lobe-corpus callosum/corona radiata. Our findings suggest that gray matter atrophy is associated with reduced white matter fiber integrity in AD and possibly expand the understanding of the neuropathological mechanisms in AD. PMID:26116521

  4. Helping to Combat Chronic Wasting Disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2003-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a disease of the nervous system that results in distinctive brain lesions. CWD affects elk, white-tailed deer, and mule deer, but has not been documented in livestock or humans. The origins of the disease, as well as the modes of transmission, remain unknown. Infected deer and elk appear robust and healthy in the early stages of CWD; clinical signs might not show for years. Mortality typically occurs within months after the appearance of clinical signs. The route of transmission is unknown; likely routes include direct transmission between infected and noninfected animals and infected animals contaminating local environments.

  5. Topographic distribution of scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques in chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus hemionus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Guiroy; E. S. Williams; R. Yanagihara; D. C. Gajdusek

    1991-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a progressive neurological disorder of captive mule deer, blacktailed deer, hybrids of mule deer and white-tailed deer and Rocky Mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. We report the topographic distribution of amyloid plaques reactive to antibodies prepared against scrapie amyloid

  6. Research Article Spread of Plague Among Black-Tailed Prairie

    E-print Network

    Collinge, Sharon K.

    Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) is an exotic pathogen that is highly virulent in black-tailed prairie-state, Program MARK, Yersinia pestis. Exotic zoonotic diseases pose a substantial threat to native wildlife is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Black-tailed prairie dogs are highly

  7. Vanishing White Matter Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cure for VWM; treatment is supportive. How is scientific research on VWM progressing towards improved treatment or diagnosis? The identification of the genetic basis of VWM was a great step forward. It allows scientists to develop genetic methods of diagnosing VWM, which can lead to the ...

  8. White Mold of Chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold of chickpea can occur at either seedling stage or at flowering and pod filling stages. At seedling stage, the disease occurs at the base of the stem causing symptoms like collar rot. Often white mycelial growth around the stem on soil surface is visible. Affected plants wilt and die. ...

  9. White-Nose Syndrome

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Douglas Stemke (University of Indianapolis; )

    2011-04-28

    The Indiana Department of Natural Resource posted cave access restrictions sign at Clifty Falls State Park in southern Indiana in response to the lethal threat posed by White-Nose Syndrome to various cave-inhabiting bat species. White-Nose Syndrome is a bat disease that is still not well understood but is presumptively caused by the associated fungus Geomyces destructans.

  10. Polymorphisms at the PRNP Gene Influence Susceptibility to Chronic Wasting Disease in Two Species of Deer (Odocoileus Spp.) in Western Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Wilson; Stephanie M. Nakada; Trent K. Bollinger; Margo J. Pybus; Evelyn H. Merrill; David W. Coltman

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is increasingly prevalent in multiple wild mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) herds in North America. CWD was first found in Canadian wild mule deer in Saskatchewan in 2000 and has since spread into the neighboring province of Alberta. The infectious agent for CWD is a misfolded prion protein encoded by the PRNP gene.

  11. Polymorphisms at the PRNP gene influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in two species of deer (Odocoileus Spp.) in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory A; Nakada, Stephanie M; Bollinger, Trent K; Pybus, Margo J; Merrill, Evelyn H; Coltman, David W

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is increasingly prevalent in multiple wild mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) herds in North America. CWD was first found in Canadian wild mule deer in Saskatchewan in 2000 and has since spread into the neighboring province of Alberta. The infectious agent for CWD is a misfolded prion protein encoded by the PRNP gene. Previous studies revealed association between PRNP genotype and susceptibility to CWD in both mule and white-tailed deer in other regions. To investigate this link in Canadian populations, PRNP gene sequence was examined in 166 CWD- and 83 CWD+ mule deer, and 197 CWD- and 30 CWD+ white-tailed deer from Saskatchewan and Alberta. Two variable sites were found in mule deer, and 15 in white-tailed deer. In both species PRNP genotype was associated with CWD status. Mule deer possessing at least one copy of the common allele at codon 20 were less likely to test positive for CWD than expected, given the frequency of this allele in the population. A variant at codon 96 in white-tailed deer was also linked with reduced incidence of CWD. A greater knowledge of the genetic sources of heterogeneity in CWD susceptibility may improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the CWD epidemic in western Canada. PMID:19697236

  12. Chronic Wasting Disease in Free-Ranging North American Cervids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) was first described in captive mule deer in a Colorado research facility in 1967 and subsequently c~sified as a tr~rnissible SP?ngiform encephalopathY,in 1?78.. The first ~tection of CWD. in ~ free-ranging population was III Colorado elk III 1981. During the 1990s, CWD was ldentified III free-rangmg mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk in Colorado and Wyoming.

  13. Demographic projection of high-elevation white pines infected with white pine blister rust: a nonlinear

    E-print Network

    Tavener, Simon

    #12;Demographic projection of high-elevation white pines infected with white pine blister rustStamp: 22­08­2011 @ 11:58 Running title: Disease modeling of wpbr in white pines Manuscript type: Article #12;Disease modeling of wpbr in white pines ­ Field et al. 2 Abstract1 Matrix population models have

  14. Floods from tailings dam failures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rico; G. Benito; A. Díez-Herrero

    2008-01-01

    This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released,

  15. Early white matter abnormalities, progressive brain pathology and motor deficits in a novel knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Peng, Qi; Hou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Mali; Wang, Xin; Langseth, Abraham J; Tao, Michael; Barker, Peter B; Mori, Susumu; Bergles, Dwight E; Ross, Christopher A; Detloff, Peter J; Zhang, Jiangyang; Duan, Wenzhen

    2015-05-01

    White matter abnormalities have been reported in premanifest Huntington's disease (HD) subjects before overt striatal neuronal loss, but whether the white matter changes represent a necessary step towards further pathology and the underlying mechanism of these changes remains unknown. Here, we characterized a novel knock-in mouse model that expresses mouse HD gene homolog (Hdh) with extended CAG repeat- HdhQ250, which was derived from the selective breeding of HdhQ150 mice. HdhQ250 mice manifest an accelerated and robust phenotype compared with its parent line. HdhQ250 mice exhibit progressive motor deficits, reduction in striatal and cortical volume, accumulation of mutant huntingtin aggregation, decreased levels of DARPP32 and BDNF and altered striatal metabolites. The abnormalities detected in this mouse model are reminiscent of several aspects of human HD. In addition, disturbed myelination was evident in postnatal Day 14 HdhQ250 mouse brain, including reduced levels of myelin regulatory factor and myelin basic protein, and decreased numbers of myelinated axons in the corpus callosum. Thinner myelin sheaths, indicated by increased G-ratio of myelin, were also detected in the corpus callosum of adult HdhQ250 mice. Moreover, proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells is altered by mutant huntingtin both in vitro and in vivo. Our data indicate that this model is suitable for understanding comprehensive pathogenesis of HD in white matter and gray matter as well as developing therapeutics for HD. PMID:25609071

  16. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Black and White Girls: The NHLBI Growth and Health Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Public Health, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Growth and Health Study Research Group's 5-year cohort study provides basic information on the baseline cohort of 1,166 white and 1,213 African-American girls aged 9 through 10 years. Factors associated with development of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors are assessed. (SLD)

  17. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

  18. Kinesin: the tail unfolds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Cross; Jonathan Scholey

    1999-01-01

    The cargo-binding tail of the motor protein kinesin acts as a regulator of kinesin-driven vesicle transport. In the absence of bound cargo, the kinesin tail interacts with the motor domains and inhibits their activity. Cargo binding blocks this interaction and relieves the inhibition.

  19. Reported tailings dam failures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rico; G. Benito; A. R. Salgueiro; A. D ´ õez-Herrero; H. G. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    A detailed search and re-evaluation of the known historical cases of tailings dam failure was carried out. A corpus of 147 cases of worldwide tailings dam disasters, from which 26 located in Europe, was compiled in a database. This contains six sections, including dam location, its physical and constructive characteristics, actual and putative failure cause, sludge hydrodynamics, socio-economical consequences and

  20. Identification of a Proteus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cultured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Lu, Liqun; Yang, Xianle; Chen, Baiyao

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriosis has become a major economic problem in the farming of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. However, no definitive data are available about Proteus penneri infection in cultured P. vannamei and its control. In this study, a virulent strain NC was isolated from diseased P. vannamei suffering from red body disease and identified as a P. penneri isolate through phylogenetic analysis and ATB 32GN system. A phylogenetic constructed tree using the neighbour-joining method identified the NC isolate as a P. penneri strain. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against P. penneri: it exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the pathogenic P. penneri, had a wide prey range towards Proteus pathogens, and displayed a good protective efficacy on experimental P. penneri infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of farmed P. vannamei infected with P. penneri and its control with B. bacteriovorus. PMID:24271474

  1. Ly-1 B cells and disease activity in (New Zealand black x New Zealand white)F1 mice. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Farinas, M.C.; Stall, A.M.; Solovera, J.J.; Tarlinton, D.M.; Herzenberg, L.A.; Strober, S. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The treatment of female (New Zealand black x New Zealand white)F1 mice with total lymphoid irradiation resulted in a prolonged remission of autoimmune disease activity. Total lymphoid irradiation-treated mice also showed a marked reduction of Ly-1 B cells, which lasted up to 3 months. The subsequent return of Ly-1 B cells to preirradiation levels was not associated with a simultaneous return of disease when measured by parameters such as IgG anti-DNA antibodies and spontaneous secretion of IgG by splenic cells. In cell sorting experiments, most of the cells spontaneously secreting IgG were found within the Ly-1- (CD5-) splenic B cell population.

  2. Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy Detecting the Evolution of Huntingtons Disease Neuropathology and Suggesting Unique Correlates of Dysfunction in White versus Gray Brain Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bonda M.; Miller L.; Perrin V.; Vileno B.; Runne H.; Kretlow A.; Forro L.; Luthi-Carter R. and Jeney S.

    2011-09-02

    Huntington's disease (HD), caused by a mutation of the corresponding gene encoding the protein huntingtin (htt), is characterized by progressive deterioration of cognitive and motor functions, paralleled by extensive loss of striatal neurons. At the cellular level, pathogenesis involves an early and prolonged period of neuronal dysfunction followed by neuronal death. Understanding the molecular events driving these deleterious processes is critical to the successful development of therapies to slow down or halt the progression of the disease. Here, we examined biochemical processes in a HD ex vivo rat model, as well as in a HD model for cultured neurons using synchrotron-assisted Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (S-FTIRM). The model, based on lentiviral-mediated delivery of a fragment of the HD gene, expresses a mutant htt fragment in one brain hemisphere and a wild-type htt fragment in the control hemisphere. S-FTIRM allowed for high spatial resolution and distinction between spectral features occurring in gray and white matter. We measured a higher content of {beta}-sheet protein in the striatal gray matter exposed to mutant htt as early as 4 weeks following the initiation of mutant htt exposure. In contrast, white matter tracts did not exhibit any changes in protein structure but surprisingly showed reduced content of unsaturated lipids and a significant increase in spectral features associated with phosphorylation. The former is reminiscent of changes consistent with a myelination deficiency, while the latter is characteristic of early pro-apoptotic events. These findings point to the utility of the label-free FTIRM method to follow mutant htt's {beta}-sheet-rich transformation in striatal neurons ex vivo, provide further evidence for mutant htt amyloidogenesis in vivo, and demonstrate novel chemical features indicative of white matter changes in HD. Parallel studies in cultured neurons expressing the same htt fragments showed similar changes.

  3. First chronic wasting disease (CWD) surveillance of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in the Northern part of Belgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. De Bosschere; C. Saegerman; A. Neukermans; D. Berkvens; J. Casaer; E. Vanopdenbosch; S. Roels

    2006-01-01

    Cases of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild cervids have yet not been reported in Europe, Whereas the disease is considered enzootic in free?ranging mule deer, Rocky mountain elk and White?tailed deer in the area of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. New foci of CWD continue to be detected in other parts of the United States. However, no large?scale active epidemiosurveillance

  4. A Mass in the Junction of the Body and Tail of the Pancreas with Negative IgG4 Serology: IgG4-Related Disease with Negative Serology

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Williams, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Patient:Female, 55 Final Diagnosis: Autoimmune pancreatitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • weight loss Medication: Prednisone Clinical Procedure: Admitted to the hospital Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Autoimmune pancreatitis is an IgG4-related fibroinflammatory condition often associated with obstructive jaundice, as most lesions are located at the head of the pancreas. IgG4 level can help in the diagnosis, but it is normal in nearly 30% of affected patients. Case Report: A 55-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of 20-pound unintentional weight loss and intermittent abdominal pain. She had an unremarkable abdominal exam and significant findings included a small, non-mobile rubbery left axillary lymph node. Complete blood count, complete metabolic panel, amylase, anti-smooth muscle antibody, antimitochondrial antibody, carcinoembryonic antigen, Ca 19-9, complement C3 and C4, antinuclear antibody, anti-Smith double-strand antibody, and IgG4 were all within normal limits. CT of the abdomen showed a mass in the junction of the body and tail of the pancreas and endoscopic ultrasound showed it as encasing the splenic artery. Fine-needle aspiration cytology demonstrated follicular hyperplasia, obliterative phlebitis, storiform fibrosis, and negative staining for IgG4 and malignancy. Left axillary lymph node biopsy demonstrated follicular hyperplasia. PET scan revealed hypermetabolic uptake of the pancreas tail, bone marrow, and spleen, as well as diffuse lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsy showed follicular hyperplasia and was negative for malignancy. The patient was started on 40 mg of oral prednisone for possible autoimmune disease. During follow-up, she reported progressive improvement and a repeat PET scan 6 months later showed marked improvement. Conclusions: A normal IgG4 value should not decrease the clinical suspicion of IgG4-related disease. If clinical, histological, and radiological findings coincide, glucocorticoids should be initiated with subsequent follow-up to evaluate for a response. PMID:26001036

  5. The General Secretory Pathway of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola BG164R Is Necessary for Cavity Disease in White Button Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Piklu Roy; Heinemann, Jack A.

    2006-01-01

    Cavity disease in white button mushrooms is caused by Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola. We describe the isolation and characterization of six mutants of the strain BG164R that no longer cause this disease on mushrooms. The mutations were mapped to genes of the general secretory pathway (GSP). This is the first report of the association of the type II secretion pathway with a disease in mushrooms. Phenotypes of the six avirulent mutants were the following: an inability to degrade mushroom tissue, a highly reduced capacity to secrete chitinase and protease, and a reduced number of flagella. Using these mutants, we also made the novel observation that the factors causing mushroom tissue degradation, thereby leading to the expression of cavity disease, can be separated from mycelium inhibition because avirulent mutants continued to inhibit the growth of actively growing mushroom mycelia. The GSP locus of B. gladioli was subsequently cloned and mapped and compared to the same locus in closely related species, establishing that the genetic organization of the gsp operon of B. gladioli pv. agaricicola is consistent with that of other species of the genus. We also identify the most common indigenous bacterial population present in the mushroom fruit bodies from a New Zealand farm, one of which, Ewingella americana, was found to be an apparent antagonist of B. gladioli pv. agaricicola. While other investigators have reported enhanced disease symptoms due to interactions between endogenous and disease-causing bacteria in other mushroom diseases, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of an antagonistic effect. PMID:16672503

  6. White Course White Course

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Anne

    West Campus Dr White Course Dr O rchard Rd Tower Rd H a s t i n g s R d FoxHollowRd 26 26 26 BUS 322 C12 Agricultural Engineering E5 Agricultural Science & Industries E6 All-Sports Museum D10 Almquist

  7. White Course White Course

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Dr Dauer Rd West Campus Dr White Course Dr O rchard Rd Tower Rd H a s t i n g s R d FoxHollowRd 26 26 C12 Agricultural Engineering E5 Agricultural Science & Industries E6 All-Sports Museum D10 Almquist

  8. End of life care and reactions to death in African-American and white family caregivers of relatives with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Owen, J E; Goode, K T; Haley, W E

    2001-01-01

    Family caregivers for relatives with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) often experience significant stress-related problems in mental and physical health. Patients with AD often survive for protracted periods of time, placing an extensive burden of care on the caregiver prior to the patient's death. The present study addresses ethnic differences in the experience of AD caregivers around the time of their loved one's death, including life-sustaining treatment decisions and reactions to death. The results showed that, in our sample, more patients died in their homes than has been reported for deaths in the United States. African-American and White caregivers differed substantially in their reports of end of life care and subjective reactions to the death. Compared with White caregivers, African-American caregivers were less likely to make a decision to withhold treatment at the time of death, less likely to have their relative die in a nursing home, and reported less acceptance of the relative's death and greater perceived loss. Results suggest that death after AD caregiving deserves further study, and that ethnic differences in end of life care and bereavement may be of particular importance. PMID:12569925

  9. Comparison of chocolate to cacao-free white chocolate in Parkinson's disease: a single-dose, investigator-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Martin; Schleiffer, Christine; Klingelhöfer, Lisa; Schneider, Christine; Proft, Florian; Schwanebeck, Uta; Reichmann, Heinz; Riederer, Peter; Storch, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    A previous questionnaire study suggests an increased chocolate consumption in Parkinson's disease (PD). The cacao ingredient contains caffeine analogues and biogenic amines, such as ?-phenylethylamine, with assumed antiparkinsonian effects. We thus tested the effects of 200 g of chocolate containing 80 % of cacao on UPDRS motor score after 1 and 3 h in 26 subjects with moderate non-fluctuating PD in a mono-center, single-dose, investigator-blinded crossover study using cacao-free white chocolate as placebo comparator. At 1 h after chocolate intake, mean UPDRS motor scores were mildly decreased compared to baseline in both treatments with significant results only for dark chocolate [-1.3 (95 % CI 0.18-2.52, RMANOVA F = 4.783, p = 0.013¸ Bonferroni p = 0.021 for 1 h values)]. A 2 × 2-cross-over analysis revealed no significant differences between both treatments [-0.54 ± 0.47 (95 % CI -1.50 to 0.42), p = 0.258]. Similar results were obtained at 3 h after intake. ?-phenylethylamine blood levels were unaltered. Together, chocolate did not show significant improvement over white cacao-free chocolate in PD motor function. PMID:22584952

  10. Accounts of carers' satisfaction with health care at the end of life: a comparison of first generation black Caribbeans and white patients with advanced disease.

    PubMed

    Koffman, J; Higginson, I J

    2001-07-01

    While much research has described experiences at the end of life, no studies have explored the black Caribbean perspective. This paper compares the final year of life of first generation black Caribbeans and white patients with advanced disease in an inner London health authority, focusing on their satisfaction with service provision in both primary care and acute settings using face-to face interviews with carers of deceased patients. Of the 106 black Caribbean patients and 110 white deceased patients identified as dying during the study period 50 interviews per ethnic group were conducted with family members or close friends, a response rate of 47% and 45%. Even though examples of excellent and good care were cited, a larger proportion of negative satisfaction ratings of health care was recorded among respondents representing black Caribbean patients. This was true for all health care settings, particularly primary care, but less so for specialist palliative care nurses. However, few black Caribbean patients accessed specialist palliative care nurses or hospices. Qualitative data provided a deeper insight into the black Caribbean experience care at the end of life. We recommend that where examples of best practice in palliative care and culturally sensitive provision are evident they be extended to more health care professionals through education and training. Access to specialist palliative care services needs to be improved. PMID:12054151

  11. DECODING THE FUNCTION OF THE N-TERMINAL TAIL OF THE CELLULAR PRION PROTEIN TO INSPIRE NOVEL THERAPEUTIC AVENUES FOR NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES.

    PubMed

    Iraci, Nunzio; Stincardini, Claudia; Barreca, Maria Letizia; Biasini, Emiliano

    2014-10-23

    The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), a cell surface glycoprotein involved in prion disorders, has been shown to mediate the toxicity of several pathological aggregates, including its own misfolded state and some oligomeric assemblies of the amyloid ? peptide, which are thought to be primarily responsible for the synaptic dysfunction characterizing Alzheimer's disease. Thus, elucidating the physiological function of PrP(C), and how it could be corrupted by the interaction with misfolded proteins, may provide important insights to understand the pathological processes of prion and Alzheimer's diseases, and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders. In this manuscript, we review the data supporting a role for PrP(C) at the intersection of different neurodegenerative diseases, discuss potential mechanisms by which this protein could mediate neurotoxic signals, and examine therapeutic approaches that may arise from the identification of PrP(C)-directed compounds. PMID:25456402

  12. Distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, and prevalence of white-band disease at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Philippe A.; Rogers, Caroline S.; Hillis-Starr, Zandy M.

    2006-05-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, declined dramatically throughout the Caribbean primarily due to white-band disease (WBD). In 2005, elkhorn coral was proposed for listing as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. WBD was first documented at Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM). Together with hurricanes WBD reduced live elkhorn coral coverage by probably over 90%. In the past decade some recovery has been observed at BIRNM. This study assessed the distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral and estimated the prevalence of WBD at the monument. Within an area of 795 ha, we estimated 97,232 134,371 (95% confidence limits) elkhorn coral colonies with any dimension of connected live tissue greater than one meter, about 3% of which were infected by WBD. Despite some recovery, the elkhorn coral density remains low and WBD may continue to present a threat to the elkhorn coral population.

  13. Socioeconomic differences in sexually transmitted disease rates among black and white adolescents, San Francisco, 1990 to 1992.

    PubMed

    Ellen, J M; Kohn, R P; Bolan, G A; Shiboski, S; Krieger, N

    1995-11-01

    This paper examines the effect of socioeconomic position on the differences in the 3-year rates (1990 to 1992) of reported cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia between Black and White adolescents, aged 12 to 20 years, residing in San Francisco. The crude relative risks for Blacks were 23.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 20.4, 27.8) for gonorrhea and 9.3 (95% CI = 8.3, 10.3) for chlamydia. Adjusting for poverty and occupational status, the relative risks were 28.7 (95% CI = 22.5, 36.1) for gonorrhea and 8.9 (95% CI = 7.4, 10.6) for chlamydia. This study demonstrates that factors other than poverty and occupational status account for the racial/ethnic differences in the rates of gonorrhea and chlamydia among adolescents in San Francisco. PMID:7485669

  14. First results of chronic wasting disease (CWD) surveillance in the South?Eastern part of Belgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Roels; C. Saegerman; H. De Bosschere; D. Berkvens; F. Gregoire; A. Hoyoux; B. Mousset; D. Desmecht; E. Vanopdenbosch; A. Linden

    2005-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has not been reported in Europe, whereas it is considered to be enzootic in free?ranging mule deer, Rocky mountain elk and white?tailed deer in the area of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska, and new foci of CWD have been detected in other parts of the United States. However, no large?scale active epidemiosurveillance of European wild cervids has

  15. Fibrils in brains of Rocky Mountain elk with chronic wasting disease contain scrapie amyloid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don C. Guiroy; Elizabeth S. Williams; Ki-Joon Song; Richard Yanagihara I; D. Carleton Gajdusek

    1993-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a progressive, fatal neurological disorder of captive mule deer and Rocky Mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by spongiform change in the neuropil, intraneuronal vacuolation and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Recently, scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques have been demontrated in brain tissues of CWD-affected captive mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer.

  16. Automated Probabilistic Reconstruction of White-Matter Pathways in Health and Disease Using an Atlas of the Underlying Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Yendiki, Anastasia; Panneck, Patricia; Srinivasan, Priti; Stevens, Allison; Zöllei, Lilla; Augustinack, Jean; Wang, Ruopeng; Salat, David; Ehrlich, Stefan; Behrens, Tim; Jbabdi, Saad; Gollub, Randy; Fischl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a method for automated probabilistic reconstruction of a set of major white-matter pathways from diffusion-weighted MR images. Our method is called TRACULA (TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy) and utilizes prior information on the anatomy of the pathways from a set of training subjects. By incorporating this prior knowledge in the reconstruction procedure, our method obviates the need for manual interaction with the tract solutions at a later stage and thus facilitates the application of tractography to large studies. In this paper we illustrate the application of the method on data from a schizophrenia study and investigate whether the inclusion of both patients and healthy subjects in the training set affects our ability to reconstruct the pathways reliably. We show that, since our method does not constrain the exact spatial location or shape of the pathways but only their trajectory relative to the surrounding anatomical structures, a set a of healthy training subjects can be used to reconstruct the pathways accurately in patients as well as in controls. PMID:22016733

  17. Automated probabilistic reconstruction of white-matter pathways in health and disease using an atlas of the underlying anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yendiki, Anastasia; Panneck, Patricia; Srinivasan, Priti; Stevens, Allison; Zöllei, Lilla; Augustinack, Jean; Wang, Ruopeng; Salat, David; Ehrlich, Stefan; Behrens, Tim; Jbabdi, Saad; Gollub, Randy; Fischl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a method for automated probabilistic reconstruction of a set of major white-matter pathways from diffusion-weighted MR images. Our method is called TRACULA (TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy) and utilizes prior information on the anatomy of the pathways from a set of training subjects. By incorporating this prior knowledge in the reconstruction procedure, our method obviates the need for manual interaction with the tract solutions at a later stage and thus facilitates the application of tractography to large studies. In this paper we illustrate the application of the method on data from a schizophrenia study and investigate whether the inclusion of both patients and healthy subjects in the training set affects our ability to reconstruct the pathways reliably. We show that, since our method does not constrain the exact spatial location or shape of the pathways but only their trajectory relative to the surrounding anatomical structures, a set a of healthy training subjects can be used to reconstruct the pathways accurately in patients as well as in controls. PMID:22016733

  18. Happy Tailings to You

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students prepare a sample of "mine tailings", then separate out desirable materials using whatever method they choose, and quantify the results. They will discover that sometimes it's hard to separate desirable minerals from undesirable ones, especially if they look alike or the crystals are of similar sizes. Students learn that old, worked-out mines contain some desirable minerals (in small quantities) mixed in with unwanted minerals, but that doesn't stop some people from trying to squeeze out the last drop. Once considered tailings (or trash), the mix may now be profitable for mining. Desirable minerals can be separated physically and chemically.

  19. White Matter Changes Associated with Feline GM2 Gangliosidosis (Sandhoff Disease): Correlation of MR Findings with Pathologic and Ultrastructural Abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Kroll; Michael A. Pagel; Simon Roman-Goldstein; A. James Barkovich; Anthony N. D'Agostino; Edward A. Neuwelt

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish changes on MR of the brain in a feline model of Sandhoff disease in order to develop standards by which this model may be used in future noninvasive studies. METHODS: Five affected felines and six age-matched, littermate controls were evaluated. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained once or twice for each of four affected and five control

  20. Multiple Indices of Diffusion Identifies White Matter Damage in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Des; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, D. Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

    2011-01-01

    The study of multiple indices of diffusion, including axial (DA), radial (DR) and mean diffusion (MD), as well as fractional anisotropy (FA), enables WM damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD) to be assessed in detail. Here, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were performed on scans of 40 healthy elders, 19 non-amnestic MCI (MCIna) subjects, 14 amnestic MCI (MCIa) subjects and 9 AD patients. Significantly higher DA was found in MCIna subjects compared to healthy elders in the right posterior cingulum/precuneus. Significantly higher DA was also found in MCIa subjects compared to healthy elders in the left prefrontal cortex, particularly in the forceps minor and uncinate fasciculus. In the MCIa versus MCIna comparison, significantly higher DA was found in large areas of the left prefrontal cortex. For AD patients, the overlap of FA and DR changes and the overlap of FA and MD changes were seen in temporal, parietal and frontal lobes, as well as the corpus callosum and fornix. Analysis of differences between the AD versus MCIna, and AD versus MCIa contrasts, highlighted regions that are increasingly compromised in more severe disease stages. Microstructural damage independent of gross tissue loss was widespread in later disease stages. Our findings suggest a scheme where WM damage begins in the core memory network of the temporal lobe, cingulum and prefrontal regions, and spreads beyond these regions in later stages. DA and MD indices were most sensitive at detecting early changes in MCIa. PMID:21738785