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1

[Sarcopenia and whole body vibration training: an overview].  

PubMed

The loss of muscle mass, muscle strength and muscle endurance-capability in the elderly is summarized under the term 'sarcopenia'. This phenomenon is widespread in the older population and is a large financial burden for the health system. As a consequence of sarcopenia, functional and metabolic consequences occur. These among other things are associated with a loss of the independent lifestyle and the appearance of various age-related chronic diseases. An intervention with whole body vibration training can increase muscle strength, especially in older people with a low level of muscle strength, similar to resistance training. A strength increase is mainly attributed to improved inter- and intramuscular coordination. A muscle hypertrophy is also possibly realizable with people with low base level. A low injury-risk and the only rare appearance of side-effects makes whole body vibration training an interesting preventive intervention for older people. PMID:18726053

Kaeding, T S

2009-04-01

2

Effects of whole body vibration training on postural control in older individuals: A 1 year randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a 12 month whole body vibration training program on postural control in healthy older adults. Two hundred and twenty people were randomly assigned to a whole body vibration group (n=94), a fitness group (n=60) or a control group (n=66). The whole body vibration and fitness groups trained three times a week for

An Bogaerts; Sabine Verschueren; Christophe Delecluse; Albrecht L. Claessens; Steven Boonen

2007-01-01

3

Effects of whole body vibration training on postural control in older individuals: A 1 year randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a 12 month whole body vibration training program on postural control in healthy older adults. Two hundred and twenty people were randomly assigned to a whole body vibration group (n = 94), a fitness group (n = 60) or a control group (n = 66). Thewhole body vibration and fitness groups trained

An Bogaerts; Sabine Verschueren; Christophe Delecluse; Albrecht L. Claessens; Steven Boonen

2007-01-01

4

Whole body vibration: unsupervised training or combined with a supervised multi-purpose exercise for fitness?  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of an unsupervised whole body vibration (WBV) training and two different supervised multi-purpose exercise programmes, with and without WBV, on body composition, functional fitness and self-reported well-being in middle-aged adults. Fifty-four healthy participants (age 48.6 ± 6.7 years) were randomly assigned to a vibration group (VG), a multi-purpose exercise group (MG) and a multi-purpose exercise with vibration group (VMG) and trained 3 days a week for 4 months. VG performed a standardised unsupervised WBV protocol, MG a supervised multi-purpose exercise and VMG a multi-purpose exercise including vibration. After training, drop out was significantly higher in VG group (P = 0.016) when compared to VMG group. In both MG and VMG, body composition, sit-up, push-up, sit and reach, agility test, hopping test and self-reported general health significantly improved (P < 0.05). No additive effects were generated by the vibration stimulus. Percentage of body fat and agility test in VG had a significant opposite trend compared to VMG group (P < 0.05). In summary, an unsupervised WBV training should not be chosen for training protocol. However, positive effects on physical fitness and the best results in adherence could be achieved integrating WBV practice into a multi-purpose exercise training. PMID:24479642

Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

2014-01-01

5

The acute effect of whole body vibration training on flexibility and explosive strength of young gymnasts.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of a single bout of whole body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young artistic gymnasts. Thirty-two young competitive gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study, and were allocated to either the vibration group or traditional body weight training according to the vibration protocol. The vibration intervention consisted of a single bout of eccentric and concentric squatting movements on a vibration platform that was turned on (vibration group: VG n = 15), whereas the traditional body weight (no vibration) group performed the same training protocol with the WBV device turned off (NVG: n= 17). Flexibility (sit and reach test) and explosive strength tests [squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), and single leg squat (right leg (RL) and left leg (LL))] were performed initially (pre-test), immediately after the intervention (post-test 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the intervention programme (post-test 15). Four 2x3 ANOVAs were used to examine the interaction between group (VG vs NVG) and time (pre, post 1, and post 15) with respect to examined variables. The results revealed that a significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to SJ (p < 0.05). However, no significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to flexibility, CMJ, RL and LL after the end of the intervention programme (p > 0.05). Further, the percentage improvement of the VG was significantly greater in all examined variables compared to the NVG. This study concluded that WBV training improves flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young trained artistic gymnasts and maintains the initial level of performance for at least 15 minutes after the WBV intervention programme. PMID:25177103

Dallas, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V

2014-08-01

6

THE ACUTE EFFECT OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON FLEXIBILITY AND EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH OF YOUNG GYMNASTS  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of a single bout of whole body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young artistic gymnasts. Thirty-two young competitive gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study, and were allocated to either the vibration group or traditional body weight training according to the vibration protocol. The vibration intervention consisted of a single bout of eccentric and concentric squatting movements on a vibration platform that was turned on (vibration group: VG n = 15), whereas the traditional body weight (no vibration) group performed the same training protocol with the WBV device turned off (NVG: n= 17). Flexibility (sit and reach test) and explosive strength tests [squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), and single leg squat (right leg (RL) and left leg (LL))] were performed initially (pre-test), immediately after the intervention (post-test 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the intervention programme (post-test 15). Four 2x3 ANOVAs were used to examine the interaction between group (VG vs NVG) and time (pre, post 1, and post 15) with respect to examined variables. The results revealed that a significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to SJ (p < 0.05). However, no significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to flexibility, CMJ, RL and LL after the end of the intervention programme (p > 0.05). Further, the percentage improvement of the VG was significantly greater in all examined variables compared to the NVG. This study concluded that WBV training improves flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young trained artistic gymnasts and maintains the initial level of performance for at least 15 minutes after the WBV intervention programme. PMID:25177103

Kirialanis, P.; Mellos, V.

2014-01-01

7

Whole Body Vibration Training is Osteogenic at the Spine in College-Age Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a chronic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass which is currently challenging the American health care system. Maximizing peak bone mass early in life is a cost-effective method for preventing osteoporosis. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel exercise method with the potential to increase bone mass, therefore optimizing peak bone and decreasing the risk for osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density at the hip, spine, and whole body in college-age men and women who underwent a WBV training protocol. Active men (n=6) and women (n=4), ages 18–22 participated in the WBV training; while an additional 14 volunteers (1 male, 13 female) served as controls. All participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires to assess health history, physical activity, dietary intake, and menstrual history. The WBV training program, using a Vibraflex 550, incorporated squats, stiff-leg dead lifts, stationary lunges, push-up holds, bent-over rows, and jumps performed on the platform, and occurred 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Explorer, Waltham, MA, USA) was used to assess bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2). A two-tailed, t-test identified significantly different changes in BMD between the WBV and control groups at the lateral spine (average change of 0.022 vs. ?0.015 g/cm2). The WBV group experienced a 2.7% and 1.0% increase in BMD in the lateral spine and posterior-anterior spine while the control group decreased 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Results indicate that 12 weeks of WBV training was osteogenic at the spine in college-age men and women. PMID:23487489

Ligouri, Gianna C.; Shoepe, Todd C.; Almstedt, Hawley C.

2012-01-01

8

Effects of adding whole body vibration to squat training on isometric force/time characteristics.  

PubMed

Resistance training interventions aimed at increasing lower-body power and rates of force development have produced varying results. Recent studies have suggested that whole-body low-frequency vibration (WBLFV) may elicit an acute postactivation potentiation response, leading to acute improvements in power and force development. Potentially, the use of WBLFV between sets of resistance training rather than during training itself may lead to increased recruitment and synchronization of high-threshold motor units, minimize fatigue potential, and facilitate the chronic adaptation to resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of applying TriPlaner, WBLFV, prior to and then intermittently between sets of Smith machine squats on short-term adaptations in explosive isometric force expression. Thirty recreationally resistance trained men aged 18-30 were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: resistance training only (SQT, n = 11), resistance plus whole-body vibration (SQTV, n = 13), or active control (CON, n = 6). An isometric squat test was performed prior to and following a 6-week periodized Smith machine squat program. Whole-body low-frequency vibration was applied 180 seconds prior to the first work set (50 Hz, 2-4 mm, 30 seconds) and intermittently (50 Hz, 4-6 mm, 3 x 10 seconds, 60 seconds between exposures) within a 240-second interset rest period. Subjects were instructed to assume a quarter squat posture while positioning their feet directly under their center of mass, which was modified using a handheld goniometer to a knee angle of 135 +/- 5 degrees . Instructions were given to subjects to apply force as fast and as hard as possible for 3.5 seconds. Isometric force (N) and rates of force development (N.s(-1)) were recorded from the onset of contraction (F(0)) to time points corresponding to 30, 50, 80, 100, 150, and 250 milliseconds, as well as the peak isometric rate of force development (PISORFD), and rate of force development to initial peak in force (RFDinitial). Repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance revealed no significant group by trial interactions for isometric rate of force development (ISORFD) between 0-30, 0-50, 0-80, 0-100, 0-150, and 0-250 milliseconds and PISORFD (p > 0.05). A significant group x trial interaction was seen for RFDinitial with SQTV >CG (p = 0.04, mean difference 997.2 N.s(-1)) and SQTV >SQT (p = 0.04, mean difference 1,994.22 N.s(-1)). Significant trial by covariate interactions (week one measures for ISORFD) and main effects for trial were observed for ISORFD between 0-80, 0-100, 0-and 150 milliseconds; PISORFD; and RFDinitial (p < 0.01). A significant trial effect was seen for Finitial (%) when expressed as a relative percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (MVC = 100%) (p = 0.015; week 1 > week 7, mean difference, 5.82%). No significant differences were seen for any other force variables from the onset of contraction to MVC between weeks 1 and 7 (p > 0.05). The data suggest that there was a significant benefit afforded by adding WBLFV to a short-term resistance training protocol with regard to "explosive" strength expression. The addition of vibration prior to and between sets of resistance exercise may be a viable alternative to vibration applied during resistance exercise when trying to improve "explosive" isometric strength. PMID:19924007

Lamont, Hugh S; Cramer, Joel T; Bemben, Debra A; Shehab, Randa L; Anderson, Mark A; Bemben, Michael G

2010-01-01

9

Effect of Training with Whole Body Vibration on the Sitting Balance of Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of task-oriented training with whole body vibration (WBV) on the sitting balance of stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 stroke patients who were randomly divided into experimental (n1=15) and control (n2=15) groups. [Methods] Subjects in both groups received general training five times per week. Subjects in the experimental group practiced an additional task-oriented training program with WBV, which was performed for 15 minutes, five times per week, for four weeks. The center of pressure (COP) path length and average velocity were used to assess subjects static sitting balance, and the Modified Functional Reach Test (MFRT) was used to assess their dynamic sitting balance. The paired t-test was performed to test the significance of differences between before and after the intervention. The independent t-test was conducted to test the significance of differences between the groups. [Results] Following the intervention, the experimental group showed a significant change in MFRT. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that task-oriented training with WBV is feasible and efficacious for stroke patients.

Choi, Sung-Jin; Shin, Won-Seob; Oh, Bok-Kyun; Shim, Jae-Kwang; Bang, Dae-Hyouk

2014-01-01

10

Long-term effect of whole body vibration training on jump height: meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) is widely promoted as a means of improving muscle strength, but the evidence of a performance benefit is unclear with some reporting improvements and others finding none. The objective of this study was to analyze the current evidence for the effectiveness of WBV on jump height. We included randomized controlled trials or matched design studies comparing the effect of WBV training on countermovement and squat jump (SJ) height, which were gathered from MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Sciencedirect, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar, and SPORTDiscus databases. The overall effect of WBV training (from the 15 studies included) compared with having no additional exercise on countermovement jump height yielded a positive standardized mean difference of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.99). The effect of WBV training on SJ height was 0.68 (0.08-1.11). Vibration exercise consisting of a higher frequency (>30 Hz, 0.86, 0.62-1.10), higher amplitude (>3 mm, 0.84, 0.52-1.17), longer exposure duration (>10 minutes per session, 0.92, 0.48-1.36), longer training period (>12 weeks, 0.87, 0.56-1.19) and among nonathletes (0.96, 0.63-1.30) had greater benefit for jump height improvement than a lower frequency (? 30 Hz, 0.56, 0.13-0.99), lower amplitude (? 3 mm, 0.66, 0.35-0.98), shorter exposure duration (? 10 minutes per session, 0.68, 0.45-0.92), intermediate training period (4-12 weeks, 0.72, 0.35-1.09), shorter training period (<4 weeks, 0.58, -0.08 to -1.23) and in athletes (0.59, 0.31-0.88). The effect of WBV training compared with a standard cardiovascular-type exercise group from 4 studies was 0.63 (0.10-1.15). In conclusion, WBV training produces a moderate-to-large effect on jump height. Vibration training protocols with higher frequencies, higher amplitudes, longer exposures per session, and longer training periods are more likely to enhance muscle power. PMID:24276295

Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Hamlin, Michael J; Ross, Jenny J; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan

2014-06-01

11

Whole-body vibration training effect on physical performance and obesity in mice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25317067

Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

2014-01-01

12

Whole-Body Vibration Training Effect on Physical Performance and Obesity in Mice  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25317067

Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

2014-01-01

13

Effects of Whole Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Bone Mineral Density and Anthropometry in Obese Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two exercise programs, whole body vibration and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometry in obese postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Eighty Egyptian obese postmenopausal women were enrolled in this study; their age ranged from 50 to 68 years. Their body mass index ranged (30–36?kg/m2). The exercise prescription consisted of whole body vibration (WBV) and resistance training. Bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometrical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. Changes from baseline to eight months in BMD and anthropometric parameters were investigated. Results. BMD at the greater trochanter, at ward's triangle, and at lumbar spine were significantly higher after physical training, using both WBV and resistive training. Moreover, both exercise programs were effective in BMI and waist to the hip ratio. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity duration and BMD at all sites. The highest values of R2 were found for the models incorporating WBV plus BMI. Conclusion. The study suggests that both types of exercise modalities had a similar positive effect on BMD at all sites in obese postmenopausal women. Significant association was noted between physical activity and anthropometric variables and BMD measures at all sites. PMID:25136473

Zaki, Moushira Erfan

2014-01-01

14

Effects of whole-body vibration training on explosive strength and postural control in young female athletes.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a whole-body vibration training program to improve neuromuscular performance in young elite female athletes. Twenty-three women basketball players (14-18 years old) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11) or to a whole-body vibration group (WBVG, n = 12). During the study period, both groups continued their usual training program, but the WBVG also underwent a 15-week vibration training program. We analyzed the countermovement jump test (CMJ), the 1-leg hop test for the right leg and for the left leg, and the single-limb standing balance for both legs and with eyes open and closed at 3 time points: before training (T1), after an 8-week training period (T2), and after a further 7-week training period (T3). Compared with the CG, CMJ increased significantly in the WBVG from T1 to T2 (6.47%, p < 0.001), T1 to T3 (10.07%, p = 0.005), and T2 to T3 (3.38%, p < 0.001). One-leg hop test for the right and left legs also showed significantly higher values in WBVG from T1 to T2 (10.12%, p < 0.001 and 9.63%, p = 0.002, respectively) and T1 to T3 (14.17%, p = 0.001 and 15.17%, p = 0.004, respectively). Lateral deviation of the center of pressure in the closed eyes test decreased significantly in WBVG for both right and left leg, from T1 to T2 (-22.20%, p = 0.043 and -34.77%, p < 0.001, respectively) and from T1 to T3 (-33.14%, p = 0.027 and -33.58%, p = 0.043, respectively) compared with the CG. In conclusion, our results show that a 15-week whole-body vibration training program improves explosive strength and postural stability in adolescent female basketball players. PMID:22446665

Fort, Azahara; Romero, Daniel; Bagur, Caritat; Guerra, Myriam

2012-04-01

15

The effect of whole-body vibration training and conventional strength training on performance measures in female athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of regular whole-body vibration (WBV) training on lower body strength and power. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III softball athletes (n = 9) completed the 9-week protocol as part of their off-season strength and conditioning program. The athletes were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Week 1, pretesting included 3 repetition maximum (3RM) back squat, standing long jump (SLJ), and vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ). Phase I training (weeks 2-4) consisted of either WBV training (group 1) or conventional strength training (CST, group 2). The primary programmatic difference between WBV and CST was the inclusion of WBV sets after squat sets. Posttesting (3RM squat, SLJ, VCMJ) occurred at week 5. Phase II training (weeks 6-8) consisted of either WBV training (group 2) or CST (group 1). Posttesting was repeated at week 9 after the completion of phase II. Three 2 × 2 mixed factorial analyses of variance were computed. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between groups or between groups and testing period for the SLJ, VCMJ, and estimated 1RM back squat. Increases (p < 0.05) were observed in SLJ, VCMJ, and back squat from pretest to posttest 1. Back squat increased (p < 0.05) from posttest 1 to posttest 2. All the athletes experienced significantly greater (p < 0.05) percent changes from pretest to posttest 1 for SLJ and VCMJ. These results indicate that the inclusion of WBV as part of an off-season strength and conditioning program has no apparent benefit over CST methods for collegiate softball players. PMID:21792072

Jones, Margaret T; Parker, Barry M; Cortes, Nelson

2011-09-01

16

EFFECTS OF 6-WEEK WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON THE REFLEX RESPONSE OF THE ANKLE MUSCLES: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL  

PubMed Central

Background: The ligament sprain of the lateral ankle is the most frequent injury that occurs when participating in sports. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a training method that has been recently introduced as a rehabilitative tool for treatment of athletes. It has been hypothesized that the transmission of mechanical oscillations from the vibrating platform may lead to physiological changes in muscle spindles, joint mechanoreceptors, as well as improve balance. Propose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 6?week WBV training program on the reflex response mechanism of the peroneus longus (PL), peroneus brevis (PB) and anterior tibialis (AT) muscles in ankle inversion at 30º from horizontal, in a static position. Methods: This study was a single?blinded and randomized controlled trial. Forty?four healthy, physically active participants were randomly split into two groups: the experimental group (n = 26) (the WBV training) and control group (n = 18). Reaction time (RT), maximum electromyographic (EMG) peak (peak EMG), time to the maximum peak EMG (peak EMG time) and reflex electrical activity of all the muscles were assessed before and after the WBV training through surface EMG. Results: After 6?weeks WBV training, there were no significant changes in the variables analysed for all the muscles involved. Conclusion: A 6?week WBV training does not improve the reflex response mechanism of the lateral stabilizing muscles of the ankle. Level of evidence: 1b PMID:23439725

Rubio, Jacobo A.; Ramos, Domingo J.; Esteban, Paula; Mendizabal, Susana; Jimenez, Fernando

2013-01-01

17

EMG and Heart Rate Responses Decline within 5 Days of Daily Whole-Body Vibration Training with Squatting  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined the acute effects of a 5-day daily whole-body vibration (WBV) training on electromyography (EMG) responses of the m. rectus femoris and m. gastrocnemius lateralis, heart rate (HR, continuously recorded), and blood lactate levels. The purpose of the study was to investigate the adaptation of muscle activity, heart rate and blood lactate levels during 5 days of daily training. Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either squat exercises with vibration at 20 Hz on a side alternating platform (SE+V, n?=?20, age ?=?31.9±7.5 yrs., height ?=?178.8±6.2 cm, body mass ?=?79.2±11.4 kg) or squat exercises alone (SE, n?=?21, age ?=?28.4±7.3 years, height ?=?178.9±7.4 cm, body mass ?=?77.2±9.7 kg). On training day 1, EMG amplitudes of the m. rectus femoris were significantly higher (P<0.05) during SE+V than during SE. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant on training days 3 and 5. The heart rate (HR) response was significantly higher (P<0.05) during SE+V than during SE on all training days, but showed a constant decline throughout the training days. On training day 1, blood lactate increased significantly more after SE+V than after SE (P<0.05). On the following training days, this difference became much smaller but remained significantly different. The specific physiological responses to WBV were largest on the initial training day and most of them declined during subsequent training days, showing a rapid neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptation to the vibration stimulus. PMID:24905721

Rosenberger, Andre; Liphardt, Anna-Maria; Bargmann, Arne; Muller, Klaus; Beck, Luis; Mester, Joachim; Zange, Jochen

2014-01-01

18

Whole-body vibration training increases physical fitness measures without alteration of inflammatory markers in older adults.  

PubMed

This study investigated in older adults whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training results in significant increases of physical fitness measures without alterations in markers of inflammation. Sixteen volunteers completed a WBV programme 3 d.wk(-1) during 9 weeks. The programme consisted of lower and upper-body unloaded static and dynamic exercises. Training improved significantly several tests which evaluate physical fitness, such as 30-s chair stand, arm curl or chair sit and reach test. There was a significant increase in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) between pre- and post-training conditions. Muscle power values, reached at 20, 40 and 60% MVIC, were also significantly greater after training. However, mRNA or protein levels for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-1?, tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-10 did not significantly differ from basal values. Our data confirm the usefulness of WBV training for counteracting the loss of muscle strength associated with sarcopenia in older adults and show that WBV training could be a safe training method which induces no inflammatory effects. PMID:24237186

Cristi, Carlos; Collado, Pilar S; Márquez, Sara; Garatachea, Nuria; Cuevas, María J

2014-01-01

19

Changes in circulating angiogenic factors after an acute training bout before and after resistance training with or without whole-body-vibration training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both Resistance Exercise and Whole-Body-Vibration training are currently considered as countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Here we investigated the effects of whole-body vibration superimposed upon resistance exercise. Within this context, the present study focuses on changes in circulating angiogenic factors as indicators of skeletal muscle adaption. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male subjects (25.2 ± 4.2 yr) were included in this two-group parallel-designed study and randomly assigned to one of the training interventions: either resistance exercise (RE) or resistance vibration exercise (RVE). Participants trained 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks (completing 16 training sessions), where one session took 9 ± 1 min. Participants trained with weights on a guided barbell. The individual training load was set at 80% of their 1-Repetition-Maximum. Each training session consisted of three sets with 8 squats and 12 heel raises, following an incremental training design with regards to weight (RE and RVE) and vibration frequency (RVE only). The vibration frequency was increased from 20 Hz in the first week till 40 Hz during the last two weeks with 5-Hz weekly increments. At the first and 16 ^{th} training session, six blood samples (pre training and 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 35 min and 75 min post training) were taken. Circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Endostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) were determined in serum using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Results: MMP-2 levels increased by 7.0% (SE = 2.7%, P < 0.001) within two minutes after the exercise bout and then decreased to 5.7% below baseline (SE = 2.4%, P < 0.001) between 15 and 75 minutes post exercise. This response was comparable before and after the training programs (P = 0.70) and also between the two intervention groups (P = 0.42). Preliminary analyses indicate that a similar pattern applies to circulating MMP-9, VEGF and Endostatin levels. Conclusion: The present findings suggest 1) that resistance exercise, both with and without superimposed vibration, leads to a transient rise in circulating angiogenic factors, 2) which is not altered after a period of resistance exercise with or without vibration.

Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; May, Francisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Joern; Rosenberger, Andre

2012-07-01

20

Impact of Whole-Body Vibration Training Versus Fitness Training on Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass in Older Men: A 1Year Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 1-year whole-body vibration (WBV) training on isometric and explosive muscle strength and muscle mass in community-dwelling men older than 60 years. Methods. Muscle characteristics of the WBV group (n ¼31, 67.3 6 0.7 years) were compared with those of a fitness (FIT) group (n ¼ 30, 67.4 6 0.8 years) and

An Bogaerts; Christophe Delecluse; Albrecht L. Claessens; Walter Coudyzer; Steven Boonen; Sabine M. P. Verschueren

2007-01-01

21

The Effect of a Single Session of Whole-Body Vibration Training in Recreationally Active Men on the Excitability of the Central and Peripheral Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Vibration training has become a popular method used in professional sports and recreation. In this study, we examined the effect of whole-body vibration training on the central nervous system and muscle excitability in a group of 28 active men. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of two experimental groups with different variables of vibrations. The chronaximetry method was used to evaluate the effect of a single session of whole-body vibration training on the excitability of the rectus femoris and brachioradialis muscles. The examination of the fusing and flickering frequencies of the light stimulus was performed. An increase in the excitability of the quadriceps femoris muscle due to low intensity vibrations (20 Hz frequency, 2 mm amplitude) was noted, and a return to the initial values was observed 30 min after the application of vibration. High intensity vibrations (60 Hz frequency, 4 mm amplitude) caused elongations of the chronaxy time; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Neither a low intensity vibration amplitude of 2 mm (frequency of 20 Hz) nor a high intensity vibration amplitude of 4 mm (frequency of 60 Hz) caused a change in the excitability of the central nervous system, as revealed by the average frequency of the fusing and flickering of the light stimulus. A single session of high intensity whole-body vibration did not significantly decrease the excitability of the peripheral nervous system while the central nervous system did not seem to be affected. PMID:25114735

Chmielewska, Daria; Piecha, Magdalena; Blaszczak, Edward; Krol, Piotr; Smykla, Agnieszka; Juras, Grzegorz

2014-01-01

22

The effect of a single session of whole-body vibration training in recreationally active men on the excitability of the central and peripheral nervous system.  

PubMed

Vibration training has become a popular method used in professional sports and recreation. In this study, we examined the effect of whole-body vibration training on the central nervous system and muscle excitability in a group of 28 active men. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of two experimental groups with different variables of vibrations. The chronaximetry method was used to evaluate the effect of a single session of whole-body vibration training on the excitability of the rectus femoris and brachioradialis muscles. The examination of the fusing and flickering frequencies of the light stimulus was performed. An increase in the excitability of the quadriceps femoris muscle due to low intensity vibrations (20 Hz frequency, 2 mm amplitude) was noted, and a return to the initial values was observed 30 min after the application of vibration. High intensity vibrations (60 Hz frequency, 4 mm amplitude) caused elongations of the chronaxy time; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Neither a low intensity vibration amplitude of 2 mm (frequency of 20 Hz) nor a high intensity vibration amplitude of 4 mm (frequency of 60 Hz) caused a change in the excitability of the central nervous system, as revealed by the average frequency of the fusing and flickering of the light stimulus. A single session of high intensity whole-body vibration did not significantly decrease the excitability of the peripheral nervous system while the central nervous system did not seem to be affected. PMID:25114735

Chmielewska, Daria; Piecha, Magdalena; B?aszczak, Edward; Król, Piotr; Smykla, Agnieszka; Juras, Grzegorz

2014-06-28

23

Effect of standing posture during whole body vibration training on muscle morphology and function in older adults: A randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel modality of exercise shown to improve musculoskeletal function. This study aims to examine the effects of standing posture during low magnitude WBV training on muscle function and muscle morphology in older adults. METHODS: Nineteen men and women (50-80 years) were recruited to a three month randomised controlled trial and allocated to one

Monica Mikhael; Rhonda Orr; Fleur Amsen; David Greene; Maria A Fiatarone Singh

2010-01-01

24

Whole body vibration in sport: a critical review.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration training is a recent area of study in athletic conditioning, health and rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the effectiveness of this type of training in sport. A search was conducted across several electronic databases and studies on effects of whole body vibration training on sport performance were reviewed. Thirteen articles were included in the final analysis. The following variables were considered: participants investigated (sex and age), characteristics of the vibration (frequency and amplitude), training (type of sport, exposure time and intensity, tests used, type of study, effects examined and results obtained). This review considers proposed neural mechanisms and identifies studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of WBV in sports. It considers where WBV might act and suggests that vibration can be an effective training stimulus. Future studies should focus on evaluating the long-term effects of vibration training and identify optimum frequency and amplitude, improve strength and muscular performance. PMID:24998609

Costantino, C; Gimigliano, R; Olvirri, S; Gimigliano, F

2014-12-01

25

Whole-body vibration perception thresholds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a series of laboratory experiments concerned with perception thresholds for whole-body vibration. The nature of absolute perception thresholds is discussed and a method of determining vibration thresholds, based upon signal detection theory, is proposed. Thresholds of subjects exposed to x-, y- and z-axis sinusoidal vibration were determined for sitting and standing subjects (from 2 to 100 Hz). Perception thresholds have also been determined for supine subjects exposed to vertical ( x-axis) sinusoidal vibration (10-63 Hz). In additional experiments the effects of complex (e.g., random) vibration and the effects of duration on the perception thresholds were investigated. The relation between perception thresholds and vibration levels, said by subjects to be unacceptable if they occurred in their own homes, was investigated as well as the effects of subjects' personality and the visual and acoustic conditions in the laboratory. For the vertical vibration of seated subjects no significant differences were found between the responses of male and female subjects. Significant differences were found between perception thresholds for sitting and standing postures. The median threshold was approximately 0·01 m/s 2 r.m.s. between 2 and 100 Hz. Perception thresholds for x-axis and y-axis vibration were not significantly different in either sitting or standing subjects but significant differences in thresholds were found between sitting and standing positions for both x-axis and y-axis vibration. Subjects tended to be more sensitive to vibration when lying than when sitting or standing. The results suggested that the perception of random vibrations can be predicted from a knowledge of the perception of its component vibrations. The number of cycles of vibration did not affect perception thresholds for vibration durations of more than about 0·25 s. Some assessments suggested that vibration at more than twice the perception threshold may not be acceptable if it occurs in the home.

Parsons, K. C.; Griffin, M. J.

1988-03-01

26

Whole-body vibration combined with extra-load training for enhancing the strength and speed of track and field athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether whole-body vibration (WBV) combined with extra-load training can enhance the strength and speed of trained athletes compared with isolated WBV training or loaded training (LT) only. Twenty-one elite male track and field athletes were randomly assigned to a loaded vibration (LV) training group (n = 7), an unloaded vibration (ULV) training group (n = 7), and a LT group (n = 7). During 4 weeks of training, the LV group received the vibration stimulus (30 Hz and 4 mm) accompanied by a load comprising 75% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), the ULV group received the same vibration stimulus without any load, and the LT group received only a load of 75% MVC without any vibration stimulus. The knee extensor isometric strength, and the concentric and eccentric strength were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer at 300°·s at a 30-m sprint speed before and after the training period. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance (time × group) was used to analyze the differences. Significant time × group interactions were observed for all the dependent variables (p ? 0.05). Regarding the post hoc analysis results, the LV group exhibited significant improvements for all the dependent variables after training (p ? 0.05), whereas the ULV group exhibited significantly reduced sprint speeds (p ? 0.05). The LV group demonstrated significantly superior eccentric strength compared with the ULV and LT groups after training (p ? 0.05), and the LV group also produced significantly superior sprint speeds compared with the ULV group after training (p ? 0.05). Vibration combined with extra-load training for 4 weeks significantly increased the muscle strength and speed of the elite male track and field athletes. PMID:24662223

Wang, Hsiang-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Han; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen; Huang, Mao-Ying; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

2014-09-01

27

Short-term effect of whole-body vibration training on balance, flexibility and lower limb explosive strength in elite rhythmic gymnasts.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training results in short-term performance improvements in flexibility, strength and balance tests in comparison to an equivalent exercise program performed without vibration. Eleven elite rhythmic gymnasts completed a WBV trial, and a control, resistance training trial without vibration (NWBV). The vibration trial consisted of eccentric and concentric squatting exercises on a vibration platform that was turned on, whereas the NWBV involved the same training protocol with the platform turned off. Balance was assessed using the Rhythmic Weight Shift (RWS) based on the EquiTest Dynamic Posturography system; flexibility was measured using the sit & reach test, and lower limb explosive strength was evaluated using standard exercises (squat jump, counter movement jump, single leg squat). All measurements were performed before (pre) immediately after the training program (post 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the program (post 15). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA was used with condition (WBV-NWBV) as the primary factor and time (pre, post 1, post 15) as the nested within subjects factor, followed by post-hoc pairwise comparison with Bonferroni corrections. Results confirmed the hypothesis of the superiority of WBV training, especially in the post 15 measurement, in all flexibility and strength measures, as well as in a number of balance tests. PMID:24055361

Despina, Tsopani; George, Dallas; George, Tsiganos; Sotiris, Papouliakos; Alessandra, Di Cagno; George, Korres; Maria, Riga; Stavros, Korres

2014-02-01

28

Inconsistent use of terminology in whole body vibration exercise research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body vibration exercise (WBV) intensity can be manipulated by altering the frequency of oscillations and\\/or its magnitude. The inconsistencies and inaccuracies reported within the literature that at times challenge the replication and advancement of whole body vibration exercise research are discussed. Although frequency is regularly reported, inconsistency exists with the definition of vibration amplitude which has been interchangeably used

Christian Lorenzen; Wayne Maschette; Michael Koh; Cameron Wilson

2009-01-01

29

Effects of whole-body vibration exercise training on aortic wave reflection and muscle strength in postmenopausal women with prehypertension and hypertension.  

PubMed

Increased wave reflection (augmented pressure (AP) and augmentation index (AIx)) and reduced muscle strength may increase cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. We evaluated the effects of whole-body vibration exercise training (WBVET) on aortic haemodynamics and leg muscle strength. Twenty-eight postmenopausal women (age, 56±3 years; brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP) 138±12?mm?Hg; body mass index, 33.9±3.7?kg?m(-2)) were randomized to 6 weeks of WBVET (n=15) or no-exercise control groups. Aortic SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), AP, AIx, tension time index (TTI, myocardial oxygen demand) and leg press muscle strength were measured before and after 6 weeks. WBVET significantly (P<0.05) decreased aortic SBP (?10?mm?Hg), DBP (?5?mm?Hg), PP (?5?mm?Hg), AP (?5?mm?Hg), AIx (?10%) and TTI (?311?mm?Hg?s per minute), while increased muscle strength (?9%) compared with no changes after control. Changes in AP and leg muscle strength were correlated (r=-0.58, P=0.02). Our data demonstrated that WBVET reduced pressure wave reflection magnitude and aortic blood pressure in postmenopausal women with prehypertension or hypertension. Our study suggests that WBVET may decrease cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women by improving wave reflection and muscle strength. PMID:23823582

Figueroa, A; Kalfon, R; Madzima, T A; Wong, A

2014-02-01

30

Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration Exposure from Garbage Trucks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese garbage truck drivers are exposed to mechanical whole-body vibration during their work. Some drivers have suffered from low back pain from this vibration. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the whole-body vibration from the garbage trucks and low back pain or occupational disease, due to the lack of investigations. A field study was conducted in order to characterize the health risks associated with garbage truck work. Three different types of truck were tested at different loadings and on different road surfaces, with the vibrations measured at the driver/seat interface (x,y, andz-axes). The vibrations were compared with the health risk guidance according to Annex B of ISO 2631-1 [1]. The findings of this study indicated that Japanese garbage truck drivers should not operate trucks for 2.5 h in a day, under current working conditions.

Maeda, S.; Morioka, M.

1998-08-01

31

Effect of standing posture during whole body vibration training on muscle morphology and function in older adults: A randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel modality of exercise shown to improve musculoskeletal function. This study aims to examine the effects of standing posture during low magnitude WBV training on muscle function and muscle morphology in older adults. Methods Nineteen men and women (50-80 years) were recruited to a three month randomised controlled trial and allocated to one of three groups: WBV with flexed knees (FK), WBV with locked knees (LK), or sham WBV with flexed knees (CON). Exposure was intermittent (1 min WBV:1 min rest) for 20 min, three times per week for 13 weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and at three months. Primary outcomes included upper and lower body muscle function (strength, power and velocity). Secondary outcomes were muscle morphology, balance, habitual and maximal gait velocity, stair climb power, and chair stand performance. Results Sixteen subjects completed the study. Relative (%) upper body contraction velocity improved significantly after WBV with FK compared to LK (FK 16.0%, LK -7.6%, CON 4.7, p = 0.01). Relative upper body strength (LK 15.1%, p = 0.02; FK 12.1%, p = 0.04; CON 4.7%) increased significantly following WBV compared to control. Absolute (p = 0.05) and relative (p = 0.03) lower leg strength significantly improved with both standing postures (LK 14.4%; FK 10.7%; CON 1.3%). Only the LK group differed significantly from CON in relative leg strength gains (p = 0.02). Potentially clinically meaningful but statistically non-significant improvements in lower leg muscle cross-sectional area (LK 3.7 cm2, FK 2.4 cm2, CON 2.2 cm2 p = 0.13) were observed after WBV with LK compared to the other groups. No significant effects of WBV on any functional performance tests were observed. Conclusions Our results suggest that WBV may improve muscle strength and contraction velocity in some muscle groups in older adults. However, hypothesised differential adaptation to standing posture (FK > LK) was observed only for upper body contraction velocity, making recommendations regarding this prescriptive element inconclusive. The efficacy, mechanism of action and long term feasibility of WBV for musculoskeletal health in older adults warrants continued investigation in robustly designed, sufficiently powered future studies. Trial Registration ACTRN12609000353291. PMID:20946685

2010-01-01

32

Whole-body vibration and low-back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents a critical evaluation of the literature on health effects in long-term occupational exposure to whole-body vibration. To assess the relative weight of each epidemiologic study, a scoring procedure has been used, according to the quality of exposure data, effect data, study design and methodology. The most frequently reported adverse effects are: low-back pain, early degeneration of the

Carel Hulshof; Brinio Veldhuijzen van Zanten

1987-01-01

33

Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p?=?0.009; effect size r?=?0.20) and SDS (p?=?0.034; r?=?0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.

2014-01-01

34

Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is strong epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. A prototype health surveillance scheme for WBV is presented in this paper. Surveillance is the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. The aims are to assess health status and diagnose vibration-induced disorders at an early stage, to inform the workers on the potential risk associated with vibration exposure, to give preventive advice to employers and employees and to control whether preventive measures which have been taken, were successful. It is suggested that a pre-placement health examination should be offered to each worker who will be exposed to WBV so as to make the worker aware of the hazards, to obtain baseline health data, and to identify medical conditions that may increase the risk due to WBV. The case history should focus on personal history, work history, and leisure activities involving driving of vehicles. The personal medical history should detail back pain complaints, disorders in the spine, any injuries or surgery to the musculoskeletal system. A physical examination on the lower back should be performed on workers who have experienced LBP symptoms over the past 12 months. The preplacement examination should be followed by periodic health reassessment with a regular interval according to the legislation of the country. It is suggested that periodic medical examination should be made available at least every 2 years to all workers who are exposed to WBV. Any change in vibration exposure at the workplace should be reported by the employer. If an increase in vibration exposure or a change in health status have occurred, the medical re-examination should be offered at shorter intervals at the discretion of the attending physician. There should be a periodic medical examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

2002-05-01

35

Acute whole-body vibration does not affect static jump performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, whole-body vibration is being used to promote enhanced performance. Many coaches and athletes believe that it can acutely enhance explosive performance and power output. However, the scientific literature is unclear as to whether this enhancement occurs. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of whole-body vibration on static jump performance, including jump height, peak force,

Ashley Kavanaugh; Michael W. Ramsey; William A. Sands; G. Gregory Haff; Michael H. Stone

2011-01-01

36

Possible Mechanisms of Low Back Pain due to Whole-Body Vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole-body vibration and low back pain.In vitroexperiments, using percutaneous pin-mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4·5 Hz. The frequency response was affected by posture, seating, and seat-back inclination. The response appears to be largely determined by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats, and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

Pope, M. H.; Wilder, D. G.; Magnusson, M.

1998-08-01

37

The Effect of Whole Body Horizontal Vibration in Position Sense and Dynamic Stability of the Spine  

E-print Network

In many workplaces, workers are exposed to whole body vibration which involves multi-axis motion in fore-aft (x axis), lateral (y axis) and vertical (z axis) directions. In previous studies, our laboratory has found changes in biomechanical...

Lamis, Farhana

2008-06-09

38

Acute effects of whole-body vibration on trunk muscle functioning in young healthy adults.  

PubMed

Ye, J, Ng, G, and Yuen, K. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on trunk muscle functioning in young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 28(10): 2872-2879, 2014-The purpose of this study was to explore the immediate effects of different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the performance of trunk muscles of healthy young adults. A group of 30 healthy subjects (15 men; 15 women; age, 26.8 ± 3.74 years; body mass index, 21.9 ± 1.802) participated in the study. Each subject received 3 sessions of vibration exercise with different exercise parameters with frequencies of 25 Hz and 40 Hz and sham stimulation in a random order on different days. Before and after each WBV exercise session, subjects were assessed for trunk muscle strength/endurance tests and trunk proprioception tests. There was a significant increase in trunk extensor strength (p ? 0.05) after low-frequency (25 Hz) WBV exercise, but high-frequency (40 Hz) vibration exercise had resulted in a significant decrease in trunk extensor endurance (p ? 0.05). Statistical gender difference (p = 0.04) was found for trunk extensor endurance with lower WBV training. No change was noted in the trunk proprioception with different frequencies of WBV. In conclusions, the immediate response of the body to WBV was different for low and high frequencies. Low-frequency vibration enhanced trunk extensor strength, but high-frequency vibration would decrease endurance of the trunk extensor muscles. Males are more sensitive than females in trunk extensor endurance for lower frequency WBV exposure. These results indicated that short-term WBV with low frequency was effective to improve trunk extensor strength in healthy adults, and that could be helpful for relevant activities of trunk extensor performing and preventing sport injury. PMID:24714536

Ye, Jiajia; Ng, Gabriel; Yuen, Kenneth

2014-10-01

39

Variation in Neuromuscular Responses during Acute Whole-Body Vibration Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABERCROMBY, A. F. J., W. E. AMONETTE, C. S. LAYNE, B. K. MCFARLIN, M. R. HINMAN, and W. H. PALOSKI. Variation in Neuromuscular Responses during Acute Whole-Body Vibration Exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 9, pp. 1642-1650, 2007. Purpose: Leg muscle strength and power are increased after whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise. These effects may result from increased neuromuscular

ANDREW F. J. ABERCROMBY; WILLIAM E. AMONETTE; CHARLES S. LAYNE; BRIAN K. MCFARLIN; MARTHA R. HINMAN; WILLIAM H. PALOSKI

2007-01-01

40

Evaluation of whole-body road traffic vibration in building.  

PubMed

Level fluctuating vibration has been evaluated by the cumulative index L10, but some investigators suggest that the L10 cannot represent an adverse comment on vibration. In order to clarify the compliant, various factors involving vibration need to be analysed together by statistical methods, for instance factor analysis or quantum theory. The authors investigated the relationship between an evaluation index and human sensation of vibration in a subjective experiment in a wooden house. The subjects were exposed to vertical road traffic vibration reproduced with an electrodynamic vibrator placed near the house. The range of vibration levels at surfaces in contact with the subjects were from 50dB to 70dB in root mean square of frequency weighted acceleration level, i.e. the vibration level. Numbers assigned by the subjects and evaluation indices of the vibration level were analysed by applying the Stevens power law. The results showed that L10 or Leq (55) could become an effective index for the assessment of subjective perception of level fluctuating vibration in a wooden house. PMID:9583308

Yokota, A; Hirao, Y

1998-04-01

41

An active head-neck model in whole-body vibration: vibration magnitude and softening.  

PubMed

An active head-neck model is introduced in this work to predict human-dynamic response to different vibration magnitudes during fore-aft whole-body vibration. The proposed model is a rigid-link dynamic system augmented with passive spring-damper tissue-like elements and additional active dampers that resemble the active part of the muscles. The additional active dampers are functions of the input displacement, velocity, and acceleration and are based on active control theories and a kd-tree data-searching scheme. Five human subjects exposed to random fore-aft vibration with frequency content of 0.5-10 Hz were tested under different vibration with magnitudes of 0.46 m/s(2), 1.32 m/s(2), and 1.66 m/s(2) rms. The results showed that the proposed model was able to reasonably capture the softening characteristics of the human head-neck response during fore-aft whole-body vibration of different magnitudes. PMID:22336196

Rahmatalla, Salam; Liu, Ye

2012-04-01

42

Synchronous whole-body vibration increases V O 2 during and following acute exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single bout whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been shown to produce small but significant increases in oxygen consumption\\u000a (VO2). How much more a complete whole-body exercise session (multiple dynamic exercises targeting both upper and lower body muscles)\\u000a can increase VO2 is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify VO2 during and for an extended time period (24 h) following

Tom J. HazellPeter; Peter W. R. Lemon

43

Self-reported back pain in tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A postal questionnaire on symptoms of ill health and exposure to whole-body vibration was completed by 577 workers (response rate 79%) who were employed in certain functions by two companies 11 years before. The relation between the occupational history of driving vibrating vehicles (mainly agricultural tractors) and back pain has been analyzed. The prevalence of reported back pain is

Hendriek C. Boshuizen; Paulien M. Bongers; Carel T. J. Hulshof

1990-01-01

44

Whole-Body Vibrations Do Not Elevate the Angiogenic Stimulus when Applied during Resistance Exercise  

PubMed Central

Knowledge about biological factors involved in exercise-induced angiogenesis is to date still scanty. The present study aimed to investigate the angiogenic stimulus of resistance exercise with and without superimposed whole-body vibrations. Responses to the exercise regimen before and after a 6-week training intervention were investigated in twenty-six healthy male subjects. Serum was collected at the initial and final exercise sessions and circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2 and -9, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and endostatin were determined via ELISA. Furthermore, we studied the proliferative effect of serum-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro via BrdU-incorporation assay. It was found that circulating MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF and endostatin levels were significantly elevated (P<0.001) from resting levels after both exercise interventions, with higher post-exercise VEGF concentrations in the resistance exercise (RE) group compared to the resistive vibration exercise (RVE) group. Moreover, RE provoked increased endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and higher post-exercise circulating endostatin concentrations after 6 weeks of training. These effects were elusive in the RVE group. The present findings suggest that resistance exercise leads to a transient rise in circulating angiogenic factors and superimposing vibrations to this exercise type might not further trigger a potential signaling of angiogenic stimulation in skeletal muscle. PMID:24260349

Beijer, Asa; Rosenberger, Andre; Bolck, Birgit; Suhr, Frank; Rittweger, Jorn; Bloch, Wilhelm

2013-01-01

45

Whole body vibration in mountain-rescue operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mountain-rescue operations injured people are generally exposed to vibrations and shocks that can be potential causes of physical conditions worsening. Such vibrations can derive both from patient's body manipulations (e.g. when it is being loaded and immobilized on a stretcher) and from forces coming from the transport devices and vehicles. Despite the general feeling that during this kind of operations the levels of transmitted vibrations to the injured can be quite large and potentially dangerous, there is practically no study in literature providing reliable parameters (i.e. measurements) to support or dismiss these beliefs. This paper reports the results of a measurement campaign carried-out in order to outline, identify and quantify the excitations a human body is exposed to, during typical transportation phases related to mountain-rescue operations. The work mainly presents and discusses the experimental setup with the aim of focusing on the problems related to this kind of measurements; the results of the experimental campaign carried-out for the measurement of the vibrations undergone by a human body during a simulated rescue operation are presented and discussed as well. Such simulation includes three phases of transportation: on a hand-held stretcher, on an ambulance and on a helicopter. The work is not intended to supply a complete characterization and analysis of vibrations transmission during any rescue operation but just to provide a preliminary overview and to define a measurement method that can be applied for a more comprehensive characterization. With such aims measurements were carried out in on-field situations stated as "typical" by rescue experts and data then analyzed both with standard procedures and algorithms (e.g. ISO 2631s weighting curves) and with the commonly used statistical indexes; in the analysis it is important to be aware that standardized measurement procedures and indexes, created to verify comfort or health-risks of workers, might not fit the case of a generic patient who experienced a serious mountain accident. The work includes also a laboratory activity mainly related to mechanical characterization of the stretcher used in the field tests. The most interesting result of the study is the comparison of the vibration levels in the various rescue phases that, even when using different indicators, shows that the most critical issue is due to hand transportation despite the bad judgment usually expressed for helicopter flight.

Alberti, E.; Chiappa, D.; Moschioni, G.; Saggin, B.; Tarabini, M.

2006-12-01

46

Whole body vibration alters proprioception in the trunk  

E-print Network

black curtain and wore headphones with music in order to block both auditory and visual cues. For each sudden loading trial, before the load was dropped, the subject was instructed to match his/her target lumbar curvature and flexion angle..., seat pan vibrations (Bluthner et al., 2001, Bluthner et al., 2002, Pope et al., 1998, Seroussi et al., 1989, Wilder et al., 1996). Investigators have suggested that such muscular activity is the result of activation of reflex mechanisms (Bluthner et...

Li, Lu; Lamis, Farhana; Wilson, Sara E.

2008-01-01

47

Hematuria in a runner after treatment with whole body vibration: a case report.  

PubMed

The use of whole body vibration (WBV) for therapeutic purposes is far from being standardized and the training protocols reported in the literature vary considerably. Currently, the optimal threshold for a beneficial effect is undetermined, and caution regarding potential health risks due to WBV is always necessary. In this case report, we present a 34-year-old otherwise healthy elite athlete (steeplechase runner) who suffered two episodes of hematuria (HT) after WBV training. Shortly after the third WBV, he had an episode of bright red urine. Seven days later, following the next WBV session (and again before his daily running session), a reddish-colored urine reappeared. Our patient was advised to stop WBV training and to take fluid before and during exertion. He did not experience any episode of HT during a 1-year follow-up with periodic check-ups, in spite of the continuation of his sporting career. The concomitance of the two types of trauma - daily running and WBV - could have been critical in this case for producing HT. In particular, we think that platforms providing side-alternating vibration (such as the Galileo platform) may pose some health risks if the feet are positioned too far from the axis of rotation. PMID:22590988

Franchignoni, F; Vercelli, S; Ozçakar, L

2013-06-01

48

The Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on the Cross-Transfer of Strength  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether the use of superimposed whole-body vibration (WBV) during cross-education strength training would optimise strength transfer compared to conventional cross-education strength training. Twenty-one healthy, dominant right leg volunteers (21 ± 3 years) were allocated to a strength training (ST, m = 3, f = 4), a strength training with WBV (ST + V, m = 3, f = 4), or a control group (no training, m = 3, f = 4). Training groups performed 9 sessions over 3 weeks, involving unilateral squats for the right leg, with or without WBV (35?Hz; 2.5?mm amplitude). All groups underwent dynamic single leg maximum strength testing (1RM) and single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) prior to and following training. Strength increased in the trained limb for the ST (41%; ES = 1.14) and ST + V (55%; ES = 1.03) groups, which resulted in a 35% (ES = 0.99) strength transfer to the untrained left leg for the ST group and a 52% (ES = 0.97) strength transfer to the untrained leg for the ST + V group, when compared to the control group. No differences in strength transfer between training groups were observed (P = 0.15). For the untrained leg, no differences in the peak height of recruitment curves or SICI were observed between ST and ST + V groups (P = 1.00). Strength training with WBV does not appear to modulate the cross-transfer of strength to a greater magnitude when compared to conventional cross-education strength training. PMID:23365521

Goodwill, Alicia M.; Kidgell, Dawson J.

2012-01-01

49

Effects of whole body vibration on strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (p<0.001), a WBV use effect (p<0.001) and a discipline effect (p<0.001). Significantly greater improvements in the SJ (p<0.001) and CMJ (p<0.001) and in 1RM (p<0.001) were found in the WBV training groups than in traditional training groups. Significant 3-way interaction effects (training, WBV use, discipline kind) were also found for SJ, CMJ and 1RM (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001, respectively). It can be concluded that implementation of 6-week WBV training in routine practice in volleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

Pérez-Turpin, J A; Zmijewski, P; Jimenez-Olmedo, J M; Jové-Tossi, M A; Martínez-Carbonell, A; Suárez-Llorca, C; Andreu-Cabrera, E

2014-08-01

50

EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION ON STRENGTH AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN VOLLEYBALL AND BEACH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS  

PubMed Central

The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (p<0.001), a WBV use effect (p<0.001) and a discipline effect (p<0.001). Significantly greater improvements in the SJ (p<0.001) and CMJ (p<0.001) and in 1RM (p<0.001) were found in the WBV training groups than in traditional training groups. Significant 3-way interaction effects (training, WBV use, discipline kind) were also found for SJ, CMJ and 1RM (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001, respectively). It can be concluded that implementation of 6-week WBV training in routine practice in volleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

Zmijewski, P.; Jimenez-Olmedo, J.M.; Jové-Tossi, M.A.; Martínez-Carbonell, A.; Suárez-Llorca, C.; Andreu-Cabrera, E.

2014-01-01

51

Determination of optimal whole body vibration amplitude and frequency parameters with plyometric exercise and its influence on closed-chain lower extremity acute power output and EMG activity in resistance trained males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal combination of Whole body vibration (WBV) amplitude and frequency has not been established. Purpose. To determine optimal combination of WBV amplitude and frequency that will enhance acute mean and peak power (MP and PP) output EMG activity in the lower extremity muscles. Methods. Resistance trained males (n = 13) completed the following testing sessions: On day 1, power spectrum testing of bilateral leg press (BLP) movement was performed on the OMNI. Days 2 and 3 consisted of WBV testing with either average (5.8 mm) or high (9.8 mm) amplitude combined with either 0 (sham control), 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz frequency. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), bicep femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles for EMG analysis. MP and PP output and EMG activity of the lower extremity were assessed pre-, post-WBV treatments and after sham-controls on the OMNI while participants performed one set of five repetitions of BLP at the optimal resistance determined on Day 1. Results. No significant differences were found between pre- and sham-control on MP and PP output and on EMG activity in RF, VL, BF and GA. Completely randomized one-way ANOVA with repeated measures demonstrated no significant interaction of WBV amplitude and frequency on MP and PP output and peak and mean EMGrms amplitude and EMG rms area under the curve. RF and VL EMGrms area under the curve significantly decreased (p < 0.05) with high WBV amplitude, whereas low amplitude significantly decreased GA mean and peak EMGrms amplitude and EMGrms area under the curve. VL mean EMGrms amplitude and BF mean and peak EMGrms amplitudes were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) with high WBV amplitude when compared to sham-control. WBV frequency significantly decreased (p < 0.05) VL mean and peak EMGrms amplitude. WBV frequency at 30 and 40 Hz significantly decreased (p < 0.05) GA mean EMGrms amplitude and 20 and 30 Hz significantly decreased GA peak EMGrms amplitude. MP and PP output was not significantly effected by either treatment. Conclusions. It is concluded that WBV combined with plyometric exercise does not induce alterations in subsequent MP and PP output and EMGrms activity of the lower extremity. Future studies need to address the time of WBV exposure and magnitude of external loads that will maximize strength and/or power output.

Hughes, Nikki J.

52

Influences of denucleation on contact force of facet joints under whole body vibration.  

PubMed

To investigate the influence of the injured disc, frequency, load and damping on the facet contact forces of the low lumbar spine on the condition of whole body vibration, a detailed 3-D nonlinear finite element model was created based on the actual geometrical data of embalmed vertebrae of lumbar spine. The denucleation and facetectomy, together with removal of the capsular ligaments was employed to mimic the injury conditions of lumbar spine after surgery. The compression cyclic force was assumed to mimic the dynamic loads of transport vehicles. The results show that the high frequency vibration might increase both of the value and the vibration amplitude of facet contact forces of the lumbar spine under whole body vibration. The nucleus removal may increase significantly the facet contact forces. Although damping can decrease the vibration amplitude of facet contact forces for intact models, it has less effect on the vibration amplitude of facet contact force for the denucleated models. The denucleation of intervertebral discs is more harmful to the facet articulation on the condition of whole body vibration. PMID:17510817

Guo, L-X; Zhang, M; Teo, E-C

2007-07-01

53

Whole-body vibration exposure in subway cars and review of adverse health effects.  

PubMed

New York City Transit Authority subway operators have a high prevalence of back problems. To evaluate a possible dose-response relationship for whole-body vibration, we studied subway car vibrations measured and analyzed according to the International Standard Organization 2631 and Verein Deutscher Ingenieure 2057 standards. Vibration transducers in triaxial orientation were mounted in a disc pad directly on the subway operator's seat. The relatively high lateral and vertical accelerations, primarily the combined effects, may all contribute to the high rate of musculoskeletal complaints, especially of the lower back. Other factors aggravating whole-body vibrations include primitive ergonomic cab and seat design, forced body posture, high noise levels, and organizational work stress. PMID:1831231

Johanning, E; Wilder, D G; Landrigan, P J; Pope, M H

1991-05-01

54

Whole-Body Vibration and the Prevention and Treatment of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Numerous recovery strategies have been used in an attempt to minimize the symptoms of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been suggested as a viable warm-up for athletes. However, scientific evidence to support the protective effects of WBV training (WBVT) on muscle damage is lacking. Objective: To investigate the acute effect of WBVT applied before eccentric exercise in the prevention of DOMS. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 32 healthy, untrained volunteers were randomly assigned to either the WBVT (n ?=? 15) or control (n ?=? 17) group. Intervention(s): Volunteers performed 6 sets of 10 maximal isokinetic (60°/s) eccentric contractions of the dominant-limb knee extensors on a dynamometer. In the WBVT group, the training was applied using a vibratory platform (35 Hz, 5 mm peak to peak) with 100° of knee flexion for 60 seconds before eccentric exercise. No vibration was applied in the control group. Main Outcome Measure(s): Muscle soreness, thigh circumference, and pressure pain threshold were recorded at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 days postexercise. Maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic knee extensor strength were assessed at baseline, immediately after exercise, and at 1, 2, 7, and 14 days postexercise. Serum creatine kinase was measured at baseline and at 1, 2, and 7 days postexercise. Results: The WBVT group showed a reduction in DOMS symptoms in the form of less maximal isometric and isokinetic voluntary strength loss, lower creatine kinase levels, and less pressure pain threshold and muscle soreness (P < .05) compared with the control group. However, no effect on thigh circumference was evident (P < .05). Conclusions: Administered before eccentric exercise, WBVT may reduce DOMS via muscle function improvement. Further investigation should be undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of WBVT in attenuating DOMS in athletes. PMID:21214349

Aminian-Far, Atefeh; Hadian, Mohammad-Reza; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Talebian, Saeed; Bakhtiary, Amir Hoshang

2011-01-01

55

Whole body vibration and post-activation potentiation: a study with repeated measures.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the acute effect of different intensities of whole body vibration (WBV) on muscle performance. 8 recreationally trained males were randomly subjected to one of 3 experimental conditions: (A) WBV 2?mm [45?Hz and 2?mm], (B) WBV 4?mm [45?Hz and 4?mm], and (C) no WBV. To assess PAP, the peak concentric torque of knee flexors and extensors was measured during a set of 3 unilateral knee flexor-extensions at 60°/s(-1) in an isokinetic dynamometer. The power output and height during vertical jumps were also evaluated. These measurements were performed both before and after the experimental conditions and then compared. Comparing the knee flexion data from the conditions with and without WBV indicate that WBV potentiated the peak torque during unilateral knee flexion in the isokinetic test (p < 0.05). In addition, the power output (p = 0.01) and vertical height of jump (p = 0.03) were also potentiated by WBV. However, increasing the vibratory stimulus did not further potentiate the results. Thus, it is suggested that WBV be used before explosive events competition because WBV promotes post-activation potentiation. PMID:24408766

Avelar, N C; Salvador, F S; Ribeiro, V G C; Vianna, D M S; Costa, S J; Gripp, F; Coimbra, C C; Lacerda, A C R

2014-07-01

56

The rate of muscle temperature increase during acute whole-body vibration exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the rate of muscle temperature (T\\u000a m) increase during acute whole-body vibration (WBV), to that of stationary cycling and passive warm-up. Additionally we wanted\\u000a to determine if the purported increase in counter-movement jump and peak power cycling from acute WBV could be explained by\\u000a changes in muscle temperature. Eight active participants volunteered for the study, which involved

D. J. Cochrane; S. R. Stannard; A. J. Sargeant; J. Rittweger

2008-01-01

57

Whole-body vibration improves walking function in individuals with spinal cord injury: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Injury to the central nervous system often results in impairments that negatively affect walking function. Prior evidence suggests that vibration may improve walking function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated use of whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with improvements in walking function in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Subjects were 17 individuals with chronic (? 1 year), motor-incomplete SCI. Subjects were tested before and after participation in a 12-session (3 days/week- for 4 weeks) intervention of WBV. We assessed change in walking function via 3D motion capture, with walking speed as the primary outcome measure. We also assessed the influence of the WBV intervention on secondary gait characteristics, including cadence, step length, and hip angle-to-knee angle intralimb coordination. Walking speed increased by a mean of 0.062 ± 0.011 m/s, a change that was statistically significant (p<0.001). The WBV intervention was also associated with statistically significant increases in cadence, and both the stronger and weaker legs exhibited increased step length and improved consistency of intralimb coordination. Changes in cadence and step length of the stronger leg were strongly correlated with improvements in walking speed. The improvement in walking speed observed with the WBV intervention was comparable to that reported in the literature in association with locomotor training. This magnitude of change has been identified as being clinically meaningful, even in non-clinical populations. These findings suggest WBV may be useful to improve walking function with effects that may persist for some time following the intervention. PMID:19648013

Ness, Lanitia L.; Field-Fote, Edelle C.

2009-01-01

58

Low back and neck pain in locomotive engineers exposed to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and excess risk of low back pain and neck pain in locomotive engineers, and to investigate the relationship of both with whole-body vibration exposure. A cross-sectional survey comparing locomotive engineers with other rail worker referents was conducted. Current vibration levels were measured, cumulative exposures calculated for engineers and referents, and low back and neck pain assessed by a self-completed questionnaire. Median vibration exposure in the z- (vertical) axis was 0.62 m/s(2). Engineers experienced more frequent low back and neck pain, odds ratios (ORs) of 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-2.64) and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.22-3.02), respectively. The authors conclude that vibration close to the "action levels" of published standards contribute to low back and neck pain. Vibration levels need to be assessed conservatively and control measures introduced. PMID:24499248

McBride, David; Paulin, Sara; Herbison, G Peter; Waite, David; Bagheri, Nasser

2014-01-01

59

Display strobing: An effective countermeasure against visual blur from whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crews and equipment in aerospace vehicles, including spacecraft at launch, can be exposed to significant vibration. Prior to this study, we examined the ability of vibrating observers to read alphanumeric symbology on stationary (i.e., non-vibrating) flight-relevant display formats and noted performance degradation with increasing vibration amplitude and decreasing font size. Here we test the efficacy of a display strobing countermeasure for the reading decrements caused by the same 12-Hz whole-body vibration in the surge (chest-to-spine) direction applied in our prior studies. To produce the strobe countermeasure, we triggered the backlight of a stationary liquid crystal diode (LCD) display panel to flash in synchrony with the 12-Hz vibration of the observer's seat while experimentally varying both the strobe duty cycle and phase angle between the strobe onset and the vibration cycle zero-crossings. Strobing proved an effective countermeasure, restoring reading error rates during 0.7g (6.9 m/s2 half-amplitude) whole-body vibration to levels indistinguishable from those achieved under the non-strobed (equivalent luminance) non-vibrating baseline condition and improving response times although not fully to the baseline. While we noted differences in the "preferred" phase angle of individual observers, on average, no overall effect of phase angle was detected. Likewise, no effect was seen for the two duty cycles and their respective equivalent luminance levels. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of strobing for multi-axis and multi-frequency vibration, and for displays with moving images.

Adelstein, Bernard D.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Beutter, Brent R.; McCann, Robert S.; Anderson, Mark R.

2013-11-01

60

Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different positions were adopted (bending, leaning and twisting) and postural analyses were conducted using the OWAS and RULA techniques. Forklift vibrations at the seat (exposure) were measured in the three orthogonal axes ( x-fore and aft, y-lateral and z-vertical) under actual working conditions according to the recommendations of ISO 2631-1. The results showed that LBP was more prevalent amongst forklift drivers than among non-drivers and driving postures in which the trunk is considerably twisted or bent forward associated with greatest risk. Furthermore, forklift drivers showed to be exposed to acceptable levels of vibration in the x- and y-directions (i.e., below the EU Physical Agents Directive on Vibration Exposure recommended action level—0.5 m/s 2), but not in the z-direction. There were indications that whole-body vibration acts associatively with other factors (not independently) to precipitate LBP.

Hoy, J.; Mubarak, N.; Nelson, S.; Sweerts de Landas, M.; Magnusson, M.; Okunribido, O.; Pope, M.

2005-06-01

61

Measurement of whole-body vibration exposure from speed control humps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of speed control humps is to introduce shocks and high vibration levels when a car passes over them if its speed is higher than the allowable limit. Hump geometry is a major factor in altering the level of these shocks and specifying the speed limit. However, there is no study of the relationship between whole body vibration due to passing over a speed control hump and lower back pain or occupational diseases. In this study, an experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate health risks associated with different geometry speed control humps. Vibration levels and shocks are measured by a seat pad accelerometer placed under the driver's seat to evaluate hazard risks on the human body's lower back. The assessment is based on two standard methods of measuring whole body vibration: the British standard BS 6841 and the new ISO/DIS standard 2631-5. These methods are used to assess the effects of vehicle type, passenger location in the vehicle, vehicle speed, and speed control hump geometry. It was found that circular speed control humps currently installed on many public roads should be modified in order to eliminate hazards. Two newly designed speed humps were proved to be less hazardous than circular speed control humps.

Khorshid, E.; Alkalby, F.; Kamal, H.

2007-07-01

62

Can an iPod Touch Be Used to Assess Whole-Body Vibration Associated with Mining Equipment?  

PubMed

The cost and complexity of commercially available whole-body vibration measurement devices is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by collecting 58 simultaneous pairs of acceleration measurements in three dimensions from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and gold standard whole-body vibration measurement devices, while a range of heavy mining equipment was operated at three surface coal mines. The results suggest that accelerometer data gathered from a consumer electronic device are able to be used to measure whole-body vibration amplitude with 95% confidence of ±0.06 m s(-2) root mean square for the vertical direction (1.96 × standard deviation of the constant error). PMID:25106947

Wolfgang, Rebecca; Di Corleto, Luke; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

2014-11-01

63

Three-dimensional modeling of supine human and transport system under whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The development of predictive computer human models in whole-body vibration has shown some success in predicting simple types of motion, mostly for seated positions and in the uniaxial vertical direction. The literature revealed only a handful of papers that tackled supine human modeling in response to vertical vibration. The objective of this work is to develop a predictive, multibody, three-dimensional human model to simulate the supine human and underlying transport system in response to multidirectional whole-body vibration. A three-dimensional dynamic model of a supine human and its underlying transport system is presented in this work to predict supine-human biodynamic response under three-dimensional input random whole-body vibration. The proposed supine-human model consists of three interconnected segments representing the head, torso-arms, and pelvis-legs. The segments are connected via rotational and translational joints that have spring-damper components simulating the three-dimensional muscles and tissuelike connecting elements in the three x, y, and z directions. Two types of transport systems are considered in this work, a rigid support and a long spinal board attached to a standard military litter. The contact surfaces between the supine human and the underlying transport system are modeled using spring-damper components. Eight healthy supine human subjects were tested under combined-axis vibration files with a magnitude of 0.5?m/s2 (rms) and a frequency content of 0.5-16?Hz. The data from seven subjects were used in parameter identification for the dynamic model using optimization schemes in the frequency domain that minimize the differences between the magnitude and phase of the predicted and experimental transmissibility. The predicted accelerations in the time and frequency domains were comparable to those gathered from experiments under different anthropometric, input vibration, and transport conditions under investigation. Based on the results, the proposed dynamic model has the potential to be used to provide motion data to drive a detailed finite element model of a supine human for further investigation of muscle forces and joint dynamics. The predicted kinematics of the supine human and transport system would also benefit patient safety planners and vibration suppression designers in their endeavors. PMID:23699722

Wang, Yang; Rahmatalla, Salam

2013-06-01

64

Influence of frequency and magnitude on the perception of vertical whole-body vibration Michael A. Bellmann1  

E-print Network

.2 Apparatus and stimuli Vertical sinusoidal whole-body vibrations were produced by using a vibration test plant, called "vibration-floor", which was developed at the University of Oldenburg in cooperation of the stimuli was 2 s (closed symbols) for fS 12.5 Hz and 1 s (open symbols) for higher frequencies. A signal

Vormann, Matthias

65

Benefits of whole-body vibration to people with COPD: a community-based efficacy trial  

PubMed Central

Background Benefits of community-based whole-body vibration (WBV) as a mode of exercise training for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been investigated. The low skill demand of WBV may enhance habitual sustainability to physical activity by people with COPD, provided efficacy of WBV can be established. The purpose of this trial was to compare a community-based WBV intervention with a sham WBV (SWBV) intervention and monitor exacerbations, exercise tolerance, and functional performance of the lower limbs of people with COPD. Methods Community-dwelling adults with a GOLD clinical diagnosis of COPD were recruited to the trial. This was a Phase II efficacy trial with crossover to sham intervention interspersed with two-week washout. Each six-week intervention consisted of two sessions per week of either WBV or SWBV. The interventions were completed in the home of each participant under supervision. The outcome measures were selected psychological (perceived dyspnoea) and physiological (heart rate and oxygen saturation) responses to exercise, simulated activities of daily living (timed-up-and got test and 5-chair stands test), and selected kinematic variables of gait across the 14-week trial. Results Sixteen adults with stable COPD were recruited to the trial. No exacerbations were reported during the WBV or SWBV interventions. After WBV, performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) and gait improved (p???0.05), while there was no change after SWBV (p?>?0.05). Despite five withdrawals during the washout period, a 100% compliance to each six-week intervention was noted. Conclusions Results showed that WBV did not exacerbate symptoms of COPD that can be associated with physical inactivity. The WBV intervention improved tests to simulate ADLs such as rising from a chair, turning, and walking gait with greater effect than a SWBV intervention. If a placebo effect was systemic to the WBV intervention, the effect was negligible. As a standalone community-based intervention, WBV was an efficacious mode of exercise training for people with stable COPD that did not negatively effect exercise tolerance or exacerbate the disease, while concurrently improving functional performance of the lower limbs. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000508875. PMID:24606997

2014-01-01

66

Lumbar back muscle activity of helicopter pilots and whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

Several studies have attributed the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in helicopter pilots mainly to poor posture in-flight and whole-body vibration, with the latter hypothesis particularly related to a cyclic response of the erector spine (ES) muscle to vibration. This work aims to determine if helicopter vibration and the pilot's normal posture during flight have significant effects on the electromyogram (EMG) of the ES muscle. The bilateral surface EMG of the ES muscle at the L3 level was collected in 10 young pilots before and during a short flight in UH-50 helicopters. The vibration was monitored by a triaxial accelerometer fixed to the pilots' seat. Prior to the flight, the EMG was recorded for relaxed seated and standing postures with 0 degrees (P0) and 35 degrees (P35) of trunk flexion. The effect of the posture during the flight was tested by comparing left and right EMG (normalized with respect to P35). The in-flight muscle stress was evaluated by histograms of EMG activity, and compared to P0 values. Only one pilot in ten showed significant (p<0.05) correlation between the vibration and the EMG over cycles of vibration, and no consistent causal effect was found. The pilots' posture did not show significant asymmetric muscular activity, and low EMG levels were observed during most of the duration of the flight. The results do not provide evidence that LBP in helicopter pilots is caused by ES muscle stress in the conditions studied. PMID:11522310

de Oliveira, C G; Simpson, D M; Nadal, J

2001-10-01

67

The influence of classical dance training on preferred supporting leg and whole body turning bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rightward turning bias has been more frequently noted during adult classical dance practice than during spontaneous rotations. Training could play a role in inducing a preferred direction. We observed the preferred direction for executing four spontaneous whole-body full turns (pirouettes), with eyes open or closed, in pre-pubertal untrained girls and classical dance students. Of untrained girls, 58% showed a

E. Golomer; F. Rosey; H. Dizac; C. Mertz; J. Fagard

2009-01-01

68

Modeling of Spinal Column of Seated Human Body under Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spinal column such as low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column. Thus the modeling of seated human body is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of whole-body vibration to the spinal column. This model has the spinal column and the support structures such as the muscles of the back and the abdomen. The spinal column is made by the vertebrae and the intervertebral disks that are considered the rigid body and the rotational spring and damper respectively. The parameter of this model is decided by the literature and the body type of the subject with respect to the mass and the model structure. And stiffness and damping parameters are searched by fitting the model simulation results to the experimental measured data with respect to the vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and the head and with respect to the driving-point apparent mass. In addition, the natural modes of the model compare with the result of experimental modal analysis. The influence of the abdomen and the muscles of the back are investigated by comparing three models with respect to above vibration characteristics. Three model are the proposed model, the model that has the spinal column and the model that has the muscles of the back in addition to the spinal column.

Tamaoki, Gen; Yoshimura, Takuya; Kuriyama, Kaoru; Nakai, Kazuma

69

Survey of Technical Preventative Measures to Reduce Whole-Body Vibration Effects when Designing Mobile Machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering solutions to minimize the effects on operators of vibrating mobile machinery can be conveniently grouped into three areas: Reduction of vibration at source by improvement of the quality of terrain, careful selection of vehicle or machine, correct loading, proper maintenance, etc.Reduction of vibration transmission by incorporating suspension systems (tyres, vehicle suspensions, suspension cab and seat) between the operator and the source of vibration.Improvement of cab ergonomics and seat profiles to optimize operator posture. These paper reviews the different techniques and problems linked to categories (2) and (3). According to epidemiological studies, the main health risk with whole-body vibration exposure would appear to be lower back pain. When designing new mobile machinery, all factors which may contribute to back injury should be considered in order to reduce risk. For example, optimized seat suspension is useless if the suspension seat cannot be correctly and easily adjusted to the driver's weight or if the driver is forced to drive in a bent position to avoid his head striking the ceiling due to the spatial requirement of the suspension seat.

DONATI, P.

2002-05-01

70

Random Whole Body Vibration over 5 Weeks Leads to Effects Similar to Placebo: A Controlled Study in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background. Random whole body vibration (WBV) training leads to beneficial short-term effects in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the effect of WBV lasting several weeks is not clear. Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess a random WBV training over 5 weeks in PD. Methods. Twenty-one participants with PD were allocated to either an experimental or a placebo group matched by age, gender, and Hoehn&Yahr stage. The WBV training consisted of 5 series, 60?s each. In the placebo group, vibration was simulated. The primary outcome was the change of performance in Functional reach test (FRT), step-walk-turn task, biomechanical Gait Analysis, Timed up and go test (TUG), and one leg stance. Findings. In most of the parameters, there was no significant interaction of “time?group.” Both groups improved significantly in Gait parameters, TUG, and one leg stance. Only in the FRT [F(1,15) = 8.397; P < 0.05] and in the TUG [F(1,15) = 4.971; P < 0.05] the experimental group performed significantly better than the placebo group. Conclusions. Random WBV training over 5 weeks seems to be less effective than reported in previous studies performing short-term training. The slight improvements in the FRT and TUG are not clinically relevant. PMID:25371843

Gassner, Heiko; Janzen, Annette; Schwirtz, Ansgar; Jansen, Petra

2014-01-01

71

The effect of whole-body cryostimulation on lysosomal enzyme activity in kayakers during training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of whole-body cryostimulation on lysosomal enzyme activity: acid phosphatase (AcP), arylsulphatase (ASA) and cathepsin\\u000a D (CTS D), as well as on the creatine kinase (CK), and the cortisol concentration in the serum of kayakers during training\\u000a were studied. Additionally, the effect of a single cryostimulation treatment in untrained men was evaluated. The kayakers\\u000a were subjected to a ten-day training

Alina Wozniak; Bartosz Wozniak; Gerard Drewa; Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska; Andrzej Rakowski

2007-01-01

72

The effects of whole-body vibration on human biodynamic response.  

PubMed

The objective of vibration research at the Armstrong Laboratory includes the expansion and improvement of the measurement, quantification, analysis, and modeling of human vibration response. The driving-point impedance and transmissibility techniques have been expanded and are rigorously applied in the research efforts. Driving-point impedance is defined as the ratio between the transmitted force and input velocity at the point of load application. Transmissibility is typically defined as the ratio between the acceleration level measured at some location on the body and the input acceleration at the seat. These two ratios are used to assess the magnitude and frequency location of resonance behaviors where maximum motions occur in the body. From these data, analytical models are developed which can simulate the motions and coupling behaviors, and predict the stiffness and damping characteristics of the affected anatomical structures. The ultimate goal of the research is to provide new and improved data and modeling capability for revising exposure standards and for developing equipment design guidelines and criteria for improving tolerance and reducing physiological consequences. This paper describes the results of recent studies conducted to identify the biodynamic behavior of major anatomical structures affected by seated whole-body vibration, to develop an analytical model for simulating human vibration response, and to apply the model to evaluate the effects of seat cushion materials on the transmission/attenuation pathways. PMID:11538949

Smith, S D

1995-01-01

73

Analysis of non-linear response of the human body to vertical whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The human response to vibration is typically studied using linear estimators of the frequency response function, although different literature works evidenced the presence of non-linear effects in whole-body vibration response. This paper analyses the apparent mass of standing subjects using the conditioned response techniques in order to understand the causes of the non-linear behaviour. The conditioned apparent masses were derived considering models of increasing complexity. The multiple coherence function was used as a figure of merit for the comparison between the linear and the non-linear models. The apparent mass of eight male subjects was studied in six configurations (combinations of three vibration magnitudes and two postures). The contribution of the non-linear terms was negligible and was endorsed to the change of modal parameters during the test. Since the effect of the inter-subject variability was larger than that due to the increase in vibration magnitude, the biodynamic response should be more meaningfully modelled using a linear estimator with uncertainty rather than looking for a non-linear modelling. PMID:25105223

Tarabini, Marco; Solbiati, Stefano; Moschioni, Giovanni; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

2014-11-01

74

The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

2013-01-01

75

Short-term whole body vibration exercise in adult healthy horses.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the acute effect of whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) on clinical parameters and blood values in horses. Seven horses were exposed to a 10 min WBVE at a frequency of 15-21 Hz. Clinical parameters and venous blood samples were taken before and directly after WBVE. Acute short-term WBVE produced a decrease in serum cortisol (p = 0.02) and creatine-kinase (p = 0.02) values. Clinical parameters, hematology, fibrinogen, lactate, IGF-I, GGT, creatinine, myeloperoxidase activity and bone marker values were not significantly changed by WBVE. In adult sound horses WBVE was well tolerated and did not cause any sign of measured discomfort. PMID:23971214

Carstanjen, B; Balali, M; Gajewski, Z; Furmanczyk, K; Bondzio, A; Remy, B; Hartmann, H

2013-01-01

76

Whole-body vibration and ergonomic study of US railroad locomotives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US locomotive operators have exposure to multi-axis whole-body vibration (WBV) and shocks while seated. This study assessed operator-related and ergonomic seating design factors that may have confounding or mitigating influence on WBV exposure and its effects. Vibration exposure was measured according to international guidelines (ISO 2631-1; 1997); ergonomic work place factors and vibration effects were studied with a cross-sectional survey instrument distributed to a randomly selected group of railroad engineers ( n=2546) and a control group; and during vehicle inspections. The survey response rate was 47% for the RR engineers ( n=1195) and 41% for the controls ( n=323). Results of the mean basic vibration measurements were for the x, y, z-direction and vector sum 0.14, 0.22, 0.28 and 0.49 m/s 2 respectively; almost all crest factors (CF), MTVV and VDV values were above the critical ratios given in ISO 2631-1. The prevalence of serious neck and lower back disorders among locomotive engineers was found to be nearly double that of the sedentary control group without such exposure. Railroad engineers rated their seats mostly unacceptable regarding different adjustment and comfort aspects (3.02-3.51; scale 1=excellent to 4=unacceptable), while the control group rated their chairs more favorably (1.96-3.44). Existing cab and seat design in locomotives can result in prolonged forced awkward spinal posture of the operator combined with WBV exposure. In a logistic regression analysis, time at work being bothered by vibration (h/day) was significantly associated with an increased risk of low back pain, shoulder and neck pain, and sciatic pain among railroad engineers. Customized vibration attenuation seats and improved cab design of the locomotive controls should be further investigated.

Johanning, Eckardt; Landsbergis, Paul; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Luhrman, Raymond

2006-12-01

77

Effect of Seating on Exposures to Whole-Body Vibration in Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibration isolation efficiency of seating has been evaluated in 100 work vehicles in 14 categories (cars, vans, lift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, dumpers, excavators, helicopters, armoured vehicles, mobile cranes, grass rollers, mowers and milk floats). Seat isolation efficiency, expressed by the SEAT value, was determined for all seats (67 conventional seats and 33 suspension seats) from the vertical acceleration measured on the floors and on the seats of the vehicles.For most categories of vehicle, the average SEAT value was less than 100%, indicating that the average seat provided some attenuation of vibration. However, there were large variations in SEAT values between vehicles within categories. Two alternative vibration frequency weightings (Wb from BS 6841, 1987; Wk from ISO 2631, 1997) yielded SEAT values that differed by less than 6%. Overall, the SEAT values determined by two alternative methods (the ratio of r.m.s. values and the ratio of vibration dose values) differed by less than 4·5% when using weighting Wb, although larger differences may be expected in some situations. The median SEAT value for the suspension seats was 84·6%; the median SEAT value for the conventional seats was 86·9% (based on weighting Wb and the ratio of r.m.s. values).Predicted SEAT values were obtained assuming that each seat could be interchanged between vehicles without altering its transmissibility. The calculations suggest that 94% of the vehicles investigated might benefit from changing the current seat to a seat from one of the other vehicles investigated. Although the predictions are based on assumptions that will not always apply, it is concluded that the severity of whole-body vibration exposures in many work environments can be lessened by improvements to seating dynamics.

PADDAN, G. S.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

2002-05-01

78

Experimental evidence of the tonic vibration reflex during whole-body vibration of the loaded and unloaded leg.  

PubMed

Increased muscle activation during whole-body vibration (WBV) is mainly ascribed to a complex spinal and supraspinal neurophysiological mechanism termed the tonic vibration reflex (TVR). However, TVR has not been experimentally demonstrated during low-frequency WBV, therefore this investigation aimed to determine the expression of TVR during WBV. Whilst seated, eight healthy males were exposed to either vertical WBV applied to the leg via the plantar-surface of the foot, or Achilles tendon vibration (ATV) at 25 Hz and 50 Hz for 70s. Ankle plantar-flexion force, tri-axial accelerations at the shank and vibration source, and surface EMG activity of m. soleus (SOL) and m. tibialis anterior (TA) were recorded from the unloaded and passively loaded leg to simulate body mass supported during standing. Plantar flexion force was similarly augmented by WBV and ATV and increased over time in a load- and frequency dependent fashion. SOL and TA EMG amplitudes increased over time in all conditions independently of vibration mode. 50 Hz WBV and ATV resulted in greater muscle activation than 25 Hz in SOL when the shank was loaded and in TA when the shank was unloaded despite the greater transmission of vertical acceleration from source to shank with 25 Hz and WBV, especially during loading. Low-amplitude WBV of the unloaded and passively loaded leg produced slow tonic muscle contraction and plantar-flexion force increase of similar magnitudes to those induced by Achilles tendon vibration at the same frequencies. This study provides the first experimental evidence supporting the TVR as a plausible mechanism underlying the neuromuscular response to whole-body vibration. PMID:24386466

Zaidell, Lisa N; Mileva, Katya N; Sumners, David P; Bowtell, Joanna L

2013-01-01

79

Whole-body vibration effects on the muscle activity of upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing in recreational baseball hitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the muscle recruitment of selected upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing. Participants were recreationally trained males (n = 16, 22 ± 2 years, 181.4 ± 7.4 cm, 84.7 ± 9.0 kg), with previous baseball experience. Subjects participated in three randomized sessions on separate days, consisting of three sets of five swings off

Gabriel F. “Cisco” Reyes; D. Clark Dickin; Nolan J. K. Crusat; Dennis G. Dolny

2011-01-01

80

Whole body vibration exercises and the improvement of the flexibility in patient with metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV) exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword "flexibility" and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF) of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS. PMID:25276434

Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Ronikeili-Costa, Pedro; Carvalho-Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bravo-Monteiro, Milena Oliveira; Costa, Rebeca; de Moraes-Silva, Janaina; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Mantilla-Giehl, Paula; Arnobio, Adriano; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

2014-01-01

81

Human head-neck models in whole-body vibration: effect of posture.  

PubMed

This work presents passive and muscle-based models to predict the biodynamical response of the human head-neck under fore-aft and combined-axis whole-body vibration considering four head-neck postures: neutral, flexion, lateral flexion, and lateral rotation. The passive model consists of one link, a three-rotational-degrees-of-freedom joint, and traditional spring-mass-damper elements. The muscle-based model is similar to the passive model but has additional muscle components. The additional muscle component comprises spring-mass-damper elements to capture the effects of changes in displacement, velocity, acceleration, and jerk. Eleven male participants were tested under white-noise random vibration input signals at the seat level with a frequency range of 0.5-10Hz and magnitudes of 1.5m/s(2) RMS for the fore-aft condition and 1.0m/s(2) RMS in each direction for the combined-axis condition. The proposed models were able to reasonably predict the frequency content and acceleration of the head-neck for the postures under investigation, with the muscle-based model performing better. PMID:23290314

Wang, Yang; Rahmatalla, Salam

2013-02-22

82

Whole Body Vibration Exercises and the Improvement of the Flexibility in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV) exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF) of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS.

Sa-Caputo, Danubia da Cunha; Ronikeili-Costa, Pedro; Carvalho-Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bravo-Monteiro, Milena Oliveira; Costa, Rebeca; de Moraes-Silva, Janaina; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Mantilla-Giehl, Paula; Arnobio, Adriano; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

2014-01-01

83

The effect of whole-body cryostimulation on the prooxidant–antioxidant balance in blood of elite kayakers after training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of whole-body cryostimulation prior to kayak training on the prooxidant-antioxidant balance was evaluated and compared\\u000a to the effect of a single cryostimulation treatment in untrained men. The kayakers underwent a ten-day training cycle with\\u000a pre-training daily whole-body cryostimulation for three min (temperature: –120 to –140?C) and training without cryostimulation\\u000a as a control. Blood samples were obtained before and

Alina Wozniak; Bartosz Wozniak; Gerard Drewa; Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska

2007-01-01

84

Loads on a spinal implant measured in vivo during whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

After spinal surgery, patients often want to know whether driving a car or using public transportation can be dangerous for their spine. In order to answer this question, a clinically proven vertebral body replacement (VBR) has been modified. Six load sensors and a telemetry unit were integrated into the inductively powered implant. The modified implant allows the measurement of six load components. Telemeterized devices were implanted in five patients; four of them agreed to exposure themselves to whole-body vibration. During the measurements, the patients sat on a driver seat fixed to a hexapod. They were exposed to random single-axis vibrations in X, Y, and Z directions as well as in multi-axis XYZ directions with frequencies between 0.3 and 30 Hz. Three intensity levels (unweighted root mean square values of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s(2)) were applied. Three postures were studied: sitting freely, using a vertical backrest, and a backrest declined by an angle of 25 degrees . The patients held their hands on their thighs. As expected, the maximum force on the VBR increased with increasing intensity and the number of axes. For the highest intensity level and multi-axis vibration, the maximum forces increased by 89% compared to sitting relaxed. Leaning at the backrest as well as lower intensity levels markedly decreased the implant loads. Driving a car or using public transportation systems-when the patient leans towards the backrest-leads to lower implant loads than walking, and can therefore be allowed already shortly after surgery. PMID:20186440

Rohlmann, Antonius; Hinz, Barbara; Blüthner, Ralph; Graichen, Friedmar; Bergmann, Georg

2010-07-01

85

Assessment of the influence of whole body vibration on Cochlear function  

PubMed Central

Background Whole body vibration (WBV) is a potentially harmful consequence resulting from the dissipation of energy by industrial machineries. The result of WBV exposure on the auditory system remains unknown. The objective of the present research was to evaluate the influence of WBV on cochlear function, in particular outer hair cell function. It is hypothesized that WBV impairs cochlear function resulting in decreased Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAE) levels (Ldp) in rabbits subjected to WBV. Methods Twelve rabbits were equally divided into vibration and control groups. Animals in vibration group were exposed to 1.0?ms-2 r.m.s vertical WBV at 4–8?Hz for 8?h/day during 5 consecutive days. Outer hair cell function was assessed by comparing repeated-measurements of DPOAE levels (Ldp) across a range of f2 frequencies in rabbits both exposed and unexposed to WBV. DPOAE level shifts (LSdp) were compared across ears, frequencies, groups, and times. Results No differences were seen over time in DPOAE levels in the non-exposed rabbits (p?=?0.082). Post-exposure Ldp in rabbits exposed to WBV were significantly increased at all test frequencies in both ears compared to baseline measures (p?=?0.021). The greatest increase in Ldp following exposure was seen at 5888.5?Hz (mean shift?=?13.25?dB). Post-exposure Ldp in rabbits exposed to WBV were not significantly different between the right and left ears (p?=?0.083). Conclusion WBV impairs cochlear function resulting in increased DPOAE responses in rabbits exposed to WBV. DPOAE level shifts occurred over a wide range of frequencies following prolonged WBV in rabbits. PMID:22720724

2012-01-01

86

Two way assessment of other physical work demands while measuring the whole body vibration magnitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct observation, instead of using self-administered questionnaires might give more reliable and specific information about physical work demands at the workplace. This information is of use in a population already at risk of developing low back pain (LBP) due to whole body vibration (WBV) exposure. The aims of this study are to assess the WBV exposure in an exposed population and to assess other physical work demands in two ways, by direct observation and with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. We therefore assessed the WBV magnitude and 5 WBV-related physical work demands by using the PalmTrac system and a self-administered questionnaire in a group of drivers ( N=10). The main findings are 7 out of 10 drivers are exceeding the EU action value. About 50% of the drivers under-estimated the time 'bending', 60% the time 'walking+standing' and 60% over-estimated the time when 'lifting.' We concluded that 7 drivers from this group are at risk of developing LBP and substantial differences exists for the 5 physical work demands comparing the PalmTrac method with the questionnaire. Direct observational assessment in WBV measurements yields extra information. This is useful for preventive activities necessary as drivers are exceeding the EU action value.

Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

2008-03-01

87

Whole-body vibration influences lower extremity circulatory and neurological function.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is currently used to enhance performance and treat injuries even though we lack an understanding of how WBV influences physiological processes. An improved understanding of the physiological effects of WBV could lead to protocols to speed healing or treat pathologies. This study examined the acute effects of WBV on peripheral blood perfusion, muscle oxygenation, motoneuron pool excitability, and sensory nerve conduction velocity. Fourteen healthy participants [9 women (21.7?±?2.4?years); 5 men (20.8?±?1.1?years)] completed a 5?min bout of WBV (50?Hz, 2?mm amplitude). Measures were assessed pre-treatment and at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20?min post-treatment. WBV significantly increased superficial skin temperature (P?

Games, K E; Sefton, J M

2013-08-01

88

Effects of whole-body vibration with an unstable surface on muscle activation.  

PubMed

The current study examined the effects of using an unstable surface during whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise on leg and trunk muscle activity during a static semi-squat. Twenty-eight recreationally active university students completed 4 different test conditions: 1) stable surface with no WBV; 2) unstable surface with no WBV; 3) unstable surface with 30 Hz WBV low amplitude; and 4) unstable surface with 50 Hz WBV low amplitude. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured for the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus abdominis (RA), and multifidus (MF) muscles. Normalized to the stable condition, WBV at 30 Hz and an unstable surface increased EMG in the GM vs the unstable and stable surfaces (~35%; p<0.05). VMO EMG decreased in the unstable vs stable condition (~20%), WBV at 30 Hz and an unstable surface increased EMG vs all other conditions (~20-40%; p<0.05). MF EMG increased with WBV at 30 Hz (25%; p<0.05) vs the stable condition but not vs all other conditions. Using an unstable surface during WBV exposure increases EMG of muscles in the lower extremities and trunk suggesting the combination of an unstable surface combined with WBV may be an effective modality to further increase EMG. PMID:24879025

Marín, P J; Hazell, T J

2014-06-01

89

Comparing the Effects of Various Whole-Body Vibration Accelerations on Counter-Movement Jump Performance  

PubMed Central

While it seems that whole body vibration (WBV) might be an effective modality to enhance physical performance, the proper prescription of WBV for performance enhancement remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effect of various WBV accelerations on counter movement jump (CMJ) height, the duration of any effect, and differences between men and women. Forty-four participants (33 men, 11 women) participated in no less than four CMJ familiarization sessions and completed all vibration sessions. Participants performed a pre-test (three maximal CMJs), followed randomly by one of five WBV accelerations; 1g (no-WBV control), 2.16g, 2.80g, 4.87g, and 5.83g. Participants performed three maximal CMJs immediately, five, and 10 minutes following each 45 sec WBV session. The mean of the three performances was used and calculated as a percentage of the pre-vibration mean value. A Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA; acceleration x time x gender) model was used to analyze the data. The two-way interactions of acceleration-gender (p = 0.033) and time-gender (p = 0.050) were significant. Women performed significantly better following the 2.80g (p = 0.0064) and 5.83g (p = 0. 0125) WBV sessions compared to the 1g (control) session. Men, however, did not experience performance enhancing effects following any of the vibration sessions. While significant differences did not occur between time in either gender, the effects of the 45 sec WBV session in women were transient, lasting approximately five minutes. During the prescription of WBV, gender should be considered given that the results of this study seem to indicate that men and women respond differently to WBV. The results of this study suggest that WBV might be a useful modality as applied during the pre-competition warm-up. Key points WBV accelerations of 2.80g (40 Hz, 2-4 mm) and 5.83g (50 Hz, 4-6 mm) seem to elicit a performance enhancement effect following short-duration (45 sec) exposure in untrained women. The performance enhancement effect of a short-duration is transient, lasting less than 10 minutes following exposure. Men and women might differ in their response to the WBV stimulus, as measured by countermovement jump. PMID:24150147

Bazett-Jones, David M.; Finch, Holmes W.; Dugan, Eric L.

2008-01-01

90

Effects of whole-body vibration on postural control in elderly: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background This systematic review was performed to summarize the current evidence for whole body vibration (WBV) interventions on postural control in elderly. Methods English and German language papers in Medline, PEDro, Cinahl and the Cochrane databases were searched. Two reviewers extracted data on patients' characteristics, type of WBV intervention and outcomes. Two independent reviewers rated the methodological quality of these studies. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Results Fifteen papers reporting quantitative data were included. Results from 15 papers could be pooled for a meta-analysis. The studies involved 933 participants. In 7 studies the authors investigated the effects of vibration plates generating vertical sinusoidal vibrations (VS-WBV) and 7 papers described the use of side-alternating sinusoidal vibrations (SS-WBV). One study investigated both VS-WBV and SS-WBV. Weak to moderate evidence of an overall effect as a result of VS-WBV and SS-WBV was observed for (a) static balance for post-intervention values with a standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.06, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.18 and for change values SMD -0.26, 95% CI -1.09 to 0.57, and (b) dynamic balance for post-intervention-values SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.08. For functional balance (c) an overall outcome for post-intervention values with SMD of 0.34, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.87 was found. Conclusions The 15 studies reviewed were of moderate methodological quality. In summary, SS-WBV seems to have a beneficial effect on dynamic balance in elderly individuals. However, the current results should be interpreted with caution because of the observed heterogeneity of training parameters and statistical methods. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the effects of WBV on postural control in an elderly population. PMID:22054046

2011-01-01

91

Effects of muscular strength, exercise order, and acute whole-body vibration exposure on bat swing speed.  

PubMed

The purposes for this study were to investigate effects of acute whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure and exercise order on bat speed and to examine relationship between muscular strength and bat speed. All participants were recreationally trained men (n = 16; 22 ± 2 years; 181.4 ± 7.4 cm; 84.7 ± 9 kg), with previous baseball experience and were tested for 1 repetitive maximum (1RM) strength in squat and bench press. Subjects then participated in 4 randomized sessions on separate days, each consisting of 3 sets of 5 bat swings. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements related to bat swing) with or without WBV exposure were performed after sets 1 and 2. Trials were as follows: no-exercise Control (CTRL), upper body followed by lower body exercises without WBV (Arm-Leg NOVIB), upper body followed by lower body exercises with WBV (Arm-Leg VIB), and lower body followed by upper body exercises with WBV (Leg-Arm VIB). Bat speed was recorded during each swing and averaged across sets. Statistical analyses were performed to assess differences across sets and trials. Linear regressions analyzed relationship between strength and bat speed. A significant relationship existed between bat speed and lower body strength (r = 0.406, p = 0.008) but not for upper body strength. The exercise order of Arm-Leg VIB significantly increased bat speed by 2.6% (p = 0.02). Performing identical order of exercises without vibration (Arm-Leg NOVIB) significantly decreased bat speed by 2% (p = 0.039). It was concluded that adding vibration exposure to total-body exercises can provide acute enhancements in bat speed. Additionally, leg strength was shown to influence bat speed suggesting that increasing leg strength may enhance bat speed. PMID:21088545

Reyes, G F Cisco; Dickin, D Clark; Dolny, Dennis G; Crusat, Nolan J K

2010-12-01

92

The impact of self-reported exposure to whole-body-vibrations on the risk of disability pension among men: a 15 year prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Whole-body-vibrations are often associated with adverse health effect but the long term effects are less known. This study investigates the association between occupational exposures to whole-body vibrations, and subsequent transition to disability pension. Methods A total of 4215 male employees were followed up for subsequent disability pension retirement. Exposure to whole-body-vibration was self-reported while new cases of disability pension were retrieved from a national register. Results The hazard ratio (HR) for disability pension retirement among men exposed to whole-body-vibrations was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.40) after adjustment for age, smoking habits, BMI, physical job demands and awkward work postures. In our model, with the available explanatory variables, 5.6% of the male disability pension cases were attributable to whole-body-vibrations. Conclusions Exposure to whole-body-vibrations predicts subsequent disability pension retirement. Continued reduction of whole-body-vibrations may reduce the number of new cases of disability pension. PMID:20525268

2010-01-01

93

a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

1998-08-01

94

The effect of whole body vibration therapy on bone density in patients with thalassemia: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Patients with thalassemia (Thal) have low bone mass which can lead to fracture and decreased quality of life. There are no noninvasive anabolic therapies available to improve bone health in Thal. A longitudinal cross-over pilot trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of low magnitude whole body vibration (WBV) therapy on bone in 18 patients with Thal (9 adults, 10 male, 22.1 ± 10.7 years). Subjects were asked to stand on a vibrating platform (30 Hz, 0.3 g) for 20 min/day for 6 months. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by DXA and volumetric BMD by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Adherence in the first 3 months was greater when compared with the second 3 months (14 ± 6 vs. 10 ± 7 min/day, P=0.007). Intention to treat analysis revealed a significant increase in whole body BMC (2.6%; P = 0.021), BMC/Ht (2.6%, P = 0.02) and aBMD (1.3%; P = 0.036), as well as a net increase in serum markers of bone formation (Osteocalcin/CTx, P = 0.027) in the adult subjects. These preliminary findings suggest that vibration therapy may be an effective nonpharmacologic intervention in Thal. Future research is needed to confirm these findings in a larger sample for longer duration. PMID:22886910

Fung, Ellen B.; Gariepy, Catherine A.; Sawyer, Aenor J.; Higa, Annie; Vichinsky, Elliott P.

2013-01-01

95

Lower body versus whole body resistive exercise training and energy requirements of older men and women.  

PubMed

A person's energy requirement is defined as the metabolizable energy intake (MEI) consumed over a period of body weight stability. Controversy exists regarding whether resistive exercise training (RT) influences the energy requirement of older people. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of RT on the energy requirement of older people. The subjects were 11 men (M) and 17 women (W); age range, 55 to 78 years. During a 14-week precisely controlled diet study, each subject consumed foods and beverages portioned to provide sufficient MEI to match their energy requirement and to keep body weight stable at +/- 0.5 kg of their starting weight. MEI was determined from bomb calorimeter analyses of the gross energy (GE) content of food, urine, and feces samples collected during 4-day intake-balance periods at study weeks 2, 8, and 14 (baseline, week RT6, and week RT12, respectively). MEI = GE(food)-GE(urine) - GE(feces). Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured using an indirect calorimeter. From study weeks 3 to 14, 10 subjects (4 M, 6 W) remained sedentary (SED), 9 subjects (4 M, 5 W) performed lower body RT (LBRT) 3 times/week, and 9 subjects (3 M, 6 W) performed whole body RT (WBRT) 3 times/week. Body weight was not different among the SED, LBRT, and WBRT groups at baseline and were not changed over time or influenced by RT. At baseline, MEI was not different among the 3 groups. From weeks RT1 to RT12, MEI had to be increased by 17% +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM), 14% +/- 7%, and 12% +/- 7% in the SED, LBRT, and WBRT groups, respectively, to maintain stable body weights. At week RT12, the MEI required to maintain stable body weight was not significantly different among the SED, LBRT, and WBRT groups (9.45 +/- 0.95, 9.40 +/- 0.83, and 8.64 +/-0.53 MJ/d, respectively). At week RT12, the MEI and MEI/REE ratio were higher in men versus women, independent of group assignment. These data suggest that RT, whether performed using the lower body only or the whole body, does not increase the energy requirement of older people. Also, these data show that the energy requirement of older men is greater than that of older women. PMID:12145771

Campbell, Wayne W; Kruskall, Laura J; Evans, William J

2002-08-01

96

The discomfort produced by noise and whole-body vertical vibration presented separately and in combination.  

PubMed

This study investigated the prediction of the discomfort caused by simultaneous noise and vibration from the discomfort caused by noise and the discomfort caused by vibration when they are presented separately. A total of 24 subjects used absolute magnitude estimation to report their discomfort caused by seven levels of noise (70-88 dBA SEL), 7 magnitudes of vibration (0.146-2.318 ms(- 1.75)) and all 49 possible combinations of these noise and vibration stimuli. Vibration did not significantly influence judgements of noise discomfort, but noise reduced vibration discomfort by an amount that increased with increasing noise level, consistent with a 'masking effect' of noise on judgements of vibration discomfort. A multiple linear regression model or a root-sums-of-squares model predicted the discomfort caused by combined noise and vibration, but the root-sums-of-squares model is more convenient and provided a more accurate prediction of the discomfort produced by combined noise and vibration. PMID:25103088

Huang, Yu; Griffin, Michael J

2014-11-01

97

Low-magnitude high-frequency loading, by whole-body vibration, accelerates early implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis deteriorates jaw bone quality and may compromise early implant osseointegration and early implant loading. The influence of low?magnitude, high?frequency (LMHF) vibration on peri?implant bone healing and implant integration in osteoporotic bones remains poorly understood. LMHF loading via whole?body vibration (WBV) for 8 weeks has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance bone?to?implant contact, peri?implant bone fraction and implant mechanical properties in osteoporotic rats. In the present study, LMHF loading by WBV was performed in osteoporotic rats, with a loading duration of 4 weeks during the early stages of bone healing. The results indicated that 4?week LMHF loading by WBV partly reversed the negative effects of osteoporosis and accelerated early peri?implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25270245

Liang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Meng-Chun; Xu, Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Hua-Wei; Dong, Wei; Li, Jin-Yuan; Hu, Min

2014-12-01

98

Low-magnitude high-frequency loading, by whole-body vibration, accelerates early implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis deteriorates jaw bone quality and may compromise early implant osseointegration and early implant loading. The influence of low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibration on peri-implant bone healing and implant integration in osteoporotic bones remains poorly understood. LMHF loading via whole-body vibration (WBV) for 8 weeks has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance bone-to-implant contact, peri-implant bone fraction and implant mechanical properties in osteoporotic rats. In the present study, LMHF loading by WBV was performed in osteoporotic rats, with a loading duration of 4 weeks during the early stages of bone healing. The results indicated that 4-week LMHF loading by WBV partly reversed the negative effects of osteoporosis and accelerated early peri-implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25270245

LIANG, YONG-QIANG; QI, MENG-CHUN; XU, JIANG; XU, JUAN; LIU, HUA-WEI; DONG, WEI; LI, JIN-YUAN; HU, MIN

2014-01-01

99

Effect of whole-body vibration on lower-limb EMG activity in subjects with and without spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Objective Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in substantial reductions in lower extremity muscle mass and bone mineral density below the level of the lesion. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been proposed as a means of counteracting or treating musculoskeletal degradation after chronic motor complete SCI. To ascertain how WBV might be used to augment muscle and bone mass, we investigated whether WBV could evoke lower extremity electromyography (EMG) activity in able-bodied individuals and individuals with SCI, and which vibration parameters produced the largest magnitude of effect. Methods Ten male subjects participated in the study, six able-bodied and four with chronic SCI. Two different manufacturers' vibration platforms (WAVE(®) and Juvent™) were evaluated. The effects of vibration amplitude (0.2, 0.6 or 1.2 mm), vibration frequency (25, 35, or 45 Hz), and subject posture (knee angle of 140°, 160°, or 180°) on lower extremity EMG activation were determined (not all combinations of parameters were possible on both platforms). A novel signal processing technique was proposed to estimate the power of the EMG waveform while minimizing interference and artifacts from the plate vibration. Results WBV can elicit EMG activity among subjects with chronic SCI, if appropriate vibration parameters are employed. The amplitude of vibration had the greatest influence on EMG activation, while the frequency of vibration had lesser but statistically significant impact on the measured lower extremity EMG activity. Conclusion These findings suggest that WBV with appropriate parameters may constitute a promising intervention to treat musculoskeletal degradation after chronic SCI. PMID:24986541

Alizadeh-Meghrazi, Milad; Masani, Kei; Zariffa, José; Sayenko, Dimitry G; Popovic, Milos R; Craven, B Catharine

2014-09-01

100

The ISO standard: Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international guideline is discussed in terms of safety and human tolerance. Charts for equal subjective vibration intensity, subjective judgement of equal fatigue, and severe discomfort boundaries are included.

Vongierke, H. E.

1975-01-01

101

Low back pain in drivers: The relative role of whole-body vibration, posture and manual materials handling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the relative role of whole-body vibration (WBV), posture and manual materials handling (MMH) as risk factors for low back pain (LBP). Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history, posture and MMH performed was obtained from 394 workers who drove vehicles as part of their job (according to seven predefined occupational groups) and 59 who did not. The intention was to reflect a wide range of exposures with the lower end of the exposure spectrum defined as that of non-manual workers who do not drive as part of their job. Based on the questionnaire responses and direct measurements of vibration exposure, personal aggregate measures of exposure were computed for each of the respondents, i.e., total vibration dose (TVD), posture score (PS) and manual handling score (MHS). Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for back pain were obtained from logistics regression models and log-linear backward elimination analysis was performed. The findings showed that 'combined exposure' due to posture and one or both of vibration and MMH, rather than the individual exposure to one of the three factors (WBV, posture, MMH) is the main contributor of the increased prevalence of LBP.

Okunribido, O. O.; Magnusson, M.; Pope, M. H.

2006-12-01

102

Single and joint actions of noise and sinusoidal whole body vibration on TTS 2 values and low frequency upright posture sway in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the changes in the TTS2 values and body upright posture sway were examined after exposure of subjects (n =10) to stable broadband (white) noise (90 dB) alone, to sinusoidal vibration alone [directed vertically at the whole body (Z axis)], and to simultaneous exposure combinations of noise and vibrations of the same type. The frequency of the

Olavi Manninen; Ari Ekblom

1984-01-01

103

NEUROMOTOR RESPONSE TO WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRANSMISSIBILITY IN THE HORIZONTAL DIRECTION AND ITS MATHEMATICAL MODEL  

E-print Network

-dynamic shaker was used to create fore-aft vibration. Data from tri-axial accelerometers on the seatpan and attached to the skin at the T10 spinous process, an electrogoniometer across the lumbar spine, electromyography (EMG) on the erector spinae (ES) muscles...

Hanumanthareddygari, Vinay

2010-09-02

104

Whole-body vibration exposure study in U.S. railroad locomotives--an ergonomic risk assessment.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration exposure of locomotive engineers and the vibration attenuation of seats in 22 U.S. locomotives (built between 1959 and 2000) was studied during normal revenue service and following international measurement guidelines. Triaxial vibration measurements (duration mean 155 min, range 84-383 min) on the seat and on the floor were compared. In addition to the basic vibration evaluation (aw rms), the vector sum (av), the maximum transient vibration value (MTVV/aw), the vibration dose value (VDV/(aw T1/4)), and the vibration seat effective transmissibility factor (SEAT) were calculated. The power spectral densities are also reported. The mean basic vibration level (aw rms) was for the fore-aft axis x = 0.18 m/sec2, the lateral axis y = 0.28 m/sec2, and the vertical axis z = 0.32 m/sec2. The mean vector sum was 0.59 m/sec2 (range 0.27 to 1.44). The crest factors were generally at or above 9 in the horizontal and vertical axis. The mean MTVV/aw was 5.3 (x), 5.1 (y), and 4.8 (z), and the VDV/(aw T1/4) values ranged from 1.32 to 2.3 (x-axis), 1.33 to 1.7 (y-axis), and 1.38 to 1.86 (z-axis), generally indicating high levels of shocks. The mean seat transmissibility factor (SEAT) was 1.4 (x) and 1.2 (y) and 1 (z), demonstrating a general ineffectiveness of any of the seat suspension systems. In conclusion, these data indicate that locomotive rides are characterized by relatively high shock content (acceleration peaks) of the vibration signal in all directions. Locomotive vertical and lateral vibrations are similar, which appears to be characteristic for rail vehicles compared with many road/off-road vehicles. Tested locomotive cab seats currently in use (new or old) appear inadequate to reduce potentially harmful vibration and shocks transmitted to the seated operator, and older seats particularly lack basic ergonomic features regarding adjustability and postural support. PMID:12486777

Johanning, Eckardt; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Landsbergis, Paul

2002-01-01

105

Myoelectric Response of Back Muscles to Vertical Random Whole-Body Vibration with Different Magnitudes at Different Postures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Back muscle forces contribute essentially to the whole-body vibration-induced spinal load. The electromyogram (EMG) can help to estimate these forces during whole-body vibration (WBV). Thirty-eight subjects were exposed to identical random low-frequency WBV (0·7, 1·0 and 1·4 m/s-2 r.m.s. weighted acceleration) at a relaxed, erect and bent forward postures. The acceleration of the seat and the force between the seat and the buttocks were measured. Six EMGs were derived from the right side of the m. trapezius pars descendens, m. ileocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, m. ileocostalis lumborum pars lumborum; m. longissimus thoracis pars thoracis, m. longissimus thoracis pars lumborum, and lumbar multifidus muscle. All data were filtered for anti-aliasing and sampled with 1000 Hz. Artefacts caused by the ECG in the EMG were identified and eliminated in the time domain using wavelets. The individually rectified and normalized EMGs were averaged across subjects. The EMGs without WBV exhibited characteristic patterns for the three postures examined. The coherence and transfer functions indicated characteristic myoelectric responses to random WBV with several effects of posture and WBV magnitude. A comprehensive set of transfer functions from the seat acceleration or the mean normalized input force to the mean processed EMG was presented.The results can be used for the development of more sophisticated models with a separate control of various back muscle groups. However, the EMG-force relationship under dynamic conditions needs to be examined in more detail before the results can be implemented. Since different reflex mechanisms depending on the frequency of WBV are linked with different types of active muscle fibres, various time delays between the EMG and muscle force may be necessary.

BLÜTHNER, R.; SEIDEL, H.; HINZ, B.

2002-05-01

106

Postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhances endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

A recent study demonstrated that heat stress induces mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes, thereby implying that heat stress may be an effective treatment to enhance endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle. However, whether heat stress actually induces mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle in vivo is unclear. In the present study, we report the novel findings that 1) whole body heat stress produced by exposure of ICR mice to a hot environment (40°C, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk) induced mitochondrial adaptations such as increased mitochondrial enzyme activity (citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and respiratory chain protein content (complexes I-V) in skeletal muscle in vivo and 2) postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhanced endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations (treadmill running, 25 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk). Moreover, to determine the candidate mechanisms underlying mitochondrial adaptations, we investigated the acute effects of postexercise whole body heat stress on the phosphorylation status of cellular signaling cascades that subsequently induce mitochondrial gene transcription. We found that whole body heat stress boosted the endurance exercise-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, increased the phosphorylation status of p70S6K, a biomarker of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity, and unexpectedly dephosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase in skeletal muscle. Our present observations suggest that heat stress can act as an effective postexercise treatment. Heat stress treatment appeared to be clinically beneficial for people who have difficulty participating in sufficient exercise training, such as the elderly, injured athletes, and patients. PMID:25080501

Tamura, Yuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Yuki; Terada, Shin; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hatta, Hideo

2014-10-01

107

Development of a Protocol for Epidemiologal Studies of Whole-Body Vibration and Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Lower Back  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It seems evident from a large number of studies that there is a positive relationship between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and the occurrence of low back pain. There are existing standards for evaluating the human exposure to WBV, which are based on other factors than the effect of musculoskeletal disorders. Several national and international standards also exist for evaluating human exposure to WBV. The exposure limit values or health guidance caution zones included in some of these standards are not or only to a limited extent based on systematic epidemiological investigations. It has not yet been possible to establish a clear exposure-response relationship. There are many confounding or contributing factors which influence the hazards to workers caused by exposure to WBV. Reliable methods for the detection and prevention of injury due to vibration exposure at work, alone or in combination with other risk factors, need to be implemented. The aim of this paper was to design a protocol and a questionnaire for conducting collaborative studies of WBV and musculoskeletal back disorders. The protocol will be tested in a pilot study before it will be used in multi-center studies.

Magnusson, M. L.; Pope, M. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.

1998-08-01

108

Characterization of the frequency and muscle responses of the lumbar and thoracic spines of seated volunteers during sinusoidal whole body vibration.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration has been postulated to contribute to the onset of back pain. However, little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to measure the frequency and corresponding muscle responses of seated male volunteers during whole body vibration exposures along the vertical and anteroposterior directions to define the transmissibility and associated muscle activation responses for relevant whole body vibration exposures. Seated human male volunteers underwent separate whole body vibration exposures in the vertical (Z-direction) and anteroposterior (X-direction) directions using sinusoidal sweeps ranging from 2 to 18?Hz, with a constant amplitude of 0.4?g. For each vibration exposure, the accelerations and displacements of the seat and lumbar and thoracic spines were recorded. In addition, muscle activity in the lumbar and thoracic spines was recorded using electromyography (EMG) and surface electrodes in the lumbar and thoracic region. Transmissibility was determined, and peak transmissibility, displacement, and muscle activity were compared in each of the lumbar and thoracic regions. The peak transmissibility for vertical vibrations occurred at 4?Hz for both the lumbar (1.55?±?0.34) and thoracic (1.49?±?0.21) regions. For X-directed seat vibrations, the transmissibility ratio in both spinal regions was highest at 2?Hz but never exceeded a value of 1. The peak muscle response in both spinal regions occurred at frequencies corresponding to the peak transmissibility, regardless of the direction of imposed seat vibration: 4?Hz for the Z-direction and 2-3?Hz for the X-direction. In both vibration directions, spinal displacements occurred primarily in the direction of seat vibration, with little off-axis motion. The occurrence of peak muscle responses at frequencies of peak transmissibility suggests that such frequencies may induce greater muscle activity, leading to muscle fatigue, which could be a contributing mechanism of back pain. PMID:25010637

Baig, Hassam A; Dorman, Daniel B; Bulka, Ben A; Shivers, Bethany L; Chancey, Valeta C; Winkelstein, Beth A

2014-10-01

109

Impedance response characteristics of the primate Mucaca mulatta exposed to seated whole-body gz vibration.  

PubMed

A mathematical model was used to quantify and describe the variability in the mechanical impedance response of the Rhesus monkey subjected to vibrations in the range 3-20 Hz at 0.5 g peak acceleration. Due to the similarities in response, a two-mass, one-degree-of-freedom (DOF) model was selected and the associated mechanical parameters determined using a nonlinear least-squares optimization program. For the six tests conducted on each of the four subjects, appreciable parameter variations were observed within a subject; however, the majority of the mean parameter values among different subjects and among the repeated tests on the population were within +/- 1 S.D. of each other. Significant differences were observed in the stiffness coefficient and the total mass among different subjects, and in the mass ratio (between inert and sprung masses) among the repeated tests. Variations in the profile shapes following resonance were described and limited by changes in the mass ratio and the damping factor. Higher mass ratios (greater than 1.0) were associated with lower damping factors (less than 0.50). The impedance response beyond resonance approached the response described by the impedance of the inert mass and the damper elements of the model combined in parallel, and supported the assumption that the lower torso was rigidly attached to the seat. Physically, the reactive force produced by the upper torso increasingly diminished following resonance, due to the load transmission/attenuation characteristics of the spinal structures at 0.5 g peak acceleration. The impedance measured at the seat becomes dominated by the transmitted damping force associated with the spine and the force generated by the rigid lower-torso mass. PMID:1639828

Smith, S D

1992-08-01

110

Effects of winter military training on energy balance, whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and physical performance.  

PubMed

Physiological consequences of winter military operations are not well described. This study examined Norwegian soldiers (n = 21 males) participating in a physically demanding winter training program to evaluate whether short-term military training alters energy and whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and performance. Energy expenditure (D2(18)O) and intake were measured daily, and postabsorptive whole-body protein turnover ([(15)N]-glycine), muscle damage, soreness, and performance (vertical jump) were assessed at baseline, following a 4-day, military task training phase (MTT) and after a 3-day, 54-km ski march (SKI). Energy intake (kcal·day(-1)) increased (P < 0.01) from (mean ± SD (95% confidence interval)) 3098 ± 236 (2985, 3212) during MTT to 3461 ± 586 (3178, 3743) during SKI, while protein (g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) intake remained constant (MTT, 1.59 ± 0.33 (1.51, 1.66); and SKI, 1.71 ± 0.55 (1.58, 1.85)). Energy expenditure increased (P < 0.05) during SKI (6851 ± 562 (6580, 7122)) compared with MTT (5480 ± 389 (5293, 5668)) and exceeded energy intake. Protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown were all increased (P < 0.05) 24%, 18%, and 27%, respectively, during SKI compared with baseline and MTT. Whole-body protein balance was lower (P < 0.05) during SKI (-1.41 ± 1.11 (-1.98, -0.84) g·kg(-1)·10 h) than MTT and baseline. Muscle damage and soreness increased and performance decreased progressively (P < 0.05). The physiological consequences observed during short-term winter military training provide the basis for future studies to evaluate nutritional strategies that attenuate protein loss and sustain performance during severe energy deficits. PMID:25386980

Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Martini, Svein; Spitz, Marissa G; Thrane, Ingjerd; McGraw, Susan M; Blatny, Janet-Martha; Castellani, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Gundersen, Yngvar; Pasiakos, Stefan M

2014-12-01

111

Acute effects of whole body vibration during passive standing on soleus H-reflex in subjects with and without spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is being used to enhance neuromuscular performance including muscle strength, power, and endurance in many settings among diverse patient groups including elite athletes. However, the mechanisms underlying the observed neuromuscular effects of WBV have not been established. The extent to which WBV will produce similar neuromuscular effects among patients with neurological impairments unable to voluntarily contract their

Dimitry G. Sayenko; Kei Masani; Milad Alizadeh-Meghrazi; Milos R. Popovic; B. Catharine Craven

2010-01-01

112

A laboratory study to quantify the biomechanical responses to whole-body vibration: The influence on balance, reflex response, muscular activity and fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the acute effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the sensorimotor system and potentially on the stability of the spine, different biomechanical responses were tested before and after 60min of sitting, with and without vertical WBV, on four different days. Postures adopted while sitting and the simulated WBV exposure corresponded to large mining load haul dump (LHD) vehicles as

Brenda R. Santos; Christian Larivière; Alain Delisle; André Plamondon; Paul-Émile Boileau; Daniel Imbeau

2008-01-01

113

City bus driving and low back pain: A study of the exposures to posture demands, manual materials handling and whole-body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate worker exposure to posture demands, manual materials handling (MMH) and whole body vibration as risks for low back pain (LBP). Using validated questionnaire, information about driving experience, driving (sitting) posture MMH, and health history was obtained from 80 city bus drivers. Twelve drivers were observed during their service route driving (at least one

Olanrewaju O. Okunribido; Steven J. Shimbles; Marianne Magnusson; Malcolm Pope

2007-01-01

114

Hearing threshold and heart rate in men after repeated exposure to dynamic muscle work, sinusoidal vs stochastic whole body vibration and stable broadband noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the temporary hearing threshold (TTS2) and heart rate (HR) were examined in subjects exposed to stable noise, whole body vibration and dynamic muscular work at a dry-bulb temperature of 30°C. The exposure combinations consisted of three categories of dynamic muscular work with varying loads (2 W, 4 W, 8 W), of two categories of noise and of three

Olavi Manninen

1984-01-01

115

The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training  

PubMed Central

Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and changes in CS activity is often assumed. However, this relationship and absolute values of CS and maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2max) has never been assessed across different studies. A systematic PubMed search on literature published from 1983 to 2013 was performed. The search profile included: citrate, synthase, human, skeletal, muscle, training, not electrical stimulation, not in-vitro, not rats. Studies that reported changes in CS activity and V.O2max were included. Different training types and subject populations were analyzed independently to assess correlation between relative changes in V.O2max and CS activity. 70 publications with 97 intervention groups were included. There was a positive (r = 0.45) correlation (P < 0.001) between the relative change in V.O2max and the relative change in CS activity. All reported absolute values of CS and V.O2max did not correlate (r =- 0.07, n = 148, P = 0.4). Training induced changes in whole body oxidative capacity is matched by changes in muscle CS activity in a nearly 1:1 relationship. Absolute values of CS across different studies cannot be compared unless a standardized analytical method is used by all laboratories. PMID:25057335

Vigels?, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne B; Dela, Flemming

2014-01-01

116

Wavelet analysis of lumbar muscle oxygenation signals during whole-body vibration: implications for the development of localized muscle fatigue.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on lumbar muscle oxygenation oscillations in healthy men based on the wavelet transform of near-infrared spectroscopy signals. Twelve healthy participants were exposed to WBV at frequencies of 3, 4.5 and 6 Hz while muscle oxygenation signal was monitored before, during and recovery from WBV. With spectral analysis based on wavelet transform of NIR signal, six frequency intervals were identified (I, 0.005-0.0095 Hz; II, 0.0095-0.02 Hz; III, 0.02-0.06 Hz; IV, 0.06-0.16 Hz; V, 0.16-0.40 Hz and VI, 0.40-2.0 Hz). It was found that the muscle oxygenation oscillations at 4.5 Hz in the frequency intervals I, II and III was lower during WBV compared with that of at 3 Hz. Present results demonstrated WBV at 4.5 Hz induced lower oscillatory activities than that of at 3 Hz. The lower oscillatory activities might indicate a decrease in the efficiency of oxygen supply to the oxygenated tissue and such mechanism might contribute to the development of local muscle fatigue. PMID:22210560

Li, Zengyong; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Guoqiang; Luo, Site; Liu, Feifei; Li, Jianping

2012-08-01

117

An Updated Review of Epidemiologic Studies on the Relationship Between Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to update the information on the epidemiologic evidence of the adverse health effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spinal system by means of a review of the epidemiologic studies published between 1986 and 1996. In a systematic search of epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with exposure to WBV, 37 articles were retrieved. The quality of each study was evaluated according to criteria concerning the assessment of vibration exposure, assessment of health effects, and methodology. The epidemiologic studies reaching an adequate score on each of the above mentioned criteria, were included in the final review. A meta-analysis was also conducted in order to combine the results of independent epidemiologic studies. After applying the selection criteria, 16 articles reporting the occurrence of LBP disorders in 19 WBV-exposed occupational groups, reached a sufficient score. The study design was cross-sectional for 13 occupational groups, longitudinal for 5 groups and of case-control type for one group. The main reasons for the exclusion of studies were insufficient quantitative information on WBV exposure and the lack of control groups. The findings of the selected studies and the results of the meta-analysis of both cross-sectional and cohort studies showed that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of LBP, sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. Owing to the cross-sectional design of the majority of the reviewed studies, this epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to outline a clear exposure-response relationship between WBV exposure and LBP disorders. Upon comparing the epidemiological studies included in this review with those conducted before 1986, it is concluded that research design and the quality of exposure and health effect data in the field of WBV have improved in the last decade.

Bovenzi, M.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

1998-08-01

118

Relationship between improvements in motor performance and changes in anticipatory postural adjustments during whole-body reaching training.  

PubMed

Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) provide postural stability and play an important role in ensuring appropriate motor performance. APAs also change in various situations. However, it is unknown whether changes in APAs during repetitive movement training contribute to improvement in motor performance. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between improvement in motor performance and changes in APAs during repeated reaching training, as well as the learning effects on APA changes. Sixteen healthy subjects (23±2years of age) stood barefoot on a force platform and reached as quickly and accurately as possible to a target placed at their maximum reach distance immediately following a beep signal in a reaction time condition. Whole-body reaching training with the right arm was repeated 100 times for three consecutive days. Motor performance and APAs were evaluated on the first day, after discontinuation of training for one day, and again at three months. In addition, reaching with the left arm (untrained limb) was tested on the first and the fifth training day. Body position segments were measured using three-dimensional motion analysis. Surface electromyography of eight postural muscles in both lower limbs was recorded. Kinetics data were recorded using the force platform. Whole-body reaching training induced not only improvements in motor performance (e.g., increased peak hand velocity), but also changes in APAs (e.g., earlier APA onset and increased amplitude). These changes were strongly correlated with and occurred earlier than improvements in motor performance. The learning effects on APAs were retained after the discontinuation of training and were generalized to the untrained limb. These results suggest that change in APAs contributes to improvement in motor performance; that is, the central nervous system may be able to adapt APAs for improvement in motor performance. PMID:25108269

Saito, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Masanori; Kasahara, Satoshi; Fukushima, Junko

2014-10-01

119

The Fate of Mrs Robinson: Criteria for Recognition of Whole-Body Vibration Injury as AN Occupational Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recently published critical reviews conclude that there is strong epidemiological evidence for a relationship between occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV), low back pain (LBP) and back disorders. Whether this exposure is only a modest or a substantial risk factor for the onset and recurrence of LBP is still a matter of debate. In spite of this controversy, four European Union countries have decided to recognize and compensate LBP and certain spinal disorders as an occupational disease. In this paper, we review the criteria currently in use for the recognition of this occupational disease. A search of the literature was performed; additional information was obtained in work visits to national occupational disease institutes in Germany, France and Belgium, in annual reports and national statistics on occupational diseases. Belgium was the first country to add WBV injury to the official list of occupational diseases (1978), followed by Germany (1993), the Netherlands (1997), and France (1999). The incidence of newly recognized cases in 1999 varied considerably: 763 in Belgium, 269 in France, 16 in Germany, and 10 reported cases in the Netherlands. The findings of this review indicate that significant differences exist in the established and applied diagnostic and exposure criteria in the four EU countries. This is illustrated by the case of Mrs Robinson, a 41-year-old forklift driver with LBP, who would probably get recognition and compensation in the Netherlands and Belgium but would be rejected in France and Germany. The development of uniform internationally accepted criteria is recommended, also from an epidemiological point of view, as many data are collected in the process of recognition of this occupational disease.

HULSHOF, C. T. J.; VAN DER LAAN, G.; BRAAM, I. T. J.; VERBEEK, J. H. A. M.

2002-05-01

120

CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF LOW-BACK PAIN PRESENTING FOR MRI, WITH SPECIAL RELATION TO WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate risk factors for low-back pain (LBP) presenting for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with special focus on whole-body vibration (WBV). Methods A case-control approach was used. The study population comprised working-aged subjects from a catchment area for radiology services. Cases were a consecutive series referred for a lumbar MRI because of LBP. Controls were age- sex-matched subjects X-rayed for other reasons. Subjects were questioned about physical factors loading the spine, psychosocial factors, driving, personal characteristics, mental health, and certain beliefs about LBP. Exposure to WBV was assessed by six measures, including weekly duration of professional driving, hours driven at a spell, and current r.m.s. A(8). Associations with WBV were examined with adjustment for age, sex, and other potential confounders. Results Altogether, 252 cases and 820 controls were studied, including 185 professional drivers. Strong associations were found with poor mental health and belief in work as a causal factor for LBP, and with occupational sitting for ?3 hours while not driving. Associations were also seen with taller stature, consulting propensity, BMI, smoking history, fear-avoidance beliefs, frequent twisting, low decision latitude and low support at work. However, associations with the six metrics of WBV were weak and not statistically significant, and no exposure-response relationships were found. Conclusions We found little evidence of a risk from professional driving or WBV. Drivers were substantially less heavily exposed to WBV than in some earlier surveys. Nonetheless, it seems that at the population level, WBV is not an important cause of LBP referred for MRI. PMID:18853063

Palmer, KT; Harris, EC; Griffin, MJ; Bennett, J; Reading, I; Sampson, M; Coggon, D

2009-01-01

121

Muscle activity, cross-sectional area, and density following passive standing and whole body vibration: A case series.  

PubMed

Objective To investigate the effects of intermittent passive standing (PS) and whole body vibration (WBV) on the electromyography (EMG) activity, cross-sectional area, and density of lower extremity muscles in individuals with chronic motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Case series. Methods Seven adult men with chronic (?2 years), thoracic motor complete (AIS A-B) SCI completed a 40-week course of thrice-weekly intermittent PS-WBV therapy, in a flexed knee posture (160°), for 45 minutes per session at a frequency of 45 Hz and 0.6-0.7 mm displacement using the WAVE(®) Pro Plate, with an integrated EasyStand™ standing frame. EMG was measured in major lower extremity muscles to represent muscle activity during PS-WBV. The cross-sectional area and density of the calf muscles were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the widest calf cross-section (66% of the tibia length) at pre- and post-intervention. All measured variables were compared between the pre- and post-intervention measurements to assess change after the PS-WBV intervention. Results PS-WBV acutely induced EMG activity in lower extremity muscles of SCI subjects. No significant changes in lower extremity EMG activity, muscle cross-sectional area, or density were observed following the 40-week intervention. Conclusions Although acute exposure to PS-WBV can induce electrophysiological activity of lower extremity muscles during PS in men with motor complete SCI, the PS-WBV intervention for 40 weeks was not sufficient to result in enhanced muscle activity, or to increase calf muscle cross-sectional area or density. PMID:25059652

Masani, Kei; Alizadeh-Meghrazi, Milad; Sayenko, Dimitry G; Zariffa, Jose; Moore, Cameron; Giangregorio, Lora; Popovic, Milos R; Catharine Craven, B

2014-09-01

122

Effect of whole-body vibration for 3 months on arterial stiffness in the middle-aged and elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common problem of middle-aged and older adults. Increased arterial stiffness is a CVD risk factor. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise for middle-aged and older adults; however, there have been few studies investigating the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness. This study mainly investigated the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. Methods A total of 38 (21 women and 17 men) middle-aged and elderly subjects (average age, 61.9 years) were randomly divided into the WBV group and the control group for a 3-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of 30 Hz and 3.2 g WBV in a natural full standing posture at a sports center. The brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of systemic arterial stiffness, and blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the intervention. Results After 3 months, there were no significant changes in blood pressure or heart rate in both groups. However, the bilateral baPWV was significantly reduced in the WBV group (decreased by 0.65 m/second [P=0.014]; 0.63 m/second [P=0.041] in either side), but not in the control group. The comparison between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study found that 3 months of WBV had a positive effect on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults and could therefore be regarded as a supplementary exercise. Larger-scale studies are needed to confirm the effects of WBV in the future. PMID:24872684

Lai, Chung-Liang; Chen, Han-Yu; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Liao, Wan-Chun; Liu, Bing-Tang; Lee, Meng-Chih; Chen, Hsin-Shui

2014-01-01

123

Whole-body vibration effects on the muscle activity of upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing in recreational baseball hitters.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the muscle recruitment of selected upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing. Participants were recreationally trained males (n = 16, 22 +/- 2 years, 181.4 +/- 7.4 cm, 84.7 +/- 9.0 kg), with previous baseball experience. Subjects participated in three randomized sessions on separate days, consisting of three sets of five swings offa hitting tee. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements) with or without WBVexposure were performed between swing sets. During each swing, the gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and triceps brachii were evaluated for electromyographic (EMG) activity. EMG values were normalized to EMG measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in EMG activity across the three treatments. In addition, the results displayed a specific muscle recruitment order during the swing, starting with the lower body followed by the upper body muscles. This study was the first to report the recruitment order during the baseball swing. Although acute exposure to WBV did not significantly alter the muscle recruitment, these results may prove useful for practitioners looking to enhance baseball swing performance. PMID:22303781

Reyes, Gabriel F; Dickin, D Clark; Crusat, Nolan J K; Dolny, Dennis G

2011-11-01

124

An updated review of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between exposure to whole-body vibration and low back pain (1986–1997)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to update the information on the epidemiologic evidence of the adverse health effects of whole-body\\u000a vibration (WBV) on the spinal system by means of a review of the epidemiologic studies published between 1986 and 1997. In\\u000a a systematic search, using several databases, of epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with

M. Bovenzi; C. T. J. Hulshof

1999-01-01

125

Simultaneous effects of sinusoidal whole body vibration and broadband noise on TTS 2 's and R-wave amplitudes in men at two different dry bulb temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aim of this study was to investigate the temporary hearing threshold shift (TTS2) and R-wave amplitudes in eleven healthy males when they were exposed to paired sinusoidal whole body (Z-axis) vibration (5 Hz-2.12 m\\/s2) and stable broadband A-weighted white noise at dry bulb temperatures of 20°C and 30°C. The intensity of noise in the exposure combinations was 75,85

Olavi Manninen

1983-01-01

126

Studies of combined effects of sinusoidal whole body vibrations and noise of varying bandwidths and intensities on TTS 2 in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the data from three laboratory experiments concerning the separate and combined effects on temporary threshold shifts in hearing (TTS2) of sinusoidal low-frequency (5 Hz — 2.12 m\\/s2 and 10 Hz —2.65 m\\/s2), whole body vibration (along the Z-axis), and continuous (white) noise with eight different bandwidths and intensity levels of 85 dB(A), 90 dB(A) and 98 dB(A).

Olavi Manninen

1983-01-01

127

Effect of whole-body vibration on calcaneal quantitative ultrasound measurements in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) on calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements; which has rarely been examined. We conducted a single-centre, 12-month, randomized controlled trial. 202 postmenopausal women with BMD T score between -1.0 and -2.5, not receiving bone medications, were asked to stand on a 0.3 g WBV platform oscillating at either 90- or 30-Hz for 20 consecutive minutes daily, or to serve as controls. Calcium and vitamin D was provided to all participants. Calcaneal broadband attenuation (BUA), speed of sound, and QUS index were obtained as pre-specified secondary endpoints at baseline and 12 months by using a Hologic Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer. 12-months of WBV did not improve QUS parameters in any of our analyses. While most of our analyses showed no statistical differences between the WBV groups and the control group, mean calcaneal BUA decreased in the 90-Hz (-0.4 [95 % CI -1.9 to 1.2] dB MHz(-1)) and 30-Hz (-0.7 [95 % CI -2.3 to 0.8] dB MHz(-1)) WBV groups and increased in the control group (1.3 [95 % CI 0.0-2.6] dB MHz(-1)). Decreases in BUA in the 90-, 30-Hz or combined WBV groups were statistically different from the control group in a few of the analyses including all randomized participants, as well as in analyses excluding participants who had missing QUS measurement and those who initiated hormone therapy or were <80 % adherent. Although there are consistent trends, not all analyses reached statistical significance. 0.3 g WBV at 90 or 30 Hz prescribed for 20 min daily for 12 months did not improve any QUS parameters, but instead resulted in a statistically significant, yet small, decrease in calcaneal BUA in postmenopausal women in several analyses. These unexpected findings require further investigation. PMID:25388526

Slatkovska, Lubomira; Beyene, Joseph; Alibhai, Shabbir M H; Wong, Queenie; Sohail, Qazi Z; Cheung, Angela M

2014-12-01

128

Hearing threshold and heart rate in men after repeated exposure to dynamic muscle work, sinusoidal vs stochastic whole body vibration and stable broadband noise.  

PubMed

Changes in the temporary hearing threshold ( TTS2 ) and heart rate (HR) were examined in subjects exposed to stable noise, whole body vibration and dynamic muscular work at a dry-bulb temperature of 30 degrees C. The exposure combinations consisted of three categories of dynamic muscular work with varying loads ( 2W , 4W , 8W ), of two categories of noise and of three categories of vibration. The noise categories were: (1) no noise, and (2) stable, broadband (bandwidth 0.2-16.0 kHz) A-weighted noise with an intensity of 90 dB. The vibration categories were: (1) no vibration, (2) sinusoidal whole body vibration (Z-axis) with a frequency of 5 Hz, and (3) stochastic broadband (bandwidth 2.8-11.2 Hz) whole body vibration. A single test consisted of a control period of 30 min, three consecutive exposure periods of 16 min, each followed by a 4-min post-exposure interval and a recovery period of 15 min. The results of the variance analyses indicated that noise had the most notable effect on the TTS2 values at the hearing frequencies of both 4 and 6 kHz. Of the paired combinations, noise plus vibration and noise plus dynamic muscular work caused the most obvious combined effects. The combined effect of all three factors (noise, vibration and work) on the TTS2 values after three consecutive exposure periods was significant at the 2.5% level at the 4 kHz hearing frequency and at the 5% level at the 6 kHz hearing frequency. The added effect of vibration on enhanced TTS2 values was particularly clear when the vibration was stochastic and when the subjects had a low ( 2W ) working efficiency. Increasing the working efficiency, on the other hand, seemed to retard increases in the hearing threshold. Thus TTS2 values seemed to reflect the changes in HR values. It is as if the low rate of cardiovascular activity during light dynamic muscular work had enabled the manifestation of the cardiovascular effects of noise and vibration; during strenuous dynamic muscular work, however, the high rate of cardiovascular activity aimed in some way at compensating for the effects of noise and vibration on blood circulation. PMID:6724700

Manninen, O

1984-01-01

129

Efficacy of a whole-body vibration intervention to effect exercise tolerance and functional performance of the lower limbs of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory condition characterised by dyspnoea, excessive sputum production, chronic cough, bronchitis and emphysema. Functionally, exercise tolerance is poor for people with COPD and is linked to difficulty in performing daily tasks. More specifically, exercise difficulties are due partly to dyspnoea and lower limb skeletal muscle dysfunction. The benefit of exercise that does not exacerbate the disease while improving exercise tolerance is salient. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a mode of physical activity known to improve muscular function of the lower limbs, yet efficacy has not been investigated for a WBV intervention conducted in a home-based setting for people with COPD. Methods/design This clinically registered trial is a non-randomised placebo cross-over intervention based in the home of each participant (ACTRN12612000508875). Participants diagnosed with COPD will complete a six-week WBV intervention and then after a two-week washout period, will complete a six-week placebo training intervention. Participants will complete sessions twice a week. The duration of the trial is 14 weeks. Community-dwelling older adults with COPD will provide informed voluntary consent to participate. Outcome measures will include immediate, acute, and long-term responses to exercise. Discussion Quantifying responses to WBV among people with COPD will allow discussion of efficacy of WBV as a mode of physical activity. The skill required by the participant to perform physical activity with WBV is not demanding and may enhance habitual sustainability. The results of this trial could be used to support further research in both clinical and community settings. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR12612000508875) PMID:23181339

2012-01-01

130

Hanford whole body counting manual  

SciTech Connect

This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

1987-05-01

131

Bioresponses in men after repeated exposures to single and simultaneous sinusoidal or stochastic whole body vibrations of varying bandwidths and noise.  

PubMed

This study deals with the changes in temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), upright body posture sway amplitudes in the X and Y direction, heart rate (HR), R-wave amplitude (RWA), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP) and the index characterizing haemodynamic activity (HDI), when the subjects were exposed to noise alone, to vibrations alone or to simultaneous noise and vibrations. The experiments were carried out in an exposure chamber and the number of exposure combinations was 12. Seven healthy, male students volunteered as subjects, making a total number of 84 experiments. For each person the experiment consisted of a 30-min control period, five consecutive 16-min exposures, between which there was a 4-min measuring interval, and a 15-min recovery period. The noise was broadband (bandwidth 0.2-16.0 kHz) A-weighted (white) noise. The noise categories were: (1) no noise and (2) noise with an intensity of 90 dBA. The categories of low-frequency whole body vibration in the direction of the Z-axis were: (1) vibration within the range 4.4-5.6 Hz, (2) vibration within the range 2.8-5.6 Hz, (3) vibration within the range 2.8-11.2 Hz, (4) vibration within the range 1.4-11.2 Hz and (5) sinusoidal vibration with a frequency of 5 Hz. The (rms) acceleration in all the vibration models was 2.12 m/s2. The results showed that the TTS2 values at 4 and 6 kHz increased as a result of simultaneous exposure to noise and vibration significantly more than as a result of exposure to noise alone. The TTS2 values increased more intensely during the first 16-min exposure. The means of the variances in the amplitudes of body upright posture sway changed not only after exposures to vibration alone, but also after exposure to noise alone. The means of the sway variances in the X and Y directions at 0.1 Hz and within the range 0.06 to 2.00 Hz increased only when the vibration in the noise-vibration combination was sinusoidal. The changes in the heart rate, R-wave amplitude and blood pressure values also depended on the bandwidth of the vibration, the number of consecutive exposures and on whether the subjects were simultaneously exposed to noise in addition to vibration. As a rule, the effects of sinusoidal vibration differed from those due to stochastic vibrations. PMID:3710601

Manninen, O

1986-01-01

132

Acute effects of whole-body vibration on jump force and jump rate of force development: a comparative study of different devices.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to compare the acute effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) delivered by 3 devices with different mechanical behavior on jump force (JF) and jump rate of force development (JRFD). Twelve healthy persons (4 women and 8 men; age 30.5 ± 8.8 years; height 178.6 ± 7.3 cm; body mass 74.8 ± 9.7 kg) were exposed to WBV for 15 and 40 seconds using 2 professional devices (power plate [PP; vertical vibration] and Galileo 2000 [GA; oscillatory motion around the horizontal axis in addition to vertical vibration]) and a home-use device [Power Maxx, PM; horizontal vibration]). The JF and JRFD were evaluated before, immediately after, and 5 minutes after WBV. The JF measured immediately after 40 seconds of vibration by the GA device was reduced (3%, p = 0.05), and JRFD measured after 5 minutes of rest after 40 seconds of vibration by the PM device was reduced (12%, p < 0.05) compared with the baseline value. The acute effects of WBV (15 or 40 seconds) on JF and JRFD were not significantly different among the 3 devices. In conclusion, our hypothesis that WBV devices with different mechanical behaviors would result in different acute effects on muscle performance was not confirmed. PMID:22126972

Bagheri, Javad; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J; Pel, Johan J; Horemans, Herwin L; Stam, Henk J

2012-03-01

133

[The effect of whole-body vibration on the electrical activity and oxidative metabolism in different brain structures].  

PubMed

Chronic experiments on rabbits were performed to study the bioelectric activity, oxygen consumption and succinate dehydrogenase (DG) activity in different parts of the cortex and subcortex (mesencephalic reticular formation, lateral vestibular nucleus, thalamus posteroventrolateral nucleus), as well as the compound electric activity of the neck muscles, and rythm adoption. The phase character and different vibration sensitivity of the brain structures depending on the duration of vibration were revealed. At the initial phase, the following vibration effects were examined: reaction of activation on encephalogram, growing EMG and DG activity, increased oxygen consumption, and rythm adoption high frequency shifting. Prolonged vibration caused a vivid violation of the intracentral correlation between the cortex and subcortex. Correlation was also identified between electric activity and the brain structures' oxidation metabolism against the vibration dynamics levels. PMID:2628219

Minasian, S M; Baklavadzhian, O G; Saakian, S G

1989-01-01

134

Cardiovascular changes and hearing threshold shifts in men under complex exposures to noise, whole body vibrations, temperatures and competition-type psychic load.  

PubMed

This study deals with changes in the temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), heart rate (HR), R-wave amplitude (RWA), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP) and reaction time (RT) in subjects (n = 108) who, while working on a choice reaction apparatus, were exposed in an exposure chamber to combinations of noise and vibration at dry bulb temperatures of 20 degrees and 30 degrees C. The study was carried out as a type 2-3-3 factorial experiment, the number of the exposure combinations thus being 18. To find out the effects of competition-type psychic stress, some of the subjects were placed in a competitive group and some in a non-competitive group. The members of the competitive group were given financial encouragement and information on their progress during the test, whereas those in the non-competitive group worked at the rate they considered best without any monetary rewards or interim information. The noise classes were: no noise, a stable broadband (bandwidth 0.2-16.0 kHz) A-weighted noise of 90 dB not related to competition, and a stable broadband A-weighted noise of 90 dB related to competition about the fastest reaction time. The vibration classes were: no vibration, sinusoidal whole body vibration (Z-axis) at a frequency of 5 Hz, and stochastic broadband (bandwidth 2.8-11.2 Hz) whole body vibration (Z-axis). The acceleration (rms) of both vibrations was 2.12 m/s2. One experiment consisted of a control period of 30 min, three consecutive exposure periods of 16 min with an interval of 4 min, and a 15-min recovery period. The variance analysis model best explained the variation in TTS2 values at 4 kHz and second best the variation in TTS2 values at 6 kHz; it explained the variation in HR values third best, the variation in SBP values fourth best and the variation in PP values fifth best. On the other hand, the model explained least well the variation in DBP and RWA values. In general, the explanatory power of the model increased together with the number of exposures. The psychic stress caused by competition accelerated the growth of the TTS2 values, HR values and SBP values, when the subjects were simultaneously exposed to noise or to a combination of noise and vibration. An interesting finding for the continuation of the research project was that sinusoidal and stochastic vibration affected the cardiovascular changes, temporary hearing threshold and reaction times in different ways. PMID:4066056

Manninen, O

1985-01-01

135

Short-Term Aerobic Exercise Training in Obese Humans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Improves Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity through Gains in Peripheral, not Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Context: Short-term aerobic exercise training can improve whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, the contributions of peripheral and hepatic tissues to these improvements are not known. Objective: Our objective was to determine the effect of 7-d aerobic exercise training on peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity during isoglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp conditions. Design: Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The energy balance group consumed an isocaloric diet consisting of 50% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 20% protein for 15 d. The energy balance plus exercise group consumed a similar diet over the 15 d and performed 50-min of treadmill walking at 70% of maximum oxygen consumption maximum during the second 7 d of the 15-d study period. Each subject underwent an initial isoglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp after 1-wk dietary control and a second clamp after completing the study. Setting: The study was performed at Ohio State University’s General Clinical Research Center. Participants: There were 18 obese, mildly diabetic humans included in the study. Intervention: Aerobic exercise training was performed for 7 d. Main Outcome Measures: Whole-body, peripheral, and hepatic insulin sensitivity were measured. Results: Exercise training did not have an impact on peripheral glucose uptake or endogenous glucose production during the basal state or low-dose insulin. Likewise, it did not alter endogenous glucose production during high-dose insulin. However, 1-wk of exercise training increased both whole-body (P < 0.05) and peripheral insulin sensitivity (P < 0.0001) during high-dose insulin. Conclusion: Improvements to whole body insulin sensitivity after short-term aerobic exercise training are due to gains in peripheral, not heptic insulin sensitivity. PMID:18073312

Winnick, Jason J.; Sherman, W. Michael; Habash, Diane L.; Stout, Michael B.; Failla, Mark L.; Belury, Martha A.; Schuster, Dara P.

2008-01-01

136

Simultaneous effects of sinusoidal whole body vibration and broadband noise on TTS2's and R-wave amplitudes in men at two different dry bulb temperatures.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the temporary hearing threshold shift (TTS2) and R-wave amplitudes in eleven healthy males when they were exposed to paired sinusoidal whole body (Z-axis) vibration (5 Hz--2.12 m/s2) and stable broadband A-weighted white noise at dry bulb temperatures of 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C. The intensity of noise in the exposure combinations was 75, 85 and 95 dB(A). The total number of tests was 66, and they were carried out in an exposure chamber. The subjects were dressed in standard clothing, and carried out simple tasks using a choice reaction time device during the test. According to the results, the means of the TTS2 values were usually higher at the dry bulb temperature of 30 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. Hearing threshold shifts were the greatest at frequencies of 4 and 6 kHz, and the smallest at 8 kHz. The more intense the noise in the paired combination of noise and vibration, the clearer the tendency for an increase in the ambient temperature to accelerate the increase in the hearing threshold. The effect of the ambient temperature on the temporary hearing threshold shifts also appeared to be slightly stronger during successive exposure cycles. Changes in the values for the R-wave amplitudes seemed to be connected with those in the hearing threshold. The decrease in the R-wave amplitude was connected to the increase in the TTS2 values, especially when the subjects were simultaneously exposed to a 95 dB(A) noise and whole body vibration at the dry bulb temperature of 30 degrees C. This implies that an increase in the ambient temperature intensifies cardiovascular disturbances in the body, which accelerate the development of functional disturbance in the inner ear. PMID:6862642

Manninen, O

1983-01-01

137

Whole Body Vibration Exercise Protocol versus a Standard Exercise Protocol after ACL Reconstruction: A Clinical Randomized Controlled Trial with Short Term Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

The suitability and effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise in rehabilitation after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was studied using a specially designed WBV protocol. We wanted to test the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol. In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, forty patients who tore their ACL and underwent subsequent ligament reconstruction were enrolled. Patients were randomized to the whole body vibration (n=20) or standard rehabilitation exercise protocol (n=20). Both protocols started in the 2nd week after surgery. Isometric and isokinetic strength measurements, clinical assessment, Lysholm score, neuromuscular performance were conducted weeks 2, 5, 8 and 11 after surgery. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. The WBV group displayed significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, preliminary data indicate that our whole body vibration muscle exercise protocol seems to be a good alternative to a standard exercise program in ACL-rehabilitation. Despite of its significant reduced time requirement it is at least equally effective compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. Key points In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol in forty patients who underwent ACL reconstruction. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group as compared to the standard exercise group. Both protocols showed no differences regarding clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. Despite a more than 50% reduction in time spent for exercise sessions, the WBV group achieved significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, the presented WBV program can be considered as a practical alternative to a standard exercise program during ACL-rehabilitation. PMID:25177185

Berschin, Gereon; Sommer, Bjorn; Behrens, Antje; Sommer, Hans-Martin

2014-01-01

138

Whole body motion-detection tasks can yield much lower thresholds than direction-recognition tasks: implications for the role of vibration.  

PubMed

Earlier spatial orientation studies used both motion-detection (e.g., did I move?) and direction-recognition (e.g., did I move left/right?) paradigms. The purpose of our study was to compare thresholds measured with motion-detection and direction-recognition tasks on a standard Moog motion platform to see whether a substantial fraction of the reported threshold variation might be explained by the use of different discrimination tasks in the presence of vibrations that vary with motion. Thresholds for the perception of yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis and for interaural translation in an earth-horizontal plane were determined for four healthy subjects with standard detection and recognition paradigms. For yaw rotation two-interval detection thresholds were, on average, 56 times smaller than two-interval recognition thresholds, and for interaural translation two-interval detection thresholds were, on average, 31 times smaller than two-interval recognition thresholds. This substantive difference between recognition thresholds and detection thresholds is one of our primary findings. For motions near our measured detection threshold, we measured vibrations that matched previously established vibration thresholds. This suggests that vibrations contribute to whole body motion detection. We also recorded yaw rotation thresholds on a second motion device with lower vibration and found direction-recognition and motion-detection thresholds that were not significantly different from one another or from the direction-recognition thresholds recorded on our Moog platform. Taken together, these various findings show that yaw rotation recognition thresholds are relatively unaffected by vibration when moderate (up to ? 0.08 m/s(2)) vibration cues are present. PMID:24068754

Chaudhuri, Shomesh E; Karmali, Faisal; Merfeld, Daniel M

2013-12-01

139

Seven Day Insertion Rest in Whole Body Vibration Improves Multi-Level Bone Quality in Tail Suspension Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration with rest days on bone quality at multiple levels. Methods Forty-nine three-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups, namely, vibrational loading for X day followed by X day rest (VLXR, X?=?1, 3, 5, 7), vibrational loading every day (VLNR), tail suspension (SPD), and baseline control (BCL). One week after tail suspension, rats were loaded by vibrational loading (35 Hz, 0.25 g, 15 min/day) except SPD and BCL. Fluorescence markers were used in all rats. Eight weeks later, femora were harvested to investigate macromechanical properties, and micro-computed tomography scanning and fluorescence test were used to evaluate microarchitecture and bone growth rate. Atomic force microscopy analyses and nanoindentation test were used to analyze the nanostructure and mechanical properties of bone material, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy was used for quantitative chemical analyses. Results Microarchitecture, mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate and macromechanical properties were improved in VL7R. Grain size and roughness were significantly different among all groups. No statistical difference was found for the mechanical properties of the bone material, and the chemical composition of all groups was almost similar. Conclusions Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration with rest days altered bone microarchitecture and macro-biomechanical properties, and VL7R was more efficacious in improving bone loss caused by mechanical disuse, which provided theoretical basis and explored the mechanisms of vibration for improving bone quality in clinics. PMID:24637608

Zhang, Rui; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Gao, Jiazi; Fang, Juan; Fan, Yubo

2014-01-01

140

L-carnitine as an ergogenic aid for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease submitted to whole-body and respiratory muscle training programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of adding L-carnitine to a whole-body and respiratory training program were determined in moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Sixteen COPD pa- tients (66 ± 7 years) were randomly assigned to L-carnitine (CG) or placebo group (PG) that received either L-carnitine or saline solution (2 g\\/day, orally) for 6 weeks (forced expiratory volume on first second was

A. Borghi-Silva; V. Baldissera; L. M. M. Sampaio; V. A. Pires-DiLorenzo; M. Jamami; A. Demonte; J. S. Marchini; D. Costa

2006-01-01

141

Back Disorder Intervention Strategies for Mass Transit Operators Exposed to Whole-Body VIBRATION—COMPARISON of Two Transit System Approaches and Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occupational long-term whole-body vibration (WBV) has been recognized as a major risk factor for low back disorders, one of the most important reasons for medical impairment and early permanent disability among mass transit operators. Although no firm health and safety vibration exposure threshold limits have been established, the available data suggests that rail vehicle operators would probably fall under the proposed WBV “action levels” of the EU directive provisions for protection from physical hazards. This provision calls for technical, administrative and medical controls. This paper examines and compares the current conditions, provisions and plans of two major mass transit systems, the New Yorker MTA and the Munich MVV. The available data, information and publications (English/German) on working conditions, vibration exposure, epidemiology and intervention strategies (primary and secondary prevention) for rail bound mass transit workers were reviewed. Results strongly suggest that the MTA transit system has currently and in the near future no effective and meaningful controls in place to significantly reduce the WBV exposure of subway operators. It appears that the MVV system has more and better control measures in place to reduce harmful effects of WBV. Results of a scientific evaluation of a participatory, collaborative project in the MVV system suggest that the MVV may have developed a successful method of a “condition prevention” (Verhältnisprävention)—and “behavioral prevention” (Verhaltensprävention) intervention strategy, which appears beneficial for WBV exposed workers with existing low back pain. Long-term outcomes and benefits need to be assessed further.

Johanning, E.

1998-08-01

142

Ride quality and international standard ISO 2631 (Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of the standard, which is aimed at promoting research and production of more data, and providing some design guidance, is outlined and its contents summarized. Some of the assumptions and information on which it is based are analyzed. Its application to vehicle ride quality is considered in the context of the safety, efficiency and comfort of crew and passengers. The importance of establishing the precise criteria against which vibration limits are required is underlined, particularly the difficulties of first defining comfort and then postulating appropriate levels. Some current and future work related to improving the standard is outlined and additional suggestions offered.

Allen, G. R.

1975-01-01

143

Studies of combined effects of sinusoidal whole body vibrations and noise of varying bandwidths and intensities on TTS2 in men.  

PubMed

This study analyses the data from three laboratory experiments concerning the separate and combined effects on temporary threshold shifts in hearing (TTS2) of sinusoidal low-frequency (5 Hz--2.12 m/s2 and 10 Hz--2.65 m/s2), whole body vibration (along the Z-axis), and continuous (white) noise with eight different bandwidths and intensity levels of 85 dB(A), 90 dB(A) and 98 dB(A). Altogether 370 separate personal experiments were performed using a one-man exposure chamber system. A single experiment consisted of a 30-min pre-exposure period, three 16-min exposure periods, and a 15-min post-exposure period. The data suggested that the TTS2 induced by noise was increased by vibration. Actually, vibration at a frequency of 5 Hz and noise with bandwidths of 1-4 kHz, 1-8 kHz or 0.2-16 kHz comprised the most significant exposure combinations. After such exposures, the increase in TTS2 values was defined most clearly for 4 kHz and 6 kHz test frequencies. The increase of thresholds was most marked during the first 16-min exposure period, even though most TTS2 values determined after the third consecutive exposure period were higher than after the first and second exposures. Figures obtained after the third exposure period proved that exposure to simultaneous vibration and broad band noise (i.e. noise with a bandwidth of 0.2-16 kHz) increased TTS2 values 1.2-1.5 times more in the 4 kHz audio range than such a broad band noise alone. No single vibration condition induced the same amount of TTS2. PMID:6852933

Manninen, O

1983-01-01

144

Single and joint actions of noise and sinusoidal whole body vibration on TTS2 values and low frequency upright posture sway in men.  

PubMed

In the present study the changes in the TTS2 values and body upright posture sway were examined after exposure of subjects (n = 10) to stable broadband (white) noise (90 dB) alone, to sinusoidal vibration alone [directed vertically at the whole body (Z axis)], and to simultaneous exposure combinations of noise and vibrations of the same type. The frequency of the vibration was 5 Hz, but its acceleration was either 2.12 or 2.44 m/s2. There were six exposure combinations, and subsequently 60 tests were carried out in an exposure chamber. One test consisted of a control period of 30 min, of three consecutive exposure periods of 16 min each and of a recovery period of 15 min. After the three exposure combinations which included noise, half of the subjects were exposed to vibration during the recovery period. Apart from indicating an increase in the temporary hearing threshold, the results showed that simultaneous exposure to noise and vibration increases the instability of the body upright posture. The TTS2 values at the 4 and 6 kHz frequencies increased considerably more rapidly when the subjects were exposed simultaneously to noise and vibration than when exposed to noise alone. Without exception, the TTS2 values increased most during the first exposure period. It was noteworthy that exposure to vibration during the recovery period accelerated the recursion of the TTS2 values, especially in cases where the subjects had been exposed to noise alone. The variance of the body sway amplitudes and the standard deviation increased within the frequency range 0.063-2.000 Hz owing to noise alone and simultaneous noise and vibration. In the directions X and Y, within the frequency ranges 0.063-0.100 Hz and 0.100-0.600 Hz, the means of the maximum amplitudes of body sway increased especially in connection with those tests in which the subjects had been simultaneously exposed to noise and vibration. PMID:6724699

Manninen, O; Ekblom, A

1984-01-01

145

Movement of the Upper-Body of Seated Subjects Exposed to Vertical Whole-Body Vibration at the Principal Resonance Frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic responses of eight male subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration have been measured at eight locations of the body in three directions within the sagittal plane: in the vertical, fore-and-aft and pitch axes. The motions were measured on the body surface at the first, fifth and tenth thoracic vertebra (T1, T5, T10), at the first, third and fifth lumbar vertebra (L1, L3, L5) and at the pelvis (the posterior-superior iliac spine), and were corrected so as to estimate the motions of the skeleton. The head motion was measured with a bite bar. The force at the seat surface was also measured. The subjects were exposed to vertical random vibration in the frequency range from 0·5-20 Hz at a magnitude of 1·0 ms-2r.m.s. The movement of the upper-body at the principal resonance frequency of the driving-point apparent mass is illustrated by using the transmissibilities from seat vertical vibration to vertical and fore-and-aft vibration at the eight locations on the body. A bending of the lumbar spine, and probably the lowest thoracic spine, possibly coupled with a rocking motion of the upper thoracic spine about the lower thoracic spine, appeared to be dominant. A small bending along the full length of thoracic spine was also found. Pitch motion of the pelvis, possibly accompanied by longitudinal and shear deformations of the tissue underneath the pelvis, was found to occur near the resonance frequency range, but did not appear to make a principal contribution to the resonance observed in the apparent mass. Any significant axial motions along the spine occurred at higher frequencies.

Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

1998-08-01

146

The association between whole body vibration exposure and musculoskeletal disorders in the Swedish work force is confounded by lifting and posture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This was a cross-sectional study based on material representing the Swedish work-force from a survey conducted in 1999, 2001 and 2003 by Statistics Sweden. Exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) was prevalent among agricultural, forestry, fishery workers and among plant and machinery operators based on a sample of 40,000 employed persons. Approximately 70% responders, that are 9798 persons answered both the interview and the questionnaire for the analysis of exposure-response. Exposure to WBV at least half the working time was associated with prevalence ratios above two for musculoskeletal symptoms in the low back, neck, shoulder/arm and hand among workers. When the exposure factors lifting and frequent bending were added to a multivariate analysis, surprisingly the magnitude of association was low between low back symptoms and WBV exposure. Interestingly, the relation between WBV exposure and symptoms in the neck, shoulder/arm and hand had the same or higher magnitude of association even when the possible confounders were in the model. For the neck, low back and shoulder/arm there was a visible increase in prevalence ratio (as high as 5 times) when combined exposures of WBV, lifting, frequent bending, twisted posture and noise were included in the analysis.

Hagberg, Mats; Burström, Lage; Ekman, Anna; Vilhelmsson, Rebecka

2006-12-01

147

Whole body vibration exercise improves body balance and walking velocity in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate: Galileo and Alendronate Intervention Trail (GAIT).  

PubMed

A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. Fifty-two ambulatory postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age: 74.2 years, range: 51-91 years) were randomly divided into two groups: an exercise group and a control group. A four-minute WBV exercise was performed two days per week only in the exercise group. No exercise was performed in the control group. All the women were treated with alendronate. After 6 months of the WBV exercise, the indices for flexibility, body balance, and walking velocity were significantly improved in the exercise group compared with the control group. The exercise was safe and well tolerated. The reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen during the 6-month period were comparable between the two groups. The present study showed the benefit and safety of WBV exercise for improving physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. PMID:22947545

Iwamoto, J; Sato, Y; Takeda, T; Matsumoto, H

2012-09-01

148

Whole-body vibration as a mode of dyspnoea free physical activity: a community-based proof-of-concept trial  

PubMed Central

Background The potential of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a mode of dyspnoea free physical activity for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown among community-based settings. Furthermore, the acute effects of WBV on people with COPD have not been profiled in community-based settings. The aim of this community-based proof-of-concept trial was to describe acute effects of WBV by profiling subjective and objective responses to physical activity. Findings Seventeen community-dwelling older adults with COPD were recruited to participate in two sessions; WBV and sham WBV (SWBV). Each session consisted of five one-minute bouts interspersed with five one-minute passive rest periods. The gravitational force was ~2.5?g for WBV and ~0.0?g for SWBV. Reliability of baseline dyspnoea, heart rate, and oxygen saturation was first established and then profiled for both sessions. Acute responses to both WBV and SWBV were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance and repeated contrasts. Small changes in dyspnoea and oxygen saturation lacked subjective and clinical meaningfulness. One session of WBV and SWBV significantly increased heart rate (p???0.02), although there was no difference among WBV and SWBV (p?=?0.67). Conclusions This community-based proof-of-concept trial showed that a session of WBV can be completed with the absence of dyspnoea for people with COPD. Furthermore, there were no meaningful differences among WBV and SWBV for heart rate and oxygen saturation. There is scope for long-term community-based intervention research using WBV given the known effects of WBV on peripheral muscle function and functional independence. PMID:24209408

2013-01-01

149

Long-Term Effects of 6Weeks Whole-Body Vibration on Balance Recovery and Activities of Daily Living in the Postacute Phase of Stroke A Randomized, Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—The long-term effects of 6-weeks whole-body vibration, as a novel method of somatosensory stimulation, on postural control and activities of daily living were compared with those of 6 weeks of exercise therapy on music of the same intensity in the postacute phase of stroke. Methods—Fifty-three patients with moderate to severe functional disabilities were randomized within 6 weeks poststroke

Ilse J. W. van Nes; Hilde Latour; Fanny Schils; Ronald Meijer; Annet van Kuijk; Alexander C. H. Geurts

150

Long-term effects of 6-week whole-body vibration on balance recovery and activities of daily living in the postacute phase of stroke: a randomized, controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The long-term effects of 6-weeks whole-body vibration, as a novel method of somatosensory stimulation, on postural control and activities of daily living were compared with those of 6 weeks of exercise therapy on music of the same intensity in the postacute phase of stroke. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with moderate to severe functional disabilities were randomized within 6

I. J. W. van Nes; H. Latour; F. Schils; R. Meijer; A. van Kuijk; A. C. H. Geurts

2006-01-01

151

Vibration or balance training on neuromuscular performance in osteopenic women.  

PubMed

Maintaining neuromuscular function in older age is an important topic for aging societies, especially for older women with low bone density who may be at risk of falls and bone fracture. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of resistive exercise with either whole-body vibration training (VIB) or coordination/balance training (BAL) on neuromuscular function (countermovement jump, multiple 1-leg hopping, sit-to-stand test). 68 postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis were recruited for the study. 57 subjects completed the 9-month, twice weekly, intervention period. All subjects conducted 30?min of resistance exercise each training day. The VIB-group performed additional training on the Galileo vibration exercise device. The BAL-group performed balance training. An "intent-to-treat" analysis showed greater improvement in the VIB-group for peak countermovement power (p=0.004). The mean [95% confidence interval] effect size for this parameter was a ?+?0.9[0.3 to 1.5] W/kg greater change in VIB than BAL after 9 months. In multiple 1-leg hopping, a significantly better performance in the VIB-group after the intervention period was seen on a "per-protocol" analysis only. Both groups improved in the sit-to-stand test. The current study provides evidence that short-duration whole-body vibration exercise can have a greater impact on some aspects of neuromuscular function in post-menopausal women with low bone density than proprioceptive training. PMID:23549694

Stolzenberg, N; Belavý, D L; Rawer, R; Felsenberg, D

2013-11-01

152

Effect of Low-Magnitude Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Alendronate in Ovariectomized Rats: A Random Controlled Osteoporosis Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

Background Alendronate (ALE) is a conventional drug used to treat osteoporosis. Low-magnitude whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been developed as a potential treatment for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-magnitude WBV could enhance the protective effect of ALE on bone properties in ovariectomized rats. Methods A total of 128 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (SHAM, OVX+VEH, OVX+WBV, OVX + ALE, OVX+WBV+ALE). The level of WBV applied was 0.3 g at 45–55 Hz for 20 min/day, 5 day/week and for 3 months. ALE was administered in dose of 1 mg/Kg once a week. Every four weeks eight rats from each group were sacrificed and their blood and both tibiae were harvested. The expression of osteocalcin and CTX in serum was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the tibiae were subjected to metaphyseal three-point bending and ?CT analysis. Results Osteocalcin rose after ovariectomy and was not appreciably changed by either alendronate or WBV alone or in combination. Alendronate treatment significantly prevented an increase in CTX. WBV alone treatment did not alter this effect. Compared with the OVX+WBV group, nearly all tested indices such as the BV/TV, TV apparent, Tb.N, Tb.Th, and Conn.D were higher in the OVX+ALE group at week 12.Compared with the OVX+WBV group, certain tested indices such as BV/TV, TV apparent, Tb.N, and Con.D, were higher in the OVX+WBV+ALE group at week 12. At week 12, tibiae treated with WBV+ALE exhibited a significantly higher Fmax compared to the OVX+VEH group, and a significant difference was also found in energy absorption between the OVX+WBV+ALE and OVX+VEH groups. Conclusions Compared with the WBV, ALE was more effective at preventing bone loss and improved the trabecular architecture. However, WBV enhanced the effect of alendronate in ovariectomized rats by inducing further improvements in trabecular architecture. PMID:24796785

Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Wei; Ding, Ruo-Ting; Yu, Hui; Chen, Jian-Ting

2014-01-01

153

Modelling the effects of exposure to whole-body vibration on low-back pain and its long-term consequences for sickness absence and associated work disability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BackgroundExposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known risk factor for the occurrence of low-back pain (LBP). Little is known about the long-term course of back pain in workers exposed to WBV and the consequences for (temporary) disability, due to lack of cohort studies with sufficiently long follow-up periods. MethodsA systematic review of the literature was performed to assess associations between exposure to WBV and LBP, sickness absence due to low-back disorders and permanent disability. A meta-analysis was used to estimate the prevalences of LBP and sickness absence due to low-back disorders in occupational populations, depending on relevant exposure characteristics. These prevalences were converted into probabilities for transitions between no complaints, LBP, sickness due to LBP, and disability. A Markov model was applied to evaluate a hypothetical cohort of workers without LBP at the start of the cohort and a follow-up of 40 years (40 cycles of 1 year) to reflect a long-life career with continuous exposure to WBV. ResultsIn this hypothetical cohort it was estimated that among workers with the highest exposure to WBV on average about 47 weeks of their working life were lost due to sick leave because of LBP, which is approximately 2.5% of their working life. When all workers on prolonged sick leave for 52 weeks would remain disabled for the rest of their working life, a maximum of 23.4% of their working life could be lost due to high WBV exposure. Among workers without or low exposure to WBV the corresponding losses were 0.8% and 7.8%, respectively. ConclusionThe approach to assess years of work lost due to an occupational exposure may provide a more adequate description for stakeholders than the traditional measures of relative risk or attributable risk fraction. The concept of work years lost may also facilitate a better appreciation of the potential benefits of preventive measures.

Burdorf, A.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

2006-12-01

154

Changes in fat and skeletal muscle with exercise training in obese adolescents: comparison of whole-body MRI and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined skeletal muscle (SM) and fat distribution using whole-body MRI in response to aerobic (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) training in obese adolescents and whether DXA provides similar estimates of fat and SM change as MRI. Design and Methods Thirty-nine obese boys (12–18 yr) were randomly assigned to one of three 3-month interventions: AE (n=14), RE (n=14) or a control (n=11). Results At baseline, MRI-measured total fat was significantly greater than DXA-measured total fat [?=3.1 kg (95% CI: ?0.4 to 7.4 kg, P<0.05)], wherein underestimation by DXA was greatest in those with the highest total fat. Overall, the changes in total fat were not significantly different between MRI and DXA [?= ?0.4 kg (95% CI: ?3.5 to 2.6 kg, P>0.05)], but DXA tended to overestimate MRI fat losses in those with larger fat losses. MRI-measured SM and DXA-measured LBM (lean body mass) were significantly correlated, but as expected the absolute values were different at baseline [?= ?28.4 kg (95% CI: ?35.4 to ?21.3 kg, P<0.05)]. Further, DXA overestimated MRI gains in SM in those with larger SM gains. Conclusions Although DXA and MRI-measured total and regional measures tended to be correlated at baseline and changes with exercise, there were substantial differences in the absolute values derived using DXA versus MRI. Further, there were systemic biases in the estimation between the methods wherein DXA tended to overestimate fat losses and SM gains compared to MRI. Thus, the changes in body composition observed are influenced by the method employed. PMID:23512818

Lee, SoJung; Kuk, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01

155

Vibration training improves balance in unstable ankles.  

PubMed

Functional ankle instability (FAI) is a common condition following ankle injury characterised by increased risk of injury. Ankle sprains are a common acute form of injury suffered in dancing and loss of balance can affect not only risk of injury risk but also performance aesthetics. Whole body vibration training (WBVT) is a new rehabilitation method that has been linked with improving balance and muscle function. 38 female dancers with self reported unilateral FAI were randomly assigned in 2 groups: WBVT and control. Absolute centre of mass (COM) distribution during single leg stance, SEBT normalised research distances and Peroneus longus mean power frequency (f(med)) where measured pre and post 6-week intervention. There was a significant improvement in COM distribution over the 6 weeks from 1.05 ± 0.57 to 0.33 ± 0.42 cm² (P<0.05), and 4 of the 8 planes of direction in the SEBT Ant, Antlat, Med and Antmed from 77.5 ± 7.1 to 84.1 ± 5.8% (P<0.05) compared to control groups during the course of the 6 week training intervention. There was no evidence of improvement in peroneus longus (f(med)) over time (P=0.915) in either group. WBVT improved static balance and SEBT scores amongst dancers exhibiting ankle instability but did not affect peroneus longus muscle fatigue. PMID:21072738

Cloak, R; Nevill, A M; Clarke, F; Day, S; Wyon, M A

2010-12-01

156

A comparison of whole body vibration and moist heat on lower extremity skin temperature and skin blood flow in healthy older individuals  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Tissue healing is an intricate process that is regulated by circulation. Heat modalities have been shown to improve skin circulation. Recent research supports that passive vibration increases circulation without risk of burns. Study purpose is to compare and determine effects of short duration vibration, moist heat, and a combination of the two on skin blood flow (SBF) and skin temperature (ST) in elderly, non-diabetic individuals following short-term exposure. Material/Methods Ten subjects, 3 female and 7 male (55–73 years of age), received two interventions over three days: 1 – Active vibration, 2 – passive vibration, 3 – moist heat, 4 – moist heat combined with passive vibration (MHPV), 5 – a commercial massaging heating pad, and 6 – no intervention. SBF and ST were measured using a MOOR Laser Doppler before and after the intervention and the third measurement were taken 10 minutes following. Results Mean SBF following a ten-minute intervention were significantly different in the combination of moist heat and passive vibration from the control, active vibration, and the commercial massaging heating pad. Compared to baseline measurements, this resulted in mean SBF elevation to 450% (at conclusion of 10 minutes of intervention) and 379% (10 minutes post). MHPV (p=0.02) showed significant changes in ST from the commercial massaging heating pad, passive vibration, and active vibration interventions. Conclusions SBF in the lower legs showed greatest increase with MHPV. Interventions should be selected that are low risk while increasing lower extremity skin blood flow. PMID:22739731

Lohman, Everett B.; Sackiriyas, Kanikkai Steni Balan; Bains, Gurinder S.; Calandra, Giovanni; Lobo, Crystal; Nakhro, Daniel; Malthankar, Gauri; Paul, Sherwine

2012-01-01

157

The ORNL whole body counter  

SciTech Connect

This report is a non-technical document intended to provide an individual about to undergo a whole-body radiation count with a general understanding of the counting procedure and with the results obtained. 9 figs. (TEM)

Not Available

1988-01-01

158

Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular

Christophe Hausswirth; Julien Louis; François Bieuzen; Hervé Pournot; Jean Fournier; Jean-Robert Filliard; Jeanick Brisswalter

2011-01-01

159

Changes in auditory evoked brain potentials during ultra-low frequency whole-body vibration of man or of his visual surround  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Auditory evoked brain potentials (AEP) were recorded from nine healthy male subjects during three types of condition: A — subject and visual field stationary; B — subject vibrated (z-axis, 0.6 Hz, 1.85 ms–2 rms), visual field stationary; C subject stationary, visual field vibrated (as for B). The visual surround was confined to a checkerboard pattern in front of the subject.

Helmut Seidel; Uwe Schuster; Gerhard Menzel; Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Kurerov; Jiirg Richter; Evgenija Jurevna Schajpak; Ralph Bliithner; Anneliese Meister; Peter Ullsperger

1990-01-01

160

Health risk evaluation of whole-body vibration by ISO 2631-5 and ISO 2631-1 for operators of agricultural tractors and recreational vehicles.  

PubMed

This paper presents experimental research evaluation of the vibration exposure for the health risk prediction during vehicle operation. The vibration measurements were carried out on a recreational vehicle and two types of agricultural tractors. The vibration levels were measured for different surfaces and vehicle speed conditions. Based on the analysis of the results in the small agricultural tractor operated in the workplace (frameworks), Sed exceeded 0.80 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004, and Av exceeded 0.89 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997. That means that operators driving small agricultural tractors more than 8 h a day have a high probability of adverse health effects. However, the exposure value for the recreational vehicle had Sed < 0.5 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004 and Av < 0.5 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997 on highways and local roads. That means Recreational Vehicle operators driving more than 8 h a day, have a low probability of adverse health effects. Also, for the recreational vehicle, vibration was taken at different speeds (40-60 km/h, 80 km/h, 100-120 km/h). However, the speed change did not appear to affect the vibration dose variation while driving a vehicle on the highway and road. Finally, the health effect index of ISO2631-5:2004 are almost the same as assessment of health effect by ISO2631-1:1997. PMID:23558167

Park, Min-Soo; Fukuda, Takabumi; Kim, Tae-Gu; Maeda, Setsuo

2013-01-01

161

Hanford whole body counting manual  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

1990-06-01

162

Cardiovascular changes and hearing threshold shifts in men under complex exposures to noise, whole body vibrations, temperatures and competition-type psychic load  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with changes in the temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), heart rate (HR), R-wave amplitude (RWA), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP) and reaction time (RT) in subjects (n = 108) who, while working on a choice reaction apparatus, were exposed in an exposure chamber to combinations of noise and vibration at dry bulb

Olavi Manninen

1985-01-01

163

Bioresponses in men after repeated exposures to single and simultaneous sinusoidal or stochastic whole body vibrations of varying bandwidths and noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the changes in temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), upright body posture sway amplitudes in the X and Y direction, heart rate (HR), R-wave amplitude (RWA), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP) and the index characterizing haemodynamic activity (HDI), when the subjects were exposed to noise alone, to vibrations alone or to simultaneous noise

Olavi Manninen

1986-01-01

164

Systematically Controlling for the Influence of Age, Sex, Hertz and Time Post-Whole-Body Vibration Exposure on Four Measures of Physical Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Cross-Over Study  

PubMed Central

Though popular, there is little agreement on what whole-body vibration (WBV) parameters will optimize performance. This study aimed to clarify the effects of age, sex, hertz and time on four physical function indicators in community-dwelling older adults (N = 32). Participants were exposed to 2?min WBV per session at either 2?Hz or 26?Hz and outcome measures were recorded at 2, 20 and 40?min post-WBV. Timed get up-and-go and chair sit-and-reach performances improved post-WBV for both sexes, were significantly different between 2?Hz and 26?Hz treatments (P ? 0.05) and showed statistically significant interactions between age and gender (P ? 0.01). Counter movement jump and timed one-legged stance performances showed a similar but non-significant response to 2?Hz and 26?Hz treatments, though male subjects showed a distinct trended response. Age and gender should be statistically controlled and both 2?Hz and 26?Hz exert a treatment effect. PMID:21977028

Merriman, Harold L.; Brahler, C. Jayne; Jackson, Kurt

2011-01-01

165

Hepatobiliary Kinetics After Whole Body Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this investigation was to study hepatobiliary kinetics after whole body gamma irradiation. Two groups of nine male beagle dogs were irradiated with a single whole body dose of 4 and 8 Gy Cobalt-60 photons. Each animal was injected with 2 mC...

A. Durakovic

1986-01-01

166

Humanoid Teleoperation for Whole Body Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of successful telemanipulation of large, heavy objects by a humanoid robot. Using a sin- gle joystick the operator controls walking and whole body manipulation along arbitrary paths for up to ten minutes of continuous execution. The robot grasps, walks, pushes, pulls, turns and re-grasps a 55kg range of loads on casters. Our telemanipulation framework changes reference frames

Mike Stilman; Koichi Nishiwaki; Satoshi Kagami

2008-01-01

167

THE PATHOLOGY OF WHOLE BODY IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lethal radiation dose varies with the size of the area of the body ; to which the radiation is directed. A single whole body dose of 200-600 r is, ; for example, lethal to man; whereas a local tumor may be treated with a total ; dose of 1000 r without occurrence of universal damage to the body. The

Teir

1962-01-01

168

Prediction of Ground Vibration from Freight Trains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy freight trains emit ground vibration with predominant frequency components in the range 4-30 Hz. If the amplitude is sufficient, this may be felt by lineside residents, giving rise to disturbance and concern over possible damage to their property. In order to establish the influence of parameters of the track and rolling stock and thereby enable the design of a low vibration railway, a theoretical model of both the generation and propagation of vibration is required. The vibration is generated as a combination of the effects of dynamic forces, due to the unevenness of the track, and the effects of the track deformation under successive axle loads. A prediction scheme, which combines these effects, has been produced. A vehicle model is used to predict the dynamic forces at the wheels. This includes the non-linear effects of friction damped suspensions. The loaded track profile is measured by using a track recording coach. The dynamic loading and the effects of the moving axles are combined in a track response model. The predicted track vibration is compared to measurements. The transfer functions from the track to a point in the ground can be calculated by using a coupled track and a three-dimensional layered ground model. The propagation effects of the ground layers are important but the computation of the transfer function from each sleeper, which would be required for a phase coherent summation of the vibration in the ground, would be prohibitive. A compromise summation is used and results are compared with measurements.

Jones, C. J. C.; Block, J. R.

1996-05-01

169

Nonaxial whole-body instant imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that whole-body, single-shot imaging is practical for imaging out of the central plane, including oblique axes. The technique is illustrated by images of the heart in the cardiac long- and short-axis and by coronal images of the brain. Secondary gradients can produce additional image distortion and ghosting in these images. These artifacts are a direct consequence, predictable by

R. M. Weisskoff; M. S. Cohen; R. R. Rzedzian

1993-01-01

170

An improved whole body bone scanning technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body bone scanning with 99mTc-labelled phosphates is now well established in routine clinical practice. It is the most sensitive indicator of early pathology in the skeleton and it remains a non-invasive, safe, and easy procedure. It has passed the test of time and it is unlikely to be replaced even by the most modern computerised axial tomography techniques. The

P. J. Ell; A. T. Elliott; B. Sanyal; F. McSweeney; J. Lovell

1978-01-01

171

Hepatobiliary kinetics after whole-body irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to study hepatobiliary kinetics after whole-body gamma irradiation. Two groups of nine male beagle dogs were irradiated with a single whole body dose of 4- and 8-Gy cobalt-60 photons. Each animal was injected with 2 mCi Tc-99m DISIDA and scintigraphic studies were obtained with a gamma camera with a parallel hole multipurpose collimator. The parameters studied included: peak activity of the liver and gall bladder and gall bladder and intestinal visualization from the time of Tc-99m DISIDA administration. Total and indirect bilirubin, LDH, SGOT, and SGPT determined as baseline studies before irradiation and at different time intervals after irradiation were not changed in irradiated animals. Whole body Co-60 irradiation with 4 and 8 Gy produced no significant changes in the Tc-99m DISIDA visualization of the gall bladder or in the peak activity in the gall bladder or the liver 1 and 7 days after irradiation. Intestinal visualization occurred significantly earlier in 8 Gy Co-60 irradiated animals on both day 1 and day 7 post irradiation, compared to baseline values where it was never observed before 195.0 minutes. Gall bladder emptying is significantly accelerated after 8 Gy but not after 4-Gy Co-60 gamma irradiation. These observations suggest that gamma irradiation stimulates gall bladder contractility without modifying intrahepatic biliary kinetics.

Durakovic, A.

1986-09-01

172

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2011-04-01

173

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2013-04-01

174

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2014-04-01

175

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2012-04-01

176

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2010-04-01

177

Adaptations of mouse skeletal muscle to low intensity vibration training  

PubMed Central

Purpose We tested the hypothesis that low intensity vibration training in mice improves contractile function of hindlimb skeletal muscles and promotes exercise-related cellular adaptations. Methods We subjected C57BL/6J mice to 6 wk, 5 d·wk?1, 15 min·d?1 of sham or low intensity vibration (45 Hz, 1.0 g) while housed in traditional cages (Sham-Active, n=8; Vibrated-Active, n=10) or in small cages to restrict physical activity (Sham-Restricted, n=8; Vibrated-Restricted, n=8). Contractile function and resistance to fatigue were tested in vivo (anterior and posterior crural muscles) and ex vivo on the soleus muscle. Tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were evaluated histologically for alterations in oxidative metabolism, capillarity, and fiber types. Epididymal fat pad and hindlimb muscle masses were measured. Two-way ANOVAs were used to determine effects of vibration and physical inactivity. Results Vibration training resulted in a 10% increase in maximal isometric torque (P=0.038) and 16% faster maximal rate of relaxation (P=0.030) of the anterior crural muscles. Posterior crural muscles were unaffected by vibration, with the exception of greater rates of contraction in Vibrated-Restricted mice compared to Vibrated-Active and Sham-Restricted mice (P=0.022). Soleus muscle maximal isometric tetanic force tended to be greater (P=0.057) and maximal relaxation was 20% faster (P=0.005) in Vibrated compared to Sham mice. Restriction of physical activity induced muscle weakness but was not required for vibration to be effective in improving strength or relaxation. Vibration training did not impact muscle fatigability or any indicator of cellular adaptation investigated (P?0.431). Fat pad but not hindlimb muscle masses were affected by vibration training. Conclusion Vibration training in mice improved muscle contractility, specifically strength and relaxation rates, with no indication of adverse effects to muscle function or cellular adaptations. PMID:23274599

McKeehen, James N.; Novotny, Susan A.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Nuckley, David J.; Lowe, Dawn A.

2013-01-01

178

Acute effects of resistance training with local vibration.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to verify the acute effects of the application of local vibration on upper limbs during resistance training on the number of maximum repetitions, metabolic and hormonal responses. 32 volunteers performed a maximum voluntary contraction test during a lat pulldown exercise. After the test, all volunteers underwent one conventional resistance training session and one resistance training session with local vibration. In both interventions, volunteers performed 4 sets with the highest possible number of repetitions of the lat pulldown exercise at 55% of maximum voluntary contraction. During the vibratory resistance training intervention, vibration was locally applied (20-Hz and 12-mm). During the conventional resistance training, volunteers performed the same procedures without vibration. Blood samples were taken at each experimental session before and 5 min after the end of each intervention. No significant differences were observed in number of maximum repetitions between the series of vibratory and conventional training. Serum testosterone, cortisol and lactate were significantly increased after 2 interventions. Vibratory resistance training induced greater increases in testosterone and lactate concentrations. No significant changes were found in creatine kinase, creatinine or urea concentration. These data indicate that local vibration increases the metabolic and anabolic response to the resistance training, without changing the training volume. PMID:23444091

Couto, B P; Silva, H R; Filho, A G; da Silveira Neves, S R; Ramos, M G; Szmuchrowski, L A; Barbosa, M P

2013-09-01

179

Original article Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry  

E-print Network

Original article Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry estimates for the PET dopamine Communications 2004, 25:737­742 Keywords: 18 F-FECNT, dopamine transporter, dosimetry, whole-body bio assessment of the resulting radiation exposure to organs of the body. Radiation dosimetry estimates were

Shen, Jun

180

Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data  

SciTech Connect

A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C. [Blasland, Bouck and Lee, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

181

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2010-04-01

182

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2012-04-01

183

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2014-04-01

184

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2011-04-01

185

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2013-04-01

186

Age Modulates attitudes to Whole Body Donation Among Medical Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study to understand the effect of medical student age on the attitude towards whole body donation. Outcomes discussed include the shift in attitude toward the nature of body donation (family member, self, unrelated stranger).

2009-07-01

187

BodyBeats: Whole-Body, Musical Interfaces for Children  

E-print Network

to play and learn with technology (while challenging a growing rate of childhood obesity). We describe how as a contributor to childhood obesity [4], [9] can be used to create compelling, whole-body, physical and social

188

[Oncologic screening with whole-body MRI: possibilities and limitations].  

PubMed

In the last decade the interest in radiological screening examination increased among informed laymen enormously. Independent from the evidence of whole-body examinations for cancer prevention the discussion about screening must again be considered again due to the newest technical developments, since MRI of the whole-body with high spatial resolution is feasible now within one single examination. The newest system permits simultaneous connection of up to 76 coil elements and signal reception from 32 independent receiving channels. Whole-body MRI including magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) is feasible within 60 min. In this review potential investigation protocols will be presented. Potentials, challenges and limitations of whole-body MRI in the prevention of the malignancies most frequently leading to death are discussed on the basis own experiences examples and the literature. PMID:15349733

Schäfer, J F; Fischmann, A; Lichy, M; Vollmar, J; Fenchel, M; Claussen, C D; Schlemmer, H-P

2004-09-01

189

Development of a low-cost whole-body counter  

E-print Network

Vetter (Member) John . Poston (Head of Department) May 1990 ABSTRACT Development Of A Low-Cost Whole-Body Counter. (May 1990) Matthew Howard Smith, B. S. , University of Wisconsin-River Falls Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Milton E. Mc... workers. A relatively inexpensive and simple chair-type whole-body counter may suit the needs of many organizations for in vivo assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides. A simple calibration phantom and a spreadsheet computer program were developed...

Smith, Matthew Howard

2012-06-07

190

Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting  

SciTech Connect

Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition.

James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

1987-09-01

191

Feasibility of differential phase contrast CT for whole body imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase contrast based imaging techniques have shown improved contrast in certain biological materials. This has led to an increased interest for the potential of preclinical and clinical imaging systems that incorporate phase sensitive imaging techniques. However, the interplay between the phase contrast mechanism and the so-called small-angle scattering or dark-field mechanism is often not considered. In this work we explore the potential for phase-sensitive whole body imaging by imaging a freshly euthanized specimen. The results suggest that when extrapolating phantom and ex vivo results to whole body imaging, one must consider the complex anatomy of the entire body and its effect on each contrast mechanism.

Li, Ke; Bevins, Nicholas B.; Zambelli, Joseph N.; Chen, Guang-Hong

2012-07-01

192

[Improving of muscle mass and force in rehabilitation of heart-lung patients. Aerobic interval training, resistance-exercises, excentric exercises, vibration].  

PubMed

Improvement of muscle mass and force which got depleted by inactivity or pathological processes is one of the aims and also a prerequisite of a rehabilitative intervention. Metabolically active larger and stronger muscles diminish the cardiovascular risk, permit the aerobic preventive and rehabilitative activities and enables a higher quality of life. Interval forms of aerobic exercise improves also the muscles. The resistance training plays an important part in rehabilitation. Beside the traditional dynamic strength training with weights, gym machines, body weight etc. the excentric type of muscle activity potentiates higher muscle load with lesser energy consumption, therefore it is suitable in the case of smaller performance ability. Vibration of the whole body or parts of it by machines improves the co-activity of the motor units and results in force development with small metabolic involvement. PMID:16238250

Apor, Péter; Tihanyi, József; Borka, Péter

2005-09-18

193

Adaptive, segmented attenuation correction for whole-body PET imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented for segmented attenuation correction in positron emission tomography (PET) based on the local thresholding technique (LTS) described previously. To accommodate the substantially different body sections encountered in whole-body PET, an adaptive thresholding has been added to yield more uniform results throughout the body. By evaluating the intensity distribution of a set of transverse transmission images, the

M. Xu; P. D. Cutler; W. K. Luk

1996-01-01

194

Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…

Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.

2009-01-01

195

BABYSCAN - a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima  

E-print Network

BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for $^{137}$Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described.

Hayano, Ryugo S; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

2014-01-01

196

Small-animal whole-body photoacoustic tomography: a review.  

PubMed

With the wide use of small animals for biomedical studies, in vivo small-animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging whole-body imaging modality that shows great potential for preclinical research. As a hybrid technique, PAT is based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from either endogenous tissue chromophores, such as oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, or exogenous contrast agents. Because ultrasound scatters much less than light in tissue, PAT generates high-resolution images in both the optical ballistic and diffusive regimes. Using near-infrared light, which has relatively low blood absorption, PAT can image through the whole body of small animals with acoustically defined spatial resolution. Anatomical and vascular structures are imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, while functional and molecular images are enabled by the wide choice of exogenous optical contrasts. This paper reviews the rapidly growing field of small-animal whole-body PAT and highlights studies done in the past decade. PMID:24108456

Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V

2014-05-01

197

Whole Body PET imaging using variable acquisition times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole Body PET scans are typically performed as a series of image sets acquired at discrete axial positions to cover most or all of the body. The acquisition time at each axial position is typically kept fixed for all positions although the imaging time is typically adjusted according to the patient's weight. Because of the varying amount of attenuation for

Aron K Krizsan; Johannes Czernin; Magnus Dahlbom

2011-01-01

198

BodyBeats: whole-body, musical interfaces for children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work in progress presents the BodyBeats Suite— three prototypes built to explore the interaction between children and computational musical instruments by using sound and music patterns. Our goals in developing the BodyBeats prototypes are (1) to help children engage their whole bodies while interacting with computers, (2) foster collaboration and pattern learning, and (3) provide a playful interaction for

Jamie Zigelbaum; Amon Millner; Bella Desai; Hiroshi Ishii

2006-01-01

199

Lesion segmentation in whole-body images of PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

In PET, identification of lesion boundaries in general is not a trivial problem as whole-body images exhibit inhomogeneity. Manual segmentation methods in current commercial software packages to identify lesion boundaries and to quantify in terms of standard uptake value (SUV) are very laborious and tedious. They discourage physicians from taking advantage of the inherently quantitative data and compel them to

O. Demirkaya

2003-01-01

200

Whole-Body and Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Obese Children  

PubMed Central

Background Insulin resistance may be assessed as whole body or hepatic. Objective To study factors associated with both types of insulin resistance. Methods Cross-sectional study of 182 obese children. Somatometric measurements were registered, and the following three adiposity indexes were compared: BMI, waist-to-height ratio and visceral adiposity. Whole-body insulin resistance was evaluated using HOMA-IR, with 2.5 as the cut-off point. Hepatic insulin resistance was considered for IGFBP-1 level quartiles 1 to 3 (<6.67 ng/ml). We determined metabolite and hormone levels and performed a liver ultrasound. Results The majority, 73.1%, of obese children had whole-body insulin resistance and hepatic insulin resistance, while 7% did not have either type. HOMA-IR was negatively associated with IGFBP-1 and positively associated with BMI, triglycerides, leptin and mother's BMI. Girls had increased HOMA-IR. IGFBP-1 was negatively associated with waist-to-height ratio, age, leptin, HOMA-IR and IGF-I. We did not find HOMA-IR or IGFBP-1 associated with fatty liver. Conclusion In school-aged children, BMI is the best metric to predict whole-body insulin resistance, and waist-to-height ratio is the best predictor of hepatic insulin resistance, indicating that central obesity is important for hepatic insulin resistance. The reciprocal negative association of IGFBP-1 and HOMA-IR may represent a strong interaction of the physiological processes of both whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:25411786

Ibarra-Reynoso, Lorena del Rocío; Pisarchyk, Liudmila; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Garay-Sevilla, Ma. Eugenia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

2014-01-01

201

[Arterial vascular screening with whole body MR angiography].  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis represents a frequent health problem in developed countries. Although a systemic disease, the diagnostic approach to atherosclerosis has remained segmental. Largely, this approach has been a reflection of limitations inherent to the imaging techniques used. Recently, whole-body MR angiography has become possible allowing the display of the arterial vasculature from the supraaortic arteries to the distal run-off vessels in merely 72 seconds. The technique provides images quality comparable to catheter angiography. The advantage of this approach relates to its potential in detecting vascular pathologies in regions which would have remained unexamined with conventional diagnostic management. Thus, the outlined strategy of whole-body MR angiography mirrors the systemic nature of atherosclerosis and can be used as a noninvasive comprehensive screen for arterial disease screening. PMID:12078389

Goyen, Mathias; Ruehm, Stefan G; Debatin, Jörg F

2002-05-15

202

History and development of whole body counting in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The first whole body counter (WBC) built in Brazil used sugar as shielding material, and for this reason became internationally known as the {open_quotes}Sugar Bowl.{close_quotes} The main purpose of building that first WBC was to detect natural gamma emitters other than {sup 40}K in the inhabitants of Guarapari, then a small fishing village with a population not greater than 6,000 people, suspected of having long-lived contamination with natural radionuclides of the {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U series. However, the Sugar Bowl was also used to whole body count the workers of a gas mantle factory. This paper reviews the history behind the construction and uses of the Sugar Bowl, as well as presents a brief view of the basic characteristics of the subsequent WBCs built in Brazil. A total of 12 WBCs have been in existence in this country until today.

Paschoa, A.S.; Nogueira de Oliveira, C.A.; Lourenco, M.C.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Guidicini, O.Y.M. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Antunes, I.M. [Industrias Nucleares Brasileiras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [Industrias Nucleares Brasileiras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1993-12-31

203

Early biological effects of whole body irradiation on rat lungs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The influence of whole-body irradiation (WBI) with 4, 8 and 15 Gyionizing radiation upon some biochemical indices in the brochoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rat lungs was studied. It was established that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase, (APH) and acid phosphatase (AcPH) activities show a dose-dependent decrease on the day 1 and day 5 after the irradiation. A similar

P. T. Salovsky; V. L. Shopova

1992-01-01

204

Whole body bone mineral content in healthy children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from healthy children are needed to evaluate bone mineralisation during childhood. Whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area were examined by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (Hologic 1000\\/W) in healthy girls (n=201) and boys (n=142) aged 5–19 years. Centile curves for bone area for age, BMC for age, bone area for height, and BMC for bone area

Christian Mølgaard; Birthe Lykke Thomsen; Ann Prentice; Tim J Cole; Kim Fleischer Michaelsen

1997-01-01

205

Motion planning of optimal throw for whole-body humanoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation proposes a numerical framework that optimizes the throwing motions and generates the associated dynamic features for a whole-body humanoid. Rigorous dynamic models, such as actuation, biped balance based on Zero-Moment Point (ZMP), and ground reaction loads, are associated with the constraints. The algorithm outputs include the motion, required actuator torques, release parameters, and object projectile. Realistic human-like motions

Joo H. Kim

2010-01-01

206

Heat load tests of superconducting magnets vibrated electromagnetically for the Maglev train  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconducting magnets on Maglev trains vibrate due to harmonic ripples of electromagnetic flux generated by ground coils. Heat load caused by vibration in the magnet amounted to several tens of watts in the electromagnetic vibration test. This was mainly because a.c. loss was induced in the helium vessel housing the superconducting coil, due to relative vibration between the aluminium thermal

J. Ohmori; H. Nakao; T. Yamashita; Y. Sanada; M. Shudou; M. Kawai; M. Fujita; M. Terai; A. Miura

1997-01-01

207

Turnover of whole body proteins and myofibrillar proteins in middle-aged active men  

SciTech Connect

Endurance-trained older men have a higher proportion of lean tissue and greater muscle cell oxidative capacity, reversing age-related trends and suggesting major changes in protein metabolism. In this study, protein turnover was determined in 6 middle-aged (52+/-1 yr) men who were well trained (VO/sub 2/ max 55.2+/-5.0 ml O/sub 2//kg.min) and lean (body fat 18.9+/-2.8%, muscle mass 36.6+/-0.6%). The maintained habitual exercise while consuming 0.6, 0.9 or 1.2 g protein/kg.day for 10-day periods. N flux was measured from /sup 15/N in urea after oral /sup 15/N-glycine administration. Myofibrillar protein breakdown was estimated from urinary 3-methyl-histidine. Dietary protein had no effect on turnover rates, even when N balance was negative. Whole body protein synthesis was 3.60+/-0.12 g/kg.day and breakdown was 3.40+/-0.14 g/kg.day for all N intakes. Whole body protein flux, synthesis and breakdown were similar to values reported for sedentary young (SY) or sedentary old (SO) men on comparable diets. 3-me-his (3.67+/-0.14 ..mu..mol/kg.day) was similar to values reported for SY but higher (p<0.01) than for SO. Myofibrillar protein breakdown per unit muscle mass (185+/-7 ..mu..mol 3-me-his/g creatinine) was higher (p<0.01) than for SY or SO. In active middle-aged men, myofibrillar proteins may account for a greater proportion of whole body protein turnover, despite an age-related reduction in muscle mass.

Zackin, M.; Meredith, C.; Frontera, W.; Evans, W.

1986-03-05

208

Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

1987-01-01

209

Five-Day Whole-Body Cryostimulation, Blood Inflammatory Markers, and Performance in High-Ranking Professional Tennis Players  

PubMed Central

Context Tournament season can provoke overreaching syndrome in professional tennis players, which may lead to deteriorated performance. Thus, appropriate recovery methods are crucial for athletes in order to sustain high-level performance and avoid injuries. We hypothesized that whole-body cryostimulation could be applied to support the recovery process. Objective To assess the effects of 5 days of whole-body cryostimulation combined with moderate-intensity training on immunologic, hormonal, and hematologic responses; resting metabolic rate; and tennis performance in a posttournament season. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting National Olympic Sport Centre. Patients or Other Participants Twelve high-ranking professional tennis players. Intervention(s) Participants followed a moderate-intensity training program. A subgroup was treated with the 5-day whole-body cryostimulation (?120°C) applied twice a day. The control subgroup participated in the training only. Main Outcome Measure(s) Pretreatment and posttreatment blood samples were collected and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 6, testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase. Resting metabolic rate and performance of a tennis drill were also assessed. Results Proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor ?) decreased and pleiotropic cytokine (interleukin 6) and cortisol increased in the group exposed to cryostimulation. In the same group, greater stroke effectiveness during the tennis drill and faster recovery were observed. Neither the training program nor cryostimulation affected resting metabolic rate. Conclusions Professional tennis players experienced an intensified inflammatory response after the completed tournament season, which may lead to overreaching. Applying whole-body cryostimulation in conjunction with moderate-intensity training was more effective for the recovery process than the training itself. The 5-day exposure to cryostimulation twice a day ameliorated the cytokine profile, resulting in a decrease in tumor necrosis factor ? and an increase in interleukin 6. PMID:23182015

Ziemann, Ewa; Olek, Robert Antoni; Kujach, Sylwester; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Antosiewicz, J?drzej; Garsztka, Tomasz; Laskowski, Rados?aw

2012-01-01

210

Whole body autoradiographic distribution of exogenously administered renin in mice  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of exogenously administered renin was investigated using whole body autoradiography. Purified renin from mouse submaxillary gland (SR) was labeled with radioactive iodine (/sup 125/I). This labeled renin (/sup 125/I-SR) and Na/sup 125/I were administered into the tail vein of male ddY mice, in doses of 10.2 and 16.4 mu Ci/30 g body weight, respectively. Mice were killed by an overdose of ether, and autoradiography was performed on whole body sections. To separate free /sup 125/I liberated from /sup 125/I-SR, sections were treated with perchloric acid. A major accumulation of /sup 125/I-SR, acid-insoluble, was evident in the renal cortex, whereas the hepatic accumulation of /sup 125/I-SR was minor. Radioactivity in the thyroid and submaxillary glands, in the stomach, and in urine was also apparent, but disappeared after acid treatment, except in the thyroid glands. Radioactivity in the brain, intestinal content, spleen, and adrenal glands was nil. These autoradiograms provide the first evidence that exogenously administered renin is mainly distributed in the renal cortex.

Iwao, H.; Nakamura, N.; Ikemoto, F.; Yamamoto, K.

1983-06-01

211

[Cancer screening with whole-body FDG PET].  

PubMed

We are using whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) for cancer screening. A total of 1,105 healthy subjects have undergone PET studies 1,138 times in fifteen months. Emission scans were performed from the pelvis to the maxilla 45 to 60 minutes after intravenous administration of 260 to 370 MBq 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). Malignant tumors were detected with PET in nine patients (0.81%): 2 lung cancers, 2 colonic cancers, 1 breast cancer, 1 thyroid cancer, 1 gastric cancer, 1 renal cancer, and 1 lymphoma. Eight of these patients underwent surgery (excepting the lymphoma patient). Lymph node metastasis was not observed in any of the eight cases and surgery was curative. PET scan results were negative in the cases of three prostatic cancers, one bladder cancer, and two colonic mucosal cancers. High FDG accumulations were noticed in benign lesions such as sarcoidosis, chronic thyroiditis, pulmonary tuberculoma, Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland, and chronic sinusitis. In some cases, image artifacts caused by intense myocardial FDG accumulations resulted in incomplete examinations of the lung. Occasionally, high FDG accumulations were observed in the bowel. Our study results suggest the possibility of using whole-body PET for detecting wide varieties of cancers in resectable stages. PMID:8952258

Yasuda, S; Ide, M; Takagi, S; Shohtsu, A

1996-10-01

212

An analytical model for ground vibrations from accelerating trains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical approach is used to investigate ground vibrations due to accelerating and decelerating trains. The ground is modelled as a stratified half-space with linearly viscoelastic layers. On top of the ground, a rectangular embankment is placed, supporting the rails and the sleepers. The rails are modelled as Euler-Bernoulli beams where the propagating forces (wheel loads) are acting and the sleepers are modelled with an anisotropic Kirchhoff plate. The solution is based on Fourier transforms in time and along the track. In the transverse direction the field in the embankment is developed in Fourier series and the fields in the ground with Fourier transforms. The resulting numerical scheme is efficient and displacements for a wide frequency spectrum can be considered. Numerical examples are given for an X2 train that operates at the site Ledsgard in Sweden. In particular, the effects of the wheel traction from the driving wheel pairs or the braking wheels (all wheels) are accounted for. The results at some instantaneous train speeds are compared to corresponding constant train speeds.

Karlström, Anders

2006-06-01

213

RESEARCH Open Access Impact of whole-body computed tomography on  

E-print Network

management remains controversial. Besides its cost and the risk of radiation exposure, whole-body CT raises was to assess the impact of whole-body CT compared with selective CT on mortality and management of patients risk was observed among whole-body CT patients whatever the adjustment method (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0

214

Vibration Platform Training in Women at Risk for Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether a platform exercise program with vibration is more effective than the platform exercise alone for improving lower limb muscle strength and power in women age 45-60 with risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Randomized, controlled study Setting Academic center Participants 48 women age 45-60 years old with risk factors for knee OA (history of knee injury or surgery or BMI?25kg/m2). Interventions Subjects were randomized to a twice weekly lower limb exercise program (quarter squat, posterolateral leg lifts, calf raises) on either a vertically vibrating (35Hz, 2mm), or a non-vibrating platform. Main Outcome Measurements The main outcome measures included change in isokinetic quadriceps strength, leg press power, and stair climb power by 12 weeks. Results 39 out of 48 enrolled participants completed the study (26 vibration and 13 control exercise). Nine participants discontinued the study after randomization mainly due to lack of time. There were no intergroup differences in age, BMI, or activity level. Isokinetic knee extensor strength did not significantly improve in either group. Leg press power improved by 92.0±69.7 W in the vibration group (p<.0001) and 58.2±96.2 W in the control group (p=0.0499), but did not differ between groups (p=0.2262). Stair climb power improved by 53.4±64.7 W in the vibration group (p=0.0004) and 55.7±83.3 W in the control group (p=0.0329), but did not differ between groups (p=0.9272). Conclusions Whole body vibration platforms have been marketed for increasing strength and power. In this group of asymptomatic middle-aged women with risk factors for knee OA, addition of vibration to a 12-week exercise program did not result in significantly greater improvement in lower limb strength or power than participation in the exercise program without vibration. PMID:22981005

Segal, Neil A.; Glass, Natalie A.; Shakoor, Najia; Wallace, Robert

2013-01-01

215

Whole-body 3D scanner and scan data report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the first whole-body 3D scanner now available the next adventure confronting the user is what to do with all of the data. While the system was built for anthropologists, it has created interest among users from a wide variety of fields. Users with applications in the fields of anthropology, costume design, garment design, entertainment, VR and gaming have a need for the data in formats unique to their fields. Data from the scanner is being converted to solid models for art and design and NURBS for computer graphics applications. Motion capture has made scan data move and dance. The scanner has created a need for advanced application software just as other scanners have in the past.

Addleman, Stephen R.

1997-03-01

216

Eye position determines audiovestibular integration during whole-body rotation.  

PubMed

When a sound is presented in the free field at a location that remains fixed to the head during whole-body rotation in darkness, it is heard displaced in the direction opposing the rotation. This phenomenon is known as the audiogyral illusion. Consequently, the subjective auditory median plane (AMP) (the plane where the binaural difference cues for sound localization are perceived to be zero) shifts in the direction of body rotation. Recent experiments, however, have suggested opposite AMP results when using a fixation light that also moves with the head. Although in this condition the eyes remain stationary in the head, an ocular pursuit signal cancels the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which could induce an additional AMP shift. We tested whether the AMP is influenced by vestibular signals, eye position or eye velocity. We rotated subjects sinusoidally at different velocities, either in darkness or with a head-fixed fixation light, while they judged the laterality (left vs. right with respect to the midsagittal plane of the head) of broadband sounds presented over headphones. Subjects also performed the same task without vestibular stimulation while tracking a sinusoidally moving visual target, which mimicked the average eye-movement patterns of the vestibular experiments in darkness. Results show that whole-body rotation in darkness induces a shift of the AMP in the direction of body rotation. In contrast, we obtained no significant AMP change when a fixation light was used. The pursuit experiments showed a shift of the AMP in the direction of eccentric eye position but not at peak pursuit velocity. We therefore conclude that the vestibular-induced shift in average eye position underlies both the audiogyral illusion and the AMP shift. PMID:20374290

Van Barneveld, Denise C P B M; John Van Opstal, A

2010-03-01

217

High-fat diet elevates resting intramuscular triglyceride concentration and whole body lipolysis during exercise.  

PubMed

This study determined the role of intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) and adipose lipolysis in the elevated fat oxidation during exercise caused by a high-fat diet. In four separate trials, six endurance-trained cyclists exercised at 50% peak O2 consumption for 1 h after a two-day control diet (22% fat, CON) or an isocaloric high-fat diet (60% fat, HF) with or without the ingestion of acipimox, an adipose lipolysis inhibitor, before exercise. During exercise, HF elevated fat oxidation by 72% and whole body lipolysis [i.e., the appearance rate of glycerol in plasma (Ra glycerol)] by 79% compared with CON (P < 0.05), and this was associated with a 36% increase (P < 0.05) in preexercise IMTG concentration. Although acipimox lowered plasma free fatty acid (FFA) availability, HF still increased fat oxidation and Ra glycerol to the same magnitude above control as the increase caused by HF without acipimox (i.e., both increased fat oxidation 13-14 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1)). In conclusion, the marked increase in fat oxidation after a HF diet is associated with elevated IMTG concentration and whole body lipolysis and does not require increased adipose tissue lipolysis and plasma FFA concentration during exercise. This suggests that altered substrate storage in skeletal muscle is responsible for increased fat oxidation during exercise after 2 days of an HF diet. PMID:14559721

Zderic, Theodore W; Davidson, Christopher J; Schenk, Simon; Byerley, Lauri O; Coyle, Edward F

2004-02-01

218

Whole-body pre-cooling and heat storage during self-paced cycling performance in warm humid conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to establish the effect that pre-cooling the skin without a concomitant reduction in core temperature has on subsequent self-paced cycling performance under warm humid (31°C and 60% relative humidity) conditions. Seven moderately trained males performed a 30 min self-paced cycling trial on two separate occasions. The conditions were counterbalanced as control or whole-body pre-cooling

D. Kay; D. R. Taaffe; F. E. Marino

1999-01-01

219

A simple model to predict train-induced vibration: theoretical formulation and experimental validation  

SciTech Connect

No suitable handy tool is available to predict train-induced vibration on environmental impact assessment. A simple prediction model is proposed which has been calibrated for high speed trains. The model input data are train characteristics, train speed and track properties; model output data are soil time-averaged velocity and velocity level. Model results have been compared with numerous vibration data retrieved from measurement campaigns led along the most important high-speed European rail tracks. Model performances have been tested by comparing measured and predicted vibration values.

Rossi, Federico; Nicolini, Andrea

2003-05-01

220

Polyarteritis nodosa: MDCT as a 'One-Stop Shop' Modality for Whole-Body Arterial Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare disease, which is characterized by aneurysm formation and occlusion in the arteries of multiple systems. Due to its extensive involvement, whole-body evaluation is necessary for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We report a case of polyarteritis nodosa using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as a 'one-stop shop' modality for whole-body arterial evaluation. With precise protocol design, MDCT can be used as a reliable noninvasive modality providing comprehensive whole-body arterial evaluation.

Tsai, W.-L.; Tsai, I-C.; Lee Tain, E-mail: s841082@ym.edu.t [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, C.-W. [Taichung Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming University, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taiwan (China)

2008-07-15

221

Made-to-measure pattern development based on 3D whole body scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – New techniques are required to link 3D whole body scans to manufacturing techniques to allow for the mass-customization of clothes. This study aims to compare two methods of producing skirts based on 3D whole body scans. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Three females participated in the study. They were scanned with an accurate 3D whole body scanner. A set of relevant

Hein Daanen; Sung-Ae Hong

2008-01-01

222

Induction of whole body hyperthemia with venovenous perfusion.  

PubMed

Whole body hyperthermia can be used for the treatment of metastatic cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infections. The therapeutic effects of hyperthermia are dependent upon the actual temperature of the target tissues. Therefore, homogeneous distribution of heat and precise control of temperature gradients is critical. To describe heat distribution during hyperthermia induced by venovenous perfusion, the authors used multiple channel temperature monitoring and a servo-regulated perfusion/heat exchange system. Young swine were randomly assigned to either a heated group (perfusion-induced hyperthermia, target core temperature at 43 degrees C, n = 6), or a control group (perfusion alone, target core temperature at 38 degrees C, n = 6). Blood was drained from the external jugular vein, heated with a computer assisted heat exchange system, and reinfused through the femoral vein at a flow of 10 ml/kg-1/min-1. Temperature probes in the esophagus, right and left tympanic canals, brain, pulmonary artery, arterial and venous blood, rectus spinae muscle, kidney, rectum, bone marrow, bladder, subcutaneous tissue, gluteus, and skin were simultaneously recorded. During the heat induction phase, the maximum water temperature was 54 degrees C, with a heating gradient of the blood (blood in-blood out) at 6 degrees C. The maximum temperature difference between tissues was 3.6 degrees C (kidney and esophagus) during heat induction, but decreased to 1.75 degrees C during maintenance. Bone marrow temperature was consistently 1-2 degrees C below the average core temperature of 43 degrees C throughout the experiment. The authors conclude that venovenous perfusion can predictably induce hyperthermia, but is associated with heterogenous temperature distribution among organs. Further studies are necessary to evaluate different perfusion and heating patterns to achieve homogenous hyperthermia. PMID:8828779

Vertrees, R A; Tao, W; Pencil, S D; Sites, J P; Althoff, D P; Zwischenberger, J B

1996-01-01

223

Effects of train noise and vibration on human heart rate during sleep: an experimental study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Transportation of goods on railways is increasing and the majority of the increased numbers of freight trains run during the night. Transportation noise has adverse effects on sleep structure, affects the heart rate (HR) during sleep and may be linked to cardiovascular disease. Freight trains also generate vibration and little is known regarding the impact of vibration on human sleep. A laboratory study was conducted to examine how a realistic nocturnal railway traffic scenario influences HR during sleep. Design Case–control. Setting Healthy participants. Participants 24 healthy volunteers (11 men, 13 women, 19–28?years) spent six consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Interventions All participants slept during one habituation night, one control and four experimental nights in which train noise and vibration were reproduced. In the experimental nights, 20 or 36 trains with low-vibration or high-vibration characteristics were presented. Primary and secondary outcome measures Polysomnographical data and ECG were recorded. Results The train exposure led to a significant change of HR within 1?min of exposure onset (p=0.002), characterised by an initial and a delayed increase of HR. The high-vibration condition provoked an average increase of at least 3?bpm per train in 79% of the participants. Cardiac responses were in general higher in the high-vibration condition than in the low-vibration condition (p=0.006). No significant effect of noise sensitivity and gender was revealed, although there was a tendency for men to exhibit stronger HR acceleration than women. Conclusions Freight trains provoke HR accelerations during sleep, and the vibration characteristics of the trains are of special importance. In the long term, this may affect cardiovascular functioning of persons living close to railways. PMID:23793667

Croy, Ilona; Smith, Michael G; Waye, Kerstin Persson

2013-01-01

224

Aerobic fitness determines whole-body fat oxidation rate during exercise in the heat.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whole-body fat oxidation in endurance-trained (TR) and untrained (UNTR) subjects exercising at different intensities in the heat. On 3 occasions, 10 TR cyclists and 10 UNTR healthy subjects (peak oxygen uptake = 60 ± 6 vs. 44 ± 3 mL·kg-1·min-1; p < 0.05) exercised at 40%, 60%, and 80% peak oxygen uptake in a hot, dry environment (36 °C; 25% relative humidity). To complete the same amount of work in all 3 trials, exercise duration varied (107 ± 4, 63 ± 1, and 45 ± 0 min for 40%, 60%, and 80% peak oxygen uptake, respectively). Substrate oxidation was calculated using indirect calorimetry. Blood samples were collected at the end of exercise to determine plasma epinephrine ([EPI]plasma) and norepinephrine ([NEPI]plasma) concentrations. The maximal rate of fat oxidation was achieved at 60% peak oxygen uptake for the TR group (0.41 ± 0.01 g·min-1) and at 40% peak oxygen uptake for the UNTR group (0.28 ± 0.01 g·min-1). TR subjects oxidized absolutely (g·min-1) and relatively (% of total energy expenditure) more fat than UNTR subjects at 60% and 80% peak oxygen uptake (p < 0.05). At these exercise intensities, TR subjects also had higher [NEPI]plasma concentrations than UNTR subjects (p < 0.05). In the heat, whole-body peak fat oxidation occurs at higher relative exercise intensities in TR than in UNTR subjects (60% vs. 40% peak oxygen uptake). Moreover, TR subjects oxidize more fat than UNTR subjects when exercising at moderate to high intensities (>60% peak oxygen uptake). PMID:21164544

Del Coso, Juan; Hamouti, Nassim; Ortega, Juan Fernando; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

2010-12-01

225

AUTOMATIC HOT SPOT DETECTION AND SEGMENTATION IN WHOLE BODY FDG-PET IMAGES Haiying Guan1  

E-print Network

AUTOMATIC HOT SPOT DETECTION AND SEGMENTATION IN WHOLE BODY FDG-PET IMAGES Haiying Guan1 , Toshiro. California, Santa Barbara {haiying, mturk}@cs.ucsb.edu 2 Computer Aided Diagnosis and Therapy Group, Siemens a system for automatic hot spots detection and segmentation in whole body FDG-PET images. The main

California at Santa Barbara, University of

226

Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crandall, C. G., R. Zhang, and B. D. Levine. Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 279: H2486-H2492, 2000.—The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of

C. G. CRANDALL; R. ZHANG; B. D. LEVINE

227

Effects of a whole body compression garment on markers of recovery after a heavy resistance workout in men and women.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of a whole body compression garment on recovery from a typical heavy resistance training workout in resistance-trained men and women. Eleven men (mean +/- SD: age, 23.0 +/- 2.9 years) and 9 women (mean +/- SD: age 23.1 +/- 2.2 years) who were highly resistance trained gave informed consent to participate in the study. A within-group (each subject acted as their own control), balanced, and randomized treatment design was used. Nutritional intakes, activity, and behavioral patterns (e.g., no pain medications, ice, or long showers over the 24 hours) were replicated 2 days before each test separated by 72 hours. An 8-exercise whole body heavy resistance exercise protocol using barbells (3 sets of 8-10 repetition maximum, 2.0- to 2.5-minute rest) was performed after which the subject showered and put on a specific whole body compression garment one designed for women and one for men (CG) or just wore his/her normal noncompression clothing (CON). Subjects were then tested after 24 hours. Dependent measures included sleep quality, vitality rating, resting fatigue rating, muscle soreness, muscle swelling via ultrasound, reaction movement times, bench throw power, countermovement vertical jump power, and serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK) measured from a blood sample obtained via venipuncture of an arm vein. We observed significant (p < or = 0.05) differences between CG and CON conditions in both men and women for vitality (CG > CON), resting fatigue ratings (CG < CON), muscle soreness (CG < CON), ultrasound measure swelling (CG < CON), bench press throw (CG > CON), and CK (CG < CON). A whole body compression garment worn during the 24-hour recovery period after an intense heavy resistance training workout enhances various psychological, physiological, and a few performance markers of recovery compared with noncompressive control garment conditions. The use of compression appears to help in the recovery process after an intense heavy resistance training workout in men and women. PMID:20195085

Kraemer, William J; Flanagan, Shawn D; Comstock, Brett A; Fragala, Maren S; Earp, Jacob E; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Ho, Jen-Yu; Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Solomon-Hill, Glenn; Penwell, Zachary R; Powell, Matthew D; Wolf, Megan R; Volek, Jeff S; Denegar, Craig R; Maresh, Carl M

2010-03-01

228

Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging for staging malignant lymphoma in children  

PubMed Central

CT is currently the mainstay in staging malignant lymphoma in children, but the risk of second neoplasms due to ionizing radiation associated with CT is not negligible. Whole-body MRI techniques and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in particular, may be a good radiation-free alternative to CT. DWI is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and allows quantitative assessment of diffusion that may aid in the evaluation of malignant lymphomas. This article will review whole-body MRI techniques for staging malignant lymphoma with emphasis on whole-body DWI. Furthermore, future considerations and challenges in whole-body DWI will be discussed. PMID:20676622

Takahara, Taro; Vermoolen, Malou A.; Bierings, Marc B.; Mali, Willem P.; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.

2010-01-01

229

Vibration of a suspension bridge installed with a water pipeline and subjected to moving trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a first study on the vibration of a suspension bridge installed with a water pipeline and subjected to moving trains. The suspension bridge is modeled as a single-span beam suspended by the hangers and hinged at the two ends. The train is simulated as a sequence of equidistant moving loads with identical weights. The liquid flowing through

J. D. Yau; Y. B. Yang

2008-01-01

230

Individuals' Decision to Co-Donate or Donate Alone: An Archival Study of Married Whole Body Donors in Hawaii  

PubMed Central

Background Human cadavers are crucial to numerous aspects of health care, including initial and continuing training of medical doctors and advancement of medical research. Concerns have periodically been raised about the limited number of whole body donations. Little is known, however, about a unique form of donation, namely co-donations or instances when married individuals decide to register at the same time as their spouse as whole body donors. Our study aims to determine the extent of whole body co-donation and individual factors that might influence co-donation. Methods and Findings We reviewed all records of registrants to the University of Hawaii Medical School’s whole body donation program from 1967 through 2006 to identify married registrants. We then examined the 806 married individuals’ characteristics to understand their decision to register alone or with their spouse. We found that married individuals who registered at the same time as their spouse accounted for 38.2 percent of married registrants. Sex differences provided an initial lens to understand co-donation. Wives were more likely to co-donate than to register alone (p?=?0.002). Moreover, registrants’ main occupational background had a significant effect on co-donations (p?=?0.001). Married registrants (regardless of sex) in female-gendered occupations were more likely to co-donate than to donate alone (p?=?0.014). Female-gendered occupations were defined as ones in which women represented more than 55 percent of the workforce (e.g., preschool teachers). Thus, variations in donors’ occupational backgrounds explained co-donation above and beyond sex differences. Conclusions Efforts to secure whole body donations have historically focused on individual donations regardless of donors’ marital status. More attention needs to be paid, however, to co-donations since they represent a non-trivial number of total donations. Also, targeted outreach efforts to male and female members of female-gendered occupations might prove a successful way to increase donations through co-donations. PMID:22880077

Anteby, Michel; Garip, Filiz; Martorana, Paul V.; Lozanoff, Scott

2012-01-01

231

Field experiment of subgrade vibration induced by passing train in a seasonally frozen region of Daqing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibration characteristics and attenuation of the subgrade caused by passing trains in a seasonally frozen region of Daqing,\\u000a China are investigated. Three field experiments were conducted during different times through the year, in normal, freezing\\u000a and thawing periods, respectively, and the influence of the season, train speed and train type, is described in this paper.\\u000a The results show that:

Xianzhang Ling; Feng Zhang; Zhanyuan Zhu; Lin Ding; Qingli Hu

2009-01-01

232

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Whole Body Donation Among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a survey conducted among medical practitioners in India. The study's objective was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of whole body donation among medical professionals in India. Outcomes and results are discussed.

2011-05-05

233

Monitoring of whole body cryotherapy effects by thermal imaging: preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In whole body cryotherapy the whole human body is exposed to low temperature below ?100°C in a special room called cryogenic chamber for a very short period of time (2–3 minutes). The impact of cold can cause many different biochemical and physiological reactions of the organism.The skin temperature response due to whole body cryotherapy was studied by means of infrared

Armand Cholewka; Zofia Drzazga; Aleksander Siero?

2006-01-01

234

Immunofluorescence and histopathology of whole-body sagittal sections of infant mice infected with Herpesvirus platyrrhinae  

E-print Network

IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE AND HISTOPATHOLOGY OF WHOLE-BODY SAGITTAL SECTIONS OF INFANT MICE INFECTED WITH HERPESVIRUS PLATYRRHINAE A Thesis By SIDNEY ROBERT JONES Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Ma)or Subject: Veterinary Pathology IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE AND HISTOPATHOLOGY OF WHOLE-BODY SAGITTAL SECTIONS OF INFANT MICE INFECTED WITH HERPESVIRUS PLATYRRHINAE A Thesis By SIDNEY ROBERT JONES...

Jones, Sidney Robert

2012-06-07

235

Comparison of cockroach allergenic activity in whole body and fecal extracts.  

PubMed

Previous studies have established cockroach allergens as important sensitizing agents in the induction/exacerbation of urban asthma. The present investigation compared saline extracts of American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) whole bodies and feces and German cockroach (Blattella germanica) whole bodies and feces as important sources of allergens. All extracts were tested before or after gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 columns (fraction 2) as previously described. Skin test studies of 69 subjects with asthma with extracts of American or German cockroaches demonstrated a significant correlation of reactivity to whole body and fecal extracts for both species. Direct RASTs of 13 sera from cockroach skin test-positive subjects were generally greater to both German whole body extracts (GWBEs) and German fecal extracts (GFEs) as compared to American whole body and fecal extracts. There was a good correlation of RAST reactivity to GWBE with GFE. RAST inhibition demonstrated that GFE contained most of the allergenic activity present in GWBE. These studies demonstrate the allergenic similarities of cockroach whole body and fecal extracts and suggest that cockroach feces are an important sensitizing agent in atopic asthma. PMID:1993815

Lehrer, S B; Horner, W E; Menon, P; Stankus, R P

1991-02-01

236

Effects of vibration training on bone metabolism: results from a short-term bed rest study.  

PubMed

The absence of mechanical loading leads to a prompt increase in bone resorption measured by bone resorption markers. There is high potential that vibration training can positively influence bone metabolism in immobilized subjects, reduce the increase in osteoclastic activity and increase bone formation processes. We investigated whether vibration training at 20 Hz with an amplitude of 2-4 mm influences bone metabolism during immobilization. Eight male subjects (26.4 ± 4.9 years; 78.1 ± 9.5 kg) performed a 14 day bed rest in 6°-head down tilt (HDT). Subjects received vibration training for 2 × 5 min/day or a control intervention without vibration (crossover design). Calcium excretion and bone resorption markers C-telopeptide (CTX) and N-telopeptide (NTX) were analyzed from 24 h urine samples. Bone formation markers, bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) and procollagen-N propeptide (PINP) were analyzed from fasting blood samples. Our results show an increase in bone resorption very early during HDT bed rest in both interventions (CTX: p < 0.01; NTX: p < 0.001). Vibration training did not have any different effect on bone resorption markers (CTX: p = 0.10; NTX: p = 0.58), bone formation markers (PINP: p = 0.21; bAP: p = 0.12) and calcium excretion (p < 0.64) compared to the control condition. Mere vibration training with 20 Hz for 2 × 5 min/day does not prevent increase in bone resorption as measured with the described methods in our short-term HDT bed rest. PMID:21894450

Baecker, Natalie; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Heer, Martina; Mester, Jochen; Liphardt, Anna-Maria

2012-05-01

237

Whole-Body Vibration Influences Sound Localization in the Median Plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perceived location of events occurring in a mediated environment modulates the users' understanding and involvement in these events. Previous research has shown that when spatially discrepant information is available at various sensory channels, the perceived location of unisensory events might be altered. Tactile \\

Ana Tajadura-Jiménez; Aleksander Väljamäe; Norimichi Kitagawa; Hsin-Ni Ho

2007-01-01

238

Reducing whole-body vibration and musculoskeletal injury with a new car seat  

E-print Network

States (US Department of Labor 2003). Those whose occupations involve extended periods of driving, i of the literature indicated that WBV exposure experienced by occupational drivers leads to muscle fatigue

Makhsous, Mohsen

239

Modelling resonances of the standing body exposed to vertical whole-body vibration: Effects of posture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lumped parameter mathematical models representing anatomical parts of the human body have been developed to represent body motions associated with resonances of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body standing in five different postures: 'upright', 'lordotic', 'anterior lean', 'knees bent', and 'knees more bent'. The inertial and geometric parameters of the models were determined from published anthropometric data. Stiffness and damping parameters were obtained by comparing model responses with experimental data obtained previously. The principal resonance of the vertical apparent mass, and the first peak in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass, of the standing body in an upright posture (at 5-6 Hz) corresponded to vertical motion of the viscera in phase with the vertical motion of the entire body due to deformation of the tissues at the soles of the feet, with pitch motion of the pelvis out of phase with pitch motion of the upper body above the pelvis. Upward motion of the body was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the pelvis. Changing the posture of the upper body had minor effects on the mode associated with the principal resonances of the apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass, but the mode changed significantly with bending of the legs. In legs-bent postures, the principal resonance (at about 3 Hz) was attributed to bending of the legs coupled with pitch motion of the pelvis in phase with pitch motion of the upper body. In this mode, extension of the legs was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the upper body and the upward vertical motion of the viscera.

Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

2008-10-01

240

Effect of whole-body and local heating on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Animal studies suggest that alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is compromised during whole-body heating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether whole-body heating and/or local surface heating reduce cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in human skin. Protocol I: Six subjects were exposed to neutral skin temperature (i.e., 34 degrees C), whole-body heating, and local heating of forearm skin to increase skin blood flow to the same relative magnitude as that observed during whole-body heating. Protocol II: In eight subjects forearm skin was locally heated to 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C. During both protocols, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was assessed by local delivery of norepinephrine (NE) via intradermal microdialysis. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored over each microdialysis membrane via laser-Doppler flowmetry. In protocol I, whole-body and local heating caused similar increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The EC50 (log NE dose) of the dose-response curves for both whole body (-4.2 +/- 0.1 M) and local heating (-4.7 +/- 0.4 M) were significantly greater (i.e., high dose required to cause 50% reduction in CVC) relative to neutral skin temperature (- 5.6 +/- 0.0 M; P<0.05 for both). In both local and whole-body heated conditions CVC did not return to pre-heating values even at the highest dose of NE. In protocol II, calculated EC50 for 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C local heating was - 5.5 +/- 0.4, -4.6 +/- 0.3, -4.5 +/- 0.3, - 4.2 +/- 0.4 M, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the EC50 for 37,40 and 42 degrees C were significantly greater than the EC50 for 34 degrees C. These results indicate that even during administration of high concentrations of NE, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction does not fully compensate for local heating and whole-body heating induced vasodilatation in young, healthy subjects. Moreover, these data suggest that elevated local temperatures, above 37 degrees C, and whole-body heating similarly attenuate cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction responsiveness.

Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

2002-01-01

241

Reciprocal influence of masticatory apparatus, craniofacial structure and whole body homeostasis.  

PubMed

There are evidences that the evolution into Homo erectus was partially induced by masticatory muscular dystrophy caused by a gene mutation, which in turn increased brain capacity and led to bipedalism. It is generally accepted that the morphology and function of mammalian skull are partially controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. Archeologic evidences support that the masticatory apparatus have influenced the mechanical stress distribution in hominin skull, and consequently changed craniofacial morphology and function. Even after evolution into H. erectus, alterations in food properties by civilization and cultural preferences have caused modification of human masticatory pattern and accordingly craniofacial structure. Since there are evidences that prehuman and human masticatory apparatus has been influenced the craniofacial and whole body morphology and function, this apparatus in turn might influence whole body homeostasis. Plausible reciprocal influencing mechanisms of the masticatory apparatus on the whole body homeostasis might be (1) direct mechanical influence on the craniofacial structure, (2) distortion of cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and/or (3) several neural/humoral routes. Based on these backgrounds, the hypothesis of the present study is that the morphology and function of masticatory apparatus influence the whole body homeostasis and these interactions are reciprocal. Therefore, human masticatory apparatus, at the present time, should be kept in its physiological status to maintain the whole body homeostasis. We recommend basic and clinical approaches to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:22981594

Lee, Yong-Keun; Moon, Hyung-Joo

2012-12-01

242

Measurements of the equivalent whole-body dose during radiation therapy by cytogenetic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of equivalent whole-body dose following partial body exposure can be performed using different biophysical models. Calculations should be compared with biodosimetry data, but measurements are complicated by mitotic selection induced in target cells after localized irradiation. In this paper we measured chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes during radiotherapy, and estimated the equivalent whole-body dose absorbed, by using the novel technique of interphase chromosome painting. Premature chromosome condensation was induced in stimulated lymphocytes by incubation in calyculin A, and slides were hybridized in situ with whole-chromosome DNA probes specific for human chromosomes 2 and 4. Reciprocal exchanges were used to estimate the equivalent whole-body dose, based on individual pre-treatment in vitro calibration curves. Equivalent whole-body dose increased as a function of the number of fractions, and reached a plateau at high fraction numbers. Chromosomal aberration yields were dependent on field size, tumour position and concurrent chemotherapy. Results suggest that interphase chromosome painting is a simple technique able to give a reliable estimate of the equivalent whole-body dose absorbed during therapeutic partial-body irradiation.

Durante, Marco; Yamada, Shigeru; Ando, Koichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Kawata, Tetsuya; Majima, Hideyuki; Nakano, Takashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

1999-05-01

243

Whole body exposure at 2100 MHz induced by plane wave of random incidences in a population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the whole body exposure induced by plane wave coming from a random direction of arrival is analyzed at 2100 MHz. This work completes previous studies on the influence of different parameters on the whole body exposure (such as morphology, frequency or usage in near field). The Visible Human phantom has been used to build a surrogate model to predict the whole body exposure depending on the highlighted surface of the phantom and on the direction of arrival of the incident plane wave. For the Visible Human, the error on the whole body averaged Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is on average 4%. The surrogate model is applied to other 3D anthropomorphic phantoms for a frontal incidence with an averaged error of 10%. The great interest of the surrogate model is the possibility to apply a Monte Carlo process to assess probability distribution function of a population. A recent French anthropometric database of more than 3500 adults is used to build the probability distribution function of the whole body SAR for a random direction of arrival.

Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; El Habachi, Aimad; Wiart, J.

2010-11-01

244

Brown adipose tissue improves whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans.  

PubMed

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted scientific interest as an antidiabetic tissue owing to its ability to dissipate energy as heat. Despite a plethora of data concerning the role of BAT in glucose metabolism in rodents, the role of BAT (if any) in glucose metabolism in humans remains unclear. To investigate whether BAT activation alters whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans, we studied seven BAT-positive (BAT(+)) men and five BAT-negative (BAT(-)) men under thermoneutral conditions and after prolonged (5-8 h) cold exposure (CE). The two groups were similar in age, BMI, and adiposity. CE significantly increased resting energy expenditure, whole-body glucose disposal, plasma glucose oxidation, and insulin sensitivity in the BAT(+) group only. These results demonstrate a physiologically significant role of BAT in whole-body energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity in humans, and support the notion that BAT may function as an antidiabetic tissue in humans. PMID:25056438

Chondronikola, Maria; Volpi, Elena; Børsheim, Elisabet; Porter, Craig; Annamalai, Palam; Enerbäck, Sven; Lidell, Martin E; Saraf, Manish K; Labbe, Sebastien M; Hurren, Nicholas M; Yfanti, Christina; Chao, Tony; Andersen, Clark R; Cesani, Fernando; Hawkins, Hal; Sidossis, Labros S

2014-12-01

245

Whole-body FDG-PET imaging for staging of Hodgkin`s disease and lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Accurate staging of Hodgkin`s disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma (NHL) is important for treatment management. In this study, the utility of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) wholebody PET was evaluated as an imaging modality for initial staging or restaging of 7 HD and 11 NHL patients. Whole-body PET-based staging results were compared to the patient`s clinical stage based on conventional staging studies, which included combinations of CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, MRI scans, gallium scans, lymphangiograms, staging laparatomies and bone scans. Accurate staging was performed in 17 of 18 patients using a whole-body PET-based staging algorithm compared to the conventional staging algorithm in 15 of 18 patients. In 5 of 18 patients, whole-body PET-based staging showed additional lesions not detected by conventional staging modalities, whereas conventional staging demonstrated additional lesions in 4 of 18 patients not detected by whole-body PET. The total cost of conventional staging was $66,292 for 16 CT chest scans, 16 CT abdominal/pelvis scans, three limited MRI scans, four bone scans, give gallium scans, two laparotomies and one lymphangiogram. In contrast, scans cost $36,250 for 18 whole-body PET studies and additional selected correlative studies: one plain film radiograph, one limited CT, one bone marrow san, one upper GI and one endoscopy. A whole-body FDG-PET-based staging algorithm may be an accurate and cost-effective method for staging or restaging HD and NHL. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Hoh, C.K.; Glaspy, J.; Rosen, P. [Crump Institute of Biological Imaging, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-03-01

246

Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research  

SciTech Connect

The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

1991-12-31

247

Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research  

SciTech Connect

The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

1991-01-01

248

Proliferation of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells: effect of whole-body hyperthermia and antitumor agents.  

PubMed

We studied the main biological characteristics of spontaneous growth of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma and under conditions of antitumor therapy. A combination of whole-body hyperthermia and cytostatic treatment (cyclophosphamide and melatonin) produced maximum suppression of the tumor growth, inhibition of mitotic activity of tumor cells, and stimulation of their necrotic and apoptotic death. The maximum decrease in mitotic activity of tumor cells was observed after combined exposure to whole-body hyperthermia and both cytostatic preparations; enhancement of apoptotic cell death and the decrease in the tumor node weight were also most pronounced under these conditions and practically no body weight loss was recorded in this case. PMID:22803062

Lushnikova, E L; Ovsyanko, E V; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Efremov, A V; Morozov, D V

2011-11-01

249

Heat load tests of superconducting magnets vibrated electromagnetically for the Maglev train  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting magnets on Maglev trains vibrate due to harmonic ripples of electromagnetic flux generated by ground coils. Heat load caused by vibration in the magnet amounted to several tens of watts in the electromagnetic vibration test. This was mainly because a.c. loss was induced in the helium vessel housing the superconducting coil, due to relative vibration between the aluminium thermal shield and the coil. The heat load caused by vibration should be strictly restricted to less than 4W due to limited cryogenic refrigeration capacity. The heat load was tested using electromagnetic flux ripples for a superconducting magnet model of one coil which corresponds to 1/4 of an actual magnet. The flux ripples simulated the 6th harmonic of the actual ground levitation coil. Some ideas to reduce the heat load were tried for the magnet model, such as applying high resistance thermal radiation shielding, increasing rigidity of the vacuum vessel, and using high purity copper plating on the helium vessel. These ideas proved effective, and the maximum heat load due to vibration was held to less than 4 W per magnet for the one coil magnet model.

Ohmori, J.; Nakao, H.; Yamashita, T.; Sanada, Y.; Shudou, M.; Kawai, M.; Fujita, M.; Terai, M.; Miura, A.

250

Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P < 0.03) during the 2nd wk of bed rest. Leg and whole body lean mass decreased after bed rest (P < 0.05). Serum cortisol, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, and testosterone values did not change. Arteriovenous model calculations based on the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine in five subjects revealed a 50% decrease in muscle protein synthesis (PS; P < 0.03). Fractional PS by tracer incorporation into muscle protein also decreased by 46% (P < 0.05). The decrease in PS was related to a corresponding decrease in the sum of intracellular amino acid appearance from protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P < 0.01). Neither model-derived nor whole body values for protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

1996-01-01

251

Optimization of Whole-body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging  

EPA Science Inventory

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature lacks information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in devel...

252

Experiments on whole-body manipulation and locomotion with footstep real-time optimization  

E-print Network

with other degrees of freedom of the robot. The environment is perceived by the stereo vision system mounted in an optimization problem, in harmony with the upper-body movement. This way of reasoning about locomotion has been: · Seamlessly integrate locomotion with whole body movement. Footsteps are considered as part of the robot

253

Time-dependent whole-body fluorescence tomography of probe bio-distributions in mice  

E-print Network

.G. Yodh, "Experimental Images of Heterogeneous Turbid Media By Frequency- Domain DiffusingTime-dependent whole-body fluorescence tomography of probe bio-distributions in mice Sachin V@wustl.edu Abstract: We present a fast scanning fluorescence optical tomography system for imaging the kinetics

Larson-Prior, Linda

254

Perception of Passive Whole-Body Rotations in the Absence of Neck and Body Proprioception  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. This study investigated whether accurate perception of body rotation after passive horizontal whole-body rotations in the dark requires the integration of both vestibular and neck-body proprio- ceptive signals. 2. In the first experiment, the gain of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) of normal subjects (\\

JEAN BLOUIN; JEAN-LOUIS VERCHER; GABRIEL M. GAUTHIER; JACQUES PAILLARD; CHANTAL BARD; YVES LAMARRE

1995-01-01

255

Control Model Learning for Whole-Body Mobile Manipulation Scott Kuindersma  

E-print Network

Control Model Learning for Whole-Body Mobile Manipulation Scott Kuindersma Computer Science an approximation, ^f, which we represent using a linear-Gaussian basis function model, st+1 = ^f(st, at) + W the model, we must provide or learn the weight matrix W and the ordered set of basis func- tions used

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

256

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

2011-01-01

257

More than twelve different human behavioural traits and whole-body medical disorders are reported to  

E-print Network

disorders (especially obsessive­compulsive disorder), suicide, eating disorders, substance-abuse disorders, autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and neurodegenerative disorders2­5 . In additionMore than twelve different human behavioural traits and whole-body medical disorders are reported

Murphy, Dennis L.

258

Moving along the Mental Number Line: Interactions between Whole-Body Motion and Numerical Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Active head turns to the left and right have recently been shown to influence numerical cognition by shifting attention along the mental number line. In the present study, we found that passive whole-body motion influences numerical cognition. In a random-number generation task (Experiment 1), leftward and downward displacement of participants…

Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia; Mast, Fred W.

2012-01-01

259

Tasks prioritization for whole-body realtime imitation of human motion by humanoid robots  

E-print Network

with the balance problem by constrain- ing the robot feet to remain flat in double support and the COM projection; track the robot end-effectors (two hands and the free foot) and minimize human-humanoid joint angleTasks prioritization for whole-body realtime imitation of human motion by humanoid robots Sophie

Boyer, Edmond

260

A Tactile Sensing Element for a Whole Body Robot Skin Takayuki HOSHI, and Hiroyuki SHINODA  

E-print Network

- 1 - A Tactile Sensing Element for a Whole Body Robot Skin Takayuki HOSHI, and Hiroyuki SHINODA {star, shino}@alab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp In this paper, we propose a new tactile sensing element to realize robot skins. The sensing element has a large sensing area (several square centimeters) and acquires

Shinoda, Hiroyuki

261

Gamma camera imaging for studying intestinal absorption and whole-body distribution of selenomethionine.  

PubMed

Se metabolism in humans is not well characterised. Currently, the estimates of Se absorption, whole-body retention and excretion are being obtained from balance and tracer studies. In the present study, we used gamma camera imaging to evaluate the whole-body retention and distribution of radiolabelled selenomethionine (SeMet), the predominant form of Se present in foods. A total of eight healthy young men participated in the study. After consumption of a meal containing 4 MBq [??Se]L-SeMet ([??Se]SeMet), whole-body gamma camera scanning was performed for 45 min every hour over a 6 h period, every second hour for the next 18 h and once on each of the subsequent 6 d. Blood, urine and faecal samples were collected to determine the plasma content of [??Se]SeMet as well as its excretion in urine and faeces. Imaging showed that 87·9 (sd 3·3)% of the administered activity of [??Se]SeMet was retained within the body after 7 d. In contrast, the measured excretion in urine and faeces for the 7 d period was 8·2 (sd 1·1)% of the activity. Time-activity curves were generated for the whole body, stomach, liver, abdomen (other than the stomach and the liver), brain and femoral muscles. Gamma camera imaging allows for the assessment of the postprandial absorption of SeMet. This technique may also permit concurrent studies of organ turnover of SeMet. PMID:23930999

Madsen, Jan L; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Elema, Dennis R; Søndergaard, Lasse R; Rasmussen, Palle; Fuglsang, Stefan; Ljungberg, Michael; Damgaard, Morten

2014-02-01

262

Generating whole body motions for a biped humanoid robot from captured human dances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study is a system for a robot to imitate human dances. This paper describes the process to generate whole body motions which can be performed by an actual biped humanoid robot. Human dance motions are acquired through a motion capturing system. We then extract symbolic representation which is made up of prim- itive motions: essential postures

Shinichiro Nakaoka; Atsushi Nakazawa; Kazuhito Yokoi; Hirohisa Hirukawa; Katsushi Ikeuchi

2003-01-01

263

Partial and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort— Part I: Uniform environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects exposed to uniform environments were polled for their local and overall (whole-body) thermal sensation and comfort. Sensation and comfort for local body parts vary greatly. In cool environments, hands and feet feel colder than other body parts. The head, insensitive to cold but sensitive to warm, feels warmer than the rest of the body in warm environments. Overall sensation

Edward Arens; Hui Zhang; Charlie Huizenga

2006-01-01

264

A New Whole-Body Vapor Exposure Chamber for Protection Performance Research on Chemical Protective Ensembles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical vapor exposure chamber was designed to permit the study of whole-body vapor exposure of individuals wearing full protective clothing and equipment systems. A methodology also was developed to quantify the vapor protection performance of chemical protective ensembles (CPE) under safe and validated laboratory procedures. The principal research objectives were to (1) provide a methodology to accurately assess the

E. J. Scott Duncan; Eva F. Gudgin Dickson

2003-01-01

265

Whole-body simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET)-MR: optimization and adaptation of MRI sequences.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to introduce the underlying challenges associated with the incorporation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into the new hybrid imaging modality simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET)/MR and their impact on attenuation correction, sequence optimization, and protocol development. Many adjustments to MR sequences are necessary for optimal whole-body and fused image results. PMID:24436150

Fowler, Kathryn J; McConathy, Jon; Narra, Vamsi R

2014-02-01

266

Estimation of whole-body SAR from electromagnetic fields using personal exposure meters.  

PubMed

In this article, personal electromagnetic field measurements are converted into whole-body specific absorption rates for exposure of the general public. Whole-body SAR values calculated from personal exposure meter data are compared for different human spheroid phantoms: the highest SAR values (at 950 MHz) are obtained for the 1-year-old child (99th percentile of 17.9 microW/kg for electric field strength of 0.36 V/m), followed by the 5-year-old child, 10-year-old child, average woman, and average man. For the 1-year-old child, whole-body SAR values due to 9 different radiofrequency sources (FM, DAB, TETRA, TV, GSM900 DL, GSM1800 DL, DECT, UMTS DL, WiFi) are determined for 15 different scenarios. An SAR matrix for 15 different exposure scenarios and 9 sources is provided with the personal field exposure matrix. Highest 95th percentiles of the whole-body SAR are equal to 7.9 microW/kg (0.36 V/m, GSM900 DL), 5.8 microW/kg (0.26 V/m, DAB/TV), and 7.1 microW/kg (0.41 V/m, DECT) for the 1-year-old child, with a maximal total whole-body SAR of 11.5 microW/kg (0.48 V/m) due to all 9 sources. All values are below the basic restriction of 0.08 W/kg for the general public. 95th percentiles of whole-body SAR per V/m are equal to 60.1, 87.9, and 42.7 microW/kg for GSM900, DAB/TV, and DECT sources, respectively. Functions of the SAR versus measured electric fields are provided for the different phantoms and frequencies, enabling epidemiological and dosimetric studies to make an analysis in combination with both electric field and actual whole-body SAR. PMID:20041435

Joseph, Wout; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

2010-05-01

267

Effects of the whole-body cryotherapy on NTproBNP, hsCRP and troponin I in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-body cryotherapy refers to brief exposure to very cold air for treating symptoms of various illnesses. In sports medicine, whole-body cryotherapy is administered to improve recovery from muscular trauma. As specific studies are lacking, we measured cardiac markers in 10 top-level rugby players of the Italian National team before and after a 1-week course of daily sessions of whole-body cryotherapy.

Giuseppe Banfi; Gianluca Melegati; Alessandra Barassi; Gianlodovico Melzi d’Eril

2009-01-01

268

Tumor Load in Patients With Multiple Myeloma: ?2-Microglobulin Levels Versus Whole-Body MRI.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Beta-2-microglobulin is a serum maker of tumor burden in hematologic malignancies. We aimed to correlate serum ?2-microglobulin levels in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) to tumor mass determined by whole-body MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We retrospectively included patients with newly diagnosed, untreated MM who underwent whole-body MRI at our institution between 2003 and 2011. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min were excluded from analysis because ?2-microglobulin levels are increased in renal failure. Thirty patients could be included. Whole-body MRI examinations (T1-weighted turbo spin-echo and STIR sequences) were assessed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus for focal lesions and the presence of diffuse myeloma infiltration. The presence of diffuse infiltration was confirmed by histology as the reference standard. MM was staged according to the Durie and Salmon PLUS staging system. RESULTS. According to whole-body MRI findings, MM was classified as Durie and Salmon PLUS stage I (low grade) in 13 patients, stage II (intermediate grade) in six patients, and stage III (high grade) in 11 patients. As we expected, most patients with stage I disease (12/13) had normal ?2-microglobulin levels (? 3 mg/L). Higher ?2-microglobulin values were associated with a higher stage of disease (p < 0.05). However, five of six patients with stage II MM and five of 11 patients with stage III MM showed normal ?2-microglobulin levels. Thus, 10 of 17 patients (58.8%) with substantial infiltration in the bone marrow showed false-negative ?2-microglobulin levels. CONCLUSION. Serum ?2-microglobulin levels correlate with tumor stage in MM. However, it may be misleading as a marker of tumor load in a subset of patients with substantial myeloma infiltration in the bone marrow. Whole-body MRI may display the full tumor load and correctly show the extension of myeloma infiltrates. PMID:25247952

D'Anastasi, Melvin; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Schmidt, Gerwin P; Dürr, Hans-Roland; Reiser, Maximilian Ferdinand; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

2014-10-01

269

Effect of fatigue on the precision of a whole-body pointing task.  

PubMed

We addressed the issue of the possible degradation of the aiming precision of a whole-body pointing task, when movement coordination is deranged by selective fatigue of the postural task component. The protocol involved continuous repetition (0.1 Hz frequency) of rapid whole-body pointing trials toward a target located beyond arm length, starting from stance and requiring knee flexion. Six healthy human subjects repeated the trials until exhaustion. Such repetition led to electromyography signs of fatigue in rectus femoris (active in body lowering and raising), but not in deltoid (prime mover for arm reaching component). Rectus femoris fatigue affected the equilibrium control strategy, since the anteroposterior displacement of the center of foot pressure was reduced during the fatigued compared with the initial trials. Conversely, the precision of the aiming movement was unaffected by the rectus femoris fatigue in spite of changes in finger trajectory. Trunk inclination at the end of whole-body pointing task and hip and shoulder marker trajectories were unaffected by rectus femoris fatigue. Control experiments were made, whereby fatiguing repetitions of the postural component of the task were performed without finger pointing, except in the first and last five complete whole-body pointing trials. The results were not different from those of the main protocol, except for a transient change in finger trajectory in the very first trial after fatigue. The CNS takes into account the state of postural muscles' fatigue and the concurrently ensuing equilibrium constraints in order to appropriately modify whole-body pointing strategy and keep pointing precision at the target. PMID:16504410

Schmid, M; Schieppati, M; Pozzo, T

2006-01-01

270

Whole body protein kinetics during hypocaloric and normocaloric feeding in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Optimal feeding of critically ill patients in the ICU is controversial. Existing guidelines rest on rather weak evidence. Whole body protein kinetics may be an attractive technique for assessing optimal protein intake. In this study, critically ill patients were investigated during hypocaloric and normocaloric IV nutrition. Methods Neurosurgical patients on mechanical ventilation (n?=?16) were studied during a 48-hour period. In random order 50% and 100% of measured energy expenditure was given as IV nutrition during 24 hours, corresponding to hypocaloric and normocaloric nutrition, respectively. At the end of each period, whole body protein turnover was measured using d5-phenylalanine and 13C-leucine tracers. Results The phenylalanine tracer indicated that whole-body protein synthesis was lower during hypocaloric feeding, while whole-body protein degradation and amino acid oxidation were unaltered, which resulted in a more negative protein balance, namely ?1.9?±?2.1 versus ?0.7?±?1.3 mg phenylalanine/kg/h (P?=?0.014). The leucine tracer indicated that whole body protein synthesis and degradation and amino acid oxidation were unaltered, but the protein balance was negative during hypocaloric feeding, namely ?0.3?±?0.5 versus 0.6?±?0.5 mg leucine/kg/h (P?

2013-01-01

271

Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in monkeys and humans of the phosphodiesterase 4 radioligand [11  

E-print Network

Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in monkeys and humans of the phosphodiesterase 4. Keywords: [11 C](R)-Rolipram; Positron emission tomography; Dosimetry; Biodistribution 1. Introduction

Shen, Jun

272

Comparing the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men.  

PubMed

This study compared the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men. Twenty-one men were randomly assigned to vibration-stretching (VS; n = 8), vibration only (VO; n = 6), or stretching only (SO; n = 7) groups that trained 3 times per week for 3 weeks. All 3 groups performed 9 total sets of 30-second stretches. The VS group performed four 30-second upper-body vibration exercises and five 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. The VO group performed nine 30-second upper-body vibration exercises. The SO group performed nine 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. Shoulder flexion (SF), shoulder extension (SE), and shoulder transverse extension (STE) were assessed by a Leighton Flexometer and back scratch tests bilaterally (BSR, BSL) were measured via tape measure. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated groups at baseline and a 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA evaluated the interventions over time. At baseline, there were no group differences in age, height, or weight. There was a significant (p < 0.01) time main effect for each flexibility outcome variable (SF: +6.1%, +3.9%, +3.4%; SE: +8.9%, +13.5%, +26.9%; STE: +12.8%, +8.7%, +24.3%; BSR: +4.4 cm, +3.4 cm, +3.1 cm; BSL: +3.6 cm, +2.3 cm, +6.1 cm) for SO, VO, and VS, respectively. Shoulder extension was the only variable that showed a significant (p < 0.05) interaction effect for group by time. In conclusion, vibration training, alone or combined with stretching, is a viable alternative to a standard stretching routine when attempting to increase shoulder flexibility. Adding vibration training to a flexibility regimen may improve the likelihood of regularly performing flexibility sessions because of increased variety. PMID:23478479

Ferguson, Steven L; Kim, Eonho; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Michael G

2013-12-01

273

Vibrations due to a test train at variable speeds in a deep bored tunnel embedded in London clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the results of in situ vibration measur ements that have been performed within the frame of the CONVURT project at a site in Regent's Park on t he Bakerloo line of London Under- ground during 35 passages of a test train at a speed between 20 and 50 km\\/h. Vibration measurements have been performed on the

G. Degrande; P. Chatterjee; R. Klein; W. Van de Velde

274

Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion.  

PubMed

We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-Ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

2014-01-01

275

MRI compatible small animal monitoring and trigger system for whole body scanners.  

PubMed

Performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments with small animals requires continuous monitoring of vital parameters, especially the respiration rate. Clinical whole-body MR scanners represent an attractive option for preclinical imaging as dedicated animal scanners are cost-intensive in both investment and maintenance, thus limiting their availability. Even though impressive image quality is achievable with clinical MR systems in combination with special coils, their built-in physiologic monitoring and triggering units are often not suited for small animal imaging. In this work, we present a simple, MRI compatible low cost solution to monitor the respiration and heart rate of small animals in a clinical whole-body MR scanner. The recording and processing of the biosignals as well as the optimisation of the respiratory trigger generation is decribed. Additionally rat and mouse in-vivo MRI experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the monitoring and respiratory trigger system in suppressing motion artifacts. PMID:23962379

Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Pfeiffer, Norman; Krumbein, Ines; Herrmann, Lutz; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

2014-03-01

276

Clinical examination or whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: the Holy Grail of spondyloarthritis imaging  

PubMed Central

Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging allows acquisition of diagnostic images in the shortest scan time, leading to better patient compliance and artifact-free images. Methods of clinical examination of the anterior chest wall joints vary between physician groups and consideration of the rules of rib motion is suggested. The type of joint and its synovial lining may also aid imaging/clinical correlation. This well-written study by experts in the field with a standardized design and methodology allows good scientific analysis and suggests the advantages of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in anterior chest wall imaging. Selection of clinical examination criteria and specific joints may have had an influence on the study results and the lack of association reported. PMID:22380535

2012-01-01

277

Whole-body fluorescence lifetime imaging of a tumor-targeted near-infrared molecular probe in mice  

E-print Network

Whole-body fluorescence lifetime imaging of a tumor- targeted near-infrared molecular probe in mice the altered physiopathology of the tumor. This study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of whole-body NIR 63110 Abstract. Fluorescence lifetime imaging can provide valuable diag- nostic information relating

Larson-Prior, Linda

278

Zoology 112 (2009) 393402 Whole-body lift and ground effect during pectoral fin locomotion in the  

E-print Network

armored fish that swims primarily using pectoral fins. High-speed kinematics, whole-body lift measurementsZOOLOGY Zoology 112 (2009) 393­402 Whole-body lift and ground effect during pectoral fin locomotion and varied inversely with speed, suggesting that lift may help overcome negative buoyancy. To determine

Summers, Adam P.

279

Brain and Whole-Body Imaging of Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Peptide Receptor in Humans Using the PET Ligand  

E-print Network

to compare pop- ulations. Whole-body scans showed radioactivity in brain and in peripheral organs expressingBrain and Whole-Body Imaging of Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Peptide Receptor in Humans Using the PET-NOP-1A, which yielded promising results in monkey brain. Here, we assessed the ability of 11C-NOP-1A

Shen, Jun

280

Performance characteristics of an eight-ring whole body PET scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical characteristics of the multislice whole-body positron emission tomographic scanner (model PC4096-15WB Scanditronix) and its performance parameters are described. Spatial resolution at the center of the field of view was found to be 4.9 mm in-plane and 4.6 mm (cross slices) and 6.0 mm (direct slices) in the axial direction. The sensitivity for true and scattered coincidences is approximately

Elena Rota Kops; Hans Herzog; August Schmid; Sven Holte; Ludwig E. Feinendegen

1990-01-01

281

Performance Evaluation of a Whole-Body PET Scanner Using the NEMA Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the performance of the newly developed high- resolution whole-body PET scanner ECAT EXACT HR '. Methods: The scanner consists of four rings of 72 bismuth germanate block detectors each, covering an axial field of view of 15.5 cm with a patient port of 56.2 cm. A single block detector is divided into an 8 x 8 matrix,

Gunnar Brix; Joachim Zaers; Lars-Eric Adam; Matthias E. Bellemann; Hermann Ostertag; Herbert Trojan; Uwe Haberkorn; Josef Doll; Franz Oberdorfer; Walter J. Lorenz

1997-01-01

282

Advantage of delayed whole-body FDG-PET imaging for tumour detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed imaging that coincides with the highest uptake of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by tumour may be advantageous in oncological positron emission tomography (PET), where delineation of metastasis from normal tissue background is important. In order to identify the better imaging protocol for tumour detection, whole-body FDG-PET images acquired at 1 h and 2 h after injection were evaluated in 22

Kazuo Kubota; Masatoshi Itoh; Kaoru Ozaki; Shuichi Ono; Manabu Tashiro; Keiichiro Yamaguchi; Takashi Akaizawa; Kenji Yamada; Hiroshi Fukuda

2001-01-01

283

Whole Body Screening Using High-Temperature Superconducting MR Volume Resonators: Mice Studies  

PubMed Central

High temperature superconducting (HTS) surface resonators have been used as a low loss RF receiver resonator for improving magnetic resonance imaging image quality. However, the application of HTS surface resonators is significantly limited by their filling factor. To maximize the filling factor, it is desirable to have the RF resonator wrapped around the sample so that more nuclear magnetic dipoles can contribute to the signal. In this study, a whole new Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu2O3 (Bi-2223) superconducting saddle resonator (width of 5 cm and length of 8 cm) was designed for the magnetic resonance image of a mouse's whole body in Bruker 3 T MRI system. The experiment was conducted with a professionally-made copper saddle resonator and a Bi-2223 saddle resonator to show the difference. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with the HTS saddle resonator at 77 K was 2.1 and 2 folds higher than that of the copper saddle resonator at 300 K for a phantom and an in-vivo mice whole body imaging. Testing results were in accordance with predicted ones, and the difference between the predicted SNR gains and measured SNR gains were 2.4%?2.7%. In summary, with this HTS saddle system, a mouse's whole body can be imaged in one scan and could reach a high SNR due to a 2 folds SNR gain over the professionally-made prototype of copper saddle resonator at 300 K. The use of HTS saddle resonator not only improves SNR but also enables a mouse's whole body screen in one scan. PMID:22493666

Lin, In-Tsang; Yang, Hong-Chang; Chen, Jyh-Horng

2012-01-01

284

MONICA: a compact, portable dual gamma camera system for mouse whole-body imaging  

SciTech Connect

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named "MONICA" for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed ?looking up? through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV?10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1 cm), 2.2 mm; sensitivity, 149 cps (counts per seconds)/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM, full width at half maximum), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2=0.99 for 0?185 MBq (0?5 mCi) in the field of view (FOV); spatial uniformity, <3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-min images acquired throughout the 168-h study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g., limited imaging space, portability and, potentially, cost are important.

Choyke, Peter L.; Xia, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.

2010-04-01

285

Whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients---UF Series B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the previous development of the head and torso voxel phantoms of paediatric patients for use in medical radiation protection (UF Series A), a set of whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients (9-month male, 4-year female, 8-year female, 11-year male and 14-year male) has been developed through the attachment of arms and legs from segmented CT images of a healthy

Choonik Lee; Choonsik Lee; Jonathan L. Williams; Wesley E. Bolch

2006-01-01

286

Whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system: the value of MR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In clinical practice various modalities are used for whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system, including radiography,\\u000a bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography-computed tomography\\u000a (PET-CT). Multislice CT is far more sensitive than radiographs in the assessment of trabecular and cortical bone destruction\\u000a and allows for evaluation of fracture risk. The introduction of combined PET-CT scanners

Gerwin P. Schmidt; Maximilian F. Reiser; Andrea Baur-Melnyk

2007-01-01

287

New bioimpedance analysis system: improved phenotyping with whole-body analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is a potential field and clinical method for evaluating skeletal muscle mass (SM) and %fat. A new BIA system has 8-(two on each hand and foot) rather than 4-contact electrodes allowing for rapid ‘whole-body’ and regional body composition evaluation.Design: This study evaluated the 50 kHz BC-418 8-contact electrode and TBF-310 4-contact electrode foot–foot BIA systems (Tanita

A Pietrobelli; F Rubiano; M-P St-Onge; S B Heymsfield

2004-01-01

288

Effect of Whole-Body Hyperthermia on the Disposition and Metabolism of Adriamycin in Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of whole-body hyperthermia on the disposi tion and metabolism of Adriamycin were investigated in male New Zealand rabbits. Hyperthermia (rectal temper ature, 42.3 ±0.1°(S.D.)) was produced in nonacclima- tized, unrestrained animals by placing them in a humidity (95%)- and temperature (34 )-regulated chamber. Normo- thermic controls (rectal temperature, 39.7 ±0.1°)were maintained at ambient temperature and humidity. Adria mycin

Edward G. Mimnaugh; Randall W. Waring; Branimir I. Sikic; Richard L. Magin; Roger Drew; Charles L. Litterst; Theodore E. Gram; Anthony M. Guarino

289

Biodistribution study of (123I) ADAM in mice: correlation with whole body autoradiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine-123 labeled 2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine ((123I) ADAM) has been suggested as a promising serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agent. Much research has been accomplished, mainly focusing on the SERT binding sites in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the biodistribution of (123I) ADAM using whole body autoradiography (WBAR) has never been previously described, to the best of our knowledge. In this study, we

Kun-Ju Lina; Xin-Xian Ye; Tzu-Chen Yen; Shiaw-Pyng Weyd; Kai-Yuan Tzen; Gann Ting; Jeng-Jong Hwang

290

Distribution of prolyl oligopeptidase in the mouse whole-body sections and peripheral tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine endopeptidase that hydrolyses proline-containing peptides shorter than 30-mer, including\\u000a many bioactive peptides. The distribution of POP in the brain has been studied but little is known about the distribution\\u000a of peripheral POP. We used immunohistochemistry to localize POP in mouse whole-body sections and at the cellular level in\\u000a peripheral tissues. Furthermore, we used a

Timo T. Myöhänen; Jarkko I. Venäläinen; J. Arturo García-Horsman; Marjo Piltonen; Pekka T. Männistö

2008-01-01

291

Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase as a mediator of whole body energy balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream constituent of a kinase cascade that acts as a sensor of cellular\\u000a energy levels. Current data unequivocally indicate that hypothalamic AMPK plays a key role in the control of the whole body\\u000a energy balance, by integrating peripheral signals, such as hormones and metabolites, with central signals, such as neuropeptides,\\u000a and eliciting allostatic

Pablo Blanco Martínez de Morentin; Carmen R. González; Asisk K. Saha; Luís Martins; Carlos Diéguez; Antonio Vidal-Puig; Manuel Tena-Sempere; Miguel López

2011-01-01

292

Estimating relative physical workload using heart rate monitoring: a validation by whole-body indirect calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring physical workload in occupational medicine is fundamental for risk prevention. An indirect measurement of total and relative energy expenditure (EE) from heart rate (HR) is widely used but it has never been validated. The aim of this study was to validate this HR-estimated energy expenditure (HREEE) method against whole-body indirect calorimetry. Twenty-four-hour HR and EE values were recorded continuously

Martin Garet; Gil Boudet; Christophe Montaurier; Michel Vermorel; Jean Coudert; Alain Chamoux

2005-01-01

293

A new technique for establishing dry weight in hemodialysis patients via whole body bioimpedance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for establishing dry weight in hemodialysis patients via whole body bioimpedance.BackgroundQuantitative techniques are necessary to achieve dry weight (DW) in patients with kidney failure. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a non-invasive method that determines the volume of body fluid compartments. The current work evaluates the use of BIS data in hemodialysis patients for the prediction of DW.MethodsA new

Paul W. Chamney; Matthias Krämer; Christiane Rode; Wolfgang Kleinekofort; Volker Wizemann

2002-01-01

294

Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR was assessed using transfer function analysis. In normothermic and heat-stressed conditions, each subject breathed at a fixed rate (0. 25 Hz) while beat-by-beat HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were obtained. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature, HR, and forearm skin blood flow. Spectral analysis of HR and SBP revealed that the heat stress significantly reduced HR and SBP variability within the high-frequency range (0.2-0.3 Hz), reduced SBP variability within the low-frequency range (0.03-0.15 Hz), and increased the ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability (all P < 0.01). Transfer function gain analysis showed that the heat stress reduced dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR within the high-frequency range (from 1.04 +/- 0.06 to 0.54 +/- 0.6 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P < 0.001) without significantly affecting the gain in the low-frequency range (P = 0.63). These data suggest that whole body heating reduced high-frequency dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR associated with spontaneous changes in blood pressure. Reduced vagal baroreflex regulation of HR may contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance known to occur in humans during heat stress.

Crandall, C. G.; Zhang, R.; Levine, B. D.

2000-01-01

295

Central Insulin Administration Improves Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity via Hypothalamus and Parasympathetic Outputs in Men.  

PubMed

Animal studies suggest that insulin action in the brain is involved in the regulation of peripheral insulin sensitivity. Whether this holds true in humans is unknown. Using intranasal application of insulin to the human brain, we studied the impacts of brain insulin action on whole-body insulin sensitivity and the mechanisms involved in this process. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp before and after intranasal application of insulin and placebo in randomized order in lean and obese men. After insulin spray application in lean subjects, a higher glucose infusion rate was necessary to maintain euglycemia compared with placebo. Accordingly, clamp-derived insulin sensitivity index improved after insulin spray. In obese subjects, this insulin-sensitizing effect could not be detected. Change in the high-frequency band of heart rate variability, an estimate of parasympathetic output, correlated positively with change in whole-body insulin sensitivity after intranasal insulin. Improvement in whole-body insulin sensitivity correlated with the change in hypothalamic activity as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Intranasal insulin improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in lean but not in obese men. Furthermore, brain-derived peripheral insulin sensitization is associated with hypothalamic activity and parasympathetic outputs. Thus, the findings provide novel insights into the regulation of insulin sensitivity and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in humans. PMID:25028522

Heni, Martin; Wagner, Robert; Kullmann, Stephanie; Veit, Ralf; Mat Husin, Haliza; Linder, Katarzyna; Benkendorff, Charlotte; Peter, Andreas; Stefan, Norbert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas

2014-12-01

296

Analysis of adipose tissue distribution using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity is an increasing problem in the western world and triggers diseases like cancer, type two diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a clinically viable method to measure the amount and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) in the body. However, analysis of MRI images by manual segmentation is a tedious and time-consuming process. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method to quantify the amount of different AT types from whole-body MRI data with less user interaction. Initially, body fat is extracted by automatic thresholding. A statistical shape model of the abdomen is then used to differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral AT. Finally, fat in the bone marrow is removed using morphological operators. The proposed method was evaluated on 15 whole-body MRI images using manual segmentation as ground truth for adipose tissue. The resulting overlap for total AT was 93.7% +/- 5.5 with a volumetric difference of 7.3% +/- 6.4. Furthermore, we tested the robustness of the segmentation results with regard to the initial, interactively defined position of the shape model. In conclusion, the developed method proved suitable for the analysis of AT distribution from whole-body MRI data. For large studies, a fully automatic version of the segmentation procedure is expected in the near future.

Wald, Diana; Schwarz, Tobias; Dinkel, Julien; Delorme, Stefan; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

2011-03-01

297

Rapid imaging protocol in trauma: a whole-body dual-source CT scan.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine whether a single acquisition whole-body trauma multi-detector CT scan is able to reduce resuscitation time, scan time, and effective radiation dose without compromising diagnostic quality in the setting of polytrauma. Retrospective analysis of 33 trauma patients undergoing single acquisition whole-body CT with injury severity scores of ? 16 was compared to 34 patients imaged with a segmented whole-body CT protocol. Time spent in the emergency department, effective radiation dose, image quality, and mortality rates were compared. The single acquisition group spent 53.7 % less time in the emergency department prior to imaging (p=0.0044) and decreased scanning time by 25 %. The protocol yielded a 24.5 % reduction in mean effective radiation dose (24.66 mSv vs. 32.67 mSv, p<0.0001). The image noise was similar in both groups. Standardized mortality ratios were comparable. The single acquisition protocol significantly reduces time spent in the emergency department by allowing faster imaging at a lower radiation dose while maintaining image quality. Other contributors to reduction in radiation dose include use of dual-source CT technology, removal of delayed CT intravenous pyelogram, and arm positioning. PMID:23793476

Sedlic, Anto; Chingkoe, Christina M; Tso, David K; Galea-Soler, Sandro; Nicolaou, Savvas

2013-10-01

298

Cardiovascular and autonomic responses to whole-body cryostimulation in essential hypertension.  

PubMed

Over recent years, a considerable increase in the popularity of cryostimulation and whole body cryotherapy (WBC) procedures has occurred both among healthy individuals and in various groups of patients, including those with primary untreated hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of WBC on the functional parameters of cardiovascular system in normotensive and primarily hypertensive individuals. The study included 26 young male volunteers with normal blood pressure range (NormoBP) and 13 with essential arterial hypertension (HyperBP). Each subject was exposed to cryotherapeutic factor (whole-body cryotherapy/cryostimulation, WBC) at a temperature of approximately -115°C to -125°C for a period of 3min. The cardiovascular and autonomic parameters were measured noninvasively with Task Force® Monitor. Measurements in a supine position and tilt test were performed "before WBC" and "after WBC". Our study revealed that cryogenic temperatures exert strong modulatory effect on the cardiovascular system. Both groups showed adaptive changes of myocardial and vascular parameters in response to rapid cooling of virtually the whole body surface. While the profiles of some of these changes were similar in both the groups, also several considerable intergroup differences were documented. Consequently, the cryostimulation and cryotherapy treatment should be prescribed carefully to individuals who present with cardiovascular failure of any degree. PMID:25108050

Zalewski, Pawel; Buszko, Katarzyna; Zawadka-Kunikowska, Monika; S?omko, Joanna; Szrajda, Justyna; Klawe, Jacek J; Tafil-Klawe, Malgorzata; Sinski, Maciej; Newton, Julia

2014-10-01

299

Retrospective respiration-gated whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography of mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging technique that has a great potential for preclinical whole-body imaging. To date, most whole-body PAT systems require multiple laser shots to generate one cross-sectional image, yielding a frame rate of <1 Hz. Because a mouse breathes at up to 3 Hz, without proper gating mechanisms, acquired images are susceptible to motion artifacts. Here, we introduce, for the first time to our knowledge, retrospective respiratory gating for whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography. This new method involves simultaneous capturing of the animal's respiratory waveform during photoacoustic data acquisition. The recorded photoacoustic signals are sorted and clustered according to the respiratory phase, and an image of the animal at each respiratory phase is reconstructed subsequently from the corresponding cluster. The new method was tested in a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system with a hardware-limited frame rate of 0.625 Hz. After respiratory gating, we observed sharper vascular and anatomical images at different positions of the animal body. The entire breathing cycle can also be visualized at 20 frames/cycle.

Xia, Jun; Chen, Wanyi; Maslov, Konstantin; Anastasio, Mark A.; Wang, Lihong V.

2014-01-01

300

Whole-body autoradiographic distribution of exogenously administered renal renin in rats  

SciTech Connect

We studied, by whole-body autoradiography, the distribution of exogenously administered renal renin in rat. Rat renal renin was completely purified and labeled with /sup 125/I ((/sup 125/I)-renin) and was then injected into the tail veins of conscious rats at a dose of 30 microCi, 430 ng. After various intervals, rats were killed by an overdose of ether, the whole body rapidly frozen in acetone-dry ice, and autoradiography performed on sagittal whole-body sections. To remove breakdown products ((/sup 125/I)-tyrosine and free /sup 125/I) from (/sup 125/I)-renin, sections were treated with perchloric acid solution. The main accumulation of (/sup 125/I)-renin acid-insoluble radioactivity was observed in liver and renal cortex. The accumulation in these organs was already evident 2 min after the injection, reached a maximum level by 15 min, then gradually decreased. A small amount of (/sup 125/I)-renin was also evident in spleen, bone marrow, and adrenal gland. Thirty min after the injection, radioactivity began to appear in the thyroid gland, stomach, and small intestine, but disappeared with acid treatment, except in the thyroid. Radioactivity was negligible in other organs including brain, submaxillary gland, lung, heart, and testis. These autoradiographs clearly demonstrate that exogenously administered renal renin is distributed mainly in the liver and renal cortex.

Kim, S.; Iwao, H.; Nakamura, N.; Ikemoto, F.; Yamamoto, K.

1987-05-01

301

Whole-body acoel regeneration is controlled by Wnt and Bmp-Admp signaling.  

PubMed

Whole-body regeneration is widespread in the Metazoa, yet little is known about how underlying molecular mechanisms compare across phyla. Acoels are an enigmatic phylum of invertebrate worms that can be highly informative about many questions in bilaterian evolution, including regeneration. We developed the three-banded panther worm, Hofstenia miamia, as a new acoelomorph model system for molecular studies of regeneration. Hofstenia were readily cultured, with accessible embryos, juveniles, and adults for experimentation. We developed molecular resources and tools for Hofstenia, including a transcriptome and robust systemic RNAi. We report the identification of molecular mechanisms that promote whole-body regeneration in Hofstenia. Wnt signaling controls regeneration of the anterior-posterior axis, and Bmp-Admp signaling controls regeneration of the dorsal-ventral axis. Perturbation of these pathways resulted in regeneration-abnormal phenotypes involving axial feature duplication, such as the regeneration of two heads following Wnt perturbation or the regeneration of ventral cells in place of dorsal ones following bmp or admp RNAi. Hofstenia regenerative mechanisms are strikingly similar to those guiding regeneration in planarians. However, phylogenetic analyses using the Hofstenia transcriptome support an early branching position for acoels among bilaterians, with the last common ancestor of acoels and planarians being the ancestor of the Bilateria. Therefore, these findings identify similar whole-body regeneration mechanisms in animals separated by more than 550 million years of evolution. PMID:24768051

Srivastava, Mansi; Mazza-Curll, Kathleen L; van Wolfswinkel, Josien C; Reddien, Peter W

2014-05-19

302

Whole Body Microwave Irradiation for Improved Dacarbazine Therapeutical Action in Cutaneous Melanoma Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

A cutaneous melanoma mouse model was used to test the efficacy of a new therapeutical approach that uses low doses of cytostatics in conjunction with mild whole body microwave exposure of 2.45?GHz in order to enhance cytostatics antitumoral effect. Materials and Methods. A microwave exposure system for C57BL/6 mouse whole body microwave irradiation was designed; groups of 40 mice (males and females) bearing experimental tumours were subjected to a combined therapy comprising low doses of dacarbazine in combination with mild whole body irradiation. Clinical parameters and serum cytokine testing using xMAP technology were performed. Results. The group that was subjected to combined therapy, microwave and cytostatic, had the best clinical evolution in terms of overall survival, tumour volume, and metastatic potential. At day 14 the untreated group had 100% mortality, while in the combined therapy group 40% of mice were surviving. Quantifying serum IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), IFN-?, GM-CSF, TNF-?, MIP-1?, MCP-1, and KC during tumorigenesis and therapy found that the combined experimental therapy decreases all the inflammatory cytokines, except chemokine MCP-1 that was found increased, suggesting an increase of the anti-tumoral immune response triggered by the combined therapy. The overall metastatic process is decreased in the combined therapy group. PMID:24377047

Albulescu, Lucian; Iacob, Nicusor; Ighigeanu, Daniel

2013-01-01

303

Local heating, but not indirect whole body heating, increases human skeletal muscle blood flow  

PubMed Central

For decades it was believed that direct and indirect heating (the latter of which elevates blood and core temperatures without directly heating the area being evaluated) increases skin but not skeletal muscle blood flow. Recent results, however, suggest that passive heating of the leg may increase muscle blood flow. Using the technique of positron-emission tomography, the present study tested the hypothesis that both direct and indirect heating increases muscle blood flow. Calf muscle and skin blood flows were evaluated from eight subjects during normothermic baseline, during local heating of the right calf [only the right calf was exposed to the heating source (water-perfused suit)], and during indirect whole body heat stress in which the left calf was not exposed to the heating source. Local heating increased intramuscular temperature of the right calf from 33.4 ± 1.0°C to 37.4 ± 0.8°C, without changing intestinal temperature. This stimulus increased muscle blood flow from 1.4 ± 0.5 to 2.3 ± 1.2 ml·100 g?1·min?1 (P < 0.05), whereas skin blood flow under the heating source increased from 0.7 ± 0.3 to 5.5 ± 1.5 ml·100 g?1·min?1 (P < 0.01). While whole body heat stress increased intestinal temperature by ?1°C, muscle blood flow in the calf that was not directly exposed to the water-perfused suit (i.e., indirect heating) did not increase during the whole body heat stress (normothermia: 1.6 ± 0.5 ml·100 g?1·min?1; heat stress: 1.7 ± 0.3 ml·100 g?1·min?1; P = 0.87). Whole body heating, however, reflexively increased calf skin blood flow (to 4.0 ± 1.5 ml·100 g?1·min?1) in the area not exposed to the water-perfused suit. These data show that local, but not indirect, heating increases calf skeletal muscle blood flow in humans. These results have important implications toward the reconsideration of previously accepted blood flow distribution during whole body heat stress. PMID:21680875

Heinonen, Ilkka; Brothers, R. Matthew; Kemppainen, Jukka; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

2011-01-01

304

Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT.  

PubMed

Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability). The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) and (99m)Tc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-HDP) were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs) of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR) algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for "incomplete" data (large chunks of skeleton missing) and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT/CT cross-sectional mouse data. PMID:23152834

Khmelinskii, Artem; Groen, Harald C; Baiker, Martin; de Jong, Marion; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

2012-01-01

305

A theoretical model for ground vibration from trains generated by vertical track irregularities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is developed for predicting ground vibrations due to vertical track irregularities. This model incorporates vehicles, a track and a layered ground, and uses the moving axle loads and the vertical rail irregularities as its inputs. Outputs include the dynamic wheel-rail forces and the displacement power spectra of the track and the ground surface. Results from this model are presented for a single-axle vehicle model and a British Mark 3 passenger coach running on different tracks (a 'lighter ballasted track', a 'heavier ballasted track' and a slab track) at different speeds (25, 60 and 83 m/s). Based on these results, the effects of track structure, vehicle speed and frequency range on the observed vibration levels are identified. The different roles of the moving axle loads and the roughness-induced dynamic loads are indicated, at different frequencies and for train speeds below and above the lowest ground wave speed.

Sheng, X.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.

2004-05-01

306

The relative importance of noise and vibration from railways.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine the subjective equivalence of railway noise and railway-induced building vibration, and hence the relative importance of the two stimuli. Six magnitudes of whole-body, vertical (z-axis) vibration and six levels of noise were presented simultaneously to each of 30 subjects in all 36 possible paired combinations. The stimuli were reproductions of the noise and vibration recorded inside a house during the passage of a train. The subjects were asked to indicate, after each presentation, which of the two stimuli (noise and vibration) they would prefer to be reduced. A seven-point scale was employed to indicate the total annoyance produced by the two stimuli. A subjective equivalence contour was determined from the levels at which 50% of the subjects preferred the reduction of noise and 50% preferred the reduction of vibration. The contour may be described by the relation L(AE) = 29.3 log10 VDV + 89.2, where L(AE) is the sound exposure level and VDV is the vibration dose value. This relation may be used to determine whether a reduction of noise or a reduction of vibration would be more beneficial to residents near railways. The total annoyance due to simultaneous noise and vibration was shown to depend on the magnitude of both stimuli. PMID:15676768

Howarth, H V; Griffin, M J

1990-06-01

307

Extraction of basic movement from whole-body movement, based on gait variability  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to quantify the step-to-step variability (SSV) in speed-variant and speed-invariant movement components of the whole-body gait pattern during running. These separate aspects of variability can be used to gain insight into the neuromuscular control strategies that are engaged during running. Ten healthy, physically active, male recreational athletes performed five treadmill running trials at five different speeds (range: 1.3–4.9 m/sec). The whole-body movement was separated into principal movements (PM) using a principal component analysis. The PMs were split into two groups: a speed-variant group, where the range of motion (amplitude of PMs) changed with running speed; and a speed-invariant group, where the range of motion was constant across various speeds. The step-to-step variability (SSV) of the two groups was then quantified. The absolute SSV was the summed variability across all gait cycles, whereas the relative SSV was the summed variability divided by the magnitude of the movement. The absolute SSV of the speed-variant movements increased with running speed. By contrast, the relative SSV of the speed-variant group (as normalized to the PM amplitude) decreased asymptotically toward a minimal level as running speed increased. Both the absolute and relative SSV of the speed-invariant movements revealed a minimum at 3.1 m/sec. The whole-body gait pattern during running can be subdivided into speed-variant and speed-invariant movements. An interpretation of the SSV based on minimal intervention theory suggests that speed-variant movements are more tightly controlled, as evidenced by a lower degree of variability compared to the speed-invariant movements. PMID:24303133

Maurer, Christian; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Samsom, Michael; Baltich, Jennifer; Nigg, Benno M

2013-01-01

308

Evaluation of whole-body MR to CT deformable image registration.  

PubMed

Multimodality image registration plays a crucial role in various clinical and research applications. The aim of this study is to present an optimized MR to CT whole-body deformable image registration algorithm and its validation using clinical studies. A 3D intermodality registration technique based on B-spline transformation was performed using optimized parameters of the elastix package based on the Insight Toolkit (ITK) framework. Twenty-eight (17 male and 11 female) clinical studies were used in this work. The registration was evaluated using anatomical landmarks and segmented organs. In addition to 16 anatomical landmarks, three key organs (brain, lungs, and kidneys) and the entire body volume were segmented for evaluation. Several parameters--such as the Euclidean distance between anatomical landmarks, target overlap, Dice and Jaccard coefficients, false positives and false negatives, volume similarity, distance error, and Hausdorff distance--were calculated to quantify the quality of the registration algorithm. Dice coefficients for the majority of patients (> 75%) were in the 0.8-1 range for the whole body, brain, and lungs, which satisfies the criteria to achieve excellent alignment. On the other hand, for kidneys, Dice coefficients for volumes of 25% of the patients meet excellent volume agreement requirement, while the majority of patients satisfy good agreement criteria (> 0.6). For all patients, the distance error was in 0-10 mm range for all segmented organs. In summary, we optimized and evaluated the accuracy of an MR to CT deformable registration algorithm. The registered images constitute a useful 3D whole-body MR-CT atlas suitable for the development and evaluation of novel MR-guided attenuation correction procedures on hybrid PET-MR systems. PMID:23835382

Akbarzadeh, A; Gutierrez, D; Baskin, A; Ay, M R; Ahmadian, A; Riahi Alam, N; Lövblad, K O; Zaidi, H

2013-01-01

309

Whole body massage for reducing anxiety and stabilizing vital signs of patients in cardiac care unit  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients admitted in coronary care units face various stressors. Ambiguity of future life conditions and unawareness of caring methods intensifies the patients’ anxiety and stress. This study was conducted to assess the effects of whole body massage on anxiety and vital signs of patients with acute coronary disorders. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 120 patients. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. The intervention group received a session of whole body massage and the control group received routine care. The levels of State, Trait and overall anxiety and vital signs were assessed in both groups before and after intervention. Independent sample t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square and Fischer exact tests were used for data analysis. Results: The baseline overall mean score of anxiety was 79.43±29.34 in the intervention group and was decreased to 50.38±20.35 after massage therapy (p=0.001). However, no significant changes were occurred in the overall mean anxiety in the control group during the study. The baseline diastolic blood pressure was 77.05±8.12 mmHg and was decreased to 72.18±9.19 mmHg after the intervention (p=0.004). Also, significant decreases were occurred in heart rate and respiration rate of intervention group after massage therapy (p=0.001). However, no significant changes were occurred in vital signs of the control group during the study. Conclusion: The results suggest that whole body massage was effective in reducing anxiety and stabilizing vital signs of patients with acute coronary disorders.

Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Abasi, Ali; Rajabi-Beheshtabad, Rahman

2014-01-01

310

Contralateral subtraction technique for detection of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scintigrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for assisting radiologists in the detection of asymmetric abnormalities on a single whole-body bone scintigram by applying a contralateral subtraction (CS) technique. Twenty whole-body bone scans including 107 abnormal lesions in anterior and/or posterior images (the number of lesions per case ranged from 1 to 16, mean 5.4) were used in this study. In our scheme, the original bone scan image was flipped horizontally to provide a mirror image. The mirror image was first rotated and shifted globally to match the original image approximately, and then was nonlinearly warped by use of an elastic matching technique in order to match the original image accurately. We applied a nonlinear lookup table to convert the difference in pixel values between the original and the warped images to new pixel values for a CS image, in order to enhance dark shadows at the locations of abnormal lesions where uptake of radioisotope was asymmetrically high, and to suppress light shadows of the lesions on the contralateral side. In addition, we applied a CAD scheme for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities by use of rule-based tests and sequential application of artificial neural networks with 25 image features extracted from the original and CS images. The performance of the CAD scheme, which was evaluated by a leave-one-case-out method, indicated an average sensitivity of 80.4 % with 3.8 false positives per case. This CAD scheme with the contralateral subtraction technique has the potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy and could be used for computerized identification of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scans.

Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

2007-03-01

311

Effect of sway on image fidelity in whole-body digitizing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 3D digitizers to be useful data collection tools in scientific and human factors engineering applications, the models created from scan data must match the original object very closely. Factors such as ambient light, characteristics of the object's surface, and object movement, among others can affect the quality of the image produced by any 3D digitizing system. Recently, Cyberware has developed a whole body digitizer for collecting data on human size and shape. With a digitizing time of about 15 seconds, the effect subject movement, or sway, on model fidelity is an important issue to be addressed. The effect of sway is best measured by comparing the dimensions of an object of known geometry to the model of the same object captured by the digitizer. Since it is difficult to know the geometry of a human body accurately, it was decided to compare an object of simple geometry to its digitized counterpart. Preliminary analysis showed that a single cardboard tube would provide the best artifact for detecting sway. A tube was attached to the subjects using supports that allowed the cylinder to stand away from the body. The stand-off was necessary to minimize occluded areas. Multiple scans were taken of 1 subject and the cylinder extracted from the images. Comparison of the actual cylinder dimensions to those extracted from the whole body images found the effect of sway to be minimal. This follows earlier findings that anthropometric dimensions extracted from whole body scans are very close to the same dimensions measured using standard manual methods. Recommendations for subject preparation and stabilization are discussed.

Corner, Brian D.; Hu, Anmin

1998-03-01

312

Ocular torsion induced by static and dynamic visual stimulation and static whole body roll.  

PubMed

By means of real-time infra-red video-oculography we studied eye torsion in 12 normal healthy subjects. Ocular torsion was induced by visual stimulation or static whole body roll with and without visual orientation ("head-fixed" or "earth-fixed"). Visual stimulation was achieved by a horizontal grating that oscillated sinusoidally in a frontal plane. The oscillation frequency varied from 0 to 0.6 Hz while amplitude varied from 6 degrees to 33 degrees. Visual orientation during whole body roll was established by mounting a 32 lx illuminated horizontal grating either on a tilting device (head-fixed) or on the wall in the frontal plane (earth-fixed). Maximum visual-induced eye torsion gain was reached at about 0.2 Hz. No eye torsion was observed in static (0 Hz) visual tilts of the grating. Maximum gain was about 0.36 at amplitudes between 6 degrees and 10 degrees. Eye torsion gain decreased with increasing amplitude and increasing frequency (> 0.2 Hz). Static whole body roll in the dark up to 180 degrees clockwise and counterclockwise induced static ocular counter rolling with a maximum amplitude of 12 degrees and a maximum gain of 0.22. Gain decreased with increasing roll down to zero at 180 degrees. Visual orientation with either head or earth fixed did not affect the amplitude or gain of the body roll induced ocular counter-rolling. The results are interpreted in terms of improving the reliability of clinical statolith testing and understanding the processes involved in motion sickness. PMID:9065630

Kingma, H; Stegeman, P; Vogels, R

1997-01-01

313

Estimating whole body intermuscular adipose tissue from single cross-sectional magnetic resonance images  

PubMed Central

Estimating whole body intermuscular adipose tissue from single cross-sectional magnetic resonance images. Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), a novel fat depot linked with metabolic abnormalities, has been measured by whole body MRI. The cross-sectional slice location with the strongest relation to total body IMAT volume has not been established. The aim was to determine the predictive value of each slice location and which slice locations provide the best estimates of whole body IMAT. MRI quantified total adipose tissue of which IMAT, defined as adipose tissue visible within the boundary of the muscle fascia, is a subcomponent. Single-slice IMAT areas were calculated for the calf, thigh, buttock, waist, shoulders, upper arm, and forearm locations in a sample of healthy adult women, African-American [n = 39; body mass index (BMI) 28.5 ± 5.4 kg/m2; 41.8 ± 14.8 yr], Asian (n = 21; BMI 21.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2; 40.9 ± 16.3 yr), and Caucasian (n = 43; BMI 25.6 ± 5.3 kg/m2; 43.2 ± 15.3 yr), and Caucasian men (n = 39; BMI 27.1 ± 3.8 kg/m2; 45.2 ± 14.6 yr) and used to estimate total IMAT groups using multiple-regression equations. Midthigh was the best, or near best, single predictor in all groups with adjusted R2 ranging from 0.49 to 0.84. Adding a second and third slice further increased R2 and reduced the error of the estimate. Menopausal status and degree of obesity did not affect the location of the best single slice. The contributions of other slice locations varied by sex and race, but additional slices improved predictions. For group studies, it may be more cost-effective to estimate IMAT based on one or more slices than to acquire and segment for each subject the numerous images necessary to quantify whole body IMAT. PMID:17053107

Ruan, Xiang Yan; Gallagher, Dympna; Harris, Tamara; Albu, Jeanine; Heymsfield, Steven; Kuznia, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley

2009-01-01

314

Lutetium DOTATATE whole body scans: A novel approach for evaluation of neuroendocrine tumors  

PubMed Central

Aim: We undertook a study to evaluate whether Lutetium (Lu) DOTATATE whole body scan is well comparable to Gallium positron emission tomography (PET) / Indium Octreotide, and hence with dosimetric advantage can replace it in the pre-therapy setting. Materials and Methods: We undertook a prospective study of a total of 39 patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (age 11–70 years), who underwent Lu-DOTATATE scans within the period August 2009–November 2010. This included 28 males and 11 females. Dose of Lu-DOTATATE injected for diagnostic scanning purpose was 10 mCi i.v. Whole body planar images and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT images were obtained at 4, 24 and 48 hours. The Lu-DOTATATE whole body and SPECT-CT images were compared to contrast CT scans in all patients, and Indium Octreotide and Gallium DOTATATE PET images in nine patients, with reference to detection sensitivity of number of lesions. The pre-therapy scans were also used for dosimetric calculations. Fourteen of these 39 patients further went ahead with Lu-DOTATATE therapy. Results: All 39 patients demonstrated Lu-DOTATATE uptake in the disease sites seen on the contrast CT images. The uptake intensity was well comparable to Indium Octreotide and Gallium DOTATATE PET scans of all nine patients, with equally well-defined lesions. The post-therapy Lu-DOTATATE scans of the 14 patients who underwent therapy demonstrated higher intensity uptake pattern in the same disease sites, suggesting favorable therapeutic effect. The scans were useful in determining dosimetric details for therapeutic purpose and adequate exposure rates to suggest good ablative effect. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that Lu-DOTATATE whole body scanning procedure is cost effective and equally sensitive as Gallium DOTATOC/NOC PET scan in pre-therapy setting of neuroendocrine tumors. The additional advantage of dosimetry calculations on this scanning procedure makes it more ideal to tailor therapies with more accuracy. PMID:23326064

Singh, Natasha; Krishna, BA; Vyas, Madhusudan; Venkatesh, Meera; Banerjee, Sharmila; Das, Tapas; Nair, KV Vimal; Sudipta

2011-01-01

315

Ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography for small-animal whole-body imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report herein a novel three-dimensional photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system for small-animal whole-body imaging. The PACT system, based on a 512-element full-ring ultrasonic transducer array, was cylindrically focused and capable of forming a two-dimensional image in 1.6 seconds. The pulsed laser could either illuminate directly from the top or be reshaped to illuminate the sample from the side. Top illumination was mainly used for mouse brain and mouse embryo imaging. Side illumination provided in vivo anatomical images of an adult mouse. By translating the mouse along the elevational direction, the system provided serial cross-sectional images.

Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-02-01

316

Metastatic meningioma: The role of whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 74-year-old male patient with a completely resected anaplastic meningioma who developed multiple metastases two years later (subcutaneous tissue near the surgical area, cervical lymph nodes, lung, pleura and bones). The primary tumor and all of the metastases showed a significant restricted diffusion. Whole?body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed for assessment of the metastases. This case demonstrated the usefulness of this technique in screening extracranial metastases in patients with malignant meningiomas. PMID:22866153

Cabada, Teresa; Bermejo, Rebeca; Bacaicoa, Carmen; Martinez-Penuela, Ana

2011-01-01

317

Diffusion-Weighted Whole-Body Imaging with Background Body Signal Suppression (DWIBS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In applying diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) technique, DW-MR images\\u000a are acquired during free breathing, which results in images with high signal-to-noise ratio using relatively thin image sections\\u000a (4–5 mm). Image acquisition during free breathing is possible because bulk tissue motion, including respiratory motion, may\\u000a be considered as types of coherent motion, which do not result

Taro Takahara; Thomas C. Kwee

318

Performance Characteristics of a Positron Projection Imager For Mouse Whole-body Imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe a prototype positron projection imager (PPI) for visualizing the whole-body biodistribution of positron-emitting compounds in mouse-size animals. The final version of the PPI will be integrated into the MONICA portable dual-gamma camera system to allow the user to interchangeably image either single photon or positron-emitting compounds in a shared software and hardware environment. Methods A mouse is placed in the mid-plane between two identical, opposed, pixelated LYSO arrays separated by 21.8-cm and in time coincidence. An image of the distribution of positron decays in the animal is formed on this mid-plane by coincidence events that fall within a small cone angle to the perpendicular to the two detectors and within a user-specified energy window. We measured the imaging performance of this device with phantoms and in tests performed in mice injected with various compounds labeled with positron-emitting isotopes. Results Representative performance measurements yielded the following results (energy window 250–650 keV, cone angle 3.5-degrees): resolution in the image mid-plane, 1.66-mm (FWHM), resolution ±1.5-cm above and below the image plane, 2.2-mm (FWHM), sensitivity: 0.237-cps/kBq (8.76-cps/?Ci) 18F (0.024% absolute). Energy resolution was 15.9% with a linear-count-rate operating range of 0–14.8 MBq (0–400 ?Ci) and a corrected sensitivity variation across the field-of-view of <3%. Whole-body distributions of [18F] FDG and [18F] fluoride were well visualized in mice of typical size. Conclusion Performance measurements and field studies indicate that the PPI is well suited to whole-body positron projection imaging of mice. When integrated into the MONICA gamma camera system, the PPI may be particularly useful early in the drug development cycle where, like MONICA, basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors (e.g., available imaging space, non-portability, and cost) may be limitations. PMID:23402672

Seidel, Jurgen; Xi, Wenze; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Jagoda, Elaine M.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

2013-01-01

319

Absolute accuracy of the Cyberware WB4 whole-body scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner is one of the first scanning systems in the world that generates a high resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory of Wright-Patterson AFB intends to use the scanner to enable quick and reliable acquisition of anthropometric data. For this purpose, a validation study was initiated to check the accuracy, reliability and errors of the system. A calibration object, consisting of two boxes and a cylinder, was scanned in several locations in the scanning space. The object dimensions in the resulting scans compared favorably to the actual dimensions of the calibration object.

Daanen, Hein A. M.; Taylor, Stacie E.; Brunsman, Matthew A.; Nurre, Joseph H.

1997-03-01

320

Whole-Body [ 18 F]FDG PET in the Management of Metastatic Brain Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background?To determine its roles in the diagnosis and the systemic evaluation of metastatic brain tumours, whole-body positron emission\\u000a tomography (PET) using [18F]FDG was performed in 20 consecutive patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ?All patients were thought to be suffering or needing to be differentiated from metastatic brain tumours. Nine patients had\\u000a multiple brain lesions; six were older and showed a rim-enhancing lesion

D. G. Kim; C.-Y. Kim; S. H. Paek; D. S. Lee; J.-K. Chung; H.-W. Jung; B.-K. Cho

1998-01-01

321

Bone remodelling biomarkers after whole body cryotherapy (WBC) in elite rugby players.  

PubMed

Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of a brief exposure to extreme cold air (-110°C) in a controlled chamber and it is applied in sports medicine to improve recovery from musculoskeletal trauma. The aim of this study is to better define the beneficial effect of WCB on the musculoskeletal system of athletes, in particular on bone remodelling. Remodelling osteoimmunological biomarkers OPG, RANKL and RANK were measured after WBC treatment in 10 male rugby players randomly selected from the Italian National team. OPG levels were increased significantly, supporting the view that WBC induces an osteogenic effect. Further studies evaluating the effect of WBC on bone metabolism are desirable. PMID:23000054

Galliera, Emanuela; Dogliotti, Giada; Melegati, Gianluca; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano M; Cabitza, Paolo; Banfi, Giuseppe

2013-08-01

322

Whole-body MR imaging, bone diffusion imaging: how and why?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-body MRI (W-B MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are two novel techniques that greatly facilitate the evaluation\\u000a of many disorders of childhood. In the musculoskeletal system, these techniques primarily aid in the evaluation of the marrow,\\u000a although there is increasing interest in the study of soft-tissue abnormalities with W-B MRI and of cartilage with DWI.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The normal pattern of marrow

Diego Jaramillo; Whole-body MRI

2010-01-01

323

Methods for calculating phase angle from measured whole body bioimpedance modulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assuming the Cole equation we have developed a method to calculate the Cole parameters (R0, R?, ?, ?Z) and the phase angle from four frequency measurements of impedance modulus values. The values obtained compare well with impedance measurements obtained using the Solatron 1294/1260 as obtained when making whole body measurements on five persons. We have also performed calculations using an algorithm based on the Kramers-Kronig approach. The results which are presented show that it is possible to obtain complete body impedance data combining relatively simple measurements with advanced calculation using a laptop. This extends the potential of portable equipment, since the measurements will require less instrumentation.

Nordbotten, Bernt J.; Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Grimnes, Sverre

2010-04-01

324

Early Effects of Whole-Body 56Fe Irradiation on Hippocampal Function in C57BL/6J Mice  

PubMed Central

Relatively little is known about early irradiation effects on hippocampal function in wild-type mice. In this study, the effects of 56Fe irradiation on hippocampal function were assessed starting 2 weeks after whole-body irradiation. Compared to sham irradiation, radiation impaired novel object recognition in female and male C57BL/6J wild-type mice. There were no effects of irradiation on contextual fear conditioning or spatial memory retention in the water maze. It is possible that oxidative damage might contribute to radiation-induced cognitive changes. Therefore, hippocampal and cortical levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT) and lipid peroxidation, measures of oxidative damage were assessed. There were no effects of irradiation on these measures of oxidative damage. As 56Fe irradiation can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, which may contribute to the impairments in novel object recognition, the effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on cognition following sham irradiation and irradiation were also assessed. ALA did not prevent radiation-induced impairments in novel object recognition and impaired spatial memory retention of sham-irradiated and irradiated mice in the probe trial after the first day of hidden platform training in the water maze. Thus, the novel object recognition test is particularly sensitive to detect early cognitive effects of 56Fe irradiation through a mechanism unlikely involving ROS or oxidative damage. PMID:23510274

Haley, Gwendolen E.; Yeiser, Lauren; Olsen, Reid H. J.; Davis, Matthew J.; Johnson, Lance A.; Raber, Jacob

2014-01-01

325

Establishment and testing of a whole body counter for the Texas A&M Nuclear Science Center  

E-print Network

on estimating worker internal exposures through analysis of air samples. With ready access to a whole body counter, emergency and routine bioassay measurements can be made for such exposures. All the associated counter electronic equipment had to be initially...

Baca, Bernadette Doris

2012-06-07

326

Calibration of the Accuscan II In Vivo System for Whole Body Counting  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the April 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for whole body counting. The source used for the calibration was a NIST traceable BOMAB manufactured by DOE as INL2006 BOMAB containing Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu-152, Sb-125 and Y-88 with energies from 27 keV to 1836 keV with a reference date of 11/29/2006. The actual usable energy range was 86.5 keV to 1597 keV on 4/21/2011. The BOMAB was constructed inside the Accuscan II counting 'tub' in the order of legs, thighs, abdomen, thorax/arms, neck, and head. Each piece was taped to the backwall of the counter. The arms were taped to the thorax. The phantom was constructed between the v-ridges on the backwall of the Accuscan II counter. The energy and efficiency calibrations were performed using the INL2006 BOMAB. The calibrations were performed with the detectors in the scanning mode. This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibration including performance verification and validation counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for whole body counting and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

Orval R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

2011-08-01

327

Estimation and implications of random errors in whole-body dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy.  

PubMed

For targeted radionuclide therapy, the level of activity to be administered is often determined from whole-body dosimetry performed on a pre-therapy tracer study. The largest potential source of error in this method is due to inconsistent or inaccurate activity retention measurements. The main aim of this study was to develop a simple method to quantify the uncertainty in the absorbed dose due to these inaccuracies. A secondary aim was to assess the effect of error propagation from the results of the tracer study to predictive absorbed dose estimates for the therapy as a result of using different radionuclides for each. Standard error analysis was applied to the MIRD schema for absorbed dose calculations. An equation was derived to describe the uncertainty in the absorbed dose estimate due solely to random errors in activity-time data, requiring only these data as input. Two illustrative examples are given. It is also shown that any errors present in the dosimetry calculations following the tracer study will propagate to errors in predictions made for the therapy study according to the ratio of the respective effective half-lives. If the therapy isotope has a much longer physical half-life than the tracer isotope (as is the case, for example, when using 123I as a tracer for 131I therapy) the propagation of errors can be significant. The equations derived provide a simple means to estimate two potentially large sources of error in whole-body absorbed dose calculations. PMID:12361219

Flux, Glenn D; Guy, Matthew J; Beddows, Ruth; Pryor, Matthew; Flower, Maggie A

2002-09-01

328

Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.

Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

1984-11-01

329

Splanchnic versus whole-body production of alpha-ketoisocaproate from leucine in the fed state.  

PubMed

The extent to which dietary branched-chain amino acids are deaminated by the splanchnic tissues (ie, the liver and gut) in the fed state and released as ketoacids into the systemic circulation is not known. To determine this, we combined the oral (L-[1-13C]-leucine, [13C]-Leu) and intravenous (L-[5,5,5-2H3]leucine, [2H3]-Leu) leucine tracer infusion with the intravenous administration of an independent isotope of the leucine ketoanalog alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) ([4,5-3H]KIC). The study was conducted during constant administration of a complete mixed meal. We found that 26% +/- 5% of the orally administered leucine was taken up by the splanchnic organs at first pass, whereas 74% +/- 5% appeared in the systemic circulation. The rate of splanchnic KIC release from deamination of dietary leucine accounted for 3% +/- 0.2% of the oral leucine administration rate and 13% +/- 2% of leucine splanchnic uptake (fractional splanchnic deamination). The fraction of whole-body total leucine uptake that was deaminated to KIC was 41% +/- 5% (P < .05 v fractional splanchnic deamination of dietary leucine uptake). We conclude that (1) the release of KIC from leucine deamination within splanchnic tissues constitutes a minimal fraction of first-pass dietary leucine uptake, and (2) splanchnic tissues are relatively less efficient than the whole body in KIC production from leucine deamination. PMID:9030823

Biolo, G; Tessari, P

1997-02-01

330

Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in developmental, toxicity, and carcinogenicity studies. The optimal medium for embedding and cryosectioning a whole organism or soft-tissue specimen for histological examination is a synthetic polymer mixture that is incompatible with MSI as a result of ion suppression. We describe the optimal methods and results for embedding and cryosectioning whole-body ZF for MALDI-MSI. We evaluated 13 distinct embedding media formulations and found a supportive hydrogel with the consistency of cartilage to be the optimal embedding medium. The hydrogel medium does not interfere with MSI data collection, aids in tissue stability, is readily available for purchase, and is easy to prepare and handle during cryosectioning. Additionally, we decreased the matrix cluster interference commonly caused by ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid by adding ammonium phosphate to the solvent spray solution. The optimized methods developed in our laboratory produced high-quality cryosections, as well as high-quality mass spectral images of sectioned ZF. PMID:23997659

Nelson, Kimberly A.; Daniels, Gabrielle J.; Fournie, John W.; Hemmer, Michael J.

2013-01-01

331

Small-animal whole-body imaging using a photoacoustic full ring array system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, we present a novel 3D photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system for small-animal whole-body imaging. The PACT system, based on a 512-element full-ring transducer array, received photoacoustic signals primarily from a 2-mm-thick slice. The light was generated by a pulse laser, and can either illuminate from the top or be reshaped to illuminate the sample from the side, using a conical lens and an optical condenser. The PACT system was capable of acquiring an in-plane image in 1.6 s; by scanning the sample in the elevational direction, a 3D tomographic image could be constructed. We tested the system by imaging a cylindrical phantom made of human hairs immersed in a scattering medium. The reconstructed image achieved an in-plane resolution of 0.1 mm and an elevational resolution of 1 mm. After deconvolution in the elevational direction, the 3D image was found to match well with the phantom. The system was also used to image a baby mouse in situ; the spinal cord and ribs can be seen easily in the reconstructed image. Our results demonstrate that the PACT system has the potential to be used for fast small-animal whole-body tomographic imaging.

Xia, Jun; Guo, Zijian; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing; Wang, Lihong V.

2011-03-01

332

Estimation and implications of random errors in whole-body dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For targeted radionuclide therapy, the level of activity to be administered is often determined from whole-body dosimetry performed on a pre-therapy tracer study. The largest potential source of error in this method is due to inconsistent or inaccurate activity retention measurements. The main aim of this study was to develop a simple method to quantify the uncertainty in the absorbed dose due to these inaccuracies. A secondary aim was to assess the effect of error propagation from the results of the tracer study to predictive absorbed dose estimates for the therapy as a result of using different radionuclides for each. Standard error analysis was applied to the MIRD schema for absorbed dose calculations. An equation was derived to describe the uncertainty in the absorbed dose estimate due solely to random errors in activity-time data, requiring only these data as input. Two illustrative examples are given. It is also shown that any errors present in the dosimetry calculations following the tracer study will propagate to errors in predictions made for the therapy study according to the ratio of the respective effective half-lives. If the therapy isotope has a much longer physical half-life than the tracer isotope (as is the case, for example, when using 123I as a tracer for 131I therapy) the propagation of errors can be significant. The equations derived provide a simple means to estimate two potentially large sources of error in whole-body absorbed dose calculations.

Flux, Glenn D.; Guy, Matthew J.; Beddows, Ruth; Pryor, Matthew; Flower, Maggie A.

2002-09-01

333

Automatic vertebral column extraction by whole-body bone SPECT scan.  

PubMed

Bone extraction and division can enhance the accuracy of diagnoses based on whole-body bone SPECT data. This study developed a method for using conventional SPECT for automatic recognition of the vertebral column. A novel feature of the proposed approach is a novel "bone graph" image description method that represents the connectivity between these image regions to facilitate manipulation of morphological relationships in the skeleton before surgery. By tracking the paths shown on the bone graph, skeletal structures can be identified by performing morphological operations. The performance of the method was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Datasets for whole-body bone SPECT scans in 46 lung cancer patients with bone metastasis were obtained with Tc-99m MDP. The algorithm successfully segmented vertebrae in the thoracolumbar spine. The quantitative assessment shows that the segmentation method achieved an average TP, FP, and FN rates of 95.1%, 9.1%, and 4.9%. The qualitative evaluation shows an average acceptance rate of 83%, where the data for the acceptable and unacceptable groups had a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.718, which indicated reasonable internal consistency and reliability. PMID:23690878

Huang, Sheng-Fang; Chao, Hao-Yu; Kao, Pan-Fu; Shen, Wei-Chih; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Liu, Shu-Hsin

2013-01-01

334

Evaluation of pulmonary function in European land tortoises using whole-body plethysmography.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of whole-body plethysmography as a non-invasive method to determine the respiratory parameters and profiles in two tortoise species belonging to the genus Testudo. Pulmonary functions and volumetric parameters were determined in 10 adults of Testudo hermanni and in seven Testudo marginata animals, using whole-body plethysmography. A profile pattern was regularly observed: an inspiratory flow peak, an expiratory peak, an apnoea phase and a second expiratory peak, previous to the beginning of the next respiratory cycle. Positive and significant correlation was observed between the inspiratory time, weight and length of the tortoises. Larger tortoises showed a higher time of inhalation. The peak of inspiratory flow was correlated with the sex, being longer in the females. T. marginata had an inspiratory time longer than that of T. hermanii. In T. hermanii, differences related to the sex were observed in the tidal volume, peak inspiratory flow, peak expiratory flow, expiratory flow of 50 per cent and enhanced pause, which could be related to the smaller size of males. The results suggest that additional information on new technologies currently used in pet medicine or even in human medicine should be developed and adjusted as alternative ways to support the rehabilitation of turtles and tortoises. PMID:22832080

Valente, A L Schifino; Martínez-Silvestre, A; García-Guasch, L; Riera-Tort, A; Marco, I; Lavin, S; Cuenca, R

2012-08-11

335

Whole body MRI: Improved Lesion Detection and Characterization With Diffusion Weighted Techniques  

PubMed Central

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an established functional imaging technique that interrogates the delicate balance of water movement at the cellular level. Technological advances enable this technique to be applied to whole-body MRI. Theory, b-value selection, common artifacts and target to background for optimized viewing will be reviewed for applications in the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Whole-body imaging with DWI allows novel applications of MRI to aid in evaluation of conditions such as multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and skeletal metastases, while the quantitative nature of this technique permits evaluation of response to therapy. Persisting signal at high b-values from restricted hypercellular tissue and viscous fluid also permits applications of DWI beyond oncologic imaging. DWI, when used in conjunction with routine imaging, can assist in detecting hemorrhagic degradation products, infection/abscess, and inflammation in colitis, while aiding with discrimination of free fluid and empyema, while limiting the need for intravenous contrast. DWI in conjunction with routine anatomic images provides a platform to improve lesion detection and characterization with findings rivaling other combined anatomic and functional imaging techniques, with the added benefit of no ionizing radiation. PMID:23960006

Attariwala, Rajpaul; Picker, Wayne

2013-01-01

336

Whole-body posture planning in anticipation of a manual prehension task: prospective and retrospective effects.  

PubMed

This study examined the extent to which the anticipation of a manual action task influences whole-body postural planning and orientation. Our participants walked up to a drawer, opened the drawer, then grasped and moved an object in the drawer to another location in the same drawer. The starting placement of the object within the drawer and the final placement of the object in the drawer were varied across trials in either a blocked design (i.e., in trials where the same start and end location were repeated consecutively) or in a mixed fashion. Of primary interest was the posture adopted at the moment of grasping the drawer handle before pulling it out prior to the object manipulation task. Of secondary interest was whether there were sequential effects such that postures adopted in preceding trials influenced postures in subsequent trials. The results indicated that the spatial properties of the forthcoming object manipulation influenced both the postures adopted by the participants and the degree to which the drawer was opened, suggesting a prospective effect. In addition, the adopted postures were more consistent in blocked trials than in mixed trials, suggesting an additional retrospective effect. Overall, our findings suggest that motor planning occurs at the level of the whole body, and reflects both prospective and retrospective influences. PMID:23932999

Land, William M; Rosenbaum, David A; Seegelke, Christian; Schack, Thomas

2013-10-01

337

Automatic Vertebral Column Extraction by Whole-Body Bone SPECT Scan  

PubMed Central

Bone extraction and division can enhance the accuracy of diagnoses based on whole-body bone SPECT data. This study developed a method for using conventional SPECT for automatic recognition of the vertebral column. A novel feature of the proposed approach is a novel “bone graph" image description method that represents the connectivity between these image regions to facilitate manipulation of morphological relationships in the skeleton before surgery. By tracking the paths shown on the bone graph, skeletal structures can be identified by performing morphological operations. The performance of the method was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Datasets for whole-body bone SPECT scans in 46 lung cancer patients with bone metastasis were obtained with Tc-99m MDP. The algorithm successfully segmented vertebrae in the thoracolumbar spine. The quantitative assessment shows that the segmentation method achieved an average TP, FP, and FN rates of 95.1%, 9.1%, and 4.9%. The qualitative evaluation shows an average acceptance rate of 83%, where the data for the acceptable and unacceptable groups had a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.718, which indicated reasonable internal consistency and reliability. PMID:23690878

Huang, Sheng-Fang; Chao, Hao-Yu; Kao, Pan-Fu; Shen, Wei-Chih; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Liu, Shu-Hsin

2013-01-01

338

Coffee polyphenols modulate whole-body substrate oxidation and suppress postprandial hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperlipidaemia.  

PubMed

Postprandial energy metabolism, including postprandial hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperlipidaemia, is related to the risk for developing obesity and CVD. In the present study, we examined the effects of polyphenols purified from coffee (coffee polyphenols (CPP)) on postprandial carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and whole-body substrate oxidation in C57BL/6J mice. In mice that co-ingested CPP with a lipid-carbohydrate (sucrose or starch)-mixed emulsion, the respiratory quotient determined by indirect calorimetry was significantly lower than that in control mice, whereas there was no difference in VO2 (energy expenditure), indicating that CPP modulates postprandial energy partitioning. CPP also suppressed postprandial increases in plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and TAG levels. Inhibition experiments on digestive enzymes revealed that CPP inhibits maltase and sucrase, and, to a lesser extent, pancreatic lipase in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the nine kinds of polyphenols (caffeoyl quinic acids (CQA), di-CQA, feruloyl quinic acids (FQA)) contained in CPP, di-CQA showed more potent inhibitory activity than CQA or FQA on these digestive enzymes, suggesting a predominant role of di-CQA in the regulation of postprandial energy metabolism. These results suggest that CPP modulates whole-body substrate oxidation by suppressing postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, and these effects are mediated by inhibiting digestive enzymes. PMID:22017960

Murase, Takatoshi; Yokoi, Yuka; Misawa, Koichi; Ominami, Hideo; Suzuki, Yasuto; Shibuya, Yusuke; Hase, Tadashi

2012-06-01

339

Potential errors in body composition as estimated by whole body scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

Vigorous exercise has been reported to increase the apparent potassium content of athletes measured by whole body gamma ray scintillation counting of /sup 40/K. The possibility that this phenomenon is an artifact was evaluated in three cyclists and one nonathlete after exercise on the road (cyclists) or in a room with a source of radon and radon progeny (nonathlete). The apparent /sup 40/K content of the thighs of the athletes and whole body of the nonathlete increased after exercise. Counts were also increased in both windows detecting /sup 214/Bi, a progeny of radon. /sup 40/K and /sup 214/Bi counts were highly correlated (r = 0.87, p < 0.001). The apparent increase in /sup 40/K was accounted for by an increase in counts associated with the 1.764 MeV gamma ray emissions from /sup 214/Bi. Thus a failure to correct for radon progeny would cause a significant error in the estimate of lean body mass by /sup 40/K counting.

Lykken, G.I.; Lukaski, H.C.; Bolonchuk, W.W.; Sandstead, H.H.

1983-04-01

340

Consequences of Lethal-Whole-Body Gamma Radiation and Possible Ameliorative Role of Melatonin  

PubMed Central

Gamma radiation induces the generation of free radicals, leading to serious cellular damages in biological systems. Radioprotectors act as prophylactic agents that are administered to shield normal cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiation. Melatonin synergistically acts as an immune-stimulator and antioxidant. We investigated the possible radioprotective role of melatonin (100?mg/kg i.p.) against lethal-whole-body radiation- (10?Gy) induced sickness, body weight loss, and mortality in rats. Results of the present study suggest that exposure to lethal-whole-body radiation incurred mortality, body weight loss, and apoptosis and it also depleted the immunity and the antioxidant status of the rats. Our results show that melatonin pretreatment provides protection against radiation induced mortality, oxidative stress, and immune-suppression. The melatonin pretreated irradiated rats showed less change in body weight as compared to radiation only group. On the other hand, melatonin appeared to have another radioprotective role, suggesting that melatonin may reduce apoptosis through a caspase-3-mediated pathway by blocking caspase-3 activity.

Mihandoost, Ehsan; Shirazi, Alireza; Mahdavi, Seied Rabie; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar

2014-01-01

341

Influence of ambient temperature on whole body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements are easy to implement and could be used for continuous monitoring. However, several factors (e.g. environment temperature) influence the measurements limiting the accuracy of the technology. Changes in skin temperature produced by changes in ambient temperature are related with changes in skin blood flow and skin impedance. It is assumed that skin impedance change is responsible for the error observed in whole body and segmental measurements. Measurements including body parts more distant from the torso seem to be more affected. In the present article skin and segment impedance have been performed on healthy subjects under extreme changes in environment temperature (13-39 °C). A commercial BIS device with a range between 5 kHz and 1 MHz has been used for the measurements. The results indicate that not only skin impedance, but also impedance of deeper tissue (e.g. muscle) may be responsible for the influence of environment temperature on BIS measurements. Segmental (knee-to-knee) BIS measurements show a relative change of only 2 %, while forearm and whole body impedance changed 14 % and 8 % respectively.

Medrano, G.; Bausch, R.; Ismail, A. H.; Cordes, A.; Pikkemaat, R.; Leonhardt, S.

2010-04-01

342

A Lesion Detection Observer Study Comparing 2Dimensional Versus Fully 3Dimensional Whole-Body PET Imaging Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the impact of 2-dimensional (2D) and fully 3-di- mensional (3D) acquisition modes on the performance of human observers in detecting and localizing tumors in whole-body 18F-FDG images. Methods: We selected protocols based on noise equivalent count (NEC) rates derived from a series of 2D and fully 3D whole-body patient and phantom acquisitions on a dual-mode PET scanner. The

Carole Lartizien; Paul E. Kinahan; Claude Comtat

2004-01-01

343

Effects of whole-body and local thermal stress on hydrostatic volume changes in the human calf  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In the present study, we examined the effect of thermal stress on the magnitude and pattern of change in leg volume during\\u000a orthostatic stress and thigh occlusion in humans. Ten healthy volunteers underwent whole-body thermal stress produced by a\\u000a cool- or hot-water-perfused suit and local heat stress of the calf. During whole-body thermal stress, changes of calf circumference\\u000a during

Fumio Yamazaki; Chitose Okuno; Shoko Nagamatsu; Ryoko Sone

2002-01-01

344

Optimization of Injected Dose Based on Noise Equivalent Count Rates for 2- and 3Dimensional Whole-Body PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noise equivalent count (NEC) rate index is used to derive guidelines on the optimal injected dose to the patient for 2-di- mensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) whole-body PET acqui- sitions. Methods: We performed 2D and 3D whole-body acqui- sitions of an anthropomorphic phantom modeling the conditions for 18F-FDG PET of the torso and measured the NEC rates for different

Carole Lartizien; Claude Comtat; Paul E. Kinahan; Nuno Ferreira; Bernard Bendriem; Regine Trebossen

2002-01-01

345

IV radionuclide total-body arteriography: a new noninvasive whole-body screening procedure--a case report  

SciTech Connect

Recently the authors introduced a new technique of intravenous (IV) radionuclide total-body arteriography. The major arterial system, multiple organs of the whole body, and cardiac function can be evaluated with one small IV injection in the arm. After analyzing more than 1000 cases, they have found that many pathologies can be detected and/or confirmed in this procedure. This new technique may be used as a general whole-body screening test for those patients at high risk for disease.

Yang, D.C.; Gould, L.; Yee, W.K.; Patel, D.; Giovanniello, J.

1988-01-01

346

Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ˜15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ˜45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45 to ˜35 min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging.

Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

2013-10-01

347

Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application.  

PubMed

Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ~15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ~45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45 to ~35 min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging. PMID:24080962

Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Tahari, Abdel K; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

2013-10-21

348

2.5D Finite/infinite Element Approach for Simulating Train-Induced Ground Vibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2.5D finite/infinite element approach for simulating the ground vibrations by surface or underground moving trains will be briefly summarized in this paper. By assuming the soils to be uniform along the direction of the railway, only a two-dimensional profile of the soil perpendicular to the railway need be considered in the modeling. Besides the two in-plane degrees of freedom (DOFs) per node conventionally used for plane strain elements, an extra DOF is introduced to account for the out-of-plane wave transmission. The profile of the half-space is divided into a near field and a semi-infinite far field. The near field containing the train loads and irregular structures is simulated by the finite elements, while the far field covering the soils with infinite boundary by the infinite elements, by which due account is taken of the radiation effects for the moving loads. Enhanced by the automated mesh expansion procedure proposed previously by the writers, the far field impedances for all the lower frequencies are generated repetitively from the mesh created for the highest frequency considered. Finally, incorporated with a proposed load generation mechanism that takes the rail irregularity and dynamic properties of trains into account, an illustrative case study was performed. This paper investigates the vibration isolation effect of the elastic foundation that separates the concrete slab track from the underlying soil or tunnel structure. In addition, the advantage of the 2.5D approach was clearly demonstrated in that the three-dimensional wave propagation effect can be virtually captured using a two-dimensional finite/infinite element mesh. Compared with the conventional 3D approach, the present approach appears to be simple, efficient and generally accurate.

Yang, Y. B.; Hung, H. H.; Kao, J. C.

2010-05-01

349

Restrictions in systemic and locomotor skeletal muscle perfusion, oxygen supply and during high-intensity whole-body exercise in humans  

PubMed Central

Perfusion to exercising skeletal muscle is regulated to match O2 delivery to the O2 demand, but this regulation might be compromised during or approaching maximal whole-body exercise as muscle blood flow for a given work rate is blunted. Whether muscle perfusion is restricted when there is an extreme metabolic stimulus to vasodilate during supramaximal exercise remains unknown. To examine the regulatory limits of systemic and muscle perfusion in exercising humans, we measured systemic and leg haemodynamics, O2 transport, and , and estimated non-locomotor tissue perfusion during constant load supramaximal cycling (498 ± 16 W; 110% of peak power; mean ± s.e.m.) in addition to both incremental cycling and knee-extensor exercise to exhaustion in 13 trained males. During supramaximal cycling, cardiac output (), leg blood flow (LBF), and systemic and leg O2 delivery and reached peak values after 60–90 s and thereafter levelled off at values similar to or ?6% (P < 0.05) below maximal cycling, while upper body blood flow remained unchanged (?5.5 l min?1). In contrast, and LBF increased linearly until exhaustion during one-legged knee-extensor exercise accompanying increases in non-locomotor tissue blood flow to ?12 l min?1. At exhaustion during cycling compared to knee-extensor exercise, , LBF, leg vascular conductance, leg O2 delivery and leg for a given power were reduced by 32–47% (P < 0.05). In conclusion, locomotor skeletal muscle perfusion is restricted during maximal and supramaximal whole–body exercise in association with a plateau in and limb vascular conductance. These observations suggest that limits of cardiac function and muscle vasoconstriction underlie the inability of the circulatory system to meet the increasing metabolic demand of skeletal muscles and other tissues during whole-body exercise. PMID:18372307

Mortensen, Stefan P; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose

2008-01-01

350

Treatment of posttraumatic arthrofibrosis of the radioulnar joint with vibration therapy (VMTX Vibromax Therapeutics™): A case report and narrative review of literature  

PubMed Central

Objective To present the clinical features of post traumatic arthrofibrosis and response to treatment with Vibromax Therapeutics™ (VMTX™) in 28 year old male soccer player. Rationale Many studies have reported an increase in muscle performance after whole-body vibration, but to date none have evaluated the possibility of vibration application as a therapy for functional restoration after injury. Conclusions Vibration training is being utilized in, strength training, performance enhancement and rehabilitation. Despite the lack of research in this area, the literature that is currently available and the results of this case study imply that vibration therapy has the potential to aid in the management of acute soft tissue injury and the sequela of disuse and immobilization. PMID:18327298

Macintyre, Ian; Kazemi, Mohsen

2008-01-01

351

Side-Alternating Vibration Training for Balance and Ankle Muscle Strength in Untrained Women  

PubMed Central

Context: Side-alternating vibration (SAV) may help reduce the risk of falling by improving body balance control. Such training has been promoted as a strength-training intervention because it can increase muscle activation through an augmented excitatory input from the muscle spindles. Objective: To determine the effect of SAV training on static balance during 3 postural tasks of increasing difficulty and lower limb strength. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 21 healthy women were divided into training (n = 11; age = 43.35 ± 4.12 years, height = 169 ± 6.60 cm, mass = 68.33 ± 11.90 kg) and control (n = 10; age = 42.31 ± 3.73 years, height = 167 ± 4.32 cm, mass = 66.29 ± 10.74 kg) groups. Intervention(s): The training group completed a 9-week program during which participants performed 3 sessions per week of ten 15-second isometric contractions with a 30-second active rest of 3 exercises (half-squat, wide-stance squat, 1-legged half-squat) on an SAV plate (acceleration = 0.91–16.3g). The control group did not participate in any form of exercise over the 9-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s): We evaluated isokinetic and isometric strength of the knee extensors and flexors and ankle plantar flexors, dorsiflexors, and evertors. Static balance was assessed using 3 tasks of increasing difficulty (quiet bipedal stance, tandem stance, 1-legged stance). The electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus was recorded during postural task performance, baseline and pretraining, immediately posttraining, and 15 days posttraining. Results: After training in the training group, ankle muscle strength improved (P = .03), whereas knee muscle strength remained unaltered (P = .13). Improved ankle-evertor strength was observed at all angular velocities (P = .001). Postural sway decreased in both directions but was greater in the mediolateral (P < .001) than anteroposterior (P = .02) direction. The electromyographic activity of the peroneus longus increased during the sharpened tandem (P = .001) and 1-legged tasks (P = .007). No changes were seen in the control group for any measures. Conclusions: The SAV training could enhance ankle muscle strength and reduce postural sway during static balance performance. The reduction in mediolateral sway could be associated with the greater use of ankle evertors due to their strength improvement. PMID:23914911

Spiliopoulou, Styliani I.; Amiridis, Ioannis G.; Tsigganos, Georgios; Hatzitaki, Vassilia

2013-01-01

352

Optimal whole-body PET scanner configurations for different volumes of LSO scintillator: a simulation study  

PubMed Central

The axial field of view (AFOV) of the current generation of clinical whole-body PET scanners range from 15–22 cm, which limits sensitivity and renders applications such as whole-body dynamic imaging, or imaging of very low activities in whole-body cellular tracking studies, almost impossible. Generally, extending the AFOV significantly increases the sensitivity and count-rate performance. However, extending the AFOV while maintaining detector thickness has significant cost implications. In addition, random coincidences, detector dead time, and object attenuation may reduce scanner performance as the AFOV increases. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulations to find the optimal scanner geometry (i.e. AFOV, detector thickness and acceptance angle) based on count-rate performance for a range of scintillator volumes ranging from 10 to 90 l with detector thickness varying from 5 to 20 mm. We compare the results to the performance of a scanner based on the current Siemens Biograph mCT geometry and electronics. Our simulation models were developed based on individual components of the Siemens Biograph mCT and were validated against experimental data using the NEMA NU-2 2007 count-rate protocol. In the study, noise-equivalent count rate (NECR) was computed as a function of maximum ring difference (i.e. acceptance angle) and activity concentration using a 27 cm diameter, 200 cm uniformly filled cylindrical phantom for each scanner configuration. To reduce the effect of random coincidences, we implemented a variable coincidence time window based on the length of the lines of response, which increased NECR performance up to 10% compared to using a static coincidence time window for scanners with large maximum ring difference values. For a given scintillator volume, the optimal configuration results in modest count-rate performance gains of up to 16% compared to the shortest AFOV scanner with the thickest detectors. However, the longest AFOV of approximately 2 m with 20 mm thick detectors resulted in performance gains of 25–31 times higher NECR relative to the current Siemens Biograph mCT scanner configuration. PMID:22678106

Poon, Jonathan K; Dahlbom, Magnus L; Moses, William W; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Wang, Wenli; Cherry, Simon R; Badawi, Ramsey D

2013-01-01

353

A method for exposing rodents to resuspended particles using whole-body plethysmography  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies have reported increased risks of cardiopulmonary-related hospitalization and death in association with exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) across a wide range of urban areas. In response to these findings, researchers have conducted animal inhalation exposures aimed at reproducing the observed toxicologic effects. However, it is technically difficult to quantitate the actual amount of PM delivered to the lung in such studies, and dose is frequently estimated using default respiration parameters. Consequently, the interpretation of PM-induced effects in rodents exposed via whole-body inhalation is often compromised by the inability to determine deposited dose. To address this problem, we have developed an exposure system that merges the generation of dry, aerosolized particles with whole-body plethysmography (WBP), thus permitting inhalation exposures in the unrestrained rat while simultaneously obtaining data on pulmonary function. Results This system was validated using an oil combustion-derived particle (HP12) at three nominal concentrations (3, 12, and 13 mg/m3) for four consecutive exposure days (6 hr/day); a single 6-hour exposure to 13 mg/m3 of HP12 was also conducted. These results demonstrated that the system was both reliable and consistent over these exposure protocols, achieving average concentrations that were within 10% of the targeted concentration. In-line filters located on the exhaust outlets of individual WBP chambers showed relative agreement in HP12 mass for each day and were not statistically different when compared to one another (p = 0.16). Temperatures and relative humidities were also similar between chambers during PM and air exposures. Finally, detailed composition analyses of both HP12 filter and bulk samples showed that grinding and aerosolization did not change particle chemistry. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to expose rodents to resuspended, dry PM via whole-body inhalation while these animals are maintained in WBP chambers. This new methodology should significantly improve the ability to assess dosimetry under minimally stressful exposure conditions. PMID:16911796

Wichers, Lindsay B; Ledbetter, Allen D; McGee, John K; Kellogg, Robert B; Rowan, William H; Nolan, Julianne P; Costa, Daniel L; Watkinson, William P

2006-01-01

354

Gene Expression Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton or Gamma-Irradiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew members face potential consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment including acute radiation syndrome and cancer. The space radiation environment is ample with protons, and numerous studies have been devoted to the understanding of the health consequences of proton exposures. In this project, C57BL/6 mice underwent whole-body exposure to 250 MeV of protons at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2 and 6 Gy and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation. Standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes in the tissue showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest dose of 0.1 Gy, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. Results of gene expression changes showed consistent up- or down- regulation, up to 10 fold, of a number of genes across exposure doses that may play a role in proton-induced oxidative stress including Gpx2. A separate study in C57BL/6 mice using the same four hour time point but whole-body gamma-irradiation showed damage to the small intestine with lesions appearing at the smallest dose of 0.05 Gy and increasing with increasing absorbed dose. Expressions of genes associated with oxidative stress processes were analyzed at four hours and twenty-four hours after exposure to gamma rays. We saw a much greater number of genes with significant up- or down-regulation twenty-four hours post-exposure as compared to the four hour time point. At both four hours and twenty-four hours post-exposure, Duox1 and Mpo underwent up-regulation for the highest dose of 6 Gy. Both protons and gamma rays lead to significant variation in gene expressions and these changes may provide insight into the mechanism of injury seen in the GI tract following radiation exposure. We have also completed experiments using a BALB/c mouse model undergoing whole-body exposure to protons. Doses of 0, 0.1, 1 and 2 Gy were used and results will be compared to the work mentioned above. The most striking result preliminarily is that both strains of mice show a greater number of genes changing at the lowest dose of exposure for their respective pathways.

Purgason, Ashley; Zhang, Ye; Mangala, Lingegowda; Nie, Ying; Gridley, Daila; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Seidel, Derek V.; Wu, Honglu

2014-01-01

355

Nutritional supplements with oral amino acid mixtures increases whole-body lean mass and insulin sensitivity in elderly subjects with sarcopenia.  

PubMed

Decreases in whole-body lean mass can cause sarcopenia, a disease frequently found in the elderly. This condition is frequently associated with frailty and disability in aging as well as the onset and progression of several geriatric syndromes. Sarcopenia therefore must be managed with multidimensional approaches that include physical training, nutritional support, and metabolic and anabolic treatment. The purpose of our study was to assess the effect of an orally administered special mixture of amino acids (AAs) in elderly subjects with reduced lean body mass and sarcopenia. A randomized, open-label, crossover study was conducted in 41 elderly subjects (age range: 66-84 years) with sarcopenia, assigned to 2 distinct treatments (AAs and placebo). All subjects had normal body weight (body mass index within 19-23). The AA treatment consisted of 70.6 kcal/day (1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) of 8 g of essential AA snacks, given at 10:00 am and 5:00 pm. Lean mass was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in leg, arm, and trunk tissues. Significant increases in whole-body lean mass in all areas were seen after 6 months and more consistently after 18 months of oral nutritional supplementation with AAs. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (an index of insulin resistance) significantly decreased during AA treatment. Furthermore, a significant reduction in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and a significant increase in both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) serum concentrations and in the IGF-1/TNF-alpha ratio were also found. No significant adverse effects were observed during AA treatment. These preliminary data indicate that nutritional supplements with the oral AA mixture significantly increased whole-body lean mass in elderly subjects with sarcopenia. The improvement in the amount of whole-body lean mass could be linked to increased insulin sensitivity and anabolic conditions related to IGF-1 availability. PMID:18514630

Solerte, Sebastiano B; Gazzaruso, Carmine; Bonacasa, Roberto; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Zamboni, Mauro; Basso, Cristina; Locatelli, Eleonora; Schifino, Nicola; Giustina, Andrea; Fioravanti, Marisa

2008-06-01

356

Imaging Therapeutic Response in Human Bone Marrow Using Rapid Whole-Body MRI  

PubMed Central

Whole-body imaging of therapeutic response in human bone marrow was achieved without introduced contrast agents using diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging of physiologic water. Bone marrow disease was identified relative to the strong overlying signals from water and lipids in other anatomy through selective excitation of the water resonance and generation of image contrast that was dependent upon differential nuclear relaxation times and self-diffusion coefficients. Three-dimensional displays were generated to aid image interpretation. The geometric distortion inherent in echo-planar imaging techniques was minimized through the acquisition of multiple axial slices at up to 12 anatomic stations over the entire body. Examples presented include the evaluation of therapeutic response in bone marrow during cytotoxic therapy for leukemia and metastatic prostate cancer and during cytokine administration for marrow mobilization prior to stem cell harvest. PMID:15562475

Ballon, Douglas; Watts, Richard; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Lis, Eric; Morris, Michael J.; Scher, Howard I.; Ulug, Aziz M.; Jakubowski, Ann A.

2008-01-01

357

Bony metastases: assessing response to therapy with whole-body diffusion MRI  

PubMed Central

Abstract There are no universally accepted methods for assessing tumour response in skeletal sites with metastatic disease; response is assessed by a combination of imaging tests, serum and urine biochemical markers and symptoms assessments. Whole-body diffusion magnetic resonance imaging excels at bone marrow assessments at diagnosis and for therapy evaluations. It can potentially address unmet clinical and pharmaceutical needs for a reliable measure of tumour response. Signal intensity on high b-value images and apparent diffusion coefficient values can be related to underlying biophysical properties of skeletal metastases. Four patterns of change in response to therapy are described this review. Therapy response criteria need to be tested in prospective clinical studies that incorporate conventional measures of patient benefit. PMID:22185786

Gogbashian, A.

2011-01-01

358

Whole-body imaging of the distribution of mercury released from dental fillings into monkey tissues  

SciTech Connect

The fate of mercury (Hg) released from dental silver amalgam tooth fillings into human mouth air is uncertain. A previous report about sheep revealed uptake routes and distribution of amalgam Hg among body tissues. The present investigation demonstrates the bodily distribution of amalgam Hg in a monkey whose dentition, diet, feeding regimen, and chewing pattern closely resemble those of humans. When amalgam fillings, which normally contain 50% Hg, are made with a tracer of radioactive {sup 203}Hg and then placed into monkey teeth, the isotope appears in high concentration in various organs and tissues within 4 wk. Whole-body images of the monkey revealed that the highest levels of Hg were located in the kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and jaw. The dental profession's advocacy of silver amalgam as a stable tooth restorative material is not supported by these findings.

Hahn, L.J.; Kloiber, R.; Leininger, R.W.; Vimy, M.J.; Lorscheider, F.L. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1990-11-01

359

Optimal self-calibration of tomographic reconstruction parameters in whole-body small animal optoacoustic imaging  

PubMed Central

In tomographic optoacoustic imaging, multiple parameters related to both light and ultrasound propagation characteristics of the medium need to be adequately selected in order to accurately recover maps of local optical absorbance. Speed of sound in the imaged object and surrounding medium is a key parameter conventionally assumed to be uniform. Mismatch between the actual and predicted speed of sound values may lead to image distortions but can be mitigated by manual or automatic optimization based on metrics of image sharpness. Although some simple approaches based on metrics of image sharpness may readily mitigate distortions in the presence of highly contrasting and sharp image features, they may not provide an adequate performance for smooth signal variations as commonly present in realistic whole-body optoacoustic images from small animals. Thus, three new hybrid methods are suggested in this work, which are shown to outperform well-established autofocusing algorithms in mouse experiments in vivo.

Mandal, Subhamoy; Nasonova, Elena; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Razansky, Daniel

2014-01-01

360

Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography  

PubMed Central

Abstract. With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:22894495

Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-01-01

361

Whole-body ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography of small animals in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a novel small-animal whole-body imaging system called ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography (RC-PACT). RC-PACT is based on a confocal design of free-space ring-shaped light illumination and 512-element full-ring ultrasonic array signal detection. The free-space light illumination maximizes the light delivery efficiency, and the full-ring signal detection ensures a full two-dimensional view aperture for accurate image reconstruction. Using cylindrically focused array elements, RC-PACT can image a thin cross section with 0.10 to 0.25 mm in-plane resolutions and 1.6 s/frame acquisition time. By translating the mouse along the elevational direction, RC-PACT provides a series of cross-sectional images of the brain, liver, kidneys, and bladder.

Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad R.; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Kun; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-05-01

362

Distribution of natural thorium in the tissues of a whole body.  

PubMed

The distribution of thorium in the tissues of a whole body donor to the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries is described. This case, identified by the USTUR as Case 0212, had two documented intakes of plutonium and americium from occupational accidents while employed at Hanford but no known occupational exposure to thorium. Concentrations of 239+240Pu, 241Am, and 232Th in the tissues are compared and the distribution of these isotopes in this case is evaluated. The distribution data for 232Th are compared to those from previous studies of thorium in human tissues resulting from environmental exposure and to an individual exposed to Thorotrast (colloidal ThO2) in a medical diagnostic procedure. The 232Th distribution data from this work are also compared against ICRP 30 and ICRP 69 models for the behaviour of thorium in the human body. PMID:11843357

Glover, S E; Traub, R J; Grimm, C A; Filby, R H

2001-01-01

363

Skeletal muscle response to spaceflight, whole body suspension, and recovery in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of a 7-day spaceflight (SF), 7- and 14-day-long whole body suspension (WBS), and 7-day-long recovery on the muscle weight and the morphology of the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats were investigated. It was found that the effect of 7-day-long SF and WBS were highly comparable for both the soleus and the EDL, although the soleus muscle from SF rats showed greater cross-sectional area reduction than that from WBS rats. With a longer duration of WBS, there was a continued reduction in cross-sectional fast-twitch fiber area. Muscle plasticity, in terms of fiber and capillary responses, showed differences in responses of the two types of muscles, indicating that antigravity posture muscles are highly susceptible to unloading.

Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Dombrowski, M. J.

1990-01-01

364

Whole-body ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography of small animals in vivo  

PubMed Central

Abstract. We report a novel small-animal whole-body imaging system called ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography (RC-PACT). RC-PACT is based on a confocal design of free-space ring-shaped light illumination and 512-element full-ring ultrasonic array signal detection. The free-space light illumination maximizes the light delivery efficiency, and the full-ring signal detection ensures a full two-dimensional view aperture for accurate image reconstruction. Using cylindrically focused array elements, RC-PACT can image a thin cross section with 0.10 to 0.25 mm in-plane resolutions and 1.6??s/frame acquisition time. By translating the mouse along the elevational direction, RC-PACT provides a series of cross-sectional images of the brain, liver, kidneys, and bladder. PMID:22612121

Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad R.; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Kun; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-01-01

365

Attitudes of the medical profession to whole body and organ donation.  

PubMed

Cadaveric dissection remains an important part of undergraduate medical education in anatomy. In a concerted effort to rise the number of doctors in practice in Ireland the amount of medical school placements has been increased steadily since 1995. This poses a problem as the number of cadavers has remained unchanged despite an overall increase in the population Ireland over the last twenty years. The medical profession plays a central part in raising public awareness of living and post-mortem organ donation. Previous studies have examined the attitudes of medical students to whole body donation, however to our knowledge this is the first study that evaluates the attitudes of medical professionals. We assess the opinions of junior and senior doctors at the time of their dissection experience and in their current practice. We show that their attitudes have changed as their clinical experience grows. PMID:23932670

Green, Connor; Bowden, Dermot; Molony, Diarmuid; Burke, Neil; Felle, Patrick; Dudeney, Sean

2014-04-01

366

Whole-body retention and distribution of orally administered radiolabelled zerovalent iron nanoparticles in mice.  

PubMed

Zerovalent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) are used for in situ remediation of contaminated ground water, raising the possibility that nZVI particles or their altered residues could contaminate the ground water. Therefore, it is important to study their effects on humans and other organisms in vivo. The objective of this study was to assess the whole-body retention and terminal disposition of neutron-activated radioactive nZVI administered by oral gavage in mice. Radioactivity was primarily eliminated in the faeces within 1 day of administration. However, a small amount of iron-derived radioactivity appeared in the liver after three repeated daily doses. This prototypic study further suggests that neutron activation applied judiciously may be broadly applicable to studies of nanoparticles derived from other biologically abundant metals. PMID:22662881

Hughes, Michael F; Long, Thomas C; Boyes, William K; Ramabhadran, Ram

2013-09-01

367

Ergometer within a whole-body plethysmograph to evaluate performance of guinea pigs under toxic atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

A guinea pig ergometer was constructed within an enclosure, with inlet and outlet ports for continuous ventilation, designed so that the enclosure would work as a whole-body plethysmograph as well as an inhalation exposure chamber. This system provided continuous measurement of tidal volume, respiratory frequency, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide output which enabled an evaluation of performance in terms of distance traveled over time with the animals running at a known speed and constant oxygen uptake. The effects of CO or HCl in running versus sedentary animals were investigated using this apparatus. For CO, exercise increased the rapidity of the onset of incapacitation as would be predicted by the increase in metabolic rate. HCl produced a more severe incapacitating effect in exercising animals that was out of proportion with the increase in minute volume induced by exercise.

Malek, D.E.; Alarie, Y. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1989-11-01

368

Humans adapt the initial posture in learning a whole-body kicking movement.  

PubMed

What strategies are used in learning to control new movements? The present investigation sought to understand this process by analyzing the changes in whole-body kinematics that occurred when subjects attempted to learn an unusual kicking movement. Five novices were taught a capoeira kick that involved both the upper and lower body for balance and co-ordination. Subjects performed two sets of 60 consecutive kicks, 24 h apart. Gradual changes in the body movement and the initial posture were found. Four subjects reduced the dynamic counter-twist associated with kick initiation. These subjects also adopted a more forward initial body lean. This gradual change in initial posture appeared to obviate the early counter-twist and to facilitate both the equilibrium and the goal directed components of the kick. PMID:11403961

Reifel Saltzberg, J; Hondzinski, J M; Flanders, M

2001-06-22

369

Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: This study reports the effects of ingesting branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) on protein metabolism in four men. METHODS: To calculate leg protein synthesis and breakdown, we used a new model that utilized the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and the sampling of the leg arterial-venous difference and muscle biopsies. In addition, protein-bound enrichments provided for the direct calculation of muscle fractional synthetic rate. Four control subjects ingested an equivalent amount of essential amino acids (threonine, methionine, and histidine) to discern the effects of branched-chain amino acid nitrogen vs the effects of essential amino acid nitrogen. Each drink also included 50 g of carbohydrate. RESULTS: Consumption of the branched-chain and the essential amino acid solutions produced significant threefold and fourfold elevations in their respective arterial concentrations. Protein synthesis and breakdown were unaffected by branched-chain amino acids, but they increased by 43% (p < .05) and 36% (p < .03), respectively, in the group consuming the essential amino acids. However, net leg balance of phenylalanine was unchanged by either drink. Direct measurement of protein synthesis by tracer incorporation into muscle protein (fractional synthetic rate) revealed no changes within or between drinks. Whole-body phenylalanine flux was significantly suppressed by each solution but to a greater extent by the branched-chain amino acids (15% and 20%, respectively) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men.

Ferrando, A. A.; Williams, B. D.; Stuart, C. A.; Lane, H. W.; Wolfe, R. R.

1995-01-01

370

Whole-body angular momentum during stair walking using passive and powered lower-limb prostheses.  

PubMed

Individuals with a unilateral transtibial amputation have a greater risk of falling compared to able-bodied individuals, and falling on stairs can lead to serious injuries. Individuals with transtibial amputations have lost ankle plantarflexor muscle function, which is critical for regulating whole-body angular momentum to maintain dynamic balance. Recently, powered prostheses have been designed to provide active ankle power generation with the goal of restoring biological ankle function. However, the effects of using a powered prosthesis on the regulation of whole-body angular momentum are unknown. The purpose of this study was to use angular momentum to evaluate dynamic balance in individuals with a transtibial amputation using powered and passive prostheses relative to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent and descent. Ground reaction forces, external moment arms, and joint powers were also investigated to interpret the angular momentum results. A key result was that individuals with an amputation had a larger range of sagittal-plane angular momentum during prosthetic limb stance compared to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent. There were no significant differences in the frontal, transverse, or sagittal-plane ranges of angular momentum or maximum magnitude of the angular momentum vector between the passive and powered prostheses during stair ascent or descent. These results indicate that individuals with an amputation have altered angular momentum trajectories during stair walking compared to able-bodied individuals, which may contribute to an increased fall risk. The results also suggest that a powered prosthesis provides no distinct advantage over a passive prosthesis in maintaining dynamic balance during stair walking. PMID:25213178

Pickle, Nathaniel T; Wilken, Jason M; Aldridge, Jennifer M; Neptune, Richard R; Silverman, Anne K

2014-10-17

371

Extension of a data-driven gating technique to 3D, whole body PET studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respiratory gating can be used to separate a PET acquisition into a series of near motion-free bins. This is typically done using additional gating hardware; however, software-based methods can derive the respiratory signal from the acquired data itself. The aim of this work was to extend a data-driven respiratory gating method to acquire gated, 3D, whole body PET images of clinical patients. The existing method, previously demonstrated with 2D, single bed-position data, uses a spectral analysis to find regions in raw PET data which are subject to respiratory motion. The change in counts over time within these regions is then used to estimate the respiratory signal of the patient. In this work, the gating method was adapted to only accept lines of response from a reduced set of axial angles, and the respiratory frequency derived from the lung bed position was used to help identify the respiratory frequency in all other bed positions. As the respiratory signal does not identify the direction of motion, a registration-based technique was developed to align the direction for all bed positions. Data from 11 clinical FDG PET patients were acquired, and an optical respiratory monitor was used to provide a hardware-based signal for comparison. All data were gated using both the data-driven and hardware methods, and reconstructed. The centre of mass of manually defined regions on gated images was calculated, and the overall displacement was defined as the change in the centre of mass between the first and last gates. The mean displacement was 10.3 mm for the data-driven gated images and 9.1 mm for the hardware gated images. No significant difference was found between the two gating methods when comparing the displacement values. The adapted data-driven gating method was demonstrated to successfully produce respiratory gated, 3D, whole body, clinical PET acquisitions.

Schleyer, Paul J.; O'Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.

2011-07-01

372

Compact whole-body fluorescent imaging of nude mice bearing EGFP expressing tumor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issue of tumor has been a hotspot of current medicine. It is important for tumor research to detect tumors bearing in animal models easily, fast, repetitively and noninvasivly. Many researchers have paid their increasing interests on the detecting. Some contrast agents, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Discosoma red fluorescent protein (Dsred) were applied to enhance image quality. Three main kinds of imaging scheme were adopted to visualize fluorescent protein expressing tumors in vivo. These schemes based on fluorescence stereo microscope, cooled charge-coupled-device (CCD) or camera as imaging set, and laser or mercury lamp as excitation light source. Fluorescence stereo microscope, laser and cooled CCD are expensive to many institutes. The authors set up an inexpensive compact whole-body fluorescent imaging tool, which consisted of a Kodak digital camera (model DC290), fluorescence filters(B and G2;HB Optical, Shenyang, Liaoning, P.R. China) and a mercury 50-W lamp power supply (U-LH50HG;Olympus Optical, Japan) as excitation light source. The EGFP was excited directly by mercury lamp with D455/70 nm band-pass filter and fluorescence was recorded by digital camera with 520nm long-pass filter. By this easy operation tool, the authors imaged, in real time, fluorescent tumors growing in live mice. The imaging system is external and noninvasive. For half a year our experiments suggested the imaging scheme was feasible. Whole-body fluorescence optical imaging for fluorescent expressing tumors in nude mouse is an ideal tool for antitumor, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenesis drug screening.

Chen, Yanping; Xiong, Tao; Chu, Jun; Yu, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

2005-01-01

373

Whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients—UF Series B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the previous development of the head and torso voxel phantoms of paediatric patients for use in medical radiation protection (UF Series A), a set of whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients (9-month male, 4-year female, 8-year female, 11-year male and 14-year male) has been developed through the attachment of arms and legs from segmented CT images of a healthy Korean adult (UF Series B). Even though partial-body phantoms (head-torso) may be used in a variety of medical dose reconstruction studies where the extremities are out-of-field or receive only very low levels of scatter radiation, whole-body phantoms play important roles in general radiation protection and in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Inclusion of the arms and legs is critical for dosimetry studies of paediatric patients due to the presence of active bone marrow within the extremities of children. While the UF Series A phantoms preserved the body dimensions and organ masses as seen in the original patients who were scanned, comprehensive adjustments were made for the Series B phantoms to better match International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) age-interpolated reference body masses, body heights, sitting heights and internal organ masses. The CT images of arms and legs of a Korean adult were digitally rescaled and attached to each phantom of the UF series. After completion, the resolutions of the phantoms for the 9-month, 4-year, 8-year, 11-year and 14-year were set at 0.86 mm × 0.86 mm × 3.0 mm, 0.90 mm × 0.90 mm × 5.0 mm, 1.16 mm × 1.16 mm × 6.0 mm, 0.94 mm × 0.94 mm × 6.00 mm and 1.18 mm × 1.18 mm × 6.72 mm, respectively.

Lee, Choonik; Lee, Choonsik; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

2006-09-01

374

Alterations with Movement Duration in the Kinematics of a Whole Body Pointing Movement  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to investigate how the organization of a whole body movement is altered when movement duration (MD) is varied. Subjects performed the same whole body pointing movement over long, normal and short MDs. The kinematic trajectories were then analyzed on a normalized time base. A principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that the degree of coordination between the elevation angles of the body did not change with MD. This lack of significant differences in the coordination was interesting given that small spatial and temporal differences were observed in the individual kinematic trajectories. They were revealed by studying the trajectories of the elevation angles, joint markers and center of mass. The elevation angle excursions displayed modifications primarily in their spatial characteristics. These alterations were more marked for the short rather than long duration movements. The temporal characteristics of the elevation angles as measured by the time to peak of angular velocity were not modified in the same fashion hence displaying a dissociation in the tuning of the spatial and temporal aspects of the elevation angles. Modifications in the temporal characteristics of the movement were also studied by examining the velocity profiles of the joint markers. Interestingly, unlike the disordered nature of this variable for the elevation angles, the time to peak velocity was neatly ordered as a function of MD for the joint markers – It arrived first for the short duration movements, followed by those of the normal and finally long duration movements. Despite the modifications observed in the kinematic trajectories, a PCA with the elevation angle excursions at different MDs revealed that two principal components were sufficient to account for nearly all the variance in the data. Our results suggest that although similar, the kinematic trajectories at different MDs are not achieved by a simple time scaling. PMID:23341899

Casteran, Matthieu; Manckoundia, Patrick; Pozzo, Thierry; Thomas, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

375

A database of whole-body action videos for the study of action, emotion, and untrustworthiness.  

PubMed

We present a database of high-definition (HD) videos for the study of traits inferred from whole-body actions. Twenty-nine actors (19 female) were filmed performing different actions-walking, picking up a box, putting down a box, jumping, sitting down, and standing and acting-while conveying different traits, including four emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness), untrustworthiness, and neutral, where no specific trait was conveyed. For the actions conveying the four emotions and untrustworthiness, the actions were filmed multiple times, with the actor conveying the traits with different levels of intensity. In total, we made 2,783 action videos (in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional format), each lasting 7 s with a frame rate of 50 fps. All videos were filmed in a green-screen studio in order to isolate the action information from all contextual detail and to provide a flexible stimulus set for future use. In order to validate the traits conveyed by each action, we asked participants to rate each of the actions corresponding to the trait that the actor portrayed in the two-dimensional videos. To provide a useful database of stimuli of multiple actions conveying multiple traits, each video name contains information on the gender of the actor, the action executed, the trait conveyed, and the rating of its perceived intensity. All videos can be downloaded free at the following address: http://www-users.york.ac.uk/~neb506/databases.html . We discuss potential uses for the database in the analysis of the perception of whole-body actions. PMID:24584971

Keefe, Bruce D; Villing, Matthias; Racey, Chris; Strong, Samantha L; Wincenciak, Joanna; Barraclough, Nick E

2014-12-01

376

Effects of postexercise milk consumption on whole body protein balance in youth.  

PubMed

In adults, adding protein to a postexercise beverage increases muscle protein turnover and replenishes amino acid stores. Recent focus has shifted toward the use of bovine-based milk and milk products as potential postexercise beverages; however, little is known about how this research translates to the pediatric population. Twenty-eight (15 girls) pre- to early pubertal (PEP, 7-11 yr) and mid- to late-pubertal (MLP, 14-17 yr) children consumed an oral dose of [(15)N]glycine prior to performing 2 × 20-min cycling bouts at 60% V?o2 peak in a warm environment (34.5°C, 47.3% relative humidity). Following exercise, participants consumed either water (W), a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES), or skim milk (SM) in a randomized, cross-over fashion in a volume equal to 100% of their body mass loss during exercise. Whole body nitrogen turnover (Q), protein synthesis (S), protein breakdown (B), and whole body protein balance (WBPB) were measured over 16 h. Protein intake from SM was 0.40 ± 0.10 g/kg. Over 16 h, Q and S were significantly greater (P < 0.01) with SM than W and CES. B demonstrated a trend for a main effect for beverage (P = 0.063). WBPB was more negative (P < 0.01) with W and CES than with SM. In the SM trial, WBPB was positive in PEP, although it remained negative in MLP. Boys exhibited significantly more negative WBPB than girls (P < 0.05). Postexercise milk consumption enhances WBPB compared with W and CES; however, additional protein intake may be required to sustain a net anabolic environment over 16 h. PMID:25257865

Volterman, Kimberly A; Obeid, Joyce; Wilk, Boguslaw; Timmons, Brian W

2014-11-15

377

Fully automated shape model positioning for bone segmentation in whole-body CT scans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysing osteolytic and osteoblastic bone lesions in systematically affected skeletons, e.g. in multiple myeloma or bone metastasis, is a complex task. Quantification of the degree of bone destruction needs segmentation of all lesions but cannot be managed manually. Automatic bone lesion detection is necessary. Our future objective is comparing modified bones with healthy shape models. For applying model based strategies successfully, identification and position information of single bones is necessary. A solution to these requirements based on bone medullary cavities is presented in this paper. Medullary cavities are useful for shape model positioning since they have similar position and orientation as the bone itself but can be separated more easily. Skeleton segmentation is done by simple thresholding. Inside the skeleton medullary cavities are segmented by a flood filling algorithm. The filled regions are considered as medullary cavity objects. To provide automatic shape model selection, medullary cavity objects are assigned to bone structures with pattern recognition. To get a good starting position for shape models, principal component analysis of medullary cavities is performed. Bone identification was tested on 14 whole-body low-dose CT scans of multiple myeloma patients. Random forest classification assigns medullary cavities of long bones to the corresponding bone (overall accuracy 90%). Centroid and first principal component of medullary cavity are sufficiently similar to those of bone (mean centroid difference 21.7 mm, mean difference angle 1.54° for all long bones of one example patient) and therefore suitable for shape model initialization. This method enables locating long bone structures in whole-body CT scans and provides useful information for a reasonable shape model initialization.

Fränzle, A.; Sumkauskaite, M.; Hillengass, J.; Bäuerle, T.; Bendl, R.

2014-03-01

378

Radiomodifying and anticlastogenic effect of Zingerone on Swiss albino mice exposed to whole body gamma radiation.  

PubMed

The radioprotective effect and antigenotoxic potential of phenolic alkanone, Zingerone (ZO) were investigated in Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. To study the optimum dose for radiation protection, mice were administered with ZO (10-100mg/kgb.wt.), once daily for five consecutive days. One hour after the last administration of ZO on the fifth day, animals were whole body exposed to 10 Gy gamma radiations. The radioprotective potential was assessed using animal survival at an optimal ZO dose of 20mg/kgb.wt., administered prior to 7-11 Gy. Further, the radioprotective potential of ZO was also analyzed by haemopoietic stem cell survival (CFU) assay, mouse bone marrow micronucleus test and histological observations of intestinal and bone marrow damage. Effect of ZO pretreatment on radiation-induced changes in glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPx) levels was also analyzed. ZO treatment resulted increase in the LD(50/30) by 1.8 Gy (dose reduction factor = 1.2). The number of spleen colonies after whole body irradiation of mice (4.5 or 7.5 Gy) was increased when ZO was administered 1h prior to irradiation. The histological observations indicated a decline in the villus height and crypt number with an increase in goblet and dead cell population in the irradiated group, which was normalized by pretreatment with ZO. A significant (p < 0.001) reduction in micronucleated polychromatic, normochromatic erythrocytes, increased PCE/NCE ratio, increase in the GSH, GST, SOD, CAT and decreased LPx levels were observed in ZO pretreated group when compared to the irradiated animals. Our findings demonstrate the potential of ZO in mitigating radiation-induced mortality and cytogenetic damage, which may be attributed to inhibition radiation-induced decline in the endogenous antioxidant levels and scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals. PMID:19463966

Rao, B Nageshwar; Rao, B S Satish; Aithal, B Kiran; Kumar, M R Sunil

2009-01-01

379

Salivary steroid hormone response to whole-body cryotherapy in elite rugby players.  

PubMed

Saliva represents a low stress, not-invasively collected matrix that allows steroid hormone monitoring in athletes by reflecting type, intensity and duration of exercise. Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of short whole-body exposures to extremely cold air (-110° to -140°C) which, despite being initially used to treat inflammatory diseases, is currently acquiring increasing popularity in sports medicine. Cryostimulation practice is now widely accepted as an effective treatment to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this work was to study the changes of steroid hormones in saliva of rugby players after both 2 and 14 consecutive WBC sessions, in order to investigate the effects of the treatment on their salivary steroid hormonal profile. Twenty-five professional rugby players, belonging to the Italian National Team, underwent a 7-day cryotherapy protocol consisting of 2 daily sessions. Saliva samples were taken in the morning prior to the start of the WBC, in the evening after the end of the second WBC, and in the morning of the day after the last WBC session. The samples were analyzed for cortisol, DHEA, testosterone and estradiol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cortisol and DHEA showed a reduction already after the 2 WBC sessions of the first day; after 14 consecutive WBC sessions cortisol, DHEA, and estradiol levels decreased, while testosterone increased as did the testosterone to cortisol ratio. These results were confirmed by the fact that the majority of subjects showed variations exceeding the critical difference (CD). In conclusion, we found that WBC acutely affects the salivary steroid hormone profile, and the results are evident already after only one twice-daily session. Most significantly, after one-week of consecutive twice-daily WBC sessions, all the hormones were modified. This is the first experimental report that links changes in the hormonal asset to WBC. PMID:25001661

Grasso, D; Lanteri, P; Di Bernardo, C; Mauri, C; Porcelli, S; Colombini, A; Zani, V; Bonomi, F G; Melegati, G; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G

2014-01-01

380

[Bioprotection by local and whole-body preheating--bioprotection of damage to mice tongue from burning by local preheating of oral cavity and of radiation damage of small intestine from whole-body preheating].  

PubMed

We have reported the cytoprotective effects of HSP 70 on various stress damage induced by mild heating. In this study, we examined the cytoprotective effects of HSP 70 induced by the local preheating of the oral cavity of mice at 42 degrees C for 30 min, and the following results (1-4) were obtained. We also examined the cytoprotective effects against radiation injury by whole-body preheating at 41.3-41.6 degrees C for 30 min (5-6). 1) The concentration of HSP 70 in lymphocytes was increased 2 days after preheating, but not significantly. 2) The concentration of HSP 70 in masseter muscle was significantly increased 2 days after preheating. 3) Under non-heat stress (control), tongue muscle was strongly stained with immunoblotting of HSP 72 antibody, an antibody of induced-type HSP 70. 4) Tongue damage and weight loss of the mice in the preheating group, whose tongues were burned, were less than in the control group. These results showed that HSP 70 induced by local preheating of the oral cavity protected against tongue damage from burning. 5) Radiation injury of the small intestine on HE stain of whole-body radiated mice was obviously reduced by whole-body preheating. 6) Decrease of the ratio of the villus length to the crypt of whole body-irradiated mice was significantly improved by whole-body preheating. From these results, it was concluded that local and whole-body preheating were useful for cytoprotection from stressful damage. PMID:16119787

Ito, Youko H; Ippongi, Shinya; Nakano, Masanori; Kurabe, Teruhisa; Kazaoka, Yoshiaki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo

2005-07-01

381

Estimation of spinal loading in vertical vibrations by numerical simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This paper describes the prediction of spinal forces in car occupants during vertical vibrations using a numerical multi-body occupant model.Background. An increasing part of the population is exposed to whole body vibrations in vehicles. In literature, vertical vibrations and low back pain are often related to each other. The cause of these low back pains is not well understood.

M. M Verver; J van Hoof; C. W. J Oomens; N van de Wouw; J. S. H. M Wismans

2003-01-01

382

Accuracy of whole-body low-dose multidetector CT (WBLDCT) versus skeletal survey in the detection of myelomatous lesions, and correlation of disease distribution with whole-body MRI (WBMRI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility of whole-body low-dose computed tomography (WBLDCT) in the diagnosis and\\u000a staging of multiple myeloma and compare to skeletal survey (SS), using bone marrow biopsy and whole-body magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging (WBMRI; where available) as gold standard.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Patients referred over an 18-month period for investigation of suspected multiple myeloma or

T. G. Gleeson; J. Moriarty; C. P. Shortt; J. P. Gleeson; P. Fitzpatrick; B. Byrne; J. McHugh; M. O’Connell; P. O’Gorman; S. J. Eustace

2009-01-01

383

Evaluation of counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter using Monte Carlo simulation with voxel phantoms.  

PubMed

In the 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, it is mentioned that the reference voxel phantoms are used for calculation of effective dose. From the standpoint of internal dosimetry services, calibration methods of whole-body counters using the voxel phantoms are of considerable practical interest. In the present study, counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations with two voxel phantoms, 'MAX06', which has organ masses corresponding to those of the reference male, and 'Otoko', which is a representation for average Japanese male. To validate the calculation methods of the present study, calculations for the bottle manikin absorption phantom were also performed and compared with experiments. Consequently, it was found that the Monte Carlo simulation with voxel phantoms is a significant tool for the calibration of the JAEA whole-body counter. PMID:21131662

Takahashi, Masa; Kinase, Sakae; Kramer, Richard

2011-03-01

384

A study to define a set of requirements for cleansing agents for use in the Space Station whole body shower  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research is to define a set of requirements for a whole body cleansing agent to be used in the Space Station Whole Body Shower System. In addition, cleansing agent candidates are to be identified that are likely to satisfy requirements defined in the first part of the study. It is understood that the main reason for having a Whole Body Shower is to satisfy the physiological, psychological and social needs of the crew throughout the duration of duty in the Space Station. The cleansing agent must also be compatible with the vortex water/gas separator and the water reclamation system. To accomplish these goals the study was divided into six tasks.

1985-01-01

385

Estimation of Radiation Doses in the Marshall Islands Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Urinalysis  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have recently implemented a series of initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former nuclear test sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The aim of this radiological surveillance monitoring program (RSMP) is to provide timely radiation protection for individuals in the Marshall Islands with respect to two of the most important internally deposited fallout radionuclides-cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and long-lived isotopes 239 and 240 of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) (Robison et al., 1997 and references therein). Therefore, whole-body counting for {sup 137}Cs and a sensitive bioassay for the presence of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine were adopted as the two most applicable in vivo analytical methods to assess radiation doses for individuals in the RMI from internally deposited fallout radionuclides (see Hamilton et al., 2006a-c; Bell et al., 2002). Through 2005, the USDOE has established three permanent whole-body counting facilities in the Marshall Islands: the Enewetak Radiological Laboratory on Enewetak Atoll, the Utrok Whole-Body Counting Facility on Majuro Atoll, and the Rongelap Whole-Body Counting Facility on Rongelap Atoll. These whole-body counting facilities are operated and maintained by trained Marshallese technicians. Scientists from LLNL provide the technical support and training necessary for maintaining quality assurance for data acquisition and dose reporting. This technical basis document summarizes the methodologies used to calculate the annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE; or dose for the calendar year of measurement) based on whole-body counting of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and the measurement of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine. Whole-body counting provides a direct measure of the total amount (or burden) of {sup 137}Cs present in the human body at the time of measurement. The amount of {sup 137}Cs detected is often reported in activity units of kilo-Becquerel (kBq), where 1 kBq equals 1000 Bq and 1 Bq = 1 nuclear transformation per second (t s{sup -1}). [However, in the United States the Curie (Ci) continues to be used as the unit of radioactivity; where 1 Ci = 3.7 x 10{sup 10} Bq.] The detection of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in bioassay (urine) samples indicates the presence of internally deposited (systemic) plutonium in the body. Urine samples that are collected in the Marshall Islands from volunteers participating in the RSMP are transported to LLNL, where measurements for {sup 239+240}Pu are performed using a state-of-the-art technology based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) (Hamilton et al., 2004, 2007; Brown et al., 2004). The urinary excretion of plutonium by RSMP volunteers is usually described in activity units, expressed as micro-Becquerel ({micro}Bq) of {sup 239+240}Pu (i.e., representing the sum of the {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu activity) excreted (lost) per day (d{sup -1}), where 1 {micro}Bq d{sup -1} = 10{sup -6} Bq d{sup -1} and 1 Bq = 1 t s{sup -1}. The systemic burden of plutonium is then estimated from biokinetic relationships as described by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (e.g., see ICRP, 1990). In general, nuclear transformations are accompanied by the emission of energy and/or particles in the form of gamma rays ({gamma}), beta particles ({beta}), and/or alpha particles ({alpha}). Tissues in the human body may adsorb these emissions, where there is a potential for any deposited energy to cause biological damage. The general term used to quantify the extent of any radiation exposure is referred to as the dose. The equivalent dose is defined by the average absorbed dose in an organ or tissue weighted by the average quality factor for the type and energy of the emission causing the dose. The effective dose equivalent (EDE; as applied to the whole body), is the sum of the average dose equivalent for each tissue weighted by each applicable tissue-specific weighing factor

Daniels, J; Hickman, D; Kehl, S; Hamilton, T

2007-06-11

386

Evaluation of quantitative planar 90Y bremsstrahlung whole-body imaging.  

PubMed

With high-dose administration of (90)Y labeled antibodies, it is possible to image (90)Y without an admixture of (111)In. We have earlier shown that it is possible to perform quantitative (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT for dosimetry purposes with reasonable accuracy. However, whole-body (WB) activity quantification with the conjugate view method is not as time consuming as SPECT and has been the method of choice for dosimetry. We have investigated the possibility of using a conjugate view method where scatter-, backscatter- and septal-penetration compensations are performed by inverse filtering and attenuation correction is performed with a WB x-ray image, for total-body and organ activity quantification of (90)Y. The method was evaluated using both Monte Carlo simulated scintillation camera images using realistic source distributions, and by an experimental phantom study. The method was evaluated in terms of image quality and accuracy of the activity quantification. The experimental phantom study was performed using the RSD torso phantom with (90)Y activity uniformly distributed in the liver insert. A GE Discovery VH/Hawkeye system was used to acquire the image. The simulation study was performed for a realistic activity distribution in the NCAT anthropomorphic phantom where (90)Y bremsstrahlung images were generated using the SIMIND MC program. Two different phantom configurations and two activity distributions were simulated. To mimic the RSD phantom experiment one simulation study was also made with (90)Y activity located only in the liver. The SIMIND program was configured to resemble a GE Discovery VH/Hawkeye system. An x-ray projector program was used to generate whole-body x-ray images from the NCAT phantom for attenuation correction in the conjugate view method. Organ activities were calculated from ROIs that exactly covered the organs. Corrections for background activity, overlapping activity and source extension in the depth direction were applied on the ROI data. The total-body activities for the simulated images were generally overestimated by around 10%, which is reasonable since the correction for source extension was not applied on the total-body values. The accuracy of the organ activities was mostly within 15% for both the simulation study and the experimental study. The results suggest that it is possible to quantify (90)Y activity in ROIs with reasonable accuracy using this method. PMID:19759410

Minarik, D; Ljungberg, M; Segars, P; Gleisner, K Sjögreen

2009-10-01

387

Evaluation of quantitative planar 90Y bremsstrahlung whole-body imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With high-dose administration of 90Y labeled antibodies, it is possible to image 90Y without an admixture of 111In. We have earlier shown that it is possible to perform quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT for dosimetry purposes with reasonable accuracy. However, whole-body (WB) activity quantification with the conjugate view method is not as time consuming as SPECT and has been the method of choice for dosimetry. We have investigated the possibility of using a conjugate view method where scatter-, backscatter- and septal-penetration compensations are performed by inverse filtering and attenuation correction is performed with a WB x-ray image, for total-body and organ activity quantification of 90Y. The method was evaluated using both Monte Carlo simulated scintillation camera images using realistic source distributions, and by an experimental phantom study. The method was evaluated in terms of image quality and accuracy of the activity quantification. The experimental phantom study was performed using the RSD torso phantom with 90Y activity uniformly distributed in the liver insert. A GE Discovery VH/Hawkeye system was used to acquire the image. The simulation study was performed for a realistic activity distribution in the NCAT anthropomorphic phantom where 90Y bremsstrahlung images were generated using the SIMIND MC program. Two different phantom configurations and two activity distributions were simulated. To mimic the RSD phantom experiment one simulation study was also made with 90Y activity located only in the liver. The SIMIND program was configured to resemble a GE Discovery VH/Hawkeye system. An x-ray projector program was used to generate whole-body x-ray images from the NCAT phantom for attenuation correction in the conjugate view method. Organ activities were calculated from ROIs that exactly covered the organs. Corrections for background activity, overlapping activity and source extension in the depth direction were applied on the ROI data. The total-body activities for the simulated images were generally overestimated by around 10%, which is reasonable since the correction for source extension was not applied on the total-body values. The accuracy of the organ activities was mostly within 15% for both the simulation study and the experimental study. The results suggest that it is possible to quantify 90Y activity in ROIs with reasonable accuracy using this method.

Minarik, D.; Ljungberg, M.; Segars, P.; Sjögreen Gleisner, K.

2009-10-01

388

A gamma camera count rate saturation correction method for whole-body planar imaging.  

PubMed

Whole-body (WB) planar imaging has long been one of the staple methods of dosimetry, and its quantification has been formalized by the MIRD Committee in pamphlet no 16. One of the issues not specifically addressed in the formalism occurs when the count rates reaching the detector are sufficiently high to result in camera count saturation. Camera dead-time effects have been extensively studied, but all of the developed correction methods assume static acquisitions. However, during WB planar (sweep) imaging, a variable amount of imaged activity exists in the detector's field of view as a function of time and therefore the camera saturation is time dependent. A new time-dependent algorithm was developed to correct for dead-time effects during WB planar acquisitions that accounts for relative motion between detector heads and imaged object. Static camera dead-time parameters were acquired by imaging decaying activity in a phantom and obtaining a saturation curve. Using these parameters, an iterative algorithm akin to Newton's method was developed, which takes into account the variable count rate seen by the detector as a function of time. The algorithm was tested on simulated data as well as on a whole-body scan of high activity Samarium-153 in an ellipsoid phantom. A complete set of parameters from unsaturated phantom data necessary for count rate to activity conversion was also obtained, including build-up and attenuation coefficients, in order to convert corrected count rate values to activity. The algorithm proved successful in accounting for motion- and time-dependent saturation effects in both the simulated and measured data and converged to any desired degree of precision. The clearance half-life calculated from the ellipsoid phantom data was calculated to be 45.1 h after dead-time correction and 51.4 h with no correction; the physical decay half-life of Samarium-153 is 46.3 h. Accurate WB planar dosimetry of high activities relies on successfully compensating for camera saturation which takes into account the variable activity in the field of view, i.e. time-dependent dead-time effects. The algorithm presented here accomplishes this task. PMID:20071766

Hobbs, Robert F; Baechler, Sébastien; Senthamizhchelvan, Srinivasan; Prideaux, Andrew R; Esaias, Caroline E; Reinhardt, Melvin; Frey, Eric C; Loeb, David M; Sgouros, George

2010-02-01

389

Design and performance evaluation of a whole-body Ingenuity TF PET-MRI system  

PubMed Central

The Ingenuity TF PET–MRI is a newly released whole-body hybrid PET–MR imaging system with a Philips time-of-flight GEMINI TF PET and Achieva 3T X-series MRI system. Compared to PET–CT, modifications to the positron emission tomography (PET) gantry were made to avoid mutual system interference and deliver uncompromising performance which is equivalent to the standalone systems. The PET gantry was redesigned to introduce magnetic shielding for the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Stringent electromagnetic noise requirements of the MR system necessitated the removal of PET gantry electronics to be housed in the PET–MR equipment room. We report the standard NEMA measurements for the PET scanner. PET imaging and performance measurements were done at Geneva University Hospital as described in the NEMA Standards NU2-2007 manual. The scatter fraction (SF) and noise equivalent count rate (NECR) measurements with the NEMA cylinder (20 cm diameter) were repeated for two larger cylinders (27 cm and 35 cm diameter), which better represent average and heavy patients. A NEMA/IEC torso phantom was used for overall assessment of image quality. The transverse and axial resolution near the center was 4.7 mm. Timing and energy resolution of the PET–MR system were measured to be 525 ps and 12%, respectively. The results were comparable to PET–CT systems demonstrating that the effect of design modifications required on the PET system to remove the harmful effect of the magnetic field on the PMTs was negligible. The absolute sensitivity of this scanner was 7.0 cps kBq?1, whereas SF was 26%. NECR measurements performed with cylinders having three different diameters, and image quality measurements performed with IEC phantom yielded excellent results. The Ingenuity TF PET–MRI represents the first commercial whole-body hybrid PET–MRI system. The performance of the PET subsystem was comparable to the GEMINI TF PET–CT system using phantom and patient studies. It is conceived that advantages of hybrid PET–MRI will become more evident in the near future. PMID:21508443

Zaidi, H; Ojha, N; Morich, M; Griesmer, J; Hu, Z; Maniawski, P; Ratib, O; Izquierdo-Garcia, D; Fayad, Z A; Shao, L

2014-01-01

390

Hologic QDR 2000 whole-body scans: a comparison of three combinations of scan modes and analysis software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study reports on the short-term in vivo precision and absolute measurements of three c