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1

Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

Joly, D. O.; Ribic, C. A.; Langenberg, J. A.; Beheler, K.; Batha, C. A.; Dhuey, B. J.; Rolley, R. E.; Bartelt, G.; VanDeelen, T. R.; Samuel, M. D.

2003-01-01

2

PARASITES, DISEASES, AND HEALTH STATUS OF SYMPATRIC POPULATIONS OF FALLOW DEER AND WHITE-TAILED DEER IN KENTUCKY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1983, a study on parasites, diseases, and health status was conducted on sympatric populations of fallow deer (Darna dama) and white-tailed deer (Odocolleus virgini- anus) from Land Between The Lakes, Lyon and Trigg counties, Kentucky. Five adult deer of each species were studied. White-tailed deer had antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus and Leptospira interogans serovariety icterohemorrhagiae,

William R. Davidson; James M. Crum; Jack L. Blue; Dennis W. Sharp; John H. Phillips

1985-01-01

3

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus infection in M. rosenbergii (de Man) with white tail disease cultured in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in Macrobrachium rosenbergii hatcheries and nursery ponds in Asia. The causative agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and its associated extra small virus. This is the first re- port demonstrating MrNV virus in M. rosenbergii displaying WTD signs in Taiwan by reverse tran- scriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amplified fragments

C S Wang; J S Chang; C M Wen; H H Shih; S N Chen

2008-01-01

4

EPIZOOTIC HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE VIRUS AND BLUETONGUE VIRUS SEROTYPE DISTRIBUTION IN WHITE-TAILED DEER IN GEORGIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples collected from 1,396 white-tailed deer (Odocoileu.s virginianus) in five areas of Georgia (USA) from 1989 to 1991 were tested for precipitating and serum neutralizing (SN) antibodies to the enzootic North American epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes. Precipitating antibodies to the EHDV or BTV serogroups, as detected by agar gel immunodiffusion (ACID) tests, were

David E. Stallknecht; Victor F. Nettles; Edward A. Rollor; Elizabeth W. Howerth

1995-01-01

5

A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with "Bacterial White Tail Disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

6

Prion sequence polymorphisms and chronic wasting disease resistance in Illinois white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Nucleic acid sequences of the prion gene (PRNP) were examined and genotypes compiled for 76 white-tailed deer from northern Illinois, which previously tested positive for chronic wasting disease (CWD), and 120 negative animals selected to control for geographic location and age. Nine nucleotide polymorphisms, seven silent and two coding, were found in the sampled population. All observed polymorphisms except two of very low frequency were observed in both negative and positive animals, although five polymorphic loci had significantly different distributions of alleles between infected and non-infected individuals. Nucleotide base changes 60C/T, 285A/C, 286G/A and 555C/T were observed with higher than expected frequencies in CWD negative animals suggesting disease resistance, while 153C/T was observed more than expected in positive animals, suggesting susceptibility. The two coding polymorphisms, 285A/C (Q95H) and 286G/A (G96S), have been described in white-tailed deer populations sampled in Colorado and Wisconsin. Frequency distributions of coding polymorphisms in Wisconsin and Illinois deer populations were different, an unexpected result considering the sampled areas are less than 150 km apart. The total number of polymorphisms per animal, silent or coding, was negatively correlated to disease status. The potential importance of silent polymorphisms (60C/T, 153C/T, 555C/T), either individually or cumulatively, in CWD disease status has not been previously reported.

Kelly, Amy C; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E; Diffendorfer, Jay; Jewell, Emily; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Killefer, John; Shelton, Paul; Beissel, Tom

2008-01-01

7

Prion protein polymorphisms in white-tailed deer influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease.  

PubMed

The primary sequence of the prion protein affects susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, in mice, sheep and humans. The Prnp gene sequence of free-ranging, Wisconsin white-tailed deer was determined and the Prnp genotypes of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-positive and CWD-negative deer were compared. Six amino acid changes were identified, two of which were located in pseudogenes. Two alleles, a Q-->K polymorphism at codon 226 and a single octapeptide repeat insertion into the pseudogene, have not been reported previously. The predominant alleles--wild-type (Q95, G96 and Q226) and a G96S polymorphism--comprised almost 98% of the Prnp alleles in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Comparison of the allelic frequencies in the CWD-positive and CWD-negative deer suggested that G96S and a Q95H polymorphism were linked to a reduced susceptibility to CWD. The G96S allele did not, however, provide complete resistance, as a CWD-positive G96S/G96S deer was identified. The G96S allele was also linked to slower progression of the disease in CWD-positive deer based on the deposition of PrP(CWD) in the obex region of the medulla oblongata. Although the reduced susceptibility of deer with at least one copy of the Q95H or G96S allele is insufficient to serve as a genetic barrier, the presence of these alleles may modulate the impact of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:16760415

Johnson, Chad; Johnson, Jody; Vanderloo, Joshua P; Keane, Delwyn; Aiken, Judd M; McKenzie, Debbie

2006-07-01

8

Cell-mediated immune response and IL2 production in white-tailed deer experimentally infected with hemorrhagic disease viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemorrhagic disease, caused by various serotypes of two closely related orbivirus serogroups, the epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDV) and the bluetongue viruses (BTV), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in white-tailed deer (WTD) in the United States. Despite the importance of hemorrhagic disease in WTD, little is known about host defense mechanisms triggered by infection with either causative

C. F. Quist; E. W. Howerth; D. I. Bounous; D. E. Stallknecht

1997-01-01

9

A VERSATILE MODEL OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION APPLIED TO FORECASTING BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS DYNAMICS IN WHITE-TAILED DEER POPULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model was derived for disease transmission in dynamic host populations and its application was demonstrated in forecasting possible outcomes of a bovine tuberculosis (Myco- bacterium boris) epidemic in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population. The ap- proach was mechanistic, based disease transmission on the probability of each susceptible indi- vidual becoming infected per unit time, and afforded the flexibility

C. W. McCarty; M. W. Miller

1998-01-01

10

AN EPIZOOTIC OF HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (000COILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN MISSOURI: NECROPSY FINDINGS AND POPULATION IMPACT  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epizootic occurred among white-tailed deer (Odocolleus virginlanus) from July through October 1988 mnMissouri (USA). From late July through September, nine necropsied deer had lesions of the peracute or acute forms of hemorrhagic disease (HD) or no apparent lesions, whereas two deer necropsied in October had lesions of the chronic form of HD. Epizootic hem- orrhagic disease virus was isolated

John R. Fischer; Lonnie P. Hansen; James R. Turk; Margaret A. Miller; Harvey S. Gosser

11

Disease risk surface for Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Coxiella burnetii is considered a re-emerging zoonosis in many countries. The bacterium is enzootic in livestock and wildlife in the United States, and environmental contamination is widespread. Despite the potential for exposure, the estimated prevalence of Q fever in humans and animals is not well elucidated, and reported human infections in the United States are relatively rare. Zoonotic transmission of the bacterium is usually associated with abortions in domestic ruminants, but other modes of transmission, such as contact with infected blood and/or milk during field dressing of infected wildlife, have not been thoroughly investigated. Studies of zoonotic pathogen transmission between animal reservoir hosts and humans are usually established in response to documented emergence or re-emergence of a zoonosis in a particular locale, and, as such, the prevalence of infection in wildlife is largely unknown for many zoonotic pathogens, including C. burnetii. The objective of this study was to create a disease risk surface for C. burnetii seroprevalence in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State. Blood samples were collected from hunter-harvested deer from across New York State in 2009 and 2010. The samples were processed and tested for the presence of anti-C. burnetii antibodies via indirect microimmunofluorescence assays using phase II C. burnetii strain RSA439. Overall, 14.50% of the tested white-tailed deer were C. burnetii phase II seropositive. The dual Kernel density estimation method was used to create a smoothed disease risk surface, which revealed variation in seroprevalence ranging from 0% to 32.0%. Areas of higher seroprevalence were detected in four discrete areas of Central New York and in one additional area in the southwest corner of the northern part of the state. This suggests certain locales where humans may be at increased risk for exposure to the bacterium secondary to contact with potentially infected deer. PMID:23176671

Kirchgessner, M S; Dubovi, E J; Whipps, C M

2013-11-01

12

Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

Keane, D. P.; Barr, D. J.; Bochsler, P. N.; Hall, S. M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T. R.; Samuel, M. D.

2008-01-01

13

ANTIBODIES TO SPIROCHETES IN WHITE-TAILED DEER AND PREVALENCE OF INFECTED TICKS FROM FOCI OF LYME DISEASE IN CONNECTICUT  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were examined for the tick, Ixodes dam- mini, and sera were analyzed for antibodies to spirochetes during 1982. Of the 323 animals inspected in four areas endemic for Lyme disease, 188 (58%) had adult ticks; parasitism ranged from 43% at Haddam to 82% at East Lyme. Direct and indirect fluorescent antibody tests detected spirochetes in 18

Louis A. Magnarelli; John F. Anderson; W. Adrian Chappell

14

Antibodies to Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses in a Barrier Island White-tailed Deer Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1981 through 1989, serum samples from 855 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Ossabaw Island, Georgia (USA), were tested for antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). During this period, prevalence of precipitating antibodies to BTV and EHDV as determined by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests decreased from 74% to 3% and from 34% to 1%,

David E. Stallknecht; M. Lisa Kellogg; J. L. Blue; J. E. Pearson

1991-01-01

15

PRION PROTEIN GENE HETEROGENEITY IN FREE-RANGING WHITE-TAILED DEER WITHIN THE CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE AFFECTED REGION OF WISCONSIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was first identified in Wisconsin (USA) in white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in February 2002. To determine if prion protein gene (Prnp) allelic variability was associated with CWD in white-tailed deer from Wisconsin, we sequenced Prnp from 26 CWD-positive and 100 CWD-negative deer. Sequence analysis of Prnp suggests that at least 86-96% of the white-tailed deer

Chad Johnson; Jody Johnson; Murray Clayton; Debbie McKenzie; Judd Aiken

16

Spatial epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD prevalence declined with distance from a central location, was locally correlated at a scale of 3.6 km, and was correlated with deer habitat abundance. The latter result is consistent with patterns expected for a positive relationship between density and prevalence of CWD. We recommend management activities focused on culling in geographic areas with high prevalence to have the greatest probability of removing infected individuals. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors in envolved in CWD spread and infection rates, especially the role of density-dependent transmission. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

Joly, D. O.; Samuel, M. D.; Langenberg, J. A.; Blanchong, J. A.; Batha, C. A.; Rolley, R. E.; Keane, D. P.; Ribic, C. A.

2006-01-01

17

Demographic patterns and harvest vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected white-tailed deer in Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500-km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310-km2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and noninfected deer. Our results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) free-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible nonlinear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found, as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, D. A.; Samuel, M. D.; Langenberg, J. A.; Keane, D.

2006-01-01

18

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a potential sentinel for human Lyme disease in Indiana.  

PubMed

We assessed the potential of white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) to be a sentinel for human cases of Lyme disease (LD) in Indiana using location data from a 3-year survey of approximately 3400 hunted deer with associated tick Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) data. Data on human LD cases at the county level were obtained from the Indiana Department of Health. All data were assigned to county centroids to match the resolution of the LD data before creating optimized trend surfaces for LD incidence, hunted deer count, Ixodes scapularis and Bb prevalence. To determine whether LD was spatially associated with the areas of high densities of deer, deer with Ixodes scapularis and deer with ticks infected with Bb, we used spatial analysis with distance indices (SADIE). The SADIE analysis found significant spatial association between LD and the distribution of three organismal predictor variables, that is, WTD, Ixodes ticks and Bb. Lyme disease incident rate varied between 0.08 cases per 10,000 habitants (Johnson county) and 5.9 cases per 10,000 habitants (Warren county). In conclusion, WTD can be used as an accurate and cost-effective sentinel for human LD. This method will permit public health workers to identify potentially endemic areas independently of human case reports. PMID:22776734

Raizman, E A; Holland, J D; Shukle, J T

2013-05-01

19

Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management  

PubMed Central

Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations.

Jennelle, Christopher S.; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E.; Samuel, Michael D.

2014-01-01

20

Host culling as an adaptive management tool for chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: a modelling study  

PubMed Central

Emerging wildlife diseases pose a significant threat to natural and human systems. Because of real or perceived risks of delayed actions, disease management strategies such as culling are often implemented before thorough scientific knowledge of disease dynamics is available. Adaptive management is a valuable approach in addressing the uncertainty and complexity associated with wildlife disease problems and can be facilitated by using a formal model. We developed a multi-state computer simulation model using age, sex, infection-stage, and seasonality as a tool for scientific learning and managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Our matrix model used disease transmission parameters based on data collected through disease management activities. We used this model to evaluate management issues on density- (DD) and frequency-dependent (FD) transmission, time since disease introduction, and deer culling on the demographics, epizootiology, and management of CWD. Both DD and FD models fit the Wisconsin data for a harvested white-tailed deer population, but FD was slightly better. Time since disease introduction was estimated as 36 (95% CI, 24–50) and 188 (41–>200) years for DD and FD transmission, respectively. Deer harvest using intermediate to high non-selective rates can be used to reduce uncertainty between DD and FD transmission and improve our prediction of long-term epidemic patterns and host population impacts. A higher harvest rate allows earlier detection of these differences, but substantially reduces deer abundance. Results showed that CWD has spread slowly within Wisconsin deer populations, and therefore, epidemics and disease management are expected to last for decades. Non-hunted deer populations can develop and sustain a high level of infection, generating a substantial risk of disease spread. In contrast, CWD prevalence remains lower in hunted deer populations, but at a higher prevalence the disease competes with recreational hunting to reduce deer abundance. Synthesis and applications. Uncertainty about density- or frequency-dependent transmission hinders predictions about the long-term impacts of chronic wasting disease on cervid populations and the development of appropriate management strategies. An adaptive management strategy using computer modelling coupled with experimental management and monitoring can be used to test model predictions, identify the likely mode of disease transmission, and evaluate the risks of alternative management responses.

Wasserberg, Gideon; Osnas, Erik E; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

2009-01-01

21

Host culling as an adaptive management tool for chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: a modelling study.  

PubMed

Emerging wildlife diseases pose a significant threat to natural and human systems. Because of real or perceived risks of delayed actions, disease management strategies such as culling are often implemented before thorough scientific knowledge of disease dynamics is available. Adaptive management is a valuable approach in addressing the uncertainty and complexity associated with wildlife disease problems and can be facilitated by using a formal model.We developed a multi-state computer simulation model using age, sex, infection-stage, and seasonality as a tool for scientific learning and managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Our matrix model used disease transmission parameters based on data collected through disease management activities. We used this model to evaluate management issues on density- (DD) and frequency-dependent (FD) transmission, time since disease introduction, and deer culling on the demographics, epizootiology, and management of CWD.Both DD and FD models fit the Wisconsin data for a harvested white-tailed deer population, but FD was slightly better. Time since disease introduction was estimated as 36 (95% CI, 24-50) and 188 (41->200) years for DD and FD transmission, respectively. Deer harvest using intermediate to high non-selective rates can be used to reduce uncertainty between DD and FD transmission and improve our prediction of long-term epidemic patterns and host population impacts. A higher harvest rate allows earlier detection of these differences, but substantially reduces deer abundance.Results showed that CWD has spread slowly within Wisconsin deer populations, and therefore, epidemics and disease management are expected to last for decades. Non-hunted deer populations can develop and sustain a high level of infection, generating a substantial risk of disease spread. In contrast, CWD prevalence remains lower in hunted deer populations, but at a higher prevalence the disease competes with recreational hunting to reduce deer abundance.Synthesis and applications. Uncertainty about density- or frequency-dependent transmission hinders predictions about the long-term impacts of chronic wasting disease on cervid populations and the development of appropriate management strategies. An adaptive management strategy using computer modelling coupled with experimental management and monitoring can be used to test model predictions, identify the likely mode of disease transmission, and evaluate the risks of alternative management responses. PMID:19536340

Wasserberg, Gideon; Osnas, Erik E; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

2009-04-01

22

Detection and phylogenetic profiling of nodavirus associated with white tail disease in Malaysian Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious viral disease in the hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in many parts of the world. A new disease similar to WTD was observed in larvae and post larvae of M. rosenbergii cultured in Malaysia. In the present study, RT-PCR assay was used to detect the causative agents of WTD, M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) using specific primers for MrNV RNA2 and XSV. The results showed the presence of MrNV in the samples with or without signs of WTD. However, XSV was only detected in some of the MrNV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA2 of our Malaysian isolates were significantly different from the other isolates. Histopathological studies revealed myofiber degeneration of the tail muscles and liquefactive myopathy in the infected prawns. This was the first report on the occurrence of MrNV in the Malaysian freshwater prawn. PMID:22223294

Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Moeini, Hassan; Tan, Wen Siang; Yusoff, Khatijah; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Chu, Kua Beng; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

23

Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (CWD) was evaluated. Disease was tracked in a CWD-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of

Margaret A. Wild; Terry R. Spraker; Christina J. Sigurdson; Katherine I. O'Rourke; Michael W. Miller

24

The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations.  

PubMed

Strategies to contain the spread of disease often are developed with incomplete knowledge of the possible outcomes but are intended to minimize the risks associated with delaying control. Culling of game species by government agencies is one approach to control disease in wild populations but is unpopular with hunters and wildlife enthusiasts, politically unpalatable, and erodes public support for agencies responsible for wildlife management. We addressed the functional differences between hunting and government culling programs for managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer by comparing prevalence over a 10-year period in Illinois and Wisconsin. When both Illinois and Wisconsin were actively culling from 2003 - 2007, there were no statistical differences between state CWD prevalence estimates. Wisconsin government culling concluded in 2007 and average prevalence over the next five years was 3.09 ± 1.13% with an average annual increase of 0.63%. During that same time period, Illinois continued government culling and there was no change in prevalence throughout Illinois. Despite its unpopularity among hunters, localized culling is a disease management strategy that can maintain low disease prevalence while minimizing impacts on recreational deer harvest. PMID:24128754

Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Green, Michelle L; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Novakofski, Jan

2014-01-01

25

Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management Zone  

PubMed Central

Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin’s area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular.

Magle, Seth B.; Samuel, Michael D.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Robinson, Stacie J.; Mathews, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

26

Susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to experimental infection with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7.  

PubMed

During the fall of 2006, in Israel, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 7 caused an intense and widespread epizootic in domestic cattle that resulted in significant economic losses for the dairy industry. The susceptibility of potential North American vector and ruminant hosts to infection with EHDV-7 is not known but is essential to understanding the potential for establishment of this exotic orbivirus in North America if it were introduced. Our primary objective was to determine whether white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) are susceptible to infection with EHDV-7. Six, 8-mo-old WTD were experimentally infected with EHDV-7, and all became infected and exhibited varying degrees of clinical disease. Clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, and postmortem findings were consistent with previous reports of orbiviral hemorrhagic disease (HD) in this species. Four of six animals died or were euthanized because of the severity of disease, one on postinoculation day (PID) 5 and the remaining WTD on PID 7. All deer had detectable viremia on PID 3, which peaked on PID 5 or 6 and persisted for as long as PID 46 in one animal. Deer surviving the acute phase of the disease seroconverted by PID 10. Based on the 67% mortality rate we observed, this strain of EHDV-7 is virulent in WTD, reaffirming their role as a sentinel species for the detection of endemic and nonendemic EHDV. Further, the observed disease was indistinguishable from previous reports of disease caused by North American EHDV and bluetongue virus serotypes, highlighting the importance of serotype-specific diagnostics during suspected HD outbreaks. PMID:22740533

Ruder, Mark G; Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Mead, Daniel G; McGraw, Sabrina M; Carter, Deborah L; Kubiski, Steven V; Batten, Carrie A; Klement, Eyal; Howerth, Elizabeth W

2012-07-01

27

Demodectic Mange, Dermatophilosis, and Other Parasitic and Bacterial Dermatologic Diseases in Free-Ranging White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States From 1975 to 2012.  

PubMed

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential. PMID:23912715

Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K

2014-05-01

28

Polymorphisms in the prion precursor functional gene but not the pseudogene are associated with susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) status and PrP genotypes were determined for a group of 133 wild white-tailed deer in a 780 acre enclosure in western Nebraska, USA. Approximately half of the deer tested showed evidence of PrPd in the brainstem or lymphoid tissues. Four PRNP alleles encoding amino acid substitutions were identified, with substitutions at residues 95 (QRH), 96 (GRS)

Katherine I. O'Rourke; Terry R. Spraker; Linda K. Hamburg; Thomas E. Besser; Kelly A. Brayton; Donald P. Knowles

2004-01-01

29

Evaluation of a wild white-tailed deer population management program for controlling chronic wasting disease in Illinois, 2003-2008.  

PubMed

We evaluated population management programs for controlling chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild white-tailed deer in Illinois between November 2002 and March 2008. The intervention consisted of measures of deer removal from three deer population control programs: Illinois Department of Natural Resources culling, deer population control permits and nuisance deer removal permits. We included in the analysis a total of 14,650 white-tailed deer CWD test results. These data also included location and demographic data collected from both deer harvested in the interventions as well as deer from hunter harvests and deer vehicle collisions. We quantified intervention pressures as the number of years of intervention, the total number of deer removed and the average number of deer removed per year. We accounted for temporal and spatial variations of intervention by using mixed logistic regression to model the association between intervention pressures and CWD prevalence change. The results showed that deer population management intervention as practiced in Illinois during the study period was negatively associated with CWD prevalence and the strength of association varied depending on age of deer and the measure of intervention pressure. The population management programs showed a more consistent association with reduced CWD prevalence in fawn and yearling white-tailed deer than in adult deer. Our results also suggested that frequent and continuing intervention events with at least moderate intensity of culling were needed to reduce CWD prevalence. A longer study period, however, is needed to make a more definite conclusion about the effectiveness of similar population management programs for controlling CWD in wild white-tailed deer. PMID:23558033

Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan

2013-07-01

30

Broad and fine-scale genetic analysis of white-tailed deer populations: estimating the relative risk of chronic wasting disease spread  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, similar to sheep scrapie that has only recently been detected in wild populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in western Canada. Relatively little is known about local transmission dynamics of the disease or the potential for long-distance spread. We analysed the population genetic structure of over 2000 white-tailed deer sampled from Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan using microsatellite profiles and mtDNA sequencing to assess the relative risk of disease spread. There was very little differentiation among subpopulations and a weak trend of increasing differentiation with geographic distance. This suggests that the potential for long-distance disease spread through the dispersal of infected individuals is possible, yet the risk of spread should gradually diminish with distance from infection foci. Within subpopulations, females were more related than expected by chance (R > 0) within a radius of approximately 500 m. Sex-biased philopatry and social interactions among related females may facilitate local disease transmission within social groups. Local herd reduction may therefore be an effective tool for reducing the disease prevalence when implemented at the appropriate spatial scale.

Cullingham, Catherine I; Merrill, Evelyn H; Pybus, Margo J; Bollinger, Trent K; Wilson, Gregory A; Coltman, David W

2011-01-01

31

Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Rogers, K. G.; Robinson, S. J.; Samuel, M. D.; Grear, D. A.

2011-01-01

32

Serologic surveillance for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Minnesota by using white-tailed deer as sentinel animals.  

PubMed Central

To determine the effectiveness of white-tailed deer as sentinel animals in serologic surveillance programs for Borrelia burgdorferi, we performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western immunoblotting analyses on 467 deer serum samples. The seropositivity rate in the ELISA was 5% for the 150 samples collected at the three sites in which the tick Ixodes scapularis was absent. The three sites with established I. scapularis populations had a seropositivity rate of 80% for 317 samples. Results were similar for two closely situated sites, one with an established I. scapularis population and one without; these sites were only 15 km apart. Rates of seropositivity were significantly higher in yearling and adult deer than in fawns. The mean numbers of bands seen on Western immunoblots were 3.0 for samples negative in the ELISA and 13.8 for samples positive in the ELISA; all of these samples were collected from sites in which I. scapularis was established. At sites in which I. scapularis was absent, the mean numbers of bands seen were 1.6 for samples negative in the ELISA and 8.2 for samples positive in the ELISA. There were 14 different B. burgdorferi antigens that reacted with more than 50% of the ELISA-positive samples from areas with I. scapularis. A 19.5-kDa antigen reacted with 94% of the ELISA-positive samples. Reactivity against OspA and OspB was weak a infrequent (2%). Serologic analysis of white-tailed deer sera appears to be an accurate and sensitive surveillance method for determining whether B. burgdorferi is present in specific geographic locations. Images

Gill, J S; McLean, R G; Shriner, R B; Johnson, R C

1994-01-01

33

Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.

1992-01-01

34

Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: Complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case-control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n = 68) and CWD-negative (n = 91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p < 0.05. After controlling for Prnp, we found weak support for an elevated risk of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Blanchong, J. A.; Heisey, D. M.; Scribner, K. T.; Libants, S. V.; Johnson, C.; Aiken, J. M.; Langenberg, J. A.; Samuel, M. D.

2009-01-01

35

Development of a Model of Natural Infection with Mycobacterium bovis in White-Tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop a suitable experimental model of natural Mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), describe the distribution and character of tuberculous lesions, and to examine possible routes of disease transmission. In October 1997, 10 mature female white-tailed deer were inoculated by intratonsilar instillation of 2 3 103 (low dose) or 2 3

Mitchell V. Palmer; Diana L. Whipple; Steven C. Olsen

1999-01-01

36

Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, Daniel A.

2006-01-01

37

Spatial and spatial-temporal clustering analysis of hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer in the southeastern USA: 1980-2003.  

PubMed

We used the space-time K function and Kulldorff's scan statistic to analyze the spatial and spatial-temporal clustering of hemorrhagic disease (HD) in white-tailed deer in Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Tennessee. The HD occurrence data were binary presence/absence data acquired annually on a county basis from 1980 to 2003. Space-time K function was employed to globally examine the existence of spatial-temporal clustering in the HD data. Three approaches of Kulldorff's scan statistic, i.e., spatial clustering analysis for the entire period, spatial-temporal clustering analysis, and spatial clustering analysis by individual years, were applied to detect potential HD clusters. Statistically significant spatial clusters and spatial-temporal clusters were detected in the five southeastern states during the 24-year study period. Some clusters were observed in multiple years. Clusters were most evident in west Alabama, south Alabama, central South Carolina, and along the border between South Carolina and North Carolina. The identification of HD clusters may provide a means to better understand the causal factors related to the HD outbreaks. Results also have potential application in improving or designing effective surveillance programs for this disease. PMID:22554813

Xu, Bo; Madden, Marguerite; Stallknecht, David E; Hodler, Thomas W; Parker, Kathleen C

2012-10-01

38

SPONTANEOUS CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1994, cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in a diarrheic fawn from a captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd maintained for research purposes at The Uni- versity of Georgia's Warnell School of Forest Resources in Athens, Georgia (USA). From June through August 1995, 11 captive female white-tailed deer were housed in individual barn stalls where they gave birthto 18 fawns. Feces

Ronald Fayer; John R. Fischer; Christopher T. Sewell; Darrell M. Kavanaugh; David A. Osborn

39

Selenium toxicosis in a white-tailed deer herd  

PubMed Central

Chronic selenium (Se) toxicosis was found in a herd of white-tailed deer showing signs of anorexia, weight loss, and lameness. Concentration of Se in the liver ranged from 2.7 to 8.97 mg/kg wet weight. Myocardial necrosis, mineralization, and fibroplasia were seen histologically. This is the first report of this toxicosis in white-tailed deer.

Al-Dissi, Ahmad N.; Blakley, Barry R.; Woodbury, Murray R.

2011-01-01

40

PREVALENCE OF THE LYME DISEASE SPIROCHETE, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, IN DEER TICKS (IXODES DAMMINI) COLLECTED FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS WRGINIANUS) IN SAINT CROIX STATE PARK, MINNESOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a special two-day hunt (11, 12 November 1989) in Saint Croix State Park, Minnesota (USA), one side of the neck for each of 146 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was examined for ticks. Of the 5,442 ticks collected, 90% (4,893) were the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus, and 10% (549) were thedeer tick, Ixodes dammini, the primary vector of the causative

James S. Gill; Russell C. Johnson; Myra K. Sinclair; A. R. Weisbrod

41

CAUSES OF MORTALITY IN WHITE-TAILED SEA EAGLES FROM GERMANY  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed Sea Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla found moribund or dead in the field were submitted for necropsy to the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) and to the Institute for Food, Drugs and Animal Diseases (ILAT), Berlin, Germany. The moribund eagles had died in rehabilitation stations or were euthanized. Onehundred-twenty White-tailed Sea Eagles were examined between 1990 and 2000, comprising

Oliver Krone; Torsten Langgemach; Paul Sömmer; Norbert Kenntner

42

Forest cover influences dispersal distance of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.001, d.f. = 9) and maximum (r2 = 0.86, P = 0.001, d.f. = 7) dispersal distances of juvenile male deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

Long, E. S.; Diefenbach, D. R.; Rosenberry, C. S.; Wallingford, B. D.; Grund, M. D.

2005-01-01

43

Decision Support System for White-Tailed Deer Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective management of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can be enhanced by the integration of wildlife science, modern technology, and wildlife managers' expertise. The goal of this research was to integrate the population modeling, landscape s...

J. Xie

1999-01-01

44

Lead concentrations in white-tailed deer mandibles and teeth  

SciTech Connect

Mandibles and teeth of 48 white-tailed deer from 6 counties in Pennsylvania were analyzed for lead by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate little influence of age, sex, and county on lead levels. (JMT)

Witkowski, S.A.; Ault, S.R.; Field, R.W.

1982-05-01

45

Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Contact Rates in Female White-Tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are important game mammals and potential reservoirs of diseases of domestic livestock; thus, diseases of deer are of great concern to wildlife managers. Contact, either direct or indirect, is necessary for disease transmission, but we know little about the ecological contexts that promote intrasexual contact among deer. Using pair-wise direct contacts estimated from Global Positioning System

Lene J. Kjær; Eric M. Schauber; Clayton K. Nielsen

2008-01-01

46

Naturally Occurring Tuberculosis in White-Tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—To determine the distribution of lesions and extent of tissues infected with Mycobacterium bovis in a captive population of white-tailed deer. Design—Cross-sectional study. Animals—116 captive white-tailed deer. Procedure—Deer were euthanatized, and postmortem examinations were performed. Tissues with gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis were collected for microscopic analysis and bacteriologic culture. Tissues from the head, thorax, and abdomen of deer with

Mitchell V. Palmer; Diana L. Whipple; Janet B. Payeur; David P. Alt; Kevin J. Esch; Colleen S. Bruning-Fann; John B. Kaneene

2000-01-01

47

Adoption in rock and white-tailed ptarmigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reports of adoption in birds are widespread, but few studies report rates of adoption or possible mechanisms for this phenomenon, particularly in the Order Galliformes. We report incidents of adoption in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. leucura) from two sites in western Canada. Adoption rates for White-tailed Ptarmigan on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Ruby Ranges, Yukon Territory were 13% (n = 16 broods) and 4% (n = 27), respectively, while rates for Rock Ptarmigan were 14% (n = 29) in the Ruby Ranges. Low brood densities may result in lower rates of adoption for ptarmigan. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

Wong, M. M. L.; Fedy, B. C.; Wilson, S.; Martin, K. M.

2009-01-01

48

Metals in livers of white-tailed deer in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

The values of biological monitoring were clearly summarized by JENKINS (1981). White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, a widely distributed and abundant game animal, are especially suited for broad area surveillance because of the ease of obtaining specimens in conjunction with legal harvests. Levels of trace elements have been reported in deer, but not from the midwestern United States as represented by

Alan Woolf; James R. Smith; Linda Small

1982-01-01

49

White-tailed deer food habits in northeastern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microhistological analysis of feces was used to estimate the selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, Tex.) in the state of Nuevo Leon in northeastern Mexico. Browse was the main component of deer diets (94% annual mean). Major species were blackbrush acacia (Acacia rigidula Benth), guajillo (Acacia berlandieri Benth) soapbrush (Porlieria angustifolia Englem), cenizo (Leucophyllum texanus Benth), huisache (Acacia farnesiana L),

R. G. Ramírez; J. B. Quintanilla; J. Aranda

1997-01-01

50

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer. PMID:23568932

Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-04-01

51

The taxonomic status of the white-tailed kite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) of the Americas has been merged with the Black-shouldered (or Black-winged) Kite (E. caeruleus) of the Old World and the Australian Black-shouldered Kite (E. axillaris) by North American authorities (but not elsewhere), primarily because of similarity in plumage. However, American kites differ from Old World kites in greater size and weight, in proportions (relatively longer tail and smaller bill and feet), plumage pattern (particularly of juveniles), and in behavior. Here we argue that these characters are sufficiently distinctive to warrant recognition of E. leucurus at the species level.

Clark, W.S.; Banks, R.C.

1992-01-01

52

Serological activity of white-tail deer against several species of Brucella.  

PubMed

In Mexico, brucellosis is a widely distributed disease of domesticated ruminants, but its frequency in wild ruminants has not been documented. Since northeast Mexico is the main distribution area of white-tailed deer and has been reported as an area positive for brucellosis in domesticated species, the present study was conducted in order to determine serological activity against several species of the genus Brucella in white-tailed deer. A total of 208 sera of white-tailed deer were collected during the springs of 1994 and 1995 in the north part of the states of Nuevo León and Coahuila. Each serum was analyzed for the detection of antibodies against two smooth (B. abortus and B. melitensis) and one rough (B. ovis) species of the genus Brucella. The serological tests used for the determination of the presence of antibodies against Brucella were card and plate agglutination for B. abortus, plate agglutination and rivanol precipitation for B. melitensis, and agar gel immunodiffusion for B. ovis. Each assay had positive and negative controls. None of the analyzed samples was found to be positive, and only two sera showed partial plate agglutination against B. melitensis at a dilution of 1:25; however, at higher dilutions and to the rivanol precipitation test the same samples were negative. Therefore, the percentage of positive sera was estimated at 0% (0/208). This result makes evident the absence of positive white-tailed deer against Brucella in the sampled area, despite that this disease is considered present in domesticated species. Therefore, white-tailed deer does not have, at the present time, an important role for the dispersion of the disease. The same result has been reported in other countries. PMID:10932740

Salinas-Meléndez, J A; Martínez-Muñoz, A; Avalos-Ramírez, R; Cerutti-Pereyra, N; Riojas-Valdés, V M

1998-01-01

53

Evaluation of propane exploders as white-tailed deer deterrents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to increased white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) depredation of agricultural crops and encroachment on airports, we evaluated the effectiveness of systematic and motion-activated propane exploders as deer frightening devices. We conducted three experiments in a 2200 ha fenced facility in northern Ohio with high (91\\/km2) deer densities during 1994–1995. Systematic exploders were calibrated to detonate once at 8 to

J. L. Belant; T. W. Seamans; C. P. Dwyer

1996-01-01

54

Modeling distribution of dispersal distances in male white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dispersal distances and their distribution pattern are important to understanding such phenomena as disease spread and gene flow, but oftentimes dispersal characteristics are modeled as a fixed trait for a given species. We found that dispersal distributions differ for spring and autumn dispersals of yearling male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but that combined data can be adequately modeled based on a log-normal distribution. We modeled distribution of dispersal distances from 3 distinct populations in Pennsylvania and Maryland, USA, based on the relationship between percent forest cover and mean dispersal distance and the relationship between mean and variance of dispersal distances. Our results suggest distributions of distances for dispersing yearling male white-tailed deer can be modeled by simply measuring a readily obtained landscape metric, percent forest cover, which could be used to create generalized spatially explicit disease or gene.

Diefenbach, D. R.; Long, E. S.; Rosenberry, C. S.; Wallingford, B. D.; Smith, D. R.

2008-01-01

55

Survival of Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus; CWTD) are an endangered subspecies on which little demographic information exists. We determined survival rates and causes of mortality for 64 radiocollared adults from 1996 to 1998, and for 63 radiocollared neonatal fawns during the summer and fall months of 1996-2001 in Douglas County, Oregon, USA. Annual adult survival rates averaged 0.74 over 3 years, and most mortality (73%) occurred between fall and winter. Seasonal survival was lowest (0.75) for the fall-winter 1997-1998, and was ???0.90 during all spring-summer periods. Annual and seasonal survival rates did not differ by gender. Average annual survival was 0.77 for deer in wildland areas compared with 0.66 for deer in suburban areas, but these differences were not consistent between years and seasons. Survival over the entire 3-year study was low (0.38). Eight deer died from a combination of emaciation and disease, and almost all (92%) necropsied deer were in poor body condition. Fawn survival to 7 months was low (0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.26) and declined most rapidly during the first 1.5 months of life. Predation (n = 21) and abandonment (n = 6) were the most frequent known causes of death for fawns. Our results suggest that CWTD may have responded to density-dependent factors during this short-term study, although the effects of other environmental or intrinsic factors cannot be ignored. Fawn survival may be insufficient to produce enough recruits for population growth and eventual range expansion.

Ricca, M. A.; Anthony, R. G.; Jackson, D. H.; Wolfe, S. A.

2002-01-01

56

Spatial interactions of yarded White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the spatial interactions of nine female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in two deeryards (winter aggregations) in northeastern Minnesota during February-April 1999. Global positioning system (GPS) collars yielded seven pair-wise comparisons of deer that were located at the same time (???1 minute apart) and mat used overlapping areas. Deer traveled separately and did not associate with one another. Within overlapping areas, comparisons of distances between deer and distances between random locations indicated deer moved without regard to each other. Similarly, comparisons of observed and expected probabilities of deer using areas overlapping those of other deer also evinced that deer moved independently.

Nelson, M. E.; Sargeant, G. A.

2008-01-01

57

Energy metabolism and hematology of white-tailed deer fawns.  

PubMed

Resting metabolic rates, weight gains and hematologic profiles of six newborn, captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns (four females, two males) were determined during the first 3 mo of life. Estimated mean daily weight gain of fawns was 0.2 kg. The regression equation for metabolic rate was: Metabolic rate (kcal/kg0.75/day) = 56.1 +/- 1.3 (age in days), r = 0.65, P less than 0.001). Regression equations were also used to relate age to red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume, white blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The age relationships of Hb, MCHC, and smaller RBC's were indicative of an increasing and more efficient oxygen-carrying and exchange capacity to fulfill the increasing metabolic demands for oxygen associated with increasing body size. PMID:1548807

Rawson, R E; DelGiudice, G D; Dziuk, H E; Mech, L D

1992-01-01

58

Energy metabolism and hematology of white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Resting metabolic rates, weight gains and hematologic profiles of six newborn, captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns (four females, two males) were determined during the first 3 mo of life. Estimated mean daily weight gain of fawns was 0.2 kg. The regression equation for metabolic rate was: Metabolic rate (kcal/kg0.75/day) = 56.1 +/- 1.3 (age in days), r = 0.65, P less than 0.001). Regression equations were also used to relate age to red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume, white blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The age relationships of Hb, MCHC, and smaller RBC's were indicative of an increasing and more efficient oxygen-carrying and exchange capacity to fulfill the increasing metabolic demands for oxygen associated with increasing body size.

Rawson, R.E.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Dziuk, H.E.; Mech, L.D.

1992-01-01

59

Commercial Brown, White and Pink Shrimp Tail Size: Total Size Conversions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equations for converting tail length to total length and tail weight to total weight and vice versa were obtained for white, brown and pink shrimp (Penaeus setiferus, Penaeus aztecus and Penaeus duorarum, respectively), using linear regression analyses. T...

S. L. Brunenmeister

1980-01-01

60

Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Globally, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that affect livestock, wildlife, companion animals, and humans, potentially causing serious and economically important disease problems. Little is known about hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. prevalence, host-specificity, or route of transmission in most species, including wildlife. DNA amplification by PCR targeting the 16SrRNA and the RNaseP genes was used to establish the presence and prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina. Sixty-five deer (89%) tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. where sequence analysis of the 16SsRNA and the RNaseP genes indicated the presence of at least three distinct species. This study represents the first detection of three distinct hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer and the first report of two novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species. PMID:24018179

Maggi, Ricardo G; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-12-01

61

MOVEMENT OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND INTENSIVE ROW-CROP AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Movements (e.g., migration, dispersal) of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) vary greatly over the geographic range of the species. Therefore, region-specific,empirical information is needed to effectively manage deer populations. Movements,of white-tailed deer have been,well documented,in forest dominated,habitats; how- ever, little information related to white-tailed deer movements exists in intensively (>80%) cultivated areas. From January 2001 to August 2002, we monitored

TODD J. BRINKMAN; CHRISTOPHER S. DEPERNO; JONATHAN A. JENKS; BRIAN S. HAROLDSON; ROBERT G. OSBORN

2005-01-01

62

Predator evasion by white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite their importance for understanding predator–prey interactions, factors that affect predator evasion behaviours of offspring of large ungulates are poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the influence of selection and availability of escape cover and maternal presence on predator evasion by white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fawns in the northern Great Plains, U.S.A. We observed 45 coyote, Canis latrans, chases of fawns, and we participated in 83 human chases of fawns during 2007–2009, of which, 19 and 42 chases, respectively, ended with capture of the fawn. Evasive techniques used by fawns were similar for human and coyote chases. Likelihood of a white-tailed deer fawn escaping capture, however, was influenced by deer group size and a number of antipredator behaviours, including aggressive defence by females, initial habitat and selection of escape cover, all of which were modified by the presence of parturient females. At the initiation of a chase, fawns in grasslands were more likely to escape, whereas fawns in forested cover, cultivated land or wheat were more likely to be captured by a coyote or human. Fawns fleeing to wetlands and grasslands also were less likely to be captured compared with those choosing forested cover, wheat and cultivated land. Increased probability of capture was associated with greater distance to wetland and grassland habitats and decreased distance to wheat. Use of wetland habitat as a successful antipredator strategy highlights the need for a greater understanding of the importance of habitat complexity in predator avoidance.

Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

2012-01-01

63

Mortality of white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two hundred nine white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were radiotracked in the central Superior National Forest, Minnesota, from 1973 through winter 1983-84; 85 deaths were recorded. Annual survival was 0.31 for fawns (< 1.0 years old), 0.80 for yearling (1.0-2.0 years old) females, 0.41 for yearling males, 0.79 for adult (.gtoreq. 2.0 years old) females, and 0.47 for adult males. Monthly survival rates were high from May through December (0.94-1.00), except for yearling (0.60) and adult (0.69) bucks during the November hunting season. Most mortality occurred from January through April when gray wolf (Canis lupus) predation was an important mortality source for all cohorts. Yearling males were most vulnerable to hunting and adult males to wolf predation.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1986-01-01

64

White liver disease in lambs.  

PubMed

An outbreak of white liver disease in lambs in Western Australia is described. The disease affected 2- to 3-month-old lambs and was characterised by liver damage, severe ill-thrift, depression, serous ocular discharge, photosensitization, and a high mortality rate. Transient central nervous system signs occurred. A positive response to vitamin B12 therapy was demonstrated. PMID:7340780

Richards, R B; Harrison, M R

1981-12-01

65

Culture and Serologic Survey for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection among Southeastern White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From July 1998 through October 2002, radiometric culture (ileocecal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, and feces) and serologic testing by enzyme-linked immunosor- bent assay (ELISA) were used to survey white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the southeastern United States for infection by My- cobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was

William R. Davidson; Elizabeth J. B. Manning; Victor F. Nettles; D. B. Warnell

66

Cougar predation and population growth of sympatric mule deer and white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations throughout the west appear to be declining, whereas white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations are increasing. We compared abundance, number of fetuses per female (maternity rate), recruitment, and cause-specific adult ( ?1 year old) mortality rate for sympatric mule deer and white- tailed deer in south-central British Columbia to assess population growth for each species.

Hugh S. Robinson; Robert B. Wielgus; John C. Gwilliam

2002-01-01

67

MIGRATION BEHAVIOR OF WHITE-TAILED DEER UNDER VARYING WINTER CLIMATE REGIMES IN NEW BRUNSWICK  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) exhibit a variety of migration strategies across northern portions of their range. Factors reported as being responsible for migration initiation have shown no consistent pattern. We monitored 186 radiocollared white-tailed deer from 1994 to 1998 in 2 areas of New Brunswick: a southern area with moderate and variable winter climate and a northern area with consistently

DWAYNE L. SABINE; SHAWN F. MORRISON; HEATHER A. WHITLAW; WARREN B. BALLARD; GRAHAM J. FORBES; JEFF BOWMAN

68

Surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin, for TSE infection using the IDEXX HerdChek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the collected mammals tested positive using the ELISA, but these were negative when tested by Western blot. While our sample sizes permitted high probabilities of detecting TSE assuming 1% population prevalence in several common scavengers (93%, 87%, and 87% for raccoons, opossums, and coyotes, respectively), insufficient sample sizes for other species precluded similar conclusions. One cannot rule out successful cross-species TSE transmission to scavengers, but the results suggest that such transmission is not frequent in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin. The need for further surveillance of scavenger species, especially those known to be susceptible to TSE (e.g., cat, American mink, raccoon), is highlighted in both a field and laboratory setting.

Jennelle, C. S.; Samuel, M. D.; Nolden, C. A.; Keane, D. P.; Barr, D. J.; Johnson, C.; Vanderloo, J. P.; Aiken, J. M.; Hamir, A. N.; Hoover, E. A.

2009-01-01

69

Development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I examined the development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1975 to 1996 by radio-tracking adult females and their fawns. Of 40 migratory fawns with radio-collared mothers, all returned from winter ranges to their mothers' summer ranges, as did 36 fawns with unknown mothers. Of 1.5- to 3.0-year-old daughters with radio-collared mothers, 67-80% continued migrating with mothers to their traditional summer ranges. Eighty-four percent (16/19) of yearling dispersers continued migratory behavior after replacing their natal summer ranges with their dispersal ranges, and 88% (14/16) of these continued migrating to their natal winter ranges, some through at least 6.5 years of age. Twenty percent (4/20) of nonmigratory fawns dispersed as yearlings, and two became migratory between their dispersal summer ranges and new winter ranges, one through 4.9 years of age and another through 6.5 years. Seven fawns changed their movement behavior from migratory to nonmigratory or vice versa as yearlings or when older, indicating that migratory behavior is not under rigid genetic control. Thus, the adaptiveness of migration must depend upon natural selection operating upon varying capacities and propensities to learn and mimic long-distance movements and not upon migratory behavior directly.

Nelson, M. E.

1998-01-01

70

Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.  

SciTech Connect

D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

D'Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

2003-12-31

71

Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline  

SciTech Connect

The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

2003-02-26

72

Population Dynamics and Ecology of White-Tailed Deer in Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The widespread distribution and abundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Illinois has created new management challenges and problems. Managers and administrators must now consider the interests and concerns of nonhunters and urban dwelle...

A. Woolf J. L. Roseberry

1998-01-01

73

Final White-Tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Final White-Tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement describes four alternatives for the management of deer at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, as well as the environment affected by the alternatives and the environmental consequen...

2012-01-01

74

Survival of white-tailed deer in an intensively farmed region of Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested habitat, but limited information has been collected in intensively farmed regions. The objectives of this study were to determine survival and cause-specific mortality of neonate, fawn female, and adult female white-tailed deer in an intensively farmed (>80% land cover) region of Minnesota. We captured and

Todd J. Brinkman; Jonathan A. Jenks; Christopher S. DePerno; Brian S. Haroldson; Robert G. Osborn

2004-01-01

75

Lesion Development in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of tuberculosis in free-living white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan underscores the need for increased understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in wildlife species. To investigate lesion development in white-tailed deer, 32 deer were experimentally infected by intratonsilar instillation of 300 colony-forming units of Mycobacterium bovis. Three deer each were euthanatized and examined at days 15, 28, 42,

M. V. Palmer; W. R. Waters; D. L. Whipple

2002-01-01

76

Effects of immunocontraception on a suburban population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in North America have altered the structure of some forest communities and caused serious conflicts with farmers, gardeners, and motorists, encouraging the search for novel techniques to control populations of deer and other wildlife. We administered the porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraceptive vaccine to female white-tailed deer living on the 233-ha campus of

Allen T. Rutberg; Ricky E. Naugle; Lori A. Thiele; Irwin K. M. Liu

2004-01-01

77

VARIABLE ACORN CROPS: RESPONSES OF WHITE-TAILED DEER AND OTHER MAST CONSUMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined movements and behavior of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) relative to the acorn mast-fall from 1986 through 1989 in a mature deciduous forest in Front Royal, Virginia. Ten white-tailed deer with radiotransmitters increased their home range to incorporate acorn-producing areas during mast-fall. Consumption of acorns by deer con­ stituted ca. 50% of foraging time during peak mast-fall; average

WILLIAM J. MCSHEA; GEORG SCHWEDE

78

White-tailed deer winter feeding strategy in area shared with other deer species  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer were introduced into the Czech republic about one hundred years ago. Population numbers have remained stable at low density despite almost no harvesting. this differs from other introductions of this species in europe. We presumed that one of the possible factors preventing expansion of the white-tailed deer population is lack of high-quality food components in an area overpopulated

Miloslav HoMolka; Marta Heroldová

79

Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole blood or culture. None of the deer showed evidence of clinical disease, but 3 of the 6 deer evaluated had multiple episodes of transient thrombocytopenia. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained, thin blood smears revealed tiny, dark, spherical structures in platelets of acutely infected deer. Anaplasma sp. was detected in platelets of inoculated deer by polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Five of 6 deer developed antibodies reactive to Anaplasma sp. antigen, as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and gltA sequences confirmed the Anaplasma sp. is related to A. platys. Two attempts to transmit the Anaplasma sp. between deer by feeding Amblyomma americanum, a suspected tick vector, were unsuccessful. Based on its biologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, this organism is considered a novel species of Anaplasma, and the name Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. is proposed with UMUM76(T) (=CSUR-A1) as the type strain. PMID:23276749

Tate, Cynthia M; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Mead, Daniel G; Dugan, Vivien G; Luttrell, M Page; Sahora, Alexandra I; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Davidson, William R; Yabsley, Michael J

2013-02-01

80

White liver disease in goats.  

PubMed

Three field cases of ill-thrift, hepatic lipodystrophy and low tissue levels of vitamin B12 in young angora cross goats are reported. The cases meet the criteria for the diagnosis of white liver disease (WLD) described for sheep. The hypothesis that WLD is a metabolic consequence of cobalt/vit B12 deficiency in sheep and goats on a diet rich in propionate is developed, together with possible reasons for its occurrence in these species but not in cattle or red deer. PMID:16031425

Black, H; Hutton, J B; Sutherland, R J; James, M P

1988-03-01

81

A cross-sectional study of the causes of morbidity and mortality in farmed white-tailed deer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two questionnaires were designed and administered. The first was to a random sample of 340 farmers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. The second was a 10-year retrospective survey of deer submissions to veterinary diagnostic pathology laboratories in Canada and the United States. One-year rates of mortality and common causes of morbidity and mortality for the deer are reported. The primary diagnosis for each record was used to classify diseases into categories, such as parasitic, infectious, toxicological, and neoplastic. Submissions were further classified according to the anatomical location, the pathological change, and the etiology associated with each lesion. Trauma was the most important reported cause of farmed white-tailed deer mortality; necrobacillosis was a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in fawns.

2005-01-01

82

Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Actkinson, M. A.; Kuvlesky, Jr. , W. P.; Boal, C. W.; Brennan, L. A.; Hernandez, F.

2009-01-01

83

Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n=42) and mule deer (n=41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (T1), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P???0.05) between habitats. Because of the nutritional demands of gestation and lactation, we hypothesized that elemental concentrations would vary depending on reproductive status; Cd, Cu, Ca, P, Mn, Mo, Na, and Zn values differed (P???0.05) by reproductive status. We also hypothesized that, due to variation in feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P???0.05) between species. Further research is needed to determine causes of variation in hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

Zimmerman, T. J.; Jenks, J. A.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.; Neiger, R. D.

2008-01-01

84

Influence of roads, rivers, and mountains on natal dispersal of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural and anthropogenic landscape features, such as rivers, mountain ranges, and roads can alter animal dispersal paths and movement patterns. Consequently landscape, through its effects on dispersal, may influence many ecological processes, including disease transmission, invasion dynamics, and gene flow. To investigate influences of landscape features on dispersal patterns of a large mammal, we captured and radiomarked 363 juvenile male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), including 212 confirmed dispersers, in 2 topographically dissimilar study areas in Pennsylvania, USA. Dispersal azimuths were uniformly distributed in the western study area (WSA), where there was irregular, hilly topography. Mean dispersal azimuths paralleled ridge direction in the eastern study area, where long parallel ridges were aligned northeastsouthwest. Major roads in both areas and a large river in the WSA were semipermeable barriers to dispersal of juvenile males; dispersal paths were less likely to intersect these linear features. Dispersal movements were direct and brief, typically lasting <12 hours. For all dispersers, we found no evidence for preference or avoidance of establishing adult, postdispersal ranges in proximity to roads; however, deer that encountered roads near the terminus of their dispersal path were more likely to stop on the near side. Further, for deer that established postdispersal home ranges near major roads, these features influenced range placement such that locations were typically clustered on one side of the road. The influence of roads, rivers, and mountains on dispersal paths and postdispersal locations of white-tailed deer suggest that landscape-specific features should be considered in conservation and management of this and possibly other species of large mammals. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

Long, E. S.; Diefenbach, D. R.; Wallingford, B. D.; Rosenberry, C. S.

2010-01-01

85

Spatial analysis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA.  

PubMed

The wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population in Michigan, USA, has endemic Mycobacterium bovis. We determined whether there were spatial clusters of retrospective TB cases in white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan and identified specific factors associated with the spatial clusters. Data from hunter-harvested deer (age, gender, TB status, and geographic section) were collected by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during TB surveillance from 1995 to 2002. Land cover (vegetation, land-use) and land type (soil types and drainage characteristics, landforms) described potential deer habitats. Specific locations of large-scale supplemental feeding sites were collected from the MDNR aerial surveillance program from 1997 to 2002. Analyses were conducted using principal components derived from environmental data (and other risk factors) on spatial clusters of disease (identified by the spatial scan statistic). Spatial effects were incorporated into the multivariable analyses by using a neighborhood approach. A total of 420 deer with M. bovis infection were identified from 1995 to 2002, out of 39,451 harvested deer from 3216 TRS units, and spatial clusters of cases were identified. A total of seven principal components of environmental data were generated. Clusters were associated with the presence of large expanses of deciduous forests on moraine ridges separated by low areas of forested wetlands, and the presence of many small lakes. Factors that promoted congregation of deer for extended periods of time (natural cover, access to water, and less human contact) appeared to be associated with increased odds of TB positivity. This suggests that there are specific areas where interventions can be implemented to reduce congregation of animals and disrupt the cycle of infection transmission. PMID:17597240

Miller, RoseAnn; Kaneene, John B; Schmitt, Stephen M; Lusch, David P; Fitzgerald, Scott D

2007-11-15

86

Tail Length to Tail Weight Relationships for Louisiana White Shrimp in 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of white shrimp Penaeus setiferus collected in July to December 1977 were used to study length to weight relations. Some conclusions are: Sexual differences in length-weight curves are not of practical significance: there are significant differenc...

P. L. Phares

1980-01-01

87

WHITE-TAILED DEER AS A POTENTIAL RESERVOIR OF EHRLICHIA SPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the antibody prevalence to Ehrlichia spp., in white-tailed deer (Odo- coileus virginianus) and the geographic distribution of seropositive animals in 84 counties in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Vir- ginia (USA). Using an indirect fluorescent antibody test we detected antibodies (? 1:128) to

Jacqueline E. Dawson; James E. Childs; Kristine L. Biggie; Charla Moore; David Stallknecht; John Shaddock; John Bouseman; Erik Hofmeister; James G. Olson

88

THE MARKET VALUE OF INGRESS RIGHTS FOR WHITE-TAILED DEER HUNTING IN TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lease hunting system in Texas is described and discussed. Results of a hunter survey are reported and the value of ingress rights for white-tailed deer hunting in Texas is estimated. Results suggest that these rights are highly valuable and that services and facilities provided generally do not enhance the value of the hunting experience as much as access to

C. Arden Pope III; John R. Stoll

1985-01-01

89

Behavior, Dispersal, and Survival of Male White-Tailed Deer in Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavior, dispersal, and survival of male white-tailed deer (Odocaileus virginianus) were studied during 1980-1992 at three widely separated sites in Illinois. Marked males (N = 267), including 43 that were radio marked, were used to determine male as...

C. M. Nixon L. P. Hansen P. A. Brewer J. E. Chelsvig J. B. Sullivan T. L. Esker R. Koerkenmeier D. R. Etter J. Cline J. A. Thomas

1994-01-01

90

NUTRITION OF NORTHERN WHITE-TAILED DEER THROUGHOUT THE YEAR 1 ,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Five fawn white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus borealis), three fefiaales and two males, were studied for 15 consecutive months beginning at age 3 months. Each month they were subjected to digestion trials, nitrogen bal- ances and energy balances using respiration calorimetry. The objective was to study age and season effects on feed intake, growth, nutrient utilization and energy requirements for

J. B. Holter; W. E. Urban; H. H. Hayes

2010-01-01

91

WHITE-TAILED DEER IMPACT ON THE VEGETATION DYNAMICS OF A NORTHERN HARDWOOD FOREST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable controversy has arisen over the management of white-tailed deer in eastern landscapes where there is evidence of damage to forest vegetation, crops, and wildlife habitat attributable to deer. We examined the impact of 4, 8, 15, and 25 deer\\/ km2 on herbaceous layer abundance and tree seedling density, height development, species composition, and diversity for 10 yr in a

Stephen B. Horsley; Susan L. Stout; David S. deCalesta

2003-01-01

92

Modeling white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus population control by contraception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large populations of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus present conservation problems in suburban landscapes because of limited population control options. We used the GAPPS II modeling system to simulate temporal effects of contraception on deer population control and the interaction between contraception and uncertain immigration rates. Contraception rates less than 50% of female deer curbed population growth with a long (30

Steven W. Seagle; John D. Close

1996-01-01

93

PREDICTORS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER GRAZING INTENSITY IN FRAGMENTED DECIDUOUS FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus uirginianus) can cause major changes in the composition and struc- ture of forest communities by browsing shnibs and tree seedlings and grazing understory forbs. Such effects have become an increasingly pervasive management concern in protected natural areas and parks where con- servation of native plant communities is a primary objective. The magnitude of these effects can vary

DAVID J. AUGUSTINE; PETER A. JORDAN

94

Effects of White-Tailed Deer on Populations of an Understory Forb in Fragmented Deciduous Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of grazing by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) on populations of Trillium spp. were examined in remnant, old-growth patches of the highly fragmented Big Woods forest ecosystem in south- eastern Minnesota. We conducted three separate studies involving an exclosure experiment, transplant exper- iments, and comparisons of Trillium populations among study sites. The highest grazing intensity was ob-

David J. Augustine; Lee E. Frelich

1998-01-01

95

Aversive responses of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus , to predator urines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urine from bobcats (Lyra rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of Japanese yews (Taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. Urine of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting

Robert K. Swihart; Joseph J. Pignatello; Mary Jane I. Mattina

1991-01-01

96

Newly Recognized Herpesvirus Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify

HONG LI; NEIL DYER; JANICE KELLER; TIMOTHY B. CRAWFORD

97

Prevalence of Granulocytic Ehrlichia Infection among White-Tailed Deer in Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is caused by an agent that is nearly indistinguishable from the veterinary pathogens Ehrlichia equi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila. The deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of the HGE agent, and the white-tailed deer is the primary host for adult Ixodes ticks. We assessed the distribution of granulocytic Ehrlichia infection among deer living within (Wisconsin) and

EDWARD A. BELONGIA; KURT D. REED; PAUL D. MITCHELL; CHRIS P. KOLBERT; DAVID H. PERSING; JAMES S. GILL; JAMES J. KAZMIERCZAK

1997-01-01

98

INFECTIONS OF GRANULOCYTIC EHRLICHIAE AND BORRELIA BURGDORFERI IN WHITE-TAILED DEER IN CONNECTICUT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum or whole blood samples, obtained from 141 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Connecticut (USA) during 1980, 1991, and 1996, were analyzed to detect past or current infections of Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup organisms and Borrelia burgdorferi. When the BDS or NCH-1 strains of granulocytic ehrlichiae were used separately in indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) staining methods, antibody positivity rates varied from

Louis A. Magnarelli; Kirby C. Stafford III; Erol Fikrig

1999-01-01

99

HEAVY METALS IN WHITE-TAILED DEER LIVING NEAR A ZINC SMELTER IN PENNSYLVANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned

L. Sileo; W. N. Beyer

1985-01-01

100

Transmission of Babesia odocoilel in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) by Ixodes scapularis (Acari: lxodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory reared Ixodes scapu- laris proved to be an efficient vector of Babesia odocoilei Emerson and Wright between white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virgin janus ). Transta- dial survival of the babesia occurred between nymph and adult stages of the tick, and the adult stage transmitted the babesia.

K. A. Waldrup; A. A. Kocan; R. W. Barker; G. G. Wagner

101

RESPONSE OF URINARY HYDROXYPROLINE TO DIETARY PROTEIN AND FASTING IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary hydroxyproline of nine captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from 23 February to 3 May 1984 in northern Minnesota. In the fasted group, mean hydroxyproline : creatinine (OHP:C) was greater (P < 0.05) at week 4 compared to baseline at week 0. Between fasted deer and deer fed

Glenn D. DelGiudice; Ulysses S. Seal; L. David Mech

1988-01-01

102

Demographics of non-hunted white-tailed deer populations in suburban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burgeoning deer populations in urban and suburban areas, along with the inherent problems stemming from this increase, are becoming increasingly widespread. To address these problems, wildlife biologists need quality baseline data of herd composition for harvest and treatment forecasts for management and fertility control research programs. In this study, we provide white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population data from 4 areas

ANTHONY J. DENICOLA; DWYANE R. ETTER; THOMAS ALMENDINGER

2008-01-01

103

Proximity of White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Ranges to Wolf, Canis lupus, Pack Homesites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is among the recent postings at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) Website. Michael E. Nelson and L. David Mech authored the article, which focuses on White-tailed Deer in northeastern Minnesota living close to Wolf pack homesites. The article was first published in the Canadian Field-Naturalist [114(3):503-504].

Mech, L. D.; Nelson, Michael E.

104

Proximity of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, ranges to wolf Canis lupus, pack homesites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven adult female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota lived within 1.8 km of Wolf pack (Canis lupus) homesites without vacating their home ranges. Six of these deer and at least three of their fawns survived through the Wolf homesite period.

Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.

2001-01-01

105

IMPACTS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER ON FOREST REGENERATION IN NORTHWEST ERN PENNSYLVANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a major cause of regeneration failure in Allegheny hardwood forests of northwestern Pennsylvania. I examined the impact of deer at 5 different densities (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 deer\\/259 ha) on tree seedlings, woody shrubs, and herbaceous plants in large enclosures over 5 years. I examined 3 silvicultural treatments (clearcut, thinning, and

NANCY G. TILGHMAN

106

Plant Disease Lesson: White pine blister rust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on White pine blister rust (caused by Cronartium ribicola (Peridermium strobi)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Otis C. Maloy (Washington State University;)

2003-09-08

107

Sensitivity of condition indices to changing density in a white-tailed deer population  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ways in which comprehensive condition profiles, incorporating morphometric, histologic, physiologic, and diet quality indices, responded to changes in density of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population were examined. Changes in these condition indices were monitored in a northeastern Oklahoma deer herd as density declined from peaks of 80 and 72 deer/km2 in 1989 and 1990 (high-density) to lows of 39 and 41 deer/km2 in 1991 and 1992 (reduced-density), respectively. Compared to a reference population (6 deer/km2), deer sampled during high-density exhibited classic signs of nutritional stress such as low body and visceral organ masses (except elevated adrenal gland mass), low fecal nitrogen levels, reduced concentrations of serum albumin, elevated serum creatinine concentrations, and a high prevalence of parasitic infections. Although density declined by one half over the 4-yr study, gross indices of condition (in particular body mass and size) remained largely unchanged. However, selected organ masses, serum albumin and non-protein nitrogen constituents, and fecal nitrogen indices reflected improvements in nutritional status with reductions in density. Many commonly used indices of deer condition (fat reserves, hematocrit, total serum protein, and blood urea nitrogen) were not responsive to fluctuations in density. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 1998.

Sams, M. G.; Lochmiller, R. L.; Qualls, Jr. , C. W.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.

1998-01-01

108

Using wild white-tailed deer to detect eastern equine encephalitis virus activity in Maine.  

PubMed

Serum from 226 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was screened for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) antibodies using plaque reduction neutralization tests. EEEV antibodies were detected in 7.1% of samples. This is the first time EEEV antibodies have been detected in O. virginianus populations in the state of Maine (ME). The highest percentage of EEEV positive sera was in Somerset County (19%) in central ME, and this is the first time that EEEV activity has been detected in that County. EEEV RNA was not detected in any of the 150 harvested deer brain samples submitted to the ME Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife as a part of screening for Chronic Wasting Disease. This suggests that screening deer brains is not an efficient method to detect EEEV activity. For each serum sample tested, the geographic location in which the deer was harvested was recorded. Significant spatial clustering of antibody-positive sera samples was not detected. Relative to seronegative deer, seropositive deer were slightly more likely to be harvested in nonforested areas compared with forested areas. Results indicate that screening of free-ranging deer sera can be a useful tool for detecting EEEV activity in ME and other parts of North America. PMID:21736489

Mutebi, John-Paul; Lubelczyk, Charles; Eisen, Rebecca; Panella, Nicholas; Macmillan, Katherine; Godsey, Marvin; Swope, Bethany; Young, Ginger; Smith, Robert P; Kantar, Lee; Robinson, Sara; Sears, Stephen

2011-10-01

109

Spatial and temporal variability of microgeographic genetic structure in white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Techniques are described that define contiguous genetic subpopulations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) based on the spatial dispersion of 4,749 individuals that possessed discrete character values (alleles or genotypes) during each of 6 years (1974-1979). White-tailed deer were not uniformly distributed in space, but exhibited considerable spatial genetic structuring. Significant non-random clusters of individuals were documented during each year based on specific alleles and genotypes at the Sdh locus. Considerable temporal variation was observed in the position and genetic composition of specific clusters, which reflected changes in allele frequency in small geographic areas. The position of clusters did not consistently correspond with traditional management boundaries based on major discontinuities in habitat (swamp versus upland) and hunt compartments that were defined by roads and streams. Spatio-temporal stability of observed genetic contiguous clusters was interpreted relative to method and intensity of harvest, movements, and breeding ecology.

Scribner, K. T.; Smith, M. H.; Chesser, R. K.

1997-01-01

110

Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

1984-01-01

111

Aversive responses of white-tailed deer,Odocoileus virginianus, to predator urines.  

PubMed

We tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urine from bobcats (Lyra rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of Japanese yews (Taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. Urine of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting that deer do not respond aversively to odors of nonpredatory mammals or occasional predators with which they lack a long evolutionary association. Bobcat and coyote urine were more effective in tests conducted with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), which is less palatable to white-tailed deer than Japanese yew. A dichloromethane extract of bobcat urine was as effective as unextracted urine in reducing damage to hemlocks. Testing of the organic components of bobcat urine, particularly the volatile components, may enable identification of the compounds responsible for the repellency we observed. PMID:24258921

Swihart, R K; Pignatello, J J; Mattina, M J

1991-04-01

112

CHARACTERISTICS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWN BEDS, BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. - Forty-two white-tailed ,deer fawns ,(Odocoileus virginianus dakotensis) were captured ,and ,fitted with radio transmitters and observed ,from ,June through ,September 1991 and 1992 to determine ,diurnal ,bed,site use,in the Black Hills of South ,Dakota. Fawns ,were ,monitored ,biweekly ,during ,daylight hours and ,259 bed sites ,were ,located. In addition, 301 random sites were measured for comparison. Of 31

Daniel W. Uresk; Ted A. Benzon; Kieth E. Severson; Lakhdar Benkobi

113

Isolation of Neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts were made to isolate Neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A total of 110 deer killed during the 2003 hunting season in Virginia region were used for the isolation of N. caninum. Of these, brains from 28 deer that had NAT titer of 1:200 were inoculated into interferon-gamma gene knock out (KO) mice. N. caninum was

M. C. B. Vianna; C. Sreekumar; K. B. Miska; D. E. Hill; J. P. Dubey

2005-01-01

114

MOTION-SENSITIVE RADIO COLLARS FOR ESTIMATING WHITE-TAILED DEER ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telemetric data from radio-collared white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were compared to concurrent visual observations of deer behavior to evaluate accuracy of telemetrically determined behavior. A 2-channel telemetric pattern of constant amplitude and head-up tip-switch position reliably indicated bedded deer in most cases. Variable amplitude and other tip-switch positions indicated active deer but specific activity could not be distinguished by our

PAUL BEIER; DALE R. MCCULLOUGH

115

High prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples of 400 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 16 preserves in northeastern Illinois were tested for Neospora caninum antibodies in the N. caninum agglutination test using mouse-derived N. caninum tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Antibodies were found in 162 deer with titres of 1:40 (47 deer), 1:80 (32 deer), 1:160 (17 deer), 1:200 (eight deer), 1:400 (19 deer), 1:800 (17 deer)

J. P Dubey; K Hollis; S Romand; P Thulliez; O. C. H Kwok; L Hungerford; C Anchor; D Etter

1999-01-01

116

Long-term effects of PZP immunization on reproduction in white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year study was conducted to determine the long-term effects of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccine on the immune and hormonal responses, and reproduction of the white-tailed deer. The first 2 years of active immunization resulted in an 89% reduction in fawning. Vaccination with PZP produced reversible infertility lasting 1–4 years. Infertility was directly related to immune titers to PZP.

Lowell A Miller; Brad E Johns; Gary J Killian

1999-01-01

117

White-tailed deer vary offspring sex-ratio according to maternal condition and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested two models of adaptive offspring sex-ratio that predict opposite optimal reproductive strategies for female white-tail\\u000a deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Trivers and Willard's model predicts that does (females) in particularly good condition should produce sons, and Williams\\u000a refined their model to make specific predictions about optimal offspring number\\/sex choices. Verme's model results in very\\u000a different predictions because of very different

Russell L. Burke; James M. Birch

1995-01-01

118

White-tailed deer management options model (DeerMOM): design, quantification, and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deer management options model (DeerMOM) is a computer simulation model designed to assess the effects of management options on population size, sex and age structure of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). In this model, we grouped deer into three age classes: fawn, yearling, and adult. Reproductive rates and fetal sex ratios were age-specific, while natural and harvest mortality rates were

Jialong Xie; Harry R. Hill; Scott R. Winterstein; Henry Campa; Robert V. Doepker; Timothy R. Van Deelen; Jianguo Liu

1999-01-01

119

HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE KIDNEYS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN OKLAHOMA83  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of renal lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium from 64 free- ranging adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were determined. The mean concentrations in ppm wet weight and standard deviations for the metals were: lead, 0.574 ± 0.646; arsenic, 0.189 + 0.320; mercury, 0.176 ± 0.114; and cadmium, 6.968± 9.215. Variations in heavy metal concentration in deer collected from differing ecoregions

A. ALAN KOCAN; MICHAEL G. SHAW; WILLIAM C. EDWARDS; J. HAMMOND EVE

120

SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

-,!.. Abstract: Seasonal activity patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied injl tensively along a IS-mile stretch of the Big Sioux River and less intensively on an expanse of 1,100; square miles in central eastern South Dakota from February, 1964, to March, 1966. Thirty-three deer were.'i marked individually with ear tags, streamers, and collars, and 461 locations were recorded.

ROLLIN D. SPARROWE; PAUL F. SPRINGER

121

Borrelia sp. in Ticks Recovered from White-tailed Deer in Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hundred sixty-five hunter-killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus vrirginianus) from 18 counties in Alabama (USA) were examined for ticks. Most of the collections were made at state-operated wildlife management areas. Four species of ticks (n = 4,527) were recovered: the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum (n = 482); the Gulf Coast tick A. maculatum (n = 11); the winter tick Dermacentor

Gary R. Mullen; Lance A. Durden; James C. Wright

1992-01-01

122

DIET AND FOOD PREFERENCES OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN NORTH-EASTERN STEWART ISLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The diet and food preferences of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on north-eastern Stewart Island are described from the analysis of 160 samples of rumen contents collected between 1979 and 1985, and vegetation surveys in 1975 and 1976. Deer browsed all the hardwood trees, but few shrubs, ferns, or podocarps. Woody plants comprised 85.1 % (dry weight) of annual diet.

G. NUGENT; C. N. CHALLIES

123

The ossification process of the developing antler in the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsy samples were obtained from the growing tips of the main beam and tines of two-and three-year-old, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout the active growing season. The samples were prepared by routine and special histological techniques. The histological differentiation of the antler proceeded through a complex series of changes. The series originated with reserve mesenchymal tissue, progressed through the differentiation

W. J. Banks

1974-01-01

124

SEROLOGIC SURVEY FOR ANTIBODIES TO BORRELIA BURGDORFERI IN WHITE-TAILED DEER IN GEORGIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serologic survey for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi utilizing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serum samples collected in Georgia (USA) from 1979 to 1990. Serologic results from four regions (Barrier Islands, Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Mountain) and three age classes (0.5, 1.5, and ?2.5 yr) were compared. Antibody prevalence, as determined by positive

Gail L. Mahnke; David E. Stallknecht; Craig E. Greene; Victor F. Nettles; Margaret A. Marks

1993-01-01

125

Factors affecting road mortality of white- tailed deer in eastern South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) mortalities (n = 4,433) caused by collisions with automobiles during 2003 were modeled in 35 counties in eastern South Dakota. Seventeen independent variables and 5 independent variable interactions were evaluated to explain deer mortalities. A negative binomial regression model (Ln Y = 1.25 - 0.12 (percentage tree coverage) + 0.0002 (county area) + 5.39 (county hunter

TROY W. GROVENBURG; JONATHAN A. JENKS; ROBERT W. KLAVER; KEVIN L. MONTEITH; DWIGHT H. GALSTER; RON J. SCHAUER; WILBERT W. MORLOCK; JOSHUA A. DELGER

2008-01-01

126

New infectious spirochete isolated from short-tailed shrews and white-footed mice.  

PubMed Central

A spirochete with two periplasmic flagella was isolated from the blood or tissues of spleens and kidneys from short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in Connecticut and Minnesota. After inoculation, the shrew-mouse spirochete infected Swiss mice and Syrian hamsters. This spirochete is morphologically and serologically distinct from the species of Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, and Spirochaeta examined. Images

Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W; Andreadis, T G

1987-01-01

127

Field testing of commercially manufactured capture collars on white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted 31 tests of commercially manufactured capture collars on female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, under temperatures from -37C to 22C. Deer were recaptured in 28 of the 31 tests; in the 3 failures, we remotely released the collars from the deer. Communication with the collars was achieved from up to 3.0 km on the ground and 26.5 km from the air.

Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Kreeger, T.J.

1990-01-01

128

COMBINATION OF ETORPHINE AND XYLAZINE IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER: I. SEDATIVE AND IMMOBILIZATION PROPERTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bstract: Eighteen white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were immobilized with a singleintramuscular injection of etorphine hydrochloride (20 ?sg\\/kg of body weight) and xylazine (0.4 mg\\/kg. of body weight). The deer ranged in age from 6 months to 8 years and some were in poor physical condition. The drugs were ad- ministered in syringes projected with a CO2-powered gun. Time required

K. RON PRESNELL; PAUL J. A. PRESIDENTE; WILLIAM A. RAPLEYJ

129

SENSITIVITY OF CONDITION INDICES TO CHANGING DENSITY IN A WHITE-TAILED DEER POPULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRA(:T: The ways in which comprehensive condition profiles, incorporating morphometric, histologic, physiologic, and diet quality indices, responded to changes in density of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population were examined. Changes in these condition indices were monitored in a northeastern Oklahoma deer herd as density declined from peaks of 80 and 72 deer\\/km2 in 1989 and 1990 (high-density) to lows

Michael G. Sams; Robert L. Lochmiller; Charles W. Quails; David M. Leslie

130

Serologic Evidence of Jamestown Canyon Virus Infection in White.Tailed Deer Populations from Connecticut  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the prevalence and distribution of Jamestown Canyon (JC) vi- rus antibody in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations in Connecticut, USA. Sera were collected from hunter-killed deer during 1993. Antibody to JC virus was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELI- SA) in 92 (21%) of 446 deer sera, and was uni- formly distributed among geographic sites. Twenty-one ELISA-positive sera

Joann M. Zamparo; Theodore G. Andreadis; Robert E. Shope; Shirley J. Tirrell; Yale Arbovirus

131

Survival rates, mortality causes, and habitats of Pennsylvania white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimates of survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns are important to population management. We quantified cause-specific mortality, survival rates, and habitat characteristics related to fawn survival in a forested landscape and an agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania. We captured and radiocollared neonatal (0.05). Predation accounted for 46.2% (95% Cl = 37.6-56.7%) of 106 mortalities through 34 weeks. We attributed 32.7% (95% Cl = 21.9-48.6%) and 36.7% (95% Cl = 25.5-52.9%) of 49 predation events to black bears (Ursus americanus) and coyotes (Canis latrans], respectively. Natural causes, excluding predation, accounted for 27.4% (95% Cl = 20.1-37.3) of mortalities. Fawn survival in Pennsylvania was comparable to reported survival in forested and agricultural regions in northern portions of the white-tailed deer range. We have no evidence to suggest that the fawn survival rates we observed were preventing population growth. Because white-tailed deer are habitat generalists, home-range-scale habitat characteristics may be unrelated to fawn survival; therefore, future studies should consider landscape-related characteristics on fawn survival.

Vreeland, J. K.; Diefenbach, D. R.; Wallingford, B. D.

2004-01-01

132

White-tailed deer ecology and management on Fire Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deer populations have grown dramatically on Fire Island National Seashore (FIlS) since 1983. Trend data reveal a dichotomy in deer dynamics. In the eastern half of the island, deer density appears to have stabilized between 25-35 deer/km2. In the western half of the island, deer densities are 3-4 times as high in residential communities. Concomitant with that increase has been a general decline in physical stature of some animals, visible impacts on island vegetation, especially in the Sunken Forest, and a perceived increase in the frequency of human and deer interactions. Intensive research on FIlS has shown that deer occupy relatively predictable home ranges throughout the year, but can and do move up and down the island. Impacts of deer on vegetation are most dramatic in the Sunken Forest. Most obvious are the effects of browsing on the herb layer of the Sunken Forest. The least obvious, but perhaps more significant impact is the stark lack of regeneration of canopy tree species since about 1970, which coincides with the initiation of the deer population irruption. A number of herbs and shrubs have been greatly reduced in the understory, and their propagules from the soil. Deer do not readily transmit the bacterium that causes Lyme disease to other organisms, but deer are important hosts for adult ticks which underscores their importance in the transmission pathway of the disease to humans. Deer on FIlS, while occasionally docile, are still wild animals and should be treated as such. Some animals are relatively unafraid of humans due to the absence of predation and a lack of harassment. This in turn has contributed to a longstanding tradition of feeding deer by many residents and visitors, particularly in western portions of the island. Feeding affects both the behavior and population dynamics of deer inhabiting Fire Island. Recent efforts to reduce deer feeding by visitors and residents have been very effective. Ongoing experiments with Porcine Zona Pellucida immunocontraception demonstrate some promise of this technology as a population management tool.. Success appears to be linked directly to factors affecting access to deer, which vary considerably among treatment locations. Continued high National Park Service visibility among communities in the form of interpretive programs, extension and outreach activities, and continued support of research and monitoring of deer and their effects on island biota are keys to successful resolution of persistent issues.

Underwood, H.B.

2005-01-01

133

Isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from Wild White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Confirms Their Role as Natural Reservoir Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular,

J. MITCHELL LOCKHART; WILLIAM R. DAVIDSON; DAVID E. STALLKNECHT; JACQUELINE E. DAWSON; ELIZABETH W. HOWERTH

1997-01-01

134

SEROLOGICAL PREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF BABESIA ODOCOILE! AMONG WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN TEXAS AND OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples collected from 581 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Texas and from 124 white-tailed deer from Oklahoma were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique against Babesia odocoilei. Prevalence of seropositive reactors varied from site to site in both states. Prevalence rates were statistically ranked as high, intermediate or low. Deer <12-mo-old had a significantly lower prevalence than all

K. A. Waldrup; A. A. Kocan; T. Qureshi; D. S. Davis; D. Baggett; G. G. Wagner

135

SEROLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF BOVINE HERPESVIRUS 1RELATED VIRUS INFECTION IN THE WHITE-TAILED DEER POPULATION ON ANTICOSTI ISLAND, QUEBEC  

Microsoft Academic Search

High white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population densities and the occur- rence of harsh environmental conditions are present on Anticosti Island, located in the Gulf of Saint-Lawrence (Quebec, Canada). This island is the northernmost region of white-tailed deer distribution in northeastern North America. The aim of this work was to determine whether a herpesvirus serologically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1)

Lucie Lamontagne; Leila Sadi; Robert Joyal

136

TIDAL TAIL EJECTION AS A SIGNATURE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM WHITE DWARF MERGERS  

SciTech Connect

The merger of two white dwarfs may be preceded by the ejection of some mass in ''tidal tails,'' creating a circumstellar medium around the system. We consider the variety of observational signatures from this material, which depend on the lag time between the start of the merger and the ultimate explosion (assuming one occurs) of the system in a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). If the time lag is fairly short, then the interaction of the supernova ejecta with the tails could lead to detectable shock emission at radio, optical, and/or X-ray wavelengths. At somewhat later times, the tails produce relatively broad NaID absorption lines with velocity widths of the order of the white dwarf escape speed ({approx}1000 km s{sup -1}). That none of these signatures have been detected in normal SNe Ia constrains the lag time to be either very short ({approx}< 100 s) or fairly long ({approx}> 100 yr). If the tails have expanded and cooled over timescales {approx}10{sup 4} yr, then they could be observable through narrow NaID and Ca II H and K absorption lines in the spectra, which are seen in some fraction of SNe Ia. Using a combination of three-dimensional and one-dimensional hydrodynamical codes, we model the mass loss from tidal interactions in binary systems, and the subsequent interactions with the interstellar medium, which produce a slow-moving, dense shell of gas. We synthesize NaID line profiles by ray casting through this shell, and show that in some circumstances tidal tails could be responsible for narrow absorptions similar to those observed.

Raskin, Cody; Kasen, Daniel [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2013-07-20

137

Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM) disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM) and Quality Deer Management (QDM), a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the six regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of antler and nasal swabs from deer were positive for A. pyogenes, respectively. On the Upper Eastern Shore, prevalence of A. pyogenes cultured from deer did not differ between management areas, and was abundant among both sexes and across all age classes. No A. pyogenes was cultured from a small sample of neonates. Conclusion Our study indicates A. pyogenes may be carried widely among white-tailed deer regardless of sex or age class, but we found no evidence the pathogen is acquired in utero. The distribution of A. pyogenes across regions and concentration in a region with low livestock levels suggests the potential for localized endemicity of the organism and the possibility that deer may serve as a maintenance reservoir for an emerging one health concern.

Turner, Melissa M.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Conner, Mark C.; Eyler, T. Brian; Lancia, Richard A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

2013-01-01

138

Distribution of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antigen in persistently infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), analogous to that occurring in cattle, is reported rarely in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This study evaluated the distribution of BVDV antigen in persistently infected (PI) white-tailed deer and compared the findings with those from PI cattle. Six PI fawns (four live-born and two stillborn) from does exposed experimentally to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 were evaluated. Distribution and intensity of antigen expression in tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed in binary fashion with a proportional odds model. Viral antigen was distributed widely and was present in all 11 organ systems. Hepatobiliary, integumentary and reproductive systems were respectively 11.8, 15.4 and 21.6 times more likely to have higher antigen scores than the musculoskeletal system. Pronounced labelling occurred in epithelial tissues, which were 1.9-3.0 times likelier than other tissues to contain BVDV antigen. Antigen was present in >90% of samples of liver and skin, suggesting that skin biopsy samples are appropriate for BVDV diagnosis. Moderate to severe lymphoid depletion was detected and may hamper reliable detection of BVDV in lymphoid organs. Muscle tissue contained little antigen, except for in the cardiovascular system. Antigen was present infrequently in connective tissues. In nervous tissues, antigen expression frequency was 0.3-0.67. In the central nervous system (CNS), antigen was present in neurons and non-neuronal cells, including microglia, emphasizing that the CNS is a primary target for fetal BVDV infection. BVDV antigen distribution in PI white-tailed deer is similar to that in PI cattle. PMID:22520818

Passler, T; Walz, H L; Ditchkoff, S S; van Santen, E; Brock, K V; Walz, P H

2012-11-01

139

Comparing protein and energy status of winter-fed white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although nutritional status in response to controlled feeding trials has been extensively studied in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), there remains a considerable gap in understanding the influence of variable supplemental feeding protocols on free-ranging deer. Consequently, across the northern portion of the white-tailed deer range, numerous property managers are investing substantial resources into winter supplemental-feeding programs without adequate tools to assess the nutritional status of their populations. We studied the influence of a supplemental winter feeding gradient on the protein and energy status of free-ranging white-tailed deer in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. We collected blood and fecal samples from 31 captured fawns across 3 sites that varied considerably in the frequency, quantity, and method of supplemental feed distribution. To facilitate population-wide comparisons, we collected fresh fecal samples off the snow at each of the 3 sites with supplemental feeding and 1 reference site where no feeding occurred. Results indicated that the method of feed distribution, in addition to quantity and frequency, can affect the nutritional status of deer. The least intensively fed population showed considerable overlap in diet quality with the unfed population in a principal components ordination, despite the substantial time and financial resources invested in the feeding program. Data from fecal samples generally denoted a gradient in diet quality and digestibility that corresponded with the availability of supplements. Our results further demonstrated that fecal nitrogen and fecal fiber, indices of dietary protein and digestibility, can be estimated using regressions of fecal pellet mass, enabling a rapid qualitative assessment of diet quality.

Page, B.D.; Underwood, H.B.

2006-01-01

140

White-Tailed Deer Browse Preferences in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest  

SciTech Connect

The authors examined spring and summer use of browse by white-tailed deer in forest gaps created by group selection timber harvest at the SRS. Total percentage browse was low in both years, averaging 2.5% of the available browse. Six species were rated high use, 4 species as proportional use and 10 species as low use. Ratings were in agreement to others in the Southeast. Preferred species were maple, winged elm, greenbriar and black willow. Deer browse had very little impact on regeneration of most species.

Castleberry, S.B.; Ford, W.M.; Miller, K.V.; Smith, W.P.

1997-09-04

141

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

Pietz, P. J.; Granfors, D. A.

2000-01-01

142

Notes and Discussion: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

Pietz, P. J.; Granfors, D. A.

2000-01-01

143

Heavy metals in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W. N.

1985-01-01

144

Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

Sileo, L; Beyer, W.N.

1985-01-01

145

Influence of landscape characteristics on migration strategies of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A trade-off exists for migrating animals as to whether to migrate or remain residents. Few studies have documented relationships between landscape variables and deer migration strategies. From 2000 to 2007 we captured 267 adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at 7 study sites in Minnesota and South Dakota and monitored 149 individuals through ???3 seasonal migration periods (585 deer-migration seasons). All deer classified as obligate migrators with ???3 migrations (range 3-9 migration seasons) maintained their obligate status for the duration of the study. Multinomial logistic odds ratios from generalized estimating equations indicated that the odds of being a resident increased by 1.4 and 1.3 per 1-unit increase in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to migrating deer. Odds of being an obligate migrator increased by 0.7 and 0.8 per 1-unit decrease in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to resident or conditional migrating deer. Areas inhabited by resident deer were characterized by greater number of forest patches per 100 ha and larger mean forest patch area than conditional and obligate migrant areas. Odds of migrating increased by 1.1 per 1-unit increase in deer winter severity index. Migration behavior of white-tailed deer varied among regions, and land-cover and landscape characteristics provided predictive indicators of migration strategies for deer that could have important implications for conservation, metapopulation dynamics, and species management. ?? American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.

Grovenburg, T. W.; Jacques, C. N.; Klaver, R. W.; Deperno, C. S.; Brinkman, T. J.; Swanson, C. C.; Jenks, J. A.

2011-01-01

146

Daily movements of female white-tailed deer relative to parturition and breeding.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: To assess how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd demographics influence reproductive behaviors, we examined 24-h diel movements of female whitetailed deer relative to parturition and breeding in a low-density population with a near even sex ratio at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. We conducted a series of intensive, 24-h radio-tracking periods of 13 females during spring and fall 2002. We compared daily range (ha), rate of travel (m/h), and distance between extreme daily locations (m), among the periods of pre-parturition and post-parturition and pre-, peak-, and post-rut. From pre-parturition to post-parturition, we observed decreases in diel range size (�¢����38.2%), distance between extreme diel locations (�¢����17.0%), and diel rate of travel (�¢����18.2%). Diel range size, distance between extreme diel locations, and diel rate of travel during the pre-rut and rut exceeded those observed during post-rut. We further identified substantial increases in mobility during 12 24-h diel periods for eight females during our fall monitoring. Our data suggest that female white-tailed deer reduce mobility post-fawning following exaggerated movements during pre-parturition. Furthermore, despite a near equal sex ratio, estrous does may be required to actively seek potential mates due to low population density.

Gino J. D'Angelo; Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Cory D. Drennan; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller

2005-10-01

147

Winter fasting and refeeding effects on urine characteristics in white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary characteristics of 9 captive, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Urinary sodium (na) and potassium (K) were diminished in fasted deer after 2 and 4 weeks. Renal excretion of Na and K were lower, whereas urinary phosphorus (P) was higher in fasted deer compared to deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) diets. Urinary P excretion of the fasted deer was also greater than in a low protein-high energy (LPHE)-fed group. Urinary area excretion of fasted deer was similar to that of deer fed low and high protein diets. One fasted deer died during the study and exhibited notably high excretion of urea, Na, K, and calcium (Ca). No effects of the 2 levels of dietary protein on urinary characteristics were detected. Urinary Na:C and K:C ratios wer significantly correlated with Na and K intake. Urinalysis has potential as a sensitive means of monitoring the nutritional status of white-tailed deer. Data are presented as reference values for interpretation of data from deer under less controlled circumstances.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

1987-01-01

148

Aggressive defensive behavior by free-ranging white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Maternal investment plays a critical role in neonate survival, and adults can improve survival of offspring by defending them against predators. However, limited information exists documenting ungulate aggression toward humans in defense of neonates. During captures of neonates in spring 2007 and 2008 in north-central South Dakota, we documented 24 aggressive encounters by adult female and yearling male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45.8%) aggressive encounters included yearlings accompanying adult females. Mean ages and weights of neonates that were aggressively defended were greater (P < 0.0001) than ages and weights of those that were not; adults began protecting neonates at approximately 4 days of age. Male fawns were more likely (P = 0.013) to be defended than female fawns. Examination of our data suggests that sex- and age-biased maternal defensive behavior exists in white-tailed deer, and that deer biased maternal investment toward older, male neonates. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

Grovenburg, T. W.; Jenks, J. A.; Jacques, C. N.; Klaver, R. W.; Swanson, C. C.

2009-01-01

149

Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

2010-01-01

150

36 cases of bites by spiders, including the white-tailed spider, Lampona cylindrata.  

PubMed

Thirty-six cases of bites by spiders are reported; in all cases, the spider was identified. No cases resulted in the formation of local ulcers, in necrosis, or in serious systemic symptoms. Eight bites by Lampona cylindrata, the white-tailed spider, caused a mild sting to sharp pain of short duration, itchiness, erythema, local swelling or a lump, and either no systemic symptoms, or anxiety. Five bites by Badumna insignis, the black house-spider, caused local pain, erythema, swelling, and no systemic symptoms, or anxiety, or chest pain and shortness of breath of mild degree and of short duration. The other spiders to be reported as causing bites were Hadronyche adelaidensis, Misgolas andrewsi, Aganippe subtristis, Olios calligaster, Isopeda pessleri, Eriophora sp., Phonognatha graeffei, Holoplatys sp., Breda jovialis, Opisthoncus sp., Lycosa sp. and Achaearanea tepidariorum. PMID:2783216

White, J; Hirst, D; Hender, E

1989-04-01

151

Foraging flights of the white-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus): Radiotracking and doubly-labelled water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radiotracking transmitters were fitted to White-tailed Tropicbirds nesting at Culebra, Puerto Rico. Foragers were located by light aircraft out to 89 km SSW of the nesting colony, over a deep-water foraging area south of Vieques Island, Puerto Rico and west of St Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands. Two birds were followed out to 176 km NNW from the colony, over the Puerto Rico Trench, but these did not subsequently return. Foragers carrying radio transmitters performed similarly to those without, in terms of duration of absence from the colony, and mass of food brought for the chick. However, measuremetns of energy consumption by the doubly labelled water method indicated that birds with transmitters consumed significantly more energy than those without.

Pennycuick, C. J.; Shaffner, F. C.; Fuller, M. R.; Obrecht, H.H., III; Sternberg, L.

1990-01-01

152

Natal dispersal and gene flow in white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I documented natal dispersal and gene flow in 79 yearling white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota during 1974-1988. Sixty-four percent (n = 28) of 44 males and 20?/0 (n = 7) of 35 females dispersed from their natal home ranges when 1.0-1.5-years old. Eighty-six percent and 95%, of all yearlings including nondispersers, dispersed 526 and 538 km, respectively. Minimum gene flow was estimated to be 40 deer per generation, based on a circular subpopulation defined by a 26-km radius. Gene flow estimated from allele frequencies for five polymorphic loci averaged 15 deer per generation among five subpopulations. These values of gene flow were concomitant with significant allele frequency heterogeneity at the subpopulation level.

Nelson, M.E.

1993-01-01

153

Effects on fawn survival of multiple immobilizations of captive pregnant white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fawn viability was tested in captive, pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) immobilized with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and reversed by yohimbine hydrochloride or tolazoline hydrochloride. Nine pregnant does were immobilized 10 times each from December 1984 to May 1985. Their mean parturition date was 8 June. The number of fawns produced per pregnant doe was 1.88. Mean weight of newborn fawns was 4.18 kg. Seventy-five percent of the does produced twins or triplets. Three (20%) fawns died postnatally within 48 hr, but the remaining 12 survived for the full 72 hr they were allowed to remain with their dams. These observations compare favorably with those of non-immobilized captive deer on similar diets.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.; Karns, P.D.

1986-01-01

154

Efficacy of clorsulon and albendazole against Fascioloides magna in naturally infected white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

The efficacy of clorsulon and of albendazole against Fascioloides magna were evaluated in 36 naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in southern Texas. A single oral dose of clorsulon suspension (12 to 30 mg/kg of body weight; mean = 24 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 153 (92%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (80%) of 5 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. A single oral dose of albendazole paste (17 to 46 mg/kg; mean = 26 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 148 (89%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (67%) of 6 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. In 82 nontreated control deer, 271 live flukes were recovered; dead flukes were not recovered. PMID:4077630

Foreyt, W J; Drawe, D L

1985-12-01

155

Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-tailed deer (n = 14 treated, n = 7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated in 1998, and 3 of 6 (50%) revaccinated in 2000. The 2000 revaccinates without oophoritis, had significantly fewer normal secondary follicles than control females (P = 0.03), and deer in the1998 treatment group (P = 0.04). PZP immunocontraceptive vaccine elicited ovarian pathologies in deer similar to those observed in other species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Curtis, P. D.; Richmond, M. E.; Miller, L. A.; Quimby, F. W.

2007-01-01

156

Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer (n=14 treated, n=7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated in 1998, and 3 of 6 (50%) revaccinated in 2000. The 2000 revaccinates without oophoritis, had significantly fewer normal secondary follicles than control females (P=0.03), and deer in the 1998 treatment group (P=0.04). PZP immunocontraceptive vaccine elicited ovarian pathologies in deer similar to those observed in other species. PMID:17475371

Curtis, Paul D; Richmond, Milo E; Miller, Lowell A; Quimby, Fred W

2007-06-01

157

Do wolves affect white-tailed buck harvest in northeastern Minnesota?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used simple linear regression to analyze 8-23 years of data on a wolf (Canis lupus) population and human harvest of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) bucks in northeastern Minnesota to determine any effects of wolves on buck harvesting. Over the long term, wolves accounted for at least 14-22% of the inter-year variation in buck harvest in the region, but an unknown amount of variation in hunter effort may have obscured any more precise estimate. For part of the area with poorest habitat, we found strong inverse relationships (r2 = 0.66-0.84) between annual wolf numbers and buck harvests from 1988 to 1995 when hunting pressure was considered relatively constant. However, in better habitat, where our buck harvest sample was larger, we found no evidence of wolves influencing buck harvest. Our findings tend to confirm the suitability of the Minnesota Department of Natural Resource's deer harvest regulations for a sustainable yield.

Mech, L. D.; Nelson, M. E.

2000-01-01

158

Aerial tracking of radio-marked white-tailed tropicbirds over the Caribbean Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We radio-marked nesting white-tailed tropicbirds at Culebra National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico, and tracked them from a Cessna 182 during flights over the open sea. Locations of the birds were determined using standard aerial telemetry techniques for side-facing Yagi antennas. We used strut-mounted, 4-element Yagi antennas connected to a switchbox and scanning receiver. By recording bearing and distance from at least 1 of 3 aeronautical navigation beacons, the position of the aircraft and the bird could be estimated with an error of about 2 km. On several occasions we plotted the general heading of a bird and then relocated and tracked the same bird on the following day. Our method of aerial tracking and navigation was useful for tracking birds over the sea to at least 116 km from the breeding colony

Fuller, M.R.; Obrecht, H.H., III; Pennycuick, C.J.; Schaffner, F.C.

1989-01-01

159

Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.  

PubMed

Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P

Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

2008-04-01

160

Multiple proximate and ultimate causes of natal dispersal in white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal in vertebrates vary, and relative importance of these causes is poorly understood. Among populations, inter- and intrasexual social cues for dispersal are thought to reduce inbreeding and local mate competition, respectively, and specific emigration cue may affect dispersal distance, such that inbreeding avoidance dispersal tends to be farther than dispersal to reduce local competition. To investigate potential occurrence of multiple proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal within populations, we radio-marked 363 juvenile male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. Natal dispersal probability and distance were monitored over a 3-year period when large-scale management changes reduced density of adult females and increased density of adult males. Most dispersal (95-97%) occurred during two 12-week periods: spring, when yearling males still closely associate with related females, and prior to fall breeding season, when yearling males closely associate with other breeding-age males. Following changes to sex and age structure that reduced potential for inbreeding and increased potential for mate competition, annual dispersal probability did not change; however, probability of spring dispersal decreased, whereas probability of fall dispersal increased. Spring dispersal distances were greater than fall dispersal distances, suggesting that adaptive inbreeding avoidance dispersal requires greater distance than mate competition dispersal where opposite-sex relatives are philopatric and populations are not patchily distributed. Both inbreeding avoidance and mate competition are important ultimate causes of dispersal of white-tailed deer, but ultimate motivations for dispersal are proximately cued by different social mechanisms and elicit different responses in dispersers.

Long, E. S.; Diefenbach, D. R.; Rosenberry, C. S.; Wallingford, B. D.

2008-01-01

161

Evaluation of an expandable, breakaway radiocollar for white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated an expandable, breakaway VHF radiocollar design for use on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from birth to about 1 year of age. A similar collar design has been used on caribou (Rangifer tarandus), but we found that the collar did not expand quickly enough to accommodate increase in neck circumference of fawns during the first 2 months of life. Consequently, we modified the stitching pattern so that the first expansion fold opened faster. We monitored performance of this modification on free-ranging and captive fawns. Also, we collected data on neck growth in fawns to document design requirements of expandable collars for white-tailed deer. Mean neck circumference at ???14 days of age of free-ranging fawns in Pennsylvania was 17.8 cm (SD=1.67, n=62) for males and 17.3 cm (SD=1.50, n=52) for females. Based on measurements of captive fawns, neck circumference increased 8.8 cm from birth to August, 2.5 cm from August to October, and 2.6 cm from October to March. Observations of captive fawns fitted with dummy radiocollars indicated that collars expanded when needed and caused no apparent discomfort to fawns. We detected no problems with use of 86 collars on 113 free-ranging fawns for >270 days and recovered radiocollars expanded as designed. The elastic collar material failed on 3 collars (3%) after 142, 207, and 226 days on fawns, and 1-5 radiocollars (???4%) were cast by fawns. Our modification to this radiocollar design reduced fawn discomfort or suffering, allowing researchers to better comply with principles of the Animal Welfare Act.

Diefenbach, D. R.; Kochanny, C. O.; Vreeland, J. K.; Wallingford, B. D.

2003-01-01

162

DNA fragmentation kinetics and postthaw motility of flow cytometric-sorted white-tailed deer sperm.  

PubMed

This study examined DNA damage and postthaw motility of white-tailed deer sperm (n = 28) before and after sex selection and conventional sorting using MoFlo XDP SX flow cytometry. Semen samples from the same individuals were treated in 4 different ways: 1) chilled-extended sperm samples (without glycerol); 2) cryopreserved conventional samples, samples directly cryopreserved after the addition of extenders; 3) cryopreserved conventionally sorted samples, sorted samples to remove the dead sperm subpopulation; and 4) cryopreserved sex-sorted samples; sorted samples to remove the dead sperm subpopulation and separation of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. In all the cases (n = 6), conventional samples showed decreased postthaw motilities (43 ± 26%) when compared with X-sorted samples (59 ± 20%; P < 0.05) and Y-sorted samples (54 ± 20%; P > 0.05). The DNA fragmentation baseline was <5% for frozen-thawed conventional samples, but even less after sex sorting and conventional sorting: 2.4 and 1.7%, respectively. On the other hand, conventional samples showed greater (P < 0.05) DNA fragmentation than the sex-sorted sperm (n = 6) at 96 h (average of 4.8 ± 4.5% and 5.3 ± 4%, respectively). Conventionally sorted samples (n = 8) did not have greater (P > 0.05) DNA fragmentation when compared with the sex-sorted samples. Fragmentation of DNA on X-chromosome and Y-chromosome-bearing sorted sperm were not significantly different (n = 10, P > 0.05) after 96 h (2.6 ± 3.6% and 2.2 ± 0.5%, respectively). Future research should be implemented for examining the fertilizing potential of sex-sorted white-tailed deer sperm (e.g., AI fertility trials). PMID:21788426

Kjelland, M E; González-Marín, C; Gosálvez, J; López-Fernández, C; Lenz, R W; Evans, K M; Moreno, J F

2011-12-01

163

SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY IN FREE-RANGING MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HE\\/Id\\/ONUS), WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSON\\/) IN NORTHCENTRAL COLORADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between March 1981 and June 1995, a neurological disease characterized histolog- ically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral Colorado (USA). Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and ac- counted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six Rocky Mountain elk (Cerous eluphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus oirginianus) were also

T. R. Spraker; M. W. Miller; E. S. Williams; D. M. Getzy; W. J. Adrian; G. G. Schoonveld; R. A. Spowart; K. I. O'Rourke; J. M. Miller; P. A. Merz

164

TEMPORAL ASSOCIATION OF AMBLYOMMA AMERICANUM WITH THE PRESENCE OF EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS REACTIVE ANTIBODIES IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1981 through 1993, tick infestations and serum antibodies reactive to Ehrlichla chaffeensis, the causative agent of human ehrlichiosis, were monitored among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Whitehall Experimental Forest, Clarke County, Georgia (USA). Nei- ther ticks nor E. chaffeensis antibodies were detected during the first two years of the study. Infestations of the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum), a

J. Mitchell Lockhart; William R. Davidson; Jacqueline E. Dawson; David E. Stallknecht

165

Recent Historical and Projected Regional Trends of White-Tailed Deer and Wild Turkey in the Southern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of the historical and future status of white-tailed deer and wild turkey populations in the southern United States is presented. Habitat-based models that statistically relate deer and turkey densities to land use and forest cover at the count...

C. H. Flather T. W. Hoekstra D. E. Chalk N. D. Cost V. A. Rudis

1989-01-01

166

Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.  

PubMed

Sera collected from 299 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested in New York State by hunters in November 2010 were assayed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. White-tailed deer are a useful sentinel for risk of human and domestic animal exposure to Toxoplasma oocysts and pose a potential risk for infection to humans and other animals by ingestion of the meat. White-tailed deer share grazing space with domestic animals raised for meat and are likely to be exposed by horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption, similar to other grazing species of economic concern. Overall, 42.2% of samples were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating a true prevalence of 38.5%, with a significantly higher proportion of adult than immature deer antibody positive. No significant difference in prevalence was found between male and female deer nor was there a significant effect of local human population density on deer antibody prevalence. These results provide insight into the risk of environmental Toxoplasma exposure in New York State and support horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption as the most common mechanism of white-tailed deer infection. PMID:24502721

Schaefer, John J; Kirchgessner, Megan S; Whipps, Christopher M; Mohammed, Hussni O; Bunting, Elizabeth M; Wade, Susan E

2013-10-01

167

Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

Nelson, Michael E.

2011-01-01

168

Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla collected in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners including highly toxic non-, mono-, and di-ortho coplanar members as well as their pattern were determined in breast muscles of white-tailed sea eagles collected dead between 1982 and 1990 in Poland. There was a wide variation in total PCB residue concentrations among eagles from various breeding sites, with the Baltic Sea coast registering

J. Falandysz; N. Yamashita; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; L. Rucifiska; T. Mizera; B. Jakuczun

1994-01-01

169

White matter lesions in Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Pure vascular parkinsonism without evidence of nigral Lewy body pathology may occur as a distinct clinicopathological entity, but a much more frequent occurrence is the comorbid presence of age-associated white matter lesions (WMLs) in idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). WMLs are associated with motor and cognitive symptoms in otherwise normal elderly individuals. Comorbid WMLs are, therefore, expected to contribute to clinical symptoms in PD. Studies of WMLs in PD differ with regard to methods of assessment of WML burden and the patient populations selected for analysis, but converging evidence suggests that postural stability and gait motor functions are predominantly affected. WMLs are described to contribute to dementia in Alzheimer disease, and emerging but inconclusive evidence indicates similar effects in PD. In this article, we review the literature addressing the occurrence and impact of WMLs in PD, and suggest that WMLs may exacerbate or contribute to some motor and cognitive deficits associated with PD. We review existing and emerging methods for studying white matter pathology in vivo, and propose future research directions.

Bohnen, Nicolaas I.; Albin, Roger L.

2013-01-01

170

Experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in yearling black-tailed deer.  

PubMed

An apparently novel adenovirus was associated with an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California (USA) during 1993-1994. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. Six black-tailed yearling deer (O. hemionus columbianus) were inoculated with purified adenovirus isolated from a black-tailed fawn that died of acute adenovirus hemorrhagic disease during the epizootic. Three of six inoculated deer also received intramuscular injections of dexamethasone sodium phosphate every 3 days during the study. Eight days post-inoculation, one deer (without dexamethasone) developed bloody diarrhea and died. Necropsy and histopathologic findings were identical to lesions in free-ranging animals that died of the natural disease. Hemorrhagic enteropathy and pulmonary edema were the significant necropsy findings and there was microscopic vascular damage and endothelial intranuclear inclusion bodies in the vessels of the intestines and lungs. Adenovirus was identified in necrotic endothelial cells in the lungs by fluorescent antibody staining, immunohistochemistry and by transmission electron microscopy. Adenovirus was reisolated from tissues of the animal that died of experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease. Similar gross and microscopic lesions were absent in four of six adenovirus-inoculated deer and in the negative control animal which were necropsied at variable intervals during the 14 wk study. One deer was inoculated with purified adenovirus a second time, 12 wk after the first inoculation. Fifteen days after the second inoculation, this deer developed severe ulceration of the tongue, pharynx and rumen and necrotizing osteomyelitis of the mandible which was associated with vasculitis and thrombosis of adjacent large vessels and endothelial intranuclear inclusions. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated adenovirus within the nuclei of vascular cells and immunohistochemistry demonstrated adenovirus antigen within tonsilar epithelium and in rare vessels. PMID:9391965

Woods, L W; Hanley, R S; Chiu, P H; Burd, M; Nordhausen, R W; Stillian, M H; Swift, P K

1997-10-01

171

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1980 status report  

SciTech Connect

Ninety-eight white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1980, an increase of twenty-five over 1979. Both spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. November and December were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road-kills was about 1.1 from January through October but shifted to a high male kill (4.8:1) during November and December, presumably the result of the rutting season. Reproductive data collected from does indicated that breeding occurred as early as October 20 and as late as December 21. Records kept on rutting condition in bucks indicated a breeding season from October through January; antlers were shed from January through April with the peak of shedding activity occurring in March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed a good general condition of the animals with only a few abnormalities or indications of sickness or disease. Abomasal parasite counts indicate that Reservation deer population has reached optimum density. Other parasites found include brainworms, body worms, and botfly larvae; papillomas were observed in two deer during 1980. Data from heart girth and weight measurements were presented and compared to similar data from elsewhere in the Southeastern United States.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1982-08-01

172

Urinary 3-methylhistidine and progressive winter undernutrition in white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Physiological indicators of muscle catabolism would aid assessment of winter nutritional restriction of ungulates, and urinary 3-methylhistidine has exhibited potential in this regard in several species. We examined the effect of chronic moderate and severe nutritional restriction during winter on urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios in seven adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and the relationship of these ratios to urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine ratios. Mean base line estimates of urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratio for the control and severely restricted deer (0.043 and 0.086 ??mol:mg, respectively) were similar (P = 0.280) and remained unchanged in the control deer throughout the study. In contrast, mean 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios increased dramatically as nutritional restriction and cumulative mass loss progressed; the quadratic component of the data for the chronically restricted deer was significant (P < 0.001). Likewise, there was a strong curvilinear relationship (R2 = 0.82) between cumulative mass loss (up to 29%) of the pooled deer and urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios. Further, urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine ratios were strongly related to 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios (r2 = 0.89). Our study indicates that further investigation of 3-methylhistidine as an indicator of physical condition and muscle protein breakdown is warranted.

DelGiudice, G. D.; Kerr, K. D.; Mech, L. D.; Riggs, M. R.; Seal, U. S.

1998-01-01

173

Spatial use and habitat associations of Columbian white-tailed deer fawns in southwestern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fawns represent a critical life history stage in the dynamics of deer populations, yet little recent information is available on the ecology of neonatal Columbian white-tailed deer (CWTD), a geographically isolated and federally endangered sub-species. We described home ranges, areas of concentrated use, and habitat associations of CWTD fawns in southwestern Oregon during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Spatial use patterns and habitat use within areas of concentrated use were described for 11 radio-marked fawns. Pooled habitat use was described for 24 radio-marked fawns. Areas of concentrated use averaged 2.4 ha, which was 13.3% of mean 95% home range size (18.0 ha). Frequent use of oak-madrone woodland and riparian cover types characterized fawn habitat use patterns. Cover types containing conifers were rarely used and usually not available within home ranges. Although we found no detectable patterns of habitat selection or avoidance among fawns, areas of concentrated use were composed mostly of oak-madrone woodland (35%) and riparian (26%) cover types. Moreover, 74% of concentrated use area was within 200 m of streams. Our results provide useful information on habitat characteristics used frequently by CWTD fawns.

Ricca, M. A.; Anthony, R. G.; Jackson, D. H.; Wolfe, S. A.

2003-01-01

174

Nasal bots and lice from white-tailed deer in southern Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

Heads of 64 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns, harvested in the vicinity of Magrath, Alberta, Canada, (49 degrees 24'782''N, 112 degrees 52'113''W) were examined for the presence of nasal bots and lice. The deer were collected between 8-30 January 2004 as part of a government-approved herd reduction protocol. The entire surface of each head was scanned visually for the presence of lice. Each head was split longitudinally, and the nasal passages, sinuses, and ethmoid region were washed for recovery of nasal bots. First instar Cephenemyia spp. were recovered from 17 heads (27%). Intensity of infestation ranged from 1-18 larvae (mean intensity 4.8). Among fawns, there were no significant differences in prevalence or mean intensity between the sexes. Two species of nasal bots were identified. Smaller larvae, tentatively identified as C. jellisoni, were present in 16 of 17 infested deer while larger specimens, tentatively identified as C. phobifera, were found in four deer; and in three of the four it co-occurred with C. jellisoni. The presence of C. phobifera in Alberta would represent a range extension for this species, which has not been known to occur west of North Dakota. Thirty-one fawns (48%) were infested with the sucking louse Solenopotes ferrisi. One infested fawn also had one specimen of the chewing louse, Tricholiopeurus lipeuroides. PMID:18689654

Colwell, Douglas D; Gray, Dawn; Morton, Kim; Pybus, Margo

2008-07-01

175

White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity  

PubMed Central

Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H?), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H? and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly.

Begley-Miller, Danielle R.; Hipp, Andrew L.; Brown, Bethany H.; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P.

2014-01-01

176

Characterization of Fusobacterium isolates from the respiratory tract of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

A total of 23 clinical isolates of Fusobacterium spp. were recovered at necropsy over a 2-year period from the respiratory tract of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Isolates were identified as Fusobacterium varium (18/23), Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme (3/23), and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum (2/23). Using polymerase chain reaction-based detection of virulence genes, all F. necrophorum isolates were positive for the promoter region of the leukotoxin operon and the hemagglutinin-related protein gene, while all F. varium isolates were negative. The presence of the leukotoxin gene in F. necrophorum isolates and the absence of this gene in F. varium isolates were confirmed by Southern hybridization using 2 separate probes. Toxicity to bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes was observed with all F. necrophorum isolates, but was not observed in any F. varium isolates. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was markedly different for F. varium as compared to F. necrophorum. In summary, no evidence of leukotoxin production was detected in any of the 23 F. varium isolates used in the current study. The data suggests that F. varium, the most common species isolated, may be a significant pathogen in deer with a different virulence mechanism than F. necrophorum. PMID:24590666

Brooks, Jason W; Kumar, Amit; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Myers, Suzanne; Brown, Kayla; Nagaraja, T G; Jayarao, Bhushan M

2014-03-01

177

White-tailed deer alter specialist and generalist insect herbivory through plant traits.  

PubMed

Within a plant species, leaf traits can vary across environmental, genetic, spatial, and temporal gradients, even showing drastic differences within individuals. Herbivory can also induce variation in leaf morphology, defensive structure, and chemistry including nutritional content. Indirect effects of prior insect herbivory on later herbivores have been well documented, but the induction of trait changes after vertebrate herbivory has been little explored. Here, we examined how browsing of spicebush (Lindera benzoin L.), a dominant understory shrub in eastern mesic forests, by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus L.) altered plant quality and subsequent foliar herbivory by insects. Browsing history explained ? 10% of overall leaf trait variation; regenerated leaves had greater water content and specific leaf area (P = 0.009), but were lower in nitrogen and greater in carbon (P < 0.001), than leaves on unbrowsed plants. However, browsing did not shift terpene chemistry as revealed by GC-MS. In the lab, caterpillars of the specialist spicebush swallowtail (Papilio troilus L.) preferred (P = 0.02) and grew 20% faster (P = 0.02) on foliage from browsed plants; whereas total herbivory in the field, including generalist insect herbivory, was twice as high on unbrowsed plants (P = 0.016). These results suggest that the ecological impacts of deer in forest understories can have cascading impacts on arthropod communities by changing the suitability of host-plants to insect herbivores. PMID:23321087

Lind, Eric M; Myron, Emily P; Giaccai, Jennifer; Parker, John D

2012-12-01

178

Testing releasable GPS radiocollars on wolves and white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested prototype GPS collars on 8 free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) and 3 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for varying periods between February and August 1997. We programmed the 920-gm collars to make a location attempt 6-96 times per day. The collars were designed to be remotely released from the animal and the data were then downloaded to a desktop computer. The collars produced 47-1,549 locations each during 11-41 days; locations were successful in 26-95% of the attempts (x?? = 70%). Eight collars released successfully. Three collar-release failures were caused by condensation. Two collars had GPS antennas that were improperly attached and did not collect data. Life was as long as, or longer than, expected in 4 collars, less than expected in 5 collars, and unknown in 2 collars. Limitations of this type of collar include brief life if programmed at short location-attempt intervals (???1 hr) and possible drop-off failure. Nevertheless, the large volume of data we collected with no field telemetry effort demonstrates the potential for this type of GPS collar to answer questions about movements of medium-sized mammals.

Merrill, S. B.; Adams, L. G.; Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.

1999-01-01

179

Response of urinary hydroxyproline to dietary protein and fasting in white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary hydroxyproline of nine captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from 23 February to 3 May 1984 in northern Minnesota. In the fasted group, mean hydroxyproline:creatinine (OHP:C) was greater (P less than 0.05) at week 4 compared to baseline at week 0. Between fasted deer and deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) and low protein-high energy (LPHE) diets, no difference in OHP:C ratios was detected during the initial 4 wk of the study. Urinary OHP:C ratios were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater in the fasted group during refeeding, concomitant with greater feed consumption and weight gain. There was also a significant (P less than 0.02) time effect in the fasted-refed group; OHP:C ratios increased during these two phases of the study. There was no difference between the HPHE and LPHE fed deer in renal OHP excretion. However, mean OHP:C ratios in yearlings (16.8 +/- 2.2) were greater (P less than 0.001) than in the adults (7.5 +/- 1.2) of those groups, indicating a higher collagen turnover rate. Urinary OHP:C shows potential as an indicator of growth and starvation, and the data presented may serve as reference values.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

1988-01-01

180

Geographic distribution of white-tailed deer with ticks and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in Connecticut.  

PubMed Central

Ticks and blood specimens were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Connecticut and analyzed to identify foci for Lyme borreliosis. Males and females of Ixodes scapularis, the chief vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, were collected from deer in five of eight counties during 1989-1991. Analysis by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) staining of midgut tissues showed that prevalence of infection was highest (9.5% of 367 ticks) in south central and southeastern Connecticut. Infected I. scapularis also were collected from southwestern regions of the state (12.1% of 99 ticks), but prevalence of infection in northern counties was considerably lower (0.8% of 124 ticks). Deer sera, obtained in 1980 and 1989-1991, were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or by IFA staining methods. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi were detected in sera collected from all eight counties in Connecticut. Deer had been infected by this spirochete in at least 50 towns, 17 (34%) of which are in south central and southeastern parts of the state. Borrelia burgdorferi is widely distributed in I. scapularis populations in Connecticut.

Magnarelli, L. A.; Anderson, J. F.; Cartter, M. L.

1993-01-01

181

Mother knows best: functionally referential alarm calling in white-tailed ptarmigan.  

PubMed

Functionally referential alarm calls have stimulus specificity, distinct acoustic structure, and elicit different escape responses that are appropriate to the threat. The mechanisms by which escape responses are evoked are not fully understood and may range from eliciting innate responses to conveying representational information. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) are a long-lived alpine tundra grouse, which are preyed upon by aerial and terrestrial predators. We investigated the hypothesis that alarm calls of ptarmigan hens with chicks are functionally referential. We recorded hens' alarm calls in response to naturally occurring and model predators in California's Sierra Nevada alpine tundra for two summer seasons. We conducted playback experiments in the field to determine chick responses to alarm calls. Alarm calls commenced with an extended 'alerting' note followed by a series of staccato notes grouped into elements. Fundamental and dominant frequencies in element notes were significantly higher in terrestrial compared to aerial threat alarm calls. Playbacks of terrestrial threat alarm calls elicited an upright/alert position by chicks (75 % of responses). In response to aerial threat alarm call playbacks, chicks flattened to the ground and froze (80 % of responses). To our knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence of functionally referential alarm calling, including the responses of the receivers, in an avian species in the wild. PMID:24132414

Ausmus, Desa M; Clarke, Jennifer A

2014-05-01

182

Response of urinary hydroxyproline to dietary protein and fasting in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary hydroxyproline of nine captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from 23 February to 3 May 1984 in northern Minnesota. In the fasted group, mean hydroxyproline:creatinine (OHP:C) was greater (P less than 0.05) at week 4 compared to baseline at week 0. Between fasted deer and deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) and low protein-high energy (LPHE) diets, no difference in OHP:C ratios was detected during the initial 4 wk of the study. Urinary OHP:C ratios were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater in the fasted group during refeeding, concomitant with greater feed consumption and weight gain. There was also a significant (P less than 0.02) time effect in the fasted-refed group; OHP:C ratios increased during these two phases of the study. There was no difference between the HPHE and LPHE fed deer in renal OHP excretion. However, mean OHP:C ratios in yearlings (16.8 +/- 2.2) were greater (P less than 0.001) than in the adults (7.5 +/- 1.2) of those groups, indicating a higher collagen turnover rate. Urinary OHP:C shows potential as an indicator of growth and starvation, and the data presented may serve as reference values. PMID:3352100

DelGiudice, G D; Seal, U S; Mech, L D

1988-01-01

183

Diagnostic detection methods for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in white-tailed deer  

PubMed Central

This study compares the results and suitability of serological testing, microscopic examination, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection, and bacterial culture for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection in asymptomatic farmed white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer were classified as infected if culture slants from their feces, lymph nodes, or ileum were positive, or if a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay detected Map DNA in any of its tissues. Deer identified as positive by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) testing or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) but not by bacterial culture, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, or PCR assay were classified as suspect. Culture of tissues classified 10/16 (62.5%), histopathologic examination 1/16 (6.3%), tissue smears 4/16 (25%), culture slant (CS)-PCR on feces 12/15 (80%), CS-PCR on tissue 13/16 (81.3%), and direct PCR on uncultured tissues 5/16 (31.3%) deer as infected. The ELISA classified 2/15 (13.3%) deer as positive and therefore suspect. The AGID test was negative for all deer. Fifteen of 16 deer were positive by 1 or more tests; only 1 deer was negative on all 11 assays. The CS-PCR gave superior results on antemortem fecal testing as well as postmortem tissue testing and can be recommended for improving the detection of Map in WTD at every stage of infection.

Woodbury, Murray R.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Mihajlovic, Biljana

2008-01-01

184

Associating seasonal range characteristics with survival of female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Delineating populations is critical for understanding population dynamics and managing habitats. Our objective was to delineate subpopulations of migratory female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, USA, on summer and winter ranges. We used fuzzy classification to assign radiocollared deer to subpopulations based on spatial location, characterized subpopulations by trapping sites, and explored relationships among survival of subpopulations and habitat variables. In winter, Kaplan-Meier estimates for subpopulations indicated 2 groups: high (S = 0.991 ?? 0.005 [x- ?? SE]) and low (S = 0.968 ?? 0.007) weekly survivorship. Survivorship increased with basal area per hectare of trees, average diameter at breast height of trees, percent cover of slash, and total point-center quarter distance of trees. Cover of grass and forbs were less for the high survivorship than the lower survivorship group. In summer, deer were spaced apart with mixed associations among subpopulations. Habitat manipulations that promote or maintain large trees (i.e., basal area = 14.8 m2/ha and average dbh of trees = 8.3 cm) would seem to improve adult survival of deer in winter.

Klaver, R. W.; Jenks, J. A.; Deperno, C. S.; Griffin, S. L.

2008-01-01

185

Myopathy of dogs resembling white muscle disease of sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractThe occurrence of selenium-responsive myopathies in sheep, cattle, pigs, horses, and poultry in New Zealand has been reviewed by Hartley and Grant (1961). The present paper records a case of severe acute polymyopathy in a sheep dog and congenital myopathy in two litters of sheep dog pups, which resembled white muscle disease of hoggets and congenital white muscle disease of

B. W. Manktelow

1963-01-01

186

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium bovis Isolates from Michigan White-Tailed Deer during the 2009 Hunting Season  

PubMed Central

Michigan has had an ongoing outbreak of endemic Mycobacterium bovis which has been recognized within and sustained by its free-ranging white-tailed deer population since 1994. Worldwide, organisms within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have exhibited the ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents, resulting in both the multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of human tuberculosis. Michigan's Bovine Tuberculosis Working Group has conducted active antimicrobial susceptibility testing on wildlife isolates of the endemic M. bovis organism at five-year intervals to detect any emerging drug resistance patterns. The results of 33 white-tailed deer origin isolates collected from the 2009 hunting season are reported here. There continues to be no evidence of any drug resistance except for pyrazinamide resistance. These results are likely due to the lack of antibacterial treatment applied to either wildlife or domestic animals which would provide selection pressure for the development of drug resistance.

Fitzgerald, Scott D.; Schooley, Angie M.; Berry, Dale E.; Kaneene, John B.

2011-01-01

187

Age and sex-related differences in haematological values of captive white-tailed gnu ( Connochaetes gnou )  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an 8-year period (1980–1989), 199 samples were taken from 52 clinically healthy white-tailed gnu (Connochaetes gnou), 24 males and 28 females, to estimate basic haematological values and to find possible age- and sex-related differences.\\u000a In nine of the animals under investigation, four males and five females, the effect of sedating agents on blood parameters\\u000a was studied.\\u000a \\u000a A decrease of

J. Vahala; F. Kase

1993-01-01

188

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from instrumental chemical analyses in fractions containing polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Toxic equivalents were calculated by use of an additive model in which the product of the concentrations of instrumentally measured individual congeners were multiplied by their TCDD equivalency factors and were summed to give a total concentration of TEQs. The TCDD-EQs were compared with TEQs to develop a mass balance to determine whether all the TCDD-like activity was accounted for. The TEQs determined by chemical analyses for coplanar PCBs was 770 pg/g fw, and that of PCDD/PCDFs was 270 pg/g fw in this eagle. Thus, concentrations of TCDD-EQs were approx. 20% greater than those of TEQs. The true difference in activities is probably greater because of lower recoveries and infra-additivities among congeners in the bioassay. This indicates that there are compounds present in the extracts that can contribute to the total concentrations of TCDD-EQs in white-tailed sea eagle eggs to the no-observable-adverse-effect concentration, ranged from 7.3 to 141. This indicates that current concentrations of TCDD-EQs in these eggs are likely causing adverse effects in the Baltic populations of white-tailed sea eagles. This study indicated that the H4IIE bioassay is useful for monitoring the presence and biological activity of TCDD-like compounds in environmental samples like white-tailed sea eagles.

Koistinen, J.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Koivusaari, J. [Western Finland Regional Environment Centre, Vaasa (Finland); Nuuja, I. [Milieu-Data Cc, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Vuorinen, P.J. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Paasivirta, J. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-07-01

189

Genetic variability in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and its relationship to environmental parameters and herd origin (Cervidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme variation was examined in 1571 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 29 localities in Tennessee by starch gel electrophoresis. For 11 polymorphic loci, sex-related, age-related and temporal differences were minimal. However, significant spatial hererogeneity was evident in genotypes (contingency table results), allele frequencies (FST=0.057) and heterozygosity. Heterozygosity ranged from 16.9% to 26.8% with a mean of 22.9%. The spatial pattern

P. K. Kennedy; M. L. Kennedy; M. L. Beck

1987-01-01

190

Habitat Suitability Index Models: White-Tailed Deer in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Coastal Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Short, Henry L.

1986-01-01

191

Contributions of forage competition, harvest, and climate fluctuation to changes in population growth of northern white-tailed deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently there has been considerable interest in determining the relative roles of endogenous (density-dependent) and exogenous (density-independent) factors in driving the population dynamics of free-ranging ungulates. We used time-series analysis to estimate the relative contributions of density-dependent forage competition, climatic fluctuation, and harvesting on the population dynamics of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Nova Scotia, Canada, from 1983 to 2000.

Brent R. Patterson; Vince A. Power

2002-01-01

192

Antigen Recognition by Serum Antibodies in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have emerged as reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis in northern America. For tuberculosis surveillance of deer, antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because deer are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. Sera collected sequentially from 25 Mycobacterium bovis-infected and 7 noninfected deer were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and multiantigen

W. R. Waters; M. V. Palmer; J. P. Bannantine; D. L. Whipple; R. Greenwald; J. Esfandiari; P. Andersen; J. McNair; J. M. Pollock; K. P. Lyashchenko

2004-01-01

193

Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging white-tailed deer, Michigan, USA, 1995–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

An endemic area of bovine tuberculosis (TB) (Mycobacterium bovis) currently affecting wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northern lower Michigan, USA, constitutes the first self-sustaining outbreak of the infection in free-ranging North American cervids. Given this precedent, epidemiologic insights gained from the outbreak afford the opportunity to guide not only current surveillance and intervention but also control efforts for future

Daniel J O’Brien; Stephen M Schmitt; Jean S Fierke; Stephanie A Hogle; Scott R Winterstein; Thomas M Cooley; William E Moritz; Kelly L Diegel; Scott D Fitzgerald; Dale E Berry; John B Kaneene

2002-01-01

194

Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

2011-01-01

195

Genome-Wide Polymorphism and Comparative Analyses in the White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Model for Conservation Genomics  

PubMed Central

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) represents one of the most successful and widely distributed large mammal species within North America, yet very little nucleotide sequence information is available. We utilized massively parallel pyrosequencing of a reduced representation library (RRL) and a random shotgun library (RSL) to generate a complete mitochondrial genome sequence and identify a large number of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed throughout the white-tailed deer nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. A SNP validation study designed to test specific classes of putative SNPs provides evidence for as many as 10,476 genome-wide SNPs in the current dataset. Based on cytogenetic evidence for homology between cow (Bos taurus) and white-tailed deer chromosomes, we demonstrate that a divergent genome may be used for estimating the relative distribution and density of de novo sequence contigs as well as putative SNPs for species without draft genome assemblies. Our approach demonstrates that bioinformatic tools developed for model or agriculturally important species may be leveraged to support next-generation research programs for species of biological, ecological and evolutionary importance. We also provide a functional annotation analysis for the de novo sequence contigs assembled from white-tailed deer pyrosequencing reads, a mitochondrial phylogeny involving 13,722 nucleotide positions for 10 unique species of Cervidae, and a median joining haplotype network as a putative representation of mitochondrial evolution in O. virginianus. The results of this study are expected to provide a detailed template enabling genome-wide sequence-based studies of threatened, endangered or conservationally important non-model organisms.

Seabury, Christopher M.; Bhattarai, Eric K.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Viswanathan, Ganesh G.; Cooper, Susan M.; Davis, Donald S.; Dowd, Scot E.; Lockwood, Mitch L.; Seabury, Paul M.

2011-01-01

196

Congener-specific analysis of chloronaphthalenes in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla breeding in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-four congeners of higher chlorinated naphthalenes were identified and quantified in the breast muscles, liver and adipose fat of a few specimens of white-tailed sea eagle collected from the Baltic coastal and inland breeding areas in Poland in 1991–1992. Many of the identified chloronaphthalenes (CNs) were well resolved as single peaks on the Rtx-5 HRGC-MS\\/EI-SIR chromatograms; but still some of

Jerzy Falandysz; Lidia Strandberg; Sten Erik Kulp; Bo Strandberg; Per-Anders Bergqvist; Christoffer Rappe

1996-01-01

197

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs)

Janna Koistinen; J. P. Giesy; J. Koivusaari; I. Nuuja; P. J. Vuorinen; J. Paasivirta

1997-01-01

198

PCDEs, PCBs, PCDDs AND PCDFs in black guillemots and white-tailed sea eagles from the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations and patterns of several chloro compounds including polychlorinated dibenzo p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), biphenyls (PCB) and diphenyl ethers (PCDE) were determined in black guillemots (Cepphus grylle L.) and white-tailed sea-eagles (Hallaeetus albicilla L.) from the Baltic Sea environment. Three breast muscles of eagles were analyzed and had different concentrations and patterns of the studied compounds, whereas the three guillemot

J. Koistinen; J. Koivusaari; I. Nuuja; J. Paasivirta

1995-01-01

199

Recording movement and activity pattern of a White-tailed Sea Eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla ) by a GPS datalogger  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, we measured the home range size and activity pattern of a White-tailed Sea Eagle (WTSE) by GPS telemetry.\\u000a Positions were recorded three times a day and the activity pattern were continuously recorded by two acceleration sensors.\\u000a From July to January, we obtained 475 positions and calculated a 95% kernel home range of 4.53 km2 and a 95%

Oliver Krone; Anne Berger; Robert Schulte

2009-01-01

200

Impacts of White-Tailed Deer on Red Trillium ('Trillium recurvatum'): Defining a Threshold for Deer Browsing Pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impa...

N. B. Pavlovic R. Grundel S. A. Leicht-Young

2014-01-01

201

Survival of white-tailed deer neonates in Minnesota and South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, birth mass, and sex) and habitat factors on survival of neonate white-tailed deer improves understanding of population ecology. During 2002-2004, we captured and radiocollared 78 neonates in eastern South Dakota and southwestern Minnesota, of which 16 died before 1 September. Predation accounted for 80% of mortality; the remaining 20% was attributed to starvation. Canids (coyotes [Canis latrans], domestic dogs) accounted for 100% of predation on neonates. We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to estimate survival rates and investigate the influence of intrinsic and habitat variables on survival. We developed 2 a priori model sets, including intrinsic variables (model set 1) and habitat variables (model set 2; forested cover, wetlands, grasslands, and croplands). For model set 1, model {Sage-interval} had the lowest AICc (Akaike's information criterion for small sample size) value, indicating that age at mortality (3-stage age-interval: 0-2 weeks, 2-8 weeks, and >8 weeks) best explained survival. Model set 2 indicated that habitat variables did not further influence survival in the study area; ??-estimates and 95% confidence intervals for habitat variables in competing models encompassed zero; thus, we excluded these models from consideration. Overall survival rate using model {Sage-interval} was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.83-0.91); 61% of mortalities occurred at 0-2 weeks of age, 26% at 2-8 weeks of age, and 13% at >8 weeks of age. Our results indicate that variables influencing survival may be area specific. Region-specific data are needed to determine influences of intrinsic and habitat variables on neonate survival before wildlife managers can determine which habitat management activities influence neonate populations. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

Grovenburg, T. W.; Swanson, C. C.; Jacques, C. N.; Klaver, R. W.; Brinkman, T. J.; Burris, B. M.; Deperno, C. S.; Jenks, J. A.

2011-01-01

202

Winter range arrival and departure of white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I analyzed 364 spring and 239 fall migrations by 194 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1975 to 1993 in northeastern Minnesota to determine the proximate cause of arrivals on and departures from winter ranges. The first autumn temperatures below -7?C initiated fall migrations for 14% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0-30) of female deer prior to snowfall in three autumns, but only 2% remained on winter ranges. During 14 autumns, the first temperatures below -7?C coincidental with snowfalls elicited migration in 45% (95% CI = 34-57) of females, and 91 % remained on winter ranges. Arrival dates failed to correlate with independent variables of temperature and snow depth, precluding predictive modeling of arrival on winter ranges. During 13 years, a mean of 80% of females permanently arrived on winter ranges by 31 December. Mean departure dates from winter ranges varied annually (19 March - 4 May) and between winter ranges (14 days) and according to snow depth (15-cm differences). Only 15 - 41 % of deer departed when snow depths were> 30 cm but 80% had done so by the time of lO-cm depths. Mean weekly snow depths in March (18-85 cm) and mean temperature in April (0.3 -8.1 ?c) explained most of the variation in mean departure dates from two winter ranges (Ely, R2 = 0.87, P < 0.0005, n = 19 springs; Isabella, R2 = 0.85, P = 0.0001, n = 12 springs). Mean differences between observed mean departure dates and mean departure dates predicted from equations ranged from 3 days (predictions within the study area) to 8 days (predictions for winter ranges 100-440 km distant).

Nelson, M.E.

1995-01-01

203

Effects of capture-related injury on postcapture movement of white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Capture-related injuries or deaths of wildlife study subjects pose concerns to researchers, from considerations for animal welfare to inflated project costs and biased data. Capture myopathy (CM) is an injury that can affect an animal's survival ? 30 days postrelease, but is often difficult to detect without close monitoring and immediate necropsy. We evaluated the influence of capture and handling on postcapture movement in an attempt to characterize movement rates of animals suffering from CM. We captured and global positioning system-collared 95 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central and northern New York during 2006-2008. Six juveniles died within 30 days postrelease, and necropsy reports indicated that two suffered CM (2%). We compared postcapture movement rates for juveniles that survived >30 days with those that died ? 30 days postcapture. Survivor movement rates (43.74 m/hr, SD = 3.53, n = 28) were significantly higher than rates for deer that died within 30 days (17.70 m/hr, SD = 1.57, n = 6) (P<0.01). Additionally, movement rates of juveniles that died of CM (15.1 m/hr) were 5.1 m/hr lower than those for juveniles that died of other causes ? 30 days postcapture (20.2 m/hr), but we were unable to evaluate this statistically because of insufficient sample size. We found no difference in vital rates (temperature, heart rate, respiration rate) during handling between survivors and juveniles that died within 30 days postcapture but observed that survivors were in better body condition at capture. These results suggest that deer likely to die within the 30-day CM window can be identified soon after capture, provided that intensive movement data are collected. Further, even if necropsy reports are unavailable, these animals should be censored from analysis because their behavior is not representative of movements of surviving animals. PMID:24484502

Dechen Quinn, Amy C; Williams, David M; Porter, William F; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Hynes, Kevin

2014-04-01

204

Effects of winter undernutrition on body composition and physiological profiles of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of undernutrition and recovery on body composition and blood and urinary profiles of 6 captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) between 18 December 1984 and 3 May 1985. Deer were weighed, and blood and urine were collected every 2 weeks from 10 January to 3 May. At Weeks 2, 8, and 14, body composition was estimated by the dilution of tritiated water technique and standard predictive equations. Feed intake decreased and cumulative mass loss increased during nutritional restriction. Baseline body composition included 62.1 .+-. 0.9 (SE)% water, 11.9 .+-. 1.0% fat, 20.5 .+-. 0.7% protein, and 4.5 .+-. 0.0% ash. Percent protein loss was linearly related (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) to percent mass loss. Peak mass loss from the beginning of the study (12.8 .+-. 2.0%) occurred at Week 12; estimated protein loss was 12.5%. Fat reserves were 85% depleted from Week 2 to Week 14. Elevated packed cell volume (PCV), serum calcium (Ca), cholesterol, triglycerides, and cortisol; and diminished serum urea nitrogen, thyroxine (T4), urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine and potassium:creatinine were associated with reduced food intake, mass loss, and decreases in body water, fat, and protein. Altered values of most of these blood and urinary characteristics reflected initiation of nutritional recovery after nutrition improved. Sequential data collection and the use of a combination of indices in blood or urine will yield the most useful assessments of animal nutrition and condition.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

1990-01-01

205

Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Danish In White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Vaccinated with a Lipid-Formulated Oral Vaccine.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in animals, has a broad host range, including humans. Historically, public health concerns prompted programs to eradicate tuberculosis from cattle in many nations. Eradication efforts decreased the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis; nevertheless, some countries encountered significant obstacles, not least of which was a wildlife reservoir of M. bovis. Efforts to decrease the size of the affected wildlife populations have neither eliminated disease nor eliminated transmission to cattle. Consequently, the use of a vaccine for wildlife is being explored. The vaccine most studied is M. bovis BCG, an attenuated live vaccine, first developed 100 years ago. The most efficient and effective means of vaccinating wildlife will be an oral vaccine. White-tailed deer in Michigan, USA, constitute a reservoir of M. bovis. White-tailed deer are a popular game species, and as such, represent a food animal to many hunters. BCG persistence in deer tissues could result in human exposure to BCG. Although non-pathogenic, BCG exposure could induce false-positive skin test results, confounding the central component of public health surveillance for TB. The objective of the present study in white-tailed deer was to evaluate persistence of lipid-encapsulated BCG and a liquid suspension of BCG after oral administration at two different dosages. Vaccine was not recovered at any time after oral consumption of a bait containing a single dose (1 × 10(8) CFU) of lipid-encapsulated BCG. However, persistence was consistent in deer consuming 10 lipid-encapsulated baits (1 × 10(9) CFU), with BCG recovered from at least one deer at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after consumption. Persistence of up to 9 months was seen in deer vaccinated with orally with a liquid suspension. Persistence of BCG was limited to lymphoid tissue and never found in samples of muscle collected at each time point. Although the risk of exposure to hunters is low, BCG persistence should be considered prior to field use in white-tailed deer. PMID:23173832

Palmer, M V; Thacker, T C; Waters, W R; Robbe-Austerman, S; Aldwell, F E

2014-06-01

206

Serologic Evidence of a Natural Infection of White-Tailed Deer with the Agent of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Wisconsin and Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer participate in the maintenance of the Ixodes tick life cycle and are reservoirs for some tick-borne infectious agents. Deer may be useful sentinels for tick-transmitted agents, such as ehrlichiae. In order to determine whether white-tailed deer are markers of natural transmission or are reservoirs for the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent, we performed indirect immunofluorescent-antibody (IFA) tests and

JENNIFER J. WALLS; KRISTIN M. ASANOVICH; JOHAN S. BAKKEN; J. STEPHEN DUMLER

1998-01-01

207

Plant Disease Lesson: Southern blight, Southern stem blight, White mold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on southern blight, Southern stem blight, white mold (caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (teleomorph: Athelia rolfsii)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Jackie Mullen (Auburn University;)

2001-01-04

208

Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989--1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 and 10.6 years, respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer, dieldrin was found in fat, liver, and brain, and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal. Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin and mercury. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C. [Geological Survey, Madison, WI (United States). National Wildlife Health Center; Whittaker, D.G. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (United States); Roy, R.R. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Commerce City, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge]|[Fish and Wildlife Service, Moses Lake, WA (United States). Moses Lake Field Office; Baker, D.L. [Colorado Div. of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1999-02-01

209

Distribution of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral protein and nucleic acid within central nervous tissue lesions in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

An outbreak of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) occurred in Michigan free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during late summer and fall of 2005. Brain tissue from 7 deer with EEE, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was studied. Detailed microscopic examination, indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to characterize the lesions and distribution of the EEE virus within the brain. The main lesion in all 7 deer was a polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis, which was more prominent within the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. In 3 deer, multifocal microhemorrhages surrounded smaller vessels with or without perivascular cuffing, although vasculitis was not observed. Neuronal necrosis, associated with perineuronal satellitosis and neutrophilic neuronophagia, was most prominent in the thalamus and the brainstem. Positive IHC labeling was mainly observed in the perikaryon, axons, and dendrites of necrotic and intact neurons and, to a much lesser degree, in glial cells, a few neutrophils in the thalamus and the brainstem, and occasionally the cerebral cortex of the 7 deer. There was minimal IHC-based labeling in the cerebellum and hippocampus. ISH labeling was exclusively observed in the cytoplasm of neurons, with a distribution similar to IHC-positive neurons. Neurons positive by IHC and ISH were most prominent in the thalamus and brainstem. The neuropathology of EEE in deer is compared with other species. Based on our findings, EEE has to be considered a differential diagnosis for neurologic disease and meningoencephalitis in white-tailed deer. PMID:23686767

Kiupel, M; Fitzgerald, S D; Pennick, K E; Cooley, T M; O'Brien, D J; Bolin, S R; Maes, R K; Del Piero, F

2013-11-01

210

Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a worse cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile, Hispanics have lower CVD mortality than non- Hispanic Whites in studies based on death certificates. This study examined 310 deaths that occurred between 1984 and 1998 among 1,862 Hispanic and non-Hispanic White participants in the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study, using medical records to classify cause of death. Among persons without diabetes,

Carolyn J. Swenson; Mary Jo Trepka; Marian J. Rewers; Sharon Scarbro; William R. Hiatt; Richard F. Hamman

211

Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to

R. F. Hochstein; R. Warner; T. V. Wetz

2003-01-01

212

Borrelia burgdorferi not detected in widespread Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from white-tailed deer in Tennessee.  

PubMed

Lyme disease (LD), caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted in the eastern United States by blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, is classified as nonendemic in Tennessee and surrounding states in the Southeast. Low incidence of LD in these states has been attributed, in part, to vector ticks being scarce or absent; however, tick survey data for many counties are incomplete or out of date. To improve our knowledge of the distribution, abundance, and Borrelia spp. prevalence of I. scapularis, we collected ticks from 1,018 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman)) from 71 of 95 Tennessee counties in fall 2007 and 2008. In total, 160 deer (15.7%) from 35 counties were infested with adult I. scapularis; 30 of these counties were new distributional records for this tick. The mean number of I. scapularis collected per infested deer was 5.4 +/- 0.6 SE. Of the 883 I. scapularis we removed from deer, none were positive for B. burgdorferi and one tested positive for B. miyamotoi. Deer are not reservoir hosts for B. burgdorferi; nevertheless, past surveys in northern LD-endemic states have readily detected B. burgdoreferi in ticks collected from deer. We conclude that I. scapularis is far more widespread in Tennessee than previously reported. The absence of detectable B. burgdorferi infection among these ticks suggests that the LD risk posed by I. scapularis in the surveyed areas of Tennessee is much lower than in LD-endemic areas of the Northeast and upper Midwest. PMID:23270178

Rosen, M E; Hamer, S A; Gerhardt, R R; Jones, C J; Muller, L I; Scott, M C; Hickling, G J

2012-11-01

213

Uncertainty in age-specific harvest estimates and consequences for white-tailed deer management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Age structure proportions (proportion of harvested individuals within each age class) are commonly used as support for regulatory restrictions and input for deer population models. Such use requires critical evaluation when harvest regulations force hunters to selectively harvest specific age classes, due to impact on the underlying population age structure. We used a stochastic population simulation model to evaluate the impact of using harvest proportions to evaluate changes in population age structure under a selective harvest management program at two scales. Using harvest proportions to parameterize the age-specific harvest segment of the model for the local scale showed that predictions of post-harvest age structure did not vary dependent upon whether selective harvest criteria were in use or not. At the county scale, yearling frequency in the post-harvest population increased, but model predictions indicated that post-harvest population size of 2.5 years old males would decline below levels found before implementation of the antler restriction, reducing the number of individuals recruited into older age classes. Across the range of age-specific harvest rates modeled, our simulation predicted that underestimation of age-specific harvest rates has considerable influence on predictions of post-harvest population age structure. We found that the consequence of uncertainty in harvest rates corresponds to uncertainty in predictions of residual population structure, and this correspondence is proportional to scale. Our simulations also indicate that regardless of use of harvest proportions or harvest rates, at either the local or county scale the modeled SHC had a high probability (>0.60 and >0.75, respectively) of eliminating recruitment into >2.5 years old age classes. Although frequently used to increase population age structure, our modeling indicated that selective harvest criteria can decrease or eliminate the number of white-tailed deer recruited into older age classes. Thus, we suggest that using harvest proportions for management planning and evaluation should be viewed with caution. In addition, we recommend that managers focus more attention on estimation of age-specific harvest rates, and modeling approaches which combine harvest rates with information from harvested individuals to further increase their ability to effectively manage deer populations under selective harvest programs. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Collier, B. A.; Krementz, D. G.

2007-01-01

214

Yohimbine hydrochloride as an antagonist to xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilization of white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirteen captive and one free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were immobilized one to six times each with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride during winter and spring in northern Minnesota. Administration of 0.09 to 0.53 mg of yohimbine hydrochloride per kg IV after each trial reversed the immobilization. The deer raised their heads within a median time of 2.0 min, stood in 6.0 min and walked away in 9.5 min. No adverse side effects were observed for several weeks following the immobilization.

Mech, L.D.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Karns, P.D.; Seal, U.S.

1985-01-01

215

Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns on a north Atlantic coastal island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns (n=29) were studied from birth to 1 year of age during 1991-95 on Mount Desert Island (MDI), Maine where deer hunting is prohibited, coyotes Canis latrans have become recently established, and protected U. S. National Park lands are interspersed with private property. Rate of predator-caused mortality was 0.52, with coyote predation (n=8) accounting for at least 47% of mortalities from all causes (n=17). Mortality rate from drowning was 0.24 (n=3), and from vehicles was 0.14 (n=3). Of fawns radio-collared as neonates, 10 of 14 mortalities occurred during the first 2 months of life. Annual rate of fawn survival was 0.26. Survival rate from 6 months to 1 year was 0.65 and 4 mortalities (2 predation, 2 drowning) were observed during this interval. A subgroup of fawns (n = 11) captured near a residential area and along the edge of a coyote territory had a higher (P = 0.002) rate of survival to 1 year of age (S = 0.67) than did fawns from all other areas (n = 18, S = 0.00). Recruitment to 1 year of age was lower than has been observed in other deer populations in the northeastern United States. Low recruitment associated with coyote predation and mortality sources influenced by humans appears to be limiting white-tailed deer populations in this insular landscape.

Long, R.A.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Harrison, D.J.

1998-01-01

216

Bottlenecked but long-lived: high genetic diversity retained in white-tailed eagles upon recovery from population decline  

PubMed Central

Most of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) populations in Europe experienced dramatic declines during the twentieth century. However, owing to intense conservation actions and the ban of DDT and other persistent pollutants, populations are currently recovering. We show that despite passing through demographic bottlenecks, white-tailed eagle populations have retained significant levels of genetic diversity. Both genetic and ringing data indicate that migration between populations has not been a major factor for the maintenance of genetic variability. We argue that the long generation time of eagles has acted as an intrinsic buffer against loss of genetic diversity, leading to a shorter effective time of the experienced bottleneck. Notably, conservation actions taken in several small sub-populations have ensured the preservation of a larger proportion of the total genetic diversity than if conservation had focused on the population stronghold in Norway. For conservation programmes targeting other endangered, long-lived species, our results highlight the possibility for local retention of high genetic diversity in isolated remnant populations.

Hailer, Frank; Helander, Bjorn; Folkestad, Alv O; Ganusevich, Sergei A; Garstad, Steinar; Hauff, Peter; Koren, Christian; Nygard, Torgeir; Volke, Veljo; Vila, Carles; Ellegren, Hans

2006-01-01

217

Does fluctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns predicted for sexually selected traits?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Secondary sexual characters have been hypothesized to signal male quality and should demonstrate a negative relationship between the size of the trait and degree of fluctuating asymmetry because they are costly to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Oklahoma, USA, in order to determine whether measures of antler asymmetry follow the patterns predicted for sexually selected characters. Relative fluctuating asymmetry was negatively related to antler size for all deer and within age groups up to five and a half years of age. We did not detect an association between asymmetry and antler size among deer that were six and a half years or older. When categorizing deer by antler size, we found that deer with small antlers (???33rd percentile) had greater levels of relative asymmetry than deer with large antlers (???67th percentile). The relative asymmetry of antlers was negatively related to age and was greatest in deer that were one and a half years old. Relative asymmetry was also negatively related to carcass mass, inside spread, skull length and body length. These data suggest that asymmetry in the antlers of white-tailed deer may be a reliable signal of quality and, as such, may be important in maintaining honesty in intrasexual advertisements during the breeding season.

Ditchkoff, S. S.; Lochmiller, R. L.; Masters, R. E.; Starry, W. R.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.

2001-01-01

218

Oral Vaccination of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)  

PubMed Central

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1×108 colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n?=?17); and non-vaccinated (n?=?16). One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts.

Palmer, Mitchell V.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Waters, W. Ray; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

2014-01-01

219

Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the rocky mountain arsenal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989-1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 (range 4-12) and 10.6 years (range 5-17), respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer (range 0.055-0.096 ??g/g), dieldrin was found in fat (n = 9) (range 0.02-0.72 ??g/g), liver (n = 4) (range 0.017-0.12 ??g/g), and brain (n = 1, 0.018 ??g/g), and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal (0.02 ??g/g). Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin (p < 0.001) and mercury (p = 0.05). Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

Creekmore, T. E.; Whittaker, D. G.; Roy, R. R.; Franson, J. C.; Baker, D. L.

1999-01-01

220

A phoenix of clinical toxinology: White-tailed spider (Lampona spp.) bites. A case report and review of medical significance.  

PubMed

The Australian white-tailed spiders ("WTS"; Lamponidae: notably Lampona cylindrata &Lampona murina) have a continuing reputation on Internet sites as a cause of skin ulceration, labelled "necrotic arachnidism", despite an increasing number of peer-reviewed publications debunking this reputation, with >135 confirmed cases now reported without any evidence of necrosis. We present here a case of confirmed WTS bite in a 42-year old male, followed for over a month, with photos of bite site signs and no development of skin ulceration/necrosis. The patient was initially alarmed by information on the Internet suggesting local necrosis would result from the bite. We discuss the evolution of knowledge about bites by the WTS, and the persistence of misconceptions about their factually mild medical significance. PMID:24923740

White, Julian; Weinstein, Scott A

2014-09-01

221

A Paleozoological Perspective on White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) Population Density and Body Size in Central Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted, which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected, given that a lack of predation likely has increased intraspecific competition for forage among deer, resulting in smaller body size today. In fact, modern deer from settings without harvest pressure are significantly smaller than those from harvested areas and from prehistoric deer. From a natural history perspective, this research highlights potential evolutionary causes and effects of top-predator removal on deer populations and related components of biological communities in central Texas.

Wolverton, Steve; Kennedy, James H.; Cornelius, John D.

2007-04-01

222

Comparison of white-tailed kite food web dynamics among various habitats in California using stable isotope analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) was once a common raptor species in the southern United States. However, by the 1930s, the species was considered on the verge of extinction until the 1940s, when a trend towards recovery was apparent. These dramatic fluctuations may be related to changes in rodent prey base due to the conversion of native wetlands to agriculture. To investigate the effects of changes in habitat, land use practices, and prey base on kite populations, we collected tissue samples from kites, their prey, and vegetation at four different locations in California: Arcata, Coastal-Coniferous Forest; Davis, mixed Urban-Agricultural; Cosumnes, Mixed Wetland-Agriculture, and Santa Barbara, Coastal-Chaparral.

Iko, W. M.; Kester, C. L.; Bern, C. R.; Stendell, R. C.; Rye, R. O.

2003-01-01

223

Serological Evidence for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, in Vermont, 2010  

PubMed Central

Serum samples from 489 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were screened for antibodies against the Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) using plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs). EEEV antibodies were detected in 10.2% of serum samples. This is the first evidence that EEEV is present in Vermont. Serum was collected from deer in all 14 counties in the state, and positive EEEV sera were found in 12 (85%) of 14 counties, suggesting statewide EEEV activity in Vermont. Analysis of the spatial distribution of PRNT-positive samples revealed a random distribution of EEEV throughout the state. The results indicate widespread EEEV activity in Vermont and suggest that EEEV is not a recent introduction to the state but that EEEV activity has not been detected until now.

Berl, Erica; Eisen, Rebecca J.; MacMillan, Katherine; Swope, Bethany N.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Graham, Alan C.; Turmel, Jon P.; Mutebi, John-Paul

2013-01-01

224

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1982 status report  

SciTech Connect

One hundred nine white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1982, a decrease of six from the vehicle kills in 1981. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. The highest number of deer killed was recorded during November. The sex ratio of road-kills was 0.6:1 (males to females) from January through September, but it shifted to 3.6:1 for the October through December period, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movements. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season from early October through late March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that animals were in good condition (only a few abnormalities were observed), and endoparasite burdens continue to reflect no overcrowding in the deer population. 5 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1985-06-01

225

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge reservation: 1981 status report  

SciTech Connect

One hundred fifteen white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1981, an increase of seventeen over 1980. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. October and November were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road kills was 0.8:1 (males to females) from January through September but shifted to 3:1 during October, November, and December, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movement. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season spanning the September through February period. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that the animals were in good condition with only a few abnormalities observed. Abomasal parasite counts reflected an optimum density situation between the deer population and its habitat, although browse surveys made during the winter of 1981-1982 indicated a tendency toward an overpopulated condition.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1982-11-01

226

Short-term Care of White-tailed Deer Fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) in a Conventional Laboratory Animal Facility.  

PubMed

Laboratory animal medicine professionals are often required to develop husbandry practices for species not commonly considered for use as laboratory animals. Although protocols exist for management of captive white-tailed deer in an outdoor facility, it was necessary to modify those procedures to house fawns in an indoor facility. Four abandoned fawns were acquired through a cooperative effort with the Department of Conservation. Physical examinations were performed and fecal samples were collected when the 2 to 3dayold fawns arrived at the facility. All fawns were infested with ticks, which were removed manually. After quarantine of 24 to 48 h, the fawns were moved to large chain-link pens and housed in pairs. Rubber mats covered with wood shavings provided secure footing, and a large portable kennel was used to provide shelter and concealment. Milk replacer formulated for goats was fed via a bottle at regularly scheduled intervals according to the expected caloric needs determined on the basis of body weight of each fawn. Water, hay, and alfalfa pellets were available ad libitum. All fawns gained weight at a steady rate during the 4-month study, with a mean weight gain of 150 g/d. Blood collection was performed at the conclusion of the study to establish reference values for 3- to 4-month-old white-tailed deer fawns. Manual restraint for clinical procedures was sufficient initially, but when the fawns grew too large to handle easily, a combination of ketamine hydrochloride- xylazine hydrochloride was used for sedation. The methods employed were successful for short-term maintenance of the fawns in an indoor facility. PMID:12456143

Kendall, Lon V.; Kennett, Mary J.; Fish, Richard E.

1998-09-01

227

Spatio-temporal variation in male white-tailed deer harvest rates in Pennsylvania: Implications for estimating abundance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The performance of 2 popular methods that use age-at-harvest data to estimate abundance of white-tailed deer is contingent on assumptions about variation in estimates of subadult (1.5 yr old) and adult (????2.5 yr old) male harvest rates. Auxiliary data (e.g., estimates of survival or harvest rates from radiocollared animals) can be used to relax some assumptions, but unless these population parameters exhibit limited temporal or spatial variation, these auxiliary data may not improve accuracy. Unfortunately maintaining sufficient sample sizes of radiocollared deer for parameter estimation in every wildlife management unit (WMU) is not feasible for most state agencies. We monitored the fates of 397 subadult and 225 adult male white-tailed deer across 4 WMUs from 2002 to 2008 using radio telemetry. We investigated spatial and temporal variation in harvest rates and investigated covariates related to the patterns observed. We found that most variation in harvest rates was explained spatially and that adult harvest rates (0.36-0.69) were more variable among study areas than subadult harvest rates (0.26-0.42). We found that hunter effort during the archery and firearms season best explained variation in harvest rates of adult males among WMUs, whereas hunter effort during only the firearms season best explained harvest rates for subadult males. From a population estimation perspective, it is advantageous that most variation was spatial and explained by a readily obtained covariate (hunter effort). However, harvest rates may vary if hunting regulations or hunter behavior change, requiring additional field studies to obtain accurate estimates of harvest rates. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society. Copyright ?? The Wildlife Society, 2011.

Norton, A. S.; Diefenbach, D. R.; Wallingford, B. D.; Rosenberry, C. S.

2012-01-01

228

Survey of haircoat fungal flora for the presence of dermatophytes in a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Virginia.  

PubMed

Before releasing rehabilitated wildlife, patients should be cured of all infectious agents that pose a risk to free-roaming wildlife or humans after release. Dermatophyte fungi, commonly known as "ringworm," have zoonotic potential and may be carried as normal flora on the haircoats of certain species. Outbreaks of ringworm are anecdotally reported to occur in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns, but no prevalence surveys have been conducted on the haircoat flora of free-roaming individuals. In November 2008, we tested 60 legally hunted white-tailed deer for dermatophyte flora by using a modified MacKenzie technique. Results indicate it is unlikely that wild, mature white-tailed deer in Virginia, USA, carry dermato-phyte fungi as normal haircoat flora. Therefore, wildlife rehabilitators and hunters are at low risk for dermatophyte infection by direct contact with this species. In addition, the RapidVet-D 3 Day Test for Veterinary Dermatophytosis was determined to have poor specificity for presence of dermatophyte fungi on asymptomatic white-tailed deer in Virginia. PMID:21719839

Hall, Natalie H; Swinford, Amy; McRuer, Dave; Hall, James S

2011-07-01

229

Post-Delisting Monitoring Plan for the Douglas Count Distinct Population Segement of the Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Douglas County distinct population segment of Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) was removed from the Federal List of Threatened and Endangered Wildlife and Plants on July 24, 2003 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003). The ...

2006-01-01

230

Effects of white-tailed deer on vegetation structure and woody seedling composition in three forest types on the Piedmont Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Ododcoileus virginiana) can substantially affect the structure and species composition of a forest. The tolerance of a forest community to browsing may vary by type as a result of varying biotic and abiotic factors of the environment. To date, no studies have compared the effects of browsing among forest communities within a physiographic region. We investigated the effects

C. Reed Rossell; Bryan Gorsira; Steven Patch

2005-01-01

231

Effects of fluoride emissions from a modern primary aluminum smelter on a local population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of fluoride emissions from a modern aluminum smelter on concentrations of skeletal fluoride and dental fluorosis in a resident population of white-tailed deer was studied. The smelter was located on Mount Holly Plantation in South Carolina, and concentrations of skeletal fluoride in the deer collected at Mount Holly increased approximately five-fold 3 yr after the operation began. Increases

J. S. Suttie; R. Dickie; A. B. Clay; Per Nielsen; W. E. Mahan; D. P. Baumann; R. J. Hamilton

1987-01-01

232

MAJOR-HISTOCOMPATIBILITY-COMPLEX-ASSOCIATED VARIATION IN SECONDARY SEXUAL TRAITS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): EVIDENCE FOR GOOD-GENES ADVERTISEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good-genes hypotheses predict that development of secondary sexual characters can be an honest adver- tisement of heritable male quality. We explored this hypothesis using a cervid model (adult, male white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus) to determine whether antler development could provide an honest signal of a male's genetic quality and condition to adversaries. We compared antler, morphometric, hormonal, and parasitic data

Stephen S. Ditchkoff; Robert L. Lochmiller; Ronald E. Masters; Steven R. Hoofer; Ronald A. Van Den Bussche

2001-01-01

233

Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many plant species in eastern North America, short observed seed dispersal distances (ranging up to a few tens of meters) fail to explain rapid rates of invasion and migration. This discrepancy points to a substantial gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms by which seeds are dispersed long distances. We investigated the potential for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimm.),

Jonathan A. Myers; Mark Vellend; Sana Gardescu; P. L. Marks

2004-01-01

234

The impact of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on Estonian Common Carp Cyprinus carpio production: How large is the economic loss?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected bird species have been suspected to be a cause of a significant economic loss at Estonian fish farms, but its extent has remained unexplored. We counted the number of White-tailed Eagles and Ospreys, and the quantity of fish they take, and analysed the economic loss in five carp farms in 2001-2004. Each of Estonian four larger carp farms was

Joosep Tuvia; Ülo Välia

235

Post-Delisting Monitoring Report for the Douglas County Distinct Population Segment of the Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus). 2003-2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Post-delisting Monitoring Report fulfills the requirement in the draft Post-delisting Monitoring Plan for the Douglas County Distinct Population Segment of the Columbian White-tailed Deer (deer) (2005). This report summarizes and presents the data (t...

2006-01-01

236

Development and multiplex PCR amplification of novel microsatellite markers in the White-tailed Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla (Aves: Falconiformes, Accipitridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development of 14 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers cloned from the White-tailed Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla , a formerly threatened raptor that has received much conservation attention throughout Eurasia. We also present a protocol for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the loci. Among 40 unrelated H. albicilla individuals from southern Sweden, the markers produced two to

FRANK HAILER; BARBARA GAUTSCHI; BJORN HELANDER

2005-01-01

237

Effects of Joint Space Use and Group Membership on Contact Rates Among White-Tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment and spread of infectious diseases are controlled by the frequency of contacts among hosts. Although managers can estimate transmission coefficients from the relationship between disease prevalence and age or time, they may wish to quantify or compare contact rates before a disease is established or while it is at very low prevalence. Our objectives were to quantify direct and

ERIC M. SCHAUBER; DANIEL J. STORM; CLAYTON K. NIELSEN

2007-01-01

238

Vibrio alginolyticus associated with white spot disease of Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

In February 2000, white spot disease outbreaks occurred among cultured Penaeus monodon in extensive shrimp farms on the southwest coast of India. Bacteria were isolated from infected shrimp that showed reddish body coloration and white spots in the cuticle. The isolates were screened on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS) agar plates for the selection of Vibrio species. The primary isolate (QS7) was characterized as V. alginolyticus based on morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics. Antibiotic sensitivity tests of QS7 indicated that the isolate was highly sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and streptomycin. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the isolate was virulent for P. monodon. Based on the lethal dose (LD50) value (5 x 10(6) cfu per shrimp), it was inferred that shrimp weakened by white spot syndrome virus would succumb to secondary infection by QS7. PMID:14735933

Selvin, Joseph; Lipton, A P

2003-12-01

239

The walk is never random: subtle landscape effects shape gene flow in a continuous white-tailed deer population in the Midwestern United States.  

PubMed

One of the pervasive challenges in landscape genetics is detecting gene flow patterns within continuous populations of highly mobile wildlife. Understanding population genetic structure within a continuous population can give insights into social structure, movement across the landscape and contact between populations, which influence ecological interactions, reproductive dynamics or pathogen transmission. We investigated the genetic structure of a large population of deer spanning the area of Wisconsin and Illinois, USA, affected by chronic wasting disease. We combined multiscale investigation, landscape genetic techniques and spatial statistical modelling to address the complex questions of landscape factors influencing population structure. We sampled over 2000 deer and used spatial autocorrelation and a spatial principal components analysis to describe the population genetic structure. We evaluated landscape effects on this pattern using a spatial autoregressive model within a model selection framework to test alternative hypotheses about gene flow. We found high levels of genetic connectivity, with gradients of variation across the large continuous population of white-tailed deer. At the fine scale, spatial clustering of related animals was correlated with the amount and arrangement of forested habitat. At the broader scale, impediments to dispersal were important to shaping genetic connectivity within the population. We found significant barrier effects of individual state and interstate highways and rivers. Our results offer an important understanding of deer biology and movement that will help inform the management of this species in an area where overabundance and disease spread are primary concerns. PMID:22882236

Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Lopez, Davin L; Shelton, Paul

2012-09-01

240

Spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in northcentral Colorado.  

PubMed

Between March 1981 and June 1995, a neurological disease characterized histologically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral Colorado (USA). Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and accounted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were also affected. Clinical signs included emaciation, excessive salivation, behavioral changes, ataxia, and weakness. Emaciation with total loss of subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue and serous atrophy of remaining fat depots were the only consistent gross findings. Spongiform encephalopathy characterized by microcavitation of gray matter, intraneuronal vacuolation and neuronal degeneration was observed microscopically in all cases. Scrapie-associated prion protein or an antigenically indistinguishable protein was demonstrated in brains from 26 affected animals, 10 using an immunohistochemical staining procedure, nine using electron microscopy, and seven using Western blot. Clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions and ancillary test findings in affected deer and elk were indistinguishable from those reported in chronic wasting disease of captive cervids. Prevalence estimates, transmissibility, host range, distribution, origins, and management implications of spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging deer and elk remain undetermined. PMID:9027685

Spraker, T R; Miller, M W; Williams, E S; Getzy, D M; Adrian, W J; Schoonveld, G G; Spowart, R A; O'Rourke, K I; Miller, J M; Merz, P A

1997-01-01

241

White Matter Integrity and Reaction Time Intraindividual Variability in Healthy Aging and Early-Stage Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Aging and early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) have been shown to be associated with increased RT intraindividual variability (IIV, as reflected by the coefficient of variation) and an exaggeration of the slow tail of the RT distribution in attentional control tasks, based on ex-Gaussian analyses. The current study examined associations between white matter volume, IIV, and ex-Gaussian RT distribution parameters in cognitively normal aging and early-stage AD. Three RT attention tasks (Stroop, Simon, and a consonant-vowel odd-even switching task) in conjunction with MRI-based measures of cerebral and regional white matter volume were obtained in 133 cognitively normal and 33 early-stage AD individuals. Larger volumes were associated with less IIV and less slowing in the tail of the RT distribution, and larger cerebral and inferior parietal white matter volumes were associated with faster modal reaction time. Collectively, these results support a role of white matter integrity in IIV and distributional skewing, and are consistent with the hypothesis that IIV and RT distributional skewing are sensitive to breakdowns in executive control processes in normal and pathological aging.

Jackson, Jonathan D.; Balota, David A.; Duchek, Janet M.; Head, Denise

2011-01-01

242

Chronic Kidney Disease Is Associated With White Matter Hyperintensity Volume The Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—White matter hyperintensities have been associated with increased risk of stroke, cognitive decline, and dementia. Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for vascular disease and has been associated with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of white matter hyperintensities. Few studies have explored the relationship between chronic kidney disease and white matter

Minesh Khatri; Clinton B. Wright; Thomas L. Nickolas; Myunghee C. Paik; Grace Kranwinkel; Ralph L. Sacco; Charles DeCarli

243

Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease.  

PubMed

White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline. PMID:23949663

Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne M S; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

2014-02-01

244

Changes during the holocene in the size of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from central Illinois  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from central Illinois varied in size during the Holocene. The record, which extends back to 8450 yr B.P., indicates small deer through the mid-Holocene until 3650 yr B.P., after which size increases. Although influences of winter climate, seasonality, anthropogenic effects, and other ecological factors should not be discounted, an intriguing possible cause of the deer size shifts is insolation-driven summer climate and its influence on food resources. In the Holocene, small deer size is correlated with high summer insolation and with low winter insolation. Climatic models indicate that in spite of changes in insolation, Holocene winters did not vary greatly through time, especially in contrast to summers, which were dynamic. Physiological constraints peculiar to O. virginianus make critical the quality of summer forage for determining final adult size. Summer temperature averaged 2°C warmer than present during the middle Holocene, which increased evaporation and probably reduced the period of availability of high-quality forage low in fiber and high in protein. Consequently, less fuel for growth was consumed by mid-Holocene deer and only small body size was achieved. Other possible causes (e.g., Bergmann's rule, seasonality) of clinal variation are considered with reference to central Illinois deer, but at present the most parsimonious explanation appears to be the summer insolation hypothesis.

Purdue, James R.

1989-11-01

245

Field testing of immunocontraception on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Fire Island National Seashore, New York, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Application of contraception for the control of suburban populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been much debated, but few data are available on field applications and even fewer on population effects. Between 1993 and 1997, 74-164 individually known female deer living on Fire Island, New York, USA, were treated remotely with an initial shot of 65 microg porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in Freund's complete adjuvant followed by booster injections of 65 microg PZP in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Starting in 1996, progressively increasing numbers of deer were treated with vaccinating/marking darts. Estimates of population density and composition, using distance sampling methods, began in 1995 in selected portions of the study area. Between 1993 and 1997, fawning rates among individually known, treated adult females decreased by 78.9% from pretreatment rates. Population density in the most heavily treated area increased by 11% per year from 1995 to March 1998 and then decreased at 23% per year to October 2000. In 1999-2000 surveys, fawns comprised 13-14% of the total population in the most heavily treated area, versus 16-33% in nearby untreated areas. These results show that PZP can be delivered effectively to sufficient deer to affect population density and composition in some environments, but that technical and logistical improvements are needed before contraception can be used widely to manage suburban deer populations.

Naugle, R.E.; Rutberg, A.T.; Underwood, H.B.; Turner, J.W., Jr.; Liu, I.K.

2002-01-01

246

Seasonal patterns of weight, hematology, and serum characteristics of free-ranging female white-tailed deer in Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weights, hematology, and serum profIles of white-tailed does in the central Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota were examined year-around to determine seasonal patterns of nutritional condition and metabolism. Deer were initially captured by Clover trap or rocket net. Between 15 February 1989 and 23 January 1990, we recaptured 12 adult (> 1.5 years) female deer 1-9 times each (a total of 59 recaptures) using a radio-controlled capture collar. Monthly weights of deer exhibited a cyclic seasonal pattern. Mean weight declined 22 % from February to an annual minimum during May, then steadily increased 45 % to a maximum in October. Seasonal patterns were most evident for hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells, packed cell volume, serum total protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the urea N to creatinine ratio, triiodothyronine, cortisol, and potassium. Wide seasonal variations of these characteristics were indicative of shifts in the deer's metabolic physiology. Although seasonal metabolic shifts are partially attributable to an endogenous rhythm, the intensity of, their expression was most likely affected by nutritional changes and concomitant alterations of body condition. Annual changes in seasonal trends of blood characteristics may be useful in investigating nutritional effects of specific environmental and demographic factors. We compare our findings with those reported for deer on ranges farther south.

DelGiudice, G. D.; Mech, L. D.; Kunkel, K. E.; Gese, E. M.; Seal, U. S.

1992-01-01

247

Evaluation of Serodiagnostic Assays for Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Elk, White-Tailed Deer, and Reindeer in the United States  

PubMed Central

In 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture conducted a project in which elk (Cervus elaphus spp.), white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) were evaluated by the single cervical tuberculin test (SCT), comparative cervical tuberculin test (CCT), and serologic tests. The rapid antibody detection tests evaluated were the CervidTB Stat-Pak (Stat-Pak), and the Dual Path Platform VetTB (DPP). Blood was collected from presumably uninfected animals prior to tuberculin injection for the SCT. A total of 1,783 animals were enrolled in the project. Of these, 1,752 (98.3%) were classified as presumably uninfected, based on originating from a captive cervid herd with no history of exposure to TB. Stat-Pak specificity estimates were 92.4% in reindeer, 96.7% in WTD, and 98.3% in elk and were not significantly different from SCT specificity estimates. Using the DPP in series on Stat-Pak antibody-positive samples improved specificity in the three species. Thirty one animals were classified as confirmed infected, based on necropsy and laboratory results, and 27/31 were antibody positive on Stat-Pak for an estimated sensitivity of 87.1%. The study findings indicate that rapid serologic tests used in series are comparable to the SCT and CCT and may have a greater ability to detect TB-infected cervids.

Nelson, Jeffrey T.; Orloski, Kathleen A.; Lloyd, Audra L.; Camacho, Mark; Schoenbaum, Mark A.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Thomsen, Bruce V.; Hall, S. Mark

2012-01-01

248

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1979 status report  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1979, an increase of twenty-eight over 1978. Patterns of mortality were similar to those reported in previous documents. During the year, the highest number of deer was killed in October, November, and December. Throughout the year almost twice as many males as females were killed. Reproductive data collected from 19 does revealed that breeding during 1979 probably occurred from early December through early January. Night-lighting showed the same general trends in population increase that were apparent in the road-kill sample. The number of deer night-lighted in 1976 was 11/110 km, while in 1979 the number rose to 40/100 km. the habitat evaluation which began in 1978 was continued in 1979, with a survey of the number of deer trails from a given habitat-type supplementing the radiotelemetry work. Results indicated a preference for cutover areas where immature pine, eastern red cedar, and grasses dominated and for pine plantations where shelter was provided. Upland hardwoods areas were the least preferred.

Kitchings, J.T.; Story, J.D.

1980-10-01

249

Krabbe's disease in two West Highland White terriers.  

PubMed

Two 3-month-old male West Highland White terriers were referred for progressive neurological disease. Histological examination of the central nervous system of the animals euthanized at the owner' request, revealed diffuse, bilateral and symmetrical white matter lesion consisting of varying degrees of demyelination and axonal degeneration. Accumulation of round to ovoid large mononuclear cells was especially observed along the blood vessels in the white matter. These cells were characterized by central or eccentric nuclei and highly eosinophilic, granular and PAS-positive cytoplasm. Stored material was stained with toluidine blue both at pH 4 and pH 11 and exhibited a strong PAC and no PALK activities. Staining for lectins revealed a positivity using Ricinus communis agglutinin-I, Ricinus communis agglutin-II, Triticum vulgaris and Concavalin A. Histochemical evaluation of intracellular material was performed on the kidney and on the liver, too. Ultrastructural investigations allowed to observe the cytoplasmic contents of globoid cells that is an admixture of degraded myelin membranes and different kinds of tubular aggregates. To verify if the two dogs bore the mutation at position 473, a method involving PCR amplification of genomic DNA followed by restriction-digestion was used. The diagnosis of Krabbe's disease was performed based on the clinical evaluation, morphological, histochemical and ultrastructural features. PMID:18808060

Capucchio, M T; Prunotto, M; Lotti, D; Valazza, A; Galloni, M; Dore, B; Pregel, P; Amedeo, S; Catalano, D; Cornaglia, E; Schiffer, D

2008-01-01

250

Peripheral markers of Alzheimer's disease: surveillance of white blood cells.  

PubMed

Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. This is a mechanism of innate immunity, which may cause an increase in the number of monocytes and neutrophils circulating in the blood. Literature indicated that chronic inflammation might be a factor in developing neurological problems, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other similar illnesses. Our main objective is to identify peripheral markers of Alzheimer's disease and for that purpose; we are looking at the profile of white blood cells focusing on monocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes and basophils. Twenty-seven patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD), diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests were observed for their blood profile. Key observations during this study were that the levels of monocytes in the blood of the diagnosed AD patients were high irrespective of their age and sex. For those patients whose monocytes were in normal range their neutrophil levels were significantly high. Whereas blood levels of lymphocytes and basophils were found to be constantly low. Escalated levels of monocytes and neutrophils are hallmarks of chronic inflammation and may be precursor to Alzheimer's disease. A low lymphocyte count specifies that the body's resistance to fight infection is substantially reduced, whereas low basophil levels indicates their over utilization due to chronic allergic inflammatory condition. Future studies involved closer look at the cytokines produced by these white blood cells especially TNF IL-1, and IL-12, which are products of monocytes. Likewise, blood glucose and creatinine levels were high whereas calcium ions were low. Our studies indicated that white blood cells along with other inflammatory byproducts may act as peripheral markers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23404438

Shad, Kaneez Fatima; Aghazadeh, Yashar; Ahmad, Sagheer; Kress, Bodo

2013-08-01

251

Diarrhoeal diseases in the White Mountain Apaches: epidemiologic studies.  

PubMed

Acute diarrhoeal disease in children is known to be a major public health problem among native Americans living in reservations in the southwestern part of the United States. This study was undertaken to describe the epidemiology and causative agents of diarrhoea more completely, with the expectation that this information may help in the ultimate control of the disease in this population. Three interrelated epidemiologic studies were carried out in the White Mountain Apache Tribe, Whiteriver, Arizona, during 1981-1985: a three-year longitudinal study on a cohort of 112 newborns, a longitudinal two-year study in a cohort of 200 families, and a case-control study on 1,072 children with diarrhoea attending a medical facility. Both epidemiologic and microbiological patterns of diarrhoeal disease were found to be very similar to those seen in developing countries, indicating the need for basic improvements in sanitation and hygiene in this population. PMID:7657961

Santosham, M; Sack, R B; Reid, R; Black, R; Croll, J; Yolken, R; Aurelian, L; Wolff, M; Chan, E; Garrett, S

1995-03-01

252

Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989--1992) to identify relative

Terry E. Creekmore; J. C. Franson; D. G. Whittaker; R. R. Roy; Dan L. Baker

1999-01-01

253

RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF THINNING AND HIGH WHITE-TAILED DEER DENSITIES ON NORTHERN REDBACK SALAMANDERS IN SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND OAK FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has demonstrated that even-aged regeneration han-ests, especially clearcutting, can have a major and long-lasting detrimental effect on forest amphibians, but the effects of less intensive sil\\\\icultural treatments have not been well documented. Additionally, the chronic overabundance of white-tailed deer (Oclocoileusuirginianrls) has become a problem in many parts of North America, with associated effects on vegetation con~position and structure and

ROBERT T. BROOKS

254

DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF SPECIFIC POLYMERASE REACTION FOR THE DETECTION OF AN ORGANISM RESEMBLING EHRLICHIA SP. IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the epidemiology' of Ehr- lichia chaffeensis and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is not fully' understood, and diagnostic procedures may be complicated by the recent detection of 16S rDNA sequnence from an Ehrlichia sp.-like organism in wild deer. A specific forward primer (DGA) and an Ehr- iichia spp. reverse primer

Susan E. Little; Jacqueline E. Dawson; J. Mitchell Lockhart; David E. Stallknecht; Cynthia K. Warner; William R. Davidson

255

The Effect of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E on Biochemical Parameters and Survival of Young Among White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two adult female white-tailed deer were assigned to four complete pelleted diets (±45ppm vitamin E; ±0.2ppm selenium). Selenium and vitamin E concentration in the unsupplemented diet was 0.04 and 5.5 ppm, respectively. Biochemical parameters of the erythrocyte ( RBC ) glutathione peroxidase system and survival of off-spring to wean ing were followed for 2 years. At the end of the

PAUL S. BRADY; LINDA J. BRADY

256

The potential for transmission of BCG from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to cattle (Bos taurus) through a contaminated environment: experimental findings.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis have been shown to transmit the bacterium to other deer and cattle (Bos taurus) by sharing of pen waste and feed. The risk of transmission of M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer to other deer and cattle, however, is not well understood. In order to evaluate this risk, we orally vaccinated 14 white-tailed deer with 1×10(9) colony forming units BCG in lipid-formulated baits and housed them with nine non-vaccinated deer. Each day we exposed the same seven naïve cattle to pen space utilized by the deer to look for transmission between the two species. Before vaccination and every 60 days until the end of the study, we performed tuberculin skin testing on deer and cattle, as well as interferon-gamma testing in cattle, to detect cellular immune response to BCG exposure. At approximately 27 weeks all cattle and deer were euthanized and necropsied. None of the cattle converted on either caudal fold, comparative cervical tests, or interferon-gamma assay. None of the cattle were culture positive for BCG. Although there was immunological evidence that BCG transmission occurred from deer to deer, we were unable to detect immunological or microbiological evidence of transmission to cattle. This study suggests that the risk is likely to be low that BCG-vaccinated white-tailed deer would cause domestic cattle to react to the tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma test through exposure to a BCG-contaminated environment. PMID:23565211

Nol, Pauline; Rhyan, Jack C; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; McCollum, Matt P; Rigg, Tara D; Saklou, Nadia T; Salman, Mo D

2013-01-01

257

The Potential for Transmission of BCG from Orally Vaccinated White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Cattle (Bos taurus) through a Contaminated Environment: Experimental Findings  

PubMed Central

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis have been shown to transmit the bacterium to other deer and cattle (Bos taurus) by sharing of pen waste and feed. The risk of transmission of M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer to other deer and cattle, however, is not well understood. In order to evaluate this risk, we orally vaccinated 14 white-tailed deer with 1×109 colony forming units BCG in lipid-formulated baits and housed them with nine non-vaccinated deer. Each day we exposed the same seven naïve cattle to pen space utilized by the deer to look for transmission between the two species. Before vaccination and every 60 days until the end of the study, we performed tuberculin skin testing on deer and cattle, as well as interferon-gamma testing in cattle, to detect cellular immune response to BCG exposure. At approximately 27 weeks all cattle and deer were euthanized and necropsied. None of the cattle converted on either caudal fold, comparative cervical tests, or interferon-gamma assay. None of the cattle were culture positive for BCG. Although there was immunological evidence that BCG transmission occurred from deer to deer, we were unable to detect immunological or microbiological evidence of transmission to cattle. This study suggests that the risk is likely to be low that BCG-vaccinated white-tailed deer would cause domestic cattle to react to the tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma test through exposure to a BCG-contaminated environment.

Nol, Pauline; Rhyan, Jack C.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; McCollum, Matt P.; Rigg, Tara D.; Saklou, Nadia T.; Salman, Mo D.

2013-01-01

258

The Role of DDE, PCB, Coplanar PCB and Eggshell Parameters for Reproduction in the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproduction of white-tailed sea eagles was monitored in1964-1999 in 3 differently contaminated sub-populations: Baltic Sea coast (Bp), inland central Sweden (Ip) and Lapland (Lp). 249 dead eggs from 205 clutches were obtained for analyses of DDE and PCBs and for eggshell measurements. A desiccation index (Di) value was calculated for each egg as a measure of water loss through

Björn Helander; Anders Olsson; Anders Bignert; Lillemor Asplund; Kerstin Litzén

2002-01-01

259

Candidates for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease.  

PubMed

The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and "Ca. Sulcia muelleri." Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and "Ca. Sulcia muelleri" colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. PMID:22798373

Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A; Hanboonsong, Yupa

2012-10-01

260

Candidates for Symbiotic Control of Sugarcane White Leaf Disease  

PubMed Central

The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri.” Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri” colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease.

Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

261

Final Report: Surveys and Investigations Projects as Required by Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act, Missouri. Study No. 22. White-Tailed Deer Population Modeling in Missosuri. Job No. 2. Annual Gross Natality Rates for White-Tailed Deer Populations in Missouri.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors measured reproductive parameters from 2,833 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) does collected from 1978-86 and 1989-93 in three geographical regions of Missouri. Fawn pregnancy and fetal rates were significantly lower than those of yea...

L. P. Hansen J. Beringer

1995-01-01

262

Phenotypic differences in white-tailed deer antlerogenic progenitor cells and marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.  

PubMed

Deer antlers are bony appendages that are annually cast and rapidly regrown in a seasonal process coupled to the reproductive cycle. Due to the uniqueness of this process among mammals, we reasoned that a fundamental characterization of antler progenitor cell behavior may provide insights that could lead to improved strategies for promoting bone repair. In this study, we investigated whether white-tailed deer antlerogenic progenitor cells (APC) conform to basic criteria defining mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). In addition, we tested the effects of the artificial glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) on osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation as well as the degree of apoptosis during the latter. Comparisons were made to animal-matched marrow-derived MSC. APC and MSC generated similar numbers of colonies. APC cultures expanded less rapidly overall but experienced population recovery at later time points. In contrast to MSC, APC did not display adipogenic in vitro differentiation capacity. Under osteogenic culture conditions, APC and MSC exhibited different patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity over time. DEX increased APC alkaline phosphatase activity only initially but consistently led to decreased activity in MSC. APC and MSC in osteogenic culture underwent different time and DEX-dependent patterns of mineralization, yet APC and MSC achieved similar levels of mineral accrual in an ectopic ossicle model. During chondrogenic differentiation, APC exhibited high levels of apoptosis without a reduction in cell density. DEX decreased proteoglycan production and increased apoptosis in chondrogenic APC cultures but had the opposite effects in MSC. Our results suggest that APC and MSC proliferation and differentiation differ in their dependence on time, factors, and milieu. Antler tip APC may be more lineage-restricted osteo/chondroprogenitors with distinctly different responses to apoptotic and glucocorticoid stimuli. PMID:24313802

Daley, Ethan L H; Alford, Andrea I; Miller, Joshua D; Goldstein, Steven A

2014-05-01

263

A cloning and expression analysis of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins expressed in trophoblasts of the white-tail deer placenta.  

PubMed

The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are placental proteins that have been cloned from swine, sheep, goats, and cattle, but never from animals within the Cervidae family. The goal of this work was to characterize PAGs in white-tailed deer. Placenta and uterine tissues were collected from pregnant does at days 85 and 90 of pregnancy. RNA from cotyledons was used to amplify deer PAGs by RT-PCR. Ten distinct cDNAs were cloned and sequenced. Some normally conserved amino acids comprising the catalytic site were found to be altered in deer PAGs 4, 5, and 8; another PAG, (PAG-9) was a splice variant that lacked exon 7. In each case, these mutations would likely preclude proteolytic activity for these proteins. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the deer PAGs fell within the ancient PAG grouping. The remainder fell within the more modern (BNC-specific) PAG group. Western blotting was performed with anti-PAG antibodies and this analysis revealed that deer PAGs comprise a heterogeneous group based on different antigenicities and electrophoretic mobilities. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed some unique localization patterns of PAGs in the deer placentome compared to those in other ruminants. Most notably, deer PAGs 4 and 5, which according to the phylogeny, are "ancient PAGs," were expected to be present in all trophoblasts; instead, they were localized to the BNC. Although many of the PAGs identified here are very similar to those in Bovidae, some are clearly distinct in their expression pattern and probably possess functional roles unique to cervid reproduction. PMID:17393426

Brandt, Gretchen A; Parks, Tina E; Killian, Gary; Ealy, Alan D; Green, Jonathan A

2007-11-01

264

Effects of maternal nutrition, resource use and multi-predator risk on neonatal white-tailed deer survival.  

PubMed

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

Duquette, Jared F; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Lederle, Patrick E

2014-01-01

265

Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival  

PubMed Central

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May–31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates.

Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

2014-01-01

266

Association of Apolipoprotein E 2 With White Matter Disease but Not With Microbleeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Apolipoprotein E (apoE) alleles (2 and 4) are associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which white matter disease and microbleeds are prominent features. The role of apoE in patients with microbleeds or white matter disease but no evidence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy has not been elucidated. We studied apoE alleles in relation to white matter disease and microbleeds

Robin Lemmens; Astrid Gorner; Maarten Schrooten; Vincent Thijs

2010-01-01

267

A universal carrier test for the long tail of Mendelian disease.  

PubMed

Mendelian disorders are individually rare but collectively common, forming a 'long tail' of genetic disease. A single highly accurate assay for this long tail would allow the scaling up of the Jewish community's successful campaign of population screening for Tay-Sachs disease to the general population, thereby improving millions of lives, greatly benefiting minority health and saving billions of dollars. This need has been addressed by designing a universal carrier test: a non-invasive, saliva-based assay for more than 100 Mendelian diseases across all major population groups. The test has been exhaustively validated with a median of 147 positive and 525 negative samples per variant, demonstrating a multiplex assay whose performance compares favourably with the previous standard of care, namely blood-based single-gene carrier tests. Because the test represents a dramatic reduction in the cost and complexity of large-scale population screening, an end to many preventable genetic diseases is now in sight. Moreover, given that the assay is inexpensive and requires only a saliva sample, it is now increasingly feasible to make carrier testing a routine part of preconception care. PMID:20729146

Srinivasan, Balaji S; Evans, Eric A; Flannick, Jason; Patterson, A Scott; Chang, Christopher C; Pham, Tuan; Young, Sharon; Kaushal, Amit; Lee, James; Jacobson, Jessica L; Patrizio, Pasquale

2010-10-01

268

Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission.  

PubMed

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for "exotic" viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVF is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep and goats, if RVF virus is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVF transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a typical north-eastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare but where these potentially susceptible, ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km(2), i.e. 42%) of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVF transmission during the late summer months. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVF-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km(2), i.e. by 89%. PMID:21080319

Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A Desirée; King, Charles H

2010-11-01

269

Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: Use of GIS to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt,and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighboring regions, RVFV is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat forhumans, livestock, and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for ‘exotic’ viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVFV is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep, and goats, if RVFV is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVFV transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)in a typical northeastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare, but these potentially susceptible ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human, and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, or 42 %) of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVFV transmission during the late summermonths. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVFV-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, orby 89%.

Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A. Desiree; King, Charles H.

2011-01-01

270

Neuropsychiatric correlates of white matter hyperintensities in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and MRI measures of brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Methods Thirty-seven patients with probable AD received the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), the Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE), and an MRI scan as part of their initial evaluation at the Outpatient Memory Diagnostic Clinic at McLean Hospital. MRI-based volumetric measurements of whole brain atrophy, hippocampal volumes and WMH were obtained. Analysis of covariance models, using age as a covariate and the presence of specific BPSD as independent variables, were used to test for differences in whole brain volumes, hippocampal volumes and WMH volumes. Results Increased WMH were associated with symptoms of anxiety, aberrant motor behavior, and nighttime disturbance, while symptoms of disinhibition were linked to lower WMH volume. No associations were found for of whole brain or hippocampal volumes and BPSD. Conclusions These findings suggest that white matter changes are associated with the presence of BPSD in AD.

Berlow, Yosef A.; Wells, William M.; Ellison, James; Sung, Young Hoon; Renshaw, Perry F.; Harper, David G.

2013-01-01

271

White Addison's disease: what is the possible cause?  

PubMed

A case of chronic primary adrenal insufficiency without hyperpigmentation in a 64-year-old woman is reported. Due to the absence of hyperpigmentation the diagnosis was delayed and she became critically ill. During endocrine evaluation, in order to investigate the mechanism responsible for the absence of hyperpigmentation, skin biopsy was done and hormones responsible for the skin pigmentation were measured. Absence of hyperpigmentation is explained by high degree of melanosome degradation in secondary lysosomes called "compound melanosomes", which overwhelmed increased stimulation of the skin pigmentation. Melanocyte-stimulating hormones were elevated with a strikingly high beta-LPH/ACTH ratio. To our knowledge, this is the first study of pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the absence of hyperpigmentation in white Addison's disease. PMID:10401715

Kendereski, A; Mici?, D; Sumarac, M; Zori?, S; Macut, D; Coli?, M; Skaro-Mili?, A; Bogdanovi?, Z

1999-05-01

272

Structural neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease: do white matter hyperintensities matter?  

PubMed Central

The targeted brain dysfunction that accompanies aging can have a devastating effect on cognitive and intellectual abilities. A significant proportion of older adults experience precipitous cognitive decline that negatively impacts functional activities. Such individuals meet clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia, which is commonly attributed to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Structural neuroimaging, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has contributed significantly to our understanding of the morphological and pathology-related changes that may underlie normal and disease-associated cognitive change in aging. White matter hyperintensities (WMH), which are distributed patches of increased hyperintense signal on T2-weighted MRI, are among the most common structural neuroimaging findings in older adults. In recent years, WMH have emerged as robust radiological correlates of cognitive decline. Studies suggest that WMH distributed in anterior brain regions are related to decline in executive abilities that is typical of normal aging, whereas WMH distributed in more posterior brain regions are common in AD. Although epidemiological, observational, and pathological studies suggest that WMH may be ischemic in origin and caused by consistent or variable hypoperfusion, there is emerging evidence that they may also reflect vascular deposition of (?-amyloid, particularly when they are distributed in posterior areas and are present in patients with AD. Findings from the literature highlight the potential contribution of small-vessel cerebrovascular disease to the pathogenesis of AD, and suggest a mechanistic interaction, but future longitudinal studies using multiple imaging modalities are required to fully understand the complex role of WMH in AD.

Brickman, Adam M.; Muraskin, Jordan; Zimmerman, Molly E.

2009-01-01

273

75 FR 53615 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the White...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...foreseeable future. Factor C. Disease or Predation We are not aware of...specifically examine the role of disease in the white-sided jackrabbit...be fair to good. Tularemia, a common disease among black-tailed...

2010-09-01

274

Skeletal photopenic appearance of Paget's disease with indium-111 white blood cell imaging  

SciTech Connect

A case of focal decreased skeletal uptake with In-111 labeled white blood cells representing Paget's disease is reported. Although uncommon, other causes for skeletal photon deficient areas using In-111 white blood cells have been described. To the authors' knowledge, this finding representing Paget's disease has not been previously described.

Borin, B.F.; Abghari, R.; Sarkissian, A.

1987-10-01

275

Cerebral White Matter Disease is Associated with Alzheimer Pathology in a Prospective Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Although MRI detected white matter disease has been correlated with cognitive decline in the elderly, it is unclear whether white matter disease is primarily responsible for the cognitive deterioration or whether another process is common to white matter disease and dementia. Methods We examined the relationship between Alzheimer type brain pathology at autopsy and MRI detected cerebral white matter disease in 50 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) Autopsy Program, a prospective study of aging which includes detailed cognitive assessments. Results White matter disease was quantitated in pre- and postmortem MRI scans using the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) criteria in a blinded fashion. We found that several measures of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology including CERAD score, Braak score and a composite AD pathology score, along with hypertension, were significantly associated with CHS white matter score using univariate and multivariate ordinal regression. In contrast, amyloid angiopathy was not independently related to with CHS score. While a clinical diagnosis of dementia was associated with CHS score in univariate analysis, the association disappeared after accounting for AD pathology. Conclusion Alzheimer’s pathology at autopsy is associated with MRI detected cerebral white matter disease. This relationship may explain, in part, the association between cerebral white matter disease and cognitive decline in the elderly.

Moghekar, Abhay; Kraut, Michael; Elkins, Wendy; Troncoso, Juan; Zonderman, Alan B.; Resnick, Susan M; OBrien, Richard J

2012-01-01

276

Skeletal photopenic appearance of Paget's disease with indium-111 white blood cell imaging.  

PubMed

A case of focal decreased skeletal uptake with In-111 labeled white blood cells representing Paget's disease is reported. Although uncommon, other causes for skeletal photon deficient areas using In-111 white blood cells have been described. To the authors' knowledge, this finding representing Paget's disease has not been previously described. PMID:3677520

Borin, B F; Abghari, R; Sarkissian, A

1987-10-01

277

Effects of fluoride emissions from a modern primary aluminum smelter on a local population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

SciTech Connect

The influence of fluoride emissions from a modern aluminum smelter on concentrations of skeletal fluoride and dental fluorosis in a resident population of white-tailed deer was studied. The smelter was located on Mount Holly Plantation in South Carolina, and concentrations of skeletal fluoride in the deer collected at Mount Holly increased approximately five-fold 3 yr after the operation began. Increases in skeletal fluoride of less than two-fold were observed in deer obtained from Medway Plantation which has its nearest boundary 1.6 km from the smelter site. No dental fluorosis was observed in deer collected at Medway Plantation, but mild dental fluorosis was observed in a significant number of deer collected at Mount Holly Plantation. The dental fluorosis that was observed was not associated with incisor wear or with fluoride-induced molar wear. Osteofluorosis of mandibles or metacarpals was not observed in any of the deer obtained from either plantation. The data obtained from this study indicated that the presence of a modern aluminum smelter caused a detectable increase in concentration of skeletal fluoride in the resident population of white-tailed deer, but that no adverse health effects were seen.

Suttie, J.S.; Dickie, R.; Clay, A.B.; Nielsen, P.; Mahan, W.E.; Baumann, D.P.; Hamilton, R.J.

1987-01-01

278

Human Sewage Identified as Likely Source of White Pox Disease of the Threatened Caribbean Elkhorn Coral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, has been decimated in recent years, resulting in the listing of this species as threatened under the United States Endangered Species Act. A major contributing factor in the decline of this iconic species is white pox disease. In 2002, we identified the faecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as an etiological agent for white pox. During outbreaks

Kathryn Patterson Sutherland; James W. Porter; Jeffrey W. Turner; Brian J. Thomas; Erin E. Looney; Trevor P. Luna; Meredith K. Meyers; J. Carrie Futch; Erin K. Lipp

2010-01-01

279

Functions and diseases of red and white blood cells.  

PubMed

Red and white blood cells have two main functions: the carriage of oxygen; and defence against microbial attack. The full blood count is one of the most frequently requested routine blood tests; it provides key indices such as haemoglobin and the number of white cell subsets, and provides information to aid diagnosis of a range of conditions, including anaemia, infection, leukaemia, myeloma and lymphoma. PMID:24683693

Blann, Andrew

280

Influences of Hunting on the Behavior of White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Conservation of the Florida Panther  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of deer bunting by humans on deerpopubtion dynamics and behavior may indirectly affect the population dynamics and behavior of deer predators. We present data on the effects of bunting on the behavior of white-tuiled deer (Odocoileus virginianusj on the Osceola Nutional Forest, a potential reiatro- duction site for the endungered Florida panther @Iis concolor coryi). We then use

John C. Kilgo; Ronald F. Labisky; Duane E. Fritzen

1998-01-01

281

Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) spp. infecting cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) in the United States.  

PubMed

In the United States, the generally non-pathogenic trypanosome of cattle is designated Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri and is distinguished morphologically from Trypanosoma (M.) cervi, a trypanosome originally described in mule deer and elk. Phylogenetic studies of the Megatrypanum trypanosomes using various molecular markers reveal two lineages, designated TthI and TthII, with several genotypes within each. However, to date there is very limited genetic data for T. theileri, and none for the Megatrypanum trypanosomes found in wild ungulates, in the U.S. In this study U.S. isolates from cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (WTD), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were compared by ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis and their incidence in cattle and WTD in south Texas counties was investigated. Phylogenetic analyses showed clear separation of the bovine and cervine trypanosomes. Both lineages I and II were represented in the U.S. cattle and WTD parasites. Lineage I cattle isolates were of a previously described genotype, whereas WTD and elk isolates were of two new genotypes distinct from the cattle trypanosomes. The cattle isolate of lineage II was of a previously reported genotype and was divergent from the WTD isolate, which was of a new genotype. In La Salle, Starr, Webb, and Zapata counties in south Texas a total of 51.8% of white-tailed deer were positive for trypanosomes by 18S rDNA PCR. Of the cattle screened in Webb County, 35.4% were positive. Drought conditions prevailing in south Texas when the animals were screened suggest the possibility of a vector for Trypanosoma other than the ked (Lipoptena mazamae) and tabanid flies (Tabanus spp. and Haematopota spp.). PMID:23683651

Fisher, Amanda C; Schuster, Greta; Cobb, W Jacob; James, Andrea M; Cooper, Susan M; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Holman, Patricia J

2013-10-18

282

Spatial ecology of white-tailed deer fawns in the northern Great Plains: implications of loss of conservation reserve program grasslands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Few studies have evaluated how wildlife, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in particular, respond to Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands. We conducted a 3-year study (2007–2009) to determine the influence of CRP on fawn ecology during a time of declining CRP enrollment. We captured and radiocollared 81 fawn white-tailed deer during 15 May to 15 June 2007–2009 in north-central South Dakota, collected 6,505 locations, and documented 70 summer home ranges. Mean summer home ranges increased temporally during 2007–2009 (P P < 0.001) from 2007 to 2009. Analysis of covariance models indicated that change in CRP influenced home-range size, and change in CRP and wheat influenced daily movement. Smaller home ranges and reduced movements were associated with greater quantity of CRP available to fawns, and increased movements were associated with more acreage of wheat available to fawns. Fawns shifted resource selection during the summer at a mean age ranging from 48.8 days to 58.6 days, and this shift was associated with height of corn (83–87 cm). During early summer, fawns consistently selected for CRP; selection of wheat progressed temporally from avoidance in 2007 to selection in 2009. During late summer, fawns consistently selected for corn habitat and used CRP at least in proportion to its availability. Reduction in CRP-grasslands seemed to increase fawn home-range size and daily movements and, influenced change in resource selection to wheat. Current legislation mandates continued decrease in CRP enrollment and concomitant increase in the planting of corn for ethanol production. Management of habitat throughout the grasslands of the Northern Great Plains that maximizes cover habitats would provide neonates with adequate cover for protection from predators.

Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

2012-01-01

283

Effects of Harvesting Intensity and Herbivory by White-tailed Deer on Vegetation and Nutrient Uptake in a Northern Hardwood Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantified the response of vegetation and nutrient uptake in a northern hardwood forest in southeastern New York for three to four years after three intensities of harvesting: clearcutting, heavy timber stand improvement (TSI), light TSI (97, 29, and 10% basal area reductions, respectively). We also quantified effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on nutrient retention by vegetation. Total biomass and nutrient accumulation in vegetation was higher after TSI than clearcutting in the first two years but was highest in the fenced clearcut in subsequent years, indicating that TSI or partial harvesting is a viable management tool for harvesting timber while consistently maintaining high rates of nutrient retention. After clearcutting, biomass and nutrient retention were initially dominated by woody stems <1.4 m tall and herbaceous vegetation, but saplings 0.1-5.0 cm DBH became the most important contributors to biomass and nutrient accumulation within four years. However, after both intensities of TSI, trees >5.0 cm DBH continued to account for most biomass and nutrient accumulation whereas understory vegetation accumulated little biomass or nutrients. Heavy TSI resulted in increased regeneration of only two tree species (Acer pensylvanicum, Fagus grandifolia), but clearcutting allowed these two species, mature forest species (A. saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis), and the early successional Prunus pensylvanica to regenerate. Several early successional shrub and herbaceous species were also important to nutrient retention after clearcutting, including Polygonum cilinode, Rubus spp., and Sambucus racemosa. Herbivory by white-tailed deer dramatically reduced biomass and nutrient accumulation by woody stems <5 cm DBH after clearcutting (5.5 vs. 0.7 Mg biomass/ha and 30.4 vs. 6.3 kg N/ha on fenced and unfenced clearcut sites, respectively, after four years), indicating the important influence this herbivore can have on nutrient retention in recently disturbed forests.

Yorks, T. E.; Leopold, D. J.; Raynal, D. J.; Murdoch, P. S.; Burns, D. A.

2003-12-01

284

Deciphering seasonal variations in the diet and drinking water of modern White-Tailed deer by in situ analysis of osteons in cortical bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ carbon and oxygen isotope values for bioapatite were obtained from longitudinal slices of cortical bone from modern domesticated sheep and free-range White-Tailed deer. The analyses were obtained using an IR-laser coupled to a GC-IRMS interface. Ablation pits averaged 200 × 50 ?m, making it possible to sample individual or small bundles of osteons. Cortical bone is remodeled along osteons throughout a mammal's life. Therefore, data at this scale can record seasonal variations in diet and drinking water during the adult stages of a mammal, whereas teeth provide may provide information about the juvenile years of a mammal. Average ?18O and ?13C values for the sheep from southwestern Ontario, Canada, were 14.0 and -16.1‰, respectively. No trend was observed in the isotopic composition of the sheep's osteons, consistent with its constant diet and water supply. The ?18O (14.2 to 16.6‰) and ?13C (-19.2 to -15.6‰) values of osteons from White-Tailed deer from nearby Pinery Provincial Park, however, varied systematically and were negatively correlated. Oxygen isotope values of the osteons correlated well with changes in the ?18O values of the main water source for these deer: winter average, -10.7‰; summer average, -8.6‰. The variation in ?13C values of the osteons reflects changes in diet; summer diet consisted mainly of leafy C3 vegetation (-28.4‰), whereas winter diet comprised bark (-25.6‰), C4 grasses (?13C, -12.7‰), and corn stalks and husks (-11.3‰).

Larson, T. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.

2007-12-01

285

Benefits to rare plants and highway safety from annual population reductions of a "native invader," white-tailed deer, in a Chicago-area woodland.  

PubMed

Overabundant white-tailed deer are one of the most serious threats to woodland plant communities in the Chicago area. Moreover, the abundant deer in a highly populated area causes economic harm and poses hazards to human safety through collisions with vehicles. The artificial conditions causing the overabundance and resulting consequences qualify the white-tailed deer in the Chicago area to be considered as "native invaders". We examined the benefits of culling deer at a Chicago-area woodland preserve by comparing browse rates on four endangered plant species from years before culling began with years with culling. We also examined deer-vehicle collision and traffic flow rates on area roads from years before culling began and years with culling to assess whether population reductions may have benefited road safety in the area. All four endangered plant species (three orchid species and sweet fern) had lower browse rates in years with culls, although the decreased browsing rates were statistically distinguishable for only two of the species (grass pink orchid and sweet fern). After first verifying that traffic flow rates did not decrease from pre-cull years to years with culls, we analyzed the Illinois Department of Transportation data from area roads based on deer-vehicle collisions causing >US$500 in damage and showed a one-third reduction in deer-vehicle collisions. An economic analysis showed a cost savings during the cull years of US$0.6 million for reducing browsing to just these four monitored plant species and the reduction in deer-vehicle collisions. PMID:23943081

Engeman, Richard M; Guerrant, Travis; Dunn, Glen; Beckerman, Scott F; Anchor, Chris

2014-01-01

286

Resource and potential reclamation evaluation: White Tail Butte study area, Little Powder River Coal Field; emira (energy mineral rehabilitation inventory and anlaysis) report no. 13. Final report 1977-81. [Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Resources are assessed for reclamation potential at the White Tail Butte Study Site, 35 miles north of Gillette in Campbell County, Wyoming. Site specific analyses were conducted for climate, physiography, geology, coal resources, overburden, soils, vegetation, and hydrology. It was determined that special consideration should be given to: (1) stability of landscape, (2) restoration of water resources, (3) erosion control, and (4) vegetation.

Not Available

1981-05-01

287

Resource and potential reclamation evaluation: White Tail Butte study area, Little Powder River coal field; EMIRA (energy mineral rehabilition inventory and analysis) report No. 13. Summary report 1977-81  

SciTech Connect

The report assesses resources for reclamation potential at the White Tail Butte study site, 35 miles north of Gillette in Campbell County, Wyoming. Site Specific analyses were conducted for climate, physiography, geology, coal resources, overburden, soils, vegetation, and hydrology. It was determined that special considerations should be given to: stability of landscape, restoration of water resources, erosion control, and vegetation.

Not Available

1981-05-01

288

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti in mice on islands inhabited by white-tailed deer.  

PubMed Central

Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti were isolated from 35 of 51 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) captured on two Narragansett Bay, R.I., islands inhabited by deer, the principal host for the adult stages of the vector tick, Ixodes dammini. Immature ticks parasitized mice from both islands. From 105 mice captured on four other islands not inhabited by deer neither pathogen was isolated, nor were I. dammini found.

Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W; Myers, J E

1987-01-01

289

Late life cognitive control deficits are accentuated by white matter disease burden  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that age-related impairments in cognition may be mediated by a specific deficit in the ability to maintain goal-relevant information, a critical component of cognitive control dependent on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, although the underlying neural mechanism of these deficits remains unclear. To examine white matter hyperintensities as a neurobiological mechanism of these impairments, older individuals with severe white matter hyperintensity burden, older individuals with low white matter hyperintensity burden, and young adults were assessed in an event-related functional imaging scan while performing the ‘AX’-continuous performance task. Individuals with severe white matter hyperintensity burden showed a significant reduction in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity during the high cognitive control cue condition relative to the low white matter hyperintensity group and young individuals. Conversely, those with severe white matter hyperintensity burden showed greater activity in rostral anterior cingulate cortex compared to young individuals. These results are consistent with impaired cognitive control and a possible failure to deactivate default-mode regions in these subjects. Additionally, those with severe white matter hyperintensity burden showed reduced functional connectivity between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and task-relevant brain regions including middle frontal gyrus, and supramarginal gyrus relative to young subjects and those with minimal white matter hyperintensity burden. These results suggest that age-related goal maintenance impairments and associated dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dysfunction may partly reflect incipient white matter disease of interconnected cognitive networks.

Mayda, Adriane B. V.; Westphal, Andrew; Carter, Cameron S.

2011-01-01

290

The Ecology of 'Acroporid White Syndrome', a Coral Disease from the Southern Great Barrier Reef  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of coral disease have increased worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, remarkably little is known about the ecology of disease in the Indo-Pacific Region. Here we report the spatiotemporal dynamics of a coral disease termed ‘Acroporid white syndrome’ observed to affect tabular corals of the genus Acropora on the southern Great Barrier Reef. The syndrome is characterised by rapid tissue loss initiating in the basal margins of colonies, and manifests as a distinct lesion boundary between apparently healthy tissue and exposed white skeleton. Surveys of eight sites around Heron Reef in 2004 revealed a mean prevalence of 8.1±0.9%, affecting the three common species (Acropora cytherea, A. hyacinthus, A. clathrata) and nine other tabular Acropora spp. While all sizes of colonies were affected, white syndrome disproportionately affected larger colonies of tabular Acroporids (>80 cm). The prevalence of white syndrome was strongly related to the abundance of tabular Acroporids within transects, yet the incidence of the syndrome appears unaffected by proximity to other colonies, suggesting that while white syndrome is density dependant, it does not exhibit a strongly aggregated spatial pattern consistent with previous coral disease outbreaks. Acroporid white syndrome was not transmitted by either direct contact in the field or by mucus in aquaria experiments. Monitoring of affected colonies revealed highly variable rates of tissue loss ranging from 0 to 1146 cm?2 week?1, amongst the highest documented for a coral disease. Contrary to previous links between temperature and coral disease, rates of tissue loss in affected colonies increased threefold during the winter months. Given the lack of spatial pattern and non-infectious nature of Acroporid white syndrome, further studies are needed to determine causal factors and longer-term implications of disease outbreaks on the Great Barrier Reef.

Roff, George; Kvennefors, E. Charlotte E.; Fine, Maoz; Ortiz, Juan; Davy, Joanne E.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

2011-01-01

291

ETIOLOGY OF WHITE POX, A LETHAL DISEASE OF THE CARIBBEAN ELKHORN CORAL, ACROPORA PALMATA.  

EPA Science Inventory

Populations of the shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are being decimated by white pox disease, with losses in the Florida Keys typically in excess of 70%. Tissue loss is rapid, averaging 2.5 cm2 day-1. A bacterium isolated from diseased A. palmata was shown...

292

White Matter Abnormalities and Structural Hippocampal Disconnections in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer’s disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer’s disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate and frontal regions only in the Alzheimer’s group. The severity of white matter degeneration appears to be higher in advanced clinical stages, supporting the construct that these abnormalities are part of the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer’s disease.

Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

2013-01-01

293

White matter abnormalities and structural hippocampal disconnections in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer's disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer's disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate and frontal regions only in the Alzheimer's group. The severity of white matter degeneration appears to be higher in advanced clinical stages, supporting the construct that these abnormalities are part of the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24086371

Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

2013-01-01

294

Phenotypic differences between African and white patients with motor neuron disease: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that race may affect the phenotype in some neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate this in motor neuron disease a retrospective case-control study has been carried out on 15 negroid African and 45 white patients with the disease seen over 8 years. Each African was compared with three age and sex matched white patients with motor neuron disease. There were no statistically significant differences in age of onset or the mean duration of disease in the two groups. The chance of presenting with the "flail arm" variant of motor neuron disease was four times as high in the African group than the white group (odds ratio 4.33, p=0.05, 95% confidence interval 0.99-18.92). Although no overall differences in survival were seen between the two groups, in those with the flail arm variant, four out of the six African patients had died whereas all six white arm patients were alive at the censoring date of 1 January 1999 (median follow up 38.5 months). It is concluded that race may influence the phenotype and progression of motor neuron disease.??

Tomik, B; Nicotra, A; Ellis, C; Murphy, C; Rabe-Hesketh, S; Parton, M; Shaw, C; Leigh, P

2000-01-01

295

Toxicodynamic modeling of 137Cs to estimate white-tailed deer background levels for the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is a former nuclear weapon material production and current research facility adjacent to the Savannah River in South Carolina, USA. The purpose of this study was to determine the background radiocesium ((137)Cs) body burden (e.g., from global fallout) for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) inhabiting the SRS. To differentiate what the background burden is for the SRS versus (137)Cs obtained from SRS nuclear activities, data were analyzed spatially, temporally and compared to other off-site hunting areas near the SRS. The specific objectives of this study were: to compare SRS and offsite deer herds based on time and space; to interpret comparisons based on how data were collected as well as the effect of environmental and anthropogenic influences; to determine what the ecological half-life/decay rate is for (137)Cs in the SRS deer herd; and to give a recommendation to what should be considered the background (137)Cs level in the SRS deer herd. Based on the available information and analyses, it is recommended that the determination of what is considered background for the SRS deer herd be derived from data collected from the SRS deer herd itself and not offsite collections for a variety of reasons. Offsite data show extreme variability most likely due to environmental factors such as soil type and land-use patterns (e.g., forest, agriculture, residential activities). This can be seen from results where samples from offsite military bases (Fort Jackson and Fort Stewart) without anthropogenic (137)Cs sources were much higher than both the SRS and a nearby (Sandhills) study site. Moreover, deer from private hunting grounds have the potential to be baited with corn, thus artificially lowering their (137)Cs body burdens compared to other free-ranging deer. Additionally, sample size for offsite collections were not robust enough to calculate a temporal decay curve with an upper confidence level to determine if the herds are following predicted radioactive decay rates like the SRS or if the variability is due to those points described above. Using mean yearly values, the ecological half-life for (137)Cs body burdens for SRS white-tailed deer was determined to be 28.79 years--very close to the 30.2 years physical half-life. PMID:24389840

Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M; Bobryk, Christopher W; Blas, Susan A

2014-04-01

296

The brain in myotonic dystrophy 1 and 2: evidence for a predominant white matter disease  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2 are progressive multisystemic disorders with potential brain involvement. We compared 22 myotonic dystrophy type 1 and 22 myotonic dystrophy type 2 clinically and neuropsychologically well-characterized patients and a corresponding healthy control group using structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T (T1/T2/diffusion-weighted). Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics were applied for voxel-wise analysis of cerebral grey and white matter affection (Pcorrected?White matter lesions rated visually were more prevalent and severe in myotonic dystrophy type 1 compared with controls, with frontal white matter most prominently affected in both disorders, and temporal lesions restricted to myotonic dystrophy type 1. Voxel-based morphometry analyses demonstrated extensive white matter involvement in all cerebral lobes, brainstem and corpus callosum in myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2, while grey matter decrease (cortical areas, thalamus, putamen) was restricted to myotonic dystrophy type 1. Accordingly, we found more prominent white matter affection in myotonic dystrophy type 1 than myotonic dystrophy type 2 by diffusion tensor imaging. Association fibres throughout the whole brain, limbic system fibre tracts, the callosal body and projection fibres (e.g. internal/external capsules) were affected in myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2. Central motor pathways were exclusively impaired in myotonic dystrophy type 1. We found mild executive and attentional deficits in our patients when neuropsychological tests were corrected for manual motor dysfunctioning. Regression analyses revealed associations of white matter affection with several clinical parameters in both disease entities, but not with neuropsychological performance. We showed that depressed mood and fatigue were more prominent in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 with less white matter affection (early disease stages), contrary to patients with myotonic dystrophy type 2. Thus, depression in myotonic dystrophies might be a reactive adjustment disorder rather than a direct consequence of structural brain damage. Associations of white matter affection with age/disease duration as well as patterns of cerebral water diffusion parameters pointed towards an ongoing process of myelin destruction and/or axonal loss in our cross-sectional study design. Our data suggest that both myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2 are serious white matter diseases with prominent callosal body and limbic system affection. White matter changes dominated the extent of grey matter changes, which might argue against Wallerian degeneration as the major cause of white matter affection in myotonic dystrophies.

Weber, Bernd; Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Roeske, Sandra; Mirbach, Sandra; Anspach, Christian; Schneider-Gold, Christiane; Betz, Regina C.; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Klockgether, Thomas; Kornblum, Cornelia

2011-01-01

297

Mapping joint grey and white matter reductions in Alzheimer's disease using joint independent component analysis  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease concomitant with grey and white matter damages. However, the interrelationship of volumetric changes between grey and white matter remains poorly understood in AD. Using joint independent component analysis, this study identified joint grey and white matter volume reductions based on structural magnetic resonance imaging data to construct the covariant networks in twelve AD patients and fourteen normal controls (NC). We found that three networks showed significant volume reductions in joint grey–white matter sources in AD patients, including (1) frontal/parietal/temporal-superior longitudinal fasciculus/corpus callosum, (2) temporal/parietal/occipital-frontal/occipital, and (3) temporal-precentral/postcentral. The corresponding expression scores distinguished AD patients from NC with 85.7%, 100% and 85.7% sensitivity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively; 75.0%, 66.7% and 75.0% specificity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Furthermore, the combined source of three significant joint sources best predicted the AD/NC group membership with 92.9% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity. Our findings revealed joint grey and white matter loss in AD patients, and these results can help elucidate the mechanism of grey and white matter reductions in the development of AD.

Guo, Xiaojuan; Han, Yuan; Chen, Kewei; Wang, Yan; Yao, Li

2013-01-01

298

Independent component analysis of DTI data reveals white matter covariances in Alzheimer's disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with the clinical symptom of the continuous deterioration of cognitive and memory functions. Multiple diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) can successfully explain the white matter damages in AD patients. However, most studies focused on the univariate measures (voxel-based analysis) to examine the differences between AD patients and normal controls (NCs). In this investigation, we applied a multivariate independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate the white matter covariances based on FA measurement from DTI data in 35 AD patients and 45 NCs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We found that six independent components (ICs) showed significant FA reductions in white matter covariances in AD compared with NC, including the genu and splenium of corpus callosum (IC-1 and IC-2), middle temporal gyral of temporal lobe (IC-3), sub-gyral of frontal lobe (IC-4 and IC-5) and sub-gyral of parietal lobe (IC-6). Our findings revealed covariant white matter loss in AD patients and suggest that the unsupervised data-driven ICA method is effective to explore the changes of FA in AD. This study assists us in understanding the mechanism of white matter covariant reductions in the development of AD.

Ouyang, Xin; Sun, Xiaoyu; Guo, Ting; Sun, Qiaoyue; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia; Guo, Xiaojuan

2014-03-01

299

On-Farm Mitigation of Transmission of Tuberculosis from White-Tailed Deer to Cattle: Literature Review and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

The Animal Industry Division of the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) has been challenged with assisting farmers with modifying farm practices to reduce potential for exposure to Mycobacterium bovis from wildlife to cattle. The MDARD recommendations for on-farm risk mitigation practices were developed from experiences in the US, UK and Ireland and a review of the scientific literature. The objectives of our study were to review the present state of knowledge on M. bovis excretion, transmission, and survival in the environment and the interactions of wildlife and cattle with the intention of determining if the current recommendations by MDARD on farm practices are adequate and to identify additional changes to farm practices that may help to mitigate the risk of transmission. This review will provide agencies with a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature on mitigation of disease transmission between wildlife and cattle and to identify lacunae in published research.

Walter, W. David; Anderson, Charles W.; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; Averill, James J.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

2012-01-01

300

RNA-seq Profiles of Immune Related Genes in the Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis Infected with White Band Disease  

PubMed Central

Coral diseases are among the most serious threats to coral reefs worldwide, yet most coral diseases remain poorly understood. How the coral host responds to pathogen infection is an area where very little is known. Here we used next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to produce a transcriptome-wide profile of the immune response of the Staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis to White Band Disease (WBD) by comparing infected versus healthy (asymptomatic) coral tissues. The transcriptome of A. cervicornis was assembled de novo from A-tail selected Illumina mRNA-seq data from whole coral tissues, and parsed bioinformatically into coral and non-coral transcripts using existing Acropora genomes in order to identify putative coral transcripts. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified in the coral and non-coral datasets to identify genes that were up- and down-regulated due to disease infection. RNA-seq analyses indicate that infected corals exhibited significant changes in gene expression across 4% (1,805 out of 47,748 transcripts) of the coral transcriptome. The primary response to infection included transcripts involved in macrophage-mediated pathogen recognition and ROS production, two hallmarks of phagocytosis, as well as key mediators of apoptosis and calcium homeostasis. The strong up-regulation of the enzyme allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase suggests a key role of the allene oxide pathway in coral immunity. Interestingly, none of the three primary innate immune pathways - Toll-like receptors (TLR), Complement, and prophenoloxydase pathways, were strongly associated with the response of A. cervicornis to infection. Five-hundred and fifty differentially expressed non-coral transcripts were classified as metazoan (n = 84), algal or plant (n = 52), fungi (n = 24) and protozoans (n = 13). None of the 52 putative Symbiodinium or algal transcript had any clear immune functions indicating that the immune response is driven by the coral host, and not its algal symbionts.

Libro, Silvia; Kaluziak, Stefan T.; Vollmer, Steven V.

2013-01-01

301

Diarrhoeal diseases in the White Mountain Apaches: clinical studies.  

PubMed

Acute diarrhoeal diseases continue to be a major health problem in certain underprivileged populations in the United States, including native Americans living in reservations. To describe the features of patients with diarrhoeal diseases requiring medical care, those attending the medical facilities of the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, Whiteriver, Arizona, were studied during 1981-1985. Clinical and aetiological information was obtained on 535 patients which constitute a 20% sample of those attending the outpatient clinic and all 386 patients who required 550 hospitalizations. Rotavirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Shigella were the most common aetiologic agents, a pattern similar to that seen in the developing countries. The clinical features of diarrhoeal illness and the frequent associated occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms, however, were remarkably similar, regardless of aetiology. PMID:7657960

Sack, R B; Santosham, M; Reid, R; Black, R; Croll, J; Yolken, R; Aurelian, L; Wolff, M; Chan, E; Garrett, S

1995-03-01

302

Peripheral neuropathy in vanishing white matter disease with a novel EIF2B5 mutation.  

PubMed

The authors describe an infant with vanishing white matter disease with demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. Sequence analysis of EIF2B5 gene showed that the patient was a double heterozygote, with novel missense mutation CGA-->CAA in codon 269 of exon 6, resulting in the replacement of an arginine residue with glutamine. PMID:16864840

Federico, A; Scali, O; Stromillo, M L; Di Perri, C; Bianchi, S; Sicurelli, F; De Stefano, N; Malandrini, A; Dotti, M T

2006-07-25

303

Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata), it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal

Naraporn Somboonna; Seksan Mangkalanan; Attasit Udompetcharaporn; Chartchai Krittanai; Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; T. W. Flegel

2010-01-01

304

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BACTERIUM SUSPECTED IN THE INCIDENCE OF WHITE BAND DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The common staghorn coral, Acropora cervicomis, has been critically impacted in the U.S. Virgin Islands by a condition described as white band disease, a malady accompanied by the presence of abundant finely granular ovoid basophilic bodies within degenerating tissues of this sto...

305

A case of Salla disease with involvement of the cerebellar white matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salla disease (SD) is a lysosomal disorder manifesting in infancy with hypotonia, nystagmus, ataxia and retarded motor development. MRI typically shows hypomyelination confined to the cerebral white matter. We describe a patient with two MRI studies in addition to repeated urine examinations. This case was problematic because the first urine examination did not show the elevation of free sialic acid

T. Linnankivi; T. Lönnqvist; T. Autti

2003-01-01

306

Oligodendrocytes within astrocytes ("emperipolesis") in the white matter in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.  

PubMed

The occurrence of oligodendrocytes within astrocytes ("emperipolesis") has been described in demyelinating lesions in cases of multiple sclerosis and also in other non-demyelinating disorders. We found that this finding was common in the cerebral white matter of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Eight consecutive autopsy cases of sporadic CJD were reviewed, and in every case the gray matter exhibited classical histopathological features of CJD. In five cases with a long clinical course, the cerebral white matter was severely involved, and both axons and myelin sheaths were lost markedly. Within this devastated white matter, many hypertrophic astrocytes were found to engulf one to several oligodendrocytes within their cytoplasm (emperipolesis). The oligodendroglial nature of the engulfed cells was corroborated by nuclear immunoreactivity for anti-human Olig 2 antibody. In the remaining three cases, whose clinical course was short, the cerebral white matter was relatively well preserved, and emperipolesis was not or only very rarely found. The prevalence of emperipolesis of this type in the white matter in CJD was well correlated with the severity of the white matter lesions. PMID:15235800

Shintaku, Masayuki; Yutani, Chikao

2004-09-01

307

White adipose tissue overproduces the lipid-mobilizing factor zinc ?2-glycoprotein in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is frequently associated with protein-energy wasting, a recognized strong predictive factor of mortality. Zinc ?2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a new adipokine involved in body weight control through its lipid-mobilizing activity. Here we tested whether the uremic environment in CKD could alter ZAG production by white adipose tissue and contribute to CKD-associated metabolic disturbances. Compared with normal plasma, uremic plasma induced a significant increase in ZAG synthesis (124%), was associated with a significant increase in basal lipolysis (31%), and significantly blunted lipogenesis (-53%) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. In 5/6 nephrectomized rats and mice in vivo, there was a significant decrease in white adipose tissue accretion (-44% and -43%, respectively) and a significantly higher white adipose tissue content of ZAG protein than in sham-operated, pair-fed control animals (498% and 106%, respectively). Subcutaneous white adipose tissue biopsies from patients with end-stage renal disease exhibited a higher content of ZAG (573%) than age-matched controls. Thus, the ZAG content is increased in white adipose tissue from patients or animal models with CKD. Overproduction of ZAG in CKD could be a major contributor to metabolic disturbances associated with CKD. PMID:23423258

Pelletier, Caroline C; Koppe, Laetitia; Croze, Marine L; Kalbacher, Emilie; Vella, Roxane E; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Géloën, Alain; Badet, Lionel; Fouque, Denis; Soulage, Christophe O

2013-05-01

308

Deciphering Seasonal Variations of Diet and Water in Modern White-Tailed Deer by In Situ Analysis of Osteons in Cortical Bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic apatite were obtained from longitudinally-cut sections of cortical bone from femurs of modern domesticated sheep and free-range White-Tailed deer, using an IR-laser and a GC-continuous flow interface. Ablation pits averaged 200x50 microns, making it possible to analyze individual osteons. Since cortical bone is remodelled along osteons throughout a mammal's lifetime, isotopic data at this resolution provides information about seasonal variations in diet and drinking water. The O-isotope results were calibrated using laser analyses of NBS-18 and NBS-19, which produced a value of 26.39±0.46 permil (n=27) for WS-1 calcite (accepted value, 26.25 permil). C-isotope results were calibrated using a CO2 reference gas, producing a value of 0.76±0.40permil (n=27) for WS-1, also in excellent agreement with its accepted value of 0.74 permil. Average O- and C-isotope values for a local domestic sheep (southwestern Ontario, Canada) were 12.20±0.58 and -15.70±0.35 permil (n=27), respectively. No isotopic trend occurred along or across individual osteons. This pattern is consistent with the sheep's relatively unchanging food and water sources. The free-range White-Tailed deer came from Pinery Provincial Park (PPP), southwestern Ontario. Its O- and C-isotope compositions varied systematically across individual osteons and were negatively correlated (R2=0.56). O-isotope values ranged from 13.4 to 15.5 permil; the highest values correlated with summer and the lowest values, with winter. The O-isotope compositions of the main water source (Old Ausable River Channel) varied similarly during the deer's lifetime: winter average, -10.7±0.5 permil; summer average, -8.6±0.4 permil. The C-isotope results for the deer osteons varied from -19.7 to -15.9 permil. This variation can be explained by changes in food sources. Summer diets of deer in PPP consist mainly of leafy fractions of C3 vegetation, especially sumac, cedar, oak and pine (average leaf C-isotope value, -28.4±0.8 permil). During winter, when leafy material is unavailable and deep snow inhibits access to vegetation in general, deer strip bark from vegetation (average bark C-isotope value, -25.6±0.8 permil). Certain C4 grasses (little bluestem and sandreed grass, average C-isotope value, -12.7±0.2 permil), which are abundant in unforested dune areas of PPP, commonly stand above the snow cover, and hence are also available for consumption. Deer may also range more widely in the winter, feeding on corn stalks and husks that escaped both harvest and snow cover (average C-isotope value, -11.3±0.2 permil).

Larson, T. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.

2004-12-01

309

Modeling the Impact of Climate and Landscape on the Efficacy of White Tailed Deer Vaccination for Cattle Tick Control in Northeastern Mexico  

PubMed Central

Cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. White tailed deer (WTD) sustain and spread cattle tick populations. The aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of WTD to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. Agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches) and climatic conditions were built in a GIS environment to simulate WTD vaccine effectiveness under conditions where unvaccinated cattle shared the landscape. Published and validated information on tick life cycle was used to build models describing tick mortality and developmental rates. Data from simulations were applied to a large territory in northeastern Mexico where cattle ticks are endemic and WTD and cattle share substantial portions of the habitat. WTD movements were simulated together with tick population dynamics considering the actual landscape and climatic features. The size of the vegetation patches and the distance between patches were critical for the successful control of tick infestations after WTD vaccination. The presence of well-connected, large vegetation patches proved essential for tick control, since the tick could persist in areas of highly fragmented habitat. The continued application of one yearly vaccination on days 1-70 for three years reduced tick abundance/animal/patch by a factor of 40 and 60 for R. annulatus and R. microplus, respectively when compared to non-vaccinated controls. The study showed that vaccination of WTD alone during three consecutive years could result in the reduction of cattle tick populations in northeastern Mexico. Furthermore, the results of the simulations suggested the possibility of using vaccines to prevent the spread and thus the re-introduction of cattle ticks into tick-free areas.

Estrada-Pena, Agustin; Carreon, Diana; Almazan, Consuelo; de la Fuente, Jose

2014-01-01

310

Signatures of large-scale and local climates on the demography of white-tailed ptarmigan in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change may impact wildlife populations by affecting local weather patterns, which, in turn, can impact a variety of ecological processes. However, it is not clear that local variations in ecological processes can be explained by large-scale patterns of climate. The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is a large-scale climate phenomenon that has been shown to influence the population dynamics of some animals. Although effects of the NAO on vertebrate population dynamics have been studied, it remains uncertain whether it broadly predicts the impact of weather on species. We examined the ability of local weather data and the NAO to explain the annual variation in population dynamics of white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA. We performed canonical correlation analysis on the demographic subspace of ptarmigan and local-climate subspace defined by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) using data from 1975 to 1999. We found that two subspaces were significantly correlated on the first canonical variable. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the first EOF values of the demographic and local-climate subspaces was significant. The population density and the first EOF of local-climate subspace influenced the ptarmigan population with 1-year lags in the Gompertz model. However, the NAO index was neither related to the first two EOF of local-climate subspace nor to the first EOF of the demographic subspace of ptarmigan. Moreover, the NAO index was not a significant term in the Gompertz model for the ptarmigan population. Therefore, local climate had stronger signature on the demography of ptarmigan than did a large-scale index, i.e., the NAO index. We conclude that local responses of wildlife populations to changing climate may not be adequately explained by models that project large-scale climatic patterns.

Wang, Guiming; Hobbs, Thompson; Galbraith, Hector; Giesen, Kenneth

2002-06-01

311

Annual survival and site fidelity of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): comparative demography before (1983-1992) and after (1993-2005) spatial confinement.  

PubMed

Survival and movement are important demographic variables influencing the dynamics of large herbivores with implications for management and evolution of life-history strategies. Management practices such as spatial confinement and harvest regulation attempt to control survival and movement for the sustainability of harvested deer populations, but a paucity of long-term data exists on these management practices. We examined annual survival and site fidelity of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) over 10 years (1983-1992) to compare demographic parameters after spatial confinement (1993-2005). We used capture records (n = 174; 104 females, 70 males), marked deer recaptures (n = 42), and dead recoveries (n = 68) to estimate sex-specific, age-specific and time-specific parameters. We found that annual female survival was 50% from 1983-1987 during a period of intense harvest, but increased to 93.7% after intense harvesting was eliminated. Prior to spatial confinement, annual survival of marked male deer averaged 36.7%-42.5%. After spatial confinement, annual survival increased on average for males (58%-99%) and females (77%-98%). Females showed high levels of site fidelity (>99%) prior to spatial confinement, whereas males showed much less site fidelity (?4.5% for the 2 top-ranking models). During spatial confinement, the semi-impermeable fence effectively increased site fidelity of males (?56%). These results stem from long-term study (23 years) of a large herbivore experiencing changes to life-history, resulting from changes in management that were applied to the population and aimed at altering population demographics, for sustainability of a harvestable population of deer. PMID:24447659

Webb, Stephen L; Gee, Kenneth L

2014-01-01

312

The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata  

PubMed Central

Populations of the shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are being decimated by white pox disease, with losses of living cover in the Florida Keys typically in excess of 70%. The rate of tissue loss is rapid, averaging 2.5 cm2?day?1, and is greatest during periods of seasonally elevated temperature. In Florida, the spread of white pox fits the contagion model, with nearest neighbors most susceptible to infection. In this report, we identify a common fecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as the causal agent of white pox. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a bacterial species associated with the human gut has been shown to be a marine invertebrate pathogen.

Patterson, Kathryn L.; Porter, James W.; Ritchie, Kim B.; Polson, Shawn W.; Mueller, Erich; Peters, Esther C.; Santavy, Deborah L.; Smith, Garriet W.

2002-01-01

313

A case of Salla disease with involvement of the cerebellar white matter.  

PubMed

Salla disease (SD) is a lysosomal disorder manifesting in infancy with hypotonia, nystagmus, ataxia and retarded motor development. MRI typically shows hypomyelination confined to the cerebral white matter. We describe a patient with two MRI studies in addition to repeated urine examinations. This case was problematic because the first urine examination did not show the elevation of free sialic acid typical of SD and MRI was also atypical, with abnormal signal intensity in cerebellar white matter. We recommend repeated urinary examinations and a search for SLC17A5 mutations in patients with cerebral signal intensity abnormalities typical of SD and emphasise that cerebellar white-matter involvement on MRI does not exclude the diagnosis. PMID:12592494

Linnankivi, T; Lönnqvist, T; Autti, T

2003-02-01

314

Pathophysiology of white matter perfusion in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.  

PubMed

Little is known about the contributors and physiological responses to white matter hypoperfusion in the human brain. We previously showed the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 in post-mortem human brain tissue correlates with the degree of ante-mortem ischaemia. In age-matched post-mortem cohorts of Alzheimer's disease (n = 49), vascular dementia (n = 17) and control brains (n = 33) from the South West Dementia Brain Bank (Bristol), we have now examined the relationship between the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 and several other proteins involved in regulating white matter vascularity and blood flow. Across the three cohorts, white matter perfusion, indicated by the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1, correlated positively with the concentration of the vasoconstrictor, endothelin 1 (P = 0.0005), and negatively with the concentration of the pro-angiogenic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.0015). The activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme, which catalyses production of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II was not altered. In samples of frontal white matter from an independent (Oxford, UK) cohort of post-mortem brains (n = 74), we confirmed the significant correlations between the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 and both endothelin 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. We also assessed microvessel density in the Bristol (UK) samples, by measurement of factor VIII-related antigen, which we showed to correlate with immunohistochemical measurements of vessel density, and found factor VIII-related antigen levels to correlate with the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.0487), suggesting that upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor tends to increase vessel density in the white matter. We propose that downregulation of endothelin 1 and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the context of reduced ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 are likely to be protective physiological responses to reduced white matter perfusion. Further analysis of the Bristol cohort showed that endothelin 1 was reduced in the white matter in Alzheimer's disease (P < 0.05) compared with control subjects, but not in vascular dementia, in which endothelin 1 tended to be elevated, perhaps reflecting abnormal regulation of white matter perfusion in vascular dementia. Our findings demonstrate the potential of post-mortem measurement of myelin proteins and mediators of vascular function, to assess physiological and pathological processes involved in the regulation of cerebral perfusion in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. PMID:24618270

Barker, Rachel; Ashby, Emma L; Wellington, Dannielle; Barrow, Vivienne M; Palmer, Jennifer C; Kehoe, Patrick G; Esiri, Margaret M; Love, Seth

2014-05-01

315

Pathophysiology of white matter perfusion in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the contributors and physiological responses to white matter hypoperfusion in the human brain. We previously showed the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 in post-mortem human brain tissue correlates with the degree of ante-mortem ischaemia. In age-matched post-mortem cohorts of Alzheimer’s disease (n = 49), vascular dementia (n = 17) and control brains (n = 33) from the South West Dementia Brain Bank (Bristol), we have now examined the relationship between the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 and several other proteins involved in regulating white matter vascularity and blood flow. Across the three cohorts, white matter perfusion, indicated by the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1, correlated positively with the concentration of the vasoconstrictor, endothelin 1 (P = 0.0005), and negatively with the concentration of the pro-angiogenic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.0015). The activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme, which catalyses production of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II was not altered. In samples of frontal white matter from an independent (Oxford, UK) cohort of post-mortem brains (n = 74), we confirmed the significant correlations between the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 and both endothelin 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. We also assessed microvessel density in the Bristol (UK) samples, by measurement of factor VIII-related antigen, which we showed to correlate with immunohistochemical measurements of vessel density, and found factor VIII-related antigen levels to correlate with the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.0487), suggesting that upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor tends to increase vessel density in the white matter. We propose that downregulation of endothelin 1 and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the context of reduced ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 are likely to be protective physiological responses to reduced white matter perfusion. Further analysis of the Bristol cohort showed that endothelin 1 was reduced in the white matter in Alzheimer’s disease (P < 0.05) compared with control subjects, but not in vascular dementia, in which endothelin 1 tended to be elevated, perhaps reflecting abnormal regulation of white matter perfusion in vascular dementia. Our findings demonstrate the potential of post-mortem measurement of myelin proteins and mediators of vascular function, to assess physiological and pathological processes involved in the regulation of cerebral perfusion in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia.

Barker, Rachel; Ashby, Emma L.; Wellington, Dannielle; Barrow, Vivienne M.; Palmer, Jennifer C.; Kehoe, Patrick G.; Esiri, Margaret M.

2014-01-01

316

Coral disease physiology: the impact of Acroporid white syndrome on Symbiodinium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acroporid white syndrome, a disease-like syndrome from the Great Barrier Reef, results from degenerative host tissue at lesion\\u000a borders. Tissue preceding lesion borders appears visually healthy, but it is currently unclear whether the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae\\u000a (Symbiodinium) are physiologically impacted. Compared to healthy colonies, this study found no significant differences in symbiont density,\\u000a mitotic index or chlorophyll a content in tissue

G. Roff; E. C. E. Kvennefors; K. E. Ulstrup; M. Fine; O. Hoegh-Guldberg

2008-01-01

317

Imaging for Tissue Characterization in Multiple Sclerosis and Other White Matter Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In white matter diseases (WMD), conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be sensitive for detecting lesions\\u000a and their changes over time. However, conventional MRI is not able to characterize and quantify the tissue damage within and\\u000a outside these lesions. Other quantitative MR techniques have the potential to overcome such limitation. Among these techniques,\\u000a MR spectroscopy (MRS), magnetization transfer

M. Filippi; N. DE STEFANO

318

Improved sensitivity to cerebral white matter abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease with spherical deconvolution based tractography.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based fiber tractography (FT) is the most popular approach for investigating white matter tracts in vivo, despite its inability to reconstruct fiber pathways in regions with "crossing fibers." Recently, constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) has been developed to mitigate the adverse effects of "crossing fibers" on DTI based FT. Notwithstanding the methodological benefit, the clinical relevance of CSD based FT for the assessment of white matter abnormalities remains unclear. In this work, we evaluated the applicability of a hybrid framework, in which CSD based FT is combined with conventional DTI metrics to assess white matter abnormalities in 25 patients with early Alzheimer's disease. Both CSD and DTI based FT were used to reconstruct two white matter tracts: one with regions of "crossing fibers," i.e., the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and one which contains only one fiber orientation, i.e. the midsagittal section of the corpus callosum (CC). The DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), obtained from these tracts were related to memory function. Our results show that in the tract with "crossing fibers" the relation between FA/MD and memory was stronger with CSD than with DTI based FT. By contrast, in the fiber bundle where one fiber population predominates, the relation between FA/MD and memory was comparable between both tractography methods. Importantly, these associations were most pronounced after adjustment for the planar diffusion coefficient, a measure reflecting the degree of fiber organization complexity. These findings indicate that compared to conventionally applied DTI based FT, CSD based FT combined with DTI metrics can increase the sensitivity to detect functionally significant white matter abnormalities in tracts with complex white matter architecture. PMID:22952880

Reijmer, Yael D; Leemans, Alexander; Heringa, Sophie M; Wielaard, Ilse; Jeurissen, Ben; Koek, Huiberdina L; Biessels, Geert Jan

2012-01-01

319

Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): Occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 749 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio and 487 WTD deer shot in Minnesota during 2008, 2009, and 2010. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cut-off titer, 25). Additionally myocardial samples from 123 seropositive WTD from Ohio were digested in pepsin and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii. Furthermore, to estimate transplacental rate of transmission, brains from 155 fetuses (included twins) from 148 deer from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice for the isolation of viable T. gondii. Seroprevalence of T. gondii varied with the year of collection, geography, and the age of deer. Of the Ohio deer sampled in 2012 and 2013 seroprevalences for the two years were similar (73.4% and 75.7%, respectively); remarkably 150 (66.1%) of 227 deer of <1 year of age were seropositive. Of the Minnesota deer, seroprevalence was lowest for the year 2008 (14.8%, 26/175) versus 2009 (27.7%, 59/213), and 2010 (25.2%, 25/99), thought to be related to environmental temperatures. Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of four WTD from Ohio, and brain of one WTD fetus from Minnesota. Tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these five T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). Four genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 1 (Type II), no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant) and no. 146. Results indicate fluctuating seroprevalence, probably related to weather and warrant further epidemiological studies. PMID:24582734

Dubey, J P; Dennis, P M; Verma, S K; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Butler, E; Carstensen, M; Su, C

2014-05-28

320

Cerebral small vessel disease affects white matter microstructure in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Microstructural white matter deterioration is a frequent finding in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), potentially underlying default mode network (DMN) dysfunctioning. Thus far, microstructural damage in MCI has been attributed to Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. A cerebrovascular role, in particular the role of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), received less interest. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine the role of CSVD in microstructural deterioration within the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in MCI. MCI patients were subdivided into those with (n = 20) and without (n = 31) macrostructural CSVD evidence on MRI. Using TBSS we performed microstructural integrity comparisons within the whole brain NAWM. Secondly, we segmented white matter tracts interconnecting DMN brain regions by means of automated tractography segmentation. We used NAWM DTI measures from these tracts as dependent variables in a stepwise-linear regression analysis, with structural and demographical predictors. Our results indicated microstructural deterioration within the anterior corpus callosum, internal and external capsule and periventricular white matter in MCI patients with CSVD, while in MCI patients without CSVD, deterioration was restricted to the right perforant path, a tract along the hippocampus. Within the full cohort of MCI patients, microstructure within the NAWM of the DMN fiber tracts was affected by the presence of CSVD. Within the cingulum along the hippocampal cortex we found a relationship between microstructural integrity and ipsilateral hippocampal volume and the extent of white matter hyperintensity. In conclusion, we found evidence of CSVD-related microstructural damage in fiber tracts subserving the DMN in MCI. Hum Brain Mapp 35:2836-2851, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24115179

Papma, Janne M; de Groot, Marius; de Koning, Inge; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U; van der Lugt, Aad; Vernooij, Meike W; Niessen, Wiro J; van Swieten, John C; Koudstaal, Peter J; Prins, Niels D; Smits, Marion

2014-06-01

321

Voxel-based assessment of gray and white matter volumes in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Using the study-specific templates and optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study investigated abnormalities in gray and white matter to provide depiction of the concurrent structural changes in 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with 14 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Consistent with previous studies, patients with AD exhibited significant gray matter volume reductions mainly in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, superior/middle temporal gyrus, thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and superior/inferior parietal lobule. In addition, white matter volume reductions were found predominately in the temporal lobe, corpus callosum, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Furthermore, a number of additional white matter regions such as precentral gyrus, cingulate fasciculus, superior and inferior frontal gyrus, and sub-gyral in parietal lobe were also affected. The pattern of gray and white matter volume reductions helps us understand the underlying pathologic mechanisms in AD and potentially can be used as an imaging marker for the studies of AD in the future. PMID:19879920

Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Zhiqun; Li, Kuncheng; Li, Ziyi; Qi, Zhigang; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Chen, Kewei

2010-01-01

322

Voxel-based assessment of gray and white matter volumes in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Using the study-specific templates and optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study investigated abnormalities in gray and white matter to provide depiction of the concurrent structural changes in 13 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) compared with 14 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Consistent with previous studies, patients with AD exhibited significant gray matter volume reductions mainly in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, superior/middle temporal gyrus, thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and superior/inferior parietal lobule. In addition, white matter volume reductions were found predominately in the temporal lobe, corpus callosum, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Furthermore, a number of additional white matter regions such as precentral gyrus, cingulate fasciculus, superior and inferior frontal gyrus, and sub-gyral in parietal lobe were also affected. The pattern of gray and white matter volume reductions helps us understand the underlying pathologic mechanisms in AD and potentially can be used as an imaging marker for the studies of AD in the future.

Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Zhiqun; Li, Kuncheng; Li, Ziyi; Qi, Zhigang; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Chen, Kewei

2010-01-01

323

The impact of disease in the American white pelican in North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Records of reported die-offs of the American White Pelican (Pelicanus erythrorhynchos) held by the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center from 1978 through 2003 indicate that type C botulism (caused by Clostridium botulinum) was the major cause of mortality. In 1996, over 15,000 birds, including 8,500 American White Pelicans, were estimated to have died from type C botulism at the Salton Sea in California. This was the largest documented die-off of any pelican species and was estimated to represent 15-20% of the western metapopulation. This event was also notable in that it was the first time that fish, specifically Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), were implicated as the source of type C botulinum toxin for birds. Type C botulism has recurred in both North American species of pelicans at the Salton Sea every year since, although the magnitude of mortality is much lower. West Nile virus caused mortality in both adult and immature American White Pelicans, but may have a more significant impact on nestlings. Emaciation and mortality is common in pelican nesting colonies. Further clarification of the cause of nestling mortality and the ability to differentiate background mortality from mortality due to infectious disease agents such as West Nile virus and Newcastle disease virus would be important in determining the impact of disease in pelicans. Although definitive conclusions cannot be drawn, the number of die-offs and the estimated losses of American White Pelicans appears to have increased along with declines in number in western U.S.

Rocke, T.; Converse, K.; Meteyer, C.; McLean, R.

2005-01-01

324

Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease across corals and oceans indicates a conserved and distinct disease microbiome.  

PubMed

Coral diseases are characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue, but causes and consequences of these changes are vaguely understood due to the complexity and dynamics of coral-associated bacteria. We used 16S rRNA gene microarrays to assay differences in bacterial assemblages of healthy and diseased colonies displaying White Plague Disease (WPD) signs from two closely related Caribbean coral species, Orbicella faveolata and Orbicella franksi. Analysis of differentially abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed strong differences between healthy and diseased specimens, but not between coral species. A subsequent comparison to data from two Indo-Pacific coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) revealed distinct microbial community patterns associated with ocean basin, coral species and health state. Coral species were clearly separated by site, but also, the relatedness of the underlying bacterial community structures resembled the phylogenetic relationship of the coral hosts. In diseased samples, bacterial richness increased and putatively opportunistic bacteria were consistently more abundant highlighting the role of opportunistic conditions in structuring microbial community patterns during disease. Our comparative analysis shows that it is possible to derive conserved bacterial footprints of diseased coral holobionts that might help in identifying key bacterial species related to the underlying etiopathology. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that similar-appearing disease phenotypes produce microbial community patterns that are consistent over coral species and oceans, irrespective of the putative underlying pathogen. Consequently, profiling coral diseases by microbial community structure over multiple coral species might allow the development of a comparative disease framework that can inform on cause and relatedness of coral diseases. PMID:24350609

Roder, Cornelia; Arif, Chatchanit; Daniels, Camille; Weil, Ernesto; Voolstra, Christian R

2014-02-01

325

Lacunar stroke, deep white matter disease and depression: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Lacunar stroke is a small (<2 cm) infarction that accounts for approximately 20% of all strokes. While a third of all stroke patients experience depressive symptoms, the prevalence of depression in the lacunar stroke patient population is unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the evidence on the effect of lacunar stroke and deep white matter disease on depressive symptoms. Methods: A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted, resulting in the inclusion of 12 studies. Analyses were performed on the effects of lacunar stroke, volume and location of lacunes on depression prevalence, and the effect on depression severity. The effects estimates were calculated in random-effects models. Results: None of the analyses produced statistically significant results. Lacunar stroke patients had a non-significantly higher prevalence of depression compared to patients with non-lacunar cerebrovascular diseases (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 0.88-2.43, p = 0.15). Neither thalamic (OR = 1.37 (0.85-2.20), p = 0.19), deep white matter (RR = 1.16 (0.85-1.57), p = 0.35), multiple lacunes (OR = 1.34 (0.81-2.22), p = 0.25), or the volume of lacunes (MD = -4.71 (-351.59-342.18), p = 0.98) had an effect on depression prevalence. Lastly, lacunar stroke did not influence depressive symptom severity (MD = 0.96 (-1.57-3.48), p = 0.46). Conclusions: The pooled group of patients with lacunar stroke and deep white matter disease appear to have a similar prevalence of depression compared to those with other types of cerebrovascular diseases. However, the small number of studies, heterogeneous comparison groups, and high statistical heterogeneity between studies posed an obstacle to the meta-analysis. To determine appropriate screening and treatment approaches, future research will need to separate lacunar stroke and deep white matter disease patients, and include larger sample sizes and healthy control groups to determine their distinct contributions to depression. PMID:24717724

Egeto, Peter; Fischer, Corinne E; Ismail, Zahinoor; Smith, Eric E; Schweizer, Tom A

2014-07-01

326

White Band Disease (type I) of endangered caribbean acroporid corals is caused by pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Diseases affecting coral reefs have increased exponentially over the last three decades and contributed to their decline, particularly in the Caribbean. In most cases, the responsible pathogens have not been isolated, often due to the difficulty in isolating and culturing marine bacteria. White Band Disease (WBD) has caused unprecedented declines in the Caribbean acroporid corals, resulting in their listings as threatened on the US Threatened and Endangered Species List and critically endangered on the IUCN Red List. Yet, despite the importance of WBD, the probable pathogen(s) have not yet been determined. Here we present in situ transmission data from a series of filtrate and antibiotic treatments of disease tissue that indicate that WBD is contagious and caused by bacterial pathogen(s). Additionally our data suggest that Ampicillin could be considered as a treatment for WBD (type I). PMID:22355526

Kline, David I; Vollmer, Steven V

2011-01-01

327

White Band Disease (type I) of Endangered Caribbean Acroporid Corals is Caused by Pathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Diseases affecting coral reefs have increased exponentially over the last three decades and contributed to their decline, particularly in the Caribbean. In most cases, the responsible pathogens have not been isolated, often due to the difficulty in isolating and culturing marine bacteria. White Band Disease (WBD) has caused unprecedented declines in the Caribbean acroporid corals, resulting in their listings as threatened on the US Threatened and Endangered Species List and critically endangered on the IUCN Red List. Yet, despite the importance of WBD, the probable pathogen(s) have not yet been determined. Here we present in situ transmission data from a series of filtrate and antibiotic treatments of disease tissue that indicate that WBD is contagious and caused by bacterial pathogen(s). Additionally our data suggest that Ampicillin could be considered as a treatment for WBD (type I).

Kline, David I.; Vollmer, Steven V.

2011-01-01

328

ACE gene polymorphism in cardiovascular disease: meta-analyses of small and large studies in whites.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the ACE gene insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism on plasma ACE activity; blood pressure; and risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease by comparing small and large studies. The meta-analyses are based on a literature search of MEDLINE up until April 1998 and assessment of bibliographies of published studies and reviews. Forty-six studies were selected, including a total of 32 715 white individuals. Plasma ACE activity was increased 40% and 71% for ID and DD versus II in small studies and 21% and 48% in large studies (small versus large: P<0.001 and P<0.001). Blood pressure was not influenced by genotype. Risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic heart disease was increased by 47% and 29%, respectively, for DD versus ID and II genotypes in small studies but not in large studies (small versus large: P<0.001 for risk of myocardial infarction and P=0.01 for risk of ischemic heart disease). Risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease was not increased either in the small or in the largest study. In conclusion, the ACE gene polymorphism affects plasma ACE activity but not blood pressure and is not associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, or ischemic cerebrovascular disease in the largest studies. PMID:10669647

Agerholm-Larsen, B; Nordestgaard, B G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A

2000-02-01

329

Human sewage identified as likely source of white pox disease of the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata.  

PubMed

Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, has been decimated in recent years, resulting in the listing of this species as threatened under the United States Endangered Species Act. A major contributing factor in the decline of this iconic species is white pox disease. In 2002, we identified the faecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as an etiological agent for white pox. During outbreaks in 2003 a unique strain of S. marcescens was identified in both human sewage and white pox lesions. This strain (PDR60) was also identified from corallivorious snails (Coralliophila abbreviata), reef water, and two non-acroporid coral species, Siderastrea siderea and Solenastrea bournoni. Identification of PDR60 in sewage, diseased Acropora palmata and other reef invertebrates within a discrete time frame suggests a causal link between white pox and sewage contamination on reefs and supports the conclusion that humans are a likely source of this disease. PMID:20132278

Sutherland, Kathryn Patterson; Porter, James W; Turner, Jeffrey W; Thomas, Brian J; Looney, Erin E; Luna, Trevor P; Meyers, Meredith K; Futch, J Carrie; Lipp, Erin K

2010-05-01

330

Impacts of white-tailed deer on red trillium (Trillium recurvatum): defining a threshold for deer browsing pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impacts to supplement deer surveys. We analyzed experimental data about red trillium (Trillium recurvatum), large flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum), nodding trillium (T. cernuum), and declined trillium (T. flexipes) growth in paired exclosure (fenced) plots and control (unfenced) plots from 2002 to 2010 at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter two species lacked replication, so statistical analysis was not possible. All red trillium plants were surveyed for height-to-leaf, effects of browsing, and presence of flowers. Data from individuals in 2009 demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between height-to-leaf and probability of flowering. The relationship on moraine soils was shifted to taller plants compared to those on sand substrates, with respectively 50 percent flowering at 18 and 16 cm and 33 percent flowering at 16 and 14 cm height-to-leaf. On a plot basis, the proportion of plants flowering was influenced by height to leaf, duration of protection, and deviation in rainfall. The proportion of plants flowering increased ninefold in exclosures (28 percent) compared to control plots (3 percent) over the 8 years of protection. The mean height-to-leaf was a function of the interaction between treatment and duration, as well as red trillium density. Changes in height-to-leaf in control plots from year to year were significantly influenced by an interaction between change in deer density and change in snowfall depth. There was a significant negative correlation between change in deer density and snowfall depth. Plants in the exclosures increased in height at a rate of 1.5 cm yr?1 whereas control plants decreased in height by 0.9 cm yr?1. In all, 78 percent of the control plots lacked flowering individuals over the 9 years of study, indicating that red trillium is being negatively affected by deer throughout the East Unit of the park. Of the five deer management zones studied, only one showed pre-impact height-to-leaf and flowering percentages in control plots that then declined after 2005. The results of this study demonstrate that Trillium species growing in the lands of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore are being suppressed reproductively by deer browsing. Specifically, we demonstrate, for the first time, the utility of using red trillium (Trillium recurvatum) height-to-leaf and percentage of flowering as indicators of the impacts of deer browsing. Application of the recommended thresholds demonstrates their utility in adopting red trillium as a phytoindicator of deer impact. Responses of plants to protection from deer suggest that deer culling might be necessary for 6 or more years for red trillium populations and rare trillium species to recover.

Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

2014-01-01

331

Widespread reductions of white matter integrity in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Hypercortisolism leads to various physical, psychological and cognitive symptoms, which may partly persist after the treatment of Cushing's disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate abnormalities in white matter integrity in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease, and their relation with psychological symptoms, cognitive impairment and clinical characteristics. Methods In patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease (n = 22) and matched healthy controls (n = 22) we examined fractional anisotropy (FA) values of white matter in a region-of-interest (ROI; bilateral cingulate cingulum, bilateral hippocampal cingulum, bilateral uncinate fasciculus and corpus callosum) and the whole brain, using 3 T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach. Psychological and cognitive functioning were assessed with validated questionnaires and clinical severity was assessed using the Cushing's syndrome Severity Index. Results The ROI analysis showed FA reductions in all of the hypothesized regions, with the exception of the bilateral hippocampal cingulum, in patients when compared to controls. The exploratory whole brain analysis showed multiple regions with lower FA values throughout the brain. Patients reported more apathy (p = .003) and more depressive symptoms (p < .001), whereas depression symptom severity in the patient group was negatively associated with FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analyses showed increased radial and mean diffusivity in the patient group. Conclusion Patients with a history of endogenous hypercortisolism in present remission show widespread changes of white matter integrity in the brain, with abnormalities in the integrity of the uncinate fasciculus being related to the severity of depressive symptoms, suggesting persistent structural effects of hypercortisolism.

van der Werff, Steven J.A.; Andela, Cornelie D.; Nienke Pannekoek, J.; Meijer, Onno C.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.

2014-01-01

332

Caspase-cleaved glial fibrillary acidic protein within cerebellar white matter of the Alzheimer's disease brain.  

PubMed

Although the cerebellum is generally thought of as an area spared of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, recent evidence suggests that balance and mobility dysfunction may be magnified in affected individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine the degree of pathological changes within the cerebellum utilizing an antibody that specifically detects caspase-cleaved GFAP within degenerating astrocytes. Compared to control subjects, application of this antibody, termed the GFAP caspase-cleavage product (GFAPccp) antibody, revealed widespread labeling in cerebellar white matter with little staining observed in grey matter. Staining was observed within damaged astrocytes, was often localized near blood vessels and co-localized with other markers of apoptosis including TUNEL and caspase-cleaved tau. Of interest was the association of beta-amyloid deposition in white matter together with GFAPccp in cerebellar AD sections. In contrast, utilizing the tangle marker, PHF-1, neuritic pathology was completely absent in AD cerebellar sections. It is suggested that the observed pathological changes found in the white matter of the cerebellum may contribute to the declined motor performance in AD. PMID:23236541

Rohn, Troy T; Catlin, Lindsey W; Poon, Wayne W

2013-01-01

333

Factors relating to compliance with a gluten-free diet in patients with coeliac disease: comparison of white Caucasian and South Asian patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & aims: To identify factors relating to compliance with a gluten-free diet amongst white Caucasian and South Asians with coeliac disease.Methods: Cross-sectional survey, with case note review of 130 adult patients with coeliac disease (90 white Caucasian and 40 South Asians).Results: 87 (66.9%) of the 130 questionnaires were returned; whites: 73.3%, South Asians: 52.5% (P=0.02). White Caucasians’ assessment of

Jeffrey R. Butterworth; Luke M. Banfield; Tariq H. Iqbal; Brian T. Cooper

2004-01-01

334

Regional white matter hyperintensity volume, not hippocampal atrophy, predicts incident Alzheimer's disease in the community  

PubMed Central

Background New onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is often attributed to degenerative changes in the hippocampus. However, the contribution of regionally distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease, visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI, remains unclear. Objective To determine whether regional WMH and hippocampal volume predict incident AD in an epidemiological study. Design A longitudinal community-based epidemiological study of older adults from northern Manhattan. Setting The Washington Heights/Inwood Columbia Aging Project Participants Between 2005 and 2007, 717 non-demented participants received MRI scans. An average of 40.28 (SD=9.77) months later, 503 returned for follow-up clinical examination and 46 met criteria for incident dementia (45 with AD). Regional WMH and relative hippocampal volumes were derived. Three Cox proportional hazards models were run to predict incident dementia, controlling for relevant variables. The first included all WMH measurements; the second included relative hippocampal volume; and the third combined the two measurements. Main outcome measures Incident Alzheimer’s disease. Results White matter hyperintensity volume in the parietal lobe predicted time to incident dementia (HR=1.194, p=0.031). Relative hippocampal volume did not predict incident dementia when considered alone (HR=0.419, p=0.768) or with the WMH measures included in the model (HR=0.302, p=0.701). Including hippocampal volume in the model did not notably alter the predictive utility of parietal lobe WMH (HR=1.197, p=0.049). Conclusion The findings highlight the regional specificity of the association of WMH with AD. It is not clear whether parietal WMH solely represent a marker for cerebrovascular burden or point to distinct injury compared to other regions. Future work should elucidate pathogenic mechanisms linking WMH and AD pathology.

Brickman, Adam M.; Provenzano, Frank A.; Muraskin, Jordan; Manly, Jennifer J.; Blum, Sonja; Apa, Zoltan; Stern, Yaakov; Brown, Truman R.; Luchsinger, Jose A.; Mayeux, Richard

2013-01-01

335

Disease dynamics of Montipora white syndrome within Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii: distribution, seasonality, virulence, and transmissibility.  

PubMed

We report on an investigation of Montipora white syndrome (MWS), which is a coral disease reported from Hawaii, U.S.A., that results in tissue loss. Disease surveys of Montipora capitata within Kaneohe Bay (Oahu) found colonies that were affected by MWS on 9 reefs within 3 regions of Kaneohe Bay (south, central, north). Mean MWS prevalence ranged from 0.02 to 0.87% and average number of MWS cases per survey site ranged from 1 to 28 colonies. MWS prevalence and number of cases were significantly lower in the central region as compared to those in the north and south regions of Kaneohe Bay. There was a positive relationship between host abundance and MWS prevalence, and differences in host abundance between sites explained approximately 27% of the variation in MWS prevalence. Reefs in central Kaneohe Bay had lower M. capitata cover and lower MWS levels. MWS prevalence on reefs was neither significantly different between seasons (spring versus fall) nor among 57 tagged colonies that were monitored through time. MWS is a chronic and progressive disease causing M. capitata colonies to lose an average of 3.1% of live tissue mo(-1). Case fatality rate was 28% after 2 yr but recovery occurred in some colonies (32%). Manipulative experiments showed that the disease is acquired through direct contact. This is the first study to examine the dynamics of MWS within Hawaii, and our findings suggest that MWS has the potential to degrade Hawaii's reefs through time. PMID:20853736

Aeby, G S; Ross, M; Williams, G J; Lewis, T D; Works, T M

2010-07-26

336

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Characteristics Among African Americans, Hispanics, and Non-Hispanic Whites: Characterization of a Large North American Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising primarily of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is increasingly prevalent in racial and ethnic minorities. This study was undertaken to characterize racial differences in disease phenotype in a predominantly adult population.METHODS:Phenotype data on 830 non-Hispanic white, 127 non-Hispanic African American, and 169 Hispanic IBD patients, recruited from six academic centers, were abstracted from

Geoffrey C. Nguyen; Esther A. Torres; Miguel Regueiro; Gillian Bromfield; Alain Bitton; Joanne Stempak; Themistocles Dassopoulos; Philip Schumm; Federico J. Gregory; Anne M. Griffiths; Stephen B. Hanauer; Jennifer Hanson; Mary L. Harris; Sunanda V. Kane; Heather Kiraly Orkwis; Raymond Lahaie; Maria Oliva-Hemker; Pierre Pare; Gary E. Wild; John D. Rioux; Huiying Yang; Richard H. Duerr; Judy H. Cho; A. Hillary Steinhart; Steven R. Brant; Mark S. Silverberg

2006-01-01

337

Parahippocampal white matter volume predicts Alzheimer's disease risk in cognitively normal old adults.  

PubMed

An in vivo marker of the underlying pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is atrophy in select brain regions detected with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although gray matter changes have been documented to be predictive of cognitive decline culminating in AD among healthy older adults, very little attention has been given to alterations in white matter as a possible MRI biomarker predictive of AD. In this investigation, we examined parahippocampal white matter (PWM) volume derived from baseline MRI scans in 2 independent samples of 65 cognitively normal older adults, followed longitudinally, to determine if it was predictive of AD risk. The average follow-up period for the 2 samples was 8.5 years. Comparisons between the stable participants (N = 50) and those who declined to AD (N = 15) over time revealed a significant difference in baseline PWM volume (p < 0.001). Furthermore, baseline PWM volume was predictive not only of time to AD (hazard ratio = 3.1, p < 0.05), but also of baseline episodic memory performance (p = 0.041). These results demonstrate that PWM atrophy provides a sensitive MRI biomarker of AD dementia risk among those with normal cognitive function. PMID:24656833

Stoub, Travis R; Detoledo-Morrell, Leyla; Dickerson, Bradford C

2014-08-01

338

Poleward Expansion of the White-Footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) under Climate Change: Implications for the Spread of Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) is an important reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, and its distribution is expanding northward. We used an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis to identify the climatic factors associated with the distribution shift of the white-footed mouse over the last 30 years at the northern edge of its range, and modeled its current and potential future (2050) distributions using the platform BIOMOD. A mild and shorter winter is favouring the northern expansion of the white-footed mouse in Québec. With more favorable winter conditions projected by 2050, the distribution range of the white-footed mouse is expected to expand further northward by 3° latitude. We also show that today in southern Québec, the occurrence of B. burgdorferi is associated with high probability of presence of the white-footed mouse. Changes in the distribution of the white-footed mouse will likely alter the geographical range of B. burgdorferi and impact the public health in northern regions that have yet to be exposed to Lyme disease.

Roy-Dufresne, Emilie; Logan, Travis; Simon, Julie A.; Chmura, Gail L.; Millien, Virginie

2013-01-01

339

Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent  

PubMed Central

Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata), it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. Findings In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g) that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g), the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64%) died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56%) died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g) on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22%) remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. Conclusions S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more susceptible than S. paramamosain. Based on our single-challenge and serial challenge results, and on previous published work showing that S. serrata is relatively unaffected by WSSV infection, we propose that susceptibility to white spot disease in the genus Scylla is species-dependent and may also be dose-history dependent. In practical terms for shrimp farmers, it means that S. olivacea and S. paramamosain may pose less threat as WSSV carriers than S. serrata. For crab farmers, our results suggest that rearing of S. serrata would be a better choice than S. paramamosain or S. olivacea in terms of avoiding losses from seasonal outbreaks of white spot disease.

2010-01-01

340

Haemophilus influenzae disease in the White Mountain Apaches: molecular epidemiology of a high risk population.  

PubMed

Based on a 10-year retrospective and a 15-month prospective analysis, White Mountain Apache Indian children younger than 5 years were found to have an annual incidence of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis of 254 cases/100,000--an 8-fold higher incidence than that seen in the general United States population. In our prospective surveillance, H. influenzae isolates from cases of systemic disease were further characterized by capsular type, biotype and by outer membrane protein (OMP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) patterns on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Unexpectedly, H. influenzae type a strains were isolated in 3/18 cases of systemic disease. All other disease-producing strains were type b. H. influenzae b strains possessing common OMP, LPS, capsular and biotype characteristics were isolated from individuals in geographically distinct communities within the reservation. These apparently identical strains were isolated from different individuals who had systemic infections that occurred months apart (longest interval, 14 months). Both OMP and LPS subtyping were necessary to discriminate among invasive H. influenzae isolates. PMID:6334845

Losonsky, G A; Santosham, M; Sehgal, V M; Zwahlen, A; Moxon, E R

1984-01-01

341

Regional white matter hyperintensity volume, not hippocampal atrophy, predicts incident Alzheimer disease in the community.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND New-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) is often attributed to degenerative changes in the hippocampus. However, the contribution of regionally distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease, visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging, remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To determine whether regional WMHs and hippocampal volume predict incident AD in an epidemiological study. DESIGN A longitudinal community-based epidemiological study of older adults from northern Manhattan, New York. SETTING The Washington Heights/Inwood Columbia Aging Project. PARTICIPANTS Between 2005 and 2007, 717 participants without dementia received magnetic resonance imaging scans. A mean (SD) of 40.28 (9.77) months later, 503 returned for follow-up clinical examination and 46 met criteria for incident dementia (45 with AD). Regional WMHs and relative hippocampal volumes were derived. Three Cox proportional hazards models were run to predict incident dementia, controlling for relevant variables. The first included all WMH measurements; the second included relative hippocampal volume; and the third combined the 2 measurements. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Incident AD. RESULTS White matter hyperintensity volume in the parietal lobe predicted time to incident dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.194; P = .03). Relative hippocampal volume did not predict incident dementia when considered alone (HR = 0.419; P = .77) or with the WMH measures included in the model (HR = 0.302; P = .70). Including hippocampal volume in the model did not notably alter the predictive utility of parietal lobe WMHs (HR = 1.197; P = .049). CONCLUSIONS The findings highlight the regional specificity of the association of WMHs with AD. It is not clear whether parietal WMHs solely represent a marker for cerebrovascular burden or point to distinct injury compared with other regions. Future work should elucidate pathogenic mechanisms linking WMHs and AD pathology. PMID:22945686

Brickman, Adam M; Provenzano, Frank A; Muraskin, Jordan; Manly, Jennifer J; Blum, Sonja; Apa, Zoltan; Stern, Yaakov; Brown, Truman R; Luchsinger, José A; Mayeux, Richard

2012-12-01

342

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

343

Endothelial Function and White Matter Hyperintensities in Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—The presence of white matter hyperintensities on brain MRI is common among elderly individuals. Previous research suggests that cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased white matter hyperintensities. Examining the role of direct physiological measures of vascular function will help to clarify the vascular mechanisms related to white matter hyperintensities. The aim of the present study was to

Karin F. Hoth; David F. Tate; Athena Poppas; Daniel E. Forman; John Gunstad; David J. Moser; Robert H. Paul; Angela L. Jefferson; Andreana P. Haley; Ronald A. Cohen

2010-01-01

344

LEAD\\u2029POISONING\\u2029IN\\u2029WHITE-TAILED\\u2029SEA\\u2029EAGLES:\\u2029 CAUSES\\u2029AND\\u2029APPROACHES\\u2029TO\\u2029SOLUTIONS\\u2029IN\\u2029GERMANY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our project aims to identify the causes and consequences of oral lead intoxications of the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) as an umbrella species for other scavenging birds. A dia- logue-oriented and communicative part of the project encourages involved stakeholders like hunting orga- nizations, foresters, the ammunition industry, ammunition dealers and nature conservationists to develop potential solutions for eliminating lead

OLIVER KRONE; NORBERT KENNTNER; ANNA TRINOGGA; MIRJAM NADJAFZADEH; FRIEDERIKE SCHOLZ; JUSTINE SULAWA; KATRIN TOTSCHEK; PETRA SCHUCK-WERSIG

345

Unilaterally and rapidly progressing white matter lesion and elevated cytokines in a patient with Tay–Sachs disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a girl with Tay–Sachs disease who had convulsions and deteriorated rapidly after an upper respiratory infection at the age of 11 months. At the age of 16 months, her seizures became intractable and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and marked swelling in the white matter and basal

Tomomi Hayase; Jun Shimizu; Tamako Goto; Yasuyuki Nozaki; Masato Mori; Naoto Takahashi; Eiji Namba; Takanori Yamagata; Mariko Y. Momoi

2010-01-01

346

White matter integrity is associated with cerebrospinal fluid markers of Alzheimer's disease in normal adults.  

PubMed

We explored whether white matter (WM) integrity in cognitively normal (CN) older adults is associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Twenty CN older adults underwent lumbar puncture and magnetic resonance imaging within a few days of each other. Analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data involved a priori region of interest and voxelwise approaches. The region of interest results revealed a positive correlation between CSF measures of amyloid-beta (A?42 and A?42/p-Tau181) and WM integrity in the fornix, a relationship which persisted after controlling for hippocampal volume and fornix volume. Lower WM integrity in the same portion of the fornix was also associated with reduced performance on the Digit Symbol test. Subsequent exploratory voxelwise analyses indicated a positive correlation between CSF A?42/p-Tau181 and WM integrity in bilateral portions of the fornix, superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and in the corpus callosum and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Our results link lower WM microstructural integrity in CN older adults with CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease and suggest that this association in the fornix may be independent of volumetric measures. PMID:24866404

Gold, Brian T; Zhu, Zude; Brown, Christopher A; Andersen, Anders H; LaDu, Mary Jo; Tai, Leon; Jicha, Greg A; Kryscio, Richard J; Estus, Steven; Nelson, Peter T; Scheff, Steve W; Abner, Erin; Schmitt, Frederick A; Van Eldik, Linda J; Smith, Charles D

2014-10-01

347

White Paper of Italian Gastroenterology: Delivery of services for digestive diseases in Italy: Weaknesses and strengths.  

PubMed

In 2011 the three major Italian gastroenterological scientific societies (AIGO, the Italian Society of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists; SIED, the Italian Society of Endoscopy; SIGE, the Italian Society of Gastroenterology) prepared their official document aimed at analysing medical care for digestive diseases in Italy, on the basis of national and regional data (Health Ministry and Lombardia, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna databases) and to make proposals for planning of care. Digestive diseases were the first or second cause of hospitalizations in Italy in 1999-2009, with more than 1,500,000 admissions/year; however only 5-9% of these admissions was in specialized Gastroenterology units. Reported data show a better outcome in Gastroenterology Units than in non-specialized units: shorter average length of stay, in particular for admissions with ICD-9-CM codes proxying for emergency conditions (6.7 days versus 8.4 days); better case mix (higher average diagnosis-related groups weight in Gastroenterology Units: 1 vs 0.97 in Internal Medicine units and 0.76 in Surgery units); lower inappropriateness of admissions (16-25% versus 29-87%); lower in-hospital mortality in urgent admissions (2.2% versus 5.1%); for patients with urgent admissions due to gastrointestinnal haemorrhage, in-hospital mortality was 2.3% in Gastroenterology units versus 4.0% in others. The present document summarizes the scientific societies' official report, which constitutes the "White paper of Italian Gastroenterology". PMID:24913902

Buscarini, Elisabetta; Conte, Dario; Cannizzaro, Renato; Bazzoli, Franco; De Boni, Michele; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Farinati, Fabio; Ravelli, Paolo; Testoni, Pier Alberto; Lisiero, Manola; Spolaore, Paolo

2014-07-01

348

Tail planes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents methods by which the cells of large commercial airplanes may be reduced. The tail of large airplanes represent an area where considerable improvement in weight and size reduction can be attained.

Constantin, L

1926-01-01

349

The potential role of /sup 111/In white blood cell scans in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

SciTech Connect

In many institutions, the use of /sup 111/In white blood cell (WBC) scans have become routine for abscess detection. Its use for the detection of bone and joint inflammation, renal disease, and myocardial infarction has also been reported. Two patients are presented whose /sup 111/In studies were of major clinical value in the management of their inflammatory bowel disease. In one, the diagnosis was suggested, and in the second, the extent of disease was defined. The potential role of /sup 111/In WBC imaging in inflammatory bowel disease--for diagnosis, staging, and monitoring response to therapy--are discussed. Possible pitfalls as well as a comprehensive prospective study are suggested.

Kipper, M.S.; Williams, R.J.

1982-10-01

350

Tail Buffeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

Abdrashitov, G.

1943-01-01

351

Experimental antibiotic treatment identifies potential pathogens of white band disease in the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis.  

PubMed

Coral diseases have been increasingly reported over the past few decades and are a major contributor to coral decline worldwide. The Caribbean, in particular, has been noted as a hotspot for coral disease, and the aptly named white syndromes have caused the decline of the dominant reef building corals throughout their range. White band disease (WBD) has been implicated in the dramatic loss of Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata since the 1970s, resulting in both species being listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red list. The causal agent of WBD remains unknown, although recent studies based on challenge experiments with filtrate from infected hosts concluded that the disease is probably caused by bacteria. Here, we report an experiment using four different antibiotic treatments, targeting different members of the disease-associated microbial community. Two antibiotics, ampicillin and paromomycin, arrested the disease completely, and by comparing with community shifts brought about by treatments that did not arrest the disease, we have identified the likely candidate causal agent or agents of WBD. Our interpretation of the experimental treatments is that one or a combination of up to three specific bacterial types, detected consistently in diseased corals but not detectable in healthy corals, are likely causal agents of WBD. In addition, a histophagous ciliate (Philaster lucinda) identical to that found consistently in association with white syndrome in Indo-Pacific acroporas was also consistently detected in all WBD samples and absent in healthy coral. Treatment with metronidazole reduced it to below detection limits, but did not arrest the disease. However, the microscopic disease signs changed, suggesting a secondary role in disease causation for this ciliate. In future studies to identify a causal agent of WBD via tests of Henle-Koch's postulates, it will be vital to experimentally control for populations of the other potential pathogens identified in this study. PMID:24943374

Sweet, M J; Croquer, A; Bythell, J C

2014-08-01

352

Genealogical Relationships Influence the Probability of Infection with Bovine Tuberculosis and Microgeographic Genetic Structure in Free-Ranging White-Tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoonoses are of increasing importance to wildlife conservation and human health. It has become increasingly recognized that wildlife ecology plays a key role in disease transmission in wildlife populations. In domestic populations, contacts among individuals are controlled by humans and disease transmission is often density dependent. Unlike domestic animals, wildlife populations often have complex social systems in whch contacts among

Julie Anne Blanchong

2003-01-01

353

White matter tract integrity metrics reflect the vulnerability of late-myelinating tracts in Alzheimer's disease?  

PubMed Central

Post-mortem and imaging studies have observed that white matter (WM) degenerates in a pattern inverse to myelin development, suggesting preferential regional vulnerabilities influencing cognitive decline in AD. This study applied novel WM tract integrity (WMTI) metrics derived from diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) to examine WM tissue properties in AD within this framework. Using data from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 12), AD (n = 14), and normal control (NC; n = 15) subjects, mixed models revealed interaction effects: specific WMTI metrics of axonal density and myelin integrity (i.e. axonal water fraction, radial extra-axonal diffusivity) in late-myelinating tracts (i.e. superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi) changed in the course of disease, but were stable in the initial stages for early-myelinating tracts (i.e. posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncles). WMTI metrics in late-myelinating tracts correlated with semantic verbal fluency, a cognitive function known to decline in AD. These findings corroborate the preferential vulnerability of late-myelinating tracts, and illustrate an application of WMTI metrics to characterizing the regional course of WM changes in AD.

Benitez, Andreana; Fieremans, Els; Jensen, Jens H.; Falangola, Maria F.; Tabesh, Ali; Ferris, Steven H.; Helpern, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

354

White Matter Integrity Linked To Functional Impairments in Aging and Early Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with changes in cerebral white matter (WM) but the functional significance of such findings is not yet established. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) might reveal links between regional WM changes and specific neuropsychologically and psychophysically defined impairments in early AD. Methods Older adult control subjects (OA, n=18) and mildly impaired AD patients (n=14) underwent neuropsychological and visual perceptual testing along with DTI of cerebral WM. DTI yielded factional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity () maps for nine ROIs in three brain regions that were then compared to the performance measures. Results AD patients showed non-significant trends toward lower FAs in the posterior region’s callosal and sub-cortical ROIs. However, posterior callosal FA was significantly correlated with verbal fluency and figural memory impairments, whereas posterior subcortical FA was correlated with delayed verbal memory, figural memory, and optic flow perceptual impairments. Conclusions WM changes in early AD are concentrated in posterior cerebral areas with distributions that correspond to specific functional impairments. DTI can be used to assess regional pathology related to individual’s deficits in early AD.

Kavcic, Voyko; Ni, Hongyan; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Duffy, Charles J.

2008-01-01

355

Molecular phylogeny of Rigidoporus microporus isolates associated with white rot disease of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis).  

PubMed

Rigidoporus microporus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) syn. Rigidoporus lignosus is the most destructive root pathogen of rubber plantations distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Our primary objective was to characterize Nigerian isolates from rubber tree and compare them with other West African, Southeast Asian and American isolates. To characterize the 20 isolates from Nigeria, we used sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and LSU, ?-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-? (tef1) gene sequences. Altogether, 40 isolates of R. microporus were included in the analyses. Isolates from Africa, Asia and South/Central America formed three distinctive clades corresponding to at least three species. No phylogeographic pattern was detected among R. microporus collected from West and Central African rubber plantations suggesting continuous gene flow among these populations. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of two distinctive species associated with the white rot disease. Phylogenetic analyses placed R. microporus in the Hymenochaetales in the vicinity of Oxyporus. This is the first study to characterize R. microporus isolates from Nigeria through molecular phylogenetic techniques, and also the first to compare isolates from rubber plantations in Africa and Asia. PMID:24863478

Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Miettinen, Otto; Omorusi, Victor I; Evueh, Grace A; Farid, Mohd A; Gazis, Romina; Asiegbu, Fred O

2014-01-01

356

Ovine white-liver disease (OWLD). Botanical and chemical composition of pasture grass.  

PubMed

The most important grass species on the ovine white-liver disease (OWLD) pastures (S) were Poa spp., Agropyron repens and Lolium perenne, while the control pastures (H), where lambs grew well, consisted of Poa spp., Festuca rubra and Agrostis tenuis. The soil was more acidic on the H pastures as compared with the S pastures. OWLD grass (S grass) contained marginal to deficient amounts of cobalt during the first 2 months of grazing. During 2 years out of 3, the average Co content was slightly lower in the S grass as compared with the content in the H grass. The lowest average grass Co was, however, found during one year in the H grass, in spite of the fact that the H lambs also this year grew well, and were 13 kg heavier than the S lambs after 3 1/2 months on pasture. Results thus indicate that the H lambs some years were subclinically Co deficient, without developing clinical symptoms or OWLD, and that factors other than marginal/deficient grass Co are of importance as to whether OWLD will develop or not. S grass differed from H grass by having significantly lower copper, molybdenum, manganese and zinc content, lower protein N/amid N ratios and higher aluminium and iron contents. According to the results, marginal to deficient grass Co is essential for development of OWLD, but cofactors play a part. PMID:2080770

Ulvund, M J; Pestalozzi, M

1990-01-01

357

Vibrio owensii Induces the Tissue Loss Disease Montipora White Syndrome in the Hawaiian Reef Coral Montipora capitata  

PubMed Central

Incidences of coral disease in the Indo-Pacific are increasing at an alarming rate. In particular, Montipora white syndrome, a tissue-loss disease found on corals throughout the Hawaiian archipelago, has the potential to degrade Hawaii’s reefs. To identify the etiologic agent of Montipora white syndrome, bacteria were isolated from a diseased fragment of Montipora capitata and used in a screen for virulent strains. A single isolate, designated strain OCN002, recreated disease signs in 53% of coral fragments in laboratory infection trials when added to a final concentration of 107 cells/ml of seawater. In addition to displaying similar signs of disease, diseased coral fragments from the field and those from infection trials both had a dramatic increase in the abundance of associated culturable bacteria, with those of the genus Vibiro well represented. Bacteria isolated from diseased fragments used in infection trails were shown to be descendants of the original OCN002 inocula based on both the presence of a plasmid introduced to genetically tag the strain and the sequence of a region of the OCN002 genome. In contrast, OCN002 was not re-isolated from fragments that were exposed to the strain but did not develop tissue loss. Sequencing of the rrsH gene, metabolic characterization, as well as multilocus sequence analysis indicated that OCN002 is a strain of the recently described species Vibrio owensii. This investigation of Montipora white syndrome recognizes V. owensii OCN002 as the first bacterial coral pathogen identified from Hawaii’s reefs and expands the range of bacteria known to cause disease in corals.

Ushijima, Blake; Smith, Ashley; Aeby, Greta S.; Callahan, Sean M.

2012-01-01

358

Disease prevalence and use of health care among a national sample of black and white male state prisoners.  

PubMed

U.S. prisons have a court-affirmed mandate to provide health care to prisoners. Given this mandate, we sought to determine whether use of prison health care was equitable across race using a nationally-representative sample of Black and White male state prisoners. We first examined the prevalence of health conditions by race. Then, across all health conditions and for each of 15 conditions, we compared the proportion of Black and White male prisoners with the condition who received health care. For most conditions including cancer, heart disease, and liver-related disorders, the age-adjusted prevalence of disease among Blacks was lower than among Whites (p<.05). Blacks were also modestly more likely than Whites to use health care for existing conditions (p<.05), particularly hypertension, cerebral vascular accident/brain injury, cirrhosis, flu-like illness, and injury. The observed racial disparities in health and health care use are different from those among non-incarcerated populations. PMID:22643475

Rosen, David L; Hammond, Wizdom P; Wohl, David A; Golin, Carol E

2012-02-01

359

Use of technetium-tagged white blood cells in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: is differential diagnosis possible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Studies have suggested that scans with technetium-tagged white blood cells (WBC-Tc99m) may be equal to endoscopy in the assessment of extent and activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Objective. We have retrospectively examined the accuracy of WBC-Tc99m scans in differentiating continuous from discontinuous colitis in pediatric IBD. Materials and methods. There were 207 children in the study (96 boys,

Martin Charron; J. Fernando del Rosario; Samuel Kocoshis

1998-01-01

360

Subjects harboring presenilin familial Alzheimer's disease mutations exhibit diverse white matter biochemistry alterations  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia impacts all facets of higher order cognitive function and is characterized by the presence of distinctive pathological lesions in the gray matter (GM). The profound alterations in GM structure and function have fostered the view that AD impacts are primarily a consequence of GM damage. However, the white matter (WM) represents about 50% of the cerebrum and this area of the brain is substantially atrophied and profoundly abnormal in both sporadic AD (SAD) and familial AD (FAD). We examined the WM biochemistry by ELISA and Western blot analyses of key proteins in 10 FAD cases harboring mutations in the presenilin genes PSEN1 and PSEN2 as well as in 4 non-demented control (NDC) individuals and 4 subjects with SAD. The molecules examined were direct substrates of PSEN1 such as Notch-1 and amyloid precursor protein (APP). In addition, apolipoproteins, axonal transport molecules, cytoskeletal and structural proteins, neurotrophic factors and synaptic proteins were examined. PSEN-FAD subjects had, on average, higher amounts of WM amyloid-beta (A?) peptides compared to SAD, which may play a role in the devastating dysfunction of the brain. However, the PSEN-FAD mutations we examined did not produce uniform increases in the relative proportions of A?42 and exhibited substantial variability in total A? levels. These observations suggest that neurodegeneration and dementia do not depend solely on enhanced A?42 levels. Our data revealed additional complexities in PSEN-FAD individuals. Some direct substrates of ?-secretase, such as Notch, N-cadherin, Erb-B4 and APP, deviated substantially from the NDC group baseline for some, but not all, mutation types. Proteins that were not direct ?-secretase substrates, but play key structural and functional roles in the WM, likewise exhibited varied concentrations in the distinct PSEN mutation backgrounds. Detailing the diverse biochemical pathology spectrum of PSEN mutations may offer valuable insights into dementia progression and the design of effective therapeutic interventions for both SAD and FAD.

Roher, Alex E; Maarouf, Chera L; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Wilson, Jeffrey; Kokjohn, Tyler A; Daugs, Ian D; Whiteside, Charisse M; Kalback, Walter M; Macias, MiMi P; Jacobson, Sandra A; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Ghetti, Bernardino; Beach, Thomas G

2013-01-01

361

White Blood Cell Count and the Risk for Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The association between white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown in young adults. Our objective was to assess the association between WBC count and its changes over time with CAD incidence in the Metabolic, Life-style and Nutrition Assessment in Young adults (MELANY) study, a cohort of Israeli army personnel. Methods and Findings 29,120 apparently healthy young men (mean age; 31.2±5.5 years) with a normal baseline WBC count (3,000–12,000 cells/mm3) were followed during a mean follow up of 7.5±3.8 years for incidence of CAD. Participants were screened every 3–5 years using a stress test, and CAD was confirmed by coronary angiography. In a multivariate model adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, family history of CAD, physical activity, diabetes, triglycerides and smoking status, WBC levels (divided to quintiles) above 6,900 cells/mm3 (quintile 4) were associated with a 2.17-fold increase (95%CI?=?1.18–3.97) in the risk for CAD as compared with men in quintile 1 (WBC?5,400 cells/mm3). When modeled as a continuous variable, a WBC increment of 1000 cells/mm3 was associated with a 17.4% increase in CAD risk (HR 1.174; 95%CI?=?1.067–1.290, p?=?0.001). A decrease in the WBC level (within the normal range) during the follow-up period was associated with increased physical activity and decreased triglyceride levels as well as with reduced incidence of CAD. Conclusions WBC count is an independent risk factor for CAD in young adults at values well within the normal range. WBC count may assist in detecting subgroups of young men at either low or high risk for progression to CAD.

Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Gordon, Barak; Tirosh, Amir

2012-01-01

362

Folate Network Genetic Variation Predicts Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Non-Hispanic White Males123  

PubMed Central

Genes functioning in folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism are hypothesized to play a role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk beyond the current narrow focus on the MTHFR 677 C?T (rs1801133) polymorphism. Using a cohort study design, we investigated whether sequence variants in the network of folate-related genes, particularly in genes encoding proteins related to SHMT1, predict CVD risk in 1131 men from the Normative Aging Study. A total of 330 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 52 genes, selected for function and gene coverage, were assayed on the Illumina GoldenGate platform. Age- and smoking-adjusted genotype-phenotype associations were estimated in regression models. Using a nominal P ? 5.00 × 10?3 significance threshold, 8 SNPs were associated with CVD risk in single locus analyses. Using a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold (P-adjusted ?1.00 × 10?1), a SNP in the GGH gene remained associated with reduced CVD risk, with a stronger association in early onset CVD cases (<55 y). A gene × folate interaction (MAT2B) and 2 gene × vitamin B-12 interactions (BHMT, SLC25A32) reached the FDR P-adjusted ?2.00 × 10?1 threshold. Three biological hypotheses related to SHMT1 were explored and significant gene × gene interactions were identified for TYMS by UBE2N, FTH1 by CELF1, and TYMS by MTHFR. Variations in genes other than MTHFR and those directly involved in homocysteine metabolism are associated with CVD risk in non-Hispanic white males. This work supports a role for SHMT1-related genes and nuclear folate metabolism, including the thymidylate biosynthesis pathway, in mediating CVD risk.

Wernimont, Susan M.; Clark, Andrew G.; Stover, Patrick J.; Wells, Martin T.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Weiss, Scott T.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Cassano, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

363

Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms and white matter vascular lesions in subjects with Alzheimer's disease: an Italian multicenter study.  

PubMed

Resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms do not deteriorate with the increase of white matter vascular lesion in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects [1], although white matter is impaired along Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested whether this is true even in AD subjects. Closed-eye resting state EEG data were recorded in 40 healthy elderly (Nold), 96 amnesic MCI, and 83 AD subjects. White matter vascular lesions were indexed by magnetic resonance imaging recorded in the MCI and AD subjects (about 42% of cases following ADNI standards). The MCI subjects were divided into two sub-groups based on the median of the white matter lesion, namely MCI+ (people with highest vascular load; n = 48) and MCI- (people with lowest vascular load; n = 48). The same was true for the AD subjects (AD+, n = 42; AD-, n = 41). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). LORETA software estimated cortical EEG sources. When compared to Nold group, MCI and AD groups showed well known abnormalities of delta and alpha sources. Furthermore, amplitude of occipital, temporal, and limbic alpha 1 sources were higher in MCI+ than MCI- group. As a novelty, amplitude of occipital delta sources was lower in AD+ than AD- group. Furthermore, central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic alpha sources were higher in amplitude in AD+ than AD- group. Amplitude of these sources was correlated to global cognitive status (i.e., Mini Mental State Evaluation score). These results suggest that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, resting state posterior delta and alpha EEG rhythms do not deteriorate with the increase of white-matter vascular lesion. These rhythms might be more sensitive to AD neurodegenerative processes and cognitive status rather than to concomitant lesions to white matter. PMID:21673406

Babiloni, Claudio; Lizio, Roberta; Carducci, Filippo; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Redolfi, Alberto; Marino, Silvia; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Montella, Patrizia; Guizzaro, Antonio; Esposito, Fabrizio; Bozzao, Alessandro; Giubilei, Franco; Orzi, Francesco; Quattrocchi, Carlo C; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Elena; Baglieri, Annalisa; Bramanti, Placido; Cavedo, Enrica; Ferri, Raffaele; Cosentino, Filomena; Ferrara, Michelangelo; Mundi, Ciro; Grilli, Gianpaolo; Pugliese, Silvia; Gerardi, Gianluca; Parisi, Laura; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Triggiani, Antonio I; Pedersen, Jan T; Hårdemark, Hans-Göran; Rossini, Paolo M; Frisoni, Giovanni B

2011-01-01

364

The type localities of the mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817), and the Kansas white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus macrourus (Rafinesque, 1817), are not where we thought they were  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Among the iconic mammals of the North American West is the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). This species and a western subspecies of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus macrourus) were two of seven mammals originally named and described as new species in 1817 by Constantine S. Rafinesque. Rafinesque never saw the animals that he named. Instead, he followed the then-acceptable practice of basing his new species on animals characterized in another published work, in this case the putative journal of Charles Le Raye, a French Canadian fur trader who was said to have traversed the upper Missouri River region before the Lewis and Clark Expedition and whose journal described some of the wildlife in detail. Unlike the mule deer, whose existence has been established by generations of biologists, wildlife management professionals, and sportsmen, Le Raye and his journal have since been proven to be fraudulent. Because Rafinesque's names were published in accordance with the taxonomic conventions of his time, they remain available, but, based on the questionable source of his descriptions, the identities and type localities of the species must be viewed as unreliable. Fortunately, much of the Le Raye journal was derived from other, verifiable contemporary sources. In particular, the descriptions of the two deer were based on the published journal of Patrick Gass, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Using the Gass journal as the original source of Rafinesque's descriptions, the type localities for the two deer can be reliably placed in Lyman County, South Dakota.

Woodman, Neal

2013-01-01

365

The Bicolored White-Toothed Shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) Is an Indigenous Host of Mammalian Borna Disease Virus  

PubMed Central

Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV.

Durrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenbock, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

2014-01-01

366

Safety of Tailings Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contains information on different aspects of tailings dams; tailings dam properties, disasters, failure modes, slurry waves, stability analysis, and safe tailings disposal. Also includes a slope stability calculator and a tailings flow slide calculator.

2008-08-25

367

Cerebrovascular dysfunction and microcirculation rarefaction precede white matter lesions in a mouse genetic model of cerebral ischemic small vessel disease  

PubMed Central

Cerebral ischemic small vessel disease (SVD) is the leading cause of vascular dementia and a major contributor to stroke in humans. Dominant mutations in NOTCH3 cause cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a genetic archetype of cerebral ischemic SVD. Progress toward understanding the pathogenesis of this disease and developing effective therapies has been hampered by the lack of a good animal model. Here, we report the development of a mouse model for CADASIL via the introduction of a CADASIL-causing Notch3 point mutation into a large P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC). In vivo expression of the mutated PAC transgene in the mouse reproduced the endogenous Notch3 expression pattern and main pathological features of CADASIL, including Notch3 extracellular domain aggregates and granular osmiophilic material (GOM) deposits in brain vessels, progressive white matter damage, and reduced cerebral blood flow. Mutant mice displayed attenuated myogenic responses and reduced caliber of brain arteries as well as impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation and functional hyperemia. Further, we identified a substantial reduction of white matter capillary density. These neuropathological changes occurred in the absence of either histologically detectable alterations in cerebral artery structure or blood-brain barrier breakdown. These studies provide in vivo evidence for cerebrovascular dysfunction and microcirculatory failure as key contributors to hypoperfusion and white matter damage in this genetic model of ischemic SVD.

Joutel, Anne; Monet-Lepretre, Marie; Gosele, Claudia; Baron-Menguy, Celine; Hammes, Annette; Schmidt, Sabine; Lemaire-Carrette, Barbara; Domenga, Valerie; Schedl, Andreas; Lacombe, Pierre; Hubner, Norbert

2010-01-01

368

Alzheimer Disease Periventricular White Matter Lesions Exhibit Specific Proteomic Profile Alterations  

PubMed Central

The white matter (WM) represents approximately half the cerebrum volume and is profoundly affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, both the WM responses to AD as well as potential influences of this compartment to dementia pathogenesis remain comparatively neglected. Neuroimaging studies have revealed WM alterations are commonly associated with AD and renewed interest in examining the pathologic basis and importance of these changes. In AD subjects, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy revealed changes in astrocyte morphology and myelin loss as well as up to 30% axonal loss in areas of WM rarefaction when measured against non-demented control (NDC) tissue. Comparative proteomic analyses were performed on pooled samples of periventricular WM (PVWM) obtained from AD (n = 4) and NDC (n = 5) subjects with both groups having a mean age of death of 86 years. All subjects had an apolipoprotein E ?3/3 genotype with the exception of one NDC subject who was ?2/3. Urea-detergent homogenates were analyzed using two different separation techniques: 2-dimensional isoelectric focusing/reverse-phase chromatography and 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Proteins with different expression levels between the 2 diagnostic groups were identified using MALDI-Tof/Tof mass spectrometry. In addition, Western blots were used to quantify proteins of interest in individual AD and NDC cases. Our proteomic studies revealed that when WM protein pools were loaded at equal amounts of total protein for comparative analyses, there were quantitative differences between the 2 groups. Molecules related to cytoskeleton maintenance, calcium metabolism and cellular survival such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, tropomyosin, collapsin response mediator protein-2, calmodulin, S100-P, annexin A1, ?-internexin, ?-and ?-synuclein, ?-B-crystalline, fascin-1, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase and thymosine were altered between AD and NDC pools. Our experiments suggest that WM activities become globally impaired during the course of AD with significant morphological, biochemical and functional consequential implications for gray matter function and cognitive deficits. These observations may endorse the hypothesis that WM dysfunction is not only a consequence of AD pathology, but that it may precipitate and/or potentiate AD dementia.

Castano, Eduardo M.; Maarouf, Chera L.; Wu, Terence; Leal, Maria Celeste; Whiteside, Charisse M.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Kokjohn, Tyler A.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Beach, Thomas G.; Roher, Alex E.

2013-01-01

369

Ciliate and bacterial communities associated with White Syndrome and Brown Band Disease in reef-building corals  

PubMed Central

White Syndrome (WS) and Brown Band Disease (BrB) are important causes of reef coral mortality for which causal agents have not been definitively identified. Here we use culture-independent molecular techniques (DGGE and clone libraries) to characterize ciliate and bacterial communities in these diseases. Bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and ciliate (18S rRNA gene) communities were highly similar between the two diseases. Four bacterial and nine ciliate ribotypes were observed in both diseases, but absent in non-diseased specimens. Only one of the bacteria, Arcobacter sp. (JF831360) increased substantially in relative 16S rRNA gene abundance and was consistently represented in all diseased samples. Four of the eleven ciliate morphotypes detected contained coral algal symbionts, indicative of the ingestion of coral tissues. In both WS and BrB, there were two ciliate morphotypes consistently represented in all disease lesion samples. Morph1 (JN626268) was observed to burrow into and underneath the coral tissues at the lesion boundary. Morph2 (JN626269), previously identified in BrB, appears to play a secondary, less invasive role in pathogenesis, but has a higher population density in BrB, giving rise to the visible brown band. The strong similarity in bacterial and ciliate community composition of these diseases suggests that they are actually the same syndrome.

Sweet, Michael; Bythell, John

2012-01-01

370

Unilaterally and rapidly progressing white matter lesion and elevated cytokines in a patient with Tay-Sachs disease.  

PubMed

We report the case of a girl with Tay-Sachs disease who had convulsions and deteriorated rapidly after an upper respiratory infection at the age of 11 months. At the age of 16 months, her seizures became intractable and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and marked swelling in the white matter and basal nucelei of the right hemisphere. Her seizures and right hemisphere lesion improved with glycerol and dexamethasone treatment. When dexamethasone was discontinued, her symptoms worsened and lesions later appeared in the left hemisphere. Her cerebrospinal fluid showed elevated levels of the cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-5. It is considered that inflammation contributes to disease progression in Tay-Sachs disease. PMID:19278800

Hayase, Tomomi; Shimizu, Jun; Goto, Tamako; Nozaki, Yasuyuki; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Naoto; Namba, Eiji; Yamagata, Takanori; Momoi, Mariko Y

2010-03-01

371

Elevated anticardiolipin antibodies in a patient with vibration-white-finger, valvular heart disease and psoriatic arthritis.  

PubMed

We describe a case of irreversible severe vibration-white-finger (VWF) occurring in a male who used a compression-hammer daily at work for a 20-year period. Infra-red thermography following either a cold provocation or a vibratory stress was a sensitive objective method of documenting the condition. Persistent elevation of IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) was found in his serum and may be a marker of endothelial damage associated with either VWF or the patient's coincidental valvular heart disease. PMID:8467615

McHugh, N J; Elvins, D M; Ring, E F

1993-03-01

372

Black-Tailed Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

2009-08-03

373

Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes  

PubMed Central

Tissue loss diseases or white syndromes (WS) are some of the most important coral diseases because they result in significant colony mortality and morbidity, threatening dominant Acroporidae in the Caribbean and Pacific. The causes of WS remain elusive in part because few have examined affected corals at the cellular level. We studied the cellular changes associated with WS over time in a dominant Hawaiian coral, Montipora capitata, and showed that: (i) WS has rapidly progressing (acute) phases mainly associated with ciliates or slowly progressing (chronic) phases mainly associated with helminths or chimeric parasites; (ii) these phases interchanged and waxed and waned; (iii) WS could be a systemic disease associated with chimeric parasitism or a localized disease associated with helminths or ciliates; (iv) corals responded to ciliates mainly with necrosis and to helminths or chimeric parasites with wound repair; (v) mixed infections were uncommon; and (vi) other than cyanobacteria, prokaryotes associated with cell death were not seen. Recognizing potential agents associated with disease at the cellular level and the host response to those agents offers a logical deductive rationale to further explore the role of such agents in the pathogenesis of WS in M. capitata and helps explain manifestation of gross lesions. This approach has broad applicability to the study of the pathogenesis of coral diseases in the field and under experimental settings.

Work, Thierry M.; Russell, Robin; Aeby, Greta S.

2012-01-01

374

Genetic structure of the white-footed mouse in the context of the emergence of Lyme disease in southern Québec.  

PubMed

The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) has expanded its northern limit into southern Québec over the last few decades. P. leucopus is a great disperser and colonizer and is of particular interest because it is considered a primary reservoir for the spirochete bacterium that causes Lyme disease. There is no current information on the gene flow between mouse populations on the mountains and forest fragments found scattered throughout the Montérégie region in southern Québec, and whether various landscape barriers have an effect on their dispersal. We conducted a population genetics analysis on eleven P. leucopus populations using eleven microsatellite markers and showed that isolation by distance was weak, yet barriers were effective. The agricultural matrix had the least effect on gene flow, whereas highways and main rivers were effective barriers. The abundance of ticks collected from mice varied within the study area. Both ticks and mice were screened for the presence of the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, and we predicted areas of greater risk for Lyme disease. Merging our results with ongoing Lyme disease surveillance programs will help determine the future threat of this disease in Québec, and will contribute toward disease prevention and management strategies throughout fragmented landscapes in southern Canada. PMID:23919153

Rogic, Anita; Tessier, Nathalie; Legendre, Pierre; Lapointe, François-Joseph; Millien, Virginie

2013-07-01

375

Role of indium-111 white blood cells in inflammatory bowel disease  

SciTech Connect

Inflammatory bowel disease in patients may be difficult to diagnose because of the complex problems associated with this disease. Radionuclides are able to provide a rapid and effective method of imaging the bowel in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. In the past, clinical work-ups have included barium x-ray studies and endoscopy. Scarring and fistula formation have made it difficult to determine between the active disease and abscesses that may occur. Gallium-67 (67Ga) has been very useful in imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease, but the multiple-day imaging procedure has been a limitation for the clinicians when achieving a diagnosis. Recent results with Indium-111 (111In)--labeled WBCs have provided excellent correlation between clinical symptoms and colonoscopy findings in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. This technique has also allowed the differentiation between reoccurring inflammatory bowel disease and abscesses that accompany the disease within a 24-hour time period. The use of intravenous (IV) glucagon has increased the clarity of the images in the small bowel. Technetium 99m (99mTc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been used in patients with inflammatory bowel disease demonstrating promising results. Investigators feel labelling 99mTc with WBCs will be improved, therefore yielding a greater efficiency, which will have a major impact on imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease using radionuclides has yielded promising results. This is a significant advancement over barium radiography and endoscopy exams.24 references.

Froelich, J.W.; Field, S.A.

1988-10-01

376

Consolidation of Tailings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The integrity of cover systems placed on tailings impoundments will be affected by the potential for differential settlement of the tailings surface. This report reviews the phenomenon of consolidation for saturated and unsaturated tailings. The effect of...

J. D. Nelson R. E. Wardell S. R. Abt W. P. Staub

1983-01-01

377

Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes APOE and TOMM40, and brain white matter integrity in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936?  

PubMed Central

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ? genotype has previously been significantly associated with cognitive, brain imaging, and Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes (e.g., age of onset). In the TOMM40 gene, the rs10524523 (“523”) variable length poly-T repeat polymorphism has more recently been associated with similar ph/enotypes, although the allelic directions of these associations have varied between initial reports. Using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging tractography, the present study aimed to investigate whether there are independent effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and TOMM40 genotypes on human brain white matter integrity in a community-dwelling sample of older adults, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (mean age = 72.70 years, standard deviation = 0.74, N approximately = 640–650; for most analyses). Some nominally significant effects were observed (i.e., covariate-adjusted differences between genotype groups at p < 0.05). For APOE, deleterious effects of ?4 “risk” allele presence (vs. absence) were found in the right ventral cingulum and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. To test for biologically independent effects of the TOMM40 523 repeat, participants were stratified into APOE genotype subgroups, so that any significant effects could not be attributed to APOE variation. In participants with the APOE ?3/?4 genotype, effects of TOMM40 523 status were found in the left uncinate fasciculus, left rostral cingulum, left ventral cingulum, and a general factor of white matter integrity. In all 4 of these tractography measures, carriers of the TOMM40 523 “short” allele showed lower white matter integrity when compared with carriers of the “long” and “very-long” alleles. Most of these effects survived correction for childhood intelligence test scores and vascular disease history, though only the effect of TOMM40 523 on the left ventral cingulum integrity survived correction for false discovery rate. The effects of APOE in this older population are more specific and restricted compared with those reported in previous studies, and the effects of TOMM40 on white matter integrity appear to be novel, although replication is required in large independent samples.

Lyall, Donald M.; Harris, Sarah E.; Bastin, Mark E.; Munoz Maniega, Susana; Murray, Catherine; Lutz, Michael W.; Saunders, Ann M.; Roses, Allen D.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria del C.; Royle, Natalie A.; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David. J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

2014-01-01

378

White matter microstructure in late middle-age: Effects of apolipoprotein E4 and parental family history of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Little is still known about the effects of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) on white matter microstructure in cognitively healthy adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of two well-known risk factors for AD, parental family history and APOE4 genotype. Methods This study included 343 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A region of interest analysis was performed on fractional anisotropy maps, in addition to mean, radial, and axial diffusivity maps, aligned to a common template space using a diffeomorphic, tensor-based registration method. The analysis focused on brain regions known to be affected in AD including the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Analyses assessed the impact of APOE4, parental family history of AD, age, and sex on white matter microstructure in late middle-aged participants (aged 47–76 years). Results Both APOE4 and parental family history were associated with microstructural white matter differences. Participants with parental family history of AD had higher FA in the genu of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. We observed an interaction between family history and APOE4, where participants who were family history positive but APOE4 negative had lower axial diffusivity in the uncinate fasciculus, and participants who were both family history positive and APOE4 positive had higher axial diffusivity in this region. We also observed an interaction between APOE4 and age, whereby older participants (=65 years of age) who were APOE4 carriers, had higher MD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and in the portion of the cingulum bundle running adjacent to the cingulate cortex, compared to non-carriers. Older participants who were APOE4 carriers also showed higher radial diffusivity in the genu compared to non-carriers. Across all participants, age had an effect on FA, MD, and axial and radial diffusivities. Sex differences were observed in FA and radial diffusivity. Conclusion APOE4 genotype, parental family history of AD, age, and sex are all associated with microstructural white matter differences in late middle-aged adults. In participants at risk for AD, alterations in diffusion characteristics—both expected and unexpected—may represent cellular changes occurring at the earliest disease stages, but further work is needed. Higher mean, radial, and axial diffusivities were observed in participants who are more likely to be experiencing later stage preclinical pathology, including participants who were both older and carried APOE4, or who were positive for both APOE4 and parental family history of AD.

Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Daniel J.; Lu, Sharon Yuan-Fu; Doran, Samuel T.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Melah, Kelsey E.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C.; Sager, Mark A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.

2014-01-01

379

Novel homozygous DEAF1 variant suspected in causing white matter disease, intellectual disability, and microcephaly.  

PubMed

DEAF1 encodes a transcriptional binding factor and is a regulator of serotonin receptor 1A. Its protein has a significant expression in the neurons of different brain regions and is involved in early embryonic development. In addition, its role in neural tube development is evident from the knockout mouse as many homozygotes have exencephaly. Heterozygous mutations of this gene have been linked to intellectual disability in addition to the gene's involvement in major depression, suicidal tendencies, and panic disorder. In this clinical report, we describe two children from a consanguineous family with intellectual disability, microcephaly, and hypotonia. The brain MRI of both patients showed bilateral and symmetrical white matter abnormalities, and one of the patients had a seizure disorder. Using whole exome sequencing combined with homozygosity mapping, a homozygous p.R226W (c.676C>T) mutation in DEAF1 was found in both patients. Furthermore, sequencing analysis confirmed complete segregation in tested family members and absence of the mutation in control cohort (n = 650). The mutation is located in a highly conserved structural domain that mediates DNA binding and therefore regulates transcriptional activity of its target molecules. This study indicates, for the first time to our knowledge, a hereditary role of DEAF1 in white matter abnormalities, microcephaly and syndromic intellectual disability. PMID:24668509

Faqeih, Eissa A; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Colak, Dilek; Kenana, Rosan; Al-Yafee, Yusra; Al-Dosary, Mazhor; Al-Saman, Abdulaziz; Albalawi, Fadwa; Al-Sarar, Dalia; Domiaty, Dalia; Daghestani, Maha; Kaya, Namik

2014-06-01

380

The intriguing contribution of white blood cells to sickle cell disease – a red cell disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by a point mutation that replaces adenine with thymidine in the sixth codon of the ?-globin gene, a unique morphological abnormality of red blood cells, vaso-occlusion with ischaemic tissue injury, and susceptibility to infections. Vascular lumen obstruction in SCD results from interaction of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, plasma proteins, and the vessel wall. The disease

Iheanyi Okpala

2004-01-01

381

Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Survival after Cord Blood Transplantation for Acute Leukemia: A Comparison of Japanese versus White Populations.  

PubMed

An earlier report identified higher risks of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in White children compared with the Japanese after HLA-matched sibling transplantations. The current analysis explored whether racial differences are associated with GVHD risks after unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation. Included are patients of Japanese descent (n = 257) and Whites (n = 260; 168 of 260 received antithymocyte globulin [ATG]). Transplants were performed in the United States or Japan between 2000 and 2009; patients were aged 16 years or younger, had acute leukemia, were in complete remission, and received a myeloablative conditioning regimen. The median ages of the Japanese and Whites who received ATG were younger at 5 years compared with 8 years for Whites who did not receive ATG. In all groups most transplants were mismatched at 1 or 2 HLA loci. Multivariate analysis found no differences in risks of acute GVHD between the Japanese and Whites. However, chronic GVHD was higher in Whites who did not receive ATG compared with the Japanese (hazard ratio, 2.16; P < .001), and treatment-related mortality was higher in Whites who received ATG compared with the Japanese (relative risk, 1.81; P = .01). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in overall survival between the 3 groups. PMID:24525277

Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Horowitz, Mary M; Inagaki, Jiro; Kanda, Junya; Kato, Koji; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Eapen, Mary

2014-05-01

382

Shifts in bacterial communities of two Caribbean reef-building coral species affected by white plague disease.  

PubMed

Coral reefs are deteriorating at an alarming rate mainly as a consequence of the emergence of coral diseases. The white plague disease (WPD) is the most prevalent coral disease in the southwestern Caribbean, affecting dozens of coral species. However, the identification of a single causal agent has proved problematic. This suggests more complex etiological scenarios involving alterations in the dynamic interaction between environmental factors, the coral immune system and the symbiotic microbial communities. Here we compare the microbiome of healthy and WPD-affected corals from the two reef-building species Diploria strigosa and Siderastrea siderea collected at the Tayrona National Park in the Caribbean of Colombia. Microbiomes were analyzed by combining culture-dependent methods and pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) V5-V6 hypervariable regions. A total of 20,410 classifiable 16S rDNA sequences reads were obtained including all samples. No significant differences in operational taxonomic unit diversity were found between healthy and affected tissues; however, a significant increase of Alphaproteobacteria and a concomitant decrease in the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria was observed in WPD-affected corals of both species. Significant shifts were also observed in the orders Rhizobiales, Caulobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Rhodobacterales, Aleteromonadales and Xanthomonadales, although they were not consistent between the two coral species. These shifts in the microbiome structure of WPD-affected corals suggest a loss of community-mediated growth control mechanisms on bacterial populations specific for each holobiont system. PMID:21955993

Cárdenas, Anny; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Pizarro, Valeria; Cadavid, Luis F; Arévalo-Ferro, Catalina

2012-03-01

383

Shifts in bacterial communities of two caribbean reef-building coral species affected by white plague disease  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs are deteriorating at an alarming rate mainly as a consequence of the emergence of coral diseases. The white plague disease (WPD) is the most prevalent coral disease in the southwestern Caribbean, affecting dozens of coral species. However, the identification of a single causal agent has proved problematic. This suggests more complex etiological scenarios involving alterations in the dynamic interaction between environmental factors, the coral immune system and the symbiotic microbial communities. Here we compare the microbiome of healthy and WPD-affected corals from the two reef-building species Diploria strigosa and Siderastrea siderea collected at the Tayrona National Park in the Caribbean of Colombia. Microbiomes were analyzed by combining culture-dependent methods and pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) V5-V6 hypervariable regions. A total of 20?410 classifiable 16S rDNA sequences reads were obtained including all samples. No significant differences in operational taxonomic unit diversity were found between healthy and affected tissues; however, a significant increase of Alphaproteobacteria and a concomitant decrease in the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria was observed in WPD-affected corals of both species. Significant shifts were also observed in the orders Rhizobiales, Caulobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Rhodobacterales, Aleteromonadales and Xanthomonadales, although they were not consistent between the two coral species. These shifts in the microbiome structure of WPD-affected corals suggest a loss of community-mediated growth control mechanisms on bacterial populations specific for each holobiont system.

Cardenas, Anny; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Pizarro, Valeria; Cadavid, Luis F; Arevalo-Ferro, Catalina

2012-01-01

384

Chronic Wasting Disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

Richards, Bryan

2007-01-01

385

Loss of a Tyrosine-Dependent Trafficking Motif in the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Cytoplasmic Tail Spares Mucosal CD4 Cells but Does Not Prevent Disease Progression  

PubMed Central

A hallmark of pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is the rapid and near-complete depletion of mucosal CD4+ T lymphocytes from the gastrointestinal tract. Loss of these cells and disruption of epithelial barrier function are associated with microbial translocation, which has been proposed to drive chronic systemic immune activation and disease progression. Here, we evaluate in rhesus macaques a novel attenuated variant of pathogenic SIVmac239, termed ?GY, which contains a deletion of a Tyr and a proximal Gly from a highly conserved YxxØ trafficking motif in the envelope cytoplasmic tail. Compared to SIVmac239, ?GY established a comparable acute peak of viremia but only transiently infected lamina propria and caused little or no acute depletion of mucosal CD4+ T cells and no detectable microbial translocation. Nonetheless, these animals developed T-cell activation and declining peripheral blood CD4+ T cells and ultimately progressed with clinical or pathological features of AIDS. ?GY-infected animals also showed no infection of macrophages or central nervous system tissues even in late-stage disease. Although the ?GY mutation persisted, novel mutations evolved, including the formation of new YxxØ motifs in two of four animals. These findings indicate that disruption of this trafficking motif by the ?GY mutation leads to a striking alteration in anatomic distribution of virus with sparing of lamina propria and a lack of microbial translocation. Because these animals exhibited wild-type levels of acute viremia and immune activation, our findings indicate that these pathological events are dissociable and that immune activation unrelated to gut damage can be sufficient for the development of AIDS.

Breed, Matthew W.; Jordan, Andrea P. O.; Aye, Pyone P.; Lichtveld, Cornelis F.; Midkiff, Cecily C.; Schiro, Faith R.; Haggarty, Beth S.; Sugimoto, Chie; Alvarez, Xavier; Sandler, Netanya G.; Douek, Daniel C.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Pahar, Bapi; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Keele, Brandon F.; Hoxie, James A.

2013-01-01

386

Loss of a tyrosine-dependent trafficking motif in the simian immunodeficiency virus envelope cytoplasmic tail spares mucosal CD4 cells but does not prevent disease progression.  

PubMed

A hallmark of pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is the rapid and near-complete depletion of mucosal CD4(+) T lymphocytes from the gastrointestinal tract. Loss of these cells and disruption of epithelial barrier function are associated with microbial translocation, which has been proposed to drive chronic systemic immune activation and disease progression. Here, we evaluate in rhesus macaques a novel attenuated variant of pathogenic SIVmac239, termed ?GY, which contains a deletion of a Tyr and a proximal Gly from a highly conserved YxxØ trafficking motif in the envelope cytoplasmic tail. Compared to SIVmac239, ?GY established a comparable acute peak of viremia but only transiently infected lamina propria and caused little or no acute depletion of mucosal CD4(+) T cells and no detectable microbial translocation. Nonetheless, these animals developed T-cell activation and declining peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells and ultimately progressed with clinical or pathological features of AIDS. ?GY-infected animals also showed no infection of macrophages or central nervous system tissues even in late-stage disease. Although the ?GY mutation persisted, novel mutations evolved, including the formation of new YxxØ motifs in two of four animals. These findings indicate that disruption of this trafficking motif by the ?GY mutation leads to a striking alteration in anatomic distribution of virus with sparing of lamina propria and a lack of microbial translocation. Because these animals exhibited wild-type levels of acute viremia and immune activation, our findings indicate that these pathological events are dissociable and that immune activation unrelated to gut damage can be sufficient for the development of AIDS. PMID:23152518

Breed, Matthew W; Jordan, Andrea P O; Aye, Pyone P; Lichtveld, Cornelis F; Midkiff, Cecily C; Schiro, Faith R; Haggarty, Beth S; Sugimoto, Chie; Alvarez, Xavier; Sandler, Netanya G; Douek, Daniel C; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Pahar, Bapi; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Keele, Brandon F; Hoxie, James A; Lackner, Andrew A

2013-02-01

387

Lobo's Disease in an Atlantic Bottle-Nosed Dolphin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lobo's disease was diagnosed histologically in the skin of the tail stock and flukes of a feral Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphin (tursiops truncatus) found in a bay on the west coast of Florida. The cutaneous lesions appeared as extensive white crusts. There...

G. Migaki M. G. Valerio B. Irvine F. M. Garner

1971-01-01

388

Inflammation in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Comparison of Black and White Women in the United States, United Kingdom, and South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnic differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated metabolic risk\\u000a factors have been shown in both developed and developing countries. This review explores the hypothesis that ethnic differences\\u000a in the inflammatory response are associated with the disparities in disease risk in black and white women from South Africa,\\u000a the United States of America,

Juliet Evans; Julia H. Goedecke

2011-01-01

389

Robust automated detection of microstructural white matter degeneration in Alzheimer's disease using machine learning classification of multicenter DTI data.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based assessment of white matter fiber tract integrity can support the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The use of DTI as a biomarker, however, depends on its applicability in a multicenter setting accounting for effects of different MRI scanners. We applied multivariate machine learning (ML) to a large multicenter sample from the recently created framework of the European DTI study on Dementia (EDSD). We hypothesized that ML approaches may amend effects of multicenter acquisition. We included a sample of 137 patients with clinically probable AD (MMSE 20.6±5.3) and 143 healthy elderly controls, scanned in nine different scanners. For diagnostic classification we used the DTI indices fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) and, for comparison, gray matter and white matter density maps from anatomical MRI. Data were classified using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) and a Naïve Bayes (NB) classifier. We used two cross-validation approaches, (i) test and training samples randomly drawn from the entire data set (pooled cross-validation) and (ii) data from each scanner as test set, and the data from the remaining scanners as training set (scanner-specific cross-validation). In the pooled cross-validation, SVM achieved an accuracy of 80% for FA and 83% for MD. Accuracies for NB were significantly lower, ranging between 68% and 75%. Removing variance components arising from scanners using principal component analysis did not significantly change the classification results for both classifiers. For the scanner-specific cross-validation, the classification accuracy was reduced for both SVM and NB. After mean correction, classification accuracy reached a level comparable to the results obtained from the pooled cross-validation. Our findings support the notion that machine learning classification allows robust classification of DTI data sets arising from multiple scanners, even if a new data set comes from a scanner that was not part of the training sample. PMID:23741425

Dyrba, Martin; Ewers, Michael; Wegrzyn, Martin; Kilimann, Ingo; Plant, Claudia; Oswald, Annahita; Meindl, Thomas; Pievani, Michela; Bokde, Arun L W; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Filippi, Massimo; Hampel, Harald; Klöppel, Stefan; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Kirste, Thomas; Teipel, Stefan J

2013-01-01

390

Robust Automated Detection of Microstructural White Matter Degeneration in Alzheimer's Disease Using Machine Learning Classification of Multicenter DTI Data  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based assessment of white matter fiber tract integrity can support the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The use of DTI as a biomarker, however, depends on its applicability in a multicenter setting accounting for effects of different MRI scanners. We applied multivariate machine learning (ML) to a large multicenter sample from the recently created framework of the European DTI study on Dementia (EDSD). We hypothesized that ML approaches may amend effects of multicenter acquisition. We included a sample of 137 patients with clinically probable AD (MMSE 20.6±5.3) and 143 healthy elderly controls, scanned in nine different scanners. For diagnostic classification we used the DTI indices fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) and, for comparison, gray matter and white matter density maps from anatomical MRI. Data were classified using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) and a Naïve Bayes (NB) classifier. We used two cross-validation approaches, (i) test and training samples randomly drawn from the entire data set (pooled cross-validation) and (ii) data from each scanner as test set, and the data from the remaining scanners as training set (scanner-specific cross-validation). In the pooled cross-validation, SVM achieved an accuracy of 80% for FA and 83% for MD. Accuracies for NB were significantly lower, ranging between 68% and 75%. Removing variance components arising from scanners using principal component analysis did not significantly change the classification results for both classifiers. For the scanner-specific cross-validation, the classification accuracy was reduced for both SVM and NB. After mean correction, classification accuracy reached a level comparable to the results obtained from the pooled cross-validation. Our findings support the notion that machine learning classification allows robust classification of DTI data sets arising from multiple scanners, even if a new data set comes from a scanner that was not part of the training sample.

Dyrba, Martin; Ewers, Michael; Wegrzyn, Martin; Kilimann, Ingo; Plant, Claudia; Oswald, Annahita; Meindl, Thomas; Pievani, Michela; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Filippi, Massimo; Hampel, Harald; Kloppel, Stefan; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Kirste, Thomas; Teipel, Stefan J.

2013-01-01

391

Atlas-based whole brain white matter analysis using large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping: Application to normal elderly and Alzheimer's disease participants  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to establish single-participant white matter atlases based on diffusion tensor imaging. As one of the applications of the atlas, automated brain segmentation was performed and the accuracy was measured using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM). High-quality diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from a single-participant were B0-distortion-corrected and transformed to the ICBM-152 atlas or to Talairach coordinates. The deep white matter structures, which have been previously well documented and clearly identified by DTI, were manually segmented. The superficial white matter areas beneath the cortex were defined, based on a population-averaged white matter probability map. The white matter was parcellated into 176 regions based on the anatomical labeling in the ICBM-DTI-81 atlas. The automated parcellation was achieved by warping this parcellation map to normal controls and to Alzheimer’s disease patients with severe anatomical atrophy. The parcellation accuracy was measured by a kappa analysis between the automated and manual parcellation at 11 anatomical regions. The kappa values were 0.70 for both normal controls and patients while the inter-rater reproducibility was 0.81 (controls) and 0.82 (patients), suggesting “almost perfect” agreement. A power analysis suggested that the proposed method is suitable for detecting FA and size abnormalities of the white matter in clinical studies.

Oishi, Kenichi; Faria, Andreia; Jiang, Hangyi; Li, Xin; Akhter, Kazi; Zhang, Jiangyang; Hsu, John T.; Miller, Michael I.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Albert, Marilyn; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur W.; Pike, G. Bruce; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Evans, Alan; Mazziotta, John; Mori, Susumu

2010-01-01

392

Atlas-based whole brain white matter analysis using large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping: application to normal elderly and Alzheimer's disease participants.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to establish single-participant white matter atlases based on diffusion tensor imaging. As one of the applications of the atlas, automated brain segmentation was performed and the accuracy was measured using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM). High-quality diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from a single-participant were B0-distortion-corrected and transformed to the ICBM-152 atlas or to Talairach coordinates. The deep white matter structures, which have been previously well documented and clearly identified by DTI, were manually segmented. The superficial white matter areas beneath the cortex were defined, based on a population-averaged white matter probability map. The white matter was parcellated into 176 regions based on the anatomical labeling in the ICBM-DTI-81 atlas. The automated parcellation was achieved by warping this parcellation map to normal controls and to Alzheimer's disease patients with severe anatomical atrophy. The parcellation accuracy was measured by a kappa analysis between the automated and manual parcellation at 11 anatomical regions. The kappa values were 0.70 for both normal controls and patients while the inter-rater reproducibility was 0.81 (controls) and 0.82 (patients), suggesting "almost perfect" agreement. A power analysis suggested that the proposed method is suitable for detecting FA and size abnormalities of the white matter in clinical studies. PMID:19385016

Oishi, Kenichi; Faria, Andreia; Jiang, Hangyi; Li, Xin; Akhter, Kazi; Zhang, Jiangyang; Hsu, John T; Miller, Michael I; van Zijl, Peter C M; Albert, Marilyn; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur W; Pike, G Bruce; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Evans, Alan; Mazziotta, John; Mori, Susumu

2009-06-01

393

Comparing bacterial community composition between healthy and white plague-like disease states in Orbicella annularis using PhyloChip™ G3 microarrays.  

PubMed

Coral disease is a global problem. Diseases are typically named or described based on macroscopic changes, but broad signs of coral distress such as tissue loss or discoloration are unlikely to be specific to a particular pathogen. For example, there appear to be multiple diseases that manifest the rapid tissue loss that characterizes 'white plague.' PhyloChip™ G3 microarrays were used to compare the bacterial community composition of both healthy and white plague-like diseased corals. Samples of lobed star coral (Orbicella annularis, formerly of the genus Montastraea[1]) were collected from two geographically distinct areas, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park, to determine if there were biogeographic differences between the diseases. In fact, all diseased samples clustered together, however there was no consistent link to Aurantimonas coralicida, which has been described as the causative agent of white plague type II. The microarrays revealed a large amount of bacterial heterogeneity within the healthy corals and less diversity in the diseased corals. Gram-positive bacterial groups (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes) comprised a greater proportion of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to healthy samples. Diseased samples were enriched in OTUs from the families Corynebacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Streptococcaceae. Much previous coral disease work has used clone libraries, which seem to be methodologically biased toward recovery of Gram-negative bacterial sequences and may therefore have missed the importance of Gram-positive groups. The PhyloChip™data presented here provide a broader characterization of the bacterial community changes that occur within Orbicella annularis during the shift from a healthy to diseased state. PMID:24278181

Kellogg, Christina A; Piceno, Yvette M; Tom, Lauren M; DeSantis, Todd Z; Gray, Michael A; Zawada, David G; Andersen, Gary L

2013-01-01

394

Impact of respiratory disease, diarrhea, otitis and arthritis on mortality and carcass traits in white veal calves  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known on the effects of common calf diseases on mortality and carcass traits in the white veal industry (special-fed veal), a highly integrated production system, currently criticized for the intensive pro- and metaphylactic use of antimicrobials. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), diarrhea, arthritis and otitis on the economically important parameters of mortality, hot carcass weight (HCW), carcass quality, fat cover and meat color. For this purpose, a prospective study on 3519 white veal calves, housed in 10 commercial herds, was conducted. Case definitions were based on clinical observation by the producers and written treatment records were used. Results Calves received oral antimicrobial group treatments in the milk during 25.2% of the production time on average. With an increasing percentage of the production cycle spent on oral antimicrobials, HCW reduced, whereas the odds for insufficient fat cover or an undesirable red meat color both decreased. Of the calves, 14.8%, 5.3%, 1.5% and 1.6% were individually diagnosed and treated for BRD, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis, respectively. Overall, 5.7% of the calves died and the mortality risk was higher in the first weeks after arrival. Calves that experienced one BRD episode showed a 8.2 kg reduction in HCW, a lower fat cover and an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR)?=?5.5), compared to calves which were not individually diagnosed and treated for BRD. With an increasing number of BRD episodes, these losses increased dramatically. Additionally, calves, which experienced multiple BRD episodes, were more likely to have poor carcass quality and an undesirable red meat color at slaughter. Arthritis increased the mortality risk (HR?=?3.9), and reduced HCW only when associated with BRD. Otitis did only increase the mortality risk (HR?=?7.0). Diarrhea severely increased the mortality risk (HR?=?11.0), reduced HCW by 9.2 kg on average and decreased carcass quality. Conclusions Despite the massive use of group and individual treatments to alleviate the most prevalent health issues at the fattening period, the effects of BRD, diarrhea, otitis and arthritis on survival and performance are still considerable, especially in cases of chronic pneumonia with or without arthritis. Controlling calf health by effective preventive and therapeutic strategies and in particular the prevention of chronic BRD is key for the profitability of veal operations.

2013-01-01

395

Uranium Mill Tailings Management  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at the Fifth Symposium on Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Advances made with regard to uranium mill tailings management, environmental effects, regulations, and reclamation are reviewed. Topics considered include tailings management and design (e.g., the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal), surface stabilization (e.g., the long-term stability of tailings, long-term rock durability), radiological aspects (e.g. the radioactive composition of airborne particulates), contaminant migration (e.g., chemical transport beneath a uranium mill tailings pile, the interaction of acidic leachate with soils), radon control and covers (e.g., radon emanation characteristics, designing surface covers for inactive uranium mill tailings), and seepage and liners (e.g., hydrologic observations, liner requirements).

Nelson, J.D.

1982-01-01

396

Temporal and spatial dynamics of trypanosomes infecting the brush-tailed bettong (Bettongia penicillata): a cautionary note of disease-induced population decline  

PubMed Central

Background The brush-tailed bettong or woylie (Bettongia penicillata) is on the brink of extinction. Its numbers have declined by 90% since 1999, with their current distribution occupying less than 1% of their former Australian range. Woylies are known to be infected with three different trypanosomes (Trypanosoma vegrandis, Trypanosoma copemani and Trypanosoma sp. H25) and two different strains of T. copemani that vary in virulence. However, the role that these haemoparasites have played during the recent decline of their host is unclear and is part of ongoing investigation. Methods Woylies were sampled from five locations in southern Western Australia, including two neighbouring indigenous populations, two enclosed (fenced) populations and a captive colony. PCR was used to individually identify the three different trypanosomes from blood and tissues of the host, and to investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of trypanosome infections. Results The spatial pattern of trypanosome infection varied among the five study sites, with a greater proportion of woylies from the Perup indigenous population being infected with T. copemani than from the neighbouring Kingston indigenous population. For an established infection, T. copemani detection was temporally inconsistent. The more virulent strain of T. copemani appeared to regress at a faster rate than the less virulent strain, with the infection possibly transitioning from the acute to chronic phase. Interspecific competition may also exist between T. copemani and T. vegrandis, where an existing T. vegrandis infection may moderate the sequential establishment of the more virulent T. copemani. Conclusion In this study, we provide a possible temporal connection implicating T. copemani as the disease agent linked with the recent decline of the Kingston indigenous woylie population within the Upper Warren region of Western Australia. The chronic association of trypanosomes with the internal organs of its host may be potentially pathogenic and adversely affect their long term fitness and coordination, making the woylie more susceptible to predation.

2014-01-01

397

Child with a Tail  

PubMed Central

Spina Bifida occulta usually presents with some cutaneous stigmata e.g. hair patch, sinus, lipoma, hyperpigmented skin and very rarely a congenital tail. A congenital tail may and may not be associated with spina bifida occulta and tethered cord. A four month old male child presented with congenital tail which was associated with spinal dysraphism and caused tethering of the cord itself. The tail and tethering lesion were excised successfully.

Sandhu, Asif Iqbal; Khan, Feeroz Alam; Ehmed, Ejaz; Dar, Sajid Hameed

2013-01-01

398

Associations between white matter microstructure and amyloid burden in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: A multimodal imaging investigation.  

PubMed

Some cognitively healthy individuals develop brain amyloid accumulation, suggestive of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the effect of amyloid on other potentially informative imaging modalities, such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), in characterizing brain changes in preclinical AD requires further exploration. In this study, a sample (N = 139, mean age 60.6, range 46 to 71) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP), a cohort enriched for AD risk factors, was recruited for a multimodal imaging investigation that included DTI and [C-11]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET). Participants were grouped as amyloid positive (A?+), amyloid indeterminate (A?i), or amyloid negative (A?-) based on the amount and pattern of amyloid deposition. Regional voxel-wise analyses of four DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (Da), and radial diffusivity (Dr), were performed based on amyloid grouping. Three regions of interest (ROIs), the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum, hippocampal cingulum, and lateral fornix, were selected based on their involvement in the early stages of AD. Voxel-wise analysis revealed higher FA among A?+ compared to A?- in all three ROIs and in A?i compared to A?- in the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum. Follow-up exploratory whole-brain analyses were consistent with the ROI findings, revealing multiple regions where higher FA was associated with greater amyloid. Lower fronto-lateral gray matter MD was associated with higher amyloid burden. Further investigation showed a negative correlation between MD and PiB signal, suggesting that A? accumulation impairs diffusion. Interestingly, these findings in a largely presymptomatic sample are in contradistinction to relationships reported in the literature in symptomatic disease stages of Mild Cognitive Impairment and AD, which usually show higher MD and lower FA. Together with analyses showing that cognitive function in these participants is not associated with any of the four DTI metrics, the present results suggest an early relationship between PiB and DTI, which may be a meaningful indicator of the initiating or compensatory mechanisms of AD prior to cognitive decline. PMID:24936411

Racine, Annie M; Adluru, Nagesh; Alexander, Andrew L; Christian, Bradley T; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Oh, Jennifer; Cleary, Caitlin A; Birdsill, Alex; Hillmer, Ansel T; Murali, Dhanabalan; Barnhart, Todd E; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Dowling, N Maritza; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Johnson, Sterling C

2014-01-01

399

Associations between white matter microstructure and amyloid burden in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: A multimodal imaging investigation  

PubMed Central

Some cognitively healthy individuals develop brain amyloid accumulation, suggestive of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the effect of amyloid on other potentially informative imaging modalities, such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), in characterizing brain changes in preclinical AD requires further exploration. In this study, a sample (N = 139, mean age 60.6, range 46 to 71) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP), a cohort enriched for AD risk factors, was recruited for a multimodal imaging investigation that included DTI and [C-11]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET). Participants were grouped as amyloid positive (A?+), amyloid indeterminate (A?i), or amyloid negative (A??) based on the amount and pattern of amyloid deposition. Regional voxel-wise analyses of four DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (Da), and radial diffusivity (Dr), were performed based on amyloid grouping. Three regions of interest (ROIs), the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum, hippocampal cingulum, and lateral fornix, were selected based on their involvement in the early stages of AD. Voxel-wise analysis revealed higher FA among A?+ compared to A?? in all three ROIs and in A?i compared to A?? in the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum. Follow-up exploratory whole-brain analyses were consistent with the ROI findings, revealing multiple regions where higher FA was associated with greater amyloid. Lower fronto-lateral gray matter MD was associated with higher amyloid burden. Further investigation showed a negative correlation between MD and PiB signal, suggesting that A? accumulation impairs diffusion. Interestingly, these findings in a largely presymptomatic sample are in contradistinction to relationships reported in the literature in symptomatic disease stages of Mild Cognitive Impairment and AD, which usually show higher MD and lower FA. Together with analyses showing that cognitive function in these participants is not associated with any of the four DTI metrics, the present results suggest an early relationship between PiB and DTI, which may be a meaningful indicator of the initiating or compensatory mechanisms of AD prior to cognitive decline.

Racine, Annie M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Christian, Bradley T.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Oh, Jennifer; Cleary, Caitlin A.; Birdsill, Alex; Hillmer, Ansel T.; Murali, Dhanabalan; Barnhart, Todd E.; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Rowley, Howard A.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Johnson, Sterling C.

2014-01-01

400

Length of Magnetospheric Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that hydromagnetic waves, through the action of radiation pressure, can prevent the tail of the magnetosphere from closing near the earth. It is argued that the tail of the magnetosphere may be 20 to 50 AU long. The tail can close at such heliocentric distances in the charge-exchange boundary shell where the solar wind is terminated and

A. J. Dessler

1964-01-01

401

Nucleotide sequence heterogeneity in the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene variable (V4) region among and within geographic isolates of Theileria from cattle, elk and white-tailed deer 1 Note: Nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank™ data base with the accession numbers U97047, U97048, U97051, U97052, U97053, U97054, U97055. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships among fourteen isolates of benign Theileria spp. infecting cattle, elk and white-tailed deer were studied by nucleotide sequence comparisons of the variable (V4) region (200 nucleotides) of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Included were six Korean bovine, one Japanese bovine, three North American bovine, and four North American cervine isolates. The SSU rRNA gene from each

Joon-seok Chae; Joo-mook Lee; Oh-deog Kwon; Patricia J Holman; Suryakant D Waghela; Gerald G Wagner

1998-01-01

402

A survey of the on-farm treatment of sole ulcer and white line disease in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

A telephone survey of UK dairy farmers was conducted to investigate current on-farm practice in the treatment of mild sole ulcer (SU)/sole bruising (SB), and white line disease (WLD), and the potential barriers associated with therapy. A total of 84 dairy farmers were questioned about the process of detecting and treating lame cows on their farm as well as about the specific treatments they applied. Farmers were also canvassed for their views on the efficacy of different potential treatments for mild SU/SB and WLD. In general, respondents discussed treatments for SU and WLD rather than specifically for mild SU/SB and WLD. Furthermore, when describing treatment methods, farmers rarely differentiated between SU and WLD. Trimming the affected claw with or without the additional use of orthopaedic blocks was the most commonly reported treatment method considered effective and practical by the majority of farmers. Antibiotics and/or analgesics were used by a small number of farmers, and some housed their most severely lame cows in straw pens. Lack of time, inadequate equipment and poor farm layout were identified by many survey respondents as barriers to the prompt and/or effective treatment of their lame animals. PMID:23602930

Horseman, S V; Whay, H R; Huxley, J N; Bell, N J; Mason, C S

2013-08-01

403

Differences in coronary heart disease prevalence and risk factors in African and White patients with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is rare in sub-Saharan Africans; there are few data in African diabetic populations. We therefore evaluated the prevalence of CHD and conventional risk factors in 744 consecutive African (A, n=448) and White European (W, n=296) subjects with type 2 diabetes. CHD was present in 4% of A and in 23% of W (p<0.001). Compared with W, the A groups had lower total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels: men: TC-W, 5.76 (S.D., 1.36) and A, 4.98 (1.29)mmol/l; TG-W, 2.10 (IQR,1.40-3.00) and A, 1.60 (1.10-2.55)mmol/l; women: TC-W, 5.85 (1.31) and A, 5.20 (1.24); TG-2.00 (1.40-2.90) and A, 1.40 (1.00-2.03)mmol/l (p< or =0.0022 for each comparison). The A had significantly lower TG:HDL-C ratios (an index of insulin resistance) (p=0.004) and were less likely to have (estimated) small dense LDL-C particles (p< or =0.038). In subjects with established CHD traditional risk factors were similar in A and W. Regression analysis revealed that CHD associated in A with serum creatinine (p=0.0015) and TC (p=0.038) and with TG in W (p=0.0072). We conclude that the rarity of CHD in diabetic Africans can be explained by contributions of low TC levels and probably lesser insulin resistance and its consequences; renal disease may be an important additional risk factor. PMID:17141912

Kalk, W John; Joffe, Barry I

2007-07-01

404

Transcriptome analyses suggest a disturbance of iron homeostasis in soybean leaves during white mould disease establishment.  

PubMed

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a serious pathogen of numerous crops around the world. The major virulence factor of this pathogen is oxalic acid (OA). Mutants that cannot produce OA do not cause disease, and plants that express enzymes that degrade OA, such as oxalate oxidase (OxO), are very resistant to S.?sclerotiorum. To examine the effect of OA on plants, we infiltrated soybean leaves with 5?mm OA and examined the gene expression changes at 2?h post-infiltration. By comparing the gene expression levels between leaves of a transgenic soybean carrying an OxO gene (OxO) and its parent AC Colibri (AC) infiltrated with OA (pH?2.4) or water (pH?2.4 or 5.5), we were able to compare the effects of OA dependent or independent of its pH. Gene expression by microarray analysis identified 2390 genes that showed changes in expression, as determined using an overall F-test P-value cut-off of 0.001. The additional requirement that at least one pairwise t-test false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected P value should be less than 0.001 reduced the list of the most highly significant differentially expressed genes to 1054. Independent of pH, OA altered the expression levels of 78 genes, with ferritin showing the strongest induction by OA. The combination of OA plus its low pH caused 1045 genes (99% of all significant genes) to be differentially expressed, with many of the up-regulated genes being related to basal defence, such as genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and various cytochrome P450s. RNA-seq was also conducted on four samples: OxO and AC genotypes infiltrated with either OA pH?2.4 or water pH?2.4. The RNA-seq analysis also identified ferritin paralogues as being strongly induced by OA. As the expression of ferritin, a gene that encodes for an iron storage protein, is induced by free iron, these results suggest that S.?sclerotiorum benefits from the ability of OA to free iron from plant proteins, as this induces host cell death, and also allows the uptake and assimilation of the iron for its own metabolic needs. PMID:24330102

Calla, Bernarda; Blahut-Beatty, Laureen; Koziol, Lisa; Simmonds, Daina H; Clough, Steven J

2014-08-01

405

Detailing the human tail.  

PubMed

There have been 23 true vestigial tails reported in the literature since 1884. A new case is described, and its magnetic resonance imaging and pathological features are presented. A review of the literature and analysis of the pathological characteristics reveal that the vesti