These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

- year-old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin, USA. We evaluated how); density dependence; disease management; disease transmission; frequency dependence; Odocoileus virginianus

2

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus disease (white tail disease) in Australia.  

PubMed

The index case of white tail disease (WTD) is presented in adult broodstock prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii from the Flinders River in western Queensland, Australia, in mid-2007. Histological examination revealed extensive myonecrosis with massive infiltration of myonuclei and some haemocytes. Juveniles from the same broodstock but not from 3 other families displayed white muscle lesions. Low-grade chronic mortalities approaching 100% over 1 yr occurred. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) were attempted for both M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) with 2 sets of primers and for the satellite virus, extrasmall virus (XSV). All 3 PCRs generated amplicons of the expected sizes. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analyses of the 3 consensus sequences identified a 91% match with MrNV viral capsid protein gene, 96% match with MrNV RNA-directed RNA polymerase gene, and a 99% match with M. rosenbergii XSV capsid protein gene. The clinical signs, histopathological lesions and RT-PCR amplicons could be reproduced in M. rosenbergii inoculated with cell-free extracts fulfilling River's postulates. We conclude that this is an endemic strain of MrNV as the sequences are dissimilar to strains of MrNV circulating around Asia and the Americas. This case only poorly meets the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) case definition for WTD due to the age of the prawns involved and the nature of the inclusion bodies. Perhaps the OIE case definition needs broadening. PMID:19750804

Owens, Leigh; La Fauce, Kathy; Juntunen, Karen; Hayakijkosol, Orachun; Zeng, Chaoshu

2009-07-23

3

White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437

Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

2012-09-01

4

Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

Joly, D.O.; Ribic, C.A.; Langenberg, J.A.; Beheler, K.; Batha, C.A.; Dhuey, B.J.; Rolley, R.E.; Bartelt, G.; VanDeelen, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

2003-01-01

5

DYNAMICS OF MATERNAL ANTIBODIES TO HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE VIRUSES (REOVIRIDAE: ORBIVIRUS) IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzootic stability, potentially associated with acquired resistance and subsequent transfer of maternal antibodies, innate resistance, or both, has been hypothesized to explain the lack of reports of hemorrhagic disease (HD) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Texas. The objectives of this research were to determine the following: how long maternal anti- bodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue (BT)

Joseph K. Gaydos; David E. Stallknecht; Darrell Kavanaugh; Robert J. Olson; Eugene R. Fuchs

6

Alternative Feeding Strategies and Potential Disease Transmission in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at

Abbey K. Thompson; Michael D. Samuel; Timothy R. Van Deelen

2008-01-01

7

SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN WISCONSIN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD

Mladenoff, David

8

A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.  

PubMed

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

9

Disease risk surface for Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Coxiella burnetii is considered a re-emerging zoonosis in many countries. The bacterium is enzootic in livestock and wildlife in the United States, and environmental contamination is widespread. Despite the potential for exposure, the estimated prevalence of Q fever in humans and animals is not well elucidated, and reported human infections in the United States are relatively rare. Zoonotic transmission of the bacterium is usually associated with abortions in domestic ruminants, but other modes of transmission, such as contact with infected blood and/or milk during field dressing of infected wildlife, have not been thoroughly investigated. Studies of zoonotic pathogen transmission between animal reservoir hosts and humans are usually established in response to documented emergence or re-emergence of a zoonosis in a particular locale, and, as such, the prevalence of infection in wildlife is largely unknown for many zoonotic pathogens, including C. burnetii. The objective of this study was to create a disease risk surface for C. burnetii seroprevalence in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State. Blood samples were collected from hunter-harvested deer from across New York State in 2009 and 2010. The samples were processed and tested for the presence of anti-C. burnetii antibodies via indirect microimmunofluorescence assays using phase II C. burnetii strain RSA439. Overall, 14.50% of the tested white-tailed deer were C. burnetii phase II seropositive. The dual Kernel density estimation method was used to create a smoothed disease risk surface, which revealed variation in seroprevalence ranging from 0% to 32.0%. Areas of higher seroprevalence were detected in four discrete areas of Central New York and in one additional area in the southwest corner of the northern part of the state. This suggests certain locales where humans may be at increased risk for exposure to the bacterium secondary to contact with potentially infected deer. PMID:23176671

Kirchgessner, M S; Dubovi, E J; Whipps, C M

2013-11-01

10

Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P < 0.01) feeding at pile (49%) and spread (61%) treatments than at natural feeding areas (36%). We found higher deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

Thompson, A. K.; Samuel, M. D.; Van Deelen, T. R.

2008-01-01

11

Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

Keane, D. P.; Barr, D. J.; Bochsler, P. N.; Hall, S. M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T. R.; Samuel, M. D.

2008-01-01

12

Prevalence of the Lyme disease spirochete in populations of white-tailed deer and white-footed mice.  

PubMed

The prevalence of the Ixodes dammini spirochete (IDS) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) was studied on the eastern end of Long Island, New York. Both species commonly occur in a variety of habitats, are preferred hosts of Ixodes dammini, and can harbor the spirochetes in the blood. Each animal was examined for spirochetemia, tick infestation, and IDS infection rates in the ticks that were removed from it. The results obtained suggest that in winter deer can be infected by questing adult I. dammini. Adult ticks apparently are infected through transtadial transmission of spirochetes from subadult ticks which had fed earlier in their life history on infected animals. Deer are important hosts of adult ticks and the IDS in winter and probably are a reservoir host in other seasons. The patterns of spirochete prevalence suggest that deer and mice are reservoirs of the organism and thus are fundamental to the ecology of Lyme disease on Long Island. PMID:6516461

Bosler, E M; Ormiston, B G; Coleman, J L; Hanrahan, J P; Benach, J L

1984-01-01

13

Demographic patterns and harvest vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected white-tailed deer in Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500-km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310-km2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and noninfected deer. Our results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) free-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible nonlinear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found, as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, D. A.; Samuel, M. D.; Langenberg, J. A.; Keane, D.

2006-01-01

14

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a potential sentinel for human Lyme disease in Indiana.  

PubMed

We assessed the potential of white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) to be a sentinel for human cases of Lyme disease (LD) in Indiana using location data from a 3-year survey of approximately 3400 hunted deer with associated tick Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) data. Data on human LD cases at the county level were obtained from the Indiana Department of Health. All data were assigned to county centroids to match the resolution of the LD data before creating optimized trend surfaces for LD incidence, hunted deer count, Ixodes scapularis and Bb prevalence. To determine whether LD was spatially associated with the areas of high densities of deer, deer with Ixodes scapularis and deer with ticks infected with Bb, we used spatial analysis with distance indices (SADIE). The SADIE analysis found significant spatial association between LD and the distribution of three organismal predictor variables, that is, WTD, Ixodes ticks and Bb. Lyme disease incident rate varied between 0.08 cases per 10,000 habitants (Johnson county) and 5.9 cases per 10,000 habitants (Warren county). In conclusion, WTD can be used as an accurate and cost-effective sentinel for human LD. This method will permit public health workers to identify potentially endemic areas independently of human case reports. PMID:22776734

Raizman, E A; Holland, J D; Shukle, J T

2013-05-01

15

Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management  

PubMed Central

Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:24658535

Jennelle, Christopher S.; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E.; Samuel, Michael D.

2014-01-01

16

Host culling as an adaptive management tool for chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: a modelling study  

PubMed Central

Emerging wildlife diseases pose a significant threat to natural and human systems. Because of real or perceived risks of delayed actions, disease management strategies such as culling are often implemented before thorough scientific knowledge of disease dynamics is available. Adaptive management is a valuable approach in addressing the uncertainty and complexity associated with wildlife disease problems and can be facilitated by using a formal model. We developed a multi-state computer simulation model using age, sex, infection-stage, and seasonality as a tool for scientific learning and managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Our matrix model used disease transmission parameters based on data collected through disease management activities. We used this model to evaluate management issues on density- (DD) and frequency-dependent (FD) transmission, time since disease introduction, and deer culling on the demographics, epizootiology, and management of CWD. Both DD and FD models fit the Wisconsin data for a harvested white-tailed deer population, but FD was slightly better. Time since disease introduction was estimated as 36 (95% CI, 24–50) and 188 (41–>200) years for DD and FD transmission, respectively. Deer harvest using intermediate to high non-selective rates can be used to reduce uncertainty between DD and FD transmission and improve our prediction of long-term epidemic patterns and host population impacts. A higher harvest rate allows earlier detection of these differences, but substantially reduces deer abundance. Results showed that CWD has spread slowly within Wisconsin deer populations, and therefore, epidemics and disease management are expected to last for decades. Non-hunted deer populations can develop and sustain a high level of infection, generating a substantial risk of disease spread. In contrast, CWD prevalence remains lower in hunted deer populations, but at a higher prevalence the disease competes with recreational hunting to reduce deer abundance. Synthesis and applications. Uncertainty about density- or frequency-dependent transmission hinders predictions about the long-term impacts of chronic wasting disease on cervid populations and the development of appropriate management strategies. An adaptive management strategy using computer modelling coupled with experimental management and monitoring can be used to test model predictions, identify the likely mode of disease transmission, and evaluate the risks of alternative management responses. PMID:19536340

Wasserberg, Gideon; Osnas, Erik E; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

2009-01-01

17

Detection and phylogenetic profiling of nodavirus associated with white tail disease in Malaysian Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious viral disease in the hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in many parts of the world. A new disease similar to WTD was observed in larvae and post larvae of M. rosenbergii cultured in Malaysia. In the present study, RT-PCR assay was used to detect the causative agents of WTD, M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) using specific primers for MrNV RNA2 and XSV. The results showed the presence of MrNV in the samples with or without signs of WTD. However, XSV was only detected in some of the MrNV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA2 of our Malaysian isolates were significantly different from the other isolates. Histopathological studies revealed myofiber degeneration of the tail muscles and liquefactive myopathy in the infected prawns. This was the first report on the occurrence of MrNV in the Malaysian freshwater prawn. PMID:22223294

Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Moeini, Hassan; Tan, Wen Siang; Yusoff, Khatijah; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Chu, Kua Beng; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

18

Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (CWD) was evaluated. Disease was tracked in a CWD-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of

Margaret A. Wild; Terry R. Spraker; Christina J. Sigurdson; Katherine I. O'Rourke; Michael W. Miller

19

White tail disease of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii: separation of the associated virions and characterization of MrNV as a new type of nodavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White tail disease of the farmed freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is the cause of mortali- ties in the French West Indies, China and India. Two different sized particles, both developing in the cytoplasm of target cells, are found associated with diseased animals. These two viruses were separated, purified and subsequently characterized. The larger one, called MrNV, is icosahedral in shape

J-R Bonami; Z Shi; D Qian; J Sri Widada

2005-01-01

20

Precipitating antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue viruses in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States.  

PubMed

From 1981 to 1989, sera were collected from 3,077 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Georgia and from 1,749 deer from 12 additional states in the southeastern United States. In Georgia, prevalence of precipitating antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and bluetongue virus (BTV), as determined by agar gel immunodiffusion tests, was dependent on physiographic region, age, and year. Overall prevalence of antibodies to EHDV and/or BTV was 11, 33, 48, and 14% for the Mountain, Piedmont, Coastal Plain, and Barrier Island regions, respectively. Results suggested varying patterns of EHDV and BTV activity throughout the state. Serologic results from other southeastern states were consistent with the Georgia sample; prevalence estimates (EHDV and/or BTV) for corresponding physiographic regions deviated by less than 10%. Over this larger geographical area, antibody prevalence in deer appeared to increase with decreasing latitude. PMID:1676762

Stallknecht, D E; Blue, J L; Rollor, E A; Nettles, V F; Davidson, W R; Pearson, J E

1991-04-01

21

Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management Zone  

PubMed Central

Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin’s area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular. PMID:23437171

Magle, Seth B.; Samuel, Michael D.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Robinson, Stacie J.; Mathews, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

22

Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Rigg, Tara D.; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C.; Bowen, Richard

2013-01-01

23

Peer Reviewed White-Tailed Deer Harvest From the Chronic Wasting  

E-print Network

-ranging and captive wildlife including elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (O Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus chronic wasting disease, deer herd reduction, harvest, Odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer

Mladenoff, David

24

Protection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii against white tail disease by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) of cultured Macrobrachium rosenbergii is caused by M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and an extra small virus (XSV), both present together, and the mortality rate can be as high as 100% within 2 or 3 days of infection. Possible protection of M. rosenbergii against WTD by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was studied. Juvenile M. rosenbergii were fed with the feed coated with inactivated bacteria encapsulated dsRNA of MrNV and XSV genes individually and in combination for 7 days followed by challenge with WTD causing agents at 24 h and 72 h post-feeding. Test animals fed with a combination of dsRNA of MrNV and XSV capsid genes showed the highest relative percent survival (RPS) when compared to other treatments with RPS of 80% and 75% at 24 and 72 h respectively. One hundred percent mortality was observed in test animals fed with control dsRNA coated feed. Although in the literature, injection is the most common method used to deliver dsRNA, this study shows that oral administration is effective, feasible and economical. PMID:23811407

Naveen Kumar, Singaiah; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

2013-09-01

25

Demodectic mange, dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975 to 2012.  

PubMed

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential. PMID:23912715

Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K

2014-05-01

26

Aerosol Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer  

PubMed Central

While the facile transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) remains incompletely elucidated, studies in rodents suggest that exposure of the respiratory mucosa may be an efficient pathway. The present study was designed to address this question in the native cervid host. Here, we demonstrate aerosol transmission of CWD to deer with a prion dose >20-fold lower than that used in previous oral inoculations. Inhalation of prions may facilitate transmission of CWD and, perhaps, other prion infections. PMID:23175370

Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Anderson, Kelly R.; Seelig, Davis M.; Haley, Nicholas J.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mathiason, Candace K.

2013-01-01

27

Characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus from a bovine with clinical disease with high nucleotide sequence identity to white-tailed deer isolates.  

PubMed

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was isolated from a pregnant cow in Indiana, USA, exhibiting excessive salivation, pyrexia and abortion. VP2, VP5, and VP7 sequences of the isolated bovine EHDV showed 97.7, 97.4, and 97.9 % identity to a serotype 2 reference virus. Bovine EHDV was closely related (>99.9 %) to white tailed deer (WTD) EHDV collected from Iowa in 2013 and showed less than 2.1 % divergence from EHDV collected from WTD across the USA in 2013. The high degree of sequence identity between bovine and WTD EHDV isolates demonstrates that similar viruses concurrently circulate in both species and suggests possible further incursions into bovines. PMID:24852073

Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Hause, Ben M

2014-10-01

28

Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route.  

PubMed

To compare clinical and pathologic findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, 3 groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with a CWD prion of WTD, mule deer, or elk origin. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months postinoculation (MPI), 1 deer from each of the 3 inoculated groups was necropsied and their tissues were examined for lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (SE) and for the presence of abnormal prion protein (PrP(d)) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB). The remaining deer were allowed to live until they developed clinical signs of the disease which began approximately 18 MPI. By 26 MPI, all deer were euthanatized on humane grounds. Obvious differences in clinical signs or the incubation periods were not observed between the 3 groups of deer given CWD. In 1 of 3 nonclinical deer euthanatized at 10 MPI, minimal microscopic lesions of SE were seen in the central nervous system (CNS) tissues, and PrP(d) was observed by IHC in tissues of all 3 deer. In the clinical deer, CNS lesions of SE and PrP(d) accumulations were more severe and extensive. It is concluded that the 3 sources of CWD prion did not induce significant differences in time to clinical disease or qualitative differences in signs or lesions in WTD. However, this observation does not imply that these CWD agents would necessarily behave similarly in other recipient species. PMID:18487485

Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Miller, J M; Kunkle, R A; Hall, S M; Nicholson, E M; O'Rourke, K I; Greenlee, J J; Williams, E S

2008-05-01

29

Prion protein in cardiac muscle of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) infected with chronic wasting disease.  

PubMed

To investigate the possible presence of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) in striated muscle of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-affected cervids, samples of diaphragm, tongue, heart and three appendicular skeletal muscles from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (Alces alces shirasi) were examined by ELISA, Western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). PrP(d) was detected in samples of heart muscle from seven of 16 CWD-infected white-tailed deer, including one free-ranging deer, and in 12 of 17 CWD-infected elk, but not in any of 13 mule deer samples, nor in the single CWD-infected moose. For white-tailed deer, PrP(d) was detected by Western blot at multiple sites throughout the heart; IHC results on ventricular sections of both elk and white-tailed deer showed positive staining in cardiac myocytes, but not in conduction tissues or nerve ganglia. Levels of PrP(d) in cardiac tissues were estimated from Western blot band intensity to be lower than levels found in brain tissue. PrP(d) was not detected in diaphragm, triceps brachii, semitendinosus, latissiumus dorsi or tongue muscles for any of the study subjects. This is the first report of PrP(d) in cardiac tissue from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy-infected ruminants in the human food chain and the first demonstration by immunological assays of PrP(d) in any striated muscle of CWD-infected cervids. PMID:17030881

Jewell, Jean E; Brown, Jeremy; Kreeger, Terry; Williams, Elizabeth S

2006-11-01

30

Broad and fine-scale genetic analysis of white-tailed deer populations: estimating the relative risk of chronic wasting disease spread  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, similar to sheep scrapie that has only recently been detected in wild populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in western Canada. Relatively little is known about local transmission dynamics of the disease or the potential for long-distance spread. We analysed the population genetic structure of over 2000 white-tailed deer sampled from Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan using microsatellite profiles and mtDNA sequencing to assess the relative risk of disease spread. There was very little differentiation among subpopulations and a weak trend of increasing differentiation with geographic distance. This suggests that the potential for long-distance disease spread through the dispersal of infected individuals is possible, yet the risk of spread should gradually diminish with distance from infection foci. Within subpopulations, females were more related than expected by chance (R > 0) within a radius of approximately 500 m. Sex-biased philopatry and social interactions among related females may facilitate local disease transmission within social groups. Local herd reduction may therefore be an effective tool for reducing the disease prevalence when implemented at the appropriate spatial scale.

Cullingham, Catherine I; Merrill, Evelyn H; Pybus, Margo J; Bollinger, Trent K; Wilson, Gregory A; Coltman, David W

2011-01-01

31

Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Rogers, K. G.; Robinson, S. J.; Samuel, M. D.; Grear, D. A.

2011-01-01

32

Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) ........................... 13-1 13.1 Introduction virginianus leucurus) 13.1 Introduction The Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus............................................................................. 13-20 #12;COLUMBIAN WHITE-TAILED DEER III, 13-1 May 2004 13.0 Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus

33

Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.

1992-01-01

34

Management and Conservation Immobilization of White-Tailed Deer With  

E-print Network

and effective alternative for immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). During a 2-stage Society. KEY WORDS anesthesia, ketamine, Odocoileus virginianus, telazol, tolazoline, white-tailed deer and Wilson 2002). Currently, few drug combinations meet these criteria for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus

35

Population Ecology Spotlight Surveys for White-Tailed Deer  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Many monitoring programs for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on both private and public, Odocoileus virginianus, spot- light surveys, variance components, white-tailed deer. One of the primary the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A suite of approaches have been used to look at deer

Ditchkoff, Steve

36

Research Article Spotlight Surveys for White-Tailed Deer  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Many monitoring programs for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on both private and public, Odocoileus virginianus, spot- light surveys, variance components, white-tailed deer. One of the primary the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A suite of approaches have been used to look at deer

Ditchkoff, Steve

37

Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, Daniel A.

2006-01-01

38

Research Article Survival of White-Tailed Deer Neonates  

E-print Network

, landscape, Minnesota, mortality, neonate, Odocoileus virginianus, predation, South Dakota, survival. Understanding white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population dynamics requires knowledge of survival

39

Intracranial abscessation in white-tailed deer of North America.  

PubMed

From January 1996 through April 1997, the geographic distribution, etiology, demographics, seasonality, and prevalence of an intracranial abscessation/suppurative meningoencephalitits syndrome in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were evaluated by surveying wildlife disease diagnostic laboratories and by examining both natural mortality and hunter-harvested deer skulls from North America. Intracranial abscesses were diagnosed as the cause of death or illness in 97 of nearly 4,500 (2.2%) white-tailed deer examined from 12 states and four Canadian provinces by the diagnostic laboratories. The bacterium Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from 61% of cases; 18 other genera of bacteria also were isolated. The disease was strongly gender-biased (P < 0.01) with 87% of cases occurring in males, and the overall prevalence among males was 4.9%. Cases were most common among antlered males (> or = 1 yr) with few cases among male fawns. Among antlered males, cases were seasonal, primarily occurring from September through April. Four hundred eighteen skulls from deer found dead in the field were examined from southeastern USA, and of the 119 used for further evaluation, 9% had characteristic lesions. Skulls from hunter-harvested males in the southeastern USA had a lesion prevalence of 1.4%. The similarity of disease prevalence among male deer found dead in the field (9.0%) and deer examined as southeastern diagnostic laboratory cases (8.4%) suggests that this disease accounts for slightly < 10% of the natural mortality for yearling and adult male white-tailed deer in the southeastern region. The strong bias for occurrence among males suggests this disease may affect quality deer management strategies. PMID:11763729

Baumann, C D; Davidson, W R; Roscoe, D E; Beheler-Amass, K

2001-10-01

40

SPONTANEOUS CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1994, cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in a diarrheic fawn from a captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd maintained for research purposes at The Uni- versity of Georgia's Warnell School of Forest Resources in Athens, Georgia (USA). From June through August 1995, 11 captive female white-tailed deer were housed in individual barn stalls where they gave birthto 18 fawns. Feces

Ronald Fayer; John R. Fischer; Christopher T. Sewell; Darrell M. Kavanaugh; David A. Osborn

41

CAUSES OF MORTALITY IN WHITE-TAILED SEA EAGLES FROM GERMANY  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed Sea Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla found moribund or dead in the field were submitted for necropsy to the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) and to the Institute for Food, Drugs and Animal Diseases (ILAT), Berlin, Germany. The moribund eagles had died in rehabilitation stations or were euthanized. Onehundred-twenty White-tailed Sea Eagles were examined between 1990 and 2000, comprising

Oliver Krone; Torsten Langgemach; Paul Sömmer; Norbert Kenntner

42

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak in a captive facility housing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), cattle (Bos taurus), and goats (Capra hircus) in Colorado, U.S.A.  

PubMed

An ungulate research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.A., experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) because of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection from 20 August 2007 through 26 September 2007. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from the spleen and lung tissues of two white-tailed deer. Virus neutralization tests were performed on pre- and postoutbreak sera from other species maintained in the same facility, including bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), domestic cattle (Bos taurus), and domestic goats (Capra hircus), as well as postoutbreak sera from the surviving white-tailed deer. Serum samples that represented all species in the facility neutralized EHDV-1 and EHDV-2 either before or after the outbreak. The animals that neutralized EHDV-1 did not neutralize EHDV-2. No clinical signs attributable to EHDV infection were noted in any of the species other than the deer during the outbreak. Although experimental EHDV infections have been reported in bison and elk, natural exposures have not been previously documented in these species in North America. The roles that elk, bison, cattle, and goats might play in the epidemiology of EHDV in a close-contact multispecies situation remain unknown. PMID:20945651

Nol, Pauline; Kato, Cecilia; Reeves, Will K; Rhyan, Jack; Spraker, Terry; Gidlewski, Thomas; VerCauteren, Kurt; Salman, Mo

2010-09-01

43

Forest cover influences dispersal distance of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.001, d.f. = 9) and maximum (r2 = 0.86, P = 0.001, d.f. = 7) dispersal distances of juvenile male deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Grund, M.D.

2005-01-01

44

Survival patterns in white-tailed and mule deer after oral inoculation with a standardized, conspecific prion dose.  

PubMed

We orally inoculated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with a standardized, conspecific prion dose and collected biologic samples throughout the disease course. Mule deer (PRNP genotype 225SS) and PRNP genotype 96GG white-tailed deer succumbed along similar trajectories, but 96GS- and 96SS-genotype individuals tended to survive longer. PMID:22493138

Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Jewell, Jean E; Williams, Elizabeth S

2012-04-01

45

WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA --On 25 November 2002, the South Dakota Department of  

E-print Network

177 NOTES WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA -- On 25 November plate was positive (Table 1). Based on these results, Staphylococcus hyicus was identified with white-tailed deer. Staphylococcus hyicus causes exudative epidermitis, or greasy pig disease, in young

46

Texas white-tailed deer Internet harvest model  

E-print Network

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is an intensively managed game species throughout Texas and the United States. Modeling is a tool that has been used to evaluate various management practices and their potential impacts on wildlife...

Garrett, Jennifer Nicole

2009-05-15

47

Adoption in rock and white-tailed ptarmigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reports of adoption in birds are widespread, but few studies report rates of adoption or possible mechanisms for this phenomenon, particularly in the Order Galliformes. We report incidents of adoption in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. leucura) from two sites in western Canada. Adoption rates for White-tailed Ptarmigan on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Ruby Ranges, Yukon Territory were 13% (n = 16 broods) and 4% (n = 27), respectively, while rates for Rock Ptarmigan were 14% (n = 29) in the Ruby Ranges. Low brood densities may result in lower rates of adoption for ptarmigan. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

Wong, M. M. L.; Fedy, B. C.; Wilson, S.; Martin, K. M.

2009-01-01

48

Comparison of two automated immunohistochemical procedures for the diagnosis of scrapie in domestic sheep and chronic wasting disease in North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).  

PubMed

Two commercially available automated immunohistochemistry platforms, Ventana NexES and DakoCytomation Autostainer Universal Staining System, were compared for diagnosing sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Both automated platforms used the same antiprion protein monoclonal primary antibodies, but different platform-specific linker and amplification reagents and procedures. Duplicate sections of brainstem (at the level of the obex) and lymphoid tissue (retropharyngeal lymph node or tonsil) from the same tissue block were immunostained for the comparison. Examination of 1,020 tissues from 796 sheep revealed 100% concordance of results between the Ventana NexES and DakoCytomation platforms for diagnosing sheep scrapie from lymphoid tissue (103/103 positive; 405/405 negative) and brainstem (120/120 positive; 392/392 negative). Similarly, examination of 1,008 tissues from 504 white-tailed deer revealed 100% concordance between the Ventana NexES and DakoCytomation platforms for diagnosing chronic wasting disease from lymphoid tissue (104/104 positive; 400/400 negative) and brainstem (104/104 positive; 400/400 negative). Examination of 1,152 tissues from 482 mule deer revealed a concordance of 98.6% in lymphoid tissue and 99.9% in brainstem between the Ventana NexES and DakoCytomation platforms for diagnosing chronic wasting disease. The results indicate equivalence or near equivalence between the DakoCytomation and Ventana NexES autostainer platforms for identification of the disease-associated prion protein (PrPd)-positive and PrPd-negative brain and lymphoid tissues in sheep, white-tailed deer, and mule deer. PMID:16617694

Baszler, T V; Kiupel, M; Williams, E S; Thomsen, B V; Gidlewski, T; Montgomery, D L; O'Rourke, K I; Hall, S M

2006-03-01

49

Mound Characteristics of White-Tailed Prairie Dog Maternity Burrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mound size characteristics of 682 white-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus) burrows were examined in Carbon Co., Montana. Burrows containing litters had significanlty larger mounds than those which did not. Mounds of litter-occupied burrows contained accessory digging for 48 and 49 observed litters. Maternity burrows can be identified by size and presence of current accessory digging.

Dennis L. Flath; Ronald K. Paulick

1979-01-01

50

White-tailed deer food habits in northeastern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microhistological analysis of feces was used to estimate the selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, Tex.) in the state of Nuevo Leon in northeastern Mexico. Browse was the main component of deer diets (94% annual mean). Major species were blackbrush acacia (Acacia rigidula Benth), guajillo (Acacia berlandieri Benth) soapbrush (Porlieria angustifolia Englem), cenizo (Leucophyllum texanus Benth), huisache (Acacia farnesiana L),

R. G. Ramírez; J. B. Quintanilla; J. Aranda

1997-01-01

51

Ehrlichia ewingii Infection in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii, are transmitted by Ambl- yomma americanum, the lone star tick. Because white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of A. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of E. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with E. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans

Michael J. Yabsley; Andrea S. Varela; Cynthia M. Tate; Vivien G. Dugan; David E. Stallknecht; Susan E. Little; William R. Davidson

52

AGGRESSIVE DEFENSIVE BEHAVIOR BY FREE-RANGING WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

ungulates (Lent 1974; Lingle et al. 2005; Smith 1987), including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus male and female white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45. Key words: defensive behavior, maternal investment, neonate, Odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer

53

HEPATIC MINERALS OF WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus status, and species. Key words: Black Hills, elements, fire, liver, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, Odocoileus virginianus, reproduction, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. INTRODUCTION Limited information

54

Blood Chemistry of Free-Ranging and Captive White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Texas  

E-print Network

Blood samples were collected from 602 white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) between October 2008 – October 2009, from 15 different counties throughout Texas. White-tailed deer were evaluated for serum biochemical parameters (total...

Smith, Melanie Love

2012-07-16

55

MOVEMENT OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND INTENSIVE ROW-CROP AGRICULTURE  

E-print Network

Abstract: Movements (e.g., migration, dispersal) of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) vary greatly, Minnesota, movement, Odocoileus virginianus, white-tailed deer. Seasonal migration is common among cervids

56

Research Article Habitat Use by Sympatric Mule and White-Tailed  

E-print Network

competition, compositional analysis, habitat use, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, O. virginianus, sympatry, Texas, white- tailed deer. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) occur, and Fisheries Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA Abstract White-tailed deer (Odocoileus

Wallace, Mark C.

57

Does uctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow  

E-print Network

Does uctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; £uctuating asymmetry; handicap hypothesis; Odocoileus virginianus; sexual selection; white-tailed deer 1

Ditchkoff, Steve

58

Influence of Body Size on Dietary Nutrition of White-Tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus  

E-print Network

Articles Influence of Body Size on Dietary Nutrition of White-Tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus masses (14­76 kg) in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus (n = 108) in a 2,628-ha enclosure at Kerr, Weckerly FW. 2013. Influence of body size on dietary nutrition of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

59

Tools and Technology Article Blind Count Surveys of White-Tailed  

E-print Network

. We conducted blind count surveys of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 214-ha enclosure, bootstrap, Bowden's estimator, computer simulations, Odocoileus virginianus, sex ratio, white-tailed deer, there are 4,657 permits to manage white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hunting operations on small (i

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

60

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer. PMID:23568932

Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-04-01

61

Ehrlichia ewingii Infection in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii, are transmitted by Amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. Because white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of A. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of E. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with E. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans and dogs. To test for E. ewingii infection, we used polymerase chain reaction and inoculation of fawns with whole blood from wild deer. Of 110 deer tested from 20 locations in 8 U.S. states, 6 (5.5%) were positive for E. ewingii. In addition, natural E. ewingii infection was confirmed through infection of captive fawns. These findings expand the geographic distribution of E. ewingii, along with risk for human infection, to include areas of Kentucky, Georgia, and South Carolina. These data suggest that white-tailed deer may be an important reservoir for E. ewingii. PMID:12095432

Varela, Andrea S.; Tate, Cynthia M.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Stallknecht, David E.; Little, Susan E.; Davidson, William R.

2002-01-01

62

PREDATOR URINES AS CHEMICAL BARRIERS TO WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assessed whether bobcat (Lynx rufus) or coyote (Canis latrans) urine could reduce white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of established feeding areas or trails. A four-week experiment evaluating deer use of eight feeding stations, four each with coyote or bobcat urine was conducted at a 2,200 ha fenced facility in northern Ohio with high deer densities (38\\/km2). At this

Jerrold L. Belant; Thomas W. Seamans; Laura A. Tyson

1998-01-01

63

Modeling distribution of dispersal distances in male white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dispersal distances and their distribution pattern are important to understanding such phenomena as disease spread and gene flow, but oftentimes dispersal characteristics are modeled as a fixed trait for a given species. We found that dispersal distributions differ for spring and autumn dispersals of yearling male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but that combined data can be adequately modeled based on a log-normal distribution. We modeled distribution of dispersal distances from 3 distinct populations in Pennsylvania and Maryland, USA, based on the relationship between percent forest cover and mean dispersal distance and the relationship between mean and variance of dispersal distances. Our results suggest distributions of distances for dispersing yearling male white-tailed deer can be modeled by simply measuring a readily obtained landscape metric, percent forest cover, which could be used to create generalized spatially explicit disease or gene.

Diefenbach, D.R.; Long, E.S.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Smith, D.R.

2008-01-01

64

Spatial interactions of yarded White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the spatial interactions of nine female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in two deeryards (winter aggregations) in northeastern Minnesota during February-April 1999. Global positioning system (GPS) collars yielded seven pair-wise comparisons of deer that were located at the same time (???1 minute apart) and mat used overlapping areas. Deer traveled separately and did not associate with one another. Within overlapping areas, comparisons of distances between deer and distances between random locations indicated deer moved without regard to each other. Similarly, comparisons of observed and expected probabilities of deer using areas overlapping those of other deer also evinced that deer moved independently.

Nelson, M.E.; Sargeant, G.A.

2008-01-01

65

Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Globally, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that affect livestock, wildlife, companion animals, and humans, potentially causing serious and economically important disease problems. Little is known about hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. prevalence, host-specificity, or route of transmission in most species, including wildlife. DNA amplification by PCR targeting the 16SrRNA and the RNaseP genes was used to establish the presence and prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina. Sixty-five deer (89%) tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. where sequence analysis of the 16SsRNA and the RNaseP genes indicated the presence of at least three distinct species. This study represents the first detection of three distinct hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer and the first report of two novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species. PMID:24018179

Maggi, Ricardo G; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-12-01

66

Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: Complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms  

E-print Network

wasting disease Complement system Conditional logistic regression Prion Prnp Transmissible spongiform case­control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms

Mladenoff, David

67

Lead content in soft tissues of white-tailed deer  

SciTech Connect

The white-tailed deer is one of the North America`s most abundant game animals and can be used to monitor the quality of the environment. During the 1994 and 1995 hunting seasons, twenty-nine white-tailed deer were harvested with the permission of the Game Biologist of the Alabama Cooperative Deer Management Assistance Program and their liver and kidney samples were analyzed for lead levels. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys, were 0.35 and 0.37 ppm, respectively. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys did not show any significant difference. The lead levels in the livers of males and females were 0.49 and 0.28 ppm and in the kidneys of males and females were 0.36 and 0.38 ppm, respectively. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys of males and females also did not show any significant difference. Likewise, the lead level neither in the livers nor in the kidneys of young and old deer showed any significant difference.

Khan, A.T. [Tuskegee Univ., AL (United States). School of Veterinary Medicine

1995-12-31

68

GROWTH OF MALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: CONSEQUENCES OF MATERNAL EFFECTS  

E-print Network

quantified growth and development of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) originating from environmental conditions. Key words: antler growth, body mass, gestation, nutrition, Odocoileus virginianus

69

Assessing fluctuating asymmetry of white-tailed deer antlers in a three-dimensional context  

E-print Network

-dimensional computer models of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) antlers to measure visual. Key words: antlers, fluctuating asymmetry, modeling, Odocoileus virginianus, 3-dimensional asymmetry

Ditchkoff, Steve

70

Morphological and Genetic Comparisons between Babesia bovis and Trypanosoma spp. Found in Cattle and White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

Babesia bovis has been an important disease agent in the U.S. cattle industry for over a century. Recently, B. bovis-like parasites have been identified in white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) in Texas. If the parasites found in the WTD...

Fisher, Amanda

2012-10-19

71

Culture and Serologic Survey for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection among Southeastern White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From July 1998 through October 2002, radiometric culture (ileocecal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, and feces) and serologic testing by enzyme-linked immunosor- bent assay (ELISA) were used to survey white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the southeastern United States for infection by My- cobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was

William R. Davidson; Elizabeth J. B. Manning; Victor F. Nettles; D. B. Warnell

72

GASTROINTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER: EFFECTS OF FIRE,  

E-print Network

, Odocoileus hemionus, Odocoileus virginianus, papillae, South Dakota, white-tailed deer Limited information; and intestinal tissue weight of reproductive and nonreproductive female white- tailed (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) using similar burned and unburned habitat. Deer were collected from study areas

73

Dispersal Patterns of Male White-tailed Deer in Centre County, PA  

E-print Network

: Dispersal direction of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been hypothesized (Greenwood 1980) and dispersal is most prevalent among yearling bucks in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus. hemionus), and elk (Cervus elaphus) and is caused by transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins (Joly

Omiecinski, Curtis

74

Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BVDV in white-tailed deer has not been evaluated, which prompted this study. Six pregnant white-tailed deer were captured in the first trimester of pregnancy and cohabitated with a PI white-tailed deer. Cohabitation with the PI deer resulted in BVDV infection in all does, as indicated by seroconversion. All does gave birth to live fawns and no reproductive losses were observed. At birth, evidence of BVDV infection was identified in two singlet fawns, of which one was determined to be PI by repeated serum reverse transcription nested PCR, whole blood virus isolation and immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrates for the first time that BVDV transmission may occur among white-tailed deer. The birth of a PI fawn through contact to a PI white-tailed deer indicates that under appropriate circumstances, BVDV may be maintained in white-tailed deer by congenital infection. PMID:19922743

Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Givens, M. Daniel; Brock, Kenny V.; DeYoung, Randy W.; Walz, Paul H.

2009-01-01

75

EFFICACY OF TRICLABENDAZOLE AGAINST FASCIOLOIDIASIS (FASCIOLOIDES MAGNA) IN NATURALLY INFECTED WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of triclabendazole was evaluated in the treatment of naturally acquired Fascioloides magna infections in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginlanus). Twenty white-tailed deer were captured on the Welder Wildlife Refuge (Sinton, San Patricio County, Texas, USA) and maintained in a 64 X 64 m deer enclosure. Ten deer were given a 5% suspension of tricla- bendazole orally at a dosage

Tariq Qureshi; Thomas M. Craig; D. Lynn Drawe; Donald S. Davis

1989-01-01

76

NOTE / NOTE Winter habitat selection by white-tailed deer on  

E-print Network

are important questions for winter habi- tat management of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann. Résumé : Pour aménager l'habitat hivernal du cerf de Virginie, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780 and Boots 676 Introduction At northern latitudes, white-tailed deer, Odocoileus vir- ginianus (Zimmermann

Laval, Université

77

Vanishing White Matter Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... in your family, you can talk to a genetic counselor about the option of prenatal testing, as well as testing of family members so that they can find out if they are carriers of the disease (see our fact sheet on genetic inheritance for more information about this). Other Clinical ...

78

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Twenty-two white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One group (n=5) received 109 colony-forming units (cfu) BCG via a lipid-formulated oral bait; one group (n=5) received 109 cfu

P. Nol; M. V. Palmer; W. R. Waters; F. E. Aldwell; B. M. Buddle; J. M. Triantis; L. M. Linke; G. E. Phillips; T. C. Thacker; J. C. Rhyan; M. D. Salman; M. R. Dunbar

2008-01-01

79

HumanWildlife Interactions 5(1):3246, Spring 2011 Preference of white-tailed deer for corn  

E-print Network

(Zea mays) by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can be substantial, resulting in millions­wildlife conflicts, Odocoileus virginianus, South Dakota, white-tailed deer 1 Badlands National Park, 25216 Ben Reifel Road, Box 6, Interior, SD 57750, USA White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) feed extensively

80

Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.  

SciTech Connect

D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

D'Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

2003-12-31

81

Female white-tailed deer survival across ecoregions in minnesota and south dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities and vehicle collisions accounted for an additional 15.0%. Natural causes (e.g., disease, predation) of mortality were minor compared to human-related causes (e.g., hunting, vehicle collisions). We used known fate modeling in program MARK to estimate survival rates and compare ecoregions and seasons. Model Sseason (winter=summer) had the lowest AICc value suggesting that survival differed only between seasons where winter and summer survival was equal and differed with fall season. Annual and seasonal (summer, fall, winter) survival rates using the top model S season (summer=winter) were 0.76 (95% ci = 0.70-0.80), 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), 0.80 (95% ci = 0.76-0.83) and 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), respectively. High human-related mortality was likely associated with limited permanent cover, extensive road networks and high hunter density. Deer management in four distinct ecoregions relies on hunter harvest to maintain deer populations within state management goals. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Deperno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

2011-01-01

82

Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2014-01-01

83

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

2014-01-01

84

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from the lungs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia.  

PubMed

In vitro susceptibilities of 29 strains of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from lung lesions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia were determined using the broth microdilution method to ascertain efficacious treatment options for pneumonic white-tailed deer. All 29 A. pyogenes strains tested were susceptible to ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but were resistant to both danofloxacin and sulfadimethoxine. Likewise, all 29 isolates were either fully susceptible or intermediately susceptible to gentamicin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate) and tulathromycin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate). At least one isolate of A. pyogenes tested was resistant to ampicillin, chlortetracycline, clindamycin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and tilmicosin suggesting their ineffectiveness in treating A. pyogenes-associated lung infections in white-tailed deer. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for tylosin and neomycin could not be interpreted due to unavailability of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-approved breakpoints for these 2 agents. In summary, based on MIC values, ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are more efficacious than other antimicrobial agents for treating A. pyogenes-related pneumonia in white-tailed deer. However, ceftiofur may be preferred over the other 4 drugs as it is being widely used to treat respiratory disease in cattle and other animal species, as well as is available for single dose parenteral administration. PMID:21908365

Tell, Lisa A; Brooks, Jason W; Lintner, Valerie; Matthews, Tammy; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

2011-09-01

85

Winter Nutrition and Population Ecology of White-Tailed Deer in the Central Superior National Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and wolves (Canis lupus) evolved together, and in parts of southern Canada and the northern United States, the two animals still live together. To fully understand the relationship between deer and wolves, it is ...

G. D. DelGiudice, M. E. Nelson, L. D. Mech

1991-01-01

86

GENETIC STRUCTURING OF COUES WHITE-TAILED DEER IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

patterns of genetic relatedness for Coues white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus couesi) in Arizona. hemionus eremicus). Both species are sympatric in many areas of the southwestern United States. Hybrid

87

Unusual Migration by a White-Tailed Deer Fawn in South Dakota  

E-print Network

migration by a flVe-day-old white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) fawn in the central Black deer (0. hemionus) fawns in their study made movements greater than 1 km prior to one month of age

88

Assessment of the urban public's knowledge of white-tailed deer management in two Texas communities  

E-print Network

Urbanization throughout much of Texas has resulted in diminished wildlife habitat, resulting from fragmented landscapes. Several previous studies addressed the public’s attitudes concerning the most acceptable white-tailed deer management techniques...

Alderson, Jessica Lynn

2009-05-15

89

Seasonal movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota  

E-print Network

patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) inhabiting landscapes intensively Virginie (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)), il est important de connai^tre les patrons de de (Odocoi- leus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) inhabiting Midwest agricultural areas generally include

90

Effects of immunocontraception on a suburban population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in North America have altered the structure of some forest communities and caused serious conflicts with farmers, gardeners, and motorists, encouraging the search for novel techniques to control populations of deer and other wildlife. We administered the porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraceptive vaccine to female white-tailed deer living on the 233-ha campus of

Allen T. Rutberg; Ricky E. Naugle; Lori A. Thiele; Irwin K. M. Liu

2004-01-01

91

VARIABLE ACORN CROPS: RESPONSES OF WHITE-TAILED DEER AND OTHER MAST CONSUMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined movements and behavior of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) relative to the acorn mast-fall from 1986 through 1989 in a mature deciduous forest in Front Royal, Virginia. Ten white-tailed deer with radiotransmitters increased their home range to incorporate acorn-producing areas during mast-fall. Consumption of acorns by deer con­ stituted ca. 50% of foraging time during peak mast-fall; average

WILLIAM J. MCSHEA; GEORG SCHWEDE

92

Movements of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Texanus (Mearns), on the Welder Wildlife Refuge  

E-print Network

MOVEMENTS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER, ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS TEXANUS (MEARNS), ON THE WELDER WILDLIFE REFUGE A Thesis By EDWIN DARYL MICHAEL Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1963 Major Subject: Wildlife Management MOVEMENTS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER, ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS TEXANUS (MaARNS), Ol THE WELDER WILDLIFE REFUGE A Thesis EDWIN DARYL MICHAEL Appr e as to tyle a...

Michael, Edwin Daryl

2012-06-07

93

Some grazing system impacts on white-tailed deer on the northern Rio Grande Plain  

E-print Network

untreated areas since the regrowth in these treated areas was sufficient to provide good cover for white-tailed deer. The western section of pasture 1 was seeded, after root ploughing and raking, with buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and blue panic... untreated areas since the regrowth in these treated areas was sufficient to provide good cover for white-tailed deer. The western section of pasture 1 was seeded, after root ploughing and raking, with buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and blue panic...

Patrickson, Hugh Douglas

2012-06-07

94

Male vigilance in white-tailed ptarmigan, Lagopus leucurus : mate guarding or predator detection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male white-tailed ptarmigan accompany their mates 88-92% of sightings before the onset of incubation, and while accompanying their mates, spend 22-30% of their time displaying vigilant behaviour. Two hypotheses to explain the function of male vigilance before onset of incubation were examined in white-tailed ptarmigan. The protection of paternity hypothesis proposes that male vigilance minimizes the threat of cuckoldry, thereby

THOMAS ARTISS; KATHY MARTIN

1995-01-01

95

Lesion Development in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of tuberculosis in free-living white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan underscores the need for increased understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in wildlife species. To investigate lesion development in white-tailed deer, 32 deer were experimentally infected by intratonsilar instillation of 300 colony-forming units of Mycobacterium bovis. Three deer each were euthanatized and examined at days 15, 28, 42,

M. V. Palmer; W. R. Waters; D. L. Whipple

2002-01-01

96

White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) develop spirochetemia following experimental infection with Borrelia lonestari  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borrelia lonestari is considered a putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) and is known to occur naturally only in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We used a low passage isolate of B. lonestari (LS-1) to inoculate white-tailed deer, C3H mice, Holstein cattle, and beagles. Animals were monitored via examination of Giemsa and acridine

P. L. Moyer; A. S. Varela; M. P. Luttrell; V MOOREIV; D. E. Stallknecht; S. E. Little

2006-01-01

97

Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

98

Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole blood or culture. None of the deer showed evidence of clinical disease, but 3 of the 6 deer evaluated had multiple episodes of transient thrombocytopenia. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained, thin blood smears revealed tiny, dark, spherical structures in platelets of acutely infected deer. Anaplasma sp. was detected in platelets of inoculated deer by polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Five of 6 deer developed antibodies reactive to Anaplasma sp. antigen, as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and gltA sequences confirmed the Anaplasma sp. is related to A. platys. Two attempts to transmit the Anaplasma sp. between deer by feeding Amblyomma americanum, a suspected tick vector, were unsuccessful. Based on its biologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, this organism is considered a novel species of Anaplasma, and the name Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. is proposed with UMUM76T (=CSUR-A1) as the type strain. PMID:23276749

Tate, Cynthia M.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Mead, Daniel G.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Luttrell, M. Page; Sahora, Alexandra I.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Davidson, William R.; Yabsley, Michael J.

2014-01-01

99

Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole blood or culture. None of the deer showed evidence of clinical disease, but 3 of the 6 deer evaluated had multiple episodes of transient thrombocytopenia. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained, thin blood smears revealed tiny, dark, spherical structures in platelets of acutely infected deer. Anaplasma sp. was detected in platelets of inoculated deer by polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Five of 6 deer developed antibodies reactive to Anaplasma sp. antigen, as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and gltA sequences confirmed the Anaplasma sp. is related to A. platys. Two attempts to transmit the Anaplasma sp. between deer by feeding Amblyomma americanum, a suspected tick vector, were unsuccessful. Based on its biologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, this organism is considered a novel species of Anaplasma, and the name Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. is proposed with UMUM76(T) (=CSUR-A1) as the type strain. PMID:23276749

Tate, Cynthia M; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Mead, Daniel G; Dugan, Vivien G; Luttrell, M Page; Sahora, Alexandra I; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Davidson, William R; Yabsley, Michael J

2013-02-01

100

SEMI-MELANISTIC WHITE-TAILED DEER IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN --Melanistic color morphs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are  

E-print Network

sp.), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), pines (Pinus spp.), and swamp-melanistic adult deer in northwestern Wisconsin. On 9 and 19 September 2007 an adult ( 2.5 years of age) female and yearling (1.5 years of age) male white-tailed deer were photographed by a landowner using trail cameras (i

101

Kidney structure and function of obligate and facultative hibernators: the white-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys leucurus ) and the black-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-tailed prairie dog is an obligate hibernator that enters a heterothermic phase when maintained in the cold with low intensity light and ad libitum food and water. The black-tailed prairie dog (a facultative hibernator) will not hibernate under similar conditions. It has been suggested that the black tailed prairie dog remains active during the winter because it can conserve

H. J. Harlow; E. J. Braun

1995-01-01

102

Detection and Multigenic Characterization of a Herpesvirus Associated with Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1998 and 2001, tissues from four captive white-tailed deer were observed to have histologic lesions of systemic lymphocytic vasculitis. These lesions suggested malignant catarrhal fever, although epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue were included in the differential diagnosis. Initial diagnostic efforts, including virus isolation and reverse transcription-PCR for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and blue- tongue virus, failed to identify an

Steven B. Kleiboeker; Margaret A. Miller; Susan K. Schommer; Jose A. Ramos-Vara; Magalie Boucher; Susan E. Turnquist

2002-01-01

103

Experimental malignant catarrhal fever (African form) in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were experimentally infected with the African form of malignant catarrhal fever (AMCF) virus by inoculation of whole blood from experimentally infected cattle, from whole blood obtained from a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and from virus isolated in cell culture. The incubation period from AMCF in experimentally infected deer ranged from 13 to 18 days. Clinical disease was characterized by lacrimation, an elevated body temperature, conjunctivitis and swelling of the external lymph nodes. Histologic lesions were primarily characterized by widespread vasculitis and lymphadenopathy. The organs most severely affected were liver, lymphoid tissue, brain and lungs. Successful recovery and identification of AMCF virus was accomplished from one experimentally infected deer. PMID:7310953

Whitenack, D L; Castro, A E; Kocan, A A

1981-07-01

104

Management and Conservation Spatial Ecology of White-Tailed Deer  

E-print Network

(Odocoileus virginianus) in particular, respond to Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands. We conducted range, movement, northern Great Plains, Odocoileus virginianus, resource selection, South Dakota, white

105

Novel Data as a Source for Assessing Breeding Phenology of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in South Carolina.  

E-print Network

??White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) breeding phenology varies temporally throughout the species' range and is critical to population management and hunter enjoyment. The South Carolina Department… (more)

Stone, David

2012-01-01

106

Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P., Jr.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

2009-01-01

107

Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010, brains of 155 white-tailed deer fetuses were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. Viable N. caninum (NcWTDMn1, NcWTDMn2) was isolated from the brains of two fetuses by bioassays in mice, and subsequent propagation in cell culture. Dams of these two infected fetuses had antibodies to N. caninum by Neospora agglutination test at 1:100 serum dilution. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates with Nc5 PCR confirmed diagnosis. Results prove congenital transmission of N. caninum in the white tailed deer for the first time. PMID:23566408

Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Villena, I; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

2013-09-23

108

Ecological studies of the white-tailed deer in western Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Activity patterns and microhabitat utilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are being studied at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant in Carroll and Gibson counties, Tennessee. Ten white-tailed deer have been fitted with radio-collars, and locations are being monitored using standard techniques. Home ranges and daily activity patterns are being determined. Preliminary analyses have shown that white-tailed deer are readily located using radio-techniques. Microhabitat utilization is being assessed by pellet transects and radio locations. Pellet counts from transects located in pastures and old fields are significantly different from those in other habitat types. Use of honeysuckle (Lonicera sp.) is being examined by observing the degree of browse along transects. No significant difference in utilization has been seen between the honeysuckle transects.

Frederick, R.D.; Kennedy, M.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States))

1993-04-01

109

FINE-SCALE GENETIC STRUCTURE AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION IN FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important,management,implications. The formation,of matrilineal social groups among,female deer has been documented,and management,strategies have been proposed,based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared,(n = 17) and hunter or vehi- cle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River

CHRISTOPHER E. COMER; JOHN C. KILGO; GINO J. D'ANGELO; TRAVIS C. GLENN; KARL V. MILLER; DeWoody

2005-01-01

110

Observation of the cervix and artificial insemination in captive white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

sound, and large in body and antler size. The establishment of a well-managed AI program in white-tailed deer will be an important step i'orward in the preservation of captive wild cervidae for the future. LITEBATUBE BEVIEW i'emeie Reproduction... sound, and large in body and antler size. The establishment of a well-managed AI program in white-tailed deer will be an important step i'orward in the preservation of captive wild cervidae for the future. LITEBATUBE BEVIEW i'emeie Reproduction...

Magyar, Stephen John

2012-06-07

111

Plant Disease Lesson: White pine blister rust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on White pine blister rust (caused by Cronartium ribicola (Peridermium strobi)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Otis C. Maloy (Washington State University;)

2003-09-08

112

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 84 (2005) 119 POPULATION MODELS FOR WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule (O. hemionus) deer make up a significant portion of this wildlife Models were developed for the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population inhabiting the Black-tailed deer in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Keywords Black Hills, Odocoileus virginianus, population model

113

Journal of Environmental Management (1996) 48, 299303 Estimating 24-h Habitat Use Patterns of White-Tailed Deer from  

E-print Network

habitat use patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, habitat use, Odocoileus virginianus, radio telemetry, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. 1. Introduction) concluded that nocturnal habitat use by female desert mule deer (O. hemionus) was representative of diurnal

114

White-Tailed Deer Management Practices on Private Lands in Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of management plans for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) requires that states examine how multiple biological and regulatory factors (i.e., season timing, hunting access, bag limits) influence populations. In the southeastern United States, harvest restrictions often exceed state regulations on private lands. Thus, better information regarding harvest management on private lands is needed by wildlife agencies when developing management plans.

BRET A. COLLIER; DAVID G. KREMENTZ

2006-01-01

115

137 WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 8:2 (2002) Traditional approaches for studying white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

(DelGiudice, Mech, Seal & Karns 1987). K:C ratios have potential as an indi- cator of food intake where indices to determine temporal and regional patterns in nutri- tional status of white-tailed deer):creatinine (C), an index of nutri- tional status, and potassium (K):creatinine (C), an index of forage intake

Ditchkoff, Steve

116

Do Wolves Affect White-Tailed Buck Harvest In Northeastern Minnesota?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In early 2000 the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center posted this resource on wolves at their Website. "Do Wolves Affect White-Tailed Buck Harvest In Northeastern Minnesota?" summarizes wolf impacts on deer hunting in northeastern Minnesota from 1975 to 1977. The resource may be downloaded as a .zip file.

Mech, L. D.; Nelson, Michael E.

117

A PLAGUE EPIZOOTIC IN THE WHITE-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LEUCURUS) OF MEETEETSE, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance for sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted near Meeteetse, Wyoming (USA) from 24 May to 14 june 1985. Ten species of fleas were collected from white- tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus), and from their burrows and associated rodents. Five of these flea species and two adult prairie dogs were positive for plague. The progression of this plague epizootic appeared

Sonya R. Ubico; Kathleen A. Fagerstone; Robert G. McLean

118

EXPERIMENTAL CONTAGIOUS ECTHYMA IN MULE DEER, WHITE-TAILED DEER, PRONGHORN AND WAPITI1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ocis cana- densis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species devel- oped mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly

William R. Lance; Charles P. Hibler; James DeMartini

119

Browsing of tree regeneration by white-tailed deer in large clearcuts on Anticosti Island, Quebec  

E-print Network

woody debris. It thus appears that large CPRS clearcuts will not permit the regeneration of balsam fir by both deer browsing and distance from forest edge. Woody debris seemed to protect balsam fir seedlingsBrowsing of tree regeneration by white-tailed deer in large clearcuts on Anticosti Island, Quebec

Laval, Université

120

Influence of thorns and tannins on white-tailed deer browsing after mowing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used caged and uncaged plants to compare shoot growth, biomass, spinescence, nutrient, and tannin content of blackbrush acacia (Acacia rigidula Benth.), honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.), and spiny hackberry (Celtis pallida Torr.) 6 and 12 weeks after mowing, and estimated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Raf.) use of sprouts of each species stripped of spines and unstripped. Blackbrush acacia grew

Jason R. Schindler; Timothy E. Fulbright; T. D. A. Forbes

2003-01-01

121

NESTING DOCUMENTATION FOR THE WHITE-TAILED PTARMIGAN IN THE SANGRE DE CRISTO MOUNTAINS, NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southernmost extent of the range of White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) reaches into north-central New Mexico. Although known to occur in New Mexico since around 1865, their exact distribution and abundance is not well known. This is primarily because the species is an alpine obligate, which has made efforts to survey difficult. Here I describe the first nest of the

Donald H. Wolfe

122

Body mass, age, and reproductive influences on liver mass of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

E-print Network

on liver mass to gain insight into liver-mass variation in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus body mass is controlled. Key words: Odocoileus virginianus, ruminant, scaling relationships, visceral. [Traduit par la R�daction] Mots-cl�s : Odocoileus virginianus, ruminant, relation d'�chelle, organe visc

Weckerly, Floyd "Butch" - Department of Biology, Texas State University

123

Immunohistological localization of testosterone in the growing antler of the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using immunohistological methods (fluorescein and peroxidase labeled double antibody technique), the localization of testosterone in the antlers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at the beginning of the period of accelerated calcification was examined. The most intense reaction for testosterone was found in the prochondral blastema layer and in the growing follicles of the velvet. The findings may indicate the importance

G. A. Bubenik; G. M. Brown; A. B. Bubenik; L. J. Grota

1974-01-01

124

Proximity of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, ranges to wolf Canis lupus, pack homesites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven adult female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota lived within 1.8 km of Wolf pack (Canis lupus) homesites without vacating their home ranges. Six of these deer and at least three of their fawns survived through the Wolf homesite period.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2001-01-01

125

Evaluation of an electrified mat as a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) pose economic and safety problems for agricultural and transportation industries. We tested an electronic mat to determine if it would reduce deer crossing through fence openings. We measured deer intrusions and corn consumption at five sites with charged mats and five sites with non-charged mats. Weekly intrusions at treated sites decreased an average of 95% from

Thomas W. Seamans; David A. Helon

2008-01-01

126

Modeling white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus population control by contraception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large populations of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus present conservation problems in suburban landscapes because of limited population control options. We used the GAPPS II modeling system to simulate temporal effects of contraception on deer population control and the interaction between contraception and uncertain immigration rates. Contraception rates less than 50% of female deer curbed population growth with a long (30

Steven W. Seagle; John D. Close

1996-01-01

127

Transmission of Babesia odocoilel in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) by Ixodes scapularis (Acari: lxodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory reared Ixodes scapu- laris proved to be an efficient vector of Babesia odocoilei Emerson and Wright between white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virgin janus ). Transta- dial survival of the babesia occurred between nymph and adult stages of the tick, and the adult stage transmitted the babesia.

K. A. Waldrup; A. A. Kocan; R. W. Barker; G. G. Wagner

128

HumanWildlife Conflicts 2(1):2833, Spring 2008 Sharpshooting suburban white-tailed  

E-print Network

when white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) become abundant in urban and suburban environments (Ng to demonstrate that a reduction in deer (Odocoileus spp.) densities will result in a decline in DVCs. We can significantly reduce DVCs. Key words: deer­vehicle collisions, human­wildlife conflict, Odocoileus

129

Newly Recognized Herpesvirus Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify

HONG LI; NEIL DYER; JANICE KELLER; TIMOTHY B. CRAWFORD

130

White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Predation on Grassland Songbird Nestlings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) continues to place scientific/ management resources online for general viewing. This resource, by Pamela J. Pietz and Diane A. Granfors, was published in 2000 in American Midland Naturalist [144(2):419-422] and reports on four instances of nest depredation by white-tailed deer. It may be browsed online or downloaded as a .zip file.

Granfors, Diane A.; Pietz, Pamela J.

2000-01-01

131

Evaluation of Two Survey Methods for Detection of Helminth Infections in \\\\White? tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, from central Pennsyl- vania were examined for helminth parasites by regular autopsy pro- cedures supplemented by a direct centrifugal flotation technique. The two methods were compared and evaluated for suitability in diagnosis and survey work. The reliability and repeatability of the flotation method were studied. Prevalence of most nematodes encountered was increased as a direct result

W. M. SAMUEL; R. L. BEAUDOIN

1966-01-01

132

Aversive responses of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus , to predator urines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urine from bobcats (Lyra rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of Japanese yews (Taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. Urine of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting

Robert K. Swihart; Joseph J. Pignatello; Mary Jane I. Mattina

1991-01-01

133

Volatile Compounds from the Forehead Region of Male White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretions produced by sebaceous and apocrine glands of cervids may be important in identifying individuals, establishing dominance, and signaling sexual readiness. The secretions from these glands are transferred to the hair for both lubrication and scent communication via forehead rubbing. We collected hair samples from the forehead and back of 10 male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of various ages and

J. W. Gassett; D. P. Wiesler; A. G. Baker; D. A. Osborn; K. V. Miller; R. L. Marchinton; M. Novotny

1997-01-01

134

Fasting Biochemistry of Representative Spontaneous and Facultative Hibernators : The White-Tailed Prairie Dog and the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-tailed prairie dog is a spontaneous hibernator that enters art anorexic state followed by torpor in early fall. The black-tailed prairie dog is a facultative hibernator that enters torpor only when deprived of food and water in the winter. The physiological state of hibernation is similar to a Phase II euthermic fast characterized by elevated fat catabolism, increased blood

C. J Cotton; Henry Harlow

1995-01-01

135

Survey of Borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from Arkansas, U.S.A.  

PubMed Central

Background In the Eastern and Upper Midwestern regions of North America, Ixodes scapularis (L.) is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region Amblyomma americanum (Say) is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit B. burgdorferi. Surveys of Borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern United States and often these surveys identify B. lonestari as the primary Borrelia species, surveys have not included Arkansas ticks, canines, or white-tailed deer and B. lonestari is not considered pathogenic. The objective of this study was to identify Borrelia species within Arkansas by screening ticks (n?=?2123), canines (n?=?173), and white-tailed deer (n?=?228) to determine the identity and locations of Borreliae endemic to Arkansas using PCR amplification of the flagellin (flaB) gene. Methods Field collected ticks from canines and from hunter-killed white-tailed were identified to species and life stage. After which, ticks and their hosts were screened for the presence of Borrelia using PCR to amplify the flaB gene. A subset of the positive samples was confirmed with bidirectional sequencing. Results In total 53 (21.2%) white-tailed deer, ten (6%) canines, and 583 (27.5%) Ixodid ticks (252 Ixodes scapularis, 161 A. americanum, 88 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 50 Amblyomma maculatum, 19 Dermacentor variabilis, and 13 unidentified Amblyomma species) produced a Borrelia flaB amplicon. Of the positive ticks, 324 (22.7%) were collected from canines (151 A. americanum, 78 R. sanguineus, 43 I. scapularis, 26 A. maculatum, 18 D. variabilis, and 8 Amblyomma species) and 259 (37.2%) were collected from white-tailed deer (209 I. scapularis, 24 A. maculatum, 10 A. americanum, 10 R. sanguineus, 1 D. variabilis, and 5 Amblyomma species). None of the larvae were PCR positive. A majority of the flaB amplicons were homologous with B. lonestari sequences: 281 of the 296 sequenced ticks, 3 canines, and 27 deer. Only 22 deer, 7 canines, and 15 tick flaB amplicons (12 I. scapularis, 2 A. maculatum, and 1 Amblyomma species) were homologous with B. burgdorferi sequences. Conclusions Data from this study identified multiple Borreliae genotypes in Arkansas ticks, canines and deer including B. burgdorferi and B. lonestari; however, B. lonestari was significantly more prevalent in the tick population than B. burgdorferi. Results from this study suggest that the majority of tick-borne diseases in Arkansas are not B. burgdorferi. PMID:22781030

2012-01-01

136

Plague in a complex of white-tailed prairie dogs and associated small mammals in Wyoming.  

PubMed

Fleas were collected from white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) and other small mammals trapped on six grids during a field study near Meeteetse (Wyoming, USA) in 1989 and 1990 to investigate the dynamics of plague in this rodent population. Fleas were identified and tested for Yersinia pestis by mouse inoculation. Yersinia pestis-positive fleas were found on prairie dogs and in their burrows. Flea species on prairie dogs changed from spring to late summer. White-tailed prairie dog numbers were significantly lower in the presence of Y. pestis-positive fleas; however, affected populations generally recovered 1 to 2 yr following absence of detectable plague. Grids where recovery occurred had a high proportion of juvenile male prairie dogs. Eighteen flea species were identified on small mammals, six of which were infected with Y. pestis. Some flea species were associated with a particular small mammal species, while others were found on a broad range of host species. Flea species most important in the potential interchange of Y. pestis between associated small mammals and white-tailed prairie dogs were Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris, Oropsylla idahoensis, and Oropsylla labis. Plague cycled through the white-tailed prairie dog complex in an unpredictable manner. Each summer the complex was a mixture of colonies variously impacted by plague: some were declining, some were unaffected by plague, and others were recovering from plague population declines. These data provide insight into the dynamics of plague in white-tailed prairie dog complexes, but predicting movement of plague is not yet possible and the role of associated mammals in maintenance of plague is not understood. PMID:9391955

Anderson, S H; Williams, E S

1997-10-01

137

J Vet Diagn Invest 20:7982 (2008) Evaluation of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer for evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus  

E-print Network

(Odocoileus virginianus) for evidence of BVDV infection. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 2; immunohistochemistry; Odocoileus virginianus; seroprevalence; white-tailed deer. Artiodactyla, as has recently been reviewed.25 White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most abundant

Ditchkoff, Steve

138

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.  

PubMed

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

2013-10-25

139

Sexual selection for white tail spots in the barn swallow in relation to habitat choice by feather lice.  

PubMed

Many bird species have white spots in their tails or wing feathers, and such characters have been hypothesized to be either reliable signals (handicaps) or amplifiers that facilitate the message of a signal. In barn swallows, Hirundo rustica, the size of the white spots in the tail feathers is sexually dimorphic and positively correlated with feather length. We tested whether such spots act as handicaps or amplifiers. These white spots affect sexual selection in barn swallows, as shown by an experiment in which we randomly subjected males to (1) a considerable reduction of the size of all the spots by the use of a black permanent marker pen, (2) a small reduction of the size of the spots, or (3) no reduction. There was a positive association between spot size and the number of offspring produced per season. The white tail spots were preferred by feather-eating Mallophaga as a feeding site: holes made by Mallophaga were more abundant in the white spots than expected by chance. A habitat choice experiment with Mallophaga on barn swallow tail feathers revealed that they preferred white spots over black parts of the tail feathers. We therefore expected long-tailed male barn swallows to have more Mallophaga than short-tailed males. However, the opposite relationship was observed, indicating that long-tailed males may reliably signal their quality by the presence of large white tail spots without parasite damage. Thus white tail spots in barn swallows appear to be a reliable signal of phenotypic quality. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10600140

Kose; Mänd; Møller

1999-12-01

140

Sensitivity of condition indices to changing density in a white-tailed deer population  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ways in which comprehensive condition profiles, incorporating morphometric, histologic, physiologic, and diet quality indices, responded to changes in density of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population were examined. Changes in these condition indices were monitored in a northeastern Oklahoma deer herd as density declined from peaks of 80 and 72 deer/km2 in 1989 and 1990 (high-density) to lows of 39 and 41 deer/km2 in 1991 and 1992 (reduced-density), respectively. Compared to a reference population (6 deer/km2), deer sampled during high-density exhibited classic signs of nutritional stress such as low body and visceral organ masses (except elevated adrenal gland mass), low fecal nitrogen levels, reduced concentrations of serum albumin, elevated serum creatinine concentrations, and a high prevalence of parasitic infections. Although density declined by one half over the 4-yr study, gross indices of condition (in particular body mass and size) remained largely unchanged. However, selected organ masses, serum albumin and non-protein nitrogen constituents, and fecal nitrogen indices reflected improvements in nutritional status with reductions in density. Many commonly used indices of deer condition (fat reserves, hematocrit, total serum protein, and blood urea nitrogen) were not responsive to fluctuations in density. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 1998.

Sams, M.G.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Qualls, C.W., Jr.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.

1998-01-01

141

Function of the heterocercal tail in white sturgeon: flow visualization during steady swimming and vertical maneuvering.  

PubMed

Basal ray-finned fishes possess a heterocercal tail in which the dorsal lobe containing the extension of the vertebral column is longer than the ventral lobe. Clarifying the function of the heterocercal tail has proved elusive because of the difficulty of measuring the direction of force produced relative to body position in the aquatic medium. We measured the direction of force produced by the heterocercal tail of the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) by visualizing flow in the wake of the tail using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) while simultaneously recording body position and motion using high-speed video. To quantify tail function, we measured the vertical body velocity, the body angle and the path angle of the body from video recordings and the vortex ring axis angle and vortex jet angle from DPIV recordings of the wake downstream from the tail. These variables were measured for sturgeon exhibiting three swimming behaviors at 1.2 L s(-)(1), where L is total body length: rising through the water column, holding vertical position, and sinking through the water column. For vertical body velocity, body angle and path angle values, all behaviors were significantly different from one another. For vortex ring axis angle and vortex jet angle, rising and holding behavior were not significantly different from each other, but both were significantly different from sinking behavior. During steady horizontal swimming, the sturgeon tail generates a lift force relative to the path of motion but no rotational moment because the reaction force passes through the center of mass. For a rising sturgeon, the tail does not produce a lift force but causes the tail to rotate ventrally in relation to the head since the reaction force passes ventral to the center of mass. While sinking, the direction of the fluid jet produced by the tail relative to the path of motion causes a lift force to be created and causes the tail to rotate dorsally in relation to the head since the reaction force passes dorsal to the center of mass. These data provide evidence that sturgeon can actively control the direction of force produced by their tail while maneuvering through the water column because the relationship between vortex jet angle and body angle is not constant. PMID:11060219

Liao, J; Lauder, G V

2000-12-01

142

Annotated Bibliography of Methodologies to Census, Estimate, and Monitor the Size of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting annotated bibliography, from Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, describes methodologies to census, estimate, and monitor the size of white-tailed deer populations. The bibliography is organized into three sections: a decade-by-decade summary of measuring/ monitoring techniques; techniques for biological populations (52 annotated references); and techniques for white-tailed deer (160 annotated references). In each section, earliest publications (1889) appear first, culminating in 1997. While the database emphasizes methodologies specific to white-tailed deer, it also does an excellent job documenting the historical evolution of techniques to measure wildlife populations. An author and keyword index completes the resource.

143

Aversive responses of white-tailed deer,Odocoileus virginianus, to predator urines.  

PubMed

We tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urine from bobcats (Lyra rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of Japanese yews (Taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. Urine of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting that deer do not respond aversively to odors of nonpredatory mammals or occasional predators with which they lack a long evolutionary association. Bobcat and coyote urine were more effective in tests conducted with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), which is less palatable to white-tailed deer than Japanese yew. A dichloromethane extract of bobcat urine was as effective as unextracted urine in reducing damage to hemlocks. Testing of the organic components of bobcat urine, particularly the volatile components, may enable identification of the compounds responsible for the repellency we observed. PMID:24258921

Swihart, R K; Pignatello, J J; Mattina, M J

1991-04-01

144

Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

1984-01-01

145

Response of white-tailed deer to infection with peste des petits ruminants virus.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were infected experimentally with two strains of peste des petits ruminants virus. The response varied from fatal consequence to subclinical infection. The clinical signs and gross lesions were similar to those in goats. Virus was recovered from all the infected deer, and survivors developed specific antibodies demonstrated by complement fixation and virus neutralization tests. Survivors also resisted challenge with virulent rinderpest virus that was lethal to a control deer. PMID:16502689

Hamdy, F M; Dardiri, A H

1976-10-01

146

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PREDATOR REMOVAL AND WHITE-TAILED DEER NET PRODUCTIVITY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the impact of predation on productivity of white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in South Texas by removing predators from one area and compar- ing the results to a control area. A total of 188 coyotes (Canis latrans) and 120 bobcats (Lynx rufus) were removed during predator removal efforts on the approximately 5,400-acre (2,186-ha) experimental

SAMUEL L. BEASOM

147

White-tailed deer activity reconstructed from tree-rings in eastern boreal Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the potential of tree-ring techniques for the reconstruction of recent and past seasonal activity of introduced white-tailed deer in a boreal environment of eastern Canada. Hoof scrape scars on balsam fir stems and trampling scars on roots were used to reconstruct deer activity during the winter and snow-free seasons, respectively. Tree damage showed that there was continuous deer

Lydia Querrec; Louise Filion

2008-01-01

148

Field testing of commercially manufactured capture collars on white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted 31 tests of commercially manufactured capture collars on female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, under temperatures from -37C to 22C. Deer were recaptured in 28 of the 31 tests; in the 3 failures, we remotely released the collars from the deer. Communication with the collars was achieved from up to 3.0 km on the ground and 26.5 km from the air.

Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Kreeger, T.J.

1990-01-01

149

REPORTING-RATE VARIABILITY AND PRECISION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER HARVEST ESTIMATES IN PENNSYLVANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Use of reported harvests as an index to actual harvest assumes,that the proportion,of harvest reported,is equal for all types of animals and hunters and does not vary spatially or temporally. We modeled,reporting rates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvest to determine whether they varied by year, deer management unit (DMU), type of deer (antlered or antlerless), or sex. During

CHRISTOPHER S. ROSENBERRY; DUANE R. DIEFENBACH; BRET D. WALLINGFORD

2004-01-01

150

New infectious spirochete isolated from short-tailed shrews and white-footed mice.  

PubMed Central

A spirochete with two periplasmic flagella was isolated from the blood or tissues of spleens and kidneys from short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in Connecticut and Minnesota. After inoculation, the shrew-mouse spirochete infected Swiss mice and Syrian hamsters. This spirochete is morphologically and serologically distinct from the species of Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, and Spirochaeta examined. Images PMID:3305565

Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W; Andreadis, T G

1987-01-01

151

Population dynamics and predator-prey relationships of the Carmen Mountains white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

. Jack M. Inglis Five parameters were used to evaluate the status of the Carmen Mo otal a white-tailed deer (odocoi leuu ~vir i ia ua carmioit, Goldmao and Kellogg) in Big Bend National Park during 1971 and 1972. These included density, estimated... total numbers, relative abundance between years, sex ratios and predation pressure. Hahn cruise lines and pellet group transects were employed to estimate density in both sotol grass- land and woodland vegetative types of the Chisos Mountains. Cruise...

Atkinson, Don Eugene

2012-06-07

152

Within-yard habitat use by white-tailed deer at varying winter severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetative, topological, and spatial features that were associated with habitat use of radio-collared white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, n=17 in 1996–1997 and n=13 in 1997–1998) were identified as snow depth changed in the Odell Deeryard, NB, Canada. Logistic regressions and classification trees revealed that use of forest stands varied with snow depth, and between the 1996–1997 and 1997–1998 yarding periods. Stand

Shawn F. Morrison; Graham J. Forbes; Steven J. Young; Stewart Lusk

2003-01-01

153

Food access by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) at winter feeding sites in eastern Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, we studied aggressive behaviour of White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at winter feeding stations in the Pohénégamook wintering area, Québec (47°29?N 69°14?W). The study aimed at determining if aggressive behaviour was related to priority of access to food by various age–sex classes. Deer were observed daily at four feeding sites and weekly at six others. More than 100 deer

Diane Grenier; Cyrille Barrette; Michel Crête

1999-01-01

154

High prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples of 400 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 16 preserves in northeastern Illinois were tested for Neospora caninum antibodies in the N. caninum agglutination test using mouse-derived N. caninum tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Antibodies were found in 162 deer with titres of 1:40 (47 deer), 1:80 (32 deer), 1:160 (17 deer), 1:200 (eight deer), 1:400 (19 deer), 1:800 (17 deer)

J. P Dubey; K Hollis; S Romand; P Thulliez; O. C. H Kwok; L Hungerford; C Anchor; D Etter

1999-01-01

155

EFFICACY OF IVERMECTIN AGAINST PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS ANDERSON! (NEMATODA, METASTRONGYLOIDEA) IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lvermectin was injected subcutaneously at 200 and 400 big\\/kg of body weight into seven white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in an attempt to control the muscle nematode Parelaphostrongylus andersoni. Counts of first-stage larvae in feces dropped to zero at 17 to 18 days posttreatment. Larvae reappeared in feces 1.5 to 6 wk later in six deer. Four deer were treated again

W. M. Samuel; J. Brent Gray

156

Volatile compounds from interdigital gland of male white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdigital secretions were collected from eight male white-tailed deer of various ages. Analysis of volatiles was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a modified headspace technique. Forty-six volatile compounds were found including alkanes, arenes, aldehydes, ketones, aliphatic acids, esters, pyrroles, furans, and sulfur compounds. Eleven occurred in higher concentrations (P0.10) in dominant (3.5-year-old) than in subordinate (1.5-year-old) animals. Dominant males

J. W. Gassett; D. P. Wiesler; A. G. Baker; D. A. Osborn; K. V. Miller; R. L. Marchinton; M. Novotny

1996-01-01

157

Isolation of Neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts were made to isolate Neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A total of 110 deer killed during the 2003 hunting season in Virginia region were used for the isolation of N. caninum. Of these, brains from 28 deer that had NAT titer of 1:200 were inoculated into interferon-gamma gene knock out (KO) mice. N. caninum was

M. C. B. Vianna; C. Sreekumar; K. B. Miska; D. E. Hill; J. P. Dubey

2005-01-01

158

The ossification process of the developing antler in the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsy samples were obtained from the growing tips of the main beam and tines of two-and three-year-old, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout the active growing season. The samples were prepared by routine and special histological techniques. The histological differentiation of the antler proceeded through a complex series of changes. The series originated with reserve mesenchymal tissue, progressed through the differentiation

W. J. Banks

1974-01-01

159

Ultrastructure of Sarcocystic sp. from the muscle of a white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis sp. from the muscle of naturally infected whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The primary cyst wall forms regularly spaced protrusions filled with electron-lucent ground substance; no fibrils are present in the protrusions. The cysts are divided by septa into compartments containing typical coccidian metrocytes and merozoites. Taxonomy of the protozoon from the white-tailed deer-dog

R. Entzeroth; B. Chobotar; E. Scholtyseck

1982-01-01

160

New infectious spirochete isolated from short-tailed shrews and white-footed mice.  

PubMed

A spirochete with two periplasmic flagella was isolated from the blood or tissues of spleens and kidneys from short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in Connecticut and Minnesota. After inoculation, the shrew-mouse spirochete infected Swiss mice and Syrian hamsters. This spirochete is morphologically and serologically distinct from the species of Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, and Spirochaeta examined. PMID:3305565

Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W; Andreadis, T G

1987-08-01

161

Undernutrition and serum and urinary urea nitrogen of white-tailed deer during winter  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Direct, practical means of assessing undernutrition in deer (Odocoileus spp.) and other ungulates during winter are needed in areas of research and management. We examined the relationship between mass loss and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine (U:C) in captive white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). During 4 February-5 May 1988, we maintained 7 adult white-tailed deer on various feeding regimes to simulate natural nutritional restriction during winter. Mass loss was greater (P = 0.037) in deer (17.0-32.2%) fed restricted amounts of a low protein low energy diet versus control deer (7.0-17.4%) fed the same diet ad libitum. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations did not differ (P = 0.191) between groups, but declined (P = 0.001) as nutrition declined. Slopes of percent mass lossSUN and urinary U:C relationships were positive (P = 0.008 and 0.055) in 7 and 6 deer, respectively. Mean U:C was directly related (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.040) to mean cumulative mass loss, whereas mean SUN was not (r2 = 0.29, P = 0.125). Data presented support the potential of urinary U:C as an index of winter nutritional condition of white-tailed deer; however, additional research is required to provide a complete understanding of this index's utility under field conditions.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

1994-01-01

162

White-Tailed Deer Vigilance: The Influence of Social and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer. PMID:24599090

Lashley, Marcus A; Chitwood, M. Colter; Biggerstaff, Michael T.; Morina, Daniel L.; Moorman, Christopher E.; DePerno, Christopher S.

2014-01-01

163

Survival rates, mortality causes, and habitats of Pennsylvania white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimates of survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns are important to population management. We quantified cause-specific mortality, survival rates, and habitat characteristics related to fawn survival in a forested landscape and an agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania. We captured and radiocollared neonatal (0.05). Predation accounted for 46.2% (95% Cl = 37.6-56.7%) of 106 mortalities through 34 weeks. We attributed 32.7% (95% Cl = 21.9-48.6%) and 36.7% (95% Cl = 25.5-52.9%) of 49 predation events to black bears (Ursus americanus) and coyotes (Canis latrans], respectively. Natural causes, excluding predation, accounted for 27.4% (95% Cl = 20.1-37.3) of mortalities. Fawn survival in Pennsylvania was comparable to reported survival in forested and agricultural regions in northern portions of the white-tailed deer range. We have no evidence to suggest that the fawn survival rates we observed were preventing population growth. Because white-tailed deer are habitat generalists, home-range-scale habitat characteristics may be unrelated to fawn survival; therefore, future studies should consider landscape-related characteristics on fawn survival.

Vreeland, J. K.; Diefenbach, D. R.; Wallingford, B. D.

2004-01-01

164

Effects of climate change on nutrition and genetics of White-tailed Ptarmigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are well suited as a focal species for the study of climate change because they are adapted to cool, alpine environments that are expected to undergo unusually rapid climate change. We compared samples collected in the late 1930s, the late 1960s, and the late 2000s using molecular genetic and stable isotope methods in an effort to determine whether White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans, Colorado, have experiences recent environmental changes resulting in shifts in genetic diversity, gene frequency, and nutritional ecology. We genotyped 115 individuals spanning the three time periods, using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in our genetic analysis. These samples were also analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition. We found a slight trend of lower heterozygosity through time, and allelic richness values were significantly lower in more recent times, but not significantly using an alpha of 0.05 (P 13C and ?15N values decreased significantly across time periods, whereas the range in isotope values increased consistently from the late 1930s to the late time periods. Inferred changes in the nutritional ecology of White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans relate primarily to increased atmospheric deposition of nutrients that likely influenced foraging habits and tundra plant composition and nutritional quality. Future work seeks to integrate genetic and isotopic data with long-term demographics to develop a detailed understanding of the interaction among environmental stressors on the long-term viability of ptarmigan populations.

Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Stricker, Craig A.; St. John, Judy, Braun, Clait E.; Wann, Gregory T.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

2011-01-01

165

White-tailed deer vigilance: the influence of social and environmental factors.  

PubMed

Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer. PMID:24599090

Lashley, Marcus A; Chitwood, M Colter; Biggerstaff, Michael T; Morina, Daniel L; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

2014-01-01

166

Direct and indirect effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on beetle and spider assemblages in Northern Wisconsin.  

E-print Network

??White-tailed deer directly impact vegetation structure and species composition through selective foraging, and indirectly impact other species by altering habitat, food-web interactions, and microclimate. I… (more)

Sancomb, Elizabeth J.

2014-01-01

167

Effect of paved road density on abundance of white-tailed deer Keith G. MunroA  

E-print Network

­vehicle collisions, habitat fragmentation, Odocoileus virginianus, Ontario, Pennsylvania, reproductive rate, road mammal is the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus. For example, Conover et al. (1995) estimated

168

Sexual selection, feather breakage and parasites: the importance of white spots in the tail of the barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long outermost tail feathers of barn swallows Hirundo rustica have white spots that are larger in males than in females and in adults than in juveniles. Spot size increases with age among\\u000a adults and is positively correlated with tail length. We tested the functional significance of these white spots by randomly\\u000a assigning males to either of three groups during

Mati Kose; Anders Pape Møller

1999-01-01

169

Comparative nest habitat characteristics of sympatric White?tailed Haliaeetus albicilla and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in western Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule Golden and White?tailed Eagles selected different habitats for nesting.Aim To investigate differences in nesting habitat used by sympatrically breeding eagles in western Scotland, following reintroduction of White?tailed Eagles from 1975 onwards.Methods Nest?site locations from national surveys in 2003–05 were entered into a geographical information system (GIS) in order to measure a set of geographic parameters for each nest site.

Richard J. Evans; D. Philip Whitfield; Justin R. Grant; Alison MacLennan; Robin Reid

2010-01-01

170

Breeding habitat selection of sympatric White-tailed, Rock and Willow Ptarmigan in the southern Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined breeding habitat selection at two scales for White-tailed (Lagopus leucura), Rock (L. muta), and Willow Ptarmigan (L. lagopus) at an alpine site in the Ruby Range Mountains of the Yukon Territory, Canada. To infer species-specific preferences, we\\u000a used logistic regression and AIC model selection to compare nest habitat of White-tailed (n = 43) and Rock Ptarmigan (n = 58). Only descriptive statistics

Scott Wilson; Kathy Martin

2008-01-01

171

SEROLOGICAL PREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF BABESIA ODOCOILE! AMONG WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN TEXAS AND OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples collected from 581 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Texas and from 124 white-tailed deer from Oklahoma were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique against Babesia odocoilei. Prevalence of seropositive reactors varied from site to site in both states. Prevalence rates were statistically ranked as high, intermediate or low. Deer <12-mo-old had a significantly lower prevalence than all

K. A. Waldrup; A. A. Kocan; T. Qureshi; D. S. Davis; D. Baggett; G. G. Wagner

172

Isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from Wild White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Confirms Their Role as Natural Reservoir Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular,

J. MITCHELL LOCKHART; WILLIAM R. DAVIDSON; DAVID E. STALLKNECHT; JACQUELINE E. DAWSON; ELIZABETH W. HOWERTH

1997-01-01

173

Is winter diet quality related to body condition of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )? An experiment using urine profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

During winter, boreal forest herbivores have access to only poor-quality forage. On Anticosti Island (Quebec, Canada), the ongoing reduction of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) P. Mill.) owing to overbrowsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) may force deer to include a higher proportion of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), a browse normally avoided, in their winter diet.

Daniel G. Sauveand; Steeve D. Côté

2006-01-01

174

HumanWildlife Conflicts 3(1):129135, Spring 2009 White-tailed deer attacking humans during  

E-print Network

Human­Wildlife Conflicts 3(1):129­135, Spring 2009 White-tailed deer attacking humans during the fawning season: a unique human­wildlife conflict on a university campus RYAN D. HUBBARD1 , Southern, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA kezo92@siu.edu Abstract: Human­wildlife conflicts associated with suburban white

175

Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

2010-01-01

176

Distribution of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antigen in persistently infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), analogous to that occurring in cattle, is reported rarely in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This study evaluated the distribution of BVDV antigen in persistently infected (PI) white-tailed deer and compared the findings with those from PI cattle. Six PI fawns (four live-born and two stillborn) from does exposed experimentally to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 were evaluated. Distribution and intensity of antigen expression in tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed in binary fashion with a proportional odds model. Viral antigen was distributed widely and was present in all 11 organ systems. Hepatobiliary, integumentary and reproductive systems were respectively 11.8, 15.4 and 21.6 times more likely to have higher antigen scores than the musculoskeletal system. Pronounced labelling occurred in epithelial tissues, which were 1.9-3.0 times likelier than other tissues to contain BVDV antigen. Antigen was present in >90% of samples of liver and skin, suggesting that skin biopsy samples are appropriate for BVDV diagnosis. Moderate to severe lymphoid depletion was detected and may hamper reliable detection of BVDV in lymphoid organs. Muscle tissue contained little antigen, except for in the cardiovascular system. Antigen was present infrequently in connective tissues. In nervous tissues, antigen expression frequency was 0.3-0.67. In the central nervous system (CNS), antigen was present in neurons and non-neuronal cells, including microglia, emphasizing that the CNS is a primary target for fetal BVDV infection. BVDV antigen distribution in PI white-tailed deer is similar to that in PI cattle. PMID:22520818

Passler, T; Walz, H L; Ditchkoff, S S; van Santen, E; Brock, K V; Walz, P H

2012-11-01

177

A plague epizootic in the white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) of Meeteetse, Wyoming.  

PubMed

Surveillance for sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted near Meeteetse, Wyoming (USA) from 24 May to 14 June 1985. Ten species of fleas were collected from white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus), and from their burrows and associated rodents. Five of these flea species and two adult prairie dogs were positive for plague. The progression of this plague epizootic appeared to be slower and the intensity was less than in previous epizootics in other prairie dog colonies. The plague epizootic occurred within the only known colony of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) and was a potential threat to the food source of this endangered species. PMID:3411698

Ubico, S R; Maupin, G O; Fagerstone, K A; McLean, R G

1988-07-01

178

Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.

1985-01-01

179

Notes and Discussion: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.

2000-01-01

180

Experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.  

PubMed

Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with contagious ecthyma. The limited clinical responses to the virus indicated that contagious ecthyma would not seriously impact free-ranging individuals. PMID:6685778

Lance, W R; Hibler, C P; DeMartini, J

1983-07-01

181

Testing the Wildlink activity-detection system on wolves and white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the reliability and predictive capabilities of the activity meter in the new Wildlink Data Acquisition and Recapture System by comparing activity counts with concurrent observations of captive wolf (Canis lupus) and free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) activity. The Wildlink system stores activity data in a computer within a radio collar with which a biologist can communicate. Three levels of activity could be detected. The Wildlink system provided greater activity discrimination and was more reliable, adaptable, and efficient and was easier to use than conventional telemetry activity systems. The Wildlink system could be highly useful for determining wildlife energy budgets.

Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Mech, L.D.; Gese, E.M.

1991-01-01

182

Heavy metals in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.

1985-01-01

183

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.

2000-01-01

184

Twenty-year Home-range Dynamics of a White-tailed Deer Matriline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted five newly online resources at the Center's homepage. These scientific articles were originally published in print journals, but are fully (and freely) available here, complete with figures. The second resource, by Michael E. Nelson and L. David Mech, was published in 1999 in Canadian Journal of Zoology [77:1128-1135]. The paper examines home-range dynamics and seasonal migration of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) matriline. All papers may be downloaded as .zip files.

185

MR Imaging of White Matter Disease in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-three pediatric patients with white matter abnormalities on MR images were evaluated retrospectively to assess the contribution of MR compared with CT in diag- nosing these conditions. In addition, the MR findings in major categories of white matter diseases were analyzed for sensitivity in detecting the presence of an abnormality. White matter disease categories included demyelinating disease (five cases), dysmye-

Martha A. NowelF; Robert I. Grossman; Robert A. Zimmerman; Herbert I. Goldberg; Larissa T. Bilaniuk

186

Genome Sequence of a Presumptive Mannheimia haemolytica Strain with an A1/A6-Cross-Reactive Serotype from a White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Mannheimia haemolytica is a Gram-negative bacterium and the principal etiological agent associated mostly with bovine respiratory disease complex. However, we report here the sequence of a strain with the novel A1/A6-cross-reactive serotype, strain PKL10, isolated from white-tailed deer. PKL10 was isolated from the spleen of farmed white-tailed deer showing clinical signs of pneumonia. The genome structure of PKL10 is dramatically different from that of previously sequenced isolates, which was demonstrated by genome alignments. In addition, the coding sequences in PKL10 share approximately 86% sequence identity with the coding sequences in other fully sequenced M. haemolytica strains. This suggests that PKL10 is a novel Mannheimia species. PMID:24675846

Lawrence, Paulraj K; Bey, Russell F; Wiener, Brittanny; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Bumgarner, Roger E

2014-01-01

187

Early Pathological Changes Associated with Fasciola hepatica Infection in White-tailed Deer  

PubMed Central

Three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated with 1000 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica and examined on days 7, 14, and 28 postinoculation to determine the early response of a resistant host to this infection. It was concluded that only small numbers of the metacercariae penetrated the intestinal wall into the peritoneal cavity. Flukes that migrated to the liver penetrated through Glisson's capsule, primarily on the parietal surface. Marked fibroplasia and cellular infiltration of the capsule were induced and flukes were killed and destroyed in granulomas immediately beneath the capsule. Migration in hepatic parenchyma was minimal and immature flukes or migratory tracks were not found. There were infiltrations of eosinophils and mononuclear cells, bile duct hyperplasia and fibroplasia in portal areas. A few flukes penetrated through the diaphragm within 14 days postinoculation and on day 28 granulomas were observed on the dorsal surface of the lung where F. hepatica had penetrated this organ. The early reaction of Glisson's capsule to F. hepatica infection in white-tailed deer has not been described in cattle, sheep or swine infected with this fluke. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10. PMID:4277445

Presidente, P. J. A.; McCraw, B. M.; Lumsden, J. H.

1974-01-01

188

Influence of landscape characteristics on migration strategies of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A trade-off exists for migrating animals as to whether to migrate or remain residents. Few studies have documented relationships between landscape variables and deer migration strategies. From 2000 to 2007 we captured 267 adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at 7 study sites in Minnesota and South Dakota and monitored 149 individuals through ???3 seasonal migration periods (585 deer-migration seasons). All deer classified as obligate migrators with ???3 migrations (range 3-9 migration seasons) maintained their obligate status for the duration of the study. Multinomial logistic odds ratios from generalized estimating equations indicated that the odds of being a resident increased by 1.4 and 1.3 per 1-unit increase in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to migrating deer. Odds of being an obligate migrator increased by 0.7 and 0.8 per 1-unit decrease in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to resident or conditional migrating deer. Areas inhabited by resident deer were characterized by greater number of forest patches per 100 ha and larger mean forest patch area than conditional and obligate migrant areas. Odds of migrating increased by 1.1 per 1-unit increase in deer winter severity index. Migration behavior of white-tailed deer varied among regions, and land-cover and landscape characteristics provided predictive indicators of migration strategies for deer that could have important implications for conservation, metapopulation dynamics, and species management. ?? American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.

Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Deperno, C.S.; Brinkman, T.J.; Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.

2011-01-01

189

Newly Recognized Herpesvirus Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify viral sequences from DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and/or spleens of the deer with primers specific for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) or specific for alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AHV-1). By using degenerate primers targeting a conserved region of a herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, a DNA fragment was amplified from the PBL or spleens of all six deer and sequenced. Alignment of the sequences demonstrated that the virus in the deer belongs to the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, exhibiting 82% identity to OHV-2, 71% to AHV-1, and 60% to a newly identified bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus. This virus, which causes classical MCF in white-tailed deer, is a newly recognized agent belonging to the MCF group of gammaherpesviruses. It is the third reported pathogenic MCF virus, genetically distinct but closely related to OHV-2 and AHV-1. The reservoir for the virus has not been identified. PMID:10747100

Li, Hong; Dyer, Neil; Keller, Janice; Crawford, Timothy B.

2000-01-01

190

Aggressive defensive behavior by free-ranging white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Maternal investment plays a critical role in neonate survival, and adults can improve survival of offspring by defending them against predators. However, limited information exists documenting ungulate aggression toward humans in defense of neonates. During captures of neonates in spring 2007 and 2008 in north-central South Dakota, we documented 24 aggressive encounters by adult female and yearling male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45.8%) aggressive encounters included yearlings accompanying adult females. Mean ages and weights of neonates that were aggressively defended were greater (P < 0.0001) than ages and weights of those that were not; adults began protecting neonates at approximately 4 days of age. Male fawns were more likely (P = 0.013) to be defended than female fawns. Examination of our data suggests that sex- and age-biased maternal defensive behavior exists in white-tailed deer, and that deer biased maternal investment toward older, male neonates. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

Grovenburg, T. W.; Jenks, J. A.; Jacques, C. N.; Klaver, R. W.; Swanson, C. C.

2009-01-01

191

Factors influencing reproduction of female white-tailed deer on the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Data were taken on 1103 pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina from 1965--1985 to describe temporal, age-specific, and habitat effects on fetal number. Time periods represented intervals of high and low density. Age significantly affected fetal number both with and without the data from fawns included. Low fetal numbers in yearlings and a high incidence of twinning in older deer were responsible for this effect. Mean number of fetuses per pregnant doe for the 0.5 year old deer (/bar X/ = 1.06) was less than for 1.5 (/bar X/ = 1.56), 2.5 (/bar X/ = 1.73), and greater than or equal to3.5 (/bar X/ = 1.76) year age classes. Temporal and age-specific effects on fetal number among time periods were significant using data from all age classes. These effects were probably not due to density-dependent feedback mechanisms, but to a sampling bias due to differential representation of age classes or habitat of origin in the statistical analyses. Significant differences were observed in fetal numbers between females from the swamp and upland areas both with and without fawn data. Differences between the densities and/or habitat quality in the 2 areas were responsible for this effect. Data were gathered on 2542 female white-tailed deer harvested on the SRP from 1967 to 1985. 48 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Rhodes, O.E. Jr.

1987-05-01

192

Effects of SpayVacâÂ?¢ on urban white-tailed deer at Johnson Space Center  

E-print Network

(McShea et al. 1997). High deer densities typically result in increased deer-human conflicts such as deer-vehicle collisions or damage to ornamental vegetation (e.g., Kuser 1993, Baker and Fritsch 1997, McShea et al. 1997). The white-tailed deer...-human conflicts such as deer-vehicle collisions or damage to ornamental vegetation (e.g., Kuser 1993, Baker and Fritsch 1997, McShea et al. 1997). The white-tailed deer population at the National Aeronautic Space Administration?s (NASA) Lyndon B. Johnson Space...

Hernandez, Saul

2007-04-25

193

SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY IN FREE-RANGING MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HE\\/Id\\/ONUS), WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSON\\/) IN NORTHCENTRAL COLORADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between March 1981 and June 1995, a neurological disease characterized histolog- ically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral Colorado (USA). Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and ac- counted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six Rocky Mountain elk (Cerous eluphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus oirginianus) were also

T. R. Spraker; M. W. Miller; E. S. Williams; D. M. Getzy; W. J. Adrian; G. G. Schoonveld; R. A. Spowart; K. I. O'Rourke; J. M. Miller; P. A. Merz

194

Effects of winter fasting and refeeding on white-tailed deer blood profiles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examined the effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on blood characteristics of 9 nonpregnant, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in captivity from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Percent weight loss was greater in fasted deer than in deer fed diets of 2 crude protein levels. Fasting effects were also observed for hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), cholesterol, triglycerides, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), potassium (K), glucose, phosphorus (P), insulin, thyroxine (T4), and total protein (TP). Refeeding influenced cholesterol, sodium (Na), and calcium (Ca). Hemoglobin, PCV, Ca, P, and albumin varied with time in fasted deer. Changes over time in the fed deer occurred for several hematological and serum characteristics. Data are presented to serve as reference values for better understanding of data collected from free-ranging deer under less known conditions.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

1987-01-01

195

Do wolves affect white-tailed buck harvest in northeastern Minnesota?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used simple linear regression to analyze 8-23 years of data on a wolf (Canis lupus) population and human harvest of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) bucks in northeastern Minnesota to determine any effects of wolves on buck harvesting. Over the long term, wolves accounted for at least 14-22% of the inter-year variation in buck harvest in the region, but an unknown amount of variation in hunter effort may have obscured any more precise estimate. For part of the area with poorest habitat, we found strong inverse relationships (r2 = 0.66-0.84) between annual wolf numbers and buck harvests from 1988 to 1995 when hunting pressure was considered relatively constant. However, in better habitat, where our buck harvest sample was larger, we found no evidence of wolves influencing buck harvest. Our findings tend to confirm the suitability of the Minnesota Department of Natural Resource's deer harvest regulations for a sustainable yield.

Mech, L. D.; Nelson, M. E.

2000-01-01

196

Effects on fawn survival of multiple immobilizations of captive pregnant white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fawn viability was tested in captive, pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) immobilized with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and reversed by yohimbine hydrochloride or tolazoline hydrochloride. Nine pregnant does were immobilized 10 times each from December 1984 to May 1985. Their mean parturition date was 8 June. The number of fawns produced per pregnant doe was 1.88. Mean weight of newborn fawns was 4.18 kg. Seventy-five percent of the does produced twins or triplets. Three (20%) fawns died postnatally within 48 hr, but the remaining 12 survived for the full 72 hr they were allowed to remain with their dams. These observations compare favorably with those of non-immobilized captive deer on similar diets.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.; Karns, P.D.

1986-01-01

197

Prevalence of antibody titers to leptospira spp. in Minnesota white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Serum samples (n = 204) from 124 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota (USA) were collected from 1984 through 1989 and tested for antibodies to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohemorrhagiae, and pomona) using a microtiter agglutination test. Eighty-eight (43%) sera were positive at greater than or equal to 1:100 for antibodies against serovars pomona and/or bratislava; none was positive for any of the other four serovars. None of the 31 sera collected in 1984-85 was positive, whereas all 54 sera collected from 1986 through 1988 had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. During 1989, only 34 (29%) of 119 sera had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. Based on these results, we believe there to be wide variability in exposure of Minnesota deer to Leptospira interrogans.

Goyal, S. M.; Mech, L. D.; Nelson, M. E.

1992-01-01

198

Aerial tracking of radio-marked white-tailed tropicbirds over the Caribbean Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We radio-marked nesting white-tailed tropicbirds at Culebra National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico, and tracked them from a Cessna 182 during flights over the open sea. Locations of the birds were determined using standard aerial telemetry techniques for side-facing Yagi antennas. We used strut-mounted, 4-element Yagi antennas connected to a switchbox and scanning receiver. By recording bearing and distance from at least 1 of 3 aeronautical navigation beacons, the position of the aircraft and the bird could be estimated with an error of about 2 km. On several occasions we plotted the general heading of a bird and then relocated and tracked the same bird on the following day. Our method of aerial tracking and navigation was useful for tracking birds over the sea to at least 116 km from the breeding colony

Fuller, M.R.; Obrecht, H.H., III; Pennycuick, C.J.; Schaffner, F.C.

1989-01-01

199

Foraging flights of the white-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus): Radiotracking and doubly-labelled water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radiotracking transmitters were fitted to White-tailed Tropicbirds nesting at Culebra, Puerto Rico. Foragers were located by light aircraft out to 89 km SSW of the nesting colony, over a deep-water foraging area south of Vieques Island, Puerto Rico and west of St Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands. Two birds were followed out to 176 km NNW from the colony, over the Puerto Rico Trench, but these did not subsequently return. Foragers carrying radio transmitters performed similarly to those without, in terms of duration of absence from the colony, and mass of food brought for the chick. However, measuremetns of energy consumption by the doubly labelled water method indicated that birds with transmitters consumed significantly more energy than those without.

Pennycuick, C.J.; Shaffner, F.C.; Fuller, M.R.; Obrecht, H.H., III; Sternberg, L.

1990-01-01

200

Experimental and Field Studies of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in White-Tailed Deer  

PubMed Central

Studies were conducted to evaluate fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a small group of inoculated deer, determine the prevalence of the bacterium in free-ranging white-tailed deer, and elucidate relationships between E. coli O157:H7 in wild deer and domestic cattle at the same site. Six young, white-tailed deer were orally administered 108 CFU of E. coli O157:H7. Inoculated deer were shedding E. coli O157:H7 by 1 day postinoculation (DPI) and continued to shed decreasing numbers of the bacteria throughout the 26-day trial. Horizontal transmission to an uninoculated deer was demonstrated. Although E. coli O157:H7 bacteria were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of deer necropsied from 4 to 26 DPI, attaching and effacing lesions were not apparent in any deer. Results are similar to those of inoculation studies in calves and sheep. In field studies, E. coli O157 was not detected in 310 fresh deer fecal samples collected from the ground. It was detected in feces, but not in meat, from 3 of 469 free-ranging deer in 1997. In 1998, E. coli O157 was not detected in 140 deer at the single positive site found in 1997; however, it was recovered from 13 of 305 dairy and beef cattle at the same location. Isolates of E. coli O157:H7 from deer and cattle at this site differed with respect to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and genes encoding Shiga toxins. The low overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and the identification of only one site with positive deer suggest that wild deer are not a major reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 in the southeastern United States. However, there may be individual locations where deer sporadically harbor the bacterium, and venison should be handled with the same precautions recommended for beef, pork, and poultry. PMID:11229913

Fischer, John R.; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P.; Goldberg, Martin R.; Brown, Cathy A.; Sewell, Christopher T.; Kavanaugh, Darrell M.; Bauman, Christopher D.

2001-01-01

201

Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.  

PubMed

Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P

Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

2008-04-01

202

The Effects of Population Density on Juvenile Growth Rate in White-Tailed Deer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer growth and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of growth rate to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates growth rate only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in growth rate over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in growth rate. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in growth rate that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal growth and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn.

Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve

2014-10-01

203

Predation of artificial ground nests on white-tailed prairie dog colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies are unique to prairie and shrub-steppe landscapes. However, widespread eradication, habitat loss, and sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) have reduced their numbers by 98% since historical times. Birds associated with prairie dogs also are declining. Potential nest predators, such as coyotes (Canis latrans), swift foxes (Vulpes velox), and badgers (Taxidea taxus), may be attracted to colonies where a high concentration of prairie dogs serve as available prey. Increased abundance of small mammals, including prairie dogs, also may increase the risk of predation for birds nesting on colonies. Finally, because grazing by prairie dogs may decrease vegetation height and canopy cover, bird nests may be easier for predators to locate. In this study, we placed 1,444 artificial ground nests on and off 74 white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) colonies to test the hypothesis that nest predation rates are higher on colonies than at nearby off sites (i.e., uncolonized habitat). We sampled colonies from 27 May to 16 July 1997 at the following 3 complexes: Coyote Basin, Utah and Colorado; Moxa Arch, Wyoming; and Shirley Basin, Wyoming. Differences in daily predation rates between colonies and paired off sites averaged 1.0% (P = 0.060). When converted to a typical 14-day incubation period, predation rates averaged 14% higher on colonies (57.7 ?? 2.7%; ?? ?? SE) than at off sites (50.4 ?? 3.1%). Comparisons of habitat variables on colonies to off sites showed percent canopy cover of vegetation was similar (P = 0.114), percent bare ground was higher on colonies (P 0.288). Although we found the risk of nest predation was higher on white-tailed prairie dog colonies than at off sites, fitness of birds nesting on colonies might depend on other factors that influence foraging success, reproductive success, or nestling survival.

Baker, B.W.; Stanley, T.R.; Sedgwick, J.A.

1999-01-01

204

Evaluation of an expandable, breakaway radiocollar for white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated an expandable, breakaway VHF radiocollar design for use on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from birth to about 1 year of age. A similar collar design has been used on caribou (Rangifer tarandus), but we found that the collar did not expand quickly enough to accommodate increase in neck circumference of fawns during the first 2 months of life. Consequently, we modified the stitching pattern so that the first expansion fold opened faster. We monitored performance of this modification on free-ranging and captive fawns. Also, we collected data on neck growth in fawns to document design requirements of expandable collars for white-tailed deer. Mean neck circumference at ???14 days of age of free-ranging fawns in Pennsylvania was 17.8 cm (SD=1.67, n=62) for males and 17.3 cm (SD=1.50, n=52) for females. Based on measurements of captive fawns, neck circumference increased 8.8 cm from birth to August, 2.5 cm from August to October, and 2.6 cm from October to March. Observations of captive fawns fitted with dummy radiocollars indicated that collars expanded when needed and caused no apparent discomfort to fawns. We detected no problems with use of 86 collars on 113 free-ranging fawns for >270 days and recovered radiocollars expanded as designed. The elastic collar material failed on 3 collars (3%) after 142, 207, and 226 days on fawns, and 1-5 radiocollars (???4%) were cast by fawns. Our modification to this radiocollar design reduced fawn discomfort or suffering, allowing researchers to better comply with principles of the Animal Welfare Act.

Diefenbach, D. R.; Kochanny, C. O.; Vreeland, J. K.; Wallingford, B. D.

2003-01-01

205

Kidney structure and function of obligate and facultative hibernators: the white-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus) and the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).  

PubMed

The white-tailed prairie dog is an obligate hibernator that enters a heterothermic phase when maintained in the cold with low intensity light and ad libitum food and water. The black-tailed prairie dog (a facultative hibernator) will not hibernate under similar conditions. It has been suggested that the black tailed prairie dog remains active during the winter because it can conserve water more effectively due to a more efficient kidney. The present study revealed no significant differences between the species in renal morphology: relative medullary thickness, nephron heterogeneity, renal vasculature, or fornix dimensions, all of which are structures associated with the urinary concentrating mechanism. In addition, there was no difference in number of nephrons between the two species. The black-tailed prairie dog does produce a more concentrated urine when food and water deprived. However, this difference was not observed when the animals were salt loaded. The water-deprivation and salt-loading experiments suggest that the higher urine osmolality produced by the back-tailed prairie dog during fasting is a result of a higher urea load due to a greater protein catabolism and not because of a differential capacity to concentrate urine. PMID:7560310

Harlow, H J; Braun, E J

1995-01-01

206

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Maternal care in white-tailed deer: trade-off between  

E-print Network

the nursing and foraging behaviours of control and food-restricted adult female white-tailed deer, Odocoileus, but positively related to survival. Food-restricted fawns had twice as many suckling solici- tations and rejected-Bianchet & Jorgen- son 1998), as expected by parental investment theory (Trivers 1974). This trade-off in energy

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

207

Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla collected in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners including highly toxic non-, mono-, and di-ortho coplanar members as well as their pattern were determined in breast muscles of white-tailed sea eagles collected dead between 1982 and 1990 in Poland. There was a wide variation in total PCB residue concentrations among eagles from various breeding sites, with the Baltic Sea coast registering

J. Falandysz; N. Yamashita; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; L. Rucifiska; T. Mizera; B. Jakuczun

1994-01-01

208

Total and methylmercury in soft tissues of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) collected in Poland.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) contamination in piscivorous birds, especially methylmercury (MeHg), has been drawing much attention worldwide in regard to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. In this study on Hg in the soft tissues of white-tailed eagles (n = 22) and ospreys (n = 2) from Poland, total Hg (THg) range was 0.15-47.6 while MeHg range was 0.11-8.05 mg kg?¹ dry weight. In both species, median THg and MeHg concentrations were lower in the muscle and brain than in the liver and kidney. Median nephric residues were just under 3 and 5 mgTHg kg?¹ or 0.9 and 3.7 mgMeHg kg?¹ for white-tailed eagle and osprey, respectively. In Norwegian data from the 1970s and in our results, MeHg in the muscle of white-tailed eagle was ~60 % THg (%MeHg = MeHg/THg × 100), lower than in other piscivorous birds. A clear similarity in THg tissue levels was found between Polish and German populations of white-tailed eagles. PMID:24870933

Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Gorecki, Jerzy; Lanocha, Natalia; Okonska, Anna; Melgarejo, Javier B; Budis, Halina; Rzad, Izabella; Golas, Jerzy

2014-11-01

209

Roost Fidelity and Fission-Fusion Dynamics of White-Striped Free-Tailed Bats (Tadarida Australis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-striped free-tailed bat (Tadarida australis) is a common species of insectivorous bat found in mainland Australia. Despite its abundance, very little is known about its roosting ecology. I used radiotelemetry collected during 3 seasons to examine roost fidelity and roosting associations of a summer roosting group. Bats were trapped at a large communal roost in subtropical urban Brisbane, Australia.

Monika Rhodes

2007-01-01

210

Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and

Christopher Shannon Deperno

1998-01-01

211

Prey switching and feeding habits of eastern coyotes in relation to snowshoe hare and white-tailed deer densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) availability on the feeding habits of coyotes ( Canis latrans) in Nova Scotia from 1992 to 1997. We hypothesized that coyotes would switch from deer to hare as hare abundance increased. Based on the analysis of 2443 scats, deer and hare were the dominant food items.

Brent R. Patterson; Lawrence K. Benjamin; François Messier

1998-01-01

212

THE LIVER FLUKE METORCHIS BILIS - A NEW THREAT FOR THE WHITE-TAILED SEA EAGLE (HALIAEETUS ALBICILLA) IN MIDDLE EUROPE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extendet abstract: The white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) an endangered species in Germany suffers a lot of threats in the highly civilised landscape. Amongst the main causes of death such as traumata due to interference with human structures, i.e. collisions with trains, wire, electrocution, and poisoning, parasites do also play an important role in the health status of these birds

O. KRONE; R. SCHUSTER

213

Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

Nelson, Michael E.

2011-01-01

214

Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.  

PubMed

Sera collected from 299 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested in New York State by hunters in November 2010 were assayed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. White-tailed deer are a useful sentinel for risk of human and domestic animal exposure to Toxoplasma oocysts and pose a potential risk for infection to humans and other animals by ingestion of the meat. White-tailed deer share grazing space with domestic animals raised for meat and are likely to be exposed by horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption, similar to other grazing species of economic concern. Overall, 42.2% of samples were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating a true prevalence of 38.5%, with a significantly higher proportion of adult than immature deer antibody positive. No significant difference in prevalence was found between male and female deer nor was there a significant effect of local human population density on deer antibody prevalence. These results provide insight into the risk of environmental Toxoplasma exposure in New York State and support horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption as the most common mechanism of white-tailed deer infection. PMID:24502721

Schaefer, John J; Kirchgessner, Megan S; Whipps, Christopher M; Mohammed, Hussni O; Bunting, Elizabeth M; Wade, Susan E

2013-10-01

215

Forest regeneration and the influences of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) in cool temperate New Zealand rain forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cool temperate rain forests on Stewart Island, southern New Zealand, have had little direct human modification, but introduced white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have influenced forest understoreys. Changes in life stages (seedlings, saplings and adult trees) of common tree and shrub species were recorded over at least 18 years in permanent plots in these forests. Faecal pellet indices of deer frequency

P. J Bellingham; C. N Allan

2003-01-01

216

Correlation of Cytokine Gene Expression with Pathology in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer (WTD) in northeast Michigan are a reservoir of mycobacteria that pose a threat to both domestic animals and humans. Relatively little work has been done to characterize the immune response of WTD to M. bovis infection; however, an understanding of the immune response to infection and pathogenesis may be critical to the development of an effective

Tyler C. Thacker; Mitchell V. Palmer; W. Ray Waters

2006-01-01

217

SEROCONVERSION RATES TO JAMESTOWN CANYON VIRUS AMONG SIX POPULATIONS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN INDIANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual seroconversion of fawns, yearlings, and adult white-tailed deer (Odocoi- leus virginianus) to Jamestown Canyon virus (California group) was followed at six Indiana sites from 1981 through 1984. In all, sera from 1,642 deer (515 fawns, 618 yearlings, and 509 adults) were tested for neutralizing antibody to three California serogroup viruses: Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, and trivittatus. Virtually all

Robert D. Boromisa; Paul R. Grimstad

218

Lesion Distribution and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Elk and White-Tailed Deer in South-Western Manitoba, Canada  

PubMed Central

Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, but that infected deer may also be involved. Prevalence was consistently higher in elk compared to deer in a small core area and prevalence declines since 2003 are likely due to a combination of management factors instituted during that time. Older age classes and animals sampled from the core area were at significantly higher risk of being culture positive. Positive elk and deer were more likely to be found through blood testing, opportunistic surveillance, and culling compared to hunting. No non-lesioned, culture-positive elk were detected in this study compared to previous studies in red deer. PMID:21776351

Shury, Todd K.; Bergeson, Doug

2011-01-01

219

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1980 status report  

SciTech Connect

Ninety-eight white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1980, an increase of twenty-five over 1979. Both spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. November and December were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road-kills was about 1.1 from January through October but shifted to a high male kill (4.8:1) during November and December, presumably the result of the rutting season. Reproductive data collected from does indicated that breeding occurred as early as October 20 and as late as December 21. Records kept on rutting condition in bucks indicated a breeding season from October through January; antlers were shed from January through April with the peak of shedding activity occurring in March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed a good general condition of the animals with only a few abnormalities or indications of sickness or disease. Abomasal parasite counts indicate that Reservation deer population has reached optimum density. Other parasites found include brainworms, body worms, and botfly larvae; papillomas were observed in two deer during 1980. Data from heart girth and weight measurements were presented and compared to similar data from elsewhere in the Southeastern United States.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1982-08-01

220

White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  

PubMed Central

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P = 0.002), axial (P = 0.0003) and radial (P = 0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (P < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons), with a generally symmetric pattern of involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P = 0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean diffusivity, however, was apparent visibly on the quantitative attenuation coefficient maps compared to healthy control subjects. Neuropathological analysis showed diffuse astrocytic gliosis and activated microglia in the white matter, rare prion deposition and subtle subcortical microvacuolization, and patchy foci of demyelination with no evident white matter axonal degeneration. Decreased mean diffusivity on attenuation coefficient maps might be associated with astrocytic gliosis. We show for the first time significant global reduced mean diffusivity within the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, suggesting possible primary involvement of the white matter, rather than changes secondary to neuronal degeneration/loss. PMID:25367029

Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Hess, Christopher P.; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L.; Lobach, Irina V.; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D.; Henry, Roland G.

2014-01-01

221

White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.  

PubMed

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P = 0.002), axial (P = 0.0003) and radial (P = 0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (P < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons), with a generally symmetric pattern of involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P = 0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean diffusivity, however, was apparent visibly on the quantitative attenuation coefficient maps compared to healthy control subjects. Neuropathological analysis showed diffuse astrocytic gliosis and activated microglia in the white matter, rare prion deposition and subtle subcortical microvacuolization, and patchy foci of demyelination with no evident white matter axonal degeneration. Decreased mean diffusivity on attenuation coefficient maps might be associated with astrocytic gliosis. We show for the first time significant global reduced mean diffusivity within the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, suggesting possible primary involvement of the white matter, rather than changes secondary to neuronal degeneration/loss. PMID:25367029

Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

2014-12-01

222

Deep White Matter in Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

White matter (WM) abnormalities have already been shown in presymptomatic (Pre-HD) and symptomatic HD subjects using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In the present study, we examined the microstructure of the long-range large deep WM tracts by applying two different MRI approaches: Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) -based tractography, and T2*weighted (iron sensitive) imaging. We collected Pre-HD subjects (n?=?25), HD patients (n?=?25) and healthy control subjects (n?=?50). Results revealed increased axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) and iron levels in Pre-HD subjects compared to controls. Fractional anisotropy decreased between the Pre-HD and HD phase and AD/RD increased and although impairment was pervasive in HD, degeneration occurred in a pattern in Pre-HD. Furthermore, iron levels dropped for HD patients. As increased iron levels are associated with remyelination, the data suggests that Pre-HD subjects attempt to repair damaged deep WM years before symptoms occur but this process fails with disease progression. PMID:25340651

Phillips, Owen; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Elifani, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

2014-01-01

223

White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity  

PubMed Central

Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H?), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H? and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059

Begley-Miller, Danielle R.; Hipp, Andrew L.; Brown, Bethany H.; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P.

2014-01-01

224

Mother knows best: functionally referential alarm calling in white-tailed ptarmigan.  

PubMed

Functionally referential alarm calls have stimulus specificity, distinct acoustic structure, and elicit different escape responses that are appropriate to the threat. The mechanisms by which escape responses are evoked are not fully understood and may range from eliciting innate responses to conveying representational information. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) are a long-lived alpine tundra grouse, which are preyed upon by aerial and terrestrial predators. We investigated the hypothesis that alarm calls of ptarmigan hens with chicks are functionally referential. We recorded hens' alarm calls in response to naturally occurring and model predators in California's Sierra Nevada alpine tundra for two summer seasons. We conducted playback experiments in the field to determine chick responses to alarm calls. Alarm calls commenced with an extended 'alerting' note followed by a series of staccato notes grouped into elements. Fundamental and dominant frequencies in element notes were significantly higher in terrestrial compared to aerial threat alarm calls. Playbacks of terrestrial threat alarm calls elicited an upright/alert position by chicks (75 % of responses). In response to aerial threat alarm call playbacks, chicks flattened to the ground and froze (80 % of responses). To our knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence of functionally referential alarm calling, including the responses of the receivers, in an avian species in the wild. PMID:24132414

Ausmus, Desa M; Clarke, Jennifer A

2014-05-01

225

Associating seasonal range characteristics with survival of female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Delineating populations is critical for understanding population dynamics and managing habitats. Our objective was to delineate subpopulations of migratory female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, USA, on summer and winter ranges. We used fuzzy classification to assign radiocollared deer to subpopulations based on spatial location, characterized subpopulations by trapping sites, and explored relationships among survival of subpopulations and habitat variables. In winter, Kaplan-Meier estimates for subpopulations indicated 2 groups: high (S = 0.991 ?? 0.005 [x- ?? SE]) and low (S = 0.968 ?? 0.007) weekly survivorship. Survivorship increased with basal area per hectare of trees, average diameter at breast height of trees, percent cover of slash, and total point-center quarter distance of trees. Cover of grass and forbs were less for the high survivorship than the lower survivorship group. In summer, deer were spaced apart with mixed associations among subpopulations. Habitat manipulations that promote or maintain large trees (i.e., basal area = 14.8 m2/ha and average dbh of trees = 8.3 cm) would seem to improve adult survival of deer in winter.

Klaver, R. W.; Jenks, J. A.; Deperno, C. S.; Griffin, S. L.

2008-01-01

226

The effect of environmental remediation on the cesium-137 levels in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Due to activities involving nuclear energy research during the latter half of the 1900s, environmental contamination in the form of elevated cesium-137 levels was observed within the Brookhaven National Laboratory, a US Department of Energy facility. Between the years 2000 and 2005, the laboratory carried out a major soil cleanup effort to remove cesium-137 from contaminated sites. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the cleanup effort by comparing the levels of cesium-137 in the meat of white-tailed deer found within and around the laboratory. Results suggest that the cleanup was effective, with mean concentration of cesium-137 in the meat from within the laboratory decreasing from 2.04 Bq/g prior to 1.22 Bq/g after cleanup. At the current level, the consumption of deer would not pose any human health hazard. Nevertheless, statistically higher levels of cesium-137 were detected in the deer within the laboratory as opposed to levels found in deer 1 mi beyond the laboratory site. PMID:25028321

Rispoli, Fred J; Green, Timothy; Fasano, Thomas A; Shah, Vishal

2014-10-01

227

Minimizing capture-related stress on white-tailed deer with a capture collar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the effect of 3 capture methods for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on blood indicators of acute excitement and stress from 1 February to 20 April 1989. Eleven adult females were captured by Clover trap or cannon net between 1 February and 9 April 1989 in northeastern Minnesota [USA]. These deer were fitted with radio-controlled capture collars, and 9 deer were recaptured 7-33 days later. Trapping method affected serum cortisol (P < 0.0001), hemoglobin (Hb) (P < 0.06), and packed cell volume (PCV) (P < 0.07). Cortisol concentrations were lower (P < 0.0001) in capture-collared deer (0.54 .+-. 0.07 [SE] .mu.g/dL) compared to Clover-trapped (4.37 .+-. 0.69 .mu.g/dL) and cannon-netted (3.88 .+-. 0.82 .mu.g/dL) deer. Capture-collared deer were minimally stressed compared to deer captured by traditional methods. Use of the capture collar should permit more accurate interpretation of blood profiles of deer for assessement of condition and general health.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

1990-01-01

228

Proteomics approach to the study of cattle tick adaptation to white tailed deer.  

PubMed

Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD) play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle. PMID:24364032

Popara, Marina; Villar, Margarita; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; de Mera, Isabel G Fernández; de la Fuente, José

2013-01-01

229

Borrelia burgdorferi in an urban environment: white-tailed deer with infected ticks and antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Ticks and blood samples were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in forests located in an insular, urban area of Bridgeport, Conn., and in rural south central Connecticut during 1992 and 1993. Immature and adult Ixodes scapularis ticks were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining methods. Deer sera were analyzed for antibodies to this bacterium by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infected ticks parasitized deer in Bridgeport from May through December; the prevalence of infection varied from 1.1% of 93 larvae to 28.1% of 114 adult females. The percentages of infected males (10.5% of 380 ticks) and females (13.7% of 328 ticks) were relatively lower in south central Connecticut. In antibody tests, the prevalence of seropositive specimens collected in Bridgeport (61% of 146 serum specimens) was more than twofold greater than that of specimens obtained in south central Connecticut (26.7% of 116 serum specimens). Foci for Lyme borreliosis can occur in forested, urban settings as well as in rural areas if there are ticks, rodents, birds, and large mammals present. Human exposure to ticks in such sites should be considered as a possible source of B. burgdorferi infection. PMID:7751354

Magnarelli, L A; Denicola, A; Stafford, K C; Anderson, J F

1995-01-01

230

White-tailed deer alter specialist and generalist insect herbivory through plant traits.  

PubMed

Within a plant species, leaf traits can vary across environmental, genetic, spatial, and temporal gradients, even showing drastic differences within individuals. Herbivory can also induce variation in leaf morphology, defensive structure, and chemistry including nutritional content. Indirect effects of prior insect herbivory on later herbivores have been well documented, but the induction of trait changes after vertebrate herbivory has been little explored. Here, we examined how browsing of spicebush (Lindera benzoin L.), a dominant understory shrub in eastern mesic forests, by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus L.) altered plant quality and subsequent foliar herbivory by insects. Browsing history explained ? 10% of overall leaf trait variation; regenerated leaves had greater water content and specific leaf area (P = 0.009), but were lower in nitrogen and greater in carbon (P < 0.001), than leaves on unbrowsed plants. However, browsing did not shift terpene chemistry as revealed by GC-MS. In the lab, caterpillars of the specialist spicebush swallowtail (Papilio troilus L.) preferred (P = 0.02) and grew 20% faster (P = 0.02) on foliage from browsed plants; whereas total herbivory in the field, including generalist insect herbivory, was twice as high on unbrowsed plants (P = 0.016). These results suggest that the ecological impacts of deer in forest understories can have cascading impacts on arthropod communities by changing the suitability of host-plants to insect herbivores. PMID:23321087

Lind, Eric M; Myron, Emily P; Giaccai, Jennifer; Parker, John D

2012-12-01

231

Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food habits of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an “island” habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer needles) was the predominant food type in all seasons except fall. Acorns and graminoids (grasses and sedges) were important food resources in fall and spring, respectively. Use of woody browse (twigs) was similar among seasons. Field use was relatively high during fall, winter without snow cover (<20 cm), and spring when food resources in fields were readily available. In contrast, use of fields was lowest in summer when preferred woodland foods were available and in winter with snow cover when food in fields was not readily accessible. Patterns of food-type use by deer at VFNHP indicate the year-round importance of nonwoody foods and field habitats to deer populations on public lands such as national parks in the northeastern United States.

Cypher, Brian L.; Yahner, Richard H.; Cypher, Ellen A.

1988-03-01

232

Plant Disease Lesson: Southern blight, Southern stem blight, White mold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on southern blight, Southern stem blight, white mold (caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (teleomorph: Athelia rolfsii)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Jackie Mullen (Auburn University;)

2001-01-04

233

Survival and fidelity of an enclosed white-tailed deer population using capture–recapture-reporting data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of animal populations enclosed by impermeable fences has increased, which poses issues related to the behavior\\u000a of individuals and populations. Despite the increased number of fenced enclosures, there is a paucity of survival and fidelity\\u000a data on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from fenced enclosures. Therefore, we examined marked deer recaptures and resightings over 13 years for an enclosed population

Stephen L. Webb; Kenneth L. Gee; Guiming Wang

2010-01-01

234

PCDEs, PCBs, PCDDs AND PCDFs in black guillemots and white-tailed sea eagles from the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations and patterns of several chloro compounds including polychlorinated dibenzo p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), biphenyls (PCB) and diphenyl ethers (PCDE) were determined in black guillemots (Cepphus grylle L.) and white-tailed sea-eagles (Hallaeetus albicilla L.) from the Baltic Sea environment. Three breast muscles of eagles were analyzed and had different concentrations and patterns of the studied compounds, whereas the three guillemot

J. Koistinen; J. Koivusaari; I. Nuuja; J. Paasivirta

1995-01-01

235

Congener-specific analysis of chloronaphthalenes in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla breeding in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-four congeners of higher chlorinated naphthalenes were identified and quantified in the breast muscles, liver and adipose fat of a few specimens of white-tailed sea eagle collected from the Baltic coastal and inland breeding areas in Poland in 1991–1992. Many of the identified chloronaphthalenes (CNs) were well resolved as single peaks on the Rtx-5 HRGC-MS\\/EI-SIR chromatograms; but still some of

Jerzy Falandysz; Lidia Strandberg; Sten Erik Kulp; Bo Strandberg; Per-Anders Bergqvist; Christoffer Rappe

1996-01-01

236

High white-tailed deer densities benefit graminoids and contribute to biotic homogenization of forest ground-layer vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotic homogenization, with its emphasis on invasions, extinctions, and convergence in taxonomic similarity, provides an important\\u000a framework for investigating changes in biodiversity across scales. Through their selective foraging, large populations of\\u000a white-tailed deer are altering population sizes, driving extirpations, and facilitating invasions of plants throughout the\\u000a eastern United States. I hypothesize that deer can drive biotic homogenization in forest understory

Thomas P. Rooney

2009-01-01

237

Enzymes of Adenylate Metabolism and Their Role in Hibernation of the White-Tailed Prairie Dog, Cynomys leucurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMP deaminase (AMPD) and adenylate kinase (AK) were purified from skeletal muscle of the white-tailed prairie dog, Cynomus leucurus, and enzyme properties were assayed at temperatures characteristic of euthermia (37°C) and hibernation (5°C) to analyze their role in adenylate metabolism during hibernation. Total adenylates decreased in muscle of torpid individuals from 6.97 ± 0.31 to 4.66 ± 0.58 ?mol\\/g of

Tamara E. English; Kenneth B. Storey

2000-01-01

238

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs)

Janna Koistinen; J. P. Giesy; J. Koivusaari; I. Nuuja; P. J. Vuorinen; J. Paasivirta

1997-01-01

239

Contributions of forage competition, harvest, and climate fluctuation to changes in population growth of northern white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently there has been considerable interest in determining the relative roles of endogenous (density-dependent) and exogenous (density-independent) factors in driving the population dynamics of free-ranging ungulates. We used time-series analysis to estimate the relative contributions of density-dependent forage competition, climatic fluctuation, and harvesting on the population dynamics of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Nova Scotia, Canada, from 1983 to 2000.

Brent R. Patterson; Vince A. Power

2002-01-01

240

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from instrumental chemical analyses in fractions containing polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Toxic equivalents were calculated by use of an additive model in which the product of the concentrations of instrumentally measured individual congeners were multiplied by their TCDD equivalency factors and were summed to give a total concentration of TEQs. The TCDD-EQs were compared with TEQs to develop a mass balance to determine whether all the TCDD-like activity was accounted for. The TEQs determined by chemical analyses for coplanar PCBs was 770 pg/g fw, and that of PCDD/PCDFs was 270 pg/g fw in this eagle. Thus, concentrations of TCDD-EQs were approx. 20% greater than those of TEQs. The true difference in activities is probably greater because of lower recoveries and infra-additivities among congeners in the bioassay. This indicates that there are compounds present in the extracts that can contribute to the total concentrations of TCDD-EQs in white-tailed sea eagle eggs to the no-observable-adverse-effect concentration, ranged from 7.3 to 141. This indicates that current concentrations of TCDD-EQs in these eggs are likely causing adverse effects in the Baltic populations of white-tailed sea eagles. This study indicated that the H4IIE bioassay is useful for monitoring the presence and biological activity of TCDD-like compounds in environmental samples like white-tailed sea eagles.

Koistinen, J.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Koivusaari, J. [Western Finland Regional Environment Centre, Vaasa (Finland); Nuuja, I. [Milieu-Data Cc, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Vuorinen, P.J. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Paasivirta, J. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-07-01

241

Investigating variation in the nutritional ecology and genetics of White-tailed Ptarmigan: implications for climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are well suited as a focal species for the study of climate change because they are adapted to cool, alpine environments that are expected to undergo unusually rapid climate change. We compared samples collected in the late 1930s, the late 1960s, and the late 2000s using molecular genetic and stable isotope methods in an effort to

S. J. Oyler-McCance; C. A. Stricker; C. E. Braun; G. T. Wann; C. L. Aldridge

2010-01-01

242

Antigen Recognition by Serum Antibodies in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have emerged as reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis in northern America. For tuberculosis surveillance of deer, antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because deer are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. Sera collected sequentially from 25 Mycobacterium bovis-infected and 7 noninfected deer were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and multiantigen

W. R. Waters; M. V. Palmer; J. P. Bannantine; D. L. Whipple; R. Greenwald; J. Esfandiari; P. Andersen; J. McNair; J. M. Pollock; K. P. Lyashchenko

2004-01-01

243

Putative Chemical Signals from White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ): Social and Seasonal Effects on Urinary Volatile Excretion in Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine samples collected from dominant and subordinate male white-tailed deer during the breeding and nonbreeding season were analyzed by combined gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-five volatiles were found in measurable quantities. Ketones were most numerous, followed by alcohols and alkanes. Nine compounds were common to both dominants and subordinates during the breeding season. Of these nine, three were present in

K. V. Miller; B. Jemiolo; J. W. Gassett; I. Jelinek; D. Wiesler; M. Novotny

1998-01-01

244

Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2011-01-01

245

Genetic variability in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and its relationship to environmental parameters and herd origin (Cervidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme variation was examined in 1571 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 29 localities in Tennessee by starch gel electrophoresis. For 11 polymorphic loci, sex-related, age-related and temporal differences were minimal. However, significant spatial hererogeneity was evident in genotypes (contingency table results), allele frequencies (FST=0.057) and heterozygosity. Heterozygosity ranged from 16.9% to 26.8% with a mean of 22.9%. The spatial pattern

P. K. Kennedy; M. L. Kennedy; M. L. Beck

1987-01-01

246

Serological evidence of bovine herpesvirus 1-related virus infection in the white-tailed deer population on Anticosti Island, Quebec.  

PubMed

High white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population densities and the occurrence of harsh environmental conditions are present on Anticosti Island, located in the Gulf of Saint-Lawrence (Quebec, Canada). This island is the northernmost region of white-tailed deer distribution in northeastern North America. The aim of this work was to determine whether a herpesvirus serologically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) may occur in a stressed white-tailed deer population. One hundred one deer sera were collected from apparently healthy animals during the hunting season from September to late November 1985. Fifty-three percent of tested deer were positive to the seroneutralization test using Colorado strain of BHV1 virus. Higher percentages of seropositivity were observed in animals of both sexes greater than 4-yr-old. Analysis of antibody titers in seropositive animals according to age suggests that BHV1-related viral infection is endemic in the Anticosti Island deer population. It is postulated that environmental stress may induce immunosuppression of certain infected and/or carrier animals in their population that shed virus for long periods of time. PMID:2541261

Lamontagne, L; Sadi, L; Joyal, R

1989-04-01

247

[Forage use and availability for white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in an experimental unit of Campeche, Mexico].  

PubMed

Forage use and availability for white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in an experimental unit of Campeche, Mexico. In Campeche state, 122 Wildlife Conservation and Management Units have been recently conformed. In these units, eventhough the white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi is a game species, no studies on its diet have been undertaken. The objectives of this work were to estimate the botanical composition of the diet and its seasonal change, to determine forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate of O. virginianus thomasi. The study was conducted in the experimental unit of Colegio de Postgraduados in Campeche, Mexico, from October 2010 to May 2012. The diet was determined through microhistological analyses of the white tailed deer feces by the use of reference material. Forage availability was determined through the Adelaide's method; the stocking rate, using the grazing pressure factor; and carrying capacity considering forage availability and 35% of utilization efficiency. In this experimental unit, the deer diet included 40 species belonging to 15 families. The highest species richness ocurred during the rainy season with 29 species. However, deers preferred shrubs during all seasons, and herbaceous species during the rainy season. The diet composition, forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate varied throughout the year. Carrying capacity ranged from 0.04 to 1.08deer/ha. Additional studies are required to detail about the composition of the diet, habitat availability and use throughout its geographical range, and to detail on nutritional and health aspects. PMID:25102651

Granados, Danilo; Tarango, Luis; Olmos, Genaro; Palacio, Jorge; Clemente, Fernando; Mendoza, Germán

2014-06-01

248

Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from black- and white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus and Cynomys leucurus) in central and southeast Wyoming.  

PubMed

Feces collected from live-trapped black- (Cynomys ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) from central and southeastern Wyoming were examined to determine the presence and prevalence of eimerian species. Six species (Eimeria adaensis [black-tailed prairie dog prevalence = 33%, white-tailed prairie dog prevalence = 51%], Eimeria beecheyi [8%, 28%], Eimeria callosper-mophili [64%, 71%], Eimeria lateralis [3%, 7%], Eimeria morainensis [19%, 8%], and Eimeria spermophili [2%, 1%]) were identified from both host species. Eimeria pseudospermophili was found infecting only black-tailed (prevalence = 1%) and Eimeria bilamellata only in white-tailed prairie dogs (2%). Reinfections in individual hosts were observed with E. callospermophili and E. adaensis. Comparison of these results with the published literature suggests that the host genera Cynomys and Spermophilus share a common guild of eimerians and that members of this guild have a long evolutionary association with these hosts, or host switching, or both, is common between these groups. PMID:9057719

Seville, R S

1997-02-01

249

Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Danish in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) vaccinated with a lipid-formulated oral vaccine.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in animals, has a broad host range, including humans. Historically, public health concerns prompted programs to eradicate tuberculosis from cattle in many nations. Eradication efforts decreased the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis; nevertheless, some countries encountered significant obstacles, not least of which was a wildlife reservoir of M. bovis. Efforts to decrease the size of the affected wildlife populations have neither eliminated disease nor eliminated transmission to cattle. Consequently, the use of a vaccine for wildlife is being explored. The vaccine most studied is M. bovis BCG, an attenuated live vaccine, first developed 100 years ago. The most efficient and effective means of vaccinating wildlife will be an oral vaccine. White-tailed deer in Michigan, USA, constitute a reservoir of M. bovis. White-tailed deer are a popular game species, and as such, represent a food animal to many hunters. BCG persistence in deer tissues could result in human exposure to BCG. Although non-pathogenic, BCG exposure could induce false-positive skin test results, confounding the central component of public health surveillance for TB. The objective of the present study in white-tailed deer was to evaluate persistence of lipid-encapsulated BCG and a liquid suspension of BCG after oral administration at two different dosages. Vaccine was not recovered at any time after oral consumption of a bait containing a single dose (1 × 10(8) CFU) of lipid-encapsulated BCG. However, persistence was consistent in deer consuming 10 lipid-encapsulated baits (1 × 10(9) CFU), with BCG recovered from at least one deer at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after consumption. Persistence of up to 9 months was seen in deer vaccinated with orally with a liquid suspension. Persistence of BCG was limited to lymphoid tissue and never found in samples of muscle collected at each time point. Although the risk of exposure to hunters is low, BCG persistence should be considered prior to field use in white-tailed deer. PMID:23173832

Palmer, M V; Thacker, T C; Waters, W R; Robbe-Austerman, S; Aldwell, F E

2014-06-01

250

White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger  

PubMed Central

The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles, in addition to posting advisory speed limits. PMID:25333922

Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; DeVault, Travis L.

2014-01-01

251

Effects of winter undernutrition on body composition and physiological profiles of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of undernutrition and recovery on body composition and blood and urinary profiles of 6 captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) between 18 December 1984 and 3 May 1985. Deer were weighed, and blood and urine were collected every 2 weeks from 10 January to 3 May. At Weeks 2, 8, and 14, body composition was estimated by the dilution of tritiated water technique and standard predictive equations. Feed intake decreased and cumulative mass loss increased during nutritional restriction. Baseline body composition included 62.1 .+-. 0.9 (SE)% water, 11.9 .+-. 1.0% fat, 20.5 .+-. 0.7% protein, and 4.5 .+-. 0.0% ash. Percent protein loss was linearly related (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) to percent mass loss. Peak mass loss from the beginning of the study (12.8 .+-. 2.0%) occurred at Week 12; estimated protein loss was 12.5%. Fat reserves were 85% depleted from Week 2 to Week 14. Elevated packed cell volume (PCV), serum calcium (Ca), cholesterol, triglycerides, and cortisol; and diminished serum urea nitrogen, thyroxine (T4), urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine and potassium:creatinine were associated with reduced food intake, mass loss, and decreases in body water, fat, and protein. Altered values of most of these blood and urinary characteristics reflected initiation of nutritional recovery after nutrition improved. Sequential data collection and the use of a combination of indices in blood or urine will yield the most useful assessments of animal nutrition and condition.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

1990-01-01

252

Effects of capture-related injury on postcapture movement of white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Capture-related injuries or deaths of wildlife study subjects pose concerns to researchers, from considerations for animal welfare to inflated project costs and biased data. Capture myopathy (CM) is an injury that can affect an animal's survival ? 30 days postrelease, but is often difficult to detect without close monitoring and immediate necropsy. We evaluated the influence of capture and handling on postcapture movement in an attempt to characterize movement rates of animals suffering from CM. We captured and global positioning system-collared 95 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central and northern New York during 2006-2008. Six juveniles died within 30 days postrelease, and necropsy reports indicated that two suffered CM (2%). We compared postcapture movement rates for juveniles that survived >30 days with those that died ? 30 days postcapture. Survivor movement rates (43.74 m/hr, SD = 3.53, n = 28) were significantly higher than rates for deer that died within 30 days (17.70 m/hr, SD = 1.57, n = 6) (P<0.01). Additionally, movement rates of juveniles that died of CM (15.1 m/hr) were 5.1 m/hr lower than those for juveniles that died of other causes ? 30 days postcapture (20.2 m/hr), but we were unable to evaluate this statistically because of insufficient sample size. We found no difference in vital rates (temperature, heart rate, respiration rate) during handling between survivors and juveniles that died within 30 days postcapture but observed that survivors were in better body condition at capture. These results suggest that deer likely to die within the 30-day CM window can be identified soon after capture, provided that intensive movement data are collected. Further, even if necropsy reports are unavailable, these animals should be censored from analysis because their behavior is not representative of movements of surviving animals. PMID:24484502

Dechen Quinn, Amy C; Williams, David M; Porter, William F; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Hynes, Kevin

2014-04-01

253

White-tailed deer response to vehicle approach: evidence of unclear and present danger.  

PubMed

The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles, in addition to posting advisory speed limits. PMID:25333922

Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; DeVault, Travis L

2014-01-01

254

Individual based modeling of animal populations using object oriented simulation techniques: investigating the effects of bonding, predation and birth cover on white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

INDIVIDUAL BASED MODELING OP ANIMAL POPULATIONS USING OBJECT ORIENTED SIMULATION TECHNIQUES : INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OP BONDING, PREDATION AND BIRTH COVER ON WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by CARL DUANE GERMAN Submitted to the Office... SIMULATION TECHNIQUES : INVESTIGATING THE EF'FECTS O( BONDING, PREDATION AND BIRTH COVER ON WHITE-TAILED DEER P, Thesis by CARL DUANE GERMAN Approved as t. o style and content Ly L. sep Folse (Cha r of Committee) /L, w c we+ &/ William E. Grant...

German, Carl Duane

2012-06-07

255

A genetic approach to the study of population structure in white-tailed deer :: evidence from the Noble Foundation Wildlife Unit  

E-print Network

studies (De Young et al. 2002) population genetics studies (Skow et al. 1999), and wildlife management (Smith et al. 1976). Southern Oklahoma is a region of contact between two subspecies of white-tailed deer. O. v. macroura occurs in the eastern... among adjacent populations may be a consequence ofboth geological/physiographical barriers and demographic effects that limit dispersal. Southern Oklahoma is a region of contact between two subspecies of white-tailed deer (Hall 1981). O. v. macroura...

Anderson, Joel David

2012-06-07

256

TWO THEILERIA CERVI SSU RRNA GENE SEQUENCE TYPES FOUND IN ISOLATES FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER AND ELK IN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT :T woTheileria cervi SSU rRNA gene sequence Types, F and G, from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) isolates in North America were confirmed. Previously, nucleotide sequencing through a single variable (V4) region showed the presence of SSU rRNA gene Types F and G in T. cervi isolates from white-tailed deer and an elk. In this

Joon-seok Chae; Suryakant D. Waghela; Thomas M. Craig; Alan A. Kocan; G Gerald; Patricia J. Holman

1999-01-01

257

Origin and genetic structure of white-tailed sea eagles ( Haliaeetus albicilla ) in the Czech Republic: an analysis of breeding distribution, ringing data and DNA microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Czech Republic declined dramatically during the twentieth century. None were observed in the area for more than 60 years\\u000a until population recoveries were observed beginning in the 1980s. It is currently estimated that 25–30 breeding pairs of white-tailed\\u000a sea eagles nest in the Czech Republic. This article analyses surveillance data from

I. Literák; V. Mrlík; A. Hovorková; P. Mikulí?ek; J. Lengyel; K. Št’astný; J. Cepák; L. Dubská

2007-01-01

258

INFECTION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN MICHIGAN WITH JAMESTOWN CANYON VIRUS (CALIFORNIA SEROGROUP) AND THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERNAL ANTIBODY IN VIRAL MAINTENANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera collected from a captive population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileusvirgini- anus) penned in the lower peninsula of Michigan were assayed over a 29-mo period for neutral- izing antibody to California serogroup viruses. In all, 130 individual white-tailed deer were bled one to 22 times between June 1983 and November 1985. Of the 130 sampled after active trans- mission had ceased,

Paul R. Grimstad; Diane G. Williams; Stephen M. SchmiW

259

Contrasting gray and white matter changes in preclinical Huntington disease  

E-print Network

Contrasting gray and white matter changes in preclinical Huntington disease An MRI study DD ABSTRACT Background: In Huntington disease (HD), substantial striatal atrophy precedes clinical motor of view; GM gray matter; HD Huntington disease; MRI magnetic resonance imaging; pre-HD preclinical HD

Aron, Adam

260

Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989--1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 and 10.6 years, respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer, dieldrin was found in fat, liver, and brain, and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal. Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin and mercury. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C. [Geological Survey, Madison, WI (United States). National Wildlife Health Center; Whittaker, D.G. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (United States); Roy, R.R. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Commerce City, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge]|[Fish and Wildlife Service, Moses Lake, WA (United States). Moses Lake Field Office; Baker, D.L. [Colorado Div. of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1999-02-01

261

Distribution of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral protein and nucleic acid within central nervous tissue lesions in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

An outbreak of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) occurred in Michigan free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during late summer and fall of 2005. Brain tissue from 7 deer with EEE, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was studied. Detailed microscopic examination, indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to characterize the lesions and distribution of the EEE virus within the brain. The main lesion in all 7 deer was a polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis, which was more prominent within the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. In 3 deer, multifocal microhemorrhages surrounded smaller vessels with or without perivascular cuffing, although vasculitis was not observed. Neuronal necrosis, associated with perineuronal satellitosis and neutrophilic neuronophagia, was most prominent in the thalamus and the brainstem. Positive IHC labeling was mainly observed in the perikaryon, axons, and dendrites of necrotic and intact neurons and, to a much lesser degree, in glial cells, a few neutrophils in the thalamus and the brainstem, and occasionally the cerebral cortex of the 7 deer. There was minimal IHC-based labeling in the cerebellum and hippocampus. ISH labeling was exclusively observed in the cytoplasm of neurons, with a distribution similar to IHC-positive neurons. Neurons positive by IHC and ISH were most prominent in the thalamus and brainstem. The neuropathology of EEE in deer is compared with other species. Based on our findings, EEE has to be considered a differential diagnosis for neurologic disease and meningoencephalitis in white-tailed deer. PMID:23686767

Kiupel, M; Fitzgerald, S D; Pennick, K E; Cooley, T M; O'Brien, D J; Bolin, S R; Maes, R K; Del Piero, F

2013-11-01

262

Spatial point pattern analyses of Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in domestic livestock herds and concomitant seroprevalence in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important disease of domestic cattle that is capable of infecting cervids. A first step in the formulation of a regional BVDV management plan is a local assessment of the likelihood of pathogen transmission from wildlife to domestic livestock. To achieve this, blood samples were collected from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout New York State in the fall of 2009 and 2010. The SVANOVIR BVDV p80-AB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Svanova Biotech AV, Uppsala, Sweden) was used to screen sera for anti-BVDV antibodies. Because this ELISA is not validated for use in white-tailed deer, sera that tested positive were tested again using serum neutralization to verify the presence of antibodies. Spatial data describing the geographic location of BVDV antigen-positive cattle and camelid herds and BVDV-seropositive white-tailed deer were analyzed via the dual kernel density estimation method. In white-tailed deer, 7.48% (80/1,069) were BVDV-seropositive, whereas 3.43% (144/4,195) of tested herds were positive for BVDV antigen. An exploratory cluster analysis revealed 1 significant cluster of BVDV antigen-positive herds and 2 significant clusters of BVDV-seropositive deer. There was no spatial overlap between the clusters. The spatial point pattern and exploratory cluster analyses suggest that BVDV is maintained independently in domestic livestock herds in the western part of the state and in the white-tailed deer population in the northwestern part of the state. PMID:23512919

Kirchgessner, Megan S; Dubovi, Edward J; Whipps, Christopher M

2013-03-01

263

Borrelia burgdorferi not detected in widespread Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from white-tailed deer in Tennessee.  

PubMed

Lyme disease (LD), caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted in the eastern United States by blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, is classified as nonendemic in Tennessee and surrounding states in the Southeast. Low incidence of LD in these states has been attributed, in part, to vector ticks being scarce or absent; however, tick survey data for many counties are incomplete or out of date. To improve our knowledge of the distribution, abundance, and Borrelia spp. prevalence of I. scapularis, we collected ticks from 1,018 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman)) from 71 of 95 Tennessee counties in fall 2007 and 2008. In total, 160 deer (15.7%) from 35 counties were infested with adult I. scapularis; 30 of these counties were new distributional records for this tick. The mean number of I. scapularis collected per infested deer was 5.4 +/- 0.6 SE. Of the 883 I. scapularis we removed from deer, none were positive for B. burgdorferi and one tested positive for B. miyamotoi. Deer are not reservoir hosts for B. burgdorferi; nevertheless, past surveys in northern LD-endemic states have readily detected B. burgdoreferi in ticks collected from deer. We conclude that I. scapularis is far more widespread in Tennessee than previously reported. The absence of detectable B. burgdorferi infection among these ticks suggests that the LD risk posed by I. scapularis in the surveyed areas of Tennessee is much lower than in LD-endemic areas of the Northeast and upper Midwest. PMID:23270178

Rosen, M E; Hamer, S A; Gerhardt, R R; Jones, C J; Muller, L I; Scott, M C; Hickling, G J

2012-11-01

264

Research Note Winter Forage Selection in White-Tailed Deer at High  

E-print Network

consume 70% balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and 20% white spruce (Picea glauca), even though spruce is much are being replaced by white spruce (Picea glauca) stands (Potvin et al. 2003). Deer overbrowsing

Laval, Université

265

Muscleworms, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), discovered in Columbia white-tailed deer from Oregon and Washington: implications for biogeography and host associations.  

PubMed

Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Host and geographic distribution for this parasite, however, remain poorly defined in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from Columbia white-tailed deer (O. v. leucurus) in a restricted range endemic to Oregon and Washington, USA, were examined for dorsal-spined larvae characteristic of many protostrongylid nematodes. Multilocus DNA sequence data (internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) established the identity and a new record for P. andersoni in a subspecies of white-tailed deer previously unrecognized as hosts. Populations of P. andersoni are now recognized along the basin of the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington and from south-central Oregon on the North Umpqua River. Current data indicate a potentially broad zone of sympatry for P. andersoni and Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in the western region of North America, although these elaphostrongylines seem to be segregated, respectively, in white-tailed deer or in black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) at temperate latitudes. The geographic range for P. andersoni in white-tailed deer is extended substantially to the west of the currently defined limit in North America, and we confirm an apparently extensive range for this elpahostrongyline. These observations are explored in the broader context of host and geographic associations for P. andersoni and related elaphostrongylines in North American cervids. PMID:18263818

Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Mortenson, Jack A; Hoberg, Eric P

2008-01-01

266

Predation by coyotes on White-Tailed Deer neonates in South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Coyotes (Canis latrans) are novel predators throughout the southeastern United States and their depredation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates may explain observed declines in some deer populations in the region, but direct evidence for such a relationship is lacking. Our objective was to quantify neonate survival rates and causes of mortality at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina to directly evaluate degree of predation in this deer population. From 2006 to 2009, we radio-monitored 91 neonates captured with the aid of vaginal implant transmitters in pregnant adult females and opportunistic searches. Overall Kaplan�¢����Meier survival rate to 16 weeks of age was 0.230 (95% CI = 0.155-0.328), and it varied little among years. Our best-fitting model estimated survival at 0.220 (95% CI = 0.144-0.320). This model included a quadratic time trend variable (lowest survival rate during the first week of life and increasing to near 1.000 around week 10), and Julian date of birth (survival probability declining as date of birth increased). Predation by coyotes was the most frequent cause of death among the 70 monitored neonates that died, definitively accounting for 37% of all mortalities and potentially accounting for as much as 80% when also including probable coyote predation. Predation by bobcats (Felis rufus) accounted for 7% (definitive) to 9% (including probable bobcat predation) of mortalities. The level of coyote-induced mortality we observed is consistent with the low recruitment rates exhibited in the SRS deer population since establishment of coyotes at the site. If representative of recruitment rates across South Carolina, current harvest levels appear unsustainable. This understanding is consistent with the recent declining trend in the statewide deer population. The effects of coyote predation on recruitment should be considered when setting harvest goals, regardless of whether local deer population size is currently above or below desired levels, because coyotes can substantially reduce fawn recruitment. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Kilgo, John, C.; Ray, Scott, H.; Vukovich, Mark; Goode, Mathew, J.; Ruth, Charles.

2012-05-07

267

Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with <40% canopy cover. Bedding locations were represented by saw-timber pine structural stages with >40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined males selected areas that were characterized by greater levels of horizontal cover than females. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper (Juniperus communis), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0--40%, 41--70%, 71--100%) of canopy cover. All habitat types (i.e., pine, aspen, and spruce) were used as bedding locations with pine sapling-pole structural stages with >70% canopy cover used most, whereas pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover was primarily used for feeding. Females bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites, whereas male feeding sites had greater horizontal cover characteristics than bedding or random locations.

Deperno, Christopher Shannon

268

A retrospective study of mortality in Pennsylvania captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): 20000--2003.  

PubMed

The postmortem records of 160 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) submitted for necropsy examination from 59 separate Pennsylvania captive deer farms over a 3.5-year period were reviewed to determine the primary cause of death of each animal. The most common causes of death were bronchopneumonia (39 cases), enterocolitis (30 cases), malnutrition (13 cases), and trauma (11 cases). Other causes of mortality included severe gastrointestinal parasitism (6 cases), cellulitis with septicemia (5 cases), degenerative myopathy (4 cases), ruminal acidosis (4 cases), and nephritis (4 cases). The cause of death was undetermined in 13 of the 160 animals. Arcanobacterium pyogenes (19 cases), Fusobacterium necrophorum (10 cases), Escherichia coli (7 cases), and Mannheimia haemolytica (4 cases) were the most commonly isolated bacteria from the pneumonic lungs. Bacterial agents associated with enterocolitis included Clostridium perfringens (15 cases), E. coli (12 cases), and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (2 cases). The majority (52.2%) of the death loss in white-tailed deer of known ages occurred in animals 1 year of age or less, with 46.2% of the bronchopneumonia cases and 50.0% of the enterocolitis cases occurring during this time period. Cases of degenerative myopathy, myocardial degeneration, hepatic necrosis, meningoencephalitis, peritonitis, and urolithiasis considered severe enough to be the primary cause of death appeared early in life, affecting deer 6 months of age or less in all cases. In conclusion, bronchopneumonia, enterocolitis, malnutrition, and trauma were considered the most common causes of death in confined white-tailed deer in this study. PMID:15586566

Hattel, Arthur L; Shaw, Daniel P; Love, Brenda C; Wagner, Donald C; Drake, Thomas R; Brooks, Jason W

2004-11-01

269

Seroepidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York, United States.  

PubMed

Coxiella burnetii is an environmentally resistant bacterium that has been reported in wildlife populations. Frequent contact on pasture between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle has been reported by farmers in the Northeast U.S., and transmission of C. burnetii is thought to occur between wild deer and domestic livestock such as cows, sheep, and goats. Blood samples were collected from white-tailed deer throughout New York State in 2009 and 2010 and examined for anti-C. burnetii phase II antibodies via indirect microimmunofluorescence assays. Exploratory spatial cluster analysis revealed a lack of significant clustering of C. burnetii-seropositive deer. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between the C. burnetii serostatus of deer and sex, percent agriculture, shrub, and forest cover, and townships with more than 10 bovine herds. A lack of significant association was revealed between the serostatus of deer and the year of sampling, soil type, percent wetland and open water cover, total annual precipitation, and townships with more than two sheep or goat herds. Because four different land cover types were associated with a higher probability of C. burnetii seropositivity, it is likely that land cover is not a discriminating factor in C. burnetii exposure. This is probably because C. burnetii environmental contamination is widespread and not localized to certain cover types. The social behavior of male deer may contribute to the lack of spatial clustering. Bucks typically travel over greater distances, which leads to a greater variety of encountered environments and a greater chance for exposure to C. burnetii. Because increasing agricultural land cover and townships with greater than 10 bovine herds are associated with an increased probability of diagnosing a seropositive deer, it appears likely that transmission of C. burnetii between domestic livestock and white-tailed deer may occur. PMID:22989183

Kirchgessner, Megan S; Dubovi, Edward J; Whipps, Christopher M

2012-11-01

270

Excursive Behaviors by Female White-tailed Deer during Estrus at Two Mid-Atlantic Sites  

E-print Network

(Odocoileus virginianus) will adopt sedentary breeding strategies in populations with an abundance of males-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) likely play a passive role in mate selection. However, Ozoga and Verme

Muller, Lisa

271

WILDLIFE DISEASES SURVEILLANCE TO DETECT CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN  

E-print Network

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer wasting disease, disease surveillance, Odocoileus virginianus, white- tailed deer, Wisconsin. INTRODUCTION

Mladenoff, David

272

Active and latent ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) infection in a herd of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is the clinical manifestation of infection of certain ruminant species with one of a group of pathogenic gammaherpesviruses known as MCF viruses. Cattle and numerous exotic ruminant species are susceptible to clinical disease that may be sporadic or occasionally epidemic in nature. The most common MCF virus worldwide is ovine herpesvirus (OvHV)-2. Reservoir hosts such as sheep, carry and excrete OvHV-2, but do not develop clinical signs, while clinically susceptible species develop severe and often fatal disease. The existence of latent infection in clinically susceptible hosts is poorly understood, but is documented in some ruminant species. Twenty-six animals from a captive herd of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) died and were examined from October 2006 to December 2010. Fifteen of these animals (58%) showed clinical signs and gross and microscopical lesions consistent with MCF, while 11 (42%) did not. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification yielded product consistent with OvHV-2 DNA in samples of spleen from all 26 deer. To examine the possibility of latent infection in this herd, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were examined by PCR for OvHV-2 DNA, and the test was positive in 23/32 (72%) clinically normal deer. Archived serum samples were used to examine the history of MCF exposure in the herd using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which demonstrated that 10/40 (25%) deer tested had MCF viral antibodies, with nine deer being seropositive over multiple years. Combined with previous observations in deer and other species, these results suggest the existence of latent infection of white-tailed deer with OvHV-2. PMID:23453492

Palmer, M V; Thacker, T C; Madison, R J; Koster, L G; Swenson, S L; Li, H

2013-01-01

273

Two Theileria cervi SSU RRNA gene sequence types found in isolates from white-tailed deer and elk in North America.  

PubMed

Two Theileria cervi SSU rRNA gene sequence Types, F and G, from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) isolates in North America were confirmed. Previously, nucleotide sequencing through a single variable (V4) region showed the presence of SSU rRNA gene Types F and G in T. cervi isolates from white-tailed deer and an elk. In this study, both sequence types were found in four T. cervi isolates (two from deer and two from elk). Microheterogeneity only appeared in the Type G gene, resulting in Subtypes G1, G2 and G3. Subtype G1 was found in two elk and one white-tailed deer T. cervi isolate; Subtypes G2 and G3 were found in a white-tailed deer T. cervi isolate. The Type F SSU rRNA genes were identical in nucleotide sequence in both elk and white-tailed deer T. cervi isolates. The high degree of conservation in the Type F variable regions may be exploited to design specific oligonucleotide primers for parasite detection by the polymerase chain reaction in cervine or tick hosts. PMID:10479079

Chae, J S; Waghela, S D; Craig, T M; Kocan, A A; Wagner, G G; Holman, P J

1999-07-01

274

Oral Vaccination of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)  

PubMed Central

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1×108 colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n?=?17); and non-vaccinated (n?=?16). One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts. PMID:24804678

Palmer, Mitchell V.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Waters, W. Ray; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

2014-01-01

275

Drought effect on selection of conservation reserve program grasslands by white-tailed deer on the Northern Great Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P < 0.001) and home range (P < 0.001) levels. Deer selected for Conservation Reserve Program grasslands and corn during both summers and shifted selection temporally within summer. Use of CRP grasslands occurred during early summer; 73.1 and 88.9% of locations in CRP were documented prior to 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Conversely, selection for corn occurred during late summer; 86.0 and 68.4% of locations in corn were documented after 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Additionally, deer selected for forested cover and rural development areas containing permanent water sources during extreme drought conditions during 2006. Deer likely selected for fields of CRP grasslands during early summer for cover and natural forages, such as clover (Trifolium sp.), prior to the period when agricultural crops become available. Drought conditions occurring in semiarid prairie grassland regions may reduce food and water availability and contribute to subsequent changes in deer habitat selection across the range of the species.

Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

2011-01-01

276

Oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG).  

PubMed

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n = 17); and non-vaccinated (n = 16). One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts. PMID:24804678

Palmer, Mitchell V; Thacker, Tyler C; Waters, W Ray; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

2014-01-01

277

Factors affecting reproductive performance of white-tailed deer subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination or natural mating.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of several factors affecting fawning rate, litter size, litter weight and neonatal fawn mortality in white-tailed deer inseminated either transcervically or by means of laparoscopy. Oestrus synchronisation with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) was conducted in 130 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) during three reproductive seasons (2007-2009; 271 services) in a game-hunting ranch in a hot-arid environment (26°4' N, 101°25' W). Ninety additional non-treated does were exposed to bucks for natural mating. Fawning rate did not differ between AI methods (40.0 vs 45.0% for transcervical and laparoscopic AI, respectively). Overall fawning rate (proportion of all does fawning after FTAI and a subsequent period of buck exposure) did not differ between transcervical (89.5%), laparoscopic (80.3%) or natural (88.9%) insemination. Litter size per fawning doe was higher (P<0.05) in naturally-served does (1.65±0.48) than in transcervically-inseminated does (1.40±0.51) or in laparoscopically-inseminated does (1.48±0.50). The main conclusion was that no enhancement of fawning rate or litter size occurred as a result of intrauterine deposition of semen by laparoscopy compared with the transcervical insemination technique. PMID:23464502

Mellado, Miguel; Orta, Claudia G; Lozano, Eloy A; García, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; de Santiago, Angeles

2013-01-01

278

Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns on a north Atlantic coastal island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns (n=29) were studied from birth to 1 year of age during 1991-95 on Mount Desert Island (MDI), Maine where deer hunting is prohibited, coyotes Canis latrans have become recently established, and protected U. S. National Park lands are interspersed with private property. Rate of predator-caused mortality was 0.52, with coyote predation (n=8) accounting for at least 47% of mortalities from all causes (n=17). Mortality rate from drowning was 0.24 (n=3), and from vehicles was 0.14 (n=3). Of fawns radio-collared as neonates, 10 of 14 mortalities occurred during the first 2 months of life. Annual rate of fawn survival was 0.26. Survival rate from 6 months to 1 year was 0.65 and 4 mortalities (2 predation, 2 drowning) were observed during this interval. A subgroup of fawns (n = 11) captured near a residential area and along the edge of a coyote territory had a higher (P = 0.002) rate of survival to 1 year of age (S = 0.67) than did fawns from all other areas (n = 18, S = 0.00). Recruitment to 1 year of age was lower than has been observed in other deer populations in the northeastern United States. Low recruitment associated with coyote predation and mortality sources influenced by humans appears to be limiting white-tailed deer populations in this insular landscape.

Long, R.A.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Harrison, D.J.

1998-01-01

279

Serum Leptin as an Indicator of Fat Levels in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Southeastern USA.  

PubMed

Abstract Leptin is a hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake, appetite, and metabolism. In some mammals, leptin has been shown to circulate at levels proportional to body fat, which could make it useful for nonlethal evaluation of body condition. Leptin's usefulness for estimating fat levels (i.e., body condition) of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is unknown. We quantified serum leptin concentrations in a sample of free-ranging, female deer collected in July 2008 and March 2009 from coastal North Carolina, USA. We compared leptin concentrations with kidney fat index, femur marrow fat index, and kidney fat mass. Additionally, we assessed differences in leptin concentrations between the two seasons, lactating and nonlactating females, and gestating and nongestating females. Leptin concentrations were similar between seasons but were lower in lactating and gestating females. We did not detect significant relationships between leptin and the body fat metrics, indicating that leptin may have limited value for estimating fat reserves in white-tailed deer. PMID:24949928

Chitwood, M Colter; Phillips, Shannon P; Whisnant, Scott; Tyndall, James; Lashley, Marcus A; DePerno, Christopher S

2014-10-01

280

FINDING THE TROPHIC TRICKLE: USING HERBACEOUS INDICATOR SPECIES TO INVESTIGATE PLANT RECOVERY FROM INTENSE BROWSING BY WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AFTER THE RE-COLONIZATION OF A TOP PREDATOR (CANIS LUPUS).  

E-print Network

??High densities of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been implicated in changing forest community structure and composition. Top predators, including gray wolf (Canis lupus), were… (more)

Bouchard, Krystle A.

2009-01-01

281

ASSESSING DIETARY QUALITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER USING FECAL INDICES: EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL  

E-print Network

-tailed deer, dietary quality, fecal indices, fecal nitrogen. fecal phosphorus. supplemental feeding. BlackS) in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota, have been documented, quality of these diets is un- known. It has been populations in the northern Black Hills; however. this hypothesis has not been tested. Additionally

282

SCARE TACTICS IN A NEOTROPICAL WARBLER: WHITE TAIL FEATHERS ENHANCE FLUSH–PURSUIT FORAGING PERFORMANCE IN THE SLATE-THROATED REDSTART (MYIOBORUS MINIATUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flush-pursuit foragers use exaggerated and animated foraging movements to flush potential prey that are then pursued and captured in flight. The Myioborus redstarts comprise 12 species of flush-pursuit warblers found in montane forests of the American tropics and subtropics. All members of the genus have contrasting black-and-white tail feathers that are exposed by spreading the tail during animated foraging displays.

Ronald L. Mumme

2002-01-01

283

Reduced abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and the tick parasitoid Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) with reduction of white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

The principal vector for the pathogens of Lyme disease, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis is the tick Ixodes scapularis Say. A chalcid wasp, Ixodiphagus hookeri, in the family Encyrtidae parasitizes populations of the tick on several islands or other geographically isolated sites in New England with high densities of these ticks and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the principal host for adult I. scapularis. Deer densities were reduced at a forested tract in Bridgeport and the Bluff Point Coastal Reserve in Groton, Connecticut, from levels exceeding 90 animals per km2 in 1992 (Bridgeport) and 1994 (Bluff Point) to 17 and 10 animals per km2, respectively, by fall 2001. Tick densities declined with sustained reductions in the population of white-tailed deer. Similarly, prevalence of tick parasitism by Ixodes hookeri declined at both sites from 30 to 25% to <1.0% and was significantly correlated with previous year's deer density at both sites (r(s) = 0.933 and r(s) = 0.867, P < or = 0.0001) and with nymphal tick densities at Bridgeport (r(s) = 0.867, P < or = 0.0001), but was not as well correlated with tick densities in Groton. The virtual disappearance of I. hookeri in this study corresponds with a lack of I. hookeri in mainland I. scapularis at comparable deer and tick densities, suggesting that there is a threshold deer density of approximatley 10-20/km2, with corresponding tick densities necessary for I. hookeri to successfully parasitize I. scapularis. PMID:14596277

Stafford, Kirby C; Denicola, Anthony J; Kilpatrick, Howard J

2003-09-01

284

Management and Conservation Note Alternative Feeding Strategies and Potential Disease  

E-print Network

, Odocoileus virginianus, supplemental feeding, white-tailed deer. Supplemental feeding contributes baiting of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) results in undesirable ecological effects (Casey and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus

Mladenoff, David

285

Evaluating use of cattle winter feeding areas by elk and white-tailed deer: implications for managing bovine tuberculosis transmission risk from the ground up.  

PubMed

Transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) among wildlife and livestock has created important risks for conservation and agriculture. Management strategies aimed at controlling TB have typically been top-down, regionally focused, and government-led programs that were at best only partially successful. The purpose of this study was to quantify co-mingling of elk and white-tailed deer (WTD) with cattle at multiple spatial scales (i.e., the regional farm scale and winter cattle feeding area patch) in southwestern Manitoba, Canada, to assess the potential for bovine tuberculosis transmission and identify alternative management strategies. For each spatial scale we quantified use of cattle farms by elk and white-tailed deer. We mailed questionnaires to rural households and then conducted personal interviews with 86 cattle farmers to map the spatial distribution of their cattle winter feeding areas at a fine scale. We deployed Global Positioning System (GPS) collars on 48 wild elk and 16 wild white-tailed deer from 2003 to 2011. Elk were observed on farms by 66% of cattle producers, including 5% and 20% who observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between elk and cattle. Cattle producers consistently (?100%) observed white-tailed deer on their farms, including 11% and 47% whom observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between white-tailed deer and cattle. A higher probability of white-tailed deer-cattle contact at the regional scale occurs on farms that (1) left crop residues specifically for wildlife, (2) had larger cattle herds, (3) used round bale feeders, and (4) were farther away from protected areas. None of the GPS-collared elk locations overlapped with cattle winter feeding areas. In contrast, 21% of GPS-collared white-tailed deer locations overlapped with winter cattle winter feeding areas (22% of these were from male WTD and 78% were from female WTD). White-tailed deer selected cattle winter feeding areas with higher (1) forage crop, (2) grassland/rangeland, and (3) forest cover around the cattle feeding area. Farmers overall expressed strongly negative attitudes toward eradicating the elk population or fencing the park to eradicate TB, but were generally supportive of less invasive and farm-based approaches. Our results suggested that management efforts to prevent TB transmission at the wildlife-agriculture interface can be effectively implemented using a 'bottom-up' approach that focuses on practical, farm-based mitigation strategies. This approach can be implemented by individual farm operators, is relatively low cost, and is generally well supported by farmers relative to other more extreme and controversial measures like wildlife eradication. PMID:22940061

Brook, Ryan K; Wal, Eric Vander; van Beest, Floris M; McLachlan, Stéphane M

2013-02-01

286

AN EPIZOOTIC OF ADENOVIRUS-INDUCED HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE IN CAPTIVE BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten fawns and four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in a captive herd died as a result of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease. Acute, systemic infections were characterized by hemorrhagic enteropathy, pulmonary edema, and occasional ulceration of the upper alimentary tract. Localized infections were limited to the upper alimentary tract and included stomatitis, pharyngitis, mandibular osteomyelitis, and rumenitis. In deer with acute,

Walter M. Boyce; Leslie W. Woods; M. Kevin Keel; N. James MacLachlan; Charles O. Porter; Howard D. Lehmkuhl

287

Effects of Secondary Structures of Heated Egg White Protein on the Binding Between Prime Starch and Tailings Fractions in Fresh Wheat Flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 81(5):633-636 Dried egg white protein was heated at 120°C for 1 hr, added to a fresh wheat flour (protein 8.6%), and the protein and wheat flour were sub- jected to acetic acid (pH 3.5) fractionation. The results showed that egg white protein increased the binding between prime starch (PS) and tailings (T) fractions in wheat flour. Several conditions

M. Seguchi; M. Takemoto; U. Mizutani; M. Ozawa; C. Nakamura; Y. Matsumura

2004-01-01

288

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge reservation: 1981 status report  

SciTech Connect

One hundred fifteen white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1981, an increase of seventeen over 1980. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. October and November were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road kills was 0.8:1 (males to females) from January through September but shifted to 3:1 during October, November, and December, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movement. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season spanning the September through February period. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that the animals were in good condition with only a few abnormalities observed. Abomasal parasite counts reflected an optimum density situation between the deer population and its habitat, although browse surveys made during the winter of 1981-1982 indicated a tendency toward an overpopulated condition.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1982-11-01

289

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1982 status report  

SciTech Connect

One hundred nine white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1982, a decrease of six from the vehicle kills in 1981. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. The highest number of deer killed was recorded during November. The sex ratio of road-kills was 0.6:1 (males to females) from January through September, but it shifted to 3.6:1 for the October through December period, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movements. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season from early October through late March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that animals were in good condition (only a few abnormalities were observed), and endoparasite burdens continue to reflect no overcrowding in the deer population. 5 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1985-06-01

290

Serological evidence for eastern equine encephalitis virus activity in white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, in Vermont, 2010.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 489 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were screened for antibodies against the Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) using plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs). EEEV antibodies were detected in 10.2% of serum samples. This is the first evidence that EEEV is present in Vermont. Serum was collected from deer in all 14 counties in the state, and positive EEEV sera were found in 12 (85%) of 14 counties, suggesting statewide EEEV activity in Vermont. Analysis of the spatial distribution of PRNT-positive samples revealed a random distribution of EEEV throughout the state. The results indicate widespread EEEV activity in Vermont and suggest that EEEV is not a recent introduction to the state but that EEEV activity has not been detected until now. PMID:23208886

Berl, Erica; Eisen, Rebecca J; MacMillan, Katherine; Swope, Bethany N; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D; Graham, Alan C; Turmel, Jon P; Mutebi, John-Paul

2013-01-01

291

A Comparative White Matter Study with Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's Disease with Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are among the most common neurodegenerative disorders affecting older populations. AD is characterized by impaired memory and cognitive decline while the primary symptoms of PD include resting tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity. In PD, mild cognitive changes are frequently present, which could progress to dementia (PD dementia (PDD)). PDD and AD dementias are different in pathology although the difference in microstructural changes remains unknown. To further understand these diseases, it is essential to understand the distinct mechanism of their microstructural changes. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter tract differences between early stage individuals with AD (n=14), PD (n=12), PDD (n=9), and healthy non-demented controls (CON) (n=13). We used whole brain tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) and a region of interest (ROI) analysis focused on the substantia nigra (SN). We found that individuals with PDD had more widespread white matter degeneration compared to PD, AD, and CON. Individuals with AD had few regional abnormalities in the anterior and posterior projections of the corpus callosum while PD and CON did not appear to have significant white matter degeneration when compared to other groups. ROI analyses showed that PDD had the highest diffusivity in the SN and were significantly different from CON. There were no significant ROI differences between CON, PD, or AD. In conclusion, global white matter microstructural deterioration is evident in individuals with PDD, and DTI may provide a means with which to tease out pathological differences between AD and PD dementias. PMID:24724042

Perea, Rodrigo D; Rada, Rebecca C; Wilson, Jessica; Vidoni1, Eric D; Morris, Jill K; Lyons, Kelly E; Pahwa, Rajesh; Burns, Jeffrey M; Honea, Robyn A

2014-01-01

292

Distinguishing nonhuman predation on birds: pattern of damage done by the white-tailed eagle Haliaetus albicilla, with comments on the punctures made by the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presents criteria to distinguish some of the nonhuman predation on birds whose remains may also be found at archaeological sites. Specifically, it deals with fragmentation patterns of bird bones in uneaten food remains of the white-tailed eagle Haliaetus albicilla and discusses perforations in victims' bones done by the white-tailed and golden eagles. The food remains show very low

Zbigniew M. Bochenski; Teresa Tomek; Risto Tornberg; Krzysztof Wertz

2009-01-01

293

HOME RANGES OF SYMPATRIC MULE DEER AND WHITE-TAILED DEER KRISTINA J. BRUNJES, WARREN B. BALLARD,* MARY H. HUMPHREY, FIELDLING HARWELL,  

E-print Network

of sympatric female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) in west bura (Odocoileus hemionus) y venado cola blanca (O. virginianus) en el centro-oeste de Texas´fico fue menos en la primavera. In Texas, geographic distributions of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus

Wallace, Mark C.

294

Development and multiplex PCR amplification of novel microsatellite markers in the White-tailed Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla (Aves: Falconiformes, Accipitridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development of 14 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers cloned from the White-tailed Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla , a formerly threatened raptor that has received much conservation attention throughout Eurasia. We also present a protocol for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the loci. Among 40 unrelated H. albicilla individuals from southern Sweden, the markers produced two to

FRANK HAILER; BARBARA GAUTSCHI; BJORN HELANDER

2005-01-01

295

Evaluating the effects of ecosystem management alternatives on elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer in the interior Columbia River basin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are highly valued for their game, aesthetic, and spiritual qualities by sportsman, wildlife enthusiasts, and Native Americans in North America. As part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP) of the US Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management, we: (1) defined key habitat associations of

John F Lehmkuhl; John G Kie; Louis C Bender; Gregg Servheen; Harvey Nyberg

2001-01-01

296

Long-term decline in white-tailed deer browse supply: can lichens and litterfall act as alternative food sources that preclude density-dependent feedbacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective browsing by cervids has persistent impacts on forest ecosystems. On Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada, introduced white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) have caused massive changes to the native boreal forest. Despite the apparent stability of the deer population over recent decades, we suspected that they were not at equilibrium with their browse supply and that further degradation of the

Jean-Pierre Tremblay; Isabel Thibault; Christian Dussault; Jean Huot; Steeve D. Côté

2005-01-01

297

Effects of white-tailed deer on vegetation structure and woody seedling composition in three forest types on the Piedmont Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Ododcoileus virginiana) can substantially affect the structure and species composition of a forest. The tolerance of a forest community to browsing may vary by type as a result of varying biotic and abiotic factors of the environment. To date, no studies have compared the effects of browsing among forest communities within a physiographic region. We investigated the effects

C. Reed Rossell; Bryan Gorsira; Steven Patch

2005-01-01

298

Food partitioning between breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

I examined the diet of breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in an agrarian area of southern Brazil by analyzing regurgitated prey remains. The objective was to evaluate how these raptors, which differ markedly in their hunting activity periods (owls are nocturnal and kites diurnal), share their mammalian food component. 2,087 prey consumed by Barn Owls and 1,276 by White-tailed Kites were identified. They presented a high overlap of food-niches (Piankas index was 0.98). Based on the daily activity period of their main small mammal prey, a lower overlap would be expected. The crepuscular/nocturnal Mus musculus was the main prey for the diet of breeding Barn Owls (81%) and White-tailed Kites (63%). This small exotic rodent provided 63% of the small mammal biomass ingested by owls and 44% by kites. Larger native small mammals were also considered important for the diet of kites, mainly because of their biomass contribution. Although these raptors differ markedly in their hunting activity periods, Barn Owls and White-tailed Kites are very similar predators in southern Brazil, overlapping their diets. PMID:17505751

Scheibler, D R

2007-02-01

299

The impact of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on Estonian Common Carp Cyprinus carpio production: How large is the economic loss?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected bird species have been suspected to be a cause of a significant economic loss at Estonian fish farms, but its extent has remained unexplored. We counted the number of White-tailed Eagles and Ospreys, and the quantity of fish they take, and analysed the economic loss in five carp farms in 2001-2004. Each of Estonian four larger carp farms was

Joosep Tuvia; Ülo Välia

300

Isotope variations in white-tailed kites from various habitats in California: Possible limitations in assessing prey utilization and population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed kite (Elanus leucurus) populations in the 1930s were close to extirpation in the United States. But by the 1940s, an upward trend towards recovery was apparent and continued to their current stable population levels. These dramatic fluctuations in kite numbers may have been related to changes in rodent prey populations due to the conversion of native habitats to agriculture.

W. M. Iko; C. L. Kester; C. R. Bern; R. C. Stendell; R. O. Rye

2003-01-01

301

Comparison of food habits and prey selection of the white?tailed kite, Elanus leucurus, between natural and disturbed areas in central Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the food habits of white?tailed kites (Elanus leucurus, Accipitridae) in central Argentina during austral spring and summer (November to March) and compared prey captured in two different habitat types. Diet was determined by analysing pellets and prey remains collected under nests and roost sites. During the same period small mammals were trapped using pit?fall traps in Parque Luro

José Hernán Sarasola; Miguel Angel Santillán; Maximiliano Adrián Galmes

2007-01-01

302

MAJOR-HISTOCOMPATIBILITY-COMPLEX-ASSOCIATED VARIATION IN SECONDARY SEXUAL TRAITS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): EVIDENCE FOR GOOD-GENES ADVERTISEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good-genes hypotheses predict that development of secondary sexual characters can be an honest adver- tisement of heritable male quality. We explored this hypothesis using a cervid model (adult, male white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus) to determine whether antler development could provide an honest signal of a male's genetic quality and condition to adversaries. We compared antler, morphometric, hormonal, and parasitic data

Stephen S. Ditchkoff; Robert L. Lochmiller; Ronald E. Masters; Steven R. Hoofer; Ronald A. Van Den Bussche

2001-01-01

303

Effects of fluoride emissions from a modern primary aluminum smelter on a local population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of fluoride emissions from a modern aluminum smelter on concentrations of skeletal fluoride and dental fluorosis in a resident population of white-tailed deer was studied. The smelter was located on Mount Holly Plantation in South Carolina, and concentrations of skeletal fluoride in the deer collected at Mount Holly increased approximately five-fold 3 yr after the operation began. Increases

J. S. Suttie; R. Dickie; A. B. Clay; Per Nielsen; W. E. Mahan; D. P. Baumann; R. J. Hamilton

1987-01-01

304

Corresponding author email address: troy.grovenburg@sdstate.edu Use of Late Season Standing Corn by Female White-tailed Deer in the  

E-print Network

(Odocoileus virginianus) have been studied extensively throughout their northern range. However, limited eigenanalysis, Northern Great Plains, Odocoileus virginianus, resource selection, standing corn, South Dakota and Wielgus 2005). Winter habitat use of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; hereafter deer) has been

305

Effects of Harvesting Intensity and Herbivory by White-tailed Deer on Vegetation and Nutrient Uptake in a Northern Hardwood Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified the response of vegetation and nutrient uptake in a northern hardwood forest in southeastern New York for three to four years after three intensities of harvesting: clearcutting, heavy timber stand improvement (TSI), light TSI (97, 29, and 10% basal area reductions, respectively). We also quantified effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on nutrient retention by vegetation. Total

T. E. Yorks; D. J. Leopold; D. J. Raynal; P. S. Murdoch; D. A. Burns

2003-01-01

306

The walk is never random: subtle landscape effects shape gene flow in a continuous white-tailed deer population in the Midwestern United States.  

PubMed

One of the pervasive challenges in landscape genetics is detecting gene flow patterns within continuous populations of highly mobile wildlife. Understanding population genetic structure within a continuous population can give insights into social structure, movement across the landscape and contact between populations, which influence ecological interactions, reproductive dynamics or pathogen transmission. We investigated the genetic structure of a large population of deer spanning the area of Wisconsin and Illinois, USA, affected by chronic wasting disease. We combined multiscale investigation, landscape genetic techniques and spatial statistical modelling to address the complex questions of landscape factors influencing population structure. We sampled over 2000 deer and used spatial autocorrelation and a spatial principal components analysis to describe the population genetic structure. We evaluated landscape effects on this pattern using a spatial autoregressive model within a model selection framework to test alternative hypotheses about gene flow. We found high levels of genetic connectivity, with gradients of variation across the large continuous population of white-tailed deer. At the fine scale, spatial clustering of related animals was correlated with the amount and arrangement of forested habitat. At the broader scale, impediments to dispersal were important to shaping genetic connectivity within the population. We found significant barrier effects of individual state and interstate highways and rivers. Our results offer an important understanding of deer biology and movement that will help inform the management of this species in an area where overabundance and disease spread are primary concerns. PMID:22882236

Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Lopez, Davin L; Shelton, Paul

2012-09-01

307

White Matter Integrity and Reaction Time Intraindividual Variability in Healthy Aging and Early-Stage Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Aging and early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) have been shown to be associated with increased RT intraindividual variability (IIV, as reflected by the coefficient of variation) and an exaggeration of the slow tail of the RT distribution in attentional control tasks, based on ex-Gaussian analyses. The current study examined associations between white matter volume, IIV, and ex-Gaussian RT distribution parameters in cognitively normal aging and early-stage AD. Three RT attention tasks (Stroop, Simon, and a consonant-vowel odd-even switching task) in conjunction with MRI-based measures of cerebral and regional white matter volume were obtained in 133 cognitively normal and 33 early-stage AD individuals. Larger volumes were associated with less IIV and less slowing in the tail of the RT distribution, and larger cerebral and inferior parietal white matter volumes were associated with faster modal reaction time. Collectively, these results support a role of white matter integrity in IIV and distributional skewing, and are consistent with the hypothesis that IIV and RT distributional skewing are sensitive to breakdowns in executive control processes in normal and pathological aging. PMID:22172547

Jackson, Jonathan D.; Balota, David A.; Duchek, Janet M.; Head, Denise

2011-01-01

308

An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska.  

PubMed

An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines. PMID:14708993

Hollmén, Tuula E; Franson, J Christian; Flint, Paul L; Grand, James B; Lanctot, Richard B; Docherty, Douglas E; Wilson, Heather M

2003-01-01

309

Nonseptic diseases associated with the hoof complex: keratoma, white line disease, canker, and neoplasia.  

PubMed

This article addresses nonseptic diseases associated with the hoof complex, namely keratoma, white line disease, canker, and neoplasia. Keratoma is an uncommon cause of lameness, which may be surgically removed. White line disease, a keratolytic process on the solar surface of the hoof, is treated with therapeutic farriery and resection of the hoof wall when appropriate. Equine canker is an infectious process that results in development of a chronic hypertrophy of the horn-producing tissues. Neoplasia involving the equine foot is rare, and melanoma is the most common type of neoplasm reported. PMID:22981198

Redding, W Rich; O'Grady, Stephen E

2012-08-01

310

Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).  

PubMed

Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross-neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate serologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotracheitis), turkey, duck and pigeon as well as from the blue-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Lake Victoria cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and desmoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) did not react with the stork herpesviruses. Neutralising antibodies against stork herpesvirus were detected in the majority of 72 blood samples from white and black storks. In addition, three Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) could be isolated from white storks. One isolate was highly virulent the two others were avirulent for the chicken. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that some storks have antibodies against Paramyxovirus- (PMV)-1 (NDV), PMV-2 and PMV-3. No antibodies could be detected in stork sera against PMV-4, -6 and -7. PMID:18766791

Kaleta, E F; Kummerfeld, N

1983-01-01

311

Mobuck virus genome sequence and phylogenetic analysis: identification of a novel Orbivirus isolated from a white-tailed deer in Missouri, USA.  

PubMed

The genus Orbivirus includes a diverse group of segmented dsRNA viruses that are transmitted via arthropods, have a global distribution and affect a wide range of hosts. A novel orbivirus was co-isolated with epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) exhibiting clinical signs characteristic of EHDV. Using antiserum generated against EHDV, a pure isolate of the novel non-cytopathic orbivirus was obtained in Aedes albopictus cell culture. Genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of predicted ORFs showed that eight of the ten ORFs were most homologous to Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV), with amino acid identities of 44.3-73.7?%. The remaining two ORFs, VP3 and VP5, were most similar to Middle Point orbivirus (35.9?%) and Yunnan orbivirus (59.8?%), respectively. Taxonomic classification of orbiviruses is largely based on homology of the major subcore structural protein VP2(T2), encoded by segment 2 for mobuck virus. With only 69.1?% amino acid identity to PHSV, we propose mobuck virus as the prototype of a new species of Orbivirus. PMID:24114792

Cooper, Elyse; Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Klumper, Patricia; Scherba, Gail; Simonson, Randy R; Hause, Ben M

2014-01-01

312

D. Aaron Haines Student Projects Fecal Testing, Baiting & White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

chase, many of the United States have outlawed or restricted the use of hunting over bait. In addition, the issue of illegal take of wildlife (i.e., poaching) has been increasing in the United States as well a Disease Management Area (DMA) around the area where the infected deer was located and an executive order

Boal, Jean

313

Candidates for Symbiotic Control of Sugarcane White Leaf Disease  

PubMed Central

The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri.” Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri” colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. PMID:22798373

Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

314

Mortality from Infectious Diseases among New Mexico's American Indians, Hispanic Whites, and Other Whites, 1958-87.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines ethnic differences in infectious disease-related mortality in New Mexico's American Indian, Hispanic White, and other White populations from 1958-87. Findings indicate that for most infectious causes, American Indians had the highest mortality rates, followed by Hispanics. Discusses the influence of cultural beliefs and medical practices.…

Becker, Thomas M.; And Others

1990-01-01

315

Evaluation of Serodiagnostic Assays for Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Elk, White-Tailed Deer, and Reindeer in the United States.  

PubMed

In 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture conducted a project in which elk (Cervus elaphus spp.), white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) were evaluated by the single cervical tuberculin test (SCT), comparative cervical tuberculin test (CCT), and serologic tests. The rapid antibody detection tests evaluated were the CervidTB Stat-Pak (Stat-Pak), and the Dual Path Platform VetTB (DPP). Blood was collected from presumably uninfected animals prior to tuberculin injection for the SCT. A total of 1,783 animals were enrolled in the project. Of these, 1,752 (98.3%) were classified as presumably uninfected, based on originating from a captive cervid herd with no history of exposure to TB. Stat-Pak specificity estimates were 92.4% in reindeer, 96.7% in WTD, and 98.3% in elk and were not significantly different from SCT specificity estimates. Using the DPP in series on Stat-Pak antibody-positive samples improved specificity in the three species. Thirty one animals were classified as confirmed infected, based on necropsy and laboratory results, and 27/31 were antibody positive on Stat-Pak for an estimated sensitivity of 87.1%. The study findings indicate that rapid serologic tests used in series are comparable to the SCT and CCT and may have a greater ability to detect TB-infected cervids. PMID:22792512

Nelson, Jeffrey T; Orloski, Kathleen A; Lloyd, Audra L; Camacho, Mark; Schoenbaum, Mark A; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Thomsen, Bruce V; Hall, S Mark

2012-01-01

316

Seasonal patterns of weight, hematology, and serum characteristics of free-ranging female white-tailed deer in Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weights, hematology, and serum profIles of white-tailed does in the central Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota were examined year-around to determine seasonal patterns of nutritional condition and metabolism. Deer were initially captured by Clover trap or rocket net. Between 15 February 1989 and 23 January 1990, we recaptured 12 adult (> 1.5 years) female deer 1-9 times each (a total of 59 recaptures) using a radio-controlled capture collar. Monthly weights of deer exhibited a cyclic seasonal pattern. Mean weight declined 22 % from February to an annual minimum during May, then steadily increased 45 % to a maximum in October. Seasonal patterns were most evident for hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells, packed cell volume, serum total protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the urea N to creatinine ratio, triiodothyronine, cortisol, and potassium. Wide seasonal variations of these characteristics were indicative of shifts in the deer's metabolic physiology. Although seasonal metabolic shifts are partially attributable to an endogenous rhythm, the intensity of, their expression was most likely affected by nutritional changes and concomitant alterations of body condition. Annual changes in seasonal trends of blood characteristics may be useful in investigating nutritional effects of specific environmental and demographic factors. We compare our findings with those reported for deer on ranges farther south.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Gese, E.M.; Seal, U.S.

1992-01-01

317

Field testing of immunocontraception on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Fire Island National Seashore, New York, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Application of contraception for the control of suburban populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been much debated, but few data are available on field applications and even fewer on population effects. Between 1993 and 1997, 74-164 individually known female deer living on Fire Island, New York, USA, were treated remotely with an initial shot of 65 microg porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in Freund's complete adjuvant followed by booster injections of 65 microg PZP in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Starting in 1996, progressively increasing numbers of deer were treated with vaccinating/marking darts. Estimates of population density and composition, using distance sampling methods, began in 1995 in selected portions of the study area. Between 1993 and 1997, fawning rates among individually known, treated adult females decreased by 78.9% from pretreatment rates. Population density in the most heavily treated area increased by 11% per year from 1995 to March 1998 and then decreased at 23% per year to October 2000. In 1999-2000 surveys, fawns comprised 13-14% of the total population in the most heavily treated area, versus 16-33% in nearby untreated areas. These results show that PZP can be delivered effectively to sufficient deer to affect population density and composition in some environments, but that technical and logistical improvements are needed before contraception can be used widely to manage suburban deer populations.

Naugle, R.E.; Rutberg, A.T.; Underwood, H.B.; Turner, J.W., Jr.; Liu, I.K.

2002-01-01

318

The influence of fine-scale habitat features on regional variation in population performance of alpine White-tailed Ptarmigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is often assumed (explicitly or implicitly) that animals select habitat features to maximize fitness. However, there is often a mismatch between preferred habitats and indices of individual and population measures of performance. We examined the influence of fine-scale habitat selection on the overall population performance of the White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura), an alpine specialist, in two subdivided populations whose habitat patches are configured differently. The central region of Vancouver Island, Canada, has more continuous and larger habitat patches than the southern region. In 2003 and 2004, using paired logistic regression between used (n = 176) and available (n = 324) sites, we identified food availability, distance to standing water, and predator cover as preferred habitat components . We then quantified variation in population performance in the two regions in terms of sex ratio, age structure (n = 182 adults and yearlings), and reproductive success (n = 98 females) on the basis of 8 years of data (1995-1999, 2002-2004). Region strongly influenced females' breeding success, which, unsuccessful hens included, was consistently higher in the central region (n = 77 females) of the island than in the south (n = 21 females, P = 0.01). The central region also had a much higher proportion of successful hens (87%) than did the south (55%, P < 0.001). In light of our findings, we suggest that population performance is influenced by a combination of fine-scale habitat features and coarse-scale habitat configuration. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

Fedy, B.; Martin, K.

2011-01-01

319

[Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].  

PubMed

White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic. PMID:23894977

Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Ramírez-Pulido, José; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; López, Georgina Isabel García; Janczur, Mariusz

2013-03-01

320

Changes during the holocene in the size of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from central Illinois  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from central Illinois varied in size during the Holocene. The record, which extends back to 8450 yr B.P., indicates small deer through the mid-Holocene until 3650 yr B.P., after which size increases. Although influences of winter climate, seasonality, anthropogenic effects, and other ecological factors should not be discounted, an intriguing possible cause of the deer size shifts is insolation-driven summer climate and its influence on food resources. In the Holocene, small deer size is correlated with high summer insolation and with low winter insolation. Climatic models indicate that in spite of changes in insolation, Holocene winters did not vary greatly through time, especially in contrast to summers, which were dynamic. Physiological constraints peculiar to O. virginianus make critical the quality of summer forage for determining final adult size. Summer temperature averaged 2°C warmer than present during the middle Holocene, which increased evaporation and probably reduced the period of availability of high-quality forage low in fiber and high in protein. Consequently, less fuel for growth was consumed by mid-Holocene deer and only small body size was achieved. Other possible causes (e.g., Bergmann's rule, seasonality) of clinal variation are considered with reference to central Illinois deer, but at present the most parsimonious explanation appears to be the summer insolation hypothesis.

Purdue, James R.

1989-11-01

321

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1979 status report  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1979, an increase of twenty-eight over 1978. Patterns of mortality were similar to those reported in previous documents. During the year, the highest number of deer was killed in October, November, and December. Throughout the year almost twice as many males as females were killed. Reproductive data collected from 19 does revealed that breeding during 1979 probably occurred from early December through early January. Night-lighting showed the same general trends in population increase that were apparent in the road-kill sample. The number of deer night-lighted in 1976 was 11/110 km, while in 1979 the number rose to 40/100 km. the habitat evaluation which began in 1978 was continued in 1979, with a survey of the number of deer trails from a given habitat-type supplementing the radiotelemetry work. Results indicated a preference for cutover areas where immature pine, eastern red cedar, and grasses dominated and for pine plantations where shelter was provided. Upland hardwoods areas were the least preferred.

Kitchings, J.T.; Story, J.D.

1980-10-01

322

Occurrence, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey.  

PubMed

The ingestion of uncooked infected white-tailed deer (WTD) tissues can transmit Toxoplasma gondii infection to humans and mesocarnivores, including cats. In the present study, we tested 264 WTD from New Jersey for T. gondii infection during the 2011-2012 hunting season. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cutoff titer, 25); 76 (28.7%) of 264 WTD were seropositive. Heart muscle samples from 64 seropositive WTD were digested in pepsin, and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii . Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of 9 WTD; tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. One of the 9 strains was highly virulent for outbred Swiss Webster mice. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these 9 T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Six genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant), no. 4 (Type 12), no. 216, no. 220, and no. 221. The last 2 were new genotypes that were reported for the first time. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in deer from this region of the United States. PMID:23574007

Dubey, J P; Randall, A R; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Verma, S K; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

2013-10-01

323

The Role of DDE, PCB, Coplanar PCB and Eggshell Parameters for Reproduction in the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproduction of white-tailed sea eagles was monitored in1964-1999 in 3 differently contaminated sub-populations: Baltic Sea coast (Bp), inland central Sweden (Ip) and Lapland (Lp). 249 dead eggs from 205 clutches were obtained for analyses of DDE and PCBs and for eggshell measurements. A desiccation index (Di) value was calculated for each egg as a measure of water loss through

Björn Helander; Anders Olsson; Anders Bignert; Lillemor Asplund; Kerstin Litzén

2002-01-01

324

Molecular detection of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Tom Green County in central Texas.  

PubMed

Serologic and molecular evidence suggest that white-tailed deer in South Texas and North Mexico carry the agents of bovine babesiosis, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. To determine if white-tailed deer in central Texas, which is outside the known occurrence of the vector tick at this time, harbor these parasites, blood samples from free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Tom Green County were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for B. bovis and B. bigemina 18S rDNA. Of the 25 samples tested, three (12%) were positive by nested PCR for B. bovis. This identity was confirmed by sequence analysis of the cloned 18S rDNA PCR product. Further confirmation was made by sequence analysis of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1, 5.8S rRNA gene, and ITS 2 genomic region in two (representing samples from two different ranches) of the B. bovis positive samples. Three samples were positive by B. bigemina nested PCR, but sequencing of the cloned products confirmed only one animal positive for B. bigemina; Theileria spp. DNA was amplified from the other two animal samples. In addition to Theileria spp., two genotypically unique Babesia species sequences were identified among the cloned sequences produced by the B. bigemina primers in one sample. Phylogenetic analysis showed no separation of the deer B. bovis or B. bigemina 18S rDNA, or deer B. bovis ITS region sequences from those of bovine origin. Clarification of the possible role of white-tailed deer as reservoir hosts in maintaining these important pathogens of cattle is critical to understanding whether or not deer contribute to the epidemiology of bovine babesiosis. PMID:21194841

Holman, Patricia J; Carroll, Juliette E; Pugh, Roberta; Davis, Donald S

2011-05-11

325

Rapid Detection of Serum Antibody by Dual-Path Platform VetTB Assay in White-Tailed Deer Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cervids remains a significant problem affecting farmed herds and wild populations. Traditional skin testing has serious limitations in certain species, whereas emerging serological assays showed promising diagnostic performance. The recently developed immunochromatographic dual-path platform (DPP) VetTB assay has two antigen bands, T1 (MPB83 protein) and T2 (CFP10/ESAT-6 fusion protein), for antibody detection. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of this test by using serum samples collected from groups of white-tailed deer experimentally inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, or M. bovis BCG Pasteur. In addition, we used serum samples from farmed white-tailed deer in herds with no history of TB, as well as from free-ranging white-tailed deer culled during field surveillance studies performed in Michigan known to have bovine TB in the wild deer population. The DPP VetTB assay detected antibody responses in 58.1% of experimentally infected animals within 8 to 16 weeks postinoculation and in 71.9% of naturally infected deer, resulting in an estimated test sensitivity of 65.1% and a specificity of 97.8%. The higher seroreactivity found in deer with naturally acquired M. bovis infection was associated with an increased frequency of antibody responses to the ESAT-6 and CFP10 proteins, resulting in a greater contribution of these antigens, in addition to MPB83, to the detection of seropositive animals, compared with experimental M. bovis infection. Deer experimentally inoculated with either M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. bovis BCG Pasteur did not produce cross-reactive antibodies that could be detected by the DPP VetTB assay. The present findings demonstrate the relatively high diagnostic accuracy of the DPP VetTB test for white-tailed deer, especially in the detection of naturally infected animals. PMID:23595504

Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; O'Brien, Daniel J.; Schmitt, Stephen M.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Waters, W. Ray

2013-01-01

326

Serologic Evidence of West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infections in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from New Jersey, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples from 689 hunter-killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) collected during the 2001 fall hunting season in New Jersey were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis en- cephalitis virus (SLEV) by plaque-reduction neutralization tests. WNV-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six (0.9%) of the samples, and SLEV-neutralizing antibodies were found in 11 (1.6%) of the

Ary Farajollahi; Robert Gates; Wayne Crans; Nicholas Komar

2004-01-01

327

The Effect of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E on Biochemical Parameters and Survival of Young Among White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two adult female white-tailed deer were assigned to four complete pelleted diets (±45ppm vitamin E; ±0.2ppm selenium). Selenium and vitamin E concentration in the unsupplemented diet was 0.04 and 5.5 ppm, respectively. Biochemical parameters of the erythrocyte ( RBC ) glutathione peroxidase system and survival of off-spring to wean ing were followed for 2 years. At the end of the

PAUL S. BRADY; LINDA J. BRADY

328

Detection of Borrelia lonestari, Putative Agent of Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness, in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if white-tailed deer may serve as a reservoir host for Borrelia lonestari, we used a nested PCR for the Borrelia flagellin gene to evaluate blood samples collected from deer from eight southeastern states. Seven of 80 deer (8.7%) from 5 of 17 sites (29.4%) had sequence-confirmed evidence of a B. lonestari flagellin gene by PCR, indicating that deer

Victor A. Moore; Andrea S. Varela; Michael J. Yabsley; William R. Davidson; Susan E. Little

329

Putative chemical signals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urinary and vaginal mucus volatiles excreted by females during breeding season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine and vaginal mucus samples from female white-tailed deer in estrus and mid-cycle were analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty-four volatiles were found in mucus and 63 in urine. The volatiles common to both vaginal mucus and urine included alcohols, aldehydes, furans, ketones, alkanes, and alkenes. Aromatic hydrocarbons were present only in the vaginal mucus, whereas pyrans, amines,

B. Jemiolo; K. V. Miller; D. Wiesler; I. Jelinek; M. Novotny; R. L. Marchinton

1995-01-01

330

CACHE VALLEY AND POTOSI VIRUSES ( BUNYAVIRIDAE ) IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS ): EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS AND ANTIBODY PREVALENCE IN NATURAL POPULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache Valley virus (CVV) and Potosi virus (POTV) are two closely related mosquito-borne viruses (Bunyaviridae: Bunyamwera group) that appear to circulate in several regions of the United States, especially the Midwest. We determined the prevalence of specific neutralizing antibodies to both viruses in Indiana white-tailed deer and conducted infection experiments to assess whether deer could serve as an vertebrate-amplifying host.

CARINA G. M. BLACKMOREAND; PAUL R. GRIMSTAD

331

Electrophysiological measurements of spectral mechanisms in the retinas of two cervids: white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) and fallow deer ( Dama dama )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroretinogram (ERG) flicker photometry was used to study the spectral mechanisms in the retinas of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and fallow deer (Dama dama). In addition to having a rod pigment with maximum sensitivity (?max) of about 497 nm, both species appear to have two classes of photopic receptors. They share in common a short-wavelength-sensitive cone mechanism having ?max in

G. H. Jacobs; J. F. Deegan; J. Neitz; B. P. Murphy; K. V. Miller; R. L. Marchinton

1994-01-01

332

The potential for transmission of BCG from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to cattle (Bos taurus) through a contaminated environment: experimental findings.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis have been shown to transmit the bacterium to other deer and cattle (Bos taurus) by sharing of pen waste and feed. The risk of transmission of M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer to other deer and cattle, however, is not well understood. In order to evaluate this risk, we orally vaccinated 14 white-tailed deer with 1×10(9) colony forming units BCG in lipid-formulated baits and housed them with nine non-vaccinated deer. Each day we exposed the same seven naïve cattle to pen space utilized by the deer to look for transmission between the two species. Before vaccination and every 60 days until the end of the study, we performed tuberculin skin testing on deer and cattle, as well as interferon-gamma testing in cattle, to detect cellular immune response to BCG exposure. At approximately 27 weeks all cattle and deer were euthanized and necropsied. None of the cattle converted on either caudal fold, comparative cervical tests, or interferon-gamma assay. None of the cattle were culture positive for BCG. Although there was immunological evidence that BCG transmission occurred from deer to deer, we were unable to detect immunological or microbiological evidence of transmission to cattle. This study suggests that the risk is likely to be low that BCG-vaccinated white-tailed deer would cause domestic cattle to react to the tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma test through exposure to a BCG-contaminated environment. PMID:23565211

Nol, Pauline; Rhyan, Jack C; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; McCollum, Matt P; Rigg, Tara D; Saklou, Nadia T; Salman, Mo D

2013-01-01

333

Detection of Borrelia lonestari, Putative Agent of Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness, in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if white-tailed deer may serve as a reservoir host for Borrelia lonestari, we used a nested PCR for the Borrelia flagellin gene to evaluate blood samples collected from deer from eight southeastern states. Seven of 80 deer (8.7%) from 5 of 17 sites (29.4%) had sequence-confirmed evidence of a B. lonestari flagellin gene by PCR, indicating that deer

Victor A. Moore; Andrea S. Varela; Michael J. Yabsley; William R. Davidson; Susan E. Little

2003-01-01

334

Febrile response and decrease in circulating lymphocytes following acute infection of white-tailed deer fawns with either a BVDV1 or a BVDV2 strain.  

PubMed

Although commonly associated with infection in cattle, bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) also replicate in many domestic and wildlife species, including cervids. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses have been isolated from a number of cervids, including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus), but little information is available regarding clinical presentation and progression of infection in these species. In preliminary studies of experimental infection of deer with BVDV, researchers noted seroconversion but no clinical signs. In this study, we infected white-tailed deer fawns that were negative for BVDV and for antibodies against BVDV, with either a type 1 or a type 2 BVDV that had been isolated from white-tailed deer. Fawns were monitored for changes in basal temperature, circulating lymphocytes, and platelets. The clinical progression following inoculation in these fawns was similar to that seen with BVDV infections in cattle and included fever and depletion of circulating lymphocytes. Because free-ranging cervid populations are frequently in contact with domestic cattle in the United States, possible transfer of BVDV between cattle and cervids has significant implications for proposed BVDV control programs. PMID:17984260

Ridpath, Julia F; Mark, C Scott; Chase, Christopher C L; Ridpath, Alanson C; Neill, John D

2007-10-01

335

Harvested white-tailed deer as sentinel hosts for early establishing Ixodes scapularis populations and risk from vector-borne zoonoses in southeastern Canada.  

PubMed

Due to recent establishment of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in southeastern Canada, tick-borne zoonoses (Lyme disease, human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis) are of growing concern for public health. Using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) culled in southwestern Quebec during 2007-2008, we investigated whether hunter-killed deer could act as sentinels for early establishing tick populations and for tick-borne pathogens. Accounting for environmental characteristics of culling sites, and age and sex of deer, we investigated whether their tick infestation levels could identify locations of known tick populations detected in active surveillance, presumed tick populations detected by passive surveillance, or both. We also used spatial cluster analyses to identify spatial patterns of tick infestation and occurrence of tick-borne zoonoses infection in ticks collected from the deer. Adult ticks were found on 15% of the 583 deer examined. Adult male deer had the greatest number (approximately 90%) of adult ticks. Overall, 3, 15, and 0% of the ticks collected were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. Our statistical analyses suggest that sex and age of deer, temperature, precipitation, and an index of tick dispersion by migratory birds were significantly associated with tick infestation levels. Cluster analysis identified significant clusters of deer carrying ticks PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum, and for deer carrying two or more I. scapularis. Our study suggests that hunter-killed deer may be effective as sentinels for emerging areas of tick-borne anaplasmosis. They may have limited use as sentinels for early emerging I. scapularis tick populations and emerging Lyme disease risk. PMID:23540128

Bouchard, C; Leighton, P A; Beauchamp, G; Nguon, S; Trudel, L; Milord, F; Lindsay, L R; Bélanger, D; Ogden, N H

2013-03-01

336

Reconstruction and Morphometric Analysis of the Nasal Airway of the White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Implications Regarding Respiratory and Olfactory Airflow.  

PubMed

Compared with other mammals (e.g., primates, rodents, and carnivores), the form and function of the ungulate nasal fossa, in particular the ethmoidal region, has been largely unexplored. Hence, the nasal anatomy of the largest prey species remains far less understood than that of their predators, rendering comparisons and evolutionary context unclear. Of the previous studies of nasal anatomy, none have investigated the detailed anatomy and functional morphology of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), a species that is ubiquitous throughout North and Central America and in northern regions of South America. Here, nasal form and function is quantitatively investigated in an adult white-tailed deer using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, combined with anatomical reconstruction and morphometric analysis techniques. The cross-sectional anatomy of the airway is shown and a three-dimensional anatomical model of the convoluted nasal fossa is reconstructed from the image data. A detailed morphometric analysis is presented that includes quantitative distributions of airway size and shape (e.g., airway perimeter, cross-sectional area, surface area) and the functional implications of these data regarding respiratory and olfactory airflow are investigated. The white-tailed deer is shown to possess a long, double scroll maxilloturbinal that occupies approximately half of the length of the nasal fossa and provides a large surface area for respiratory heat and moisture exchange. The ethmoidal region contains a convoluted arrangement of folded ethmoturbinals that appear to be morphologically distinct from the single and double scroll ethmoturbinals found in most other non-primates. This complex folding provides a large surface area in the limited space available for chemical sensing, due to the expansive maxilloturbinal. Morphologically, the white-tailed deer is shown to possess a dorsal meatus that leads to an olfactory recess, a nasal architecture that has been shown in other non-primate species to cause unique nasal airflow patterns to develop during sniffing that are optimized for odorant delivery to the sensory part of the nose. Additionally, we demonstrate that, during respiration, airflow in the nasal vestibule and the anterior maxilloturbinal region may be transitional or turbulent, in which case turbulent mixing is expected to enhance respiratory heat and moisture exchange, which could be an important contribution to thermoregulation and water conservation in the white-tailed deer. Anat Rec, 297:2138-2147, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25312370

Ranslow, Allison N; Richter, Joseph P; Neuberger, Thomas; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Rumple, Christopher R; Quigley, Andrew P; Pang, Benison; Krane, Michael H; Craven, Brent A

2014-11-01

337

Enzymes of adenylate metabolism and their role in hibernation of the white-tailed prairie dog, Cynomys leucurus.  

PubMed

AMP deaminase (AMPD) and adenylate kinase (AK) were purified from skeletal muscle of the white-tailed prairie dog, Cynomus leucurus, and enzyme properties were assayed at temperatures characteristic of euthermia (37 degrees C) and hibernation (5 degrees C) to analyze their role in adenylate metabolism during hibernation. Total adenylates decreased in muscle of torpid individuals from 6.97 +/- 0. 31 to 4.66 +/- 0.58 micromol/g of wet weight due to a significant drop in ATP but ADP, AMP, IMP, and energy charge were unchanged. The affinity of prairie dog AMPD for AMP was not affected by temperature and did not differ from that of rabbit muscle AMPD, used for comparison. However, both prairie dog and rabbit AMPD showed much stronger inhibition by ions and GTP at 5 degrees C, versus 37 degrees C, and inhibition by inorganic phosphate, NH(4)Cl, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was much stronger at 5 degrees C for the prairie dog enzyme. Furthermore, ATP and ADP, which activated AMPD at 37 degrees C, were strong inhibitors of prairie dog AMPD at 5 degrees C, with I(50) values of 1 and 14 microM, respectively. ATP also inhibited rabbit AMPD at 5 degrees C (I(50) = 103 microM). Strong inhibition of AMPD at 5 degrees C by several effectors suggests that enzyme function is specifically suppressed in muscle of hibernating animals. By contrast, AK showed properties that would maintain or even enhance its function at low temperature. K(m) values for substrates (ATP, ADP, AMP) decreased with decreasing temperature, the change in K(m) ATP paralleling the decrease in muscle ATP concentration. AK inhibition by ions was also reduced at 5 degrees C. The data suggest that adenylate degradation via AMPD is blocked during hibernation but that AK maintains its function in stabilizing energy charge. PMID:10729194

English, T E; Storey, K B

2000-04-01

338

Performance and dietary preferences of white-tailed deer grazing chicory, birdsfoot trefoil or alfalfa in north central Alberta.  

PubMed

Little information exists on the performance of deer on alternative forage species in northern temperate environments during summer and fall, the period of inherent maximum growth in deer. In performance and choice experiments, we compared live weight gain (g/kg(0.75)/day), absolute [kg/ha dry matter (DM)] and relative (% DM) herbage utilization, relative preference index (RPI) as well as plant community visitation of white-tailed deer grazing alfalfa (Medicago sativa), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) in north central Alberta, Canada. Herbage phytomass and quality was also measured on the grazed pastures. Alfalfa had higher dry matter yields and crude protein concentrations than chicory and trefoil. Chicory had lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations than the other forages. Tannin concentrations were greatest in birds foot trefoil (nearly 55 g/kg DM), well above those in the other forages (<5 g/kg DM). Live weight gain was similar among deer feeding within the paddocks seeded to birds foot trefoil and chicory, and more than two times higher (p < 0.05) than deer feeding in paddocks seeded to alfalfa. Deer spent more grazing time (about 40%) on chicory pastures than on alfalfa and birds foot trefoil pastures. RPI values were greatest for birds foot trefoil at 2.11, intermediate for chicory at 1.40, and lowest for alfalfa at <0.60. Absolute herbage utilization remained similar (p > 0.05) among the three forage species. In contrast, relative herbage utilization was greater from birds foot trefoil (52% DM) than chicory (40% DM) or alfalfa (25% DM). These results suggest that the use of alfalfa with other alternative forages may prove beneficial to deer production, rather than using alfalfa pasture alone. PMID:19138349

Chapman, G A; Bork, E W; Donkor, N T; Hudson, R J

2009-12-01

339

Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival  

PubMed Central

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May–31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

2014-01-01

340

Detection of white matter lesions in cerebral small vessel disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White matter lesions (WML) are diffuse white matter abnormalities commonly found in older subjects and are important indicators of stroke, multiple sclerosis, dementia and other disorders. We present an automated WML detection method and evaluate it on a dataset of small vessel disease (SVD) patients. In early SVD, small WMLs are expected to be of importance for the prediction of disease progression. Commonly used WML segmentation methods tend to ignore small WMLs and are mostly validated on the basis of total lesion load or a Dice coefficient for all detected WMLs. Therefore, in this paper, we present a method that is designed to detect individual lesions, large or small, and we validate the detection performance of our system with FROC (free-response ROC) analysis. For the automated detection, we use supervised classification making use of multimodal voxel based features from different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, including intensities, tissue probabilities, voxel locations and distances, neighborhood textures and others. After preprocessing, including co-registration, brain extraction, bias correction, intensity normalization, and nonlinear registration, ventricle segmentation is performed and features are calculated for each brain voxel. A gentle-boost classifier is trained using these features from 50 manually annotated subjects to give each voxel a probability of being a lesion voxel. We perform ROC analysis to illustrate the benefits of using additional features to the commonly used voxel intensities; significantly increasing the area under the curve (Az) from 0.81 to 0.96 (p<0.05). We perform the FROC analysis by testing our classifier on 50 previously unseen subjects and compare the results with manual annotations performed by two experts. Using the first annotator results as our reference, the second annotator performs at a sensitivity of 0.90 with an average of 41 false positives per subject while our automated method reached the same level of sensitivity at approximately 180 false positives per subject.

Riad, Medhat M.; Platel, Bram; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Karssemeijer, Nico

2013-02-01

341

ANTIBODY PREVALENCE OF EIGHT RUMINANT INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN CALIFORNIA MULE AND BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested 276 sera from 18 free-ranging black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) herds in California (USA) collected from 1987 to 1991 in five biogeographical habitat types, for antibodies against eight infectious disease agents. Overall antibody prevalence was 56% for Anaplasma marginale, 31% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 16% for bluetongue virus serotype 17, 15% for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, 7% for

Bruno B. Chomel; Marius L. Carniciu; Rickie W. Kasten; Paolo M. Castelli; Thierry M. Work; David A. Jessup

342

Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: Use of GIS to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt,and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighboring regions, RVFV is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat forhumans, livestock, and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for ‘exotic’ viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVFV is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep, and goats, if RVFV is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVFV transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)in a typical northeastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare, but these potentially susceptible ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human, and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, or 42 %) of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVFV transmission during the late summermonths. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVFV-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, orby 89%. PMID:21080319

Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A. Desiree; King, Charles H.

2011-01-01

343

Loss of white matter integrity is associated with gait disorders in cerebral small vessel disease.  

PubMed

Gait disturbances are common in the elderly. Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter lesions and lacunars infarcts, is thought to disrupt white matter tracts that connect important motor regions, hence resulting in gait disturbances. Pathological studies have demonstrated abnormalities in white matter that may appear normal on brain imaging. The loss of integrity in such normal-appearing white matter may partly be due to small vessel disease and may play a role in causing gait disturbances. The white matter regions involved in these gait disturbances, both in white matter lesions and normal-appearing white matter, remain unclear. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the relation between the location of white matter lesions and gait using voxel-based morphometry analysis, as well as between white matter integrity and gait by applying tract-based spatial statistics to diffusion tensor imaging parameters. Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out on 429 individuals in the age range of 50 and 85 years, with cerebral small vessel disease without dementia or parkinsonism. Gait was assessed quantitatively. White matter lesions, especially in the centrum semiovale and periventricular frontal lobe, were related to a lower gait velocity, shorter stride length and broader stride width. Loss of white matter integrity, as indicated by a lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean diffusivity, in numerous regions was related to a lower gait performance. Most of these regions were located in the normal-appearing white matter. The strongest significant association was found in the corpus callosum, particularly the genu. Most of the associations in the normal-appearing white matter disappeared after controlling for white matter lesions and lacunar infarcts, except for some in the corpus callosum. In conclusion, our study showed that using a combination of voxel-based morphometry analysis of the white matter lesions and diffusion tensor imaging is of added value in investigating the pathophysiology of gait disturbances in subjects with small vessel disease. Our data demonstrate that, in elderly subjects with small vessel disease, widespread disruption of white matter integrity, predominantly in the normal-appearing white matter, is involved in gait disturbances. In particular, loss of fibres interconnecting bilateral cortical regions, especially the prefrontal cortex that is involved in cognitive control on motor performance, may be important. The most important mechanisms underlying affected normal-appearing white matter are probably a direct effect of small vessel disease or, indirectly, remote effects of white matter lesions and lacunar infarcts. PMID:21156660

de Laat, Karlijn F; Tuladhar, Anil M; van Norden, Anouk G W; Norris, David G; Zwiers, Marcel P; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

2011-01-01

344

Sex identification of elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis), moose (Alces alces), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

We have developed a PCR-based protocol to determine the gender of tissue samples originating from elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis), moose (Alces alces) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The technique simultaneously amplifies a conserved region of the sex-determining gene on the Y-chromosome (Sry) and a region of the Fragile X mental retardation gene (Fmr-1). The multiplex nature of this protocol allows the determination of gender using the Sry marker with the Fmr-1 marker providing an internal control. This technique is applicable to the enforcement of the validation tag system for game species. Data are provided from a wildlife investigation in Ontario. PMID:9608686

Wilson, P J; White, B N

1998-05-01

345

Short-tailed shrews as reservoirs of the agents of Lyme disease and human babesiosis.  

PubMed

To determine whether short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) serve as reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and the agent of human babesiosis (Babesia microti), we examined nymphal ticks that had fed as larvae on shrews collected from 3 enzootic sites in coastal Massachusetts for evidence of infection by either or both of these agents. Xenodiagnosis indicated that 11 of 14 shrews were infected by B. burgdorferi. One of 3 piroplasm-infected shrews also infected ticks with B. microti. In a site where the piroplasm is endemic, 11 of 17 shrews showed patent parasitemias by thin blood smears. Of these, 4 had parasitemias exceeding 40%. Few immature ticks infested shrews, however, suggesting that B. brevicauda, although abundant in some endemic sites and serving as a competent reservoir, would contribute minimally to the population of infected nymphs. PMID:2213411

Telford, S R; Mather, T N; Adler, G H; Spielman, A

1990-10-01

346

The panzootic white-nose syndrome: an environmentally constrained disease?  

PubMed

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating bats probably caused by a pathogenic fungus, Geomyces destructans. The fungus has dispersed rapidly in the Northeastern United States and Canada and is presently a serious risk to hibernating bats of the mid-southern United States. Our objectives were to investigate how the environmental factors of temperature and resources impact the physiology of bats and apply this to explore possible effects of the fungus G. destructans on bats. Using a dynamic, physiologically based model parameterized for little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), we found that the survival region defined in terms of minimal and maximal cave temperatures and bat lipid reserve levels exhibits plasticity as a function of cave temperature. During the pre-hibernation period, constellations of increased availability of fall and winter prey, reduced energy expenditure and lipogenic factors provide fat deposition in hibernator species that engender survival throughout the hibernation period. The model-derived survival region is used to demonstrate that small increases in lipid reserves allow survival under increasing maximum temperatures, which provides flexibility of bat persistence at the higher cave temperature ranges that may occur in the Southern United States. Antipodally, the lower-temperature survival range is bounded with minimum temperatures. Our results suggest that there is an environmental distinction between survival of bats in Southern and Northern US states, a relationship that could prove very important in managing WNS and its dispersal. PMID:22044513

Hallam, T G; Federico, P

2012-06-01

347

Management of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in recreational areas with acaricide applications, vegetative management, and exclusion of white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

A project on management of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.), at Land Between the Lakes, a Tennessee Valley Authority recreational area in Kentucky-Tennessee, during 1984-1988, demonstrated the effectiveness and economics of three control technologies. Acaricide applications (chlorpyrifos at 0.28 kg [AI]/ha), vegetative management (mowing and removal of 40% overstory and 90-100% of midstory, understory, and leaf litter), and host management (white-tailed deer exclusion from a 71-ha campground with a single-line fence) provided 75, 70, and 64% mean controls of all life stages of the lone star tick, respectively. Combinations of acaricide applications + vegetative management, acaricide applications + host management, and acaricide applications + vegetative management + host management produced 94, 89, and 96% mean control of all life stages, respectively. The costs of acaricide applications (two per year), vegetative management (two mowings per year), and white-tailed deer exclusion (single-line fence) were $45, $150, and $30/ha/yr, respectively. Results of this project are used to design management strategies that could be considered for use against lone star ticks in recreational areas. PMID:1696994

Bloemer, S R; Mount, G A; Morris, T A; Zimmerman, R H; Barnard, D R; Snoddy, E L

1990-07-01

348

Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Over a 7 yr period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study animals in treatment and control groups were confined in 38.8 ha game-fenced and densely vegetated treatment plots in South Texas. Tick densities during years 1 and 7 served as untreated pre- and posttreatment comparisons and treatments occurred during years 2 through 5. Reductions in tick densities in the treatment plot were compared against tick densities in a control plot having similar vegetation and numbers of untreated deer. During years of treatment, indices of control pressure ranged from 18.2 to 82.6 for nymphs and 16.9-78.7 for adults, and efficacy, expressed as percentage control during the final year of treatment, was 77.2 and 85.0%, respectively, for nymphal and adult ticks. These data show that acaricidal collar treatments provide efficacies very similar to those achieved with the existing ivermectin-medicated bait and '4-Poster' topical treatment technologies to control ticks feeding on wild white-tailed deer. PMID:23356088

Pound, J M; Lohmeyer, K H; Davey, R B; Miller, J A; George, J E

2012-12-01

349

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak. PMID:24807363

Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

2014-07-01

350

Spatiotemporal variations in resources affect activity and movement patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at high density  

E-print Network

-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at high density Ariane Massé and Steeve D. Côté Abstract: Although (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) at high density, in a predator-free ecosystem impacted by long météorologiques sur le comportement d'approvisionnement de cerfs de Virginie (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann

Laval, Université

351

Novel White Matter Tract Integrity Metrics Sensitive to Alzheimer Disease Progression  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Along with cortical abnormalities, white matter microstructural changes such as axonal loss and myelin breakdown are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Recently, a white matter model was introduced that relates non-Gaussian diffusional kurtosis imaging metrics to characteristics of white matter tract integrity, including the axonal water fraction, the intra-axonal diffusivity, and the extra-axonal axial and radial diffusivities. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study reports these white matter tract integrity metrics in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 12), Alzheimer disease (n = 14), and age-matched healthy controls (n = 15) in an effort to investigate their sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy, and associations with white matter changes through the course of Alzheimer disease. RESULTS With tract-based spatial statistics and region-of-interest analyses, increased diffusivity in the extra-axonal space (extra-axonal axial and radial diffusivities) in several white matter tracts sensitively and accurately discriminated healthy controls from those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.82–0.95), while widespread decreased axonal water fraction discriminated amnestic mild cognitive impairment from Alzheimer disease (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.84). Additionally, these white matter tract integrity metrics in the body of the corpus callosum were strongly correlated with processing speed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (r= |0.80–0.82|, P< .001). CONCLUSIONS These findings have implications for the course and spatial progression of white matter degeneration in Alzheimer disease, suggest the mechanisms by which these changes occur, and demonstrate the viability of these white matter tract integrity metrics as potential neuroimaging biomarkers of the earliest stages of Alzheimer disease and disease progression. PMID:23764722

Fieremans, E.; Benitez, A.; Jensen, J.H.; Falangola, M.F.; Tabesh, A.; Deardorff, R.L.; Spampinato, M.V.S.; Babb, J.S.; Novikov, D.S.; Ferris, S.H.; Helpern, J.A.

2014-01-01

352

Antibiotic sensitivity and biochemical characterization of Fusobacterium spp. and Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with necrobacillosis.  

PubMed

Bacterial cultures from 32 living and dead farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with necrobacillosis yielded Fusobacterium necrophorum from nine individuals, F. varium from six individuals, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes from 16 individuals. The isolates were characterized biochemically using automated identification systems. Gram-stained smears suggested the presence of Fusobacterium spp. in eight cases from which organisms were not cultured. Minimum inhibitory concentration determinations in 23 strains of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria detected resistance to enrofloxacin and clindamycin. Enrofloxacin resistance was detected in A. pyogenes isolates, and although biochemical profiling indicated that the deer strains of A. pyogenes could be grouped, it is uncertain whether these biochemical characteristics correlate with antigenic or virulence factors. Deer-specific or autogenous vaccines may provide a useful alternative to generic vaccines. PMID:14582788

Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Woodbury, Murray R; Huang, Fei

2003-09-01

353

Genetic and ecological data provide incongruent interpretations of population structure and dispersal in naturally subdivided populations of white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura).  

PubMed

The dispersal of individuals among populations affects the demographic and adaptive trajectories of animal populations and is fundamental to understanding population dynamics. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are a high elevation grouse species that live year-round in patchily distributed alpine areas in western North America. We investigated the patterns of dispersal and identified barriers to gene flow for a threatened subspecies (L. l. saxatilis) endemic to Vancouver Island, Canada. Connectivity among seven sites was examined using nine microsatellite loci (n = 133 individuals, H(O) = 0.62, mean number of alleles = 10) and direct movement observations using radio-telemetry (n = 118 individuals). Average movement distances of individuals measured by radio-telemetry were 0.63-3.23 km and considerably less than the shortest distance between sampling sites (18 km). Furthermore, despite extensive radio-telemetry data, movement was never observed between any of the seven sampling sites. In contrast, genetic results (STRUCTURE, TESS) showed connectivity among most of the seven sampling sites and suggested that genetic variation is best explained by two clusters of individuals which separated the South sampling site from all other areas of Vancouver Island. Analysis of molecular data also showed a generally consistent pattern of isolation by distance (Mantel test r = 0.11, P < 0.01) with large areas of unsuitable low elevation habitat possibly acting as barriers to gene flow. Despite the naturally subdivided distribution of populations, white-tailed ptarmigan do not fit well into any common definition of a metapopulation. We conclude the incongruities between the genetic and radio-telemetry data are best explained by episodic dispersal patterns. In this study, we demonstrated the importance of combining genetic and ecological data in understanding patterns of dispersal and population structure. PMID:18363666

Fedy, B C; Martin, K; Ritland, C; Young, J

2008-04-01

354

Effects of Harvesting Intensity and Herbivory by White-tailed Deer on Vegetation and Nutrient Uptake in a Northern Hardwood Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantified the response of vegetation and nutrient uptake in a northern hardwood forest in southeastern New York for three to four years after three intensities of harvesting: clearcutting, heavy timber stand improvement (TSI), light TSI (97, 29, and 10% basal area reductions, respectively). We also quantified effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on nutrient retention by vegetation. Total biomass and nutrient accumulation in vegetation was higher after TSI than clearcutting in the first two years but was highest in the fenced clearcut in subsequent years, indicating that TSI or partial harvesting is a viable management tool for harvesting timber while consistently maintaining high rates of nutrient retention. After clearcutting, biomass and nutrient retention were initially dominated by woody stems <1.4 m tall and herbaceous vegetation, but saplings 0.1-5.0 cm DBH became the most important contributors to biomass and nutrient accumulation within four years. However, after both intensities of TSI, trees >5.0 cm DBH continued to account for most biomass and nutrient accumulation whereas understory vegetation accumulated little biomass or nutrients. Heavy TSI resulted in increased regeneration of only two tree species (Acer pensylvanicum, Fagus grandifolia), but clearcutting allowed these two species, mature forest species (A. saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis), and the early successional Prunus pensylvanica to regenerate. Several early successional shrub and herbaceous species were also important to nutrient retention after clearcutting, including Polygonum cilinode, Rubus spp., and Sambucus racemosa. Herbivory by white-tailed deer dramatically reduced biomass and nutrient accumulation by woody stems <5 cm DBH after clearcutting (5.5 vs. 0.7 Mg biomass/ha and 30.4 vs. 6.3 kg N/ha on fenced and unfenced clearcut sites, respectively, after four years), indicating the important influence this herbivore can have on nutrient retention in recently disturbed forests.

Yorks, T. E.; Leopold, D. J.; Raynal, D. J.; Murdoch, P. S.; Burns, D. A.

2003-12-01

355

Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) spp. infecting cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) in the United States.  

PubMed

In the United States, the generally non-pathogenic trypanosome of cattle is designated Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri and is distinguished morphologically from Trypanosoma (M.) cervi, a trypanosome originally described in mule deer and elk. Phylogenetic studies of the Megatrypanum trypanosomes using various molecular markers reveal two lineages, designated TthI and TthII, with several genotypes within each. However, to date there is very limited genetic data for T. theileri, and none for the Megatrypanum trypanosomes found in wild ungulates, in the U.S. In this study U.S. isolates from cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (WTD), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were compared by ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis and their incidence in cattle and WTD in south Texas counties was investigated. Phylogenetic analyses showed clear separation of the bovine and cervine trypanosomes. Both lineages I and II were represented in the U.S. cattle and WTD parasites. Lineage I cattle isolates were of a previously described genotype, whereas WTD and elk isolates were of two new genotypes distinct from the cattle trypanosomes. The cattle isolate of lineage II was of a previously reported genotype and was divergent from the WTD isolate, which was of a new genotype. In La Salle, Starr, Webb, and Zapata counties in south Texas a total of 51.8% of white-tailed deer were positive for trypanosomes by 18S rDNA PCR. Of the cattle screened in Webb County, 35.4% were positive. Drought conditions prevailing in south Texas when the animals were screened suggest the possibility of a vector for Trypanosoma other than the ked (Lipoptena mazamae) and tabanid flies (Tabanus spp. and Haematopota spp.). PMID:23683651

Fisher, Amanda C; Schuster, Greta; Cobb, W Jacob; James, Andrea M; Cooper, Susan M; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Holman, Patricia J

2013-10-18

356

Low flow oxygen therapy from a portable oxygen concentrator or an oxygen cylinder effectively treats hypoxemia in anesthetized white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

For treatment of hypoxemia, delivery of the minimum effective oxygen flow rate is advantageous during field anesthesia because it prolongs the life of the oxygen cylinder. Portable oxygen concentrators as the oxygen source require less logistical considerations than cylinders and are a safer alternative during helicopter field work because they are nonexplosive devices. The objective of this study was to evaluate low oxygen flow rates by continuous or pulsed intranasal delivery for treatment of hypoxemia in anesthetized white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Nine captive adult female deer (body mass 56-72 kg) were physically restrained in a drop-floor chute and hand injected intramuscularly with medetomidine (0.1-0.14 mg/kg) and ketamine (2.5-4.3 mg/kg). Intranasal oxygen was delivered from an oxygen cylinder at continuous flow rates of 1 and 2 L/min or from a battery driven oxygen concentrator (EverGo Portable Oxygen Concentrator, Respironics) with pulse-dose delivery (maximum capacity of 1.05 L/min). The pulse-dose setting (pulse volume 12-70 ml) was adjusted according to the respiratory rate. Arterial blood gases were analyzed before, during, and after O2 supplementation. A 10-min washout period was allowed between treatment groups. All three treatments adequately treated hypoxemia. The partial pressure of arterial oxygenation increased significantly from baseline values of 55 +/- 10 to 115 +/- 31 mm Hg during supplementation from the oxygen concentrator, to 138 +/- 21 mm Hg during supplementation from the oxygen cylinder at 1 L/min, and to 201 +/- 42 mm Hg at 2 L/min. In conclusion, low flow rates of intranasal oxygen supplemented continuously from an oxygen cylinder or by pulsed delivery from a portable oxygen concentrator effectively treated hypoxemia in anesthetized white-tailed deer. PMID:25000687

Fahlman, Asa; Caulkett, Nigel; Woodbury, Murray; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Wourms, Vincent

2014-06-01

357

PROC. S.D. ACAD. SCI., VOL. 74 (1995) 71 CAPTURE SUCCESS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN  

E-print Network

based upon trap location, quaIity and type 0 fbait used, population density, population agel sexUlation density reduction, weather conditions. and/or deer behavior. INTRODUCTION Capture success of white. population density. population agel sex characteristics. weather conditions. geographic region. and deer

358

The Ecology of 'Acroporid White Syndrome', a Coral Disease from the Southern Great Barrier Reef  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of coral disease have increased worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, remarkably little is known about the ecology of disease in the Indo-Pacific Region. Here we report the spatiotemporal dynamics of a coral disease termed ‘Acroporid white syndrome’ observed to affect tabular corals of the genus Acropora on the southern Great Barrier Reef. The syndrome is characterised by rapid tissue loss initiating in the basal margins of colonies, and manifests as a distinct lesion boundary between apparently healthy tissue and exposed white skeleton. Surveys of eight sites around Heron Reef in 2004 revealed a mean prevalence of 8.1±0.9%, affecting the three common species (Acropora cytherea, A. hyacinthus, A. clathrata) and nine other tabular Acropora spp. While all sizes of colonies were affected, white syndrome disproportionately affected larger colonies of tabular Acroporids (>80 cm). The prevalence of white syndrome was strongly related to the abundance of tabular Acroporids within transects, yet the incidence of the syndrome appears unaffected by proximity to other colonies, suggesting that while white syndrome is density dependant, it does not exhibit a strongly aggregated spatial pattern consistent with previous coral disease outbreaks. Acroporid white syndrome was not transmitted by either direct contact in the field or by mucus in aquaria experiments. Monitoring of affected colonies revealed highly variable rates of tissue loss ranging from 0 to 1146 cm?2 week?1, amongst the highest documented for a coral disease. Contrary to previous links between temperature and coral disease, rates of tissue loss in affected colonies increased threefold during the winter months. Given the lack of spatial pattern and non-infectious nature of Acroporid white syndrome, further studies are needed to determine causal factors and longer-term implications of disease outbreaks on the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:22163267

Roff, George; Kvennefors, E. Charlotte E.; Fine, Maoz; Ortiz, Juan; Davy, Joanne E.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

2011-01-01

359

Comparative Plasma and Urine Chemistry of Fasting White-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys-Leucurus) and American Martens (Martes-Americana) : Representative Fat-Bodied and Lean-Bodied Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

American martens and white-tailed prairie dogs are mammals of similar body mass, exposed to periods of food deprivation, but of vastly different body fat content. While both species demonstrated a protein conservation phase during a short-term fast, martens had a greater reliance on protein as depicted by greater loss of body weight, higher daily urine volume, and glomerular clearance rates,

Henry Harlow; Steven Buskirk

1991-01-01

360

ETIOLOGY OF WHITE POX, A LETHAL DISEASE OF THE CARIBBEAN ELKHORN CORAL, ACROPORA PALMATA.  

EPA Science Inventory

Populations of the shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are being decimated by white pox disease, with losses in the Florida Keys typically in excess of 70%. Tissue loss is rapid, averaging 2.5 cm2 day-1. A bacterium isolated from diseased A. palmata was shown...

361

White Matter Abnormalities and Structural Hippocampal Disconnections in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer’s disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer’s disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate and frontal regions only in the Alzheimer’s group. The severity of white matter degeneration appears to be higher in advanced clinical stages, supporting the construct that these abnormalities are part of the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24086371

Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

2013-01-01

362

A clinical, histopathological, and immuno-fluorescent study of Babesia spp. infection in white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

University; D. V. M. , Texas AtxM University Directed by. Dr. C. A. Gleiser Babesia cervi produced a fulminant, hemolytic disease in splenectomized deer and a chronic disease, characterised by emaciation and anemia after 6 to 12 xnonths in intact deer..., which apparently were the primary hosts of the hemoprotozoan. Splenectomised deer had a febrile response and a 3 to 9% parasitemia Z days after intravenou. s inoculation of 10 ml. of blood in which 1% of the exythrocytes contained Babesia. Anemia...

Emerson, Harold Ray

2012-06-07

363

Mapping joint grey and white matter reductions in Alzheimer's disease using joint independent component analysis  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease concomitant with grey and white matter damages. However, the interrelationship of volumetric changes between grey and white matter remains poorly understood in AD. Using joint independent component analysis, this study identified joint grey and white matter volume reductions based on structural magnetic resonance imaging data to construct the covariant networks in twelve AD patients and fourteen normal controls (NC). We found that three networks showed significant volume reductions in joint grey–white matter sources in AD patients, including (1) frontal/parietal/temporal-superior longitudinal fasciculus/corpus callosum, (2) temporal/parietal/occipital-frontal/occipital, and (3) temporal-precentral/postcentral. The corresponding expression scores distinguished AD patients from NC with 85.7%, 100% and 85.7% sensitivity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively; 75.0%, 66.7% and 75.0% specificity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Furthermore, the combined source of three significant joint sources best predicted the AD/NC group membership with 92.9% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity. Our findings revealed joint grey and white matter loss in AD patients, and these results can help elucidate the mechanism of grey and white matter reductions in the development of AD. PMID:23123779

Guo, Xiaojuan; Han, Yuan; Chen, Kewei; Wang, Yan; Yao, Li

2013-01-01

364

Toxicodynamic modeling of 137Cs to estimate white-tailed deer background levels for the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is a former nuclear weapon material production and current research facility adjacent to the Savannah River in South Carolina, USA. The purpose of this study was to determine the background radiocesium ((137)Cs) body burden (e.g., from global fallout) for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) inhabiting the SRS. To differentiate what the background burden is for the SRS versus (137)Cs obtained from SRS nuclear activities, data were analyzed spatially, temporally and compared to other off-site hunting areas near the SRS. The specific objectives of this study were: to compare SRS and offsite deer herds based on time and space; to interpret comparisons based on how data were collected as well as the effect of environmental and anthropogenic influences; to determine what the ecological half-life/decay rate is for (137)Cs in the SRS deer herd; and to give a recommendation to what should be considered the background (137)Cs level in the SRS deer herd. Based on the available information and analyses, it is recommended that the determination of what is considered background for the SRS deer herd be derived from data collected from the SRS deer herd itself and not offsite collections for a variety of reasons. Offsite data show extreme variability most likely due to environmental factors such as soil type and land-use patterns (e.g., forest, agriculture, residential activities). This can be seen from results where samples from offsite military bases (Fort Jackson and Fort Stewart) without anthropogenic (137)Cs sources were much higher than both the SRS and a nearby (Sandhills) study site. Moreover, deer from private hunting grounds have the potential to be baited with corn, thus artificially lowering their (137)Cs body burdens compared to other free-ranging deer. Additionally, sample size for offsite collections were not robust enough to calculate a temporal decay curve with an upper confidence level to determine if the herds are following predicted radioactive decay rates like the SRS or if the variability is due to those points described above. Using mean yearly values, the ecological half-life for (137)Cs body burdens for SRS white-tailed deer was determined to be 28.79 years--very close to the 30.2 years physical half-life. PMID:24389840

Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M; Bobryk, Christopher W; Blas, Susan A

2014-04-01

365

White matter diffusion alterations in normal women at risk of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Increased white matter mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) has been observed in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to determine whether similar alterations of white matter occur in normal individuals at risk of AD. Diffusion tensor images were acquired in 42 cognitively normal right-handed women with both a family history of dementia and at least one apolipoprotein E4 allele. These were compared with images from 23 normal women without either AD risk factor. Group analyses were performed using tract-based spatial statistics. Reduced FA was observed in the fronto-occipital and inferior temporal fasciculi (particularly posteriorly), the splenium of the corpus callosum, subcallosal white matter and the cingulum bundle. These findings demonstrate that specific white matter pathways are altered in normal women at increased risk of AD years before the expected onset of cognitive symptoms. PMID:18801597

Smith, Charles D; Chebrolu, Himachandra; Andersen, Anders H; Powell, David A; Lovell, Mark A; Xiong, Shuling; Gold, Brian T

2010-07-01

366

RNA-seq profiles of immune related genes in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis infected with white band disease.  

PubMed

Coral diseases are among the most serious threats to coral reefs worldwide, yet most coral diseases remain poorly understood. How the coral host responds to pathogen infection is an area where very little is known. Here we used next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to produce a transcriptome-wide profile of the immune response of the Staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis to White Band Disease (WBD) by comparing infected versus healthy (asymptomatic) coral tissues. The transcriptome of A. cervicornis was assembled de novo from A-tail selected Illumina mRNA-seq data from whole coral tissues, and parsed bioinformatically into coral and non-coral transcripts using existing Acropora genomes in order to identify putative coral transcripts. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified in the coral and non-coral datasets to identify genes that were up- and down-regulated due to disease infection. RNA-seq analyses indicate that infected corals exhibited significant changes in gene expression across 4% (1,805 out of 47,748 transcripts) of the coral transcriptome. The primary response to infection included transcripts involved in macrophage-mediated pathogen recognition and ROS production, two hallmarks of phagocytosis, as well as key mediators of apoptosis and calcium homeostasis. The strong up-regulation of the enzyme allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase suggests a key role of the allene oxide pathway in coral immunity. Interestingly, none of the three primary innate immune pathways--Toll-like receptors (TLR), Complement, and prophenoloxydase pathways, were strongly associated with the response of A. cervicornis to infection. Five-hundred and fifty differentially expressed non-coral transcripts were classified as metazoan (n = 84), algal or plant (n = 52), fungi (n = 24) and protozoans (n = 13). None of the 52 putative Symbiodinium or algal transcript had any clear immune functions indicating that the immune response is driven by the coral host, and not its algal symbionts. PMID:24278460

Libro, Silvia; Kaluziak, Stefan T; Vollmer, Steven V

2013-01-01

367

RNA-seq Profiles of Immune Related Genes in the Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis Infected with White Band Disease  

PubMed Central

Coral diseases are among the most serious threats to coral reefs worldwide, yet most coral diseases remain poorly understood. How the coral host responds to pathogen infection is an area where very little is known. Here we used next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to produce a transcriptome-wide profile of the immune response of the Staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis to White Band Disease (WBD) by comparing infected versus healthy (asymptomatic) coral tissues. The transcriptome of A. cervicornis was assembled de novo from A-tail selected Illumina mRNA-seq data from whole coral tissues, and parsed bioinformatically into coral and non-coral transcripts using existing Acropora genomes in order to identify putative coral transcripts. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified in the coral and non-coral datasets to identify genes that were up- and down-regulated due to disease infection. RNA-seq analyses indicate that infected corals exhibited significant changes in gene expression across 4% (1,805 out of 47,748 transcripts) of the coral transcriptome. The primary response to infection included transcripts involved in macrophage-mediated pathogen recognition and ROS production, two hallmarks of phagocytosis, as well as key mediators of apoptosis and calcium homeostasis. The strong up-regulation of the enzyme allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase suggests a key role of the allene oxide pathway in coral immunity. Interestingly, none of the three primary innate immune pathways - Toll-like receptors (TLR), Complement, and prophenoloxydase pathways, were strongly associated with the response of A. cervicornis to infection. Five-hundred and fifty differentially expressed non-coral transcripts were classified as metazoan (n = 84), algal or plant (n = 52), fungi (n = 24) and protozoans (n = 13). None of the 52 putative Symbiodinium or algal transcript had any clear immune functions indicating that the immune response is driven by the coral host, and not its algal symbionts. PMID:24278460

Libro, Silvia; Kaluziak, Stefan T.; Vollmer, Steven V.

2013-01-01

368

Benzo[a]pyrene metabolism and excretion in white suckers with chronic liver diseases  

SciTech Connect

Wild white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) with diseased bile ducts excreted an oral dose of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) into their bile as glucuronide, glutathione, and sulfo-conjugates at twice the rate of an unaffected reference population. BaP-hydroxylase (10% higher in the diseased population), glutathione-S-transferase (similar), or uridine-5[prime]-diphosphoglucuronic acid transferase (50% lower) levels did not correlate with these excretion rates. Metabolite levels were 57% higher in the liver of affected suckers than those in the liver of reference suckers, which might be due to bile retention within the diseased bile ducts. The bile duct disease affecting white suckers does not appear to restrict the metabolism and excretion of BaP.

Smith, I.R.; Kirby, G.M.; Ferguson, H.W.; Hayes, M.A. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

1993-05-01

369

Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists enhance white blood cell aggregation in patients with ischaemic heart disease.  

PubMed Central

The effects of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers and long acting nitrates on white blood cell (WBC) aggregation were studied in patients with ischaemic heart disease. WBC aggregation was significantly increased by beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (P = 0.011) but was unaffected by either calcium channel blockers or long acting nitrates. Enhanced WBC aggregation promotes microvascular occlusion and damage. PMID:1356405

Bridges, A B; Pringle, T H; McNeill, G P; Tavendale, R; Belch, J J

1992-01-01

370

Regional white matter volume differences in nondemented aging and Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence suggests that altered cerebral white matter (WM) influences normal aging, and further that WM degeneration may modulate the clinical expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we conducted a study of differences in WM volume across the adult age span and in AD employing a newly developed, automated method for regional parcellation of the subcortical WM that uses curvature

David H. Salat; Douglas N. Greve; Jennifer L. Pacheco; Brian T. Quinn; Karl G. Helmer; Randy L. Buckner; Bruce Fischl

2009-01-01

371

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BACTERIUM SUSPECTED IN THE INCIDENCE OF WHITE BAND DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The common staghorn coral, Acropora cervicomis, has been critically impacted in the U.S. Virgin Islands by a condition described as white band disease, a malady accompanied by the presence of abundant finely granular ovoid basophilic bodies within degenerating tissues of this sto...

372

The Gender Gap in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality: Is There a Difference between Blacks and Whites?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Background: The gender difference (gender gap) in mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) decreases with age. This relationship has not been well characterized in diverse pop- ulations. Methods: To examine the gender gap in CHD mortality across age groups and to compare the age dependency of the gender gap between blacks and whites, we conducted a prospec- tive

Jennifer E. Ho; Furcy Paultre; Lori Mosca

2005-01-01

373

Serologic analysis of white-tailed deer sera for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western immunoblotting.  

PubMed Central

White-tailed deer serum samples were collected in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., metropolitan area during the fall and winter months from 1989 to 1992 and analyzed for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis. Ninety-eight percent of the serum samples were collected from regions where currently the vector tick, Ixodes dammini, is nonexistent. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi were detected in 2.2% of 508 samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and their presence was confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Western immunoblotting yielded mean numbers of reactive bands of 0.1 and 6.0 for samples that were negative and positive for antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The molecular weights of the antigens in many of the reactive bands from positive samples were similar to the molecular weights of antigens reactive with samples from humans with Lyme borreliosis. An antibody response to the major outer surface proteins A and B was not detected. Serologic analysis of deer sera may provide a valuable method for surveillance programs designed to monitor the spread of B. burgdorferi in nature. Images PMID:8432818

Gill, J S; McLean, R G; Neitzel, D F; Johnson, R C

1993-01-01

374

Winter browse selection by white-tailed deer and implications for bottomland forest restoration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) forage selectively, modifying upland forest species composition and in some cases shifting ecosystems to alternative stable states. Few studies, however, have investigated plant selection by deer in bottomland forests. Herbaceous invasive species are common in wetlands and their expansion could be promoted if deer avoid them and preferentially feed on native woody species. We surveyed plant species composition and winter deer browsing in 14 floodplain forest restoration sites along the Upper Mississippi River and tributaries. Tree seedling density declined rapidly with increasing cover of invasive Phalaris arundinacea, averaging less than 1 per m2 in all sites in which the grass was present. Deer browsed ?46% of available tree seedling stems (branches) at mainland restorations, compared to ?3% at island sites. Across all tree species, the number of browsed stems increased linearly with the number available and responded unimodally to tree height. Maximum browsing rates were observed on trees with high stem abundances (>10 per plant) and of heights between 50 and 150 cm. Deer preferred Ulmus americana and Acer saccharinum, and avoided Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer negundo, and Quercus spp. at mainland sites, and did not browse Phalaris arundinacea if present. Depending on plant growth responses to herbivory and the competitive effects of unbrowsed species, our results suggest that selective foraging could promote the expansion of invasive species and/or alter tree species composition in bottomland forest restorations. Islands may, however, serve as refuges from browsing on a regional scale.

Cogger, Benjamin J.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Thomsen, Meredith; Adams, Carrie Reinhardt

2014-01-01

375

Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein antibodies in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York and Pennsylvania, USA.  

PubMed

Borrelia burgdorferi differentially exhibits outer surface proteins (Osp) on its outer membrane, and detection of particular Osp antibodies in mammals is suggestive of the infection stage. For example, OspF is typically associated with chronic infection, whereas OspC suggests early infection. A fluorescent bead-based multiplex assay was used to test sera from New York and Pennsylvania white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for the presence of antibodies to OspA, OspC, and OspF. OspF seroprevalence was significantly greater than both OspA and OspC seroprevalence for all study sites. OspA, OspC, and OspF seroprevalences were significantly greater in Pennsylvania deer than New York deer. The regional differences in seroprevalence are believed to be attributable to a heterogeneous Ixodes scapularis distribution. While most seropositive deer were solely OspF seropositive, deer concurrently OspC and OspF seropositive were the second most commonly encountered individuals. Simultaneous detection of OspF and OspC antibodies may occur when non-infected or chronically infected deer are bitten by an infected tick within a few months of blood collection, thereby inducing production of antibodies associated with the early stages of infection with B. burgdorferi. PMID:23507438

Kirchgessner, Megan S; Freer, Heather; Whipps, Christopher M; Wagner, Bettina

2013-05-15

376

NESTING HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS OF SYMPATRIC CRESTED CARACARAS, RED-TAILED HAWKS, ANDWHITE-TAILED HAWKS IN SOUTH TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus )( n 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis )( n 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway )( n 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed

Michael A. Actkinson; WILLIAM P. KUVLESKY JR; Clint W. Boal; Leonard A. Brennan; Fidel Hernandez

2007-01-01

377

On-Farm Mitigation of Transmission of Tuberculosis from White-Tailed Deer to Cattle: Literature Review and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

The Animal Industry Division of the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) has been challenged with assisting farmers with modifying farm practices to reduce potential for exposure to Mycobacterium bovis from wildlife to cattle. The MDARD recommendations for on-farm risk mitigation practices were developed from experiences in the US, UK and Ireland and a review of the scientific literature. The objectives of our study were to review the present state of knowledge on M. bovis excretion, transmission, and survival in the environment and the interactions of wildlife and cattle with the intention of determining if the current recommendations by MDARD on farm practices are adequate and to identify additional changes to farm practices that may help to mitigate the risk of transmission. This review will provide agencies with a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature on mitigation of disease transmission between wildlife and cattle and to identify lacunae in published research. PMID:22991687

Walter, W. David; Anderson, Charles W.; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; Averill, James J.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

2012-01-01

378

Sequential relationships between grey matter and white matter atrophy and brain metabolic abnormalities in early Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

abnormalities in early Alzheimer's disease Nicolas Villain, PhD1 , Marine Fouquet, MSc1 , Jean-Claude Baron, MD3 Alzheimer's disease Keywords: Alzheimers disease, MRI/fMRI, PET imaging, white matter, hippocampus-matter tract disruption are well-described early macroscopic events in Alzheimers disease. The relationships

Boyer, Edmond

379

Molecular study of free-ranging mule deer and white-tailed deer from British Columbia, Canada, for evidence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp.  

PubMed

Twenty-three free-ranging white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and six mule deer (MD; Odocoileus hemionus) from south-central British Columbia, Canada, were tested for Anaplasma marginale by msp5 gene-specific PCR and Ehrlichia spp. by 16S rRNA or citrate synthase (gltA) gene-specific PCR, as well as by PCR with universal 16S rRNA primers detecting a wide range of bacteria. No deer tested positive for A. marginale. Amplification with universal 16S rRNA primers followed by sequencing of cloned fragments detected an Anaplasma sp. in one of 23 (4.3%) WTD and six of six (100%) MD and Bartonella sp. in four of 23 (17.4%) WTD. The Anaplasma sp. was genetically distinct from A. marginale and all other recognized members of the genus. Four of six (66.7%) MD and 0 of 23 (0%) WTD were Ehrlichia positive by PCR with primers for 16S rRNA and gltA genes. The sequences of gltA PCR fragments were identical to each other and to the respective region of the gltA gene of an Ehrlichia sp. which we detected previously in naturally infected cattle from the same area, suggesting the possibility of biological transmission of this rickettsia between cattle and wild cervids. Antibodies reactive with the MSP5 protein of A. marginale were detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in two of six (33.3%) MD, but not in WTD. The two seropositive MD were PCR positive for both the Anaplasma sp. and Ehrlichia sp. detected in this study, suggesting a reaction of antibodies against one or both of these rickettsias with the MSP5 antigen. PMID:21933360

Lobanov, V A; Gajadhar, A A; Al-Adhami, B; Schwantje, H M

2012-06-01

380

Modeling the Impact of Climate and Landscape on the Efficacy of White Tailed Deer Vaccination for Cattle Tick Control in Northeastern Mexico  

PubMed Central

Cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. White tailed deer (WTD) sustain and spread cattle tick populations. The aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of WTD to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. Agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches) and climatic conditions were built in a GIS environment to simulate WTD vaccine effectiveness under conditions where unvaccinated cattle shared the landscape. Published and validated information on tick life cycle was used to build models describing tick mortality and developmental rates. Data from simulations were applied to a large territory in northeastern Mexico where cattle ticks are endemic and WTD and cattle share substantial portions of the habitat. WTD movements were simulated together with tick population dynamics considering the actual landscape and climatic features. The size of the vegetation patches and the distance between patches were critical for the successful control of tick infestations after WTD vaccination. The presence of well-connected, large vegetation patches proved essential for tick control, since the tick could persist in areas of highly fragmented habitat. The continued application of one yearly vaccination on days 1-70 for three years reduced tick abundance/animal/patch by a factor of 40 and 60 for R. annulatus and R. microplus, respectively when compared to non-vaccinated controls. The study showed that vaccination of WTD alone during three consecutive years could result in the reduction of cattle tick populations in northeastern Mexico. Furthermore, the results of the simulations suggested the possibility of using vaccines to prevent the spread and thus the re-introduction of cattle ticks into tick-free areas. PMID:25047078

Estrada-Pena, Agustin; Carreon, Diana; Almazan, Consuelo; de la Fuente, Jose

2014-01-01

381

Annual survival and site fidelity of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): comparative demography before (1983-1992) and after (1993-2005) spatial confinement.  

PubMed

Survival and movement are important demographic variables influencing the dynamics of large herbivores with implications for management and evolution of life-history strategies. Management practices such as spatial confinement and harvest regulation attempt to control survival and movement for the sustainability of harvested deer populations, but a paucity of long-term data exists on these management practices. We examined annual survival and site fidelity of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) over 10 years (1983-1992) to compare demographic parameters after spatial confinement (1993-2005). We used capture records (n = 174; 104 females, 70 males), marked deer recaptures (n = 42), and dead recoveries (n = 68) to estimate sex-specific, age-specific and time-specific parameters. We found that annual female survival was 50% from 1983-1987 during a period of intense harvest, but increased to 93.7% after intense harvesting was eliminated. Prior to spatial confinement, annual survival of marked male deer averaged 36.7%-42.5%. After spatial confinement, annual survival increased on average for males (58%-99%) and females (77%-98%). Females showed high levels of site fidelity (>99%) prior to spatial confinement, whereas males showed much less site fidelity (?4.5% for the 2 top-ranking models). During spatial confinement, the semi-impermeable fence effectively increased site fidelity of males (?56%). These results stem from long-term study (23 years) of a large herbivore experiencing changes to life-history, resulting from changes in management that were applied to the population and aimed at altering population demographics, for sustainability of a harvestable population of deer. PMID:24447659

Webb, Stephen L; Gee, Kenneth L

2014-01-01

382

Brevinema andersonii gen. nov., sp. nov., an infectious spirochete isolated from the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus).  

PubMed

A spirochete which infects short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) has been shown previously to be ultrastructurally and serologically distinct from other spirochetes. Two of the original isolates from Connecticut and Minnesota and 16 new isolates obtained from shrews captured in Minnesota were characterized phenotypically and genetically in this study. A comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of two shrew isolates and one mouse isolate and the 16S rRNA sequences of 16 other spirochetes and Escherichia coli revealed that these organisms exhibited low levels of similarity (range of similarity values, 73.9 to 77.8%; average level of similarity, 74.7%). The shrew and mouse isolates which we examined formed a deeply branching subgroup that was clearly distinct from the other genera of spirochetes examined. These and other results indicated that the new spirochetes represent a unique taxon in the order Spirochaetales. Accordingly, we propose that they should be classified as members of a new genus, Brevinema. The three strains of Brevinema which we examined had 16S rRNA sequences that were nearly identical. We also compared these isolates by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fatty acid and enzyme analyses, restriction endonuclease analysis, and Southern hybridization and found that the levels of genetic and phenotypic homogeneity among the strains were very high. We concluded that the isolates which we examined were members of a single species, for which we propose the name Brevinema andersonii. The type strain of Brevinema andersonii is CT11616 (= ATCC 43811).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7857811

Defosse, D L; Johnson, R C; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Fraser, G J

1995-01-01

383

Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity in Blacks and Whites: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, and obesity-related CVD risk factors such as hypertension are higher in blacks\\u000a than whites in the United States. Obesity, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity as well as psychosocial and environmental\\u000a factors may contribute to ethnic differences in CVD. Survey data from the United States show that black populations consume\\u000a fewer vegetables and CVD-protective micronutrients

Jennifer C. Lovejoy; Masa Sasagawa

2010-01-01

384

Change in Cognitive Function in Alzheimer’s Disease in African-American and White Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the association of race with change in cognitive function in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We studied the rate of decline in global and specific measures of cognitive function in a cohort of 410 older African-Americans and whites with clinically diagnosed AD. Persons were examined annually for an average of 3.5 years, and follow-up participation among survivors exceeded

Lisa L. Barnes; Robert S. Wilson; Yan Li; David W. Gilley; David A. Bennett; Denis A. Evans

2006-01-01

385

Exploiting Heavy Tails in Training Times of Multilayer Perceptrons. A Case Study with the UCI Thyroid Disease Database  

E-print Network

The random initialization of weights of a multilayer perceptron makes it possible to model its training process as a Las Vegas algorithm, i.e. a randomized algorithm which stops when some required training error is obtained, and whose execution time is a random variable. This modelling is used to perform a case study on a well-known pattern recognition benchmark: the UCI Thyroid Disease Database. Empirical evidence is presented of the training time probability distribution exhibiting a heavy tail behavior, meaning a big probability mass of long executions. This fact is exploited to reduce the training time cost by applying two simple restart strategies. The first assumes full knowledge of the distribution yielding a 40% cut down in expected time with respect to the training without restarts. The second, assumes null knowledge, yielding a reduction ranging from 9% to 23%.

Cebrian, Manuel

2007-01-01

386

Improved Sensitivity to Cerebral White Matter Abnormalities in Alzheimer's Disease with Spherical Deconvolution Based Tractography  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based fiber tractography (FT) is the most popular approach for investigating white matter tracts in vivo, despite its inability to reconstruct fiber pathways in regions with “crossing fibers.” Recently, constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) has been developed to mitigate the adverse effects of “crossing fibers” on DTI based FT. Notwithstanding the methodological benefit, the clinical relevance of CSD based FT for the assessment of white matter abnormalities remains unclear. In this work, we evaluated the applicability of a hybrid framework, in which CSD based FT is combined with conventional DTI metrics to assess white matter abnormalities in 25 patients with early Alzheimer’s disease. Both CSD and DTI based FT were used to reconstruct two white matter tracts: one with regions of “crossing fibers,” i.e., the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and one which contains only one fiber orientation, i.e. the midsagittal section of the corpus callosum (CC). The DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), obtained from these tracts were related to memory function. Our results show that in the tract with “crossing fibers” the relation between FA/MD and memory was stronger with CSD than with DTI based FT. By contrast, in the fiber bundle where one fiber population predominates, the relation between FA/MD and memory was comparable between both tractography methods. Importantly, these associations were most pronounced after adjustment for the planar diffusion coefficient, a measure reflecting the degree of fiber organization complexity. These findings indicate that compared to conventionally applied DTI based FT, CSD based FT combined with DTI metrics can increase the sensitivity to detect functionally significant white matter abnormalities in tracts with complex white matter architecture. PMID:22952880

Reijmer, Yael D.; Leemans, Alexander; Heringa, Sophie M.; Wielaard, Ilse; Jeurissen, Ben; Koek, Huiberdina L.; Biessels, Geert Jan

2012-01-01

387

Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease across corals and oceans indicates a conserved and distinct disease microbiome.  

PubMed

Coral diseases are characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue, but causes and consequences of these changes are vaguely understood due to the complexity and dynamics of coral-associated bacteria. We used 16S rRNA gene microarrays to assay differences in bacterial assemblages of healthy and diseased colonies displaying White Plague Disease (WPD) signs from two closely related Caribbean coral species, Orbicella faveolata and Orbicella franksi. Analysis of differentially abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed strong differences between healthy and diseased specimens, but not between coral species. A subsequent comparison to data from two Indo-Pacific coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) revealed distinct microbial community patterns associated with ocean basin, coral species and health state. Coral species were clearly separated by site, but also, the relatedness of the underlying bacterial community structures resembled the phylogenetic relationship of the coral hosts. In diseased samples, bacterial richness increased and putatively opportunistic bacteria were consistently more abundant highlighting the role of opportunistic conditions in structuring microbial community patterns during disease. Our comparative analysis shows that it is possible to derive conserved bacterial footprints of diseased coral holobionts that might help in identifying key bacterial species related to the underlying etiopathology. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that similar-appearing disease phenotypes produce microbial community patterns that are consistent over coral species and oceans, irrespective of the putative underlying pathogen. Consequently, profiling coral diseases by microbial community structure over multiple coral species might allow the development of a comparative disease framework that can inform on cause and relatedness of coral diseases. PMID:24350609

Roder, Cornelia; Arif, Chatchanit; Daniels, Camille; Weil, Ernesto; Voolstra, Christian R

2014-02-01

388

Significance of white-coat and masked hypertension in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a frequent and modifiable cardiovascular risk factor with a cyclic relationship with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The diagnosis, treatment, monitoring and control of high blood pressure are all mandatory not only in CKD but also in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As demonstrated by studies using population and hypertensive patients, white-coat hypertension (WCHT) and masked hypertension (MHT) carry a particular degree of risk. The advantages of ambulatory techniques in the management and prognostic stratification of patients with CKD and ESRD have also been recognized. However, most of the evidence underlines the importance of nocturnal hypertension and neglects WCHT and MHT. The absence of specific reports involving untreated and treated patients hinders the ability to significantly discriminate WCHT from the white-coat effect and MHT from masked uncontrolled hypertension. The heterogeneous definitions that are used add additional difficulty in translating experimental evidence into clinical practice. Reaching a consensus in definitions is mandatory for designing future research. Cross-sectional studies underscore the frequency of misdiagnosis, potentially leading to undertreatment (MHT) and overtreatment (WCHT) in renal disease. The divergent prevalence of WCHT and MHT reported in CKD could be related to the diverse definitions of hypertension and the heterogeneity of the pathologies pooled under the CKD definition. Even in the absence of randomized clinical trials specifically addressing this issue, the scarce longitudinal studies confirm that WCHT carries a risk close to that of sustained normotension, whereas MHT is associated with a risk close or identical to that of sustained hypertension. PMID:24739541

Boggia, José; Silvariño, Ricardo; Luzardo, Leonella; Noboa, Oscar

2014-10-01

389

Isotope variations in white-tailed kites from various habitats in California: possible limitations in assessing prey utilization and population dynamics.  

PubMed

White-tailed kite (Elanus leucurus) populations in the 1930s were close to extirpation in the United States. But by the 1940s, an upward trend towards recovery was apparent and continued to their current stable population levels. These dramatic fluctuations in kite numbers may have been related to changes in rodent prey populations due to the conversion of native habitats to agriculture. To address this question, we evaluated the use of stable isotope analysis in determining if a shift in diet could be isotopically differentiated in current and historic kite populations. We first compared delta13C, delta15N, and delta34S values from present-day kite flight feathers and prey fur samples from four locations in California. The total ranges of isotope values for kite and their rodent prey were similar within each site. Carbon isotope values ranged from -27.1 to -22.2 per thousand in Arcata, -26.1 to -16.9 per thousand in Davis, -27.0 to -15.0 per thousand in Cosumnes, and -28.2 to -11.6 per thousand in Santa Barbara. Nitrogen isotope values ranged from 3.2 to 15.7 per thousand in Arcata, 2.8 to 12.7 per thousand in Davis, 4.0 to 15.7 per thousand in Cosumnes, and 1.7 to 20.0 per thousand in Santa Barbara. Sulfur isotope values ranged from -7.8 to 12.4 per thousand in Arcata, -1.1 to 9.2 per thousand in Davis, 0.7 to 10.9 per thousand in Cosumnes, and -8.6 to 15.6 per thousand in Santa Barbara. Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope values at each site reflect typical trophic enrichments due to physiological processes. At each site, delta13C and delta15N values reflected the influence of a predominantly C3 or a mixed C3/C4 plant community. Sulfur isotope values reflect the influence of predominant marine or terrestrial sulfur sources at each site. However, variability in isotope values may limit the usefulness of such analyses for addressing prey utilization and population dynamics. PMID:12872807

Iko, W M; Kester, C L; Bern, C R; Stendell, R C; Rye, R O

2003-06-01

390

Genetic Susceptibility, Colony Size, and Water Temperature Drive White-Pox Disease on the Coral Acropora palmata  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of coral diseases are one of the greatest threats to reef corals in the Caribbean, yet the mechanisms that lead to coral diseases are still largely unknown. Here we examined the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-pox disease on Acropora palmata coral colonies of known genotypes. We took a Bayesian approach, using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation algorithms, to examine which covariates influenced the presence of white-pox disease over seven years. We showed that colony size, genetic susceptibility of the coral host, and high-water temperatures were the primary tested variables that were positively associated with the presence of white-pox disease on A. palmata colonies. Our study also showed that neither distance from previously diseased individuals, nor colony location, influenced the dynamics of white-pox disease. These results suggest that white-pox disease was most likely a consequence of anomalously high water temperatures that selectively compromised the oldest colonies and the most susceptible coral genotypes. PMID:25372835

Muller, Erinn M.; van Woesik, Robert

2014-01-01

391

Genetic Susceptibility, Colony Size, and Water Temperature Drive White-Pox Disease on the Coral Acropora palmata.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of coral diseases are one of the greatest threats to reef corals in the Caribbean, yet the mechanisms that lead to coral diseases are still largely unknown. Here we examined the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-pox disease on Acropora palmata coral colonies of known genotypes. We took a Bayesian approach, using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation algorithms, to examine which covariates influenced the presence of white-pox disease over seven years. We showed that colony size, genetic susceptibility of the coral host, and high-water temperatures were the primary tested variables that were positively associated with the presence of white-pox disease on A. palmata colonies. Our study also showed that neither distance from previously diseased individuals, nor colony location, influenced the dynamics of white-pox disease. These results suggest that white-pox disease was most likely a consequence of anomalously high water temperatures that selectively compromised the oldest colonies and the most susceptible coral genotypes. PMID:25372835

Muller, Erinn M; van Woesik, Robert

2014-01-01

392

Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral-associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. Here, we compare bacterial assemblages of samples from healthy (HH) colonies and such displaying signs of White Plague Disease (WPD) of two different coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) from the same reef in Koh Tao, Thailand, using 16S rRNA gene microarrays. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased (DD) corals, and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens (Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae). In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries. PMID:23924783

Roder, Cornelia; Arif, Chatchanit; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Daniels, Camille; Shibl, Ahmed; Chavanich, Suchana; Voolstra, Christian R

2014-01-01

393

Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework.  

PubMed

Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral-associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. Here, we compare bacterial assemblages of samples from healthy (HH) colonies and such displaying signs of White Plague Disease (WPD) of two different coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) from the same reef in Koh Tao, Thailand, using 16S rRNA gene microarrays. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased (DD) corals, and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens (Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae). In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries. PMID:23924783

Roder, Cornelia; Arif, Chatchanit; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Daniels, Camille; Shibl, Ahmed; Chavanich, Suchana; Voolstra, Christian R

2014-01-01

394

Feasibility of salvaging genetic potential of post-mortem fawns: production of sperm in testis tissue xenografts from immature donor white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in recipient mice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of testis tissue xenografting from immature deer. Testis tissue was collected post-mortem from a 2-mo-old white-tailed deer fawn (Odocoileus virginianus) and small fragments of the tissue were grafted under the back skin of immunodeficient recipient mice (n = 7 mice; 8 fragments/mouse). Single xenograft samples were removed from representative recipient mice every 2 mo from grafting for up to 14 mo post-grafting. The retrieved xenografts were evaluated for seminiferous tubular density (per mm(2)) and tubular diameter, as well as for seminiferous tubular morphology and identification of the most advanced germ cell type present in each tubule cross section. Overall, 63% of the grafted testis fragments were recovered as xenografts. Testis tissue xenografts showed a gradual testicular development starting with tubular expansion by 2 mo, presence of spermatocytes by 6 mo post-grafting, round and elongated spermatids by 8 mo, followed by fully-formed sperm by 12 mo post-grafting. The timing of complete spermatogenesis generally corresponded to the reported timing of sexual maturation in white-tailed deer. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that testis tissue xenografting from immature deer donors into recipient mice can successfully result in testicular maturation and development of spermatogenesis in the grafts up to the stage of sperm production. These results may therefore provide a model for salvaging genetic material from immature male white-tailed deer that die before reaching sexual maturity. PMID:23084760

Abbasi, Sepideh; Honaramooz, Ali

2012-11-01

395

Oral vaccination of chickens with the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus. Cooked and raw white rice as a vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncooked white rice and cooked white rice were tested as vehicles for the V4 strain of oral Newcastle disease vaccine. The results of feeding experiments were evaluated by the measurement of haemagglutination inhibition antibodies against Newcastle disease virus. Little of the virus applied to uncooked white rice could be recovered, even immediately after mixing, whereas when the virus was applied

J. L. Samuel; Z. Bensink; P. B. Spradbrow

1993-01-01

396

Widespread reductions of white matter integrity in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Hypercortisolism leads to various physical, psychological and cognitive symptoms, which may partly persist after the treatment of Cushing's disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate abnormalities in white matter integrity in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease, and their relation with psychological symptoms, cognitive impairment and clinical characteristics. Methods In patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease (n = 22) and matched healthy controls (n = 22) we examined fractional anisotropy (FA) values of white matter in a region-of-interest (ROI; bilateral cingulate cingulum, bilateral hippocampal cingulum, bilateral uncinate fasciculus and corpus callosum) and the whole brain, using 3 T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach. Psychological and cognitive functioning were assessed with validated questionnaires and clinical severity was assessed using the Cushing's syndrome Severity Index. Results The ROI analysis showed FA reductions in all of the hypothesized regions, with the exception of the bilateral hippocampal cingulum, in patients when compared to controls. The exploratory whole brain analysis showed multiple regions with lower FA values throughout the brain. Patients reported more apathy (p = .003) and more depressive symptoms (p < .001), whereas depression symptom severity in the patient group was negatively associated with FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analyses showed increased radial and mean diffusivity in the patient group. Conclusion Patients with a history of endogenous hypercortisolism in present remission show widespread changes of white matter integrity in the brain, with abnormalities in the integrity of the uncinate fasciculus being related to the severity of depressive symptoms, suggesting persistent structural effects of hypercortisolism. PMID:24936417

van der Werff, Steven J.A.; Andela, Cornelie D.; Nienke Pannekoek, J.; Meijer, Onno C.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.

2014-01-01

397

Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with volumetric white matter change in patients with small vessel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). We examined the relationship between homocysteine\\u000a and 1) volumetric measure of white matter change (WMC), 2) silent brain infarcts, 3) cerebral atrophy on MRI and 4) cognition\\u000a on a consecutive cohort of patients with stroke associated with SVD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods   Fifty–seven patients consecutively admitted to the Acute Stroke Unit in

Adrian Wong; Vincent Mok; Yu Hua Fan; Wynnie W. M. Lam; K. S. Liang; Ka Sing Wong

2006-01-01

398

Geographic variation in cardiovascular disease mortality in US blacks and whites.  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease mortality rates have dropped significantly over the past several decades, but a shift has occurred over time in the geographic patterns of both coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke mortality. This article describes these patterns and discusses how they vary by sex, race, age, and over time. Death certificate information for Health Service Areas (HSAs) in 1988-1992 was used to analyze the geographic patterns of CHD and stroke death rates by race, sex, and age. Changes in these patterns from 1979-1993 also were examined. In 1988-1992, considerable geographic variation in both CHD and stroke mortality was demonstrated for each sex and race group. Coronary heart disease rates were particularly high in the lower Mississippi valley and Oklahoma for all four groups, in the Ohio River valley and New York for whites, and to a lesser extent for blacks. Areas of high rates among whites in the Carolinas resemble stroke mortality patterns. There were greater differences by racial group than by gender, by the definition of heart disease. Over time, rates have declined for both CHD and stroke, but regional differences in the rates of change give the appearance of a southwesternly movement of high heart disease rate clusters and a breakup of the "Stroke Belt." Further research is needed to elucidate the cause of regional variation in CHD and stroke mortality. Similar geographic patterns of high rates of CHD and stroke in the southeastern United States may reflect common risk factors. This knowledge can be used to help develop appropriate interventions to target these high-rate areas in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10599187

Pickle, L. W.; Gillum, R. F.

1999-01-01

399

Caspase-cleaved glial fibrillary acidic protein within cerebellar white matter of the Alzheimer's disease brain  

PubMed Central

Although the cerebellum is generally thought of as an area spared of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, recent evidence suggests that balance and mobility dysfunction may be magnified in affected individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine the degree of pathological changes within the cerebellum utilizing an antibody that specifically detects caspase-cleaved GFAP within degenerating astrocytes. Compared to control subjects, application of this antibody, termed the GFAP caspase-cleavage product (GFAPccp) antibody, revealed widespread labeling in cerebellar white matter with little staining observed in grey matter. Staining was observed within damaged astrocytes, was often localized near blood vessels and co-localized with other markers of apoptosis including TUNEL and caspase-cleaved tau. Of interest was the association of beta-amyloid deposition in white matter together with GFAPccp in cerebellar AD sections. In contrast, utilizing the tangle marker, PHF-1, neuritic pathology was completely absent in AD cerebellar sections. It is suggested that the observed pathological changes found in the white matter of the cerebellum may contribute to the declined motor performance in AD. PMID:23236541

Rohn, Troy T; Catlin, Lindsey W; Poon, Wayne W

2013-01-01

400

Depression in small-vessel disease relates to white matter ultrastructural damage, not disability  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) is a specific risk factor for depression, whether any association is mediated via white matter damage, and to study the role of depressive symptoms and disability on quality of life (QoL) in this patient group. Methods: Using path analyses in cross-sectional data, we modeled the relationships among depression, disability, and QoL in patients with SVD presenting with radiologically confirmed lacunar stroke (n = 100), and replicated results in a second SVD cohort (n = 100). We then compared the same model in a non-SVD stroke cohort (n = 50) and healthy older adults (n = 203). In a further study, to determine the role of white matter damage in mediating the association with depression, a subgroup of patients with SVD (n = 101) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Results: Reduced QoL was associated with depression in patients with SVD, but this association was not mediated by disability or cognition; very similar results were found in the replication SVD cohort. In contrast, the non-SVD stroke group and the healthy older adult group showed a direct relationship between disability and depression. The DTI study showed that fractional anisotropy, a marker of white matter damage, was related to depressive symptoms in patients with SVD. Conclusion: These results suggest that in stroke patients without SVD, disability is an important causal factor for depression, whereas in SVD stroke, other factors specific to this stroke subtype have a causal role. White matter damage detected on DTI is one factor that mediates the association between SVD and depression. PMID:25230999

Herbert, Vanessa; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Morris, Robin G.; Markus, Hugh S.

2014-01-01

401

Regional Differences in White Matter Breakdown Between Frontotemporal Dementia and Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease1  

PubMed Central

Background White matter abnormalities have been associated with both behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objective Using MRI diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures, we compared white matter integrity between patients with bvFTD and those with early-onset AD and correlated these biomarkers with behavioral symptoms involving emotional blunting. Methods We studied 8 bvFTD and 12 AD patients as well as 12 demographically-matched healthy controls (NCs). Using four DTI metrics (fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity), we assessed the frontal lobes (FWM) and genu of the corpus callosum (GWM), which are vulnerable late-myelinating regions, and a contrasting early-myelinating region (splenium of the corpus callosum). The Scale of Emotional Blunting Scale (SEB) was used to assess emotional functioning of the study participants. Results Compared to AD patients and NCs, the bvFTD subjects exhibited significantly worse FWM and GWM integrity on all four DTI metrics sensitive to myelin and axonal integrity. In contrast, AD patients showed a numerical trend toward worse splenium of the corpus callosum integrity than bvFTD and NC groups. Significant associations between SEB ratings and GWM DTI measures were demonstrated in the combined bvFTD and AD sample. When examined separately, these relationships remained robust for the bvFTD group but not the AD group. Conclusions The regional DTI alterations suggest that FTD and AD are each associated with a characteristic distribution of white matter degradation. White matter breakdown in late-myelinating regions was associated with symptoms of emotional blunting, particularly within the bvFTD group. PMID:24150110

Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Shapira, Jill; Jimenez, Elvira; Mather, Michelle J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George; Mendez, Mario F.

2014-01-01

402

'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis', the phytoplasma associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease.  

PubMed

Bermuda grass white leaf (BGWL) is a destructive, phytoplasmal disease of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon). The causal pathogen, the BGWL agent, differs from other phytoplasmas that cluster in the same major branch of the phytoplasma phylogenetic clade in <2.5% of 16S rDNA nucleotide positions, the threshold for assigning species rank to phytoplasmas under the provisional status 'Candidatus'. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine homogeneity of BGWL isolates and to determine whether there are, in addition to 16S rDNA, other markers that support delineation of the BGWL agent at the putative species level. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the 16S rDNA sequences of BGWL strains were identical or nearly identical. Clear differences that support separation of the BGWL agent from related phytoplasmas were observed within the 16S-23S rDNA spacer sequence, by serological comparisons, in vector transmission and in host-range specificity. From these results, it can be concluded that the BGWL phytoplasma is a discrete taxon at the putative species level, for which the name 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' is proposed. Strain BGWL-C1 was selected as the reference strain. Phytoplasmas that are associated with brachiaria white leaf, carpet grass white leaf and diseases of date palms showed 16S rDNA and/or 16S-23S rDNA spacer sequences that were identical or nearly identical to those of the BGWL phytoplasmas. However, the data available do not seem to be sufficient for a proper taxonomic assignment of these phytoplasmas. PMID:15280272

Marcone, Carmine; Schneider, Bernd; Seemüller, Erich

2004-07-01

403

White matter hyperintensities and cerebral amyloidosis: Necessary and sufficient for clinical expression of Alzheimer's disease?  

PubMed Central

Context Current hypothetical models emphasize the importance of beta amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis, although amyloid alone is not sufficient to account for the dementia syndrome. The impact of small vessel cerebrovascular disease, visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI scans, may be a key factor that contributes independently to AD presentation. Objective To determine the impact of WMH and PIB PET-derived “amyloid positivity” on the clinical expression of AD. Design Baseline PIB-PET values were downloaded from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging (ADNI) database. Total WMH volume was derived on accompanying structural MRI data. We examined whether PIB “positivity” and total WMH predict diagnostic classification of patients with AD (n=20) and controls (n=21). A second analysis determined whether WMH discriminates between those with and without the clinical diagnosis of AD among those who were classified as PIB positive (n=28). A third analysis examined whether WMH, in addition to PIB status, can be used to predict future risk of AD among subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=59). Setting The ADNI public database. Outcome measures Clinical AD diagnosis, WMH volume. Results PIB positivity and increased total WMH volume independently predicted AD diagnosis. Among PIB positive subjects, those diagnosed with AD had greater WMH volume than normal controls. Among MCI subjects, both WMH and PIB status at baseline conferred risk for future diagnosis of AD. Conclusions White matter hyperintensities contribute to the presentation of AD and, in the context of significant amyloid deposition, may provide a “second hit” necessary for the clinical manifestation of the disease. As risk factors for the development of WMH are modifiable, these findings suggest intervention and prevention strategies for the clinical syndrome of AD. PMID:23420027

Provenzano, Frank A.; Muraskin, Jordan; Tosto, Giuseppe; Narkhede, Atul; Wasserman, Ben T.; Griffith, Erica Y.; Guzman, Vanessa A.; Meier, Irene B.; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Brickman, Adam M.

2014-01-01

404

Susceptibility ofWhite-Tailed Deer(Odocoileus virginianus) toInfection withEhrlichia chaffeensis, theEtiologic AgentofHumanEhrlichiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although more than320casesofhumanehrlichiosis havebeendiagnosed in27states since1986, the reservoir host orhosts remain unknown. Since antibodies reactive toEhrlichia chajyeensis, theetiologic agent ofhumanehrlichiosis, havebeenfoundinwhite-tailed deer(Odocoileus virginianus), we experimentally evaluated thesusceptibilities offourwhite-tailed deertoinfection withE.chaj'eensis andEhrlichia canis, a closely related species. Afifth deerserved as anegative control. Isolation andnested PCRamplification results fromperipheral bloodindicated thatE.chajfeensis circulated foratleast 2 weeks.Thedeerdeveloped antibodies toE.chajfeensis byday10after inoculation, butthere was no indication

JACQUELINE E. DAWSON; DAVID E. STALLKNECHT; ELIZABETH W. HOWERTH; CYNTHIA WARNER; WILLIAM R. DAVIDSON; J. MITCHELL LOCKHART; VICTOR F. NE; JAMES G. OLSON

1994-01-01

405

Parahippocampal white matter volume predicts Alzheimer's disease risk in cognitively normal old adults.  

PubMed

An in vivo marker of the underlying pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is atrophy in select brain regions detected with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although gray matter changes have been documented to be predictive of cognitive decline culminating in AD among healthy older adults, very little attention has been given to alterations in white matter as a possible MRI biomarker predictive of AD. In this investigation, we examined parahippocampal white matter (PWM) volume derived from baseline MRI scans in 2 independent samples of 65 cognitively normal older adults, followed longitudinally, to determine if it was predictive of AD risk. The average follow-up period for the 2 samples was 8.5 years. Comparisons between the stable participants (N = 50) and those who declined to AD (N = 15) over time revealed a significant difference in baseline PWM volume (p < 0.001). Furthermore, baseline PWM volume was predictive not only of time to AD (hazard ratio = 3.1, p < 0.05), but also of baseline episodic memory performance (p = 0.041). These results demonstrate that PWM atrophy provides a sensitive MRI biomarker of AD dementia risk among those with normal cognitive function. PMID:24656833

Stoub, Travis R; Detoledo-Morrell, Leyla; Dickerson, Bradford C

2014-08-01

406

A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.  

PubMed Central

In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

2003-01-01

407

Selective reduction of diffusion anisotropy in white matter of Alzheimer disease brains measured by 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by cortical atrophy. Changes in the white matter and their relation to the pathogenesis of AD remain to be studied. To quantitatively investigate the integrity and organization of white matter fiber tracts in patients with AD, we used diffusion tensor (DT) imaging to study the diffusion anisotropy of white matter regions. DT imaging was

Satoshi Takahashi; Hisashi Yonezawa; Junko Takahashi; Masako Kudo; Takashi Inoue; Hideo Tohgi

2002-01-01

408

Dissociable Effects of Alzheimer Disease and White Matter Hyperintensities on Brain Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Importance Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer disease (AD) frequently co-occur and seem to act through different pathways in producing dementia. Objective To examine cerebrovascular disease and AD markers in relation to brain glucose metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Design and Setting Cohort study among the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants Two hundred three patients having amnestic mild cognitive impairment (74 of whom converted to AD) with serial imaging during a 3-year follow-up period. Main Outcomes and Measures Quantified white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) represented cerebrovascular disease, and cerebrospinal fluid ?-amyloid represented AD pathology. Brain glucose metabolism in temporoparietal and frontal brain regions was measured using positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Results In converters, greater WMHs were associated with decreased frontal metabolism (?0.048; 95% CI, ?0.067 to ?0.029) but not temporoparietal metabolism (0.010; 95% CI, ?0.010 to 0.030). Greater cerebrospinal fluid ?-amyloid (per 10-pg/mL increase) was associated with increased temporoparietal metabolism (0.005; 95% CI, 0.000–0.010) but not frontal metabolism (0.002; 95% CI, ?0.004 to 0.007) in the same patients. In nonconverters, similar relationships were observed except for a positive association of greater WMHs with increased temporoparietal metabolism (0.051; 95% CI, 0.027–0.076). Conclusions and Relevance The dissociation of WMHs and cerebrospinal fluid ?-amyloid in relation to regional glucose metabolism suggests that these pathologic conditions operate through different and independent pathways in AD that reflect dysfunction in different brain systems. The positive association of greater WMHs with temporoparietal metabolism suggests that these pathologic processes do not co-occur in nonconverters. PMID:23779022

Haight, Thaddeus J.; Landau, Susan M.; Carmichael, Owen; Schwarz, Christopher; DeCarli, Charles; Jagust, William J.

2013-01-01

409

18 Sharp-tailed Grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus) 1858 Other vernacular names: Brush grouse, pintail grouse, prairie grouse, prairie pheasant, sharptail, speckle-belly, spike-tail, spring-tail, whitebelly, white-breasted grouse. Range: Currently from north central Alaska, Yukon, northern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, and central Quebec south to eastern Washington, extreme eastern Oregon, Idaho, northeastern Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, and in the Great Plains from eastern Colorado and

Paul A. Johnsgard

2008-01-01

410

Poleward expansion of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) under climate change: implications for the spread of lyme disease.  

PubMed

The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) is an important reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, and its distribution is expanding northward. We used an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis to identify the climatic factors associated with the distribution shift of the white-footed mouse over the last 30 years at the northern edge of its range, and modeled its current and potential future (2050) distributions using the platform BIOMOD. A mild and shorter winter is favouring the northern expansion of the white-footed mouse in Québec. With more favorable winter conditions projected by 2050, the distribution range of the white-footed mouse is expected to expand further northward by 3° latitude. We also show that today in southern Québec, the occurrence of B. burgdorferi is associated with high probability of presence of the white-footed mouse. Changes in the distribution of the white-footed mouse will likely alter the geographical range of B. burgdorferi and impact the public health in northern regions that have yet to be exposed to Lyme disease. PMID:24260464

Roy-Dufresne, Emilie; Logan, Travis; Simon, Julie A; Chmura, Gail L; Millien, Virginie

2013-01-01

411

Poleward Expansion of the White-Footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) under Climate Change: Implications for the Spread of Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) is an important reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, and its distribution is expanding northward. We used an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis to identify the climatic factors associated with the distribution shift of the white-footed mouse over the last 30 years at the northern edge of its range, and modeled its current and potential future (2050) distributions using the platform BIOMOD. A mild and shorter winter is favouring the northern expansion of the white-footed mouse in Québec. With more favorable winter conditions projected by 2050, the distribution range of the white-footed mouse is expected to expand further northward by 3° latitude. We also show that today in southern Québec, the occurrence of B. burgdorferi is associated with high probability of presence of the white-footed mouse. Changes in the distribution of the white-footed mouse will likely alter the geographical range of B. burgdorferi and impact the public health in northern regions that have yet to be exposed to Lyme disease. PMID:24260464

Roy-Dufresne, Emilie; Logan, Travis; Simon, Julie A.; Chmura, Gail L.; Millien, Virginie

2013-01-01

412

Characterization of a spontaneous disease of white leghorn chickens resembling progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)  

PubMed Central

University of California, Davis (UCD) line 200 White Leghorn Chickens spontaneously develop a syndrome that has many analogous features to human progressive systemic sclerosis. This syndrome is characterized by progressive involution of comb, dermal fibrosis, and distal polyarthritis. These three features occur within 6 wk after hatching, and are accompanied by a 40% mortality as a result of vaso-occlusive disease, with development of secondary infection of peripheral gangrenous lesions. Birds that survive greater than 2 mo after hatching progressively develop fibrosis of the esophagous and mononuclear infiltration of heart and kidney, with prominent occlusion of small and medium sized blood vessels. In addition, line 200 chickens develop rheumatoid factors, antinuclear antibodies, and antibodies to collagen, but do not have antibodies to thymocytes, DNA, or extractable nuclear antigens. Moreover, antinuclear antibodies when studied using HEp-2 cells as substrate demonstrate predominantly a speckled pattern. This syndrome of line 200 chickens is not detectable in F1 crosses to several UCD inbred lines. F1 X parental line BC1 backcrosses have an approximately 50% incidence of disease, suggesting that this syndrome is inherited as autosomal recessive. However, only 4% of F2 generation birds show abnormal symptoms, suggesting the presence of modifying genes. There is no appearance of IgG deposition, as determined by immunofluorescence, in either skin, blood vessels, esophagus, or heart. However, approximately 20% of chickens have a glomerulonephritis; this feature appears to be a terminal event and does not appear clinically significant. Although this syndrome of line 200 chickens has several features that are in sharp distinction to human scleroderma, the presence of common immunologic and pathologic denominators suggest that this spontaneous disease may be an appropriate model to develop a better understanding of autoimmune connective tissue diseases. PMID:7252423

1981-01-01

413

Dietary fat purchasing habits in whites, blacks and Asian peoples in England — implications for heart disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mortality and morbidity from coronary heart disease (CHD) is higher in people of South Asian origin than in whites, but is significantly lower in the black (Afro-Caribbean origin) community in the United Kingdom. To investigate whether this may be related to differences in fatty food intake, we performed a questionnaire survey of the weekly food purchasing habits and preparation

Gregory Y. H. Lip; Ifran Malik; Chris Luscombe; Maria McCarry; Gareth Beevers

1995-01-01

414

Diffusion tensor imaging of white matter degeneration in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) has traditionally been regarded as a disease of the gray matter (GM). However, the advent of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has contributed to new knowledge about how changes in white matter (WM) microstructure in vivo may be directly related to the pathophysiology of AD. It is now evident that WM is heavily affected in AD, even at early stages. Still, our knowledge about WM degeneration in AD is poor compared to what we know about GM atrophy. For instance, it has not been clear if WM can be directly affected in AD independently of GM degeneration, or whether WM changes mainly represent secondary effects of GM atrophy, e.g. through Wallerian degeneration. In this paper, we review recent studies using DTI to study WM alterations in AD. These studies suggest that microstructural WM affection at pre-AD stages cannot completely be accounted for by concomitant GM atrophy. Further, recent research has demonstrated relationships between increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of Tau proteins and changes in WM microstructure indexed by DTI, which could indicate that WM degeneration in pre-AD stages is related to ongoing axonal damage. We conclude that DTI is a promising biomarker for AD, with the potential also to identify subgroups of patients with especially high degree of WM affection, thereby contributing to more differentiated pre-AD diagnoses. However, more research and validation studies are needed before it is realistic to use this information in clinical practice with individual patients. PMID:24583036

Amlien, I K; Fjell, A M

2014-09-12

415

Vanishing White Matter Disease: A Review with Focus on Its Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is an autosomal recessive brain disorder, most often with a childhood onset. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy indicate that, with time, increasing amounts of cerebral white matter vanish and are replaced by fluid. Autopsy confirms white matter rarefaction and cystic degeneration. The…

Pronk, Jan C.; van Kollenburg, Barbara; Scheper, Gert C.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

2006-01-01

416

Experimental antibiotic treatment identifies potential pathogens of white band disease in the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis  

PubMed Central

Coral diseases have been increasingly reported over the past few decades and are a major contributor to coral decline worldwide. The Caribbean, in particular, has been noted as a hotspot for coral disease, and the aptly named white syndromes have caused the decline of the dominant reef building corals throughout their range. White band disease (WBD) has been implicated in the dramatic loss of Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata since the 1970s, resulting in both species being listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red list. The causal agent of WBD remains unknown, although recent studies based on challenge experiments with filtrate from infected hosts concluded that the disease is probably caused by bacteria. Here, we report an experiment using four different antibiotic treatments, targeting different members of the disease-associated microbial community. Two antibiotics, ampicillin and paromomycin, arrested the disease completely, and by comparing with community shifts brought about by treatments that did not arrest the disease, we have identified the likely candidate causal agent or agents of WBD. Our interpretation of the experimental treatments is that one or a combination of up to three specific bacterial types, detected consistently in diseased corals but not detectable in healthy corals, are likely causal agents of WBD. In addition, a histophagous ciliate (Philaster lucinda) identical to that found consistently in association with white syndrome in Indo-Pacific acroporas was also consistently detected in all WBD samples and absent in healthy coral. Treatment with metronidazole reduced it to below detection limits, but did not arrest the disease. However, the microscopic disease signs changed, suggesting a secondary role in disease causation for this ciliate. In future studies to identify a causal agent of WBD via tests of Henle–Koch's postulates, it will be vital to experimentally control for populations of the other potential pathogens identified in this study. PMID:24943374

Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

2014-01-01

417

Could Iron Accumulation Be an Etiology of the White Matter Change in Alzheimer’s Disease: Using Phase Imaging to Detect White Matter Iron Deposition Based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: To investigate if and where abnormal iron accumulation in white matter fibers occurs in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by phase imaging and to relate these findings to white matter tract degeneration assessed by diffusion tensor imaging. Methods: Twenty-five patients with AD and 20 normal controls underwent phase imaging and diffusion tensor imaging with a 3.0-tesla system. White matter

Hua-Wei Ling; Bei Ding; Tao Wang; Huan Zhang; Ke-Min Chen

2011-01-01

418

White matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and normal aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESAlzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia are associated with an increase in changes in white matter on MRI. The aims were to investigate whether white matter changes also occur in dementia with Lewy bodies and to examine the relation between white matter lesions and the cognitive and non-cognitive features of dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia.METHODSProton density and

R Barber; P Scheltens; A Gholkar; C Ballard; I McKeith; P Ince; R Perry; J O’Brien

1999-01-01

419

Improved prediction of Alzheimer's disease with longitudinal white matter/gray matter contrast changes.  

PubMed

Brain morphometry measures derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of the present study was to test whether we could improve morphometry-based detection and prediction of disease state by use of white matter/gray matter (WM/GM) signal intensity contrast obtained from conventional MRI scans. We hypothesized that including WM/GM contrast change along with measures of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampi would yield better classification of AD patients, and more accurate prediction of early disease progression. T1 -weighted MRI scans from two sessions approximately 2 years apart from 78 participants with AD (Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) = 0.5-2) and 71 age-matched controls were used to calculate annual change rates. Results showed that WM/GM contrast decay was larger in AD compared with controls in the medial temporal lobes. For the discrimination between AD and controls, entorhinal WM/GM contrast decay contributed significantly when included together with decrease in entorhinal cortical thickness and hippocampal volume, and increased the area under the curve to 0.79 compared with 0.75 when using the two morphometric variables only. Independent effects of WM/GM contrast decay and improved classification were also observed for the CDR-based subgroups, including participants converting from either a non-AD status to very mild AD, or from very mild to mild AD. Thus, WM/GM contrast decay increased diagnostic accuracy beyond what was obtained by well-validated morphometric measures alone. The findings suggest that signal intensity properties constitute a sensitive biomarker for cerebral degeneration in AD. PMID:22674625

Grydeland, Håkon; Westlye, Lars T; Walhovd, Kristine B; Fjell, Anders M

2013-11-01

420

MOTION-SENSITIVERADIOCOLLARSFORESTIMATING WHITE-TAILEDDEERACTIVITY  

E-print Network

-collared white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were compared toconcurrentvisualobservationsof deerbehaviorto of captive black-tailed deer (0. hemionus co- lumbianus), using 2 types of motion-sensitive collars

Beier, Paul

421

Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on the Differential White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases.To examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. A prospective panel study was conducted in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, with 12 repeated differential white blood cell counts in 38 males with chronic pulmonary diseases. Hourly particulate and gaseous air pollutants and meteorological data were acquired. Mixed models with a random intercept adjusting for trend, meteorology, weekday, and other risk variables were used. In this explorative analysis we found an immediate decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to an increase of most gaseous and particulate pollutants. Lymphocytes increased within 24 hours in association with all gaseous pollutants but showed no effect in regard to particulate air pollution. Monocytes showed an increase associated with ultrafine particles, and nitrogen monoxide. The effect had two peaks in time, one 0-23 hours before blood withdrawal and a second one with a time lag of 48-71 hours. The increase of particulate and gaseous air pollution was associated with multiple changes in the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. PMID:20064088

Bruske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M.; Ruckerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdorster, Gunter; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette

2013-01-01

422

White Matter Integrity Linked To Functional Impairments in Aging and Early Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with changes in cerebral white matter (WM) but the functional significance of such findings is not yet established. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) might reveal links between regional WM changes and specific neuropsychologically and psychophysically defined impairments in early AD. Methods Older adult control subjects (OA, n=18) and mildly impaired AD patients (n=14) underwent neuropsychological and visual perceptual testing along with DTI of cerebral WM. DTI yielded factional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity () maps for nine ROIs in three brain regions that were then compared to the performance measures. Results AD patients showed non-significant trends toward lower FAs in the posterior region’s callosal and sub-cortical ROIs. However, posterior callosal FA was significantly correlated with verbal fluency and figural memory impairments, whereas posterior subcortical FA was correlated with delayed verbal memory, figural memory, and optic flow perceptual impairments. Conclusions WM changes in early AD are concentrated in posterior cerebral areas with distributions that correspond to specific functional impairments. DTI can be used to assess regional pathology related to individual’s deficits in early AD. PMID:19012862

Kavcic, Voyko; Ni, Hongyan; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Duffy, Charles J.

2008-01-01

423

White matter tract integrity metrics reflect the vulnerability of late-myelinating tracts in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Post-mortem and imaging studies have observed that white matter (WM) degenerates in a pattern inverse to myelin development, suggesting preferential regional vulnerabilities influencing cognitive decline in AD. This study applied novel WM tract integrity (WMTI) metrics derived from diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) to examine WM tissue properties in AD within this framework. Using data from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 12), AD (n = 14), and normal control (NC; n = 15) subjects, mixed models revealed interaction effects: specific WMTI metrics of axonal density and myelin integrity (i.e. axonal water fraction, radial extra-axonal diffusivity) in late-myelinating tracts (i.e. superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi) changed in the course of disease, but were stable in the initial stages for early-myelinating tracts (i.e. posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncles). WMTI metrics in late-myelinating tracts correlated with semantic verbal fluency, a cognitive function known to decline in AD. These findings corroborate the preferential vulnerability of late-myelinating tracts, and illustrate an application of WMTI metrics to characterizing the regional course of WM changes in AD. PMID:24319654

Benitez, Andreana; Fieremans, Els; Jensen, Jens H; Falangola, Maria F; Tabesh, Ali; Ferris, Steven H; Helpern, Joseph A

2014-01-01

424

Molecular phylogeny of Rigidoporus microporus isolates associated with white rot disease of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis).  

PubMed

Rigidoporus microporus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) syn. Rigidoporus lignosus is the most destructive root pathogen of rubber plantations distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Our primary objective was to characterize Nigerian isolates from rubber tree and compare them with other West African, Southeast Asian and American isolates. To characterize the 20 isolates from Nigeria, we used sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and LSU, ?-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-? (tef1) gene sequences. Altogether, 40 isolates of R. microporus were included in the analyses. Isolates from Africa, Asia and South/Central America formed three distinctive clades corresponding to at least three species. No phylogeographic pattern was detected among R. microporus collected from West and Central African rubber plantations suggesting continuous gene flow among these populations. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of two distinctive species associated with the white rot disease. Phylogenetic analyses placed R. microporus in the Hymenochaetales in the vicinity of Oxyporus. This is the first study to characterize R. microporus isolates from Nigeria through molecular phylogenetic techniques, and also the first to compare isolates from rubber plantations in Africa and Asia. PMID:24863478

Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Miettinen, Otto; Omorusi, Victor I; Evueh, Grace A; Farid, Mohd A; Gazis, Romina; Asiegbu, Fred O

2014-01-01

425

White Matter Disease Correlates with Lexical Retrieval Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To relate fractional anisotropy (FA) changes associated with the semantic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) to measures of lexical retrieval. Methods: We collected neuropsychological testing, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging on semantic variant PPA (svPPA) (n?=?11) and logopenic variant PPA (lvPPA) (n?=?13) patients diagnosed using published criteria. We also acquired neuroimaging data on a group of demographically comparable healthy seniors (n?=?34). FA was calculated and analyzed using a white matter (WM) tract-specific analysis approach. This approach utilizes anatomically guided data reduction to increase sensitivity and localizes results within canonically defined tracts. We used non-parametric, cluster-based statistical analysis to relate language performance to FA and determine regions of reduced FA in patients. Results: We found widespread FA reductions in WM for both variants of PPA. FA was related to both confrontation naming and category naming fluency performance in left uncinate fasciculus and corpus callosum in svPPA and left superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi in lvPPA. Conclusion: SvPPA and lvPPA are associated with distinct disruptions of a large-scale network implicated in lexical retrieval, and the WM disease in each phenotype may contribute to language impairments including lexical retrieval. PMID:24409166

Powers, John P.; McMillan, Corey T.; Brun, Caroline C.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Zhang, Hui; Gee, James C.; Grossman, Murray

2013-01-01

426

Diversity of autoantibodies in avian scleroderma. An inherited fibrotic disease of White Leghorn chickens.  

PubMed Central

University of California, Davis line 200 White Leghorn chickens develop an inherited progressive fibrotic disease that includes the appearance of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). To further characterize these ANA, serial aged line 200 birds were studied. Greater than 50% of line 200 birds develop antinuclear and anticytoplasmic antibodies; fluorescent staining patterns included cytoplasmic spider web, most prevalent at 1 mo of age, and fine speckled patterns, characteristic of chickens 6 mo and older. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 40.4% of line 200 birds were found to have antibodies to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). In contrast, antibodies to histones, RNA, or poly A . poly U were not detected. Precipitating antibodies to saline extracts from chicken liver were noted in 33.3% of line 200 birds. Saline extracts from turkey, pheasant, and partridge liver but not rat, rabbit, or mouse tissues were also positive in immunodiffusion testing with these line 200 birds. The antigenicity of chicken liver extracts was sensitive to pronase, protease K. and pH variations greater than 10 and less than 5; however, they were resistant to trypsin. DNase. RNase, and incubation at 37 degrees C and 56 degrees C for 1 h. Cell fractionation in conjunction with column chromatographic techniques revealed that several protein antigens with apparent molecular weights in the range of 62,000-290,000 were present in cytoplasm but not in isolated nuclei. Line 200 sera were not reactive against nuclear ribonucleoprotein, Sm, Scl-70, or SS-B/La antigens. Thus, line 200 chickens develop antinuclear and anticytoplasmic antibodies at an early age, which recognize a unique group of protein antigenic determinants found only in avian species. Moreover, and of particular interest, the presence of autoantibodies to saline-extractable antigens correlated with positive ANA, antibodies in ssDNA, and to the clinical expression of disease. Images PMID:6202715

Haynes, D C; Gershwin, M E

1984-01-01

427

White matter integrity and cognition in Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test the following hypotheses: (1) there is decreased white matter (WM) integrity in non-demented Parkinson’s disease (PD), (2) WM integrity is differentially reduced in PD and early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and (3) DTI changes in non-demented PD are specifically associated with cognitive performance. Methods This study included 18 non-demented patients with PD, 18 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to incipient AD and 19 healthy elderly normal control (NC) participants in a cross-sectional design. The participants underwent DTI, and tract-based spatial statistics was used to analyse and extract radial diffusivity and fractional anisotropy. Correlations between scores from a battery of neuropsychological tests and DTI were performed in the PD group. Results Patients with PD had significant differences in DTI in WM underlying the temporal, parietal and occipital cortex as compared with NC. There were no significant differences between the PD and AD groups in the primary region of interest analyses, but compared with NC there was a tendency for more anterior changes in AD in contrast to more posterior changes in PD. In a secondary whole-brain analysis there were frontoparietal areas with significant differences between AD and PD. In patients with PD, there were significant correlations between DTI parameters in WM underlying the prefrontal cortex and executive and visuospatial abilities. Conclusions In early, non-demented PD we found reduced WM integrity underlying the temporal, parietal and occipital cortices. In addition, WM integrity changes in prefrontal areas were associated with executive and visuospatial ability. These findings support that DTI may be an important biomarker in early PD, and that WM changes are related to cognitive impairment in PD. PMID:24448846

Auning, Eirik; Kjaervik, Veslem?y Krohn; Selnes, Per; Aarsland, Dag; Haram, Astrid; Bj?rnerud, Atle; Hessen, Erik; Esnaashari, Abdolreza; Fladby, Tormod

2014-01-01

428

Coronary Heart Disease and Cortical Thickness, Gray Matter and White Matter Lesion Volumes on MRI  

PubMed Central

Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been linked with cognitive decline and dementia in several studies. CHD is strongly associated with blood pressure, but it is not clear how blood pressure levels or changes in blood pressure over time affect the relation between CHD and dementia-related pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between CHD and cortical thickness, gray matter volume and white matter lesion (WML) volume on MRI, considering CHD duration and blood pressure levels from midlife to three decades later. The study population included 69 elderly at risk of dementia who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study. CAIDE participants were examined in midlife, re-examined 21 years later, and then after additionally 7 years (in total up to 30 years follow-up). MRIs from the second re-examination were used to calculate cortical thickness, gray matter and WML volume. CHD diagnoses were obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, follow-up time and scanner type, and additionally total intracranial volume in GM volume analyses. Adding diabetes, cholesterol or smoking to the models did not influence the results. CHD was associated with lower thickness in multiple regions, and lower total gray matter volume, particularly in people with longer disease duration (>10 years). Associations between CHD, cortical thickness and gray matter volume were strongest in people with CHD and hypertension in midlife, and those with CHD and declining blood pressure after midlife. No association was found between CHD and WML volumes. Based on these results, long-term CHD seems to have detrimental effects on brain gray matter tissue, and these effects are influenced by blood pressure levels and their changes over time. PMID:25302686

Vuorinen, Miika; Damangir, Soheil; Niskanen, Eini; Miralbell, Julia; Rusanen, Minna; Spulber, Gabriela; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina

2014-01-01

429

A vector that expresses VP28 of WSSV can protect red swamp crayfish from white spot disease.  

PubMed

White spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) leads to devastating losses in shrimp farming. The WSSV envelope protein VP28, can be used as subunit vaccines that can efficiently protect shrimp against WSSV disease. However, the function of the envelope protein VP19 was not confirmed, some researches found that VP19 could protect shrimp against WSSV, and other reports found it no any protection. To detect the functions of VP28 and VP19 and find a method to prevent this disease in red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii, we constructed the plasmid vectors pIevp28 and pIevp19, which contains the ie1 promoter and coding region of vp28 or vp19 of WSSV, respectively. The results of quantitative real-time PCR and western blot showed that the injected vectors could transcribe corresponding mRNAs and translate to the protein VP28 or VP19 in the crayfish. The vp28 or vp19 signal was detected on the third day post injection, and maintained its expression for 30days. The mortality of the crayfish with pIevp28 showed obvious decline compared with the controls (pIe and PBS injection). However, pIevp19 seems did not affect the mortality of the crayfish compared with the controls. Furthermore, only VP28 was found tightly bound to the host haemocytes under immunocytochemistry. The results suggest that the VP28 protein might protect shrimp from the virus through competitive inhibition. We also found that oral administration of Escherichia coli with pIevp28 could protect crayfish from white spot disease, but the E. coli with pIevp19 was not. Therefore, we think that oral administration of bacteria with pIevp28 is a potentially easy therapeutic way against white spot disease in aquaculture. PMID:21906621

Mu, Yi; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

2012-02-01

430

Genealogical Relationships Influence the Probability of Infection with Bovine Tuberculosis and Microgeographic Genetic Structure in Free-Ranging White-Tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoonoses are of increasing importance to wildlife conservation and human health. It has become increasingly recognized that wildlife ecology plays a key role in disease transmission in wildlife populations. In domestic populations, contacts among individuals are controlled by humans and disease transmission is often density dependent. Unlike domestic animals, wildlife populations often have complex social systems in whch contacts among

Julie Anne Blanchong

2003-01-01