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1

Whole Body Vibration Training - Improving Balance Control and Muscle Endurance  

PubMed Central

Exercise combined with whole body vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular, although additional effects of WBV in comparison to conventional exercises are still discussed controversially in literature. Heterogeneous findings are attributed to large differences in the training designs between WBV and “control” groups in regard to training volume, load and type. In order to separate the additional effects of WBV from the overall adaptations due to the intervention, in this study, a four-week WBV training setup was compared to a matched intervention program with identical training parameters in both training settings except for the exposure to WBV. In a repeated-measures matched-subject design, 38 participants were assigned to either the WBV group (VIB) or the equivalent training group (CON). Training duration, number of sets, rest periods and task-specific instructions were matched between the groups. Balance, jump height and local static muscle endurance were assessed before and after the training period. The statistical analysis revealed significant interaction effects of group×time for balance and local static muscle endurance (p<0.05). Hence, WBV caused an additional effect on balance control (pre vs. post VIB +13%, p<0.05 and CON +6%, p?=?0.33) and local static muscle endurance (pre vs. post VIB +36%, p<0.05 and CON +11%, p?=?0.49). The effect on jump height remained insignificant (pre vs. post VIB +3%, p?=?0.25 and CON ±0%, p?=?0.82). This study provides evidence for the additional effects of WBV above conventional exercise alone. As far as balance and muscle endurance of the lower leg are concerned, a training program that includes WBV can provide supplementary benefits in young and well-trained adults compared to an equivalent program that does not include WBV. PMID:24587114

Ritzmann, Ramona; Kramer, Andreas; Bernhardt, Sascha; Gollhofer, Albert

2014-01-01

2

Acute Effects of Loaded Whole Body Vibration Training on Performance  

PubMed Central

Background: The application of whole body vibration (WBV) as a warm-up scheme has been receiving an increasing interest among practitioners. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of loaded and unloaded WBV on countermovement jump, speed and agility. Patients and Methods: Twenty-one healthy male college football players (age: 20.14 ± 1.65 years; body height: 179.9 ± 8.34 cm; body mass: 74.4 ± 13.0 kg; % body fat: 9.45 ± 4.8) underwent randomized controlled trials that involved standing in a half squat position (ST), ST with 30% of bodyweight (ST + 30%), whole body vibration at f = 50 Hz, A = 4 mm (WBV), and WBV with 30% bodyweight (WBV + 30% BW) after a standardized warm-up. Post measures of countermovement jump, 15-m sprint, and modified t-test were utilized for analyses. Results: One way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the countermovement jump performance, F (3, 60 = 9.06, ?2 = 2.21, P = 0.000. Post-hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW posted significant difference compared to (P = 0.008), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). There was also a significant difference in the sprint times among interventions, F (3, 60) = 23.0, ?2 = 0.865, P = 0.000. Post hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW displayed significantly lower time values than ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). Lastly, there was a significant difference in the agility performance across experimental conditions at F(2.01, 40.1) = 21.0, ?2 = 0.954, P = 0.000. Post hoc demonstrated that WBV have lower times than ST (P = 0.013). Also, WBV + 30% BW posted lower times compared to ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.003). Conclusions: Additional external load of 30% bodyweight under WBV posted superior gains in countermovement jump, speed and agility compared to unloaded WBV, loaded non-WBV and unloaded non-WBV interventions.

Pojskic, Haris; Pagaduan, Jeffrey; Uzicanin, Edin; Babajic, Fuad; Muratovic, Melika; Tomljanovic, Mario

2015-01-01

3

Effects of whole body vibration training on postural control in older individuals: A 1 year randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a 12 month whole body vibration training program on postural control in healthy older adults. Two hundred and twenty people were randomly assigned to a whole body vibration group (n = 94), a fitness group (n = 60) or a control group (n = 66). Thewhole body vibration and fitness groups trained

An Bogaerts; Sabine Verschueren; Christophe Delecluse; Albrecht L. Claessens; Steven Boonen

2007-01-01

4

Effects of whole-body vibration and resistance training on knee extensors muscular performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is being promoted as an efficient complement to resistance training. The aim of this study was\\u000a to investigate the effects of an 8-week program of WBV in combination with resistance training on knee extensors muscular\\u000a performance. A group of 29 young adults (25 men, 4 women; age 21.8 ± 1.5) performed a WBV plus resistance training program\\u000a (WBV + RES) or

E. G. Artero; J. C. Espada-Fuentes; J. Argüelles-Cienfuegos; A. Román; P. J. Gómez-López; A. Gutiérrez

5

Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Resistance Training for Untrained Adults  

PubMed Central

Although resistance training (RT) combined with whole-body vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular among untrained adults, the additional effects of WBV on muscle fitness are still not well understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of WBV on muscle strength, muscle power, muscle endurance, and neuromuscular activities compared with the identical RT without WBV. Thirty-three individuals (6 males and 27 females; 22-49 years old) were randomly assigned to a training program using slow-velocity RT coupled with WBV (RT- WBV group, n = 17) or an identical exercise program without WBV (RT group, n = 16). Participants performed eight exercises per 60 min session on a vibration platform (RT-WBV group, frequency, 35 Hz; amplitude, 2 mm) twice weekly for seven weeks. To evaluate the effects of WBV, the maximal isometric and isokinetic knee extension strength, maximal isometric lumbar extension strength, countermovement-jump, and the number of sit-ups were measured before and after the trial. Significantly higher increases were observed in the maximal isometric and concentric knee extension strength (p = 0.02, p = 0.04 , respectively), and maximal isometric lumbar extension strength at 60 degrees of trunk flexion (p = 0.02) in the RT-WBV group (+36.8%, +38.4%, +26.4%, respectively) in comparison to the RT group (+16.5%, +12.8%, +14.3%, respectively). A significant difference was also observed between the RT-WBV group (+8.4%) and the RT group (+4.7%) in the countermovement jump height (p = 0.02). In conclusion, the results suggest that significant additional increases in maximal isometric and concentric knee extension and lumbar extension strength, and countermovement jump height can be achieved by incorporating WBV into a slow-velocity RT program during the initial stage of regular RT in untrained healthy adults. Key points A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of slow velocity resistance training combined with whole-body vibration on maximal muscle strength, power, muscle endurance, and neuromuscular activities in healthy untrained individuals. Resistance training program for lower extremities and trunk muscles were performed twice weekly for 7 weeks. A 7 weeks slow velocity resistance training program with whole-body vibration significantly increased maximal isometric knee extension and lumbar extension strength and power in healthy untrained individuals. PMID:24149879

Osawa, Yusuke; Oguma, Yuko

2011-01-01

6

Benefits of whole body vibration training in patients hospitalised for COPD exacerbations - a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with stable COPD show improvements in exercise capacity and muscular function after the application of whole body vibration. We aimed to evaluate whether this modality added to conventional physiotherapy in exacerbated hospitalised COPD patients would be safe and would improve exercise capacity and quality of life. Methods 49 hospitalised exacerbated COPD patients were randomized (1:1) to undergo physiotherapy alone or physiotherapy with the addition of whole body vibration. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference of the 6-minute walking test (day of discharge – day of admission). Secondary assessments included chair rising test, quality of life, and serum marker analysis. Results Whole body vibration did not cause procedure-related adverse events. Compared to physiotherapy alone, it led to significantly stronger improvements in 6-minute walking test (95.55?±?76.29 m vs. 6.13?±?81.65 m; p?=?0.007) and St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (-6.43?±?14.25 vs. 5.59?±?19.15, p?=?0.049). Whole body vibration increased the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma coactivator-1-? and serum levels of irisin, while it decreased serum interleukin-8. Conclusion Whole body vibration during hospitalised exacerbations did not cause procedure-related adverse events and induced clinically significant benefits regarding exercise capacity and health-related quality of life that were associated with increased serum levels of irisin, a marker of muscle activity. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005979. Registered 17 March 2014. PMID:24725369

2014-01-01

7

Effect of Training with Whole Body Vibration on the Sitting Balance of Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of task-oriented training with whole body vibration (WBV) on the sitting balance of stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 stroke patients who were randomly divided into experimental (n1=15) and control (n2=15) groups. [Methods] Subjects in both groups received general training five times per week. Subjects in the experimental group practiced an additional task-oriented training program with WBV, which was performed for 15 minutes, five times per week, for four weeks. The center of pressure (COP) path length and average velocity were used to assess subjects static sitting balance, and the Modified Functional Reach Test (MFRT) was used to assess their dynamic sitting balance. The paired t-test was performed to test the significance of differences between before and after the intervention. The independent t-test was conducted to test the significance of differences between the groups. [Results] Following the intervention, the experimental group showed a significant change in MFRT. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that task-oriented training with WBV is feasible and efficacious for stroke patients. PMID:25276025

Choi, Sung-Jin; Shin, Won-Seob; Oh, Bok-Kyun; Shim, Jae-Kwang; Bang, Dae-Hyouk

2014-01-01

8

Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Bone-Free Lean Body Mass and Muscle Strength in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Resistance training with whole-body vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to conventional resistance training or as supplementary training. Despite its growing popularity, the specific effects of WBV training on muscle morphology, strength, and endurance are not well understood, particularly in young adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of WBV training on bone-free lean body mass (BFLBM), and maximal muscle strength and endurance in healthy, untrained, young individuals. Eighteen healthy men and women (21-39 years) were randomly assigned to either a body-weight exercise with WBV (VT) group or a control exercise group without WBV (CON). Participants performed eight exercises per 40- min session on a vibration platform (VT group, frequency = 30-40 Hz; amplitude = 2 mm) twice weekly for 12 weeks. Anthropometry, total and regional BFLBM (trunks, legs, and arms) measured by dual- energy X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle strength and endurance measured by maximal isometric lumbar extension strength, maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength, and the number of sit- ups performed were recorded and compared. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant changes between the groups in any of the measured variables. We conclude that 12 weeks of body weight vibration exercise compared to body weight exercise alone does not provide meaningful changes to BFLBM or muscle performance in healthy young adults. Key points A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of body-weight exercise combined with whole-body vibration on bone-free lean body mass and maximal muscle strength and endurance in healthy young individuals. Body-weight exercises for lower extremities and trunk muscles were performed twice weekly for 12 weeks. Participants in the exercise with whole-body vibration group increased the vibration frequency from 30, 35, to 40 Hz at a constant amplitude of 2 mm during the trial. A 12-week body-weight exercise program with whole-body vibration did not significantly increase bone-free lean body mass in healthy young individuals, and no additional increases in maximal muscle strength and endurance were observed. PMID:24149301

Osawa, Yusuke; Oguma, Yuko; Onishi, Shohei

2011-01-01

9

EFFECTS OF 6?WEEK WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON THE REFLEX RESPONSE OF THE ANKLE MUSCLES: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL  

PubMed Central

Background: The ligament sprain of the lateral ankle is the most frequent injury that occurs when participating in sports. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a training method that has been recently introduced as a rehabilitative tool for treatment of athletes. It has been hypothesized that the transmission of mechanical oscillations from the vibrating platform may lead to physiological changes in muscle spindles, joint mechanoreceptors, as well as improve balance. Propose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 6?week WBV training program on the reflex response mechanism of the peroneus longus (PL), peroneus brevis (PB) and anterior tibialis (AT) muscles in ankle inversion at 30º from horizontal, in a static position. Methods: This study was a single?blinded and randomized controlled trial. Forty?four healthy, physically active participants were randomly split into two groups: the experimental group (n = 26) (the WBV training) and control group (n = 18). Reaction time (RT), maximum electromyographic (EMG) peak (peak EMG), time to the maximum peak EMG (peak EMG time) and reflex electrical activity of all the muscles were assessed before and after the WBV training through surface EMG. Results: After 6?weeks WBV training, there were no significant changes in the variables analysed for all the muscles involved. Conclusion: A 6?week WBV training does not improve the reflex response mechanism of the lateral stabilizing muscles of the ankle. Level of evidence: 1b PMID:23439725

Rubio, Jacobo A.; Ramos, Domingo J.; Esteban, Paula; Mendizábal, Susana; Jiménez, Fernando

2013-01-01

10

EMG and Heart Rate Responses Decline within 5 Days of Daily Whole-Body Vibration Training with Squatting  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined the acute effects of a 5-day daily whole-body vibration (WBV) training on electromyography (EMG) responses of the m. rectus femoris and m. gastrocnemius lateralis, heart rate (HR, continuously recorded), and blood lactate levels. The purpose of the study was to investigate the adaptation of muscle activity, heart rate and blood lactate levels during 5 days of daily training. Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either squat exercises with vibration at 20 Hz on a side alternating platform (SE+V, n?=?20, age ?=?31.9±7.5 yrs., height ?=?178.8±6.2 cm, body mass ?=?79.2±11.4 kg) or squat exercises alone (SE, n?=?21, age ?=?28.4±7.3 years, height ?=?178.9±7.4 cm, body mass ?=?77.2±9.7 kg). On training day 1, EMG amplitudes of the m. rectus femoris were significantly higher (P<0.05) during SE+V than during SE. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant on training days 3 and 5. The heart rate (HR) response was significantly higher (P<0.05) during SE+V than during SE on all training days, but showed a constant decline throughout the training days. On training day 1, blood lactate increased significantly more after SE+V than after SE (P<0.05). On the following training days, this difference became much smaller but remained significantly different. The specific physiological responses to WBV were largest on the initial training day and most of them declined during subsequent training days, showing a rapid neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptation to the vibration stimulus. PMID:24905721

Rosenberger, André; Liphardt, Anna-Maria; Bargmann, Arne; Müller, Klaus; Beck, Luis; Mester, Joachim; Zange, Jochen

2014-01-01

11

Effect of 6Month Whole Body Vibration Training on Hip Density, Muscle Strength, and Postural Control in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-frequency mechanical strain seems to stimulate bone strength in animals. In this random- ized controlled trial, hip BMD was measured in postmenopausal women after a 24-week whole body vibration (WBV) training program. Vibration training significantly increased BMD of the hip. These findings suggest that WBV training might be useful in the prevention of osteoporosis. Introduction: High-frequency mechanical strain has been

Sabine MP Verschueren; Machteld Roelants; Christophe Delecluse; Stephan Swinnen; Dirk Vanderschueren; Steven Boonen

2004-01-01

12

Changes in circulating angiogenic factors after an acute training bout before and after resistance training with or without whole-body-vibration training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both Resistance Exercise and Whole-Body-Vibration training are currently considered as countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Here we investigated the effects of whole-body vibration superimposed upon resistance exercise. Within this context, the present study focuses on changes in circulating angiogenic factors as indicators of skeletal muscle adaption. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male subjects (25.2 ± 4.2 yr) were included in this two-group parallel-designed study and randomly assigned to one of the training interventions: either resistance exercise (RE) or resistance vibration exercise (RVE). Participants trained 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks (completing 16 training sessions), where one session took 9 ± 1 min. Participants trained with weights on a guided barbell. The individual training load was set at 80% of their 1-Repetition-Maximum. Each training session consisted of three sets with 8 squats and 12 heel raises, following an incremental training design with regards to weight (RE and RVE) and vibration frequency (RVE only). The vibration frequency was increased from 20 Hz in the first week till 40 Hz during the last two weeks with 5-Hz weekly increments. At the first and 16 ^{th} training session, six blood samples (pre training and 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 35 min and 75 min post training) were taken. Circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Endostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) were determined in serum using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Results: MMP-2 levels increased by 7.0% (SE = 2.7%, P < 0.001) within two minutes after the exercise bout and then decreased to 5.7% below baseline (SE = 2.4%, P < 0.001) between 15 and 75 minutes post exercise. This response was comparable before and after the training programs (P = 0.70) and also between the two intervention groups (P = 0.42). Preliminary analyses indicate that a similar pattern applies to circulating MMP-9, VEGF and Endostatin levels. Conclusion: The present findings suggest 1) that resistance exercise, both with and without superimposed vibration, leads to a transient rise in circulating angiogenic factors, 2) which is not altered after a period of resistance exercise with or without vibration.

Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; May, Francisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Joern; Rosenberger, Andre

2012-07-01

13

The Effect of a Single Session of Whole-Body Vibration Training in Recreationally Active Men on the Excitability of the Central and Peripheral Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Vibration training has become a popular method used in professional sports and recreation. In this study, we examined the effect of whole-body vibration training on the central nervous system and muscle excitability in a group of 28 active men. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of two experimental groups with different variables of vibrations. The chronaximetry method was used to evaluate the effect of a single session of whole-body vibration training on the excitability of the rectus femoris and brachioradialis muscles. The examination of the fusing and flickering frequencies of the light stimulus was performed. An increase in the excitability of the quadriceps femoris muscle due to low intensity vibrations (20 Hz frequency, 2 mm amplitude) was noted, and a return to the initial values was observed 30 min after the application of vibration. High intensity vibrations (60 Hz frequency, 4 mm amplitude) caused elongations of the chronaxy time; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Neither a low intensity vibration amplitude of 2 mm (frequency of 20 Hz) nor a high intensity vibration amplitude of 4 mm (frequency of 60 Hz) caused a change in the excitability of the central nervous system, as revealed by the average frequency of the fusing and flickering of the light stimulus. A single session of high intensity whole-body vibration did not significantly decrease the excitability of the peripheral nervous system while the central nervous system did not seem to be affected. PMID:25114735

Chmielewska, Daria; Piecha, Magdalena; B?aszczak, Edward; Król, Piotr; Smykla, Agnieszka; Juras, Grzegorz

2014-01-01

14

Acute whole body vibration training increases vertical jump and flexibility performance in elite female field hockey players  

PubMed Central

Objective: To quantify the acute effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on arm countermovement vertical jump (ACMVJ), grip strength, and flexibility performance. Methods: Eighteen female elite field hockey players each completed three interventions of WBV, control, and cycling in a balanced random manner. WBV was performed on a Galileo machine (26 Hz) with six different exercises being performed. For the control, the same six exercises were performed at 0 Hz, whilst cycling was performed at 50 W. Each intervention was 5 min in duration with ACMVJ, grip strength, and flexibility measurements being conducted pre and post intervention. Results: There was a positive interaction effect (interventionxpre-post) of enhanced ACMVJ (p<0.001) and flexibility (p<0.05) parameters following WBV; however no changes were observed after the control and cycling interventions. There was no interaction effect for grip strength following the three interventions. Conclusions: Acute WBV causes neural potentiation of the stretch reflex loop as shown by the improved ACMVJ and flexibility performance. Additionally, muscle groups less proportionally exposed to vibration do not exhibit physiological changes that potentiate muscular performance. PMID:16244199

Cochrane, D; Stannard, S

2005-01-01

15

MEASUREMENT OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION EXPOSURE FROM GARBAGE TRUCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese garbage truck drivers are exposed to mechanical whole-body vibration during their work. Some drivers have suffered from low back pain from this vibration. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the whole-body vibration from the garbage trucks and low back pain or occupational disease, due to the lack of investigations. A field study was conducted in order

S. Maeda; M. Morioka

1998-01-01

16

Effect of whole body vibrations on sound localization I. Frissena  

E-print Network

Effect of whole body vibrations on sound localization I. Frissena and C. Guastavinob a IRCCyN, 1 the efficacy of sound spatialization. While effects of whole-body vibrations have been found to impair simple front-back discrimination, their effect on sound localization per se has received scant attention. Here

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Effect of a combination of whole body vibration exercise and squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly  

PubMed Central

A randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the beneficial effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise plus squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly with knee osteoarthritis and/or spondylosis. Of 35 ambulatory patients (14 men and 21 women) who were recruited at our outpatient clinic, 28 (80.0%, 12 men and 16 women) participated in the trial. The subjects (mean age 72.4 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=14 in each group), ie, a WBV exercise alone group and a WBV exercise plus squat training group. A 4-minute WBV exercise (frequency 20 Hz) was performed 2 days per week in both groups; squat training (20 times per minute) was added during the 4-minute WBV training session in the WBV exercise plus squat training group. The duration of the trial was 6 months. The exercise and training program was safe and well tolerated. WBV exercise alone improved indices of body balance and walking velocity from baseline values. However, WBV exercise plus squat training was more effective for improving tandem gait step number and chair-rising time compared with WBV exercise alone. These results suggest the benefit and safety of WBV exercise plus squat training for improving physical function in terms of body balance and muscle power in the elderly. PMID:24591837

Osugi, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Jun; Yamazaki, Michio; Takakuwa, Masayuki

2014-01-01

18

Impact of l-citrulline supplementation and whole-body vibration training on arterial stiffness and leg muscle function in obese postmenopausal women with high blood pressure.  

PubMed

Aging is associated with increased arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity, PWV) and muscle strength/mass loss. Exercise training alone is not always effective to improve PWV and lean mass (LM) in older women. To investigate the independent and combined effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) and l-citrulline supplementation on PWV and muscle function in women, forty-one postmenopausal women aged 58±3years and body mass index (34±2kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to the following groups: WBVT, l-citrulline, and WBVT+l-citrulline for 8weeks. WBVT consisted of four leg exercises three times weekly. Aortic (cfPWV) and leg (faPWV) PWV, leg LM index, leg strength, and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured before and after the interventions. WBVT+l-citrulline decreased cfPWV (-0.91±0.21m/s, P<0.01) compared to both groups. All interventions decreased faPWV (P<0.05) similarly. Leg LM index increased (2.7±0.5%, P<0.001) after WBVT+l-citrulline compared with l-citrulline. Both WBVT interventions increased leg strength (~37%, P<0.001) compared to l-citrulline while decreased BF% (~2.0%, P<0.01). Reductions in cfPWV were correlated with increases in leg LM index (r=-0.63, P<0.05). Our findings suggest that leg muscle strength and arterial stiffness can be improved after WBVT, but its combination with l-citrulline supplementation enhanced benefits on aortic stiffness and leg LM. Therefore, WBVT+l-citrulline could be an intervention for improving arterial stiffness and leg muscle function in obese postmenopausal women with prehypertension or hypertension, thereby reducing their cardiovascular and disability risk. PMID:25636814

Figueroa, Arturo; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Ormsbee, Michael J; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Campbell, Jeremiah C; Wong, Alexei

2015-03-01

19

Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration Exposure from Garbage Trucks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese garbage truck drivers are exposed to mechanical whole-body vibration during their work. Some drivers have suffered from low back pain from this vibration. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the whole-body vibration from the garbage trucks and low back pain or occupational disease, due to the lack of investigations. A field study was conducted in order to characterize the health risks associated with garbage truck work. Three different types of truck were tested at different loadings and on different road surfaces, with the vibrations measured at the driver/seat interface (x,y, andz-axes). The vibrations were compared with the health risk guidance according to Annex B of ISO 2631-1 [1]. The findings of this study indicated that Japanese garbage truck drivers should not operate trucks for 2.5 h in a day, under current working conditions.

Maeda, S.; Morioka, M.

1998-08-01

20

Therapeutic Effect of Whole Body Vibration on Chronic Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect on pain reduction and strengthening of the whole body vibration (WBV) in chronic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Patients were randomly divided into two groups: the study group (WBV with home based exercise) and control group (home based exercise only). They performed exercise and training for 8 weeks. Eleven patients in each group completed the study. Pain intensity was measured with the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), functional scales were measured with Korean Western Ontario McMaster score (KWOMAC) and Lysholm Scoring Scale (LSS), quadriceps strength was measured with isokinetic torque and isometric torque and dynamic balance was measured with the Biodex Stability System. These measurements were performed before training, at 1 month after training and at 2 months after training. Results NRS was significantly decreased in each group, and change of pain intensity was significantly larger in the study group than in the control group after treatment. Functional improvements in KWOMAC and LSS were found in both groups, but no significant differences between the groups after treatment. Dynamic balance, isokinetic strength of right quadriceps and isometric strengths of both quadriceps muscles improved in both groups, but no significant differences between the groups after treatment. Isokinetic strength of left quadriceps did not improve in both groups after treatment. Conclusion In chronic knee OA patients, WBV reduced pain intensity and increased strength of the right quadriceps and dynamic balance performance. In comparison with the home based exercise program, WBV was superior only in pain reduction and similarly effective in strengthening of the quadriceps muscle and balance improvement. PMID:24020031

Park, Young Geun; Kwon, Bum Sun; Park, Jin-Woo; Cha, Dong Yeon; Nam, Ki Yeun; Sim, Kyoung Bo; Chang, Jihea

2013-01-01

21

Neural systemic impairment from whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

Insidious brain microinjury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (WBV) has not yet been investigated. For a long time we have believed that WBV would cause cumulative brain microinjury and impair cerebral function, which suggests an important risk factor for motor vehicle accidents and secondary cerebral vascular diseases. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (n?=?8): 1) 2-week normal control group, 2) 2-week sham control group (restrained in the tube without vibration), 3) 2-week vibration group (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and 0.5g acceleration for 4 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 2 weeks), 4) 4-week sham control group, 5) 4-week vibration group, 6) 8-week sham control group, and 7) 8-week vibration group. At the end point, all rats were evaluated in behavior, physiological, and brain histopathological studies. The cerebral injury from WBV is a cumulative process starting with vasospasm squeezing of the endothelial cells, followed by constriction of the cerebral arteries. After the 4-week vibration, brain neuron apoptosis started. After the 8-week vibration, vacuoles increased further in the brain arteries. Brain capillary walls thickened, mean neuron size was obviously reduced, neuron necrosis became prominent, and wide-ranging chronic cerebral edema was seen. These pathological findings are strongly correlated with neural functional impairments. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25557339

Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Agresti, Michael; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R; Matloub, Hani S; Havlik, Robert

2015-05-01

22

Whole-body vibration exposure in sport: four relevant cases.  

PubMed

This study investigates the whole-body vibration exposure in kite surfing, alpine skiing, snowboarding and cycling. The vibration exposure was experimentally evaluated following the ISO 2631 guidelines. Results evidenced that the most critical axis is the vertical one. The weighted vibration levels are always larger than 2.5 m/s(2) and the vibration dose values are larger than 25 m/s(1.75). The exposure limit values of the EU directive are reached after 8-37 min depending on the sport. The vibration magnitude is influenced by the athletes' speed, by their skill level and sometimes by the equipment. The large vibration values suggest that the practice of sport activities may be a confounding factor in the aetiology of vibration-related diseases. Practitioner Summary: The vibration exposure in some sports is expected to be large, but has never been quantified in the literature. Results of experiments performed in cycling, alpine and water sports outlined vibration levels exceeding the EU standard limit values. PMID:25267689

Tarabini, Marco; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

2014-09-30

23

Whole body vibration alters proprioception in the trunk  

E-print Network

at different postures. J Sound Vib 2002;253(1):37-56. Bongers PM, Hulshof CT, Dijkstra L, Boshuizen HC, Groenhout HJ, Valken E. Back pain and exposure to whole body vibration in helicopter pilots. Ergonomics 1990;33(8):1007-26. Brumagne S, Cordo P, Lysens R..., 2003. Page 20 of 22 Granata KP, Sanford AS. Lumbar-pelvic coordination is influence by lifting task parameters. Spine 2000;25(11):1413-8. Granata, K. P., Slota, G. R., & Wilson, S. E. Influence of fatigue in neuromuscular control of spinal stability...

Li, Lu; Lamis, Farhana; Wilson, Sara E.

2008-01-01

24

Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is strong epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. A prototype health surveillance scheme for WBV is presented in this paper. Surveillance is the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. The aims are to assess health status and diagnose vibration-induced disorders at an early stage, to inform the workers on the potential risk associated with vibration exposure, to give preventive advice to employers and employees and to control whether preventive measures which have been taken, were successful. It is suggested that a pre-placement health examination should be offered to each worker who will be exposed to WBV so as to make the worker aware of the hazards, to obtain baseline health data, and to identify medical conditions that may increase the risk due to WBV. The case history should focus on personal history, work history, and leisure activities involving driving of vehicles. The personal medical history should detail back pain complaints, disorders in the spine, any injuries or surgery to the musculoskeletal system. A physical examination on the lower back should be performed on workers who have experienced LBP symptoms over the past 12 months. The preplacement examination should be followed by periodic health reassessment with a regular interval according to the legislation of the country. It is suggested that periodic medical examination should be made available at least every 2 years to all workers who are exposed to WBV. Any change in vibration exposure at the workplace should be reported by the employer. If an increase in vibration exposure or a change in health status have occurred, the medical re-examination should be offered at shorter intervals at the discretion of the attending physician. There should be a periodic medical examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

2002-05-01

25

PAHA study: Psychological Active and Healthy Aging: psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude and happiness effects of whole-body vibration versus Multicomponent Training in aged women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence demonstrates that physical exercise and psychological wellbeing are closely interlinked, particularly in older-aged women. However, research investigating how different forms of exercise influence mental health in older-aged women is underdeveloped. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial (N?=?300) will assess the relative effectiveness of two different exercise programs (whole-body vibration and Multicomponent Training) for improving psychological wellbeing in older-aged women. The following outcomes will be assessed at three time points (that is, pre, post, and follow-up): psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude, quality of life, and happiness. Discussion Results will have important implications for preventing psychological and physiological disease in older-aged women and for managing health-related costs for this population group. Trial registration Number NCT01966562 on Clinical Gov database the 8 October 2013 PMID:24886107

2014-01-01

26

The Effects of Quadriceps Strength Following Static and Dynamic Whole Body Vibration Exercise.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown performance benefits from including whole-body vibration (WBV) whether as a training modality or an acute exercise protocol when utilized as a component of the resistance training program. Some studies have indicated that performing dynamic exercises as compared to static position exercises while exposed to WBV might be beneficial, however, evidence is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if an acute bout of dynamic vs. static squats performed during WBV results in increases in quadriceps force production via dynamic isokinetic knee extension and flexion exercise. PMID:25268289

Bush, Jill A; Blog, Gabriel L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A

2014-09-29

27

Signal Processing Methods for Removing the Effects of Whole Body Vibration upon Speech  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humans may be exposed to whole-body vibration in environments where clear speech communications are crucial, particularly during the launch phases of space flight and in high-performance aircraft. Prior research has shown that high levels of vibration cause a decrease in speech intelligibility. However, the effects of whole-body vibration upon speech are not well understood, and no attempt has been made to restore speech distorted by whole-body vibration. In this paper, a model for speech under whole-body vibration is proposed and a method to remove its effect is described. The method described reduces the perceptual effects of vibration, yields higher ASR accuracy scores, and may significantly improve intelligibility. Possible applications include incorporation within communication systems to improve radio-communication systems in environments such a spaceflight, aviation, or off-road vehicle operations.

Bitner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.

2014-01-01

28

[The influence of posture on transmission and absorption of vibration energy in whole body vibration exercise].  

PubMed

Muscle exercise using whole body vibration platforms is well known as an alternative physical exercise in therapy as well as in high performance sports. Various studies could show an effectiveness in particular to improve maximal strength and springiness. Using these platforms there is no consideration to posture although the damage potential of vibration stress i. e. on intervertebral discs is well-known. Therefore the effect of posture on the transmission and absorption of vibration loads in bipedal standing was examined in a study with 20 sport students. They were exposed to a whole body vibration load in bipedal standing at a vibration frequency of 25 Hz. The transmission of energy was measured at the head in different postural positions. An average transmission of 9 % was measured in spontaneous bipedal standing. It significantly decreased with gradual changes of posture. After 6 weeks posture conditioning exercise this effect was significantly improved. In conclusion different posture in bipedal standing implies not only different energy absorption but also different effects on muscle performance which can explain the partly inconsistent results after vibration exercise. In addition whole body vibration exercise in a prone or sitting position may increase the risk of overload and should be avoided because of reduced energy absorption capacity. PMID:20229446

Berschin, G; Sommer, H-M

2010-03-01

29

Evaluation of an occupational health intervention programme on whole-body vibration in forklift truck drivers: a controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate process and outcome of a multifaceted occupational health intervention programme on whole-body vibration (WBV) in forklift truck drivers. Methods: An experimental pretest\\/post-test control group study design. The authors trained occupational health services ( OHS) in the experimental group in the use of the programme. OHS in the control group were asked to deliver care as usual. In

C. T. J. Hulshof; J. H. A. M. Verbeek; I. T. J. Braam; M. Bovenzi; F. J. H. van Dijk

2006-01-01

30

[The effect of whole-body vibration: an unrecognized medical problem].  

PubMed

Exposure to whole-body vibration is a growing concern in industry, traffic and in other branches of the economy. This harmful physical factor endangers work efficiency and human health not only at work but also in everyday life, in public transportation and even at home. In spite of increasing exposure to vibrations, our medical practice does not pay adequate attention to the health effects of whole-body vibration. The paper deals with the basic characteristics of vibration (frequency, amplitude, velocity and acceleration), its adequate evaluation (effective or weighted average value, peak values, rating and weighting procedure of vibration measurement) and exposure (vibration direction, exposure time, transmission and dissipation). In industry and traffic, vibrations present complex oscillatory motions, characterized by a wide frequency spectrum, variable amplitude and acceleration, and different directions. To assess the harmful effects of vibration, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has proposed three standards for acceptable human exposure to whole-body vibration: fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary, exposure limit and reduced comfort boundary. Quantitative parameters of vibration for some vehicles, and for constructional, industrial and agricultural machinery are also given. The most pronounced long-term effect of whole-body vibration is damage to the spine. The spinal region most frequently affected is the lumbar part, where spinal deformation, lumbago and sciatica can develop. The possible cause of spinal damage could be mechanical overload and metabolic changes of the intervertebral disc. Other organ systems, such as peripheral and autonomic nervous, vestibular, vascular, digestive and female reproductive systems are also liable to become affected. Risk assessment of chronic health effects is based on the appropriate evaluation of whole-body vibration exposure and individual response. Health risk increases with the intensity and duration of vibration exposure. The concomitant factors are forced sitting posture and heavy physical work. Human response to whole-body vibration depends on factors promoting the development of degenerative changes such as constitution, previous spine disease and young age. The main problems in diagnosing whole-body vibration syndrome are differentiation of vibration induced disorders from age dependent changes of the spine and lack of a specific diagnostic method for assessing those changes. Therefore, only permanent medical surveillance can guarantee proper assessment of the damage induced by whole-body vibration. For vibration exposed workers preplacement and periodic examinations are recommended. Those should include a basic medical examination and an X-ray of the spine, or at least of its lumbar part. PMID:8311700

Bogadi-Sare, A

1993-09-01

31

Whole-body vibration slows the acquisition of fat in mature female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration on fat, bone, leptin and muscle mass.Methods\\/Design:Thirty 7-month-old female 344 Fischer rats were randomized by weight into three groups (baseline, vibration or control; n=8–10 per group). Rats in the vibration group were placed inside individual compartments attached to a Pneu-Vibe vibration platform (Pneumex, Sandpoint, ID, USA) and vibrated at 30–50 Hz (6 mm

G F Maddalozzo; U T Iwaniec; R T Turner; C J Rosen; J J Widrick

2008-01-01

32

Synchronous whole-body vibration increases V O 2 during and following acute exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single bout whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been shown to produce small but significant increases in oxygen consumption\\u000a (VO2). How much more a complete whole-body exercise session (multiple dynamic exercises targeting both upper and lower body muscles)\\u000a can increase VO2 is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify VO2 during and for an extended time period (24 h) following

Tom J. HazellPeter; Peter W. R. Lemon

33

Self-reported low back symptoms in urban bus drivers exposed to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The prevalence of self-reported low back symptoms was investigated by a postal questionnaire in a group of 234 urban bus drivers exposed to whole-body vibration and postural stress and in a control group of 125 maintenance workers employed at the same bus municipal company. The average vertical whole-body vibration magnitude measured on the seat pan of the buses was 0.4 m/s2. After controlling for potential confounders, the prevalence odds ratios for the bus drivers compared to the controls significantly exceeded 1 for several types of low back symptoms (leg pain, acute low back pain, low back pain). The occurrence of low back symptoms increased with increasing whole-body vibration exposure expressed in terms of total (lifetime) vibration dose (years m2/s4), equivalent vibration magnitude (m/s2), and duration of exposure (years of service). The highest prevalence of disc protrusion was found among the bus drivers with more severe whole-body vibration exposure. Frequent awkward postures at work were also related to some types of low back symptoms. It is concluded that bus driving is associated with an increased risk for low back troubles. This excess risk may be due to both whole-body vibration exposure and prolonged sitting in a constrained posture. The findings of this study also indicated that among the bus drivers low back symptoms occurred at whole-body vibration exposure levels that were lower than the health-based exposure limits proposed by the International Standard ISO 2631/1. PMID:1411756

Bovenzi, M; Zadini, A

1992-09-01

34

NEUROMOTOR RESPONSE TO WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRANSMISSIBILITY IN THE HORIZONTAL DIRECTION AND ITS MATHEMATICAL MODEL  

E-print Network

................................................................................... 6 1.5 Overview of Whole Body Vibration Research in General: ...................................................... 7 1.5.1 Vibration-Induced Muscular Fatigue: ................................................................................ 8 1...-right) directions relative to the body. Typical 7 exposures include: driving automobiles and trucks, piloting helicopters and other aircraft and operating industrial vehicles such as off-road construction vehicles and forklifts. Transmission of WBV...

Hanumanthareddygari, Vinay

2010-09-02

35

Whole-Body Vibrations Do Not Elevate the Angiogenic Stimulus when Applied during Resistance Exercise  

PubMed Central

Knowledge about biological factors involved in exercise-induced angiogenesis is to date still scanty. The present study aimed to investigate the angiogenic stimulus of resistance exercise with and without superimposed whole-body vibrations. Responses to the exercise regimen before and after a 6-week training intervention were investigated in twenty-six healthy male subjects. Serum was collected at the initial and final exercise sessions and circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2 and -9, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and endostatin were determined via ELISA. Furthermore, we studied the proliferative effect of serum-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro via BrdU-incorporation assay. It was found that circulating MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF and endostatin levels were significantly elevated (P<0.001) from resting levels after both exercise interventions, with higher post-exercise VEGF concentrations in the resistance exercise (RE) group compared to the resistive vibration exercise (RVE) group. Moreover, RE provoked increased endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and higher post-exercise circulating endostatin concentrations after 6 weeks of training. These effects were elusive in the RVE group. The present findings suggest that resistance exercise leads to a transient rise in circulating angiogenic factors and superimposing vibrations to this exercise type might not further trigger a potential signaling of angiogenic stimulation in skeletal muscle. PMID:24260349

Beijer, Åsa; Rosenberger, André; Bölck, Birgit; Suhr, Frank; Rittweger, Jörn; Bloch, Wilhelm

2013-01-01

36

Hematuria in a runner after treatment with whole body vibration: a case report.  

PubMed

The use of whole body vibration (WBV) for therapeutic purposes is far from being standardized and the training protocols reported in the literature vary considerably. Currently, the optimal threshold for a beneficial effect is undetermined, and caution regarding potential health risks due to WBV is always necessary. In this case report, we present a 34-year-old otherwise healthy elite athlete (steeplechase runner) who suffered two episodes of hematuria (HT) after WBV training. Shortly after the third WBV, he had an episode of bright red urine. Seven days later, following the next WBV session (and again before his daily running session), a reddish-colored urine reappeared. Our patient was advised to stop WBV training and to take fluid before and during exertion. He did not experience any episode of HT during a 1-year follow-up with periodic check-ups, in spite of the continuation of his sporting career. The concomitance of the two types of trauma - daily running and WBV - could have been critical in this case for producing HT. In particular, we think that platforms providing side-alternating vibration (such as the Galileo platform) may pose some health risks if the feet are positioned too far from the axis of rotation. PMID:22590988

Franchignoni, F; Vercelli, S; Ozçakar, L

2013-06-01

37

Whole-body vibration slows the acquisition of fat in mature female rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration on fat, bone, leptin and muscle mass. Methods/Design Thirty 7-month-old female 344 Fischer rats were randomized by weight into three groups (baseline, vibration or control; n=7–10 per group). Rats in the vibration group were placed inside individual compartments attached to a Pneu-Vibe vibration platform (Pneumex, Sandpoint, ID, USA) and vibrated at 30–50 Hz (6mm peak to peak) for 30 min per day, 5 days per week, for 12 weeks. The vibration intervention consisted of six 5-min cycles with a 1-min break between cycles. Results There were significant body composition differences between the whole-body vibration and the control groups. The whole-body vibration group weighed approximately 10% less (mean ± s.d.; 207 ± 10 vs 222 ± 15 g, P<0.03) and had less body fat (20.8 ± 3.8 vs 26.8 ± 5.9 g, P<0.05), a lower percentage of body fat (10.2 ± 1.7 vs 12 ± 2.0%, P<0.05), and lower serum leptin levels (1.06 ± 0.45 vs 2.27 ± 0.57 ng ml?1, P<0.01) than the age-matched controls. No differences were observed for total lean mass, bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) or soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) mass or function. Regional high-resolution dual-energy X-ray absoptiometry scans of the lumbar spine (L1-4) revealed that the whole-body vibration group had significantly greater BMC (0.33 ± 0.05 vs 0.26 ± 0.03 g, P<0.01) and BMD (0.21 ± 0.01 vs 0.19 ± 0.01 gcm?2, P<0.01) than the control group. No differences between the groups were observed in the amount of food consumed. Conclusion These findings show that whole-body vibration reduced body fat accumulation and serum leptin without affecting whole body BMC, BMD or lean mass. However, the increase in vertebral BMC and BMD suggests that vibration may have resulted in local increases in bone mass and density. Also, whole-body vibration did not affect muscle function or food consumption. PMID:18663370

Maddalozzo, GF; Iwaniec, UT; Turner, RT; Rosen, CJ; Widrick, JJ

2008-01-01

38

Whole-body vibration and ergonomic study of US railroad locomotives  

Microsoft Academic Search

US locomotive operators have exposure to multi-axis whole-body vibration (WBV) and shocks while seated. This study assessed operator-related and ergonomic seating design factors that may have confounding or mitigating influence on WBV exposure and its effects. Vibration exposure was measured according to international guidelines (ISO 2631-1; 1997); ergonomic work place factors and vibration effects were studied with a cross-sectional survey

Eckardt Johanning; Paul Landsbergis; Siegfried Fischer; Eberhard Christ; Benno Göres; Raymond Luhrman

2006-01-01

39

Electromyography Activity of Vastus Lateralis Muscle During Whole-Body Vibrations of Different Frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze electromyography (EMG) responses of vastus lateralis muscle to different whole-body vibration frequencies. For this purpose, 16 pro- fessional women volleyball players (age, 23.9 6 3.6 years; height, 182.5 6 11.1 cm; weight, 78.4 6 5.6 kg) voluntarily participated in the study. Vibration treatment was adminis- tered while standing on a vibrating platform

Marco Cardinale; Jon Lim

2003-01-01

40

EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION ON STRENGTH AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN VOLLEYBALL AND BEACH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS  

PubMed Central

The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (p<0.001), a WBV use effect (p<0.001) and a discipline effect (p<0.001). Significantly greater improvements in the SJ (p<0.001) and CMJ (p<0.001) and in 1RM (p<0.001) were found in the WBV training groups than in traditional training groups. Significant 3-way interaction effects (training, WBV use, discipline kind) were also found for SJ, CMJ and 1RM (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001, respectively). It can be concluded that implementation of 6-week WBV training in routine practice in volleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

Zmijewski, P.; Jimenez-Olmedo, J.M.; Jové-Tossi, M.A.; Martínez-Carbonell, A.; Suárez-Llorca, C.; Andreu-Cabrera, E.

2014-01-01

41

Effects of whole body vibration on strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (p<0.001), a WBV use effect (p<0.001) and a discipline effect (p<0.001). Significantly greater improvements in the SJ (p<0.001) and CMJ (p<0.001) and in 1RM (p<0.001) were found in the WBV training groups than in traditional training groups. Significant 3-way interaction effects (training, WBV use, discipline kind) were also found for SJ, CMJ and 1RM (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001, respectively). It can be concluded that implementation of 6-week WBV training in routine practice in volleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

Pérez-Turpin, J A; Zmijewski, P; Jimenez-Olmedo, J M; Jové-Tossi, M A; Martínez-Carbonell, A; Suárez-Llorca, C; Andreu-Cabrera, E

2014-08-01

42

The effect of occupational whole-body vibration on standing balance: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse health effects from exposure to occupational whole-body vibration (WBV) are common among drivers. In particular some researchers consider that there is kinaesthetic and balance disturbance from WBV exposure in the workplace and this might be one of the aetiological factors responsible for occupational low back pain in drivers. The purpose of this study was to undertake a critical review

Ramakrishnan Mani; Stephan Milosavljevic; S. John Sullivan

2010-01-01

43

The effects of whole body vibration on mobility and balance in Parkinson disease: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in health-compromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease. PMID:25031483

Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary

2014-07-01

44

The Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Mobility and Balance in Parkinson Disease: a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in health–compromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease. PMID:25031483

Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A.; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary

2014-01-01

45

Changes in postural sway frequency and complexity in altered sensory environments following whole body vibrations.  

PubMed

Studies assessing whole body vibration (WBV) have produced largely positive effects, with some neutral, on postural control with frequencies between 25 and 40 Hz. However no conclusive evidence indicates that 25-40 Hz elicits the optimal beneficial effects. To address this issue, a larger range of vibration intensity (10-50 Hz at peak-to-peak amplitudes of 2 and 5mm) was employed while increasing the postural complexity (altered somatosensory and/or visual information) to assess acute effects of 4-min of WBV on postural control. Twelve healthy young adults underwent postural assessment at four time intervals (prior to, immediately following and 10 and 20 min post WBV). Findings revealed both postural sway frequency and sway complexity/regularity were affected by WBV. Baseline posture demonstrated increased sway frequency (p=.04) following WBV with no changes in sway complexity. When the support surface was altered, changes in both the frequency and complexity of sway were elicited (p=.027, .002, respectively). When both somatosensory and visual information were altered delayed improvements in postural control were elicited (p=.05 and .01, for frequency and complexity, respectively). Given the differential acute effects as a function of postural task complexity, future longitudinal studies could determine the overall training effect on sway frequency and complexity. PMID:22516837

Dickin, D Clark; McClain, Matthew A; Hubble, Ryan P; Doan, Jon B; Sessford, David

2012-10-01

46

The effects of whole body vibration on balance, joint position sense and cutaneous sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body vibration (WBV) may enhance muscular strength and power but little is known about its influence on sensory-motor\\u000a function. Vibration of a single muscle or tendon affects the afferent system in a manner that depends on amplitude and frequency.\\u000a WBV stimulates many muscle groups simultaneously and the frequencies and amplitudes used are different from many of the studies\\u000a on

Ross D. PollockSally ProvanFinbarr; Sally Provan; Finbarr C. Martin; Di J. Newham

47

Microcirculation of skeletal muscle adapts differently to a resistive exercise intervention with and without superimposed whole-body vibrations.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is commonly practiced and may enhance peripheral blood flow. Here, we investigated muscle morphology and acute microcirculatory responses before and after a 6-week resistive exercise training intervention without (RE) or with (RVE) simultaneous whole-body vibrations (20 Hz, 6 mm peak-to-peak amplitude) in 26 healthy men in a randomized, controlled parallel-design study. Total haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were measured in gastrocnemius muscle (GM) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2 ) was measured via spirometry, and skeletal muscle morphology was determined in soleus (SOL) muscle biopsies. Our data reveal that exercise-induced muscle deoxygenation both before and after 6 weeks training was similar in RE and RVE (P = 0·76), although VO2 was 20% higher in the RVE group (P<0·001). The RVE group showed a 14%-point increase in reactive hyperaemia (P = 0·007) and a 27% increase in blood volume (P<0·01) in GM after 6 weeks of training. The number of capillaries around fibres was increased by 15% after 6 weeks training in both groups (P<0·001) with no specific effect of superimposed WBV (P = 0·61). Neither of the training regimens induced fibre hypertrophy in SOL. The present findings suggest an increased blood volume and vasodilator response in GM as an adaptation to long-term RVE, which was not observed after RE alone. We conclude that RVE training enhances vasodilation of small arterioles and possibly capillaries. This effect might be advantageous for muscle thermoregulation and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to exercising muscle and removal of carbon dioxide and metabolites. PMID:25041226

Beijer, Asa; Degens, Hans; Weber, Tobias; Rosenberger, André; Gehlert, Sebastian; Herrera, Frankyn; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias; Zange, Jochen; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

2014-07-21

48

Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Speech. Part 2; Effect on Intelligibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect on speech intelligibility was measured for speech where talkers reading Diagnostic Rhyme Test material were exposed to 0.7 g whole body vibration to simulate space vehicle launch. Across all talkers, the effect of vibration was to degrade the percentage of correctly transcribed words from 83% to 74%. The magnitude of the effect of vibration on speech communication varies between individuals, for both talkers and listeners. A worst case scenario for intelligibility would be the most sensitive listener hearing the most sensitive talker; one participant s intelligibility was reduced by 26% (97% to 71%) for one of the talkers.

Begault, Durand R.

2011-01-01

49

Effect of four-month vertical whole body vibration on performance and balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

TORVINEN, S., P. KANNUS, H. SIEVANEN, T. A. JARVINEN, M. PASANEN, S. KONTULAINEN, T. L. JARVINEN, M. JARVINEN, P. OJA, and I. VUORI. Effect of four-month vertical whole body vibration on performance and balance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 9, pp. 1523-1528, 2002. Purpose: This randomized controlled study was designed to investigate the effects of a 4-month whole

SAILA TORVINEN; PEKKA KANNUS; MATTI PASANEN; SAIJA KONTULAINEN; PEKKA OJA; ILKKA VUORI

2002-01-01

50

Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different

J. Hoy; N. Mubarak; S. Nelson; M. Sweerts de Landas; M. Magnusson; O. Okunribido; M. Pope

2005-01-01

51

The effects of whole-body vibration on the Wingate test for anaerobic power when applying individualized frequencies.  

PubMed

Recently, individualized frequency (I-Freq) has been introduced with the notion that athletes may elicit a greater reflex response at differing levels (Hz) of vibration. The aim of the study was to evaluate acute whole-body vibration as a feasible intervention to increase power in trained cyclists and evaluate the efficacy of using I-Freq as an alternative to 30Hz, a common frequency seen in the literature. Twelve highly trained, competitive male cyclists (age, 29.9 ± 10.0 years; body height, 175.4 ± 7.8 cm; body mass, 77.3 ± 13.9 kg) participated in the study. A Wingate test for anaerobic power was administered on 3 occasions: following a control of no vibration, 30 Hz, or I-freq. Measures of peak power, average power (AP), and the rate of fatigue were recorded and compared with the vibration conditions using separate repeated measures analysis of variance. Peak power, AP, and the rate of fatigue were not significantly impacted by either the 30 Hz or I-Freq vibration interventions (p > 0.05). Given the trained status of the individuals in this study, the ability to elicit an acute response may have been muted. Future studies should further refine the vibration parameters used and assess changes in untrained or recreationally trained populations. PMID:24378660

Surowiec, Rachel K; Wang, Henry; Nagelkirk, Paul R; Frame, Jeffrey W; Dickin, D Clark

2014-07-01

52

Fluid dynamic aspects of cardiovascular behavior during low-frequency whole-body vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of the cardiovascular system during low frequency whole-body vibration, such as encountered by astronauts during launch and reentry, is examined from a fluid mechanical viewpoint. The vibration characteristics of typical manned spacecraft and other vibration environments are discussed, and existing results from in vivo studies of the hemodynamic aspects of this problem are reviewed. Recent theoretical solutions to related fluid mechanical problems are then used in the interpretation of these results and in discussing areas of future work. The results are included of studies of the effects of vibration on the work done by the heart and on pulsatile flow in blood vessels. It is shown that important changes in pulse velocity, the instantaneous velocity profile, mass flow rate, and wall shear stress may occur in a pulsatile flow due to the presence of vibration. The significance of this in terms of changes in peripheral vascular resistance and possible damage to the endothelium of blood vessels is discussed.

Nerem, R. M.

1973-01-01

53

Low back and neck pain in locomotive engineers exposed to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and excess risk of low back pain and neck pain in locomotive engineers, and to investigate the relationship of both with whole-body vibration exposure. A cross-sectional survey comparing locomotive engineers with other rail worker referents was conducted. Current vibration levels were measured, cumulative exposures calculated for engineers and referents, and low back and neck pain assessed by a self-completed questionnaire. Median vibration exposure in the z- (vertical) axis was 0.62 m/s(2). Engineers experienced more frequent low back and neck pain, odds ratios (ORs) of 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-2.64) and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.22-3.02), respectively. The authors conclude that vibration close to the "action levels" of published standards contribute to low back and neck pain. Vibration levels need to be assessed conservatively and control measures introduced. PMID:24499248

McBride, David; Paulin, Sara; Herbison, G Peter; Waite, David; Bagheri, Nasser

2014-01-01

54

Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different positions were adopted (bending, leaning and twisting) and postural analyses were conducted using the OWAS and RULA techniques. Forklift vibrations at the seat (exposure) were measured in the three orthogonal axes ( x-fore and aft, y-lateral and z-vertical) under actual working conditions according to the recommendations of ISO 2631-1. The results showed that LBP was more prevalent amongst forklift drivers than among non-drivers and driving postures in which the trunk is considerably twisted or bent forward associated with greatest risk. Furthermore, forklift drivers showed to be exposed to acceptable levels of vibration in the x- and y-directions (i.e., below the EU Physical Agents Directive on Vibration Exposure recommended action level—0.5 m/s 2), but not in the z-direction. There were indications that whole-body vibration acts associatively with other factors (not independently) to precipitate LBP.

Hoy, J.; Mubarak, N.; Nelson, S.; Sweerts de Landas, M.; Magnusson, M.; Okunribido, O.; Pope, M.

2005-06-01

55

Measurement of whole-body vibration exposure from speed control humps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of speed control humps is to introduce shocks and high vibration levels when a car passes over them if its speed is higher than the allowable limit. Hump geometry is a major factor in altering the level of these shocks and specifying the speed limit. However, there is no study of the relationship between whole body vibration due to passing over a speed control hump and lower back pain or occupational diseases. In this study, an experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate health risks associated with different geometry speed control humps. Vibration levels and shocks are measured by a seat pad accelerometer placed under the driver's seat to evaluate hazard risks on the human body's lower back. The assessment is based on two standard methods of measuring whole body vibration: the British standard BS 6841 and the new ISO/DIS standard 2631-5. These methods are used to assess the effects of vehicle type, passenger location in the vehicle, vehicle speed, and speed control hump geometry. It was found that circular speed control humps currently installed on many public roads should be modified in order to eliminate hazards. Two newly designed speed humps were proved to be less hazardous than circular speed control humps.

Khorshid, E.; Alkalby, F.; Kamal, H.

2007-07-01

56

Acute effects of whole body vibration during passive standing on soleus H-reflex in subjects with and without spinal cord injury  

E-print Network

1 Acute effects of whole body vibration during passive standing on soleus H-reflex in subjects cord injuries, whole body vibration, neuromuscular plasticity, motoneuronal excitability, soleus H-reflex Abstract Whole-body vibration (WBV) is being used to enhance neuromuscular performance including muscle

Popovic, Milos R.

57

Effect of whole-body vibration on BMD: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Our systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining whole-body vibration (WBV) effect\\u000a on bone mineral density (BMD) found significant but small improvements in hip areal BMD (aBMD) in postmenopausal women and\\u000a in tibia and spine volumetric BMD in children\\/adolescents, but not in other BMD measurements in postmenopausal women and young\\u000a adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Animal experiments report anabolic bone changes

L. Slatkovska; S. M. H. Alibhai; J. Beyene; A. M. Cheung

2010-01-01

58

Whole body vibration exposures in metropolitan bus drivers: A comparison of three seats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a repeated measures study design, three different seats were evaluated as 12 metropolitan bus drivers drove a standardized test route including city streets, old and new freeways, and a street segment containing 10 large speed humps. Three comparisons were made: (1) comparing seats made by different manufactures (Seats 1 and 2), (2) comparing seats with a standard foam (Seat 2) and silicone foam (Seat 3) seat pans, and (3) comparing WBV exposures based on individual factors such as seat pressure settings and body weight. Whole body vibration (WBV) exposures were measured using a tri-axial seat pan accelerometer and the attenuation capabilities of each seat were evaluated by comparing the vibrations measured at the floor and seat of the bus. There were significant WBV exposure differences between the various street types, which was shown across all seat types. The city street and older freeway segments had the highest WBV exposures with both segments producing WBV exposures slightly above the action limit for vibration dose value (VDV). Relative to Seat 2, Seat 1 performed better at attenuating impulsive and shock related WBV exposures; however, neither seat performed significantly better when average vibration ( A w) and VDV WBV exposures were compared. In addition, no performance differences were seen between the standard foam (Seat 2) and silicone foam (Seat 3) seat pans. Seat suspension stiffness (air pressure) was also examined, and the results indicated that the higher the seat air pressure the lower the A w, VDV, and static compressive dose ( S ed) vibration exposures. This study provided a unique opportunity to evaluate on-the-job whole body vibration exposures in a standardized, controlled setting.

Blood, R. P.; Ploger, J. D.; Yost, M. G.; Ching, R. P.; Johnson, P. W.

2010-01-01

59

Varying whole body vibration amplitude differentially affects tendon and ligament structural and material properties  

PubMed Central

Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular for helping to maintain bone mass and strengthening muscle. Vibration regimens optimized for bone maintenance often operate at hypogravity levels (<1 G) and regimens for muscle strengthening often employ hypergravity (>1 G) vibrations. The effect of vibratory loads on tendon and ligament properties is unclear though excessive vibrations may be injurious. Our objective was to evaluate how tendon gene expression and the mechanical/histological properties of tendon and ligament were affected in response to WBV in the following groups: no vibration, low vibration (0.3 G peak-to-peak), and high vibration (2 G peak-to-peak). Rats were vibrated for 20 min a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks. Upon sacrifice, the medial collateral ligament (MCL), patellar tendon (PT), and the Achilles Tendon (AT) were isolated with insertion sites intact. All tissues were tensile tested to determine structural and material properties or used for histology. Patellar tendon was also subjected to quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate expression of anabolic and catabolic genes. No differences in biomechanical data between the control and the low vibration groups were found. There was evidence of significant weakness in the MCL with high vibration, but no significant effect on the PT or AT. Histology of the MCL and PT showed a hypercellular tissue response and some fiber disorganization with high vibration. High vibration caused an increase in collagen expression and a trend for an increase in IGF-1 expression suggesting a potential anabolic response to prevent tendon overuse injury. PMID:23623311

Keller, Benjamin V.; Davis, Matthew L.; Thompson, William R.; Dahners, Laurence E.; Weinhold, Paul S.

2014-01-01

60

Biodynamic characteristics of upper limb reaching movements of the seated human under whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

Simulation of human movements is an essential component for proactive ergonomic analysis and biomechanical model development (Chaffin, 2001). Most studies on reach kinematics have described human movements in a static environment, however the models derived from these studies cannot be applied to the analysis of human reach movements in vibratory environments such as in-vehicle operations. This study analyzes three-dimensional joint kinematics of the upper extremity in reach movements performed in static and specific vibratory conditions and investigates vibration transmission to shoulder, elbow, and hand along the body path during pointing tasks. Thirteen seated subjects performed reach movements to five target directions distributed in their right hemisphere. The results show similarities in the characteristics of movement patterns and reach trajectories of upper body segments for static and dynamic environments. In addition, vibration transmission through upper body segments is affected by vibration frequency, direction, and location of the target to be reached. Similarities in the pattern of movement trajectories revealed by filtering vibration-induced oscillations indicate that coordination strategy may not be drastically different in static and vibratory environments. This finding may facilitate the development of active biodynamic models to predict human performance and behavior under whole body vibration exposure. PMID:22814094

Kim, Heon-Jeong; Martin, Bernard J

2013-02-01

61

Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to whole body vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and to identify the common sources of exposure and the occupations and industries where such exposures arise.?METHODS—A postal questionnaire was posted to a random community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to WBV in the past week, including occupational and common non-occupational sources. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and national prevalence estimates were derived from census information. Estimates were also made of the average estimated daily personal dose of vibration (eVDV).?RESULTS—From the 12 907 responses it was estimated that 7.2 million men and 1.8 million women in Great Britain are exposed to WBV at work in a 1 week period if the occupational use of cars, vans, buses, trains, and motor cycles is included within the definition of exposure. The eVDV of >374 000 men and 9000 women was estimated to exceed a proposed British Standard action level of 15 ms-1.75. Occupations in which the estimated exposures most often exceeded 15 ms-1.75 included forklift truck and mechanical truck drivers, farm owners and managers, farm workers, and drivers of road goods vehicles. These occupations also contributed the largest estimated numbers of workers in Great Britain with such levels of exposure. The highest estimated median occupational eVDVs were found in forklift truck drivers, drivers of road goods vehicles, bus and coach drivers, and technical and wholesale sales representatives, among whom a greater contribution to total dose was received from occupational exposures than from non-occupational ones; but in many other occupations the reverse applied. The most common sources of occupational exposure to WBV are cars, vans, forklift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, and loaders.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to whole body vibration is common, but only a small proportion of exposures exceed the action level proposed in British standards, and in many occupations, non-occupational sources are more important than those at work. The commonest occupational sources of WBV and occupations with particularly high exposures have been identified, providing a basis for targeting future control activities.???Keywords: whole body vibration; population; prevalence; exposure PMID:10810108

Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

62

Whole-Body Vibration Exposure Study in U.S. Railroad Locomotives—An Ergonomic Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-body vibration exposure of locomotive engineers and the vibration attenuation of seats in 22 U.S. locomotives (built between 1959 and 2000) was studied during normal revenue service and following international measurement guidelines. Triaxial vibration measurements (duration mean 155 min, range 84–383 min) on the seat and on the floor were compared. In addition to the basic vibration evaluation (aw rms),

Eckardt Johanning; Siegfried Fischer; Eberhard Christ; Benno Göres; Paul Landsbergis

2002-01-01

63

The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

2013-01-01

64

Combined whole-body vibration, resistance exercise, and sustained vascular occlusion increases PGC-1? and VEGF mRNA abundances.  

PubMed

We previously reported that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion (vibroX) markedly improves cycling endurance capacity, increases capillary-to-fibre ratio and skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity in untrained young women. These findings are intriguing, since increases in oxidative muscle phenotype and endurance capacity are typically induced by endurance but not heavy resistance exercise. Here, we tested the hypothesis that vibroX activates genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis. Eight healthy, recreationally resistance-trained young men performed either vibroX or resistance exercise (RES) in a randomised, cross-over design. Needle biopsies (M. vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and 3 h post-exercise. Changes in relative gene expression levels were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. After vibroX, vascular endothelial growth factor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1? mRNA abundances increased to 2- and 4.4-fold, respectively, but did not significantly change above resting values after RES. Other genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis were not affected by either exercise modality. While vibroX increased the expression of hexokinase II, xanthine dehydrogenase, and manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA, there were no changes in these transcripts after RES. This study demonstrates that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion activates metabolic and angiogenic gene programs, which are usually activated after endurance but not resistance exercise. Thus, targeted modification of high load resistance exercise by vibration and vascular occlusion might represent a novel strategy to induce endurance-type muscle adaptations. PMID:23086295

Item, Flurin; Nocito, Antonio; Thöny, Sandra; Bächler, Thomas; Boutellier, Urs; Wenger, Roland H; Toigo, Marco

2013-04-01

65

Whole body vibration exposures in forklift operators: comparison of a mechanical and air suspension seat.  

PubMed

Using a repeated measures design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures when 12 forklift operators drove the same forklift with a mechanical suspension and an air suspension seat. A portable PDA-based WBV data acquisition system collected and analysed time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 WBV measurement standards. Tri-axial measurements of weighted vibration (A(w)), crest factor, vibration dose values, time-weighted average-peak, raw (+) peak, raw (-) peak and static compression dose (S(ed)) were compared between seats. There were significant differences in z-axis WBV exposures with the air suspension seat, yielding lower WBV exposures. In addition, there were differences between seats in how they attenuated WBV exposures based on the driver's weight. In the mechanical suspension seat, WBV exposures were weight-dependent, with lighter drivers having higher WBV exposures, whereas with the air suspension seat, the same trends were not as prevalent. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study contributes to the understanding of how different seat suspensions can influence WBV transmission and how some components of vibration transmission are dependent on the weight of the driver. Additional systematic studies are needed to quantify how various factors can influence WBV exposures. PMID:20967660

Blood, Ryan P; Ploger, James D; Johnson, Peter W

2010-11-01

66

Whole-body vibration transmissibility in supine humans: effects of board litter and neck collar.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration has been identified as a stressor to supine patients during medical transportation. The transmissibility between the input platform acceleration and the output acceleration of the head, sternum, pelvis, head-sternum, and pelvis-sternum of eight supine subjects were investigated. Vibration files were utilized in the fore-aft, lateral, and vertical directions. The power spectral density across the bandwidth of 0.5-20 Hz was approximately flat for each file. A comparison between a baseline rigid-support and a support with a long spinal board strapped to a litter has shown that the latter has considerable effects on the transmitted motion in all directions with a double magnification in the vertical direction around 5 Hz. The results also showed that the neck-collar has increased the relative head-sternum flexion-extension because of the input fore-aft vibration, but reduced the head-sternum extension-compression due to the input vertical vibration. PMID:24075288

Meusch, John; Rahmatalla, Salam

2014-05-01

67

Low back pain disorders and exposure to whole-body vibration in the workplace.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and postural stress in a driving environment may contribute to an increased risk for low back pain (LBP) disorders. In two epidemiological studies of bus drivers and tractor drivers, LBP disorders were found to be associated with age, back accidents, cumulative WBV dose, and postural overload. A review of the literature showed that the exposure-response relationship for WBV and injuries to the lower back is not fully clarified. There is a shortage of information on the health risk from WBV in female workers. Because it is estimated that several thousand women are exposed to intense WBV in the workplace, the health effects of WBV on female reproductive organs and vertebral column should be carefully investigated. PMID:8899913

Bovenzi, M

1996-02-01

68

Whole body, regional fat accumulation, and appetite-related hormonal response after hypoxic training.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to determine change in regional fat accumulation and appetite-related hormonal response following hypoxic training. Twenty sedentary subjects underwent hypoxic (n = 9, HYPO, FiO(2) = 15%) or normoxic training (n = 11, NOR, FiO(2) = 20·9%) during a 4-week period (3 days per week). They performed a 4-week training at 55% of maximal oxygen uptake (V·O(2max)) for each condition. Before and after the training period, V·O(2max), whole body fat mass, abdominal fat area, intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), fasting and postprandial appetite-related hormonal responses were determined. Both groups showed a significant increase in V·O(2max) following training (P<0·05). Whole body and segmental fat mass, abdominal fat area, IMCL did not change in either group. Fasting glucose and insulin concentrations significantly reduced in both groups (P<0·05). Although area under the curve for the postprandial blood glucose concentrations significantly decreased in both groups (P<0·05), the change was significantly greater in the HYPO group than in the NOR group (P<0·05). Changes in postprandial plasma ghrelin were similar in both groups. A significant reduction of postprandial leptin response was observed in both groups (P<0·05), while postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations increased significantly in the NOR group only (P<0·05). In conclusion, hypoxic training for 4 weeks resulted in greater improvement in glucose tolerance without loss of whole body fat mass, abdominal fat area or IMCL. However, hypoxic training did not have synergistic effect on the regulation of appetite-related hormones. PMID:23879294

Morishima, Takuma; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige

2014-03-01

69

Evaluation of a six-week whole-body vibration intervention on neuromuscular performance in older adults.  

PubMed

Research in the field of whole-body vibration (WBV) for the enhancement of neuromuscular performance is becoming increasingly popular. However, additional understanding of optimal WBV training protocols is still necessary to develop optimal and effective training and prevention concepts, especially for elderly people. The intention of this study was to evaluate a 6-week WBV intervention program based on optimal vibration loads adapted from the literature on lower-limb strength parameters and performance, as well as on perceived exertion according to a subjective rating. A total of 21 older adults were allocated randomly into either a WBV training or control group (CO). Before and after the intervention period, jump height was measured during a countermovement jump. In addition, isolated isokinetic maximal knee extension and flexion strength, mean power, and work were recorded using a motor-driven dynamometer. Borg's scale for rating of perceived exertion was used to evaluate the intensity of WBV exercises within each training session. After the intervention period, jump height increased by 18.55% (p < 0.001) in the WBV group, whereas values of the CO remained unchanged. There were no statistically significant differences in isokinetic maximal strength, mean power, or work values in knee extension or flexion (all p > 0.05). Finally, the subjective perceived exertion of the WBV exercises and respective training parameters ranged between moderate rating levels of 7 and 13 of Borg's scale. Our data show that WBV is a feasible and safe training program for elderly people to increase multijoint strength performance of the lower limbs during a countermovement jump. This could help to determine the potential of WBV programs in training of the elderly to prevent age-related reduction of neuromuscular performance. PMID:25028997

Perchthaler, Dennis; Grau, Stefan; Hein, Tobias

2015-01-01

70

Low back pain and association with whole body vibration among military armoured vehicle drivers in Malaysia.  

PubMed

A cross sectional study was conducted among military armoured vehicle drivers in the two largest mechanized battalions with the objective to determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP), and its association with whole body vibration (WBV) and other associated factors. A self-administered questionnaire and Human Vibration Meter were used in this study. A total of 159 respondents participated in this study and 102 (64.2%) of them were subjected to WBV measurement. One-hundred-and-seventeen respondents complained of LBP for the past 12 months giving a prevalence of 73.6%. The prevalence of LBP among tracked armoured vehicle drivers was higher (81.7%) as compared to wheeled armoured vehicle drivers (67.0%). The mean acceleration at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles (1.09 +/- 0.26 ms(-2)) and wheeled armoured vehicles (0.33 +/- 0.07 ms) were the dominant vibration directions. The mean estimated vibration dose value (eVDV) for eight-hour daily exposure at Z-axis (19.86 +/- 4.72 ms(-1.75)) in tracked armoured vehicles showed the highest estimation. Based on the European Vibration Directive (2002), the mean eVDV at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles exceeded exposure action value (EAV) (> 9.1 ms(-1.75), but did not exceed exposure limit value (ELV) (<21.0 ms(-1.75)). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only driving in forward bending sitting posture (OR = 3.63, 95% CI 1.06-12.42) and WBV exposure at X-axis (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.02-3.69) were significant risk factors to LBP. Preventive measures should be implemented to minimize risk of WBV and to improve ergonomic postures among drivers. PMID:20527267

Rozali, A; Rampal, K G; Shamsul Bahri, M T; Sherina, M S; Shamsul Azhar, S; Khairuddin, H; Sulaiman, A

2009-09-01

71

Improvements in insulin sensitivity and whole-body fat oxidation after a period of high-intensity interval training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physically trained individuals exhibit high rates of whole-body fat oxidation and elevated insulin sensitivity. High-intensity interval training (HIT) has been suggested to induce similar metabolic adaptations in a more time efficient manner than traditional endurance training. To widen this claim the authors aimed to investigate whether 6 weeks of HIT improves whole-body fat oxidation and insulin sensitivity in young sedentary

S O Shepherd; M Cocks; K D Tipton; A J M Wagenmakers; C S Shaw

2010-01-01

72

Whole Body Vibration Exercises and the Improvement of the Flexibility in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV) exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF) of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS. PMID:25276434

Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Ronikeili-Costa, Pedro; Carvalho-Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bravo-Monteiro, Milena Oliveira; Costa, Rebeca; de Moraes-Silva, Janaina; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Mantilla-Giehl, Paula; Arnobio, Adriano; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

2014-01-01

73

Effect of whole body vibration on the postural control of the spine in sitting.  

PubMed

Stability is defined by the ability to return to the initial (or unperturbed) state following a perturbation and hence can be assessed by quantifying the post-perturbation response. This response may be divided into two phases: an initial passive response phase, dependent upon both the steady state of the system and the system's intrinsic mechanical properties; and a recovery phase, dependent upon active control and reflexes. These two phases overlap and interact with each other. Whole body vibration (WBV) is assumed to influence neuro-sensory functions and perhaps both response stages. The current study observed the effect of WBV on several novel response factors that quantify the two phases in response to an external perturbation. The results indicate a significant effect of vibration exposure on: (1) the normalized maximum distance traveled by center of pressure (COP) from the neutral seated posture, and (2) the normalized time to maximum distance (?), such that B and ? increased after WBV exposure and decreased after sitting without WBV. These changes may be indicative of passive visco-elastic changes caused by WBV exposure on the spinal tissues which has been indicated as a creep deformation of tissues post-exposure. This change may make the spine vulnerable to injury. Similar trends were noticed in the variables calculated from center of mass data. PMID:25544340

Arora, Neha; Graham, Ryan B; Grenier, Sylvain G

2015-04-01

74

Whole Body Vibration at Different Exposure Frequencies: Infrared Thermography and Physiological Effects  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3 ± 2.6 years) participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44?Hz) with 1?mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P ? 0.05). Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35?Hz. At 40 and 44?Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10?min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature. PMID:25664338

Sonza, Anelise; Robinson, Caroline C.; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton A.

2015-01-01

75

Acute Bone Marker Responses to Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Exercise in Young Women  

PubMed Central

Whole-body vibration (WBV) augments the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise (RE). However, its acute effects on bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been determined. This study examined BTM responses to acute high intensity RE and high intensity RE with WBV (WBV+RE) in young women (n=10) taking oral contraceptives in a randomized, cross-over repeated measures design. WBV+RE exposed subjects to 5 one-minute bouts of vibration (20 Hz, 3.38 peak–peak displacement, separated by 1 minute of rest) prior to RE. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Pre), immediately post WBV (PostVib), immediately post RE (IP), and 30 minutes post RE (P30). Bone ALP did not change at any time point. TRAP5b significantly (p<0.05) increased from the Pre to PostVib, then decreased from IP to P30 for both conditions. CTX significantly decreased (p<0.05) from Pre to PostVib and from Pre to P30 only for WBV+RE. WBV+RE showed a greater decrease in CTX than RE (-12.6 ± 4.7% vs. -1.13 ± 3.5%). In conclusion, WBV was associated with acute decreases in CTX levels not elicited with resistance exercise alone in young women. PMID:22902255

Sherk, Vanessa D.; Chrisman, Carmen; Smith, Jessica; Young, Kaelin C.; Singh, Harshvardhan; Bemben, Michael G.; Bemben, Debra A.

2014-01-01

76

Influence of Combined Whole-Body Vibration Plus G-Loading on Visual Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent engineering analyses of the integrated Ares-Orion stack show that vibration levels for Orion crews have the potential to be much higher than those experienced in Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle vehicles. Of particular concern to the Constellation Program (CxP) is the 12 Hz thrust oscillation (TO) that the Ares-I rocket develops during the final 20 seconds preceding first-stage separation, at maximum G-loading. While the structural-dynamic mitigations being considered can assure that vibration due to TO is reduced to below the CxP crew health limit, it remains to be determined how far below this limit vibration must be reduced to enable effective crew performance during launch. Moreover, this "performance" vibration limit will inform the operations concepts (and crew-system interface designs) for this critical phase of flight. While Gemini and Apollo studies provide preliminary guidance, the data supporting the historical limits were obtained using less advanced interface technologies and very different operations concepts. In this study, supported by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Human Research Program, we investigated display readability-a fundamental prerequisite for any interaction with electronic crew-vehicle interfaces-while observers were subjected to 12 Hz vibration superimposed on the 3.8 G loading expected for the TO period of ascent. Two age-matched groups of participants (16 general population and 13 Crew Office) performed a numerical display reading task while undergoing sustained 3.8 G loading and whole-body vibration at 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g in the eyeballs in/out (x-axis) direction. The time-constrained reading task used an Orion-like display with 10- and 14-pt non-proportional sans-serif fonts, and was designed to emulate the visual acquisition and processing essential for crew system monitoring. Compared to the no-vibration baseline, we found no significant effect of vibration at 0.15 and 0.3 g on task error rates (ER) or response times (RT). Significant degradations in both ER and RT, however, were observed at 0.5 and 0.7 g for 10-pt, and at 0.7 g for 14-pt font displays. These objective performance measures were mirrored by participants' subjective ratings. Interestingly, we found that the impact of vibration on ER increased with distance from the center of the display, but only for vertical displacements. Furthermore, no significant ER or RT aftereffects were detected immediately following vibration, regardless of amplitude. Lastly, given that our reading task required no specialized spaceflight expertise, our finding that effects were not statistically distinct between our two groups is not surprising. The results from this empirical study provide initial guidance for evaluating the display readability trade-space between text-font size and vibration amplitude. However, the outcome of this work should be considered preliminary in nature for a number of reasons: 1. The single 12 Hz x-axis vibration employed was based on earlier load-cycle models of the induced TO environment at the end of Ares-I first stage flight. Recent analyses of TO mitigation designs suggest that significant concurrent off-axis vibration may also occur. 2. The shirtsleeve environment in which we tested fails to capture the full kinematic and dynamic complexity of the physical interface between crewmember and the still-to-bematured helmet-suit-seat designs, and the impact these will have for vibration transmission and consequent performance. 3. By examining performance in this reading and number processing task, we are only assessing readability, a first and necessary step that in itself does not directly address the performance of more sophisticated operational tasks such as vehicle-health monitoring or manual control of the vehicle.

Adelstein, Bernard D.; Beutter, Brent Robert; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Stone, Leland S.; Anderson, Mark R.; Renema, Fritz; Paloski, William H.

2009-01-01

77

sEMG during Whole-Body Vibration Contains Motion Artifacts and Reflex Activity  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the excessive spikes observed in the surface electromyography (sEMG) spectrum recorded during whole-body vibration (WBV) exercises contain motion artifacts and/or reflex activity. The occurrence of motion artifacts was tested by electrical recordings of the patella. The involvement of reflex activity was investigated by analyzing the magnitude of the isolated spikes during changes in voluntary background muscle activity. Eighteen physically active volunteers performed static squats while the sEMG was measured of five lower limb muscles during vertical WBV using no load and an additional load of 33 kg. In order to record motion artifacts during WBV, a pair of electrodes was positioned on the patella with several layers of tape between skin and electrodes. Spectral analysis of the patella signal revealed recordings of motion artifacts as high peaks at the vibration frequency (fundamental) and marginal peaks at the multiple harmonics were observed. For the sEMG recordings, the root mean square of the spikes increased with increasing additional loads (p < 0.05), and was significantly correlated to the sEMG signal without the spikes of the respective muscle (r range: 0.54 - 0.92, p < 0.05). This finding indicates that reflex activity might be contained in the isolated spikes, as identical behavior has been found for stretch reflex responses evoked during direct vibration. In conclusion, the spikes visible in the sEMG spectrum during WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and possibly reflex activity. Key points The spikes observed in the sEMG spectrum during WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and possibly reflex activity The motion artifacts are more pronounced in the first spike than the following spikes in the sEMG spectrum Reflex activity during WBV exercises is enhanced with an additional load of approximately 50% of the body mass PMID:25729290

Lienhard, Karin; Cabasson, Aline; Meste, Olivier; Colson, Serge S.

2015-01-01

78

Loads on a spinal implant measured in vivo during whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

After spinal surgery, patients often want to know whether driving a car or using public transportation can be dangerous for their spine. In order to answer this question, a clinically proven vertebral body replacement (VBR) has been modified. Six load sensors and a telemetry unit were integrated into the inductively powered implant. The modified implant allows the measurement of six load components. Telemeterized devices were implanted in five patients; four of them agreed to exposure themselves to whole-body vibration. During the measurements, the patients sat on a driver seat fixed to a hexapod. They were exposed to random single-axis vibrations in X, Y, and Z directions as well as in multi-axis XYZ directions with frequencies between 0.3 and 30 Hz. Three intensity levels (unweighted root mean square values of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s(2)) were applied. Three postures were studied: sitting freely, using a vertical backrest, and a backrest declined by an angle of 25 degrees . The patients held their hands on their thighs. As expected, the maximum force on the VBR increased with increasing intensity and the number of axes. For the highest intensity level and multi-axis vibration, the maximum forces increased by 89% compared to sitting relaxed. Leaning at the backrest as well as lower intensity levels markedly decreased the implant loads. Driving a car or using public transportation systems-when the patient leans towards the backrest-leads to lower implant loads than walking, and can therefore be allowed already shortly after surgery. PMID:20186440

Rohlmann, Antonius; Hinz, Barbara; Blüthner, Ralph; Graichen, Friedmar; Bergmann, Georg

2010-07-01

79

Whole-body vibration decreases the proliferative response of TCD4+ cells in elderly individuals with knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding whole-body vibration (WBV; frequency = 35 to 40?Hz; amplitude = 4?mm) to squat training on the T-cell proliferative response of elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. This study was a randomized controlled trial in which the selected variables were assessed before and after 12 weeks of training. Twenty-six subjects (72 ± 5 years of age) were divided into three groups: 1) squat training with WBV (WBV, N = 8); 2) squat training without WBV (N = 10), and 3) a control group (N = 8). Women who were ?60 years of age and had been diagnosed with OA in at least one knee were eligible. The intervention consisted of 12 uninterrupted weeks of squatting exercise training performed 3 times/week. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from peripheral blood collected before and after training. The proliferation of TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester fluorescence decay before and after the intervention (?). The proliferative response of TCD4+ cells (P = 0.02, effect size = 1.0) showed a significant decrease (23%) in the WBV group compared to the control group, while there was no difference between groups regarding the proliferative response of TCD8+ cells (P = 0.12, effect size = 2.23). The data suggest that the addition of WBV to squat exercise training might modulate T-cell-mediated immunity, minimizing or slowing disease progression in elderly patients with OA of the knee. PMID:22948377

Tossige-Gomes, R.; Avelar, N.C.P.; Simão, A.P.; Neves, C.D.C.; Brito-Melo, G.E.A.; Coimbra, C.C.; Rocha-Vieira, E.; Lacerda, A.C.R.

2012-01-01

80

A MODAL ANALYSIS OF WHOLE-BODY VERTICAL VIBRATION, USING A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF THE HUMAN BODY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional model of human biomechanical responses to whole-body vibration has been developed, by using the finite element method. Beam, spring and mass elements were used to model the spine, viscera, head, pelvis and buttocks tissue in the mid-sagittal plane. The model was developed by comparison of the vibration mode shapes with those previously measured in the laboratory. At frequencies

S. Kitazaki; M. J. Griffin

1997-01-01

81

Impairment in Extinction of Contextual and Cued Fear Following Post-Training Whole-Body Irradiation  

PubMed Central

Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24?h later. Animals were given 2?weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2?weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2?weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall. PMID:25071488

Olsen, Reid H. J.; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

2014-01-01

82

Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued fear following post-training whole-body irradiation.  

PubMed

Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24?h later. Animals were given 2?weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2?weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2?weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall. PMID:25071488

Olsen, Reid H J; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

2014-01-01

83

Validity of self reported occupational exposures to hand transmitted and whole body vibration  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To assess the accuracy with which workers report their exposure to occupational sources of hand transmitted (HTV) and whole body vibration (WBV).?METHODS—179 Workers from various jobs involving exposure to HTV or WBV completed a self administered questionnaire about sources of occupational exposure to vibration in the past week. They were then observed at work over 1 hour, after which they completed a second questionnaire concerning their exposures during this observation period. The feasibility of reported sources of exposure during the past week was examined by questioning managers and by inspection of tools and machines in the workplace. The accuracy of reported sources and durations of exposure in the 1 hour period were assessed relative to what had been observed.?RESULTS—The feasibility of exposure in the previous week was confirmed for 97% of subjects who reported exposure to HTV, and for 93% of subjects who reported exposure to WBV. The individual sources of exposure reported were generally plausible, but occupational use of cars was substantially overreported, possibly because of confusion with their use in travel to and from work. The accuracy of exposures reported during the observation period was generally high, but some sources of HTV were confused—for example, nailing and stapling guns reported as riveting hammers, and hammer drills not distinguished from other sorts of drill. Workers overestimated their duration of exposure to HTV by a median factor of 2.5 (interquartile range (IQR) 1.6-5.9), but estimated durations of exposure were more accurate when the exposure was relatively continuous rather than for intermittent short periods. Reported durations of exposure to WBV were generally accurate (median ratio of reported to observed time 1.1, IQR 1.0-1.2).?CONCLUSIONS—Sources of recent occupational exposure to vibration seem to be reported with reasonable accuracy, but durations of exposure to HTV are systematically overestimated, particularly when the exposure is intermittent and for short periods. This raises the possibility that dose-response relations may have been biased in some of the studies on which exposure standards might be based, and that the levels in currently proposed standards may be too high. Future studies should pay attention to this source of error during data collection.???Keywords: vibration; exposure; assessment; validity PMID:10810109

Palmer, K.; Haward, B.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

84

Whole-body vibration in underground load-haul-dump vehicles.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibrations (WBV) were measured at the seatpan of load-haul-dump (LHD) vehicles of 3.5-, 5-, 6- and 8-yard capacity at two underground mines. Twenty-two sets of measurements were made involving 11 vehicles, 8 operators and 4 work locations. In each set frequency-weighted rms and peak accelerations were measured in the x, y and z directions, as defined by the ISO (1982), during mucking, driving full, dumping and driving empty. Significant differences in rms accelerations were found between vehicle sizes and between operational tasks (less than or equal to 0.05). The smallest (3.5 yd) vehicle produced the greatest accelerations in the x and z directions. Accelerations in the x and z directions were also greater when driving full and empty than when mucking and dumping. The highest frequency-weighted rms accelerations of 2.0 to 2.8 m/s-2 were recorded in the z (longitudinal) direction. Peak accelerations ranged from 1.2 to greater than or equal to 20 m/s2, resulting in crest-factor ratios in excess of six. The exposure periods for each task were used to calculate mean daily acceleration exposures (m/s2). Of the 22 sets of measurements, 20 exceeded the International Standards Organization (ISO) six-hour daily exposure limit in the z direction of acceleration, and 9 exceeded the six-hour daily exposure limits in all three directions. Acceleration exposure ratios calculated using resultant acceleration vectors as described in ISO (1982), were found to exceed the ISO exposure limit for health or safety in all 22 cases. One-third octave band frequency analysis of the weighted signals indicated that the dominant frequencies were usually 1.6 to 3.15 Hz, except when the vehicles were idling and higher frequencies predominated. PMID:2598904

Village, J; Morrison, J B; Leong, D K

1989-10-01

85

AUTHOR:SAILA TORVINEN, PEKKA KANNUS, HARRI SIEV NEN, TERO A. H. J RVINEN, MATTI PASANEN, SAIJA KONTULAINEN, TEPPO L. N. J RVINEN, MARKKU J RVINEN, PEKKA OJA, and ILKKA VUORI TITLE:Effect of four-month vertical whole body vibration on performance and balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This randomized controlled study was designed to investigate the effects of a 4-month whole body vibration-intervention on muscle performance and body balance in young, healthy, nonathletic adults. Methods: Fifty-six volunteers (21 men and 35 women, aged 19-38 yr) were randomized to either the vibration group or control group. The vibration-intervention consisted of a 4-month whole body vibration training (4

VIBRATION LOADING

86

Effects of experimental exposure to high-frequency whole-body vertical vibration on the nervous system of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

changes in the nervous system of dogs, rabbits, and cats exposed to the acute and chronic action of whole-body vertical vibration (50 Hz, 0.8 ram, 105 dB, 4 h) were studied. In the acute experiments extensive and universal circulatory disorders developed: regional angiospasms, cerebral edema, acute swelling of ganglionic cells, vasopareses, confluent diapedetic hemorrhages into the brain and viscera. These

A. S. Mel'kumova; V. V. Russkikh

1973-01-01

87

Effect of whole body vibrations on performance indexes of aerobic power and flexibility in non-athlete men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of one session whole body vibration (WBV) on anaerobic power and flexibility in non-athletic male students. The participants were 12 untrained healthy male students (age: 25.42 years; body mass: 72.99 kg; height: 175.92 cm and body fat percentage: 19.69%). On the day of assessment, the subjects carried out 10

Babak Davoodi; Sajad Arshadi; Shirin Zilaei Bouri

2010-01-01

88

Effects of whole body vibration on bone mineral density and falls: results of the randomized controlled ELVIS study with postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We determined whether the effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and falls can be enhanced by whole body vibration\\u000a (WBV). In summary, the multi-purpose exercise training was effective to increase lumbar BMD but added WBV did not enhance\\u000a this effect. However, falls were lowest in the exercise program combined with WBV.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  WBV is a new approach to reduce

S. von Stengel; W. Kemmler; K. Engelke; W. A. Kalender

2011-01-01

89

Wearable ballistocardiography: Preliminary methods for mapping surface vibration measurements to whole body forces.  

PubMed

The recent resurgence of ballistocardiogram (BCG) measurement and interpretation technologies has led to a wide range of powerful tools available for unobtrusively assessing mechanical aspects of cardiovascular health at home. Researchers have demonstrated a multitude of modern BCG measurement modalities, including beds, chairs, weighing scales, and wearable approaches. However, many modalities produce significant variations in the morphology of the measured BCG, creating confusion in the analysis and interpretation of the signals. This paper creates a framework for comparing wearable BCG measurements to whole body measurements - such as taken with a weighing scale system - to eventually allow the same analysis and interpretation tools that have been developed for whole body systems to be applied in the future to wearable systems. To the best of our knowledge, it represents the first attempt to morphologically compare vertical acceleration recordings measured on different locations on the torso to whole body displacements measured by BCG instrumentation. PMID:25571158

Wiens, Andrew; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Klein, Liviu; Roy, Shuvo; Inan, Omer T

2014-08-01

90

The impact of self-reported exposure to whole-body-vibrations on the risk of disability pension among men: a 15 year prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Whole-body-vibrations are often associated with adverse health effect but the long term effects are less known. This study investigates the association between occupational exposures to whole-body vibrations, and subsequent transition to disability pension. Methods A total of 4215 male employees were followed up for subsequent disability pension retirement. Exposure to whole-body-vibration was self-reported while new cases of disability pension were retrieved from a national register. Results The hazard ratio (HR) for disability pension retirement among men exposed to whole-body-vibrations was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.40) after adjustment for age, smoking habits, BMI, physical job demands and awkward work postures. In our model, with the available explanatory variables, 5.6% of the male disability pension cases were attributable to whole-body-vibrations. Conclusions Exposure to whole-body-vibrations predicts subsequent disability pension retirement. Continued reduction of whole-body-vibrations may reduce the number of new cases of disability pension. PMID:20525268

2010-01-01

91

[The effect of betahistine on histological changes in rabbit brain in model of whole body wide-frequency vibration].  

PubMed

In acute experiments in conscious rabbits was studied protective action of selective blocker of histamine H3-receptor betahistine (2mg/kg i/v) against histological changes in precentral and postcentral gyrus, as well as in temporal lobe of cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum, arising in case of modeling of whole body wide-frequency vibration. Betahistine attenuates edematous and degenerative changes in neurons and reciprocal glial reaction, caused by vibration, but does not eliminate edema in perivascular spaces. This effect may be related to the improvement of blood supply as a result of of vasodilatory action and decrease of oxygen consumption via vestibuloprotective effect. PMID:24003483

Shimkus, Iu Iu; Sapegin, I D

2013-01-01

92

Effect of whole-body vibration on neuromuscular performance and body composition for females 65 years and older: a randomized-controlled trial.  

PubMed

We examined whether the effect of multipurpose exercise can be enhanced by whole-body vibration (WBV). One hundred and fifty-one post-menopausal women (68.5 ± 3.1 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) a training group (TG); (2) training including vibration (VTG); and (3) a wellness control group (CG). TG and VTG performed the same training program twice weekly (60 min), consisting of aerobic and strength exercises, with the only difference that leg strength exercises (15 min) were performed with (VTG) or without (TG) vibration. CG performed a low-intensity "wellness" program. At baseline and after 18 months, body composition was determined using dual-X-ray-absorptiometry. Maximum isometric strength was determined for the legs and the trunk region. Leg power was measured by countermovement jumps using a force-measuring plate. In the TG lean body mass, total body fat, and abdominal fat were favorably affected, but no additive effects were generated by the vibration stimulus. However, concerning muscle strength and power, there was a tendency in favor of the VTG. Only vibration training resulted in a significant increase of leg and trunk flexion strength compared with CG. In summary, WBV embedded in a multipurpose exercise program showed minor additive effects on body composition and neuromuscular performance. PMID:20500555

von Stengel, S; Kemmler, W; Engelke, K; Kalender, W A

2012-02-01

93

Effects of traditional vs. alternating whole-body strength training on squat performance.  

PubMed

Traditional strength training with 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) uses 2- to 5-minute rest periods between sets. These long rest periods minimize decreases in volume and intensity but result in long workouts. Performing upper-body exercises during lower-body rest intervals may decrease workout duration but may affect workout performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of traditional vs. alternating whole-body strength training on squat performance. Twenty male (24 ± 2 years) volunteers performed 2 workouts. The traditional set (TS) workout consisted of 4 sets of squats (SQ) at 80% of 1RM on a force plate with 3-minute rest between sets. The alternating set (AS) workout also consisted of 4 sets of SQ at 80% of 1RM but with bench press, and bench pull exercises performed between squat sets 1, 2 and 3 with between-exercise rest of 50 seconds, resulting in approximately 3-minute rest between squat sets. Sets 1-3 were performed for 4 repetitions, whereas set 4 was performed to concentric failure. Total number of completed repetitions of the fourth squat set to failure was recorded. Peak ground reaction force (GRF), peak power (PP), and average power (AP) of every squat repetition were recorded and averaged for each set. There was no significant interaction for GRF, PP, or AP. However, volume-equated AP was greater during the TS condition (989 ± 183) than the AS condition (937 ± 176). During the fourth squat set, the TS condition resulted in more repetitions to failure (7.5 ± 2.2) than the AS condition (6.5 ± 2.2). Therefore, individuals who aim to optimize squat AP should refrain from performing more than 3 ASs per exercise. Likewise, those who aim to maximize squat repetitions to failure should refrain from performing upper-body multijoint exercises during squat rest intervals. PMID:24942175

Ciccone, Anthony B; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Galpin, Andrew J

2014-09-01

94

Low-magnitude high-frequency loading, by whole-body vibration, accelerates early implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis deteriorates jaw bone quality and may compromise early implant osseointegration and early implant loading. The influence of low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibration on peri-implant bone healing and implant integration in osteoporotic bones remains poorly understood. LMHF loading via whole-body vibration (WBV) for 8 weeks has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance bone-to-implant contact, peri-implant bone fraction and implant mechanical properties in osteoporotic rats. In the present study, LMHF loading by WBV was performed in osteoporotic rats, with a loading duration of 4 weeks during the early stages of bone healing. The results indicated that 4-week LMHF loading by WBV partly reversed the negative effects of osteoporosis and accelerated early peri-implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25270245

LIANG, YONG-QIANG; QI, MENG-CHUN; XU, JIANG; XU, JUAN; LIU, HUA-WEI; DONG, WEI; LI, JIN-YUAN; HU, MIN

2014-01-01

95

Low-magnitude high-frequency loading, by whole-body vibration, accelerates early implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis deteriorates jaw bone quality and may compromise early implant osseointegration and early implant loading. The influence of low?magnitude, high?frequency (LMHF) vibration on peri?implant bone healing and implant integration in osteoporotic bones remains poorly understood. LMHF loading via whole?body vibration (WBV) for 8 weeks has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance bone?to?implant contact, peri?implant bone fraction and implant mechanical properties in osteoporotic rats. In the present study, LMHF loading by WBV was performed in osteoporotic rats, with a loading duration of 4 weeks during the early stages of bone healing. The results indicated that 4?week LMHF loading by WBV partly reversed the negative effects of osteoporosis and accelerated early peri?implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25270245

Liang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Meng-Chun; Xu, Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Hua-Wei; Dong, Wei; Li, Jin-Yuan; Hu, Min

2014-12-01

96

The ISO standard: Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international guideline is discussed in terms of safety and human tolerance. Charts for equal subjective vibration intensity, subjective judgement of equal fatigue, and severe discomfort boundaries are included.

Vongierke, H. E.

1975-01-01

97

Effect of Whole Body Vibration Exercise in the Horizontal Direction on Balance and Fear of Falling in Elderly People: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration exercise in the horizontal direction on balance and fear of falling in the elderly. [Methods] This study was a case series of 17 elderly individuals. Participants performed whole body vibration exercise in the horizontal direction using a whole body vibration device for 15 minutes a day, 3 times a week, for 6 weeks. At baseline and after the 6-week intervention, balance was measured using the Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go test, and fear of falling was assessed using the Falls Efficacy Scale. [Results] After the intervention, significant improvements from baseline values in the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, and Falls Efficacy Scale were observed in the study participants. [Conclusion] Elderly individuals who performed whole body vibration exercise in the horizontal direction showed significant improvements in balance and fear of falling. However, the observed benefits of whole body vibration exercise in the horizontal direction need to be confirmed by additional studies. PMID:25140102

Shim, ChungSin; Lee, YunBok; Lee, DongGeon; Jeong, BeomHo; Kim, JinBeom; Choi, YoungWoo; Lee, GyuChang; Park, Dong-sik

2014-01-01

98

Myoelectric Response of Back Muscles to Vertical Random Whole-Body Vibration with Different Magnitudes at Different Postures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Back muscle forces contribute essentially to the whole-body vibration-induced spinal load. The electromyogram (EMG) can help to estimate these forces during whole-body vibration (WBV). Thirty-eight subjects were exposed to identical random low-frequency WBV (0·7, 1·0 and 1·4 m/s-2 r.m.s. weighted acceleration) at a relaxed, erect and bent forward postures. The acceleration of the seat and the force between the seat and the buttocks were measured. Six EMGs were derived from the right side of the m. trapezius pars descendens, m. ileocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, m. ileocostalis lumborum pars lumborum; m. longissimus thoracis pars thoracis, m. longissimus thoracis pars lumborum, and lumbar multifidus muscle. All data were filtered for anti-aliasing and sampled with 1000 Hz. Artefacts caused by the ECG in the EMG were identified and eliminated in the time domain using wavelets. The individually rectified and normalized EMGs were averaged across subjects. The EMGs without WBV exhibited characteristic patterns for the three postures examined. The coherence and transfer functions indicated characteristic myoelectric responses to random WBV with several effects of posture and WBV magnitude. A comprehensive set of transfer functions from the seat acceleration or the mean normalized input force to the mean processed EMG was presented.The results can be used for the development of more sophisticated models with a separate control of various back muscle groups. However, the EMG-force relationship under dynamic conditions needs to be examined in more detail before the results can be implemented. Since different reflex mechanisms depending on the frequency of WBV are linked with different types of active muscle fibres, various time delays between the EMG and muscle force may be necessary.

BLÜTHNER, R.; SEIDEL, H.; HINZ, B.

2002-05-01

99

Comparison of whole-body vibration exposures in buses: effects and interactions of bus and seat design.  

PubMed

Bus and seat design may be important for the drivers' whole-body vibration (WBV). WBV exposures in buses during actual operation were assessed. WBV attenuation performance between an air-suspension seat and a static pedestal seat in low-floor buses was compared; there were no differences in WBV attenuation between the seats. Air-suspension seat performance in a high-floor and low-floor bus was compared. Relative to the pedestal seat with its relatively static, limited travel seat suspension, the air-suspension seat with its dynamic, longer travel suspension provided little additional benefit. Relative to the measurement collected at the bus floor, the air-suspension seat amplified the WBV exposures in the high-floor bus. All WBV exposures were below European Union (EU) daily exposure action values. The EU Vibration Directive only allows the predominant axis of vibration exposure to be evaluated but a tri-axial vector sum exposure may be more representative of the actual health risks. PMID:25290555

Jonsson, Per M G; Rynell, Patrik W; Hagberg, Mats; Johnson, Peter W

2014-10-01

100

The Effect of Whole Body Horizontal Vibration in Position Sense and Dynamic Stability of the Spine  

E-print Network

Bbody Vibration...................... 5 1.2.2 Whole Bbody Vvibration and Mmuscle Ffatigue............................... 7 1.3 Low Bback Ppain and SsStability of Llumbar Sspine................................ 9 1.4 Proprioception- Aa Ccomponent... are disabled from working as a result of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), especially back pain, than from any other group of diseases [7]. Although complex social and economic forces may account for part of this increase, there is suggestive evidence...

Lamis, Farhana

2008-06-09

101

Psychophysical relationships characterizing human response to whole-body sinusoidal vertical vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation determined that the psychophysical relationships between subjective discomfort evaluations to vibratory stimuli and subjective evaluations of the intensity of vibratory stimuli can be expressed in a linear fashion. Furthermore, significant differences were found to exist between discomfort and intensity subjective response for several but not all discrete frequencies investigated. The implication of these results is that ride quality criteria based upon subjective evaluation of vibration intensity should be applied cautiously in the development of criteria for human comfort.

Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.

1976-01-01

102

Evidence for an additional effect of whole-body vibration above resistive exercise alone in preventing bone loss during prolonged bed rest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The addition of whole-body vibration to high-load resistive exercise may provide a better stimulus for the reduction of bone\\u000a loss during prolonged bed rest (spaceflight simulation) than high-load resistive exercise alone.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Prior work suggests that the addition of whole-body vibration to high-load resistive exercise (RVE) may be more effective\\u000a in preventing bone loss in spaceflight and its simulation (bed rest)

D. L. Belavý; G. Beller; G. Armbrecht; F. H. Perschel; R. Fitzner; O. Bock; H. Börst; C. Degner; U. Gast; D. Felsenberg

2011-01-01

103

Effects of winter military training on energy balance, whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and physical performance.  

PubMed

Physiological consequences of winter military operations are not well described. This study examined Norwegian soldiers (n = 21 males) participating in a physically demanding winter training program to evaluate whether short-term military training alters energy and whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and performance. Energy expenditure (D2(18)O) and intake were measured daily, and postabsorptive whole-body protein turnover ([(15)N]-glycine), muscle damage, soreness, and performance (vertical jump) were assessed at baseline, following a 4-day, military task training phase (MTT) and after a 3-day, 54-km ski march (SKI). Energy intake (kcal·day(-1)) increased (P < 0.01) from (mean ± SD (95% confidence interval)) 3098 ± 236 (2985, 3212) during MTT to 3461 ± 586 (3178, 3743) during SKI, while protein (g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) intake remained constant (MTT, 1.59 ± 0.33 (1.51, 1.66); and SKI, 1.71 ± 0.55 (1.58, 1.85)). Energy expenditure increased (P < 0.05) during SKI (6851 ± 562 (6580, 7122)) compared with MTT (5480 ± 389 (5293, 5668)) and exceeded energy intake. Protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown were all increased (P < 0.05) 24%, 18%, and 27%, respectively, during SKI compared with baseline and MTT. Whole-body protein balance was lower (P < 0.05) during SKI (-1.41 ± 1.11 (-1.98, -0.84) g·kg(-1)·10 h) than MTT and baseline. Muscle damage and soreness increased and performance decreased progressively (P < 0.05). The physiological consequences observed during short-term winter military training provide the basis for future studies to evaluate nutritional strategies that attenuate protein loss and sustain performance during severe energy deficits. PMID:25386980

Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Martini, Svein; Spitz, Marissa G; Thrane, Ingjerd; McGraw, Susan M; Blatny, Janet-Martha; Castellani, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Gundersen, Yngvar; Pasiakos, Stefan M

2014-12-01

104

The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training  

PubMed Central

Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and changes in CS activity is often assumed. However, this relationship and absolute values of CS and maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2max) has never been assessed across different studies. A systematic PubMed search on literature published from 1983 to 2013 was performed. The search profile included: citrate, synthase, human, skeletal, muscle, training, not electrical stimulation, not in-vitro, not rats. Studies that reported changes in CS activity and V.O2max were included. Different training types and subject populations were analyzed independently to assess correlation between relative changes in V.O2max and CS activity. 70 publications with 97 intervention groups were included. There was a positive (r = 0.45) correlation (P < 0.001) between the relative change in V.O2max and the relative change in CS activity. All reported absolute values of CS and V.O2max did not correlate (r =- 0.07, n = 148, P = 0.4). Training induced changes in whole body oxidative capacity is matched by changes in muscle CS activity in a nearly 1:1 relationship. Absolute values of CS across different studies cannot be compared unless a standardized analytical method is used by all laboratories. PMID:25057335

Vigelsø, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne B; Dela, Flemming

2014-01-01

105

Vehicle design influences whole body vibration exposures: effect of the location of the front axle relative to the cab.  

PubMed

Using a repeated measure design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures among 13 drivers who drove a truck with the cab over the front axle (cab-over design) and a truck with the cab situated behind the front axle (non-cab-over design). The drivers drove both trucks over a standardized route that comprised three distinct segments: a freeway segment, a city street segment with stop-and-go driving (traffic lights), and a city street segment without traffic lights. A portable WBV data acquisition system collected tri-axial time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 standards. Simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) data were also collected to compare vehicle speeds. The GPS data indicated that there were no speed differences between the two vehicles. However, average and impulsive z-axis vibration levels were significantly higher for the cab-over design than for the non-cab-over design. In addition, significant WBV exposure differences between road types were found, with the freeway segments having the lowest exposures and the city street segments without traffic lights having the highest exposures. Vehicle type and the associated WBV exposures should be considered when purchasing vehicles to be used by full-time professional vehicle operators. PMID:21623531

Blood, Ryan P; Rynell, Patrik W; Johnson, Peter W

2011-06-01

106

Effects of whole body vibration on the skeleton and other organ systems in man and animal models: What we know and what we need to know  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigations reported enhanced osseous parameters subsequent to administration of whole body vibration (WBV). While the efficacy of WBV continues to be explored, scientific inquiries should consider several key factors. Bone remodeling patterns differ according to age and hormonal status. Therefore, WBV protocols should be designed specifically for the subject population investigated. Further, administration of WBV to individuals at greatest

Rhonda D. Prisby; Marie-Hélène Lafage-Proust; Luc Malaval; Alain Belli; Laurence Vico

2008-01-01

107

An Updated Review of Epidemiologic Studies on the Relationship Between Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to update the information on the epidemiologic evidence of the adverse health effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spinal system by means of a review of the epidemiologic studies published between 1986 and 1996. In a systematic search of epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with exposure to WBV, 37 articles were retrieved. The quality of each study was evaluated according to criteria concerning the assessment of vibration exposure, assessment of health effects, and methodology. The epidemiologic studies reaching an adequate score on each of the above mentioned criteria, were included in the final review. A meta-analysis was also conducted in order to combine the results of independent epidemiologic studies. After applying the selection criteria, 16 articles reporting the occurrence of LBP disorders in 19 WBV-exposed occupational groups, reached a sufficient score. The study design was cross-sectional for 13 occupational groups, longitudinal for 5 groups and of case-control type for one group. The main reasons for the exclusion of studies were insufficient quantitative information on WBV exposure and the lack of control groups. The findings of the selected studies and the results of the meta-analysis of both cross-sectional and cohort studies showed that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of LBP, sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. Owing to the cross-sectional design of the majority of the reviewed studies, this epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to outline a clear exposure-response relationship between WBV exposure and LBP disorders. Upon comparing the epidemiological studies included in this review with those conducted before 1986, it is concluded that research design and the quality of exposure and health effect data in the field of WBV have improved in the last decade.

Bovenzi, M.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

1998-08-01

108

A summary of current Bureau research into the effects of whole-body vibration and shock on operators of underground mobile equipment  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses current research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) and shock on underground mobile equipment operators. The highlights of a comprehensive literature review of WBV, shock, and seating are presented. Factors discussed include health and physiological effects, comfort, performance, and fatigue. Vibration data were collected from shuttle cars and ramcars at several underground coal mines in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois. The data were formatted so that they could be used to drive the Bureau's motion platform, and to compare them with ANSI S3-1979, Guide for the Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration. Human subject testing in the Bureau's vibration research laboratory evaluated the effects of two different seat angles and of the presence or absence of vibration and of foam padding on heart rate, blood pressure, and subjective discomfort. Only vibration significantly increased heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressures. Vibration and a steel seat had a significant effect on subjective discomfort. The apparatus used for these tests and the experimental procedures are described in detail. Recommendations are made for additional research on the exposure of underground mining machine operators to WBV and shock.

Love, A.C.; Unger, R.L.; Bobick, T.G.; Fowkes, R.S.

1992-01-01

109

The effects of passive warm-up vs. whole-body vibration on high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of passive warm-up (PW), whole-body vibration (WBV), and control (C) on high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise. Six recreationally trained men performed a 30-second sprint cycle test after the 3 aforementioned conditions; each test was carried out on a different day after balanced-order experimental tests. The WBV consisted of 5 minutes of squats associated with WBV (45 Hz, 2 mm). The PW consisted of 30 minutes of PW using a thermal blanket on the thighs and legs (35 W). The C consisted of 30 minutes of no warm-up with the subject lying down. Motor neuron excitability from the vastus lateralis muscle, evaluated by electromyography (EMG), was determined before exercise at rest and during sprint cycle exercise. Blood lactate levels (BLs), evaluated by spectroscopy, and muscle temperature (MT) of the thigh, estimated indirectly by measuring skin temperature, were determined at following time points: before exercise at rest (before and after experimental conditions), immediately, and 3 minutes after the 30-second sprint cycle test. Peak power, relative power, relative work, time of peak power, and pedaling cadence were significantly higher in the WBV compared with that for C (p < 0.05). Although MT was significantly greater in PW compared with that in WBV and C before exercise (p < 0.01), no significant differences were observed between the experimental conditions for BL immediately after sprint cycle exercise (p = 0.35) and in EMG during sprint cycle exercise (p = 0.16). Thus, it is plausible to suggest WBV as a method for an acute increase in high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise for athletes immediately before competition or training. PMID:22293678

Avelar, Núbia C P; Costa, Sidney J; da Fonseca, Sueli F; Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Gripp, Fernando J; Coimbra, Cândido C; Lacerda, Ana C R

2012-11-01

110

Short-term exercise training does not improve whole-body heat loss when rate of metabolic heat production is considered  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of an 8-week exercise training program in previously sedentary individuals on whole-body heat balance\\u000a during exercise at a constant rate of metabolic heat production. Prior to and after 8 weeks of training, ten participants\\u000a performed 60-min of cycling exercise at a constant rate of heat production (~450 W) followed by 60-min of recovery, at 30°C\\u000a and 15%

Jill Stapleton; Daniel Gagnon; Glen P. Kenny

2010-01-01

111

Predicting the health risks related to whole-body vibration and shock: a comparison of alternative assessment methods for high-acceleration events in vehicles.  

PubMed

In this paper, alternative assessment methods for whole-body vibration and shocks are compared by means of 70 vibration samples measured from 13 work vehicles, deliberately selected to represent periods containing shocks. Five methodologies (ISO 2631-1:1997, BS 6841:1987, ISO 2631-5:2004, DIN SPEC 45697:2012 and one specified by Gunston [2011], 'G-method') were applied to the vibration samples. In order to compare different evaluation metrics, limiting exposures were determined by calculating times to reach the upper limit thresholds given in the methods. Over 10-fold shorter times to exposure thresholds were obtained for the tri-axial VDV (BS 6841) than for the dominant r.m.s. (ISO 2631-1) when exposures were of high magnitude or contained substantial shocks. Under these exposure conditions, the sixth power approaches (ISO 2631-5, DIN SPEC, G-method) are more stringent than a fourth power VDV method. The r.m.s. method may lead to misleading outcomes especially if a lengthy measurement includes a small number of severe impacts. In conclusion, methodologies produce different evaluations of the vibration severity depending on the exposure characteristics, and the correct method must be selected. Practitioner Summary: Health risks related to whole-body vibration and high acceleration events may be predicted by means of several different methods. This study compares five such methods giving emphasis on their applicability in the presence of shocks. The results showed significant discrepancies between the risk assessments, especially for the most extreme exposures. PMID:25312024

Rantaharju, Taneli; Mansfield, Neil J; Ala-Hiiro, Jussi M; Gunston, Thomas P

2014-10-14

112

Acute effects of whole-body vibration on jump force and jump rate of force development: a comparative study of different devices.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to compare the acute effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) delivered by 3 devices with different mechanical behavior on jump force (JF) and jump rate of force development (JRFD). Twelve healthy persons (4 women and 8 men; age 30.5 ± 8.8 years; height 178.6 ± 7.3 cm; body mass 74.8 ± 9.7 kg) were exposed to WBV for 15 and 40 seconds using 2 professional devices (power plate [PP; vertical vibration] and Galileo 2000 [GA; oscillatory motion around the horizontal axis in addition to vertical vibration]) and a home-use device [Power Maxx, PM; horizontal vibration]). The JF and JRFD were evaluated before, immediately after, and 5 minutes after WBV. The JF measured immediately after 40 seconds of vibration by the GA device was reduced (3%, p = 0.05), and JRFD measured after 5 minutes of rest after 40 seconds of vibration by the PM device was reduced (12%, p < 0.05) compared with the baseline value. The acute effects of WBV (15 or 40 seconds) on JF and JRFD were not significantly different among the 3 devices. In conclusion, our hypothesis that WBV devices with different mechanical behaviors would result in different acute effects on muscle performance was not confirmed. PMID:22126972

Bagheri, Javad; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J; Pel, Johan J; Horemans, Herwin L; Stam, Henk J

2012-03-01

113

Resistive exercises, with or without whole body vibration, prevent vertebral marrow fat accumulation during 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest in men.  

PubMed

Fat accumulates in the bone marrow of lumbar vertebrae with bed rest. Exercise with or without whole body vibration may counter this effect. Our objectives were to measure 1) the vertebral fat fraction (VFF) of men subjected to bed rest who performed resistive exercises with (RVE, n = 7) or without whole body vibration(RE, n = 8) or no exercise (CTR, n = 9) using three MRI techniques; and 2) changes in peripheral blood counts. Twenty-four healthy men (age: 20-45 yr) underwent -6° head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest for 60 days. MRI was performed using three techniques (fat saturation, proton spectroscopy, and in and out of phase) to measure the fat fraction of L(3), L(4), and/or L(5) at baseline, mid-HDT, and end-HDT. Erythrocytes and leukocytes were counted at HDT days 19, 33, 47, 54, and 60. The mean absolute VFF was increased in the CTR group at mid-HDT and end-HDT (+3.9 ± 1.3 and +3.6 ± 1.2%, respectively, both P < 0.05). The RE group had a smaller VFF change than the CTR group at mid-HDT (-0.9 ± 1.2 vs. +3.9 ± 1.3%, P < 0.05). The RVE group had a smaller VFF change than the CTR group at end-HDT (-2.6 ± 1.9 vs. +3.5 ± 1.2%, P < 0.05). Erythrocyte counts were increased in all groups at HDT day 19 and HDT day 33 and in the RE group at HDT day 54 (all P < 0.05). Bed rest for 60 days at -6° HDT increased lumbar VFF in men beyond natural involution. RVE and RE regimens effectively prevented VFF accumulation. Higher erythrocyte counts were not altered by RVE or RE. Whole body vibration, along with RE administered to people with prolonged immobility, may prevent fat accumulation in their bone marrow. PMID:22442031

Trudel, Guy; Coletta, Elizabeth; Cameron, Ian; Belavy, Daniel L; Lecompte, Martin; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Felsenberg, Dieter; Uhthoff, Hans K

2012-06-01

114

Whole Body Vibration Exercise Protocol versus a Standard Exercise Protocol after ACL Reconstruction: A Clinical Randomized Controlled Trial with Short Term Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

The suitability and effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise in rehabilitation after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was studied using a specially designed WBV protocol. We wanted to test the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol. In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, forty patients who tore their ACL and underwent subsequent ligament reconstruction were enrolled. Patients were randomized to the whole body vibration (n=20) or standard rehabilitation exercise protocol (n=20). Both protocols started in the 2nd week after surgery. Isometric and isokinetic strength measurements, clinical assessment, Lysholm score, neuromuscular performance were conducted weeks 2, 5, 8 and 11 after surgery. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. The WBV group displayed significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, preliminary data indicate that our whole body vibration muscle exercise protocol seems to be a good alternative to a standard exercise program in ACL-rehabilitation. Despite of its significant reduced time requirement it is at least equally effective compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. Key points In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol in forty patients who underwent ACL reconstruction. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group as compared to the standard exercise group. Both protocols showed no differences regarding clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. Despite a more than 50% reduction in time spent for exercise sessions, the WBV group achieved significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, the presented WBV program can be considered as a practical alternative to a standard exercise program during ACL-rehabilitation. PMID:25177185

Berschin, Gereon; Sommer, Björn; Behrens, Antje; Sommer, Hans-Martin

2014-01-01

115

Seven Day Insertion Rest in Whole Body Vibration Improves Multi-Level Bone Quality in Tail Suspension Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration with rest days on bone quality at multiple levels. Methods Forty-nine three-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups, namely, vibrational loading for X day followed by X day rest (VLXR, X?=?1, 3, 5, 7), vibrational loading every day (VLNR), tail suspension (SPD), and baseline control (BCL). One week after tail suspension, rats were loaded by vibrational loading (35 Hz, 0.25 g, 15 min/day) except SPD and BCL. Fluorescence markers were used in all rats. Eight weeks later, femora were harvested to investigate macromechanical properties, and micro-computed tomography scanning and fluorescence test were used to evaluate microarchitecture and bone growth rate. Atomic force microscopy analyses and nanoindentation test were used to analyze the nanostructure and mechanical properties of bone material, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy was used for quantitative chemical analyses. Results Microarchitecture, mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate and macromechanical properties were improved in VL7R. Grain size and roughness were significantly different among all groups. No statistical difference was found for the mechanical properties of the bone material, and the chemical composition of all groups was almost similar. Conclusions Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration with rest days altered bone microarchitecture and macro-biomechanical properties, and VL7R was more efficacious in improving bone loss caused by mechanical disuse, which provided theoretical basis and explored the mechanisms of vibration for improving bone quality in clinics. PMID:24637608

Zhang, Rui; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Gao, Jiazi; Fang, Juan; Fan, Yubo

2014-01-01

116

Whole-body vibration can reduce calciuria induced by high protein intakes and may counteract bone resorption: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess protein intake can adversely affect the bone via an increase in calcium excretion, while suitable mechanical loading promotes osteogenesis. We therefore investigated whether vibration exposure could alleviate the bone mineral losses associated with a metabolic acidosis. Ten healthy individuals aged 22 – 29 years (median = 25) underwent three 5-day study periods while monitoring their dietary intake. The study consisted of recording the

M. Cardinale; J. Leiper; P. Farajian; M. Heer

2007-01-01

117

Whole body scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body scanning is a useful technique with applications in the apparel industry, human systems engineering and medical field. A worldwide review of whole body scanners describes eight commercially available systems. The scanners differ considerably in price (US$50?000–410?000), resolution (1–8mm) and speed (0.2–3s). Most scanners use laser stripe projection; other techniques are patterned light projection and stereo photogrammetry. To cover

Hein A. M. Daanen; G. Jeroen van de Water

1998-01-01

118

Whole-body vibration experienced by haulage truck operators in surface mining operations: a comparison of various analysis methods utilized in the prediction of health risks.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) was measured on eight surface haulage trucks in three size classes (35, 100, 150ton haul capacities). Vibration was measured at the seat/operator interface in accordance with the ISO 2631-1 standard during 1h of normal operation. Highest acceleration readings were observed in the z-axis (vertical). Estimated equivalent daily exposure values in the range of 0.44-0.82 ms(-2) were observed using the frequency-weighted r.m.s method and 8.7-16.4ms(-1.75) using the vibration dose value method. Assessment was carried out using ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. Operators of surface haulage trucks are regularly exposed to WBV levels that exceed safety limits as dictated by the ISO 2631-1 standard. However, according to ISO 2631-5 the probability of an adverse health effect remains low. These findings confirm an apparent disagreement between the two analysis methods. PMID:20185120

Smets, Martin P H; Eger, Tammy R; Grenier, Sylvain G

2010-10-01

119

City bus driving and low back pain: a study of the exposures to posture demands, manual materials handling and whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate worker exposure to posture demands, manual materials handling (MMH) and whole body vibration as risks for low back pain (LBP). Using validated questionnaire, information about driving experience, driving (sitting) posture MMH, and health history was obtained from 80 city bus drivers. Twelve drivers were observed during their service route driving (at least one complete round trip) and vibration measurements were obtained at the seat and according to the recommendations of ISO 2631 (1997), for three models of bus (a mini-bus, a single-decker bus, a double-decker bus). The results showed that city bus drivers spend about 60% of the daily work time actually driving, often with the torso straight or unsupported, perform occasional and light MMH, and experience discomforting shock/jerking vibration events. Transient and mild LBP (not likely to interfere with work or customary levels of activity) was found to be prevalent among the drivers and a need for ergonomic evaluation of the drivers' seat was suggested. PMID:17225292

Okunribido, Olanrewaju O; Shimbles, Steven J; Magnusson, Marianne; Pope, Malcolm

2007-01-01

120

A new framework for evaluating potential risk of back disorders due to whole body vibration and repeated mechanical shock.  

PubMed

A number of studies have examined the potential relationship between exposure to occupational vibration and low back pain associated with operation of vehicles. Only a handful of studies, however, have attempted to differentiate between the relative contributions of the steady state and transient mechanical shock components (the latter also being known as 'jarring and jolting', 'high acceleration event', 'multiple shocks' and 'impact') of the vibration exposure. The primary objective of this paper is to present a review of current studies that examine mechanical shock, present a case for the importance of evaluating both steady state and mechanical shock components and propose a new framework for evaluating the health effects due to occupational vibration exposure. A computerized bibliographical search of several databases was performed with special reference to the health effects of mechanical shock in relation to lower back disorders. Based on the analysis, eight experimental studies and nine epidemiological studies with relevance to exposure to 'mechanical shock' were identified. These studies suggested that rough vehicle rides are prevalent and that repeated exposure to mechanical shock may increase the risk of lower back pain. There is an urgent need for assessing the health effects of mechanical shocks in epidemiological studies. In particular, the new ISO 2631-5: International Organization for Standardization 2004 standard for shock exposure assessment should be evaluated with regard to musculoskeletal health effects. PMID:17536775

Waters, Thomas; Rauche, Christin; Genaidy, Ash; Rashed, Tarek

2007-03-01

121

Ride quality and international standard ISO 2631 (Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of the standard, which is aimed at promoting research and production of more data, and providing some design guidance, is outlined and its contents summarized. Some of the assumptions and information on which it is based are analyzed. Its application to vehicle ride quality is considered in the context of the safety, efficiency and comfort of crew and passengers. The importance of establishing the precise criteria against which vibration limits are required is underlined, particularly the difficulties of first defining comfort and then postulating appropriate levels. Some current and future work related to improving the standard is outlined and additional suggestions offered.

Allen, G. R.

1975-01-01

122

Movement of the Upper-Body of Seated Subjects Exposed to Vertical Whole-Body Vibration at the Principal Resonance Frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic responses of eight male subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration have been measured at eight locations of the body in three directions within the sagittal plane: in the vertical, fore-and-aft and pitch axes. The motions were measured on the body surface at the first, fifth and tenth thoracic vertebra (T1, T5, T10), at the first, third and fifth lumbar vertebra (L1, L3, L5) and at the pelvis (the posterior-superior iliac spine), and were corrected so as to estimate the motions of the skeleton. The head motion was measured with a bite bar. The force at the seat surface was also measured. The subjects were exposed to vertical random vibration in the frequency range from 0·5-20 Hz at a magnitude of 1·0 ms-2r.m.s. The movement of the upper-body at the principal resonance frequency of the driving-point apparent mass is illustrated by using the transmissibilities from seat vertical vibration to vertical and fore-and-aft vibration at the eight locations on the body. A bending of the lumbar spine, and probably the lowest thoracic spine, possibly coupled with a rocking motion of the upper thoracic spine about the lower thoracic spine, appeared to be dominant. A small bending along the full length of thoracic spine was also found. Pitch motion of the pelvis, possibly accompanied by longitudinal and shear deformations of the tissue underneath the pelvis, was found to occur near the resonance frequency range, but did not appear to make a principal contribution to the resonance observed in the apparent mass. Any significant axial motions along the spine occurred at higher frequencies.

Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

1998-08-01

123

Mathematical equations and system identification models for a portable pneumatic bladder system designed to reduce human exposure to whole body shock and vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical representation is sought to model the behavior of a portable pneumatic foam bladder designed to mitigate the effects of human exposure to shock and whole body random vibration. Fluid Dynamics principles are used to derive the analytic differential equations used for the physical equations Model. Additionally, combination of Wiener and Hammerstein block oriented representation techniques have been selected to create system identification (SID) block oriented models. A number of algorithms have been iterated to obtain numerical solutions for the system of equations which was found to be coupled and non-linear, with no analytic closed form solution. The purpose is to be able to predict the response of such system due to random vibrations and shock within reasonable margin of error. The constructed models were found to be accurate within accepted confidence level. Beside the analytic set of physical equations model representation, a linear SID model was selected to take advantage of the available vast amount of mathematical tools available to further analyze and redesign the bladder as a dynamic system. Measured field-test and lab test data have been collected from several helicopter and land terrain vehicle experiments. Numerous excitation and response acceleration measurement records were collected and used to prove the agreement with predictions. The estimation of two selected models were later applied to standard metrics in the frequency domain realization and compared with measurement responses. The collected test records are obtained from measured data at the US Army fields and facilities and at UNLV-CMEST environmental lab. The emerged models have been validated for conformity with actual accelerometer measurement responses and found within accepted error tolerance that is in both time and frequency domains. Further, standard metrics have been used to further confirm the confidence in the validation results. When comparing model prediction with the already proven pneumatic bladder system effectiveness both equally proves that bladder performance exceeds metrics standard to reduce human exposure to shock and random vibrations.

Aziz Ayyad, Ezzat

124

Whole-Body Electromyostimulation to Fight Osteopenia in Elderly Females: The Randomized Controlled Training and Electrostimulation Trial (TEST-III)  

PubMed Central

Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) has been shown to be effective in increasing muscle strength and mass in elderly women. Because of the interaction of muscles and bones, these adaptions might be related to changes in bone parameters. 76 community-living osteopenic women 70 years and older were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n = 38) or a control group (CG: n = 38). The WB-EMS group performed 3 sessions every 14 days for one year while the CG performed gymnastics containing identical exercises without EMS. Primary study endpoints were bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (thip) as assessed by DXA. After 54 weeks of intervention, borderline nonsignificant intergroup differences were determined for LS-BMD (WB-EMS: 0.6 ± 2.5% versus CG ?0.7 ± 2.5%, P = .051) but not for thip-BMD (WB-EMS: ?1.1 ± 1.9% versus CG: ?0.8 ± 2.3%, P = .771). With respect to secondary endpoints, there was a gain in lean body mass (LBM) of 1.5% (P = .006) and an increase in grip strength of 8.4% (P = .000) in the WB-EMS group compared to CG. WB-EMS effects on bone are less pronounced than previously reported effects on muscle mass. However, for subjects unable or unwilling to perform intense exercise programs, WB-EMS may be an option for maintaining BMD at the LS. PMID:25785225

von Stengel, Simon; Bebenek, Michael

2015-01-01

125

Effects of an eight-week whole body vibration on lower extremity muscle tone and function in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an eight-week whole body vibration (WBV) on lower extremity spasticity and ambulatory function in children with cerebral palsy with a complete crossover design. Sixteen participants aged 9.2 (2.1) years participated in this study. Half of the participants received a 10-min WBV, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Then a 4-week washout period followed, after which they received a sham WBV 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The other half received the intervention in a reversed order. The participants were evaluated via variables measuring range-of-motion, muscle tone, and ambulatory function before, immediately after, 1 day after, and 3 days after each intervention. Repeated-measures analyses revealed significant beneficial effects on most variables expect the passive range-of-motion measurement. Significant correlations were found between timed up-and-go and relaxation index, and between timed up-and-go and six-minute walk test. The results suggested that an 8-week WBV intervention normalized muscle tone, improved active joint range and enhanced ambulatory performance in children with cerebral palsy for at least 3 days. These indicated that regular WBV can serve as an alternative, safe, and efficient treatment for these children in both clinical and home settings. PMID:25575288

Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Yu, Yu-Chun; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Ju, Yan-Ying

2015-03-01

126

Whole body vibration exercise improves body balance and walking velocity in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate: Galileo and Alendronate Intervention Trail (GAIT).  

PubMed

A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. Fifty-two ambulatory postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age: 74.2 years, range: 51-91 years) were randomly divided into two groups: an exercise group and a control group. A four-minute WBV exercise was performed two days per week only in the exercise group. No exercise was performed in the control group. All the women were treated with alendronate. After 6 months of the WBV exercise, the indices for flexibility, body balance, and walking velocity were significantly improved in the exercise group compared with the control group. The exercise was safe and well tolerated. The reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen during the 6-month period were comparable between the two groups. The present study showed the benefit and safety of WBV exercise for improving physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. PMID:22947545

Iwamoto, J; Sato, Y; Takeda, T; Matsumoto, H

2012-09-01

127

Effect of whole-body vibration and insulin-like growth factor-I on muscle paralysis-induced bone degeneration after botulinum toxin injection in mice.  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin A (BTX)-induced muscle paralysis results in pronounced bone degradation with substantial bone loss. We hypothesized that whole-body vibration (WBV) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) treatment can counteract paralysis-induced bone degradation following BTX injections by activation of the protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. Female C57BL/6 mice (n = 60, 16 weeks) were assigned into six groups (n = 10 each): SHAM, BTX, BTX+WBV, BTX+IGF-I, BTX+WBV+IGF-I, and a baseline group, which was killed at the beginning of the study. Mice received a BTX (1.0 U/0.1 mL) or saline (SHAM) injection in the right hind limb. The BTX+IGF-I and BTX+WBV+IGF-I groups obtained daily subcutaneous injections of human IGF-I (1 ?g/day). The BTX+WBV and BTX+WBV+IGF-I groups underwent WBV (25 Hz, 2.1 g, 0.83 mm) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Femora were scanned by pQCT, and mechanical properties were determined. On tibial sections TRAP staining, static histomorphometry, and immunohistochemical staining against Akt, phospho-Akt, IGF-IR (IGF-I receptor), and phospho-IGF-IR were conducted. BTX injection decreased trabecular and cortical bone mineral density. The WBV and WBV+IGF-I groups showed no difference in trabecular bone mineral density compared to the SHAM group. The phospho-IGF-IR and phospho-Akt stainings were not differentially altered in the injected hind limbs between groups. We found that high-frequency, low-magnitude WBV can counteract paralysis-induced bone loss following BTX injections, while we could not detect any effect of treatment with IGF-I. PMID:24292598

Niehoff, Anja; Lechner, Philipp; Ratiu, Oana; Reuter, Sven; Hamann, Nina; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Schönau, Eckhard; Bloch, Wilhelm; Beccard, Ralf

2014-04-01

128

Vibration or balance training on neuromuscular performance in osteopenic women.  

PubMed

Maintaining neuromuscular function in older age is an important topic for aging societies, especially for older women with low bone density who may be at risk of falls and bone fracture. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of resistive exercise with either whole-body vibration training (VIB) or coordination/balance training (BAL) on neuromuscular function (countermovement jump, multiple 1-leg hopping, sit-to-stand test). 68 postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis were recruited for the study. 57 subjects completed the 9-month, twice weekly, intervention period. All subjects conducted 30?min of resistance exercise each training day. The VIB-group performed additional training on the Galileo vibration exercise device. The BAL-group performed balance training. An "intent-to-treat" analysis showed greater improvement in the VIB-group for peak countermovement power (p=0.004). The mean [95% confidence interval] effect size for this parameter was a ?+?0.9[0.3 to 1.5] W/kg greater change in VIB than BAL after 9 months. In multiple 1-leg hopping, a significantly better performance in the VIB-group after the intervention period was seen on a "per-protocol" analysis only. Both groups improved in the sit-to-stand test. The current study provides evidence that short-duration whole-body vibration exercise can have a greater impact on some aspects of neuromuscular function in post-menopausal women with low bone density than proprioceptive training. PMID:23549694

Stolzenberg, N; Belavý, D L; Rawer, R; Felsenberg, D

2013-11-01

129

Modelling the effects of exposure to whole-body vibration on low-back pain and its long-term consequences for sickness absence and associated work disability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BackgroundExposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known risk factor for the occurrence of low-back pain (LBP). Little is known about the long-term course of back pain in workers exposed to WBV and the consequences for (temporary) disability, due to lack of cohort studies with sufficiently long follow-up periods. MethodsA systematic review of the literature was performed to assess associations between exposure to WBV and LBP, sickness absence due to low-back disorders and permanent disability. A meta-analysis was used to estimate the prevalences of LBP and sickness absence due to low-back disorders in occupational populations, depending on relevant exposure characteristics. These prevalences were converted into probabilities for transitions between no complaints, LBP, sickness due to LBP, and disability. A Markov model was applied to evaluate a hypothetical cohort of workers without LBP at the start of the cohort and a follow-up of 40 years (40 cycles of 1 year) to reflect a long-life career with continuous exposure to WBV. ResultsIn this hypothetical cohort it was estimated that among workers with the highest exposure to WBV on average about 47 weeks of their working life were lost due to sick leave because of LBP, which is approximately 2.5% of their working life. When all workers on prolonged sick leave for 52 weeks would remain disabled for the rest of their working life, a maximum of 23.4% of their working life could be lost due to high WBV exposure. Among workers without or low exposure to WBV the corresponding losses were 0.8% and 7.8%, respectively. ConclusionThe approach to assess years of work lost due to an occupational exposure may provide a more adequate description for stakeholders than the traditional measures of relative risk or attributable risk fraction. The concept of work years lost may also facilitate a better appreciation of the potential benefits of preventive measures.

Burdorf, A.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

2006-12-01

130

Whole Body Lexical Decision  

PubMed Central

When a person standing upright raises an arm on cue, muscles of the left and right sides of the body exhibit changes prior to and specific to the responding arm. We had standing participants perform a visual lexical decision task (“is this letter string a word?”), responding yes by raising one arm and no by raising the other arm. We recorded onset of the arm movement and onset of electromyographic activity in thigh, trunk, and shoulder muscles. We observed the expected responding arm specificity and found that the onset difference favoring word decisions was evident in similar magnitude at all measurement sites, with the difference at the levels of thigh, trunk and shoulder muscles available 225, 189, and 120 ms, respectively, prior to its manifestation at the level of arm movement. We discuss including (a) whole body reaction time along with event-related potentials in determining the decision-response, brain-body temporal relation, and (b) response execution along with response initiation in investigating mental chronometry. PMID:21184808

Moreno, Miguel A.; Stepp, Nigel; Turvey, M. T.

2013-01-01

131

Impact of whole-body electromyostimulation on body composition in elderly women at risk for sarcopenia: the Training and ElectroStimulation Trial (TEST-III).  

PubMed

Most studies have confirmed the positive impact of resistance training on muscle mass and functional capacity in aging adults. However, due to physical limitation or a simple aversion against regular exercise, the majority of elderly subjects do not reach the exercise doses recommended for impacting strength or muscle mass. This led us to evaluate the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS), a novel, time-efficient and smooth training technology, on body composition with special regard to sarcopenia. Seventy-six lean, non-sportive women (75 ± 4 years) were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (WB-EMS, n = 38) that performed 18 min of WB-EMS (bipolar, 85 Hz) 3 sessions in 14 days (1.5 sessions/week) or a semi-active control group (aCG, n = 38). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum strength was evaluated using isometric techniques for trunk and legs. After 54 weeks of intervention, significant inter-group differences were determined for appendicular skeletal muscle mass (WB-EMS, 0.4 ± 2.2 % vs. aCG, -1.5 ± 3.1 %; p = 0.009), lean body mass (WB-EMS, 0.8 ± 1.8 % vs. aCG, -0.8 ± 2.7 %; p = 0.008) and maximum isometric strength (leg extensors, 9.8 ± 12.9 % vs. 0.2 ± 10.4 %; p = 0.003; trunk extensors, 10.1 ± 12.7 vs. -1.6 ± 8.6 %; p = 0.001). Although borderline significant for abdominal fat mass (WB-EMS, -2.9 ± 8.3 vs. aCG, 1.5 ± 10.7 %; p = 0.069), differences did not reach statistically significant levels for body fat parameters. Considering the clinical effectiveness for impacting sarcopenia and the good acceptance of this technology by this non-sportive cohort of elderly women, we conclude that for elderly subjects unable or unwilling to perform dynamic strength exercises, electromyostimulation may be a less off-putting alternative to maintain lean body mass and strength. PMID:23949160

Kemmler, Wolfgang; Bebenek, Michael; Engelke, Klaus; von Stengel, Simon

2014-02-01

132

Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular

Christophe Hausswirth; Julien Louis; François Bieuzen; Hervé Pournot; Jean Fournier; Jean-Robert Filliard; Jeanick Brisswalter

2011-01-01

133

Hanford whole body counting manual  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

1990-06-01

134

a Comparison of Evaluations and Assessments Obtained Using Alternative Standards for Predicting the Hazards of Whole-Body Vibration and Repeated Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are three current standards that might be used to assess the vibration and shock transmitted by a vehicle seat with respect to possible effects on human health: ISO 2631/1 (1985), BS 6841 (1987) and ISO 2631-1 (1997). Evaluations have been performed on the seat accelerations measured in nine different transport environments (bus, car, mobile crane, fork-lift truck, tank, ambulance, power boat, inflatable boat, mountain bike) in conditions that might be considered severe. For each environment, limiting daily exposure durations were estimated by comparing the frequency weighted root mean square (i.e., r.m.s.) accelerations and the vibration dose values (i.e.,VDV), calculated according to each standard with the relevant exposure limits, action level and health guidance caution zones. Very different estimates of the limiting daily exposure duration can be obtained using the methods described in the three standards. Differences were observed due to variations in the shapes of the frequency weightings, the phase responses of the frequency weighting filters, the method of combining multi-axis vibration, the averaging method, and the assessment method. With the evaluated motions, differences in the shapes of the weighting filters results in up to about 31% difference in r.m.s. acceleration between the “old” and the “new” ISO standard and up to about 14% difference between BS 6841 and the “new” ISO 2631. There were correspondingly greater differences in the estimates of safe daily exposure durations. With three of the more severe motions there was a difference of more than 250% between estimated safe daily exposure durations based on r.m.s. acceleration and those based on fourth power vibration dose values. The vibration dose values provided the more cautious assessments of the limiting daily exposure duration.

Lewis, C. H.; Griffin, M. J.

1998-08-01

135

Whole Body MR Angiography Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of side effects, diagnostic accuracy and recent improvements in technology qualify magnetic resonance imaging for preventive cardiovascular imaging. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of a comprehensive contrast-enhanced three-dimensional whole-body MR (magnetic resonance) angiography examination technique using a rolling table platform system with a 1.5-T MR system. The examination yielded diagnostic image quality in 5312

Stefan G. Ruehm; Susanne C. Goehde; Mathias Goyen

2004-01-01

136

Effect of balance exercise in combination with whole-body vibration on muscle activity of the stepping limb during a forward fall in older women: A randomized controlled pilot study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of balance exercise combined with whole-body vibration (WBV) on step performance and lower limb muscle activity during simulated forward falls using the tether-release method in older women. Twenty older women were assigned to either a WBV plus balance exercise group (WBV, n=10) or a balance exercise without vibration group (standard balance exercise group [STE], n=10). WBV performed weight-bearing exercises on a WBV platform combined with other balance exercises as a home program, whereas STE performed the same exercises without WBV. The exercise volume was equal in both intervention groups (3×/week for 12 weeks×30min/session). The EMG and kinematic data of the stepping leg from the balance recovery step were examined before and after the intervention. While both groups extended step length during forward falls after the intervention, only WBV increased step velocity. EMG analysis of the balance recovery step showed that both groups increased peak EMG of knee flexor and extensor muscles after intervention. After intervention, WBV increased peak EMG of the plantar flexors, which are used to exert the push-off forces just before the leg swing. Balance exercise in older women resulted in significant improvements in the balance recovery step after a simulated forward fall. WBV also had the additional benefit of improved step velocity, which was reflected in increased activity of the plantar flexors in the stepping leg. PMID:25482957

Ochi, Akira; Abe, Tomokazu; Yamada, Kazumasa; Ibuki, Satoko; Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Ichihashi, Noriaki

2015-01-01

137

Whole Body Scanning in Medicine  

PubMed Central

Fundamental physical aspects of scanning the human body to determine in vivo radioisotope distribution are discussed, with special reference to the importance of collimator design and data display system. The pertinent details of a sensitive whole body scanner which has proved useful in clinical practice are described. The main features contributing to its versatility are: (1) fully automatic operation, (2) use of a 5? diameter detector crystal with a focusing collimator, (3) provision to scale the scintiscan presentation to a convenient size, and (4) photographic recording of the scan. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4 PMID:13864158

Baker, R. G.; Rotenberg, A. D.; Cederlund, J. F.; Johns, H. E.

1962-01-01

138

Systematically Controlling for the Influence of Age, Sex, Hertz and Time Post-Whole-Body Vibration Exposure on Four Measures of Physical Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Cross-Over Study  

PubMed Central

Though popular, there is little agreement on what whole-body vibration (WBV) parameters will optimize performance. This study aimed to clarify the effects of age, sex, hertz and time on four physical function indicators in community-dwelling older adults (N = 32). Participants were exposed to 2?min WBV per session at either 2?Hz or 26?Hz and outcome measures were recorded at 2, 20 and 40?min post-WBV. Timed get up-and-go and chair sit-and-reach performances improved post-WBV for both sexes, were significantly different between 2?Hz and 26?Hz treatments (P ? 0.05) and showed statistically significant interactions between age and gender (P ? 0.01). Counter movement jump and timed one-legged stance performances showed a similar but non-significant response to 2?Hz and 26?Hz treatments, though male subjects showed a distinct trended response. Age and gender should be statistically controlled and both 2?Hz and 26?Hz exert a treatment effect. PMID:21977028

Merriman, Harold L.; Brahler, C. Jayne; Jackson, Kurt

2011-01-01

139

High-Intensity Interval Training with Vibration as Rest Intervals Attenuates Fiber Atrophy and Prevents Decreases in Anaerobic Performance  

PubMed Central

Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT) improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W?) and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4x4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function. Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4x4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18) or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30) in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30). Pre and post training, critical power (CP), W?, cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W? (?14.3%, P = 0.013), maximal voluntary torque (?8.6%, P = 0.001), rate of force development (?10.5%, P = 0.018), maximal jumping power (?6.3%, P = 0.007) and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (?6.4%, P = 0.044) were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V?O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations. Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes) may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146 PMID:25679998

Mueller, Sandro Manuel; Aguayo, David; Zuercher, Matthias; Fleischmann, Oliver; Boutellier, Urs; Auer, Maria; Jung, Hans H.; Toigo, Marco

2015-01-01

140

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device...

2014-04-01

141

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device...

2011-04-01

142

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device...

2011-04-01

143

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device...

2014-04-01

144

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device...

2012-04-01

145

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device...

2012-04-01

146

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device...

2013-04-01

147

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device...

2013-04-01

148

WHOLE BODY COUNTING AND NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The composition of the human body can be described using a number of different models. The most basic is the atomic model. This chapter describes several nuclear-based techniques that have been used to obtain direct in vivo chemical assays of the whole body of humans. In particular, the body's co...

149

Whole Body Interaction in Abstract Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is little dispute that Whole Body Interaction is a good fit of interaction style for some categories of application\\u000a domain, such as the motion capture of gestures for computer games and virtual physical sports. This reflects the observation\\u000a that in such applications the mapping between user gesture and the desired effect is, broadly speaking, the identity function.\\u000a For more

Simon Holland; Katie Wilkie; Anders Bouwer; Mat Dalgleish; Paul Mulholland

2011-01-01

150

Hepatobiliary kinetics after whole-body irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to study hepatobiliary kinetics after whole-body gamma irradiation. Two groups of nine male beagle dogs were irradiated with a single whole body dose of 4- and 8-Gy cobalt-60 photons. Each animal was injected with 2 mCi Tc-99m DISIDA and scintigraphic studies were obtained with a gamma camera with a parallel hole multipurpose collimator. The parameters studied included: peak activity of the liver and gall bladder and gall bladder and intestinal visualization from the time of Tc-99m DISIDA administration. Total and indirect bilirubin, LDH, SGOT, and SGPT determined as baseline studies before irradiation and at different time intervals after irradiation were not changed in irradiated animals. Whole body Co-60 irradiation with 4 and 8 Gy produced no significant changes in the Tc-99m DISIDA visualization of the gall bladder or in the peak activity in the gall bladder or the liver 1 and 7 days after irradiation. Intestinal visualization occurred significantly earlier in 8 Gy Co-60 irradiated animals on both day 1 and day 7 post irradiation, compared to baseline values where it was never observed before 195.0 minutes. Gall bladder emptying is significantly accelerated after 8 Gy but not after 4-Gy Co-60 gamma irradiation. These observations suggest that gamma irradiation stimulates gall bladder contractility without modifying intrahepatic biliary kinetics.

Durakovic, A.

1986-09-01

151

The acute effects of vibration training on balance and stability amongst soccer players.  

PubMed

Abstract Acute whole body vibration training (WBVT) is a tool used amongst coaches to improve performance prior to activity. Its effects on other fitness components, such as balance and stability, along with how different populations respond are less well understood. The aim of the current research is to determine the effect of acute WBVT on balance and stability amongst elite and amateur soccer players. Forty-four healthy male soccer players (22 elite and 22 amateur) were assigned to a treatment or control group. The intervention group then performed 3 × 60 seconds static squat on vibration platform at 40 Hz (±4 mm) with Y balance test (YBT) scores and dynamic postural stability index (DPSI) measured pre and post. DPSI was significantly lower in the elite players in the acute WBVT compared to amateur players (F1, 40= 6.80; P = 0.013). YBT anterior reach distance showed a significant improvement in both amateur and elite players in the acute WBVT group (F1, 40= 32.36; P < 0.001). The improvement in DPSI amongst the elite players indicates a difference in responses to acute high frequency vibration between elite and amateur players during a landing stability task. The results indicate that acute WBVT improves anterior YBT reach distances through a possible improvement in flexibility amongst both elite and amateur players. In conclusion, acute WBVT training appears to improve stability amongst elite soccer players in comparison to amateur players, the exact reasoning behind this difference requires further investigation. PMID:25357208

Cloak, Ross; Nevill, Alan; Wyon, Matthew

2014-10-30

152

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2010-04-01

153

Measures of internal lumbar load in professional drivers - the use of a whole-body finite-element model for the evaluation of adverse health effects of multi-axis vibration.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to (1) employ the method for evaluation of vibration containing multiple shocks according to ISO/CD 2631-5:2014 (Model 1) and DIN SPEC 45697:2012 in a cohort of 537 professional drivers, (2) deliver the results for a re-analysis of epidemiological data obtained in the VIBRISKS study, (3) clarify the extent to which vibration acceleration and individual variables influence risk values, such as the daily compressive dose Sed and the risk factor R, and (4) compare the results with in vivo measurements and those obtained in previous studies with similar models. The risk factor R was influenced by the acceleration, lifetime exposure duration, sitting posture, age at the start of exposure and body mass/body mass index in order of decreasing effect. Age and annual and daily exposure duration had only a marginal effect. The daily compressive dose Sed and the risk factor R showed weak linear association with the daily vibration exposure A(8) and the vibration dose value VDV. The study revealed high shear forces in the lumbar spine. PMID:25290764

Schust, Marianne; Menzel, Gerhard; Hofmann, Jörg; Forta, Nazim Gizem; Pinto, Iole; Hinz, Barbara; Bovenzi, Massimo

2014-10-01

154

BodyBeats: Whole-Body, Musical Interfaces for Children  

E-print Network

that electronic instruments for children that incorporate whole-body movement can provide active ways for children, electronic interfaces for children that incorporate play and whole-body physical activity while helpingBodyBeats: Whole-Body, Musical Interfaces for Children Abstract This work in progress presents

155

Vibration Training: An Overview of the Area, Training Consequences, and Future Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan, M.J., S.R. Norris, D.J. Smith, and W. Her- zog. Vibration training: an overview of the area, training con- sequences, and future considerations. J. Strength Cond. Res. 19(2):459-466. 2005.—The effects of vibration on the human body have been documented for many years. Recently, the use of vibration for improving the training regimes of athletes has been investigated. Vibration has been

Matthew J. Jordan; Stephen R. Norris; David J. Smith; Walter Herzog

2005-01-01

156

Development of integrated whole body counter.  

PubMed

Instead of conventional human counter using NaI(Tl) scintillator in scanning bed geometry, integrated whole body counter was developed. This is constituted by 10 detectors that are located just above the objective organs in order to improve the identification of nuclides. Two sets of p-type arrayed planar HPGe detectors composed of two crystals are used for lungs, and two sets of p-type high efficiency coaxial HPGe detectors are used for gastrointestinal tract. Similarly n-type HPGe is used for chest or thyroid or skull and the other p-types are used for the liver and kidney, respectively. An electric cooling system by adiabatic expansion was adapted as cooling apparatus for all detectors with the object of asphyxia prevention and continuous operation. In the efficiency calibration, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) phantom with newly designed tissue equivalent lungs, which contain 241Am homogeneously distributed, was applied to lung detector, and Bottle Manikin Absorbtion (BOMAB) phantom regulated by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) was also applied to detectors for trunk. PMID:17673487

Suzuki, T; Nakano, T; Kim, E

2007-01-01

157

Regional whole body fat quantification in mice.  

PubMed

Obesity has risen to epidemic levels in the United States and around the world. Global indices of obesity such as the body mass index (BMI) have been known to be inaccurate predictors of risk of diabetes, and it is commonly recognized that the distribution of fat in the body is a key measure. In this work, we describe the early development of image analysis methods to quantify regional body fat distribution in groups of both male and female wildtype mice using magnetic resonance images. In particular, we present a new formulation which extends the expectation-maximization formalism commonly applied in brain segmentation to multi-exponential data and applies it to the problem of regional whole body fat quantification. Previous segmentation approaches for multispectral data typically perform the classification on fitted parameters, such as the density and the relaxation times. In contrast, our method directly computes a likelihood term from the raw data and hence explicitly accounts for errors in the fitting process, while still using the fitted parameters to model the variation in the appearance of each tissue class. Early validation results, using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging as a gold standard, are encouraging. We also present results demonstrating differences in fat distribution between male and female mice. PMID:17354710

Papademetris, Xenophon; Shkarin, Pavel; Staib, Lawrence H; Behar, Kevin L

2005-01-01

158

Countermeasure for reducing vibrations of a building for running trains  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the with vibration reduction effect of a railway station building, by making use of special rail fastening devices and track girders for running trains set on the second floor. To estimate the vibration reduction effect, dynamic interaction between trains, supporting girders and building members was analyzed numerically. In order to make a few corrections for calculated values, correction coefficients were introduced by comparing analytical values with measured ones obtained by running trains.

Yonekura, Yorio [East Railway Japan Co., Shinjyuku, Tokyo (Japan). Tokyo Construction Office

1995-12-01

159

Whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposures.  

PubMed

Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation ?g < 2.5 (5). The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size (6), which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria (5). A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m(3) whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm(3)) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m(3)). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre and Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t), where Q is sampling flowrate (m(3)/min), and t is the sampling time (minute). The chamber pressure, temperature, relative humidity (RH), O2 and CO2 concentrations were monitored and controlled continuously. Nano-TiO2 aerosols collected on Nuclepore filters were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. In summary, we report that the nano-particle aerosols generated and delivered to our exposure chamber have: 1) steady mass concentration; 2) homogenous composition free of contaminants; 3) stable particle size distributions with a count-median aerodynamic diameter of 157 nm during aerosol generation. This system reliably and repeatedly creates test atmospheres that simulate occupational, environmental or domestic ENM aerosol exposures. PMID:23685643

Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

2013-01-01

160

A comparison of a new whole body scanner with a large crystal scanning camera in whole body imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical parameters and the clinical experience obtained in one year with a new whole body scanning system are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of this system are described in comparison with a large crystal scanning camera. The whole body scanner has two detectors each an array of ten crystals with a large area (700 cm2 per head) able to scan a

P. J. Ell; M. J. Myers

1977-01-01

161

Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data  

SciTech Connect

A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C. [Blasland, Bouck and Lee, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

162

Age Modulates attitudes to Whole Body Donation Among Medical Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study to understand the effect of medical student age on the attitude towards whole body donation. Outcomes discussed include the shift in attitude toward the nature of body donation (family member, self, unrelated stranger).

2009-07-01

163

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2010-04-01

164

Development of a low-cost whole-body counter  

E-print Network

workers. A relatively inexpensive and simple chair-type whole-body counter may suit the needs of many organizations for in vivo assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides. A simple calibration phantom and a spreadsheet computer program were developed... for their guidance and support. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 1V V1 LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES V111 INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW Types of whole-body counters Calibration phantom MATERIALS...

Smith, Matthew Howard

1990-01-01

165

Mutual Stabilization of Rhythmic Vocalization and Whole-Body Movement  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1) whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2) whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice) in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition) that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition). The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure. PMID:25502730

Miyata, Kohei; Kudo, Kazutoshi

2014-01-01

166

Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR) and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA); CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75?RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP) was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001) and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001). Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP), in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients. PMID:24808969

Popescu, Claudiu; Bojinc?, Violeta; Opri?, Daniela

2014-01-01

167

Adaptive, segmented attenuation correction for whole-body PET imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented for segmented attenuation correction in positron emission tomography (PET) based on the local thresholding technique (LTS) described previously. To accommodate the substantially different body sections encountered in whole-body PET, an adaptive thresholding has been added to yield more uniform results throughout the body. By evaluating the intensity distribution of a set of transverse transmission images, the

M. Xu; P. D. Cutler; W. K. Luk

1996-01-01

168

Detector characterization of Discovery ST whole-body PET scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new whole-body PET scanner from General Electric (Discovery ST) is based on 6×6 BGO block detector using quad photo multipliers and utilizes a state of the art data acquisition system. The detector consists of 280 detector units in a ring structure. Each detector unit consists of a BGO block and a quad photomultiplier. The DST scanner has high sensitivity

John J. Williams; David L. McDaniel; Chang L. Kim; Larissa J. West

2003-01-01

169

Automated anthropometric data collection using 3D whole body scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of three-dimensional (3D) whole body scanner opens opportunities for measuring human body more efficiently. While taking measurements from 3D scanning data, markers are usually placed on human body to facilitate landmarking and data collection. But the procedure of placing markers is very tedious and may involve human errors. The objective of this study is to develop an automated

Jun-ming Lu; Mao-jiun J. Wang

2008-01-01

170

REGIONAL AND WHOLE BODY COMPOSITION AND BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS (BIA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study determined the symmetry of regional (half) body composition and then related any dissymmetry to differences in bioelectrical impedance (Z). Seventy-three volunteers (45 women, 28 men) were measured for whole body Z at 50 kHz and body composition by pencil beam dual x-ray absorptiometry. Z...

171

Task-oriented whole body motion for humanoid robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a whole body motion control algorithm for humanoid robots. It is based on the framework of Liegeois and solves the redundant inverse kinematics problem on velocity level. We control the hand positions as well as the hand and head attitude. The attitude is described with a novel 2-dof description suited for symmetrical problems. Task-specific command elements can be

Michael Gienger; H. Janssen; Christian Goerick

2005-01-01

172

Exploiting Task Intervals for Whole Body Robot Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a whole body motion algorithm and shows some steps towards its feasibility in complex scenarios. We employ the framework of Liegeois, (1977) which solves the redundant inverse kinematics problem on velocity level. To make the controller suitable for a variety of different applications, task descriptors for the relative effector positions as well as a one-and two-dimensional attitude

Michael Gienger; Herbert Janssen; Christian Goerick

2006-01-01

173

Small-animal whole-body photoacoustic tomography: a review  

PubMed Central

With the wide use of small animals for biomedical studies, in vivo small-animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging whole-body imaging modality that shows great potential for preclinical research. As a hybrid technique, PAT is based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from either endogenous tissue chromophores, such as oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin, or exogenous contrast agents. Because ultrasound scatters much less than light in tissue, PAT generates high-resolution images in both the optical ballistic and diffusive regimes. Using near-infrared light, which has relatively low blood absorption, PAT can image through the whole body of small animals with acoustically defined spatial resolution. Anatomical and vascular structures are imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, while functional and molecular images are enabled by the wide choice of exogenous optical contrasts. This paper reviews the rapidly growing field of small-animal whole-body PAT and highlights studies done in the past decade. PMID:24108456

Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

2014-01-01

174

Small-animal whole-body photoacoustic tomography: a review.  

PubMed

With the wide use of small animals for biomedical studies, in vivo small-animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging whole-body imaging modality that shows great potential for preclinical research. As a hybrid technique, PAT is based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from either endogenous tissue chromophores, such as oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, or exogenous contrast agents. Because ultrasound scatters much less than light in tissue, PAT generates high-resolution images in both the optical ballistic and diffusive regimes. Using near-infrared light, which has relatively low blood absorption, PAT can image through the whole body of small animals with acoustically defined spatial resolution. Anatomical and vascular structures are imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, while functional and molecular images are enabled by the wide choice of exogenous optical contrasts. This paper reviews the rapidly growing field of small-animal whole-body PAT and highlights studies done in the past decade. PMID:24108456

Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V

2014-05-01

175

BABYSCAN - a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima  

E-print Network

BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for $^{137}$Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described.

Hayano, Ryugo S; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

2014-01-01

176

BABYSCAN: a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima.  

PubMed

BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for (137)Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described. PMID:25118889

Hayano, Ryugo S; Yamanaka, Shunji; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

2014-09-01

177

Aerobic fitness level does not modulate changes in whole-body protein turnover produced by unaccustomed increases in energy expenditure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of a sudden increase in energy expenditure (EE) on whole-body protein turnover vary between studies, and the possibility that fitness level modulates those responses has not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that aerobically trained individuals may exhibit adaptations that protec...

178

Whole-Body and Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Obese Children  

PubMed Central

Background Insulin resistance may be assessed as whole body or hepatic. Objective To study factors associated with both types of insulin resistance. Methods Cross-sectional study of 182 obese children. Somatometric measurements were registered, and the following three adiposity indexes were compared: BMI, waist-to-height ratio and visceral adiposity. Whole-body insulin resistance was evaluated using HOMA-IR, with 2.5 as the cut-off point. Hepatic insulin resistance was considered for IGFBP-1 level quartiles 1 to 3 (<6.67 ng/ml). We determined metabolite and hormone levels and performed a liver ultrasound. Results The majority, 73.1%, of obese children had whole-body insulin resistance and hepatic insulin resistance, while 7% did not have either type. HOMA-IR was negatively associated with IGFBP-1 and positively associated with BMI, triglycerides, leptin and mother's BMI. Girls had increased HOMA-IR. IGFBP-1 was negatively associated with waist-to-height ratio, age, leptin, HOMA-IR and IGF-I. We did not find HOMA-IR or IGFBP-1 associated with fatty liver. Conclusion In school-aged children, BMI is the best metric to predict whole-body insulin resistance, and waist-to-height ratio is the best predictor of hepatic insulin resistance, indicating that central obesity is important for hepatic insulin resistance. The reciprocal negative association of IGFBP-1 and HOMA-IR may represent a strong interaction of the physiological processes of both whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:25411786

Ibarra-Reynoso, Lorena del Rocío; Pisarchyk, Liudmila; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Garay-Sevilla, Ma. Eugenia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

2014-01-01

179

Towards Whole-Body Fluorescence Imaging in Humans  

PubMed Central

Dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (DNIF) whole-body imaging of small animals has become a popular tool in experimental biomedical research. In humans, however, the field of view has been limited to body parts, such as rheumatoid hands, diabetic feet or sentinel lymph nodes. Here we present a new whole-body DNIF-system suitable for adult subjects. We explored whether this system (i) allows dynamic whole-body fluorescence imaging and (ii) can detect modulations in skin perfusion. The non-specific fluorescent probe indocyanine green (ICG) was injected intravenously into two subjects, and fluorescence images were obtained at 5 Hz. The in- and out-flow kinetics of ICG have been shown to correlate with tissue perfusion. To validate the system, skin perfusion was modulated by warming and cooling distinct areas on the chest and the abdomen. Movies of fluorescence images show a bolus passage first in the face, then in the chest, abdomen and finally in the periphery (?10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds, respectively). When skin perfusion is augmented by warming, bolus arrives about 5 seconds earlier than when the skin is cooled and perfusion decreased. Calculating bolus arrival times and spatial fitting of basis time courses extracted from different regions of interest allowed a mapping of local differences in subcutaneous skin perfusion. This experiment is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-body dynamic fluorescence imaging in humans. Since the whole-body approach demonstrates sensitivity to circumscribed alterations in skinperfusion, it may be used to target autonomous changes in polyneuropathy and to screen for peripheral vascular diseases. PMID:24391820

Piper, Sophie K.; Habermehl, Christina; Schmitz, Christoph H.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Obrig, Hellmuth; Steinbrink, Jens; Mehnert, Jan

2013-01-01

180

Ground vibration from high-speed trains: Prediction and countermeasure  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines a test program in southern Sweden for measurement of the vibration induced in the ground and railway embankment by high-speed trains, together with a rigorous numerical model developed for the prediction of embankment/ground response. In this formulation the ground is modeled as a layered viscoelastic half-space, and the railway embankment is modeled as a viscoelastic beam excited by the moving loads of the train. The model uses the Kausel-Roeesset Green's functions to calculate the soil stiffness matrix at the ground-embankment interface and assembles it with the dynamic stiffness matrix of the embankment. The solution is carried out in the frequency domain, and the time histories of the motions are derived through a Fourier synthesis of the frequency components. Numerous simulations of train-induced vibration are presented for the ground conditions and embankment parameters at the test site and compared with measured records. The simulations agree well with the measurements, both in qualitative and quantitative terms. In particular, the large ground deformations registered for train speeds exceeding 140 km/h are reproduced by the simulations. With the help of the prediction model, the effectiveness of a remediation measure for the mitigation of ground vibration is explored.

Kaynia, A.M.; Madshus, C.; Zackrisson, P.

2000-06-01

181

Whole body simultaneous PET/MRI: one-stop-shop?  

PubMed

Beginning of this century is hallmarked by arrival of hybrid imaging PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computerized tomography) which has become a standard of care primarily in oncology in a short span of time. Continuous research and development by industry and academia for exploiting the excellent soft tissue contrast, spectroscopy and precise measurement of various functional parameters by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with PET has resulted in emergence of whole body PET/MRI. It is expected this new hybrid modality would be warmly welcomed due to high magnitude of functional and morphostructural information at molecular level with low radiation dose which is indeed a point of concern for young and paediatric population. This short technical report for nuclear medicine readers will focus upon the various configuration and acquisition sequences of PET/MRI, attenuation correction and clinical applications of whole body simultaneous PET/MRI. PMID:24640813

Maseeh-uz-Zaman; Fatima, Nosheen; Sajjad, Zafar; Zaman, Unaiza

2014-02-01

182

Rifaximin diminishes neutropenia following potentially lethal whole-body radiation.  

PubMed

Terrorist attacks involving radiological or nuclear weapons are a substantial geopolitical concern, given that large populations could be exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Because of this, evaluating potential countermeasures against radiation-induced mortality is critical. Gut microflora are the most common source of systemic infection following exposure to lethal doses of whole-body radiation, suggesting that prophylactic antibiotic therapy may reduce mortality after radiation exposure. The chemical stability, easy administration and favorable tolerability profile of the non-systemic antibiotic, rifaximin, make it an ideal potential candidate for use as a countermeasure. This study evaluated the use of rifaximin as a countermeasure against low-to-intermediate-dose whole-body radiation in rodents. Female Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were irradiated with 550 cGy to the whole body and were evaluated for 30 d. Animals received methylcellulose, neomycin (179 mg/kg/d) or variably dosed rifaximin (150-2000 mg/kg/d) one hour after irradiation and daily throughout the study period. Clinical assessments (e.g. body weight) were made daily. On postirradiation day 30, blood samples were collected and a complete blood cell count was performed. Animals receiving high doses of rifaximin (i.e. 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/d) had a greater increase in weight from the day of irradiation to postirradiation day 30 compared with animals that received placebo or neomycin. For animals with an increase in average body weight from irradiation day within 80-110% of the group average, methylcellulose rendered an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 211, neomycin rendered an ANC of 334, rifaximin 300 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 582 and rifaximin 1000 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 854 (P = 0.05 for group comparison). Exposure to rifaximin after near-lethal whole-body radiation resulted in diminished levels of neutropenia. PMID:20558844

Jahraus, Christopher D; Schemera, Bettina; Rynders, Patricia; Ramos, Melissa; Powell, Charles; Faircloth, John; Brawner, William R

2010-07-01

183

Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.  

PubMed

The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent. PMID:24636222

Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M

2014-04-01

184

Whole body hyperthermia: effects upon canine immune and hemostatic functions.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of induced whole body hyperthermia (WBH; 42.3 degrees C for 90 min) on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) phenotype distribution, in vitro blastogenic responsiveness and selected parameters of hemostasis were determined in dogs. Hyperthermia was induced by heating venous blood during extracorporeal circulation (EC); induction of WBH by peritoneal lavage (PL) and perfusion without heating (i.e. euthermic EC and euthermic PL) were used as controls. Whole body hyperthermia was associated with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia that persisted throughout the eight-day post-treatment observation interval. The lymphopenia was selective in that CD5-positive T lymphocytes were more sensitive than were sIg-positive B cells and, within the T-cell compartment, suppressor (CD8-positive) cells were more sensitive to hyperthermic stress than helper (CD4 positive) lymphocytes. Lymphopenia was also observed in EC and PL euthermic controls, although that lymphopenia was transient and nonselective. Persistent suppression of T-cell phytomitogen-induced blastogenesis was induced by WBH in contrast to transient suppression in euthermic controls. For all treatment groups, lymphopenia and suppressed blastogenesis were correlated to elevated plasma cortisol levels. Induction of WBH by EC resulted in coagulopathy characterized by thrombocytopenia, increased plasma fibrin degradation products, prolonged clotting times, and evidence of spontaneous bleeding. These hemostatic alterations were correlated temporally to increased serum levels of liver enzymes. However, there was no evidence of hepatic injury when WBH was induced by PL, where transient thrombocytopenia was the only significant hemostatic alteration. These results indicate that 42.3 degrees C whole body hyperthermia can be well-tolerated and, although associated with suppression of general indexes of immunocompetence, is not associated with opportunistic infections. PMID:10507304

Oglesbee, M J; Diehl, K; Crawford, E; Kearns, R; Krakowka, S

1999-08-01

185

Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

1987-01-01

186

Vibration analysis of medium and small span bridges subjected to mixed marshalling freight trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported several times that train derailment occurs when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse bridges at\\u000a high speeds in China. This study aims to explain this phenomenon numerically based on the train-bridge coupling vibration\\u000a theory and its associated computer program. The train-bridge vibration characteristic is analyzed by a computer program when\\u000a mixed marshalling freight trains traverse 32-meter-span prestressed

Qi Li; Dingjun Wu; Xiaobin Huang

2008-01-01

187

Skeletal muscle and whole body protein turnover in thyroid disease.  

PubMed

The effects of disturbances of thyroid hormone secretion on leg and whole body amino acid and protein metabolism have been investigated in seven patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis and eight patients with untreated hypothyroidism; the results were compared to those obtained in 11 normal control subjects. After treatment, the patients were restudied. Arterio-venous exchanges of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine across leg tissue in the post-absorptive state were used as indices of net protein balance and myofibrillar protein breakdown, respectively. Whole body protein turnover was measured using stable isotope labelling techniques with 1-[1-13C] leucine. Efflux of tyrosine from leg tissues was six-fold greater in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis than in normal control subjects (-19.39 +/- 2.21 vs. -4.20 +/- 0.31 nmol 100 g-1 leg tissue min-1, P less than 0.005, mean +/- SEM), but 3-methyl-histidine efflux was not significantly different (-0.11 +/- 0.03 nmol 100 g-1 leg tissue min-1 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.02 nmol 100 g-1 leg tissue min-1). After treatment, when the thyrotoxic patients became euthyroid, tyrosine efflux was normalized (at -4.94 +/- 0.84 nmol 100 g-1 leg tissue min-1) and 3-methylhistidine efflux was unchanged. In hypothyroid patients, neither tyrosine nor 3-methylhistidine effluxes were significantly different from those in normal subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3130261

Morrison, W L; Gibson, J N; Jung, R T; Rennie, M J

1988-02-01

188

Central nervous system effects of whole-body proton irradiation.  

PubMed

Space missions beyond the protection of Earth's magnetosphere expose astronauts to an environment that contains ionizing proton radiation. The hazards that proton radiation pose to normal tissues, such as the central nervous system (CNS), are not fully understood, although it has been shown that proton radiation affects the neurogenic environment, killing neural precursors and altering behavior. To determine the time and dose-response characteristics of the CNS to whole-body proton irradiation, C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1 GeV/n proton radiation at doses of 0-200 cGy and behavioral, physiological and immunohistochemical end points were analyzed over a range of time points (48 h-12 months) postirradiation. These experiments revealed that proton radiation exposure leads to: 1. an acute decrease in cell division within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, with significant differences detected at doses as low as 10 cGy; 2. a persistent effect on proliferation in the subgranular zone, at 1 month postirradiation; 3. a decrease in neurogenesis at doses as low as 50 cGy, at 3 months postirradiation; and 4. a decrease in hippocampal ICAM-1 immunoreactivity at doses as low as 10 cGy, at 1 month postirradiation. The data presented contribute to our understanding of biological responses to whole-body proton radiation and may help reduce uncertainty in the assessment of health risks to astronauts. These findings may also be relevant to clinical proton beam therapy. PMID:24937778

Sweet, Tara Beth; Panda, Nirlipta; Hein, Amy M; Das, Shoshana L; Hurley, Sean D; Olschowka, John A; Williams, Jacqueline P; O'Banion, M Kerry

2014-07-01

189

Whole-body ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography of  

E-print Network

Whole-body ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography of small animals in vivo Jun Xia;Whole-body ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography of small animals in vivo Jun Xia a novel small-animal whole-body imaging system called ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed

Wang, Lihong

190

A hybrid modelling approach for predicting ground vibration from trains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction of ground vibration from trains presents a number of difficulties. The ground is effectively an infinite medium, often with a layered structure and with properties that may vary greatly from one location to another. The vibration from a passing train forms a transient event, which limits the usefulness of steady-state frequency domain models. Moreover, there is often a need to consider vehicle/track interaction in more detail than is commonly used in frequency domain models, such as the 2.5D approach, while maintaining the computational efficiency of the latter. However, full time-domain approaches involve large computation times, particularly where three-dimensional ground models are required. Here, a hybrid modelling approach is introduced. The vehicle/track interaction is calculated in the time domain in order to be able t account directly for effects such as the discrete sleeper spacing. Forces acting on the ground are extracted from this first model and used in a second model to predict the ground response at arbitrary locations. In the present case the second model is a layered ground model operating in the frequency domain. Validation of the approach is provided by comparison with an existing frequency domain model. The hybrid model is then used to study the sleeper-passing effect, which is shown to be less significant than excitation due to track unevenness in all the cases considered.

Triepaischajonsak, N.; Thompson, D. J.

2015-01-01

191

A whole body counting facility in a remote Enewetak Island setting.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. As part of this new initiative, DOE agreed to design and construct a radiological laboratory on Enewetak Island, and help develop the necessary local resources to maintain and operate the facility. This cooperative effort was formalized in August 2000 between the DOE, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Enewetak/Ujelang Local Atoll Government (EULGOV). The laboratory facility was completed in May 2001. The laboratory incorporates both a permanent whole body counting system to assess internal exposures to 137Cs, and clean living space for people providing 24-h void urine samples. DOE continues to provide on-going technical assistance, training, and data quality review while EULGOV provides manpower and infrastructure development to sustain facility operations on a full-time basis. This paper will detail the special construction, transportation and installation issues in establishing a whole body counting facility in an isolated, harsh environmental setting. PMID:12132723

Bell, Thomas R; Hickman, David; Yamaguchi, Lance; Jackson, William; Hamilton, Terry

2002-08-01

192

Vestibular Labyrinth Contributions to Human Whole-Body Motion Discrimination  

PubMed Central

To assess the contributions of the vestibular system to whole-body motion discrimination in the dark, we measured direction-recognition thresholds as a function of frequency for yaw rotation, superior-inferior translation (“z-translation”), inter-aural translation (“y-translation”), and roll-tilt for 14 normal subjects and for three patients following total bilateral vestibular ablation. The patients had significantly higher average threshold measurements than normal (p<0.01) for yaw-rotation (depending upon frequency, 5.4× to 15.7× greater), z-translation (8.3× to 56.8× greater), y-translation (1.7× to 4.5× greater), and roll tilt (1.3× to 3.0× greater) – establishing the predominant contributions of the vestibular system for these motions in the dark. PMID:23015443

Valko, Yulia; Lewis, Richard F.; Priesol, Adrian J.; Merfeld, Daniel M.

2012-01-01

193

Whole-body mathematical model for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A whole-body mathematical model (10) for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics. In one embodiment, model (10) includes 17 interacting compartments, of which nine lie entirely outside of intracranial vault (14). Compartments (F) and (T) are defined to distinguish ventricular from extraventricular CSF. The vasculature of the intracranial system within cranial vault (14) is also subdivided into five compartments (A, C, P, V, and S, respectively) representing the intracranial arteries, capillaries, choroid plexus, veins, and venous sinus. The body's extracranial systemic vasculature is divided into six compartments (I, J, O, Z, D, and X, respectively) representing the arteries, capillaries, and veins of the central body and the lower body. Compartments (G) and (B) include tissue and the associated interstitial fluid in the intracranial and lower regions. Compartment (Y) is a composite involving the tissues, organs, and pulmonary circulation of the central body and compartment (M) represents the external environment.

Lakin, William D. (Inventor); Penar, Paul L. (Inventor); Stevens, Scott A. (Inventor); Tranmer, Bruce I. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

194

Whole-body 3D scanner and scan data report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the first whole-body 3D scanner now available the next adventure confronting the user is what to do with all of the data. While the system was built for anthropologists, it has created interest among users from a wide variety of fields. Users with applications in the fields of anthropology, costume design, garment design, entertainment, VR and gaming have a need for the data in formats unique to their fields. Data from the scanner is being converted to solid models for art and design and NURBS for computer graphics applications. Motion capture has made scan data move and dance. The scanner has created a need for advanced application software just as other scanners have in the past.

Addleman, Stephen R.

1997-03-01

195

WHOLE BODY NONRIGID CT-PET REGISTRATION USING WEIGHTED DEMONS  

PubMed Central

We present a new registration method for whole-body rat computed tomography (CT) image and positron emission tomography (PET) images using a weighted demons algorithm. The CT and PET images are acquired in separate scanners at different times and the inherent differences in the imaging protocols produced significant nonrigid changes between the two acquisitions in addition to heterogeneous image characteristics. In this situation, we utilized both the transmission-PET and the emission-PET images in the deformable registration process emphasizing particular regions of the moving transmission-PET image using the emission-PET image. We validated our results with nine rat image sets using M-Hausdorff distance similarity measure. We demonstrate improved performance compared to standard methods such as Demons and normalized mutual information-based non-rigid FFD registration. PMID:23377533

Suh, J.W.; Kwon, Oh -K.; Scheinost, D.; Sinusas, A.J.; Cline, Gary W.; Papademetris, X.

2011-01-01

196

Vibration Platform Training in Women at Risk for Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether a platform exercise program with vibration is more effective than the platform exercise alone for improving lower limb muscle strength and power in women age 45-60 with risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Randomized, controlled study Setting Academic center Participants 48 women age 45-60 years old with risk factors for knee OA (history of knee injury or surgery or BMI?25kg/m2). Interventions Subjects were randomized to a twice weekly lower limb exercise program (quarter squat, posterolateral leg lifts, calf raises) on either a vertically vibrating (35Hz, 2mm), or a non-vibrating platform. Main Outcome Measurements The main outcome measures included change in isokinetic quadriceps strength, leg press power, and stair climb power by 12 weeks. Results 39 out of 48 enrolled participants completed the study (26 vibration and 13 control exercise). Nine participants discontinued the study after randomization mainly due to lack of time. There were no intergroup differences in age, BMI, or activity level. Isokinetic knee extensor strength did not significantly improve in either group. Leg press power improved by 92.0±69.7 W in the vibration group (p<.0001) and 58.2±96.2 W in the control group (p=0.0499), but did not differ between groups (p=0.2262). Stair climb power improved by 53.4±64.7 W in the vibration group (p=0.0004) and 55.7±83.3 W in the control group (p=0.0329), but did not differ between groups (p=0.9272). Conclusions Whole body vibration platforms have been marketed for increasing strength and power. In this group of asymptomatic middle-aged women with risk factors for knee OA, addition of vibration to a 12-week exercise program did not result in significantly greater improvement in lower limb strength or power than participation in the exercise program without vibration. PMID:22981005

Segal, Neil A.; Glass, Natalie A.; Shakoor, Najia; Wallace, Robert

2013-01-01

197

Cutaneous Vascular Responses to Hypercapnia During Whole-Body Heating  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hypercapnia may be encountered in lung disease as well as during situations involving rebreathing of previously expired air (e.g., occupational diving). Inhibitory effects of elevated arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure on the central nervous system may result in impaired thermoregulation. This study tested the hypothesis that in heat-stressed subjects, cutaneous vascular responsiveness [expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)] would be reduced during hypercapnic exposure. Methods Four men and three women (mean ± SD; age: 35 ± 7 yr) rested supine while wearing a tube-lined suit perfused with 34°C water (normothermia). Following normothermic data collection, 50°C water was perfused through the suit to increase internal temperature approximately 1°C (whole-body heating). In both thermal conditions, a normoxic-hypercapnic (5% CO2, 21% O2, balance N2) gas mixture was inspired while forearm skin blood flux (laser-Doppler flow-metry) was measured continuously and was used for calculation of CVC (skin blood flux/mean arterial pressure). Results End-tidal CO2 increased similarly throughout hypercapnic exposure during both normothermic and whole-body heating conditions (7.9 ± 2.4 and 8.3 ± 1.9 mmHg, respectively). However, CVC was not different between normocapnia and hypercapnia under either thermal condition (normothermia: 0.42 ± 0.24 vs. 0.39 ± 0.21 flux units/mmHg for normocapnia and hypercapnia, respectively; heat stress: 1.89 ± 0.67 vs. 1.92 ± 0.63 flux units/mmHg for normocapnia and hypercapnia, respectively). Discussion Based on these findings, mild hypercapnia is unlikely to impair heat dissipation by reducing cutaneous vasodilation. PMID:19070301

Wingo, Jonathan E.; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Crandall, Craig G.

2010-01-01

198

Cardiac systolic and diastolic function during whole body heat stress  

PubMed Central

During a whole body heat stress, stroke volume is either maintained or slightly elevated despite reduced ventricular filling pressures and central blood volume, suggestive of improved cardiac diastolic and/or systolic function. Heat stress improves cardiac systolic and diastolic function in patients with congestive heart failure, although it remains unknown whether similar responses occur in healthy individuals, which is the hypothesis to be tested. Nine male volunteers underwent a whole body heat stress. Echocardiographic indexes of diastolic and systolic function were performed following a supine resting period, and again following an increase in internal temperature of ?1.0°C via passive heat stress. Despite previous reports of heat stress-induced decreases in ventricular filling pressures and central blood volume, no changes in indexes of diastolic function were identified during heating [i.e., unchanged early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocity (E?), mitral inflow during the early diastolic phase (E), the E/E? ratio, and isovolumetric relaxation time]. Heat stress increased late diastolic septal (P = 0.03) and lateral (P = 0.01) mitral annular tissue velocities (A?), mitral inflow velocity during atrial contraction (P < 0.001), and the relative contribution of atrial contraction to left ventricular filling during diastole (P = 0.01), all indicative of improved atrial systolic function. Furthermore, indexes of ventricular systolic function were increased by heat stress [i.e., increased septal (P = 0.001) and lateral (P = 0.01) mitral annular systolic velocities and isovolumic acceleration at the septal (P = 0.03) and lateral (P < 0.001) mitral annulus]. These data are suggestive of improved atrial and ventricular systolic function by the heat stress. Together these data support previous findings, which used the less precise measure of ejection fraction, that heat stress improves indexes of systolic function, while diastolic function is maintained. PMID:19218504

Brothers, R. Matthew; Bhella, Paul S.; Shibata, Shigeki; Wingo, Jonathan E.; Levine, Benjamin D.; Crandall, Craig G.

2009-01-01

199

Prediction of ground vibration from trains using the wavenumber finite and boundary element methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground vibration is an important aspect of the environmental impact of rail traffic. Vibration from about 2–200Hz is caused by trains moving on the ground surface or in tunnels. The wave field thus created must be modelled in three dimensions because of the excitation under each axle and the movement of the train. For arbitrary geometry of structures and ground

X. Sheng; C. J. C. Jones; D. J. Thompson

2006-01-01

200

Whole body and tissue protein synthesis in cattle.  

PubMed

1. The daily rates of synthesis of protein by the whole body and by the individual tissues were determined in two Hereford x Friesian heifers (236 kg and 263 kg live weight), and a dry Friesian cow (628 kg live weight). 2. The rate of whole-body protein synthesis (g protein/d) was estimated from the total flux through the blood of [3H]leucine and [3H]tyrosine following infusion at a constant rate for 8 h. 3. The fractional rates of protein synthesis (ks) in the tissues (g synthesized/d per g tissue protein) were obtained after slaughter of the animals at the end of the infusion period. The fractional rate of protein synthesis was calculated assuming that the specific radioactivity of free tyrosine in either the blood (to give ks, b) or the tissue homogenate (to give ks, h) defined closely the specific radioactivity of the amino acid precursor for protein synthesis. total protein synthesis (As, b or As, h; g/d) in an individual tissue was calculated as the product of ks, b (or ks, h) x protein content. 4. Based on the total leucine flux, i.e. without correction for oxidation, 1.6 kg protein were synthesized daily in the heifers; for the cow this value was 2.0 kg/d. 5. The sum of the daily total synthesis in the major tissues (muscle+bone+brain, gastrointestinal tract (GIT), liver, hide) gave values of 1.4-1.9 kg/d based on As, b, and 2.2-3.0 kg/d based on As, h. 6. percentage contributions of the individual tissues to the total protein synthesis were similar in all three animals, for example based on As, h muscle was 12-16; carcass (muscle+bone+brain) 32-33; GIT 38-46; liver 7-8; skin 14.21%. 7. The contribution of muscle to total synthesis estimated from the leucine flux was 19-22%; this value is in agreement with those calculated on the same basis for other species. 8. The energy cost of protein synthesis was estimated to account for a maximum of 30% of heat production. PMID:7417393

Lobley, G E; Milne, V; Lovie, J M; Reeds, P J; Pennie, K

1980-05-01

201

Sympathetic nerve activity and whole body heat stress in humans  

PubMed Central

We and others have shown that moderate passive whole body heating (i.e., increased internal temperature ?0.7°C) increases muscle (MSNA) and skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA). It is unknown, however, if MSNA and/or SSNA continue to increase with more severe passive whole body heating or whether these responses plateau following moderate heating. The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that MSNA and SSNA continue to increase from a moderate to a more severe heat stress. Thirteen subjects, dressed in a water-perfused suit, underwent at least one passive heat stress that increased internal temperature ?1.3°C, while either MSNA (n = 8) or SSNA (n = 8) was continuously recorded. Heat stress significantly increased mean skin temperature (??5°C, P < 0.001), internal temperature (??1.3°C, P < 0.001), mean body temperature (??2.0°C, P < 0.001), heart rate (??40 beats/min, P < 0.001), and cutaneous vascular conductance [??1.1 arbitrary units (AU)/mmHg, P < 0.001]. Mean arterial blood pressure was well maintained (P = 0.52). Relative to baseline, MSNA increased midway through heat stress (? core temperature 0.63 ± 0.01°C) when expressed as burst frequency (26 ± 14 to 45 ± 16 bursts/min, P = 0.001), burst incidence (39 ± 13 to 48 ± 14 bursts/100 cardiac cyles, P = 0.03), or total activity (317 ± 170 to 489 ± 150 units/min, P = 0.02) and continued to increase until the end of heat stress (burst frequency: 61 ± 15 bursts/min, P = 0.01; burst incidence: 56 ± 11 bursts/100 cardiac cyles, P = 0.04; total activity: 648 ± 158 units/min, P = 0.01) relative to the mid-heating stage. Similarly, SSNA (total activity) increased midway through the heat stress (normothermia; 1,486 ± 472 to mid heat stress 6,467 ± 5,256 units/min, P = 0.03) and continued to increase until the end of heat stress (11,217 ± 6,684 units/min, P = 0.002 vs. mid-heat stress). These results indicate that both MSNA and SSNA continue to increase as internal temperature is elevated above previously reported values. PMID:21868685

Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Wingo, Jonathan E.; Brothers, R. Matthew

2011-01-01

202

Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives.  

PubMed

Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below -100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC. PMID:24648779

Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

2014-01-01

203

Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives  

PubMed Central

Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below ?100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC. PMID:24648779

Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

2014-01-01

204

Whole body thermal model of man during hyperthermia  

SciTech Connect

A whole body thermal model of man has been developed to predict the changes in regional temperatures and blood flows during hyperthermia treatments with the miniannular phased array (MAPA) and annular phased array (APA) applicators. A model of the thermoregulatory response to regional heating based on the experimental and numerical studies of others has been incorporated into this study. Experimentally obtained energy deposition patterns within a human leg exposed to the MAPA were input into the model and the results were compared to those based upon a theoretical deposition pattern. Exposure of the abdomen to the APA was modeled with and without the aberrant energy deposition that has been described previously. Results of the model reveal that therapeutic heating (>42/sup 0/C) of extremity soft tissue sarcomas is possible without significant systemic heating. Very high bone temperatures (>50/sup 0/C) were obtained when the experimental absorption pattern was used. Calculations show that systemic heating due to APA exposure is reduced via evaporative spray cooling techniques coupled with high-velocity ambient air flow.

Charny, C.K.; Hagmann, M.J.; Levin, R.L.

1987-05-01

205

Whole-body counting in the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect

In 1978 the Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program was organized to perform radiation measurements and assess radiation doses for the people of the Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. One of the major field components of this program is whole- body counting (WBC). WBC is used to monitor the quantity of gamma- emitting radionuclides present in individuals. A primary objective of the program was to establish {sup 137}Cesium body contents among the Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik populations. {sup 137}Cs was the only gamma-emitting fission radionuclide detected in the 1,967 persons monitored. {sup 137}Cs body burdens tended to increase with age for both sexes, and were higher in males. The average {sup 137}Cs dose Annual Effective Dose for the three populations was as follows: For Enewetak, the dose was 22{+-}4 {mu}Sv. For Utirik, the dose was 33{+-} 3 {mu}Sv. Since 1985 the Rongelap people have been self-exiled to Mejatto. Biological elimination should have reduced their dose to virtually zero, and the measured dose was 2{+-}2 {mu}Sv. If they had remained on Rongelap Island, the calculated dose would have been 99 {mu}Sv, which is about one-third of the background dose. 7 refs., 1 tab. (MHB)

Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

1991-01-01

206

[Value of whole-body MRI in vertebral fractures].  

PubMed

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare autoinflammatory disease in children. Pathological vertebral fracture may be the first symptom revealing this disease. We describe the case of a 14-year-old boy, with no significant past medical history, who had a sudden dorsal pain after carrying a friend on his back. Plain radiographs and MRI showed fractures of the superior endplate of T5 and T6 associated with a mild degree of kyphosis. MRI allowed ruling out discitis. The diagnostic hypotheses raised were cancer (lymphoma, leukemia), Langerhans cell histiocytosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and CRMO. A whole-body MRI (wbMRI) was performed and disclosed several clinically silent signal abnormalities in key sites of CRMO (pelvic bone and tibial metaphyses). We point out that CRMO should be systematically added to the list of possible diseases in case of vertebral fracture. In this perspective, wbMRI is a major noninvasive tool to assess the diagnosis of CRMO, and allows avoiding a bone biopsy in most cases. PMID:25650082

Galeotti, C; Tatencloux, S; Adamsbaum, C; Koné-Paut, I

2015-03-01

207

[512 x 2048 matrix whole body scintigraphy with laser imaging system].  

PubMed

Although we could acquire a detailed 512 x 2048 matrix whole body scintigraphy, the 512 x 2048 matrix whole body scintigraphy was divided to the upper and lower half of the body, because a many of CRT system displayed only 1024 x 1024 matrix with non interlace mode. We made 12 dots of normal vertical image distance to 0 dot with laser imaging system (Li-10 Konica medical inc.), and we printed these divided whole body images in the four partition of the film. The lead bar phantom (interval from 6 mm to 3 mm) filled with 99mTcO4- was studied by both 512 x 2048 matrix whole body scanning mode and 256 x 1024 whole body scanning mode in the basic study. And the distance between the lead bar phantom and the gamma camera was changed from 10 mm to 100 mm. We studied 41 patients with metastatic bone tumor (14 breast cancer, 7 lung cancer, 7 prostate cancer, 5 others, 6 unknown origin) clinically. However the 512 x 2048 matrix whole body scan was better quality of images than 256 x 1024 matrix whole body scan at 100 mm distance in the basic study. The abnormal uptake of metastatic sites was shown equally in both 512 x 2048 and 256 x 1024 matrix whole body scintigraphy. The 512 x 2048 matrix whole body scan was better quality of images than 256 x 1024 matrix whole body scan in 26 out of 41 patients, equal in 10 out of 41 patients and worse in 3 out of 41 patients. The matrix size of 512 x 2048 matrix whole body scintigraphy (0.98 mm2) was smaller than that of 256 x 1024 matrix whole body scintigraphy (1.95 mm2).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8377303

Adachi, I; Sugioka, Y; Saiga, Y; Namba, R; Nakata, K; Tatsu, Y; Nishigaki, H; Hiraishi, K; Utsunomiya, K; Sueyoshi, K

1993-07-01

208

Optimal whole-body PET scanner configurations for different volumes of LSO scintillator: a simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The axial field of view (AFOV) of the current generation of clinical whole-body PET scanners range from 15–22 cm, which limits sensitivity and renders applications such as whole-body dynamic imaging or imaging of very low activities in whole-body cellular tracking studies, almost impossible. Generally, extending the AFOV significantly increases the sensitivity and count-rate performance. However, extending the AFOV while maintaining

Jonathan K Poon; Magnus L Dahlbom; William W Moses; Karthik Balakrishnan; Wenli Wang; Simon R Cherry; Ramsey D Badawi

2012-01-01

209

Polyarteritis nodosa: MDCT as a 'One-Stop Shop' Modality for Whole-Body Arterial Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare disease, which is characterized by aneurysm formation and occlusion in the arteries of multiple systems. Due to its extensive involvement, whole-body evaluation is necessary for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We report a case of polyarteritis nodosa using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as a 'one-stop shop' modality for whole-body arterial evaluation. With precise protocol design, MDCT can be used as a reliable noninvasive modality providing comprehensive whole-body arterial evaluation.

Tsai, W.-L.; Tsai, I-C.; Lee Tain, E-mail: s841082@ym.edu.t [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, C.-W. [Taichung Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming University, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taiwan (China)

2008-07-15

210

Effects of a single whole body cryotherapy (-110°C) bout on neuromuscular performance of the elbow flexors during isokinetic exercise.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that body cooling may decrease neuromuscular performance. However, the effect of a single session of whole body cryotherapy (-110°C) on neuromuscular performance has not been well documented. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single exposure of WBC on elbow flexor neuromuscular performance. Thirteen physically active, healthy young men (age=27.9±4.2 years, mass=79.4±9.7?kg, height=176.7±5.2?cm) were randomly exposed to 2 different experimental conditions separated by a minimum of 72?h: 1) whole body cryotherapy- 3?min at -110°C; 2) control- 3?min at 21°C. All subjects were tested for maximal isokinetic elbow flexion at 60°.s(-1) 30?min before and 10?min after each condition. There were no significant differences in peak torque, average power, total work or muscle activity between conditions. Peak torque was lower at post-test compared to pre-test in both conditions (F=6.58, p=0.025). However, there were no differences between pre-test and post-test for any other variables. These results indicate that strength specialists, athletic trainers and physical therapists might utilize whole body cryotherapy before training or rehabilitation without compromising neuromuscular performance of the elbow flexors. PMID:25254899

Ferreira-Junior, J B; Vieira, C A; Soares, S R S; Guedes, R; Rocha Junior, V A; Simoes, H G; Brown, L E; Bottaro, M

2014-12-01

211

Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis  

PubMed Central

Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production) although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis). An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure. PMID:15958171

Scott, Christopher B

2005-01-01

212

Human perceptual overestimation of whole body roll tilt in hypergravity.  

PubMed

Hypergravity provides a unique environment to study human perception of orientation. We utilized a long-radius centrifuge to study perception of both static and dynamic whole body roll tilt in hypergravity, across a range of angles, frequencies, and net gravito-inertial levels (referred to as G levels). While studies of static tilt perception in hypergravity have been published, this is the first to measure dynamic tilt perception (i.e., with time-varying canal stimulation) in hypergravity using a continuous matching task. In complete darkness, subjects reported their orientation perception using a haptic task, whereby they attempted to align a hand-held bar with their perceived horizontal. Static roll tilt was overestimated in hypergravity, with more overestimation at larger angles and higher G levels, across the conditions tested (overestimated by ?35% per additional G level, P < 0.001). As our primary contribution, we show that dynamic roll tilt was also consistently overestimated in hypergravity (P < 0.001) at all angles and frequencies tested, again with more overestimation at higher G levels. The overestimation was similar to that for static tilts at low angular velocities but decreased at higher angular velocities (P = 0.006), consistent with semicircular canal sensory integration. To match our findings, we propose a modification to a previous Observer-type canal-otolith interaction model. Specifically, our data were better modeled by including the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. This modified model was able to simulate quantitatively both the static and the dynamic roll tilt overestimation in hypergravity measured experimentally. PMID:25540216

Clark, Torin K; Newman, Michael C; Oman, Charles M; Merfeld, Daniel M; Young, Laurence R

2015-04-01

213

Effects of train noise and vibration on human heart rate during sleep: an experimental study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Transportation of goods on railways is increasing and the majority of the increased numbers of freight trains run during the night. Transportation noise has adverse effects on sleep structure, affects the heart rate (HR) during sleep and may be linked to cardiovascular disease. Freight trains also generate vibration and little is known regarding the impact of vibration on human sleep. A laboratory study was conducted to examine how a realistic nocturnal railway traffic scenario influences HR during sleep. Design Case–control. Setting Healthy participants. Participants 24 healthy volunteers (11 men, 13 women, 19–28?years) spent six consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Interventions All participants slept during one habituation night, one control and four experimental nights in which train noise and vibration were reproduced. In the experimental nights, 20 or 36 trains with low-vibration or high-vibration characteristics were presented. Primary and secondary outcome measures Polysomnographical data and ECG were recorded. Results The train exposure led to a significant change of HR within 1?min of exposure onset (p=0.002), characterised by an initial and a delayed increase of HR. The high-vibration condition provoked an average increase of at least 3?bpm per train in 79% of the participants. Cardiac responses were in general higher in the high-vibration condition than in the low-vibration condition (p=0.006). No significant effect of noise sensitivity and gender was revealed, although there was a tendency for men to exhibit stronger HR acceleration than women. Conclusions Freight trains provoke HR accelerations during sleep, and the vibration characteristics of the trains are of special importance. In the long term, this may affect cardiovascular functioning of persons living close to railways. PMID:23793667

Croy, Ilona; Smith, Michael G; Waye, Kerstin Persson

2013-01-01

214

Combined effect of noise and vibration produced by high-speed trains on annoyance in buildings.  

PubMed

The effects of noise and vibration on annoyance in buildings during the passage of a nearby high-speed train have been investigated in a laboratory experiment with recorded train noise and 20 Hz vibration. The noises included the effects of two types of fac?ade: windows-open and windows-closed. Subjects were exposed to six levels of noise and six magnitudes of vibration, and asked to rate annoyance using an 11-point numerical scale. The experiment consisted of four sessions: (1) evaluation of noise annoyance in the absence of vibration, (2) evaluation of total annoyance from simultaneous noise and vibration, (3) evaluation of noise annoyance in the presence of vibration, and (4) evaluation of vibration annoyance in the absence of noise. The results show that vibration did not influence ratings of noise annoyance, but that total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration was considerably greater than the annoyance caused by noise alone. The noise annoyance and the total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration were associated with subject self-ratings of noise sensitivity. Two classical models of total annoyance due to combined noise sources (maximum of the single source annoyance or the integration of individual annoyance ratings) provided useful predictions of the total annoyance caused by simultaneous noise and vibration. PMID:23556582

Lee, Pyoung Jik; Griffin, Michael J

2013-04-01

215

AUTOMATIC HOT SPOT DETECTION AND SEGMENTATION IN WHOLE BODY FDG-PET IMAGES Haiying Guan1  

E-print Network

of functional processes in the body. Tumors in FDG-PET appear as "hot spots" due to increased FDG uptakeAUTOMATIC HOT SPOT DETECTION AND SEGMENTATION IN WHOLE BODY FDG-PET IMAGES Haiying Guan1 , Toshiro a system for automatic hot spots detection and segmentation in whole body FDG-PET images. The main

California at Santa Barbara, University of

216

A high protein diet upregulated whole-body protein turnover during energy deficit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of higher protein diets and sustained energy deficit (ED) on whole-body protein turnover (WBPTO) are not well described. This study examined whether dietary protein level influences whole-body protein breakdown (Ra), non-oxidative leucine disposal (NOLD), and oxidation (Ox) during ED. ...

217

Computerized segmentation of whole-body bone scintigrams and its use in automated diagnostics  

E-print Network

benign and malignant diseases, infec- tions, degenerative changes [2]. Bone scintigraphy has highComputerized segmentation of whole-body bone scintigrams and its use in automated diagnostics Luka , tel. +386 41 795 980 1 #12;Abstract Bone scintigraphy or whole-body bone scan is one of the most

Kononenko, Igor

218

Allocentric cues do not always improve whole body reaching performance.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to gain further insight into control strategies used for whole body reaching tasks. Subjects were requested to step and reach to remembered target locations in normal room lighting (LIGHT) and complete darkness (DARK) with their gaze directed toward or eccentric to the remembered target location. Targets were located centrally at three different heights. Eccentric anchors for gaze direction were located at target height and initial target distance, either 30 degrees to the right or 20 degrees to the left of target location. Control trials, where targets remained in place, and remembered target trials were randomly presented. We recorded movements of the hand, eye and head, while subjects stepped and reached to real or remembered target locations. Lateral, vertical and anterior-posterior (AP) hand errors and eye location, and gaze direction deviations were determined relative to control trials. Final hand location errors varied by target height, lighting condition and gaze eccentricity. Lower reaches in the DARK compared to the LIGHT condition were common, and when matched with a tendency to reach above the low target, help explain more accurate reaches for this target in darkness. Anchoring the gaze eccentrically reduced hand errors in the AP direction and increased errors in the lateral direction. These results could be explained by deviations in eye locations and gaze directions, which were deemed significant predictors of final reach errors, accounting for a 17-47% of final hand error variance. Results also confirmed a link between gaze deviations and hand and head displacements, suggesting that gaze direction is used as a common input for movement of the hand and body. Additional links between constant and variable eye deviations and hand errors were common for the AP direction but not for lateral or vertical directions. When combined with data regarding hand error predictions, we found that subjects' alterations in body movement in the AP direction were associated with AP adjustments in their reach, but final hand position adjustments were associated with gaze direction alterations for movements in the vertical and horizontal directions. These results support the hypothesis that gaze direction provides a control signal for hand and body movement and that this control signal is used for movement direction and not amplitude. PMID:16565811

Hondzinski, Jan M; Cui, Yongqin

2006-09-01

219

Optimization of Training Sets for Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns from Vibrating Solids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial neural networks have been used for a number of years to process holography-generated characteristic patterns of vibrating structures. This technology depends critically on the selection and the conditioning of the training sets. A scaling operation called folding is discussed for conditioning training sets optimally for training feed-forward neural networks to process characteristic fringe patterns. Folding allows feed-forward nets to be trained easily to detect damage-induced vibration-displacement-distribution changes as small as 10 nm. A specific application to aerospace of neural-net processing of characteristic patterns is presented to motivate the conditioning and optimization effort.

Decker, Arthur J.

2001-01-01

220

Lasting amelioration of spatial neglect by treatment with neck muscle vibration even without concurrent training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: It has been shown recently that neck muscle vibration in combination with an exploration training leads to lasting amelioration of spatial neglect. The present study evaluated whether vibration of the left posterior neck muscles alone has the potential to induce lasting reduction in spatial neglect. Design: A multiple baseline design was used to control for spontaneous recovery or uncontrolled

Leif Johannsen; Hermann Ackermann; Hans-Otto Karnath

2003-01-01

221

Neuromotor Transmissibility of Horizontal Seatpan Vibration  

E-print Network

Exposure to occupational whole body vibration (WBV) is associated with low back pain disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and degeneration of spine. Transmission of vibration to the neuromotor system may play a role in the etiology...

Channamallu, Raghu Ram

2007-12-16

222

Efficient exploration and learning of whole body kinematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a neural network approach to early motor learning. The goal is to explore the needs for boot-strapping the control of hand movements in a biologically plausible learning scenario. The model is applied to the control of hand postures of the humanoid robot ASIMO by means of full upper body movements. For training, we use an efficient online scheme

M. Rolf; J. J. Steil; M. Gienger

2009-01-01

223

Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?  

PubMed

Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at -110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s(-1) concentric and 180° · s(-1) eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE. PMID:25750548

Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simões, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E

2015-01-01

224

Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?  

PubMed Central

Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at ?110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s?1 concentric and 180° · s?1 eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE. PMID:25750548

Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simões, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E

2015-01-01

225

Problems associated with the establishment of a whole body counter at a university reactor  

E-print Network

A widd variety of difficulties can arise in bringing a ics. whole body counting chair into operation for screening radiation workers. Problems can arise in the mechanical operation of the chair, in fabrication of phantom source bottles...

Fairchild, Gregory R

1999-01-01

226

Optimization of Whole-body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging (2013)  

EPA Science Inventory

Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

227

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Whole Body Donation Among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a survey conducted among medical practitioners in India. The study's objective was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of whole body donation among medical professionals in India. Outcomes and results are discussed.

2011-05-05

228

Heat strain and gross efficiency during endurance exercise after lower, upper, or whole body precooling in the heat.  

PubMed

The maximal power that muscles can generate is reduced at low muscle temperatures. However, in prolonged heavy exercise in the heat, a high core temperature may be the factor limiting performance. Precooling has been shown to delay the attainment of hyperthermia. It is still unclear if the whole body should be cooled or if the active muscles should be excluded from cooling in order to maintain muscle power. An experiment was performed to compare thermal strain and gross efficiency following whole body or partial body cooling. Eight well-trained participants performed 40 min of 60% VO2max cycling exercise in a 30 degrees C, 70% relative humidity climatic chamber after four different precooling sessions in a water perfused suit: N (no precooling), CC (45 min whole body precooling), WC (45 min lower body precooling), and CW (45 min upper body precooling). The uncooled body part was warmed in such a way that the core temperature did not differ from that in session N. Gross efficiency was used to compare performance between the sessions since it indicates how much oxygen is needed for a certain external load. The gross efficiency did not differ significantly between the sessions. Differences in heat loss and heat storage were observed during the first 20 min of exercise. The evaporative heat loss in session WC (305 +/- 67 W) and CW (284 +/- 68 W) differed from session N (398 +/- 77 W) and CC (209 +/- 58 W). More heat was stored in session CC (442 +/- 125 W) than in sessions WC (316 +/- 39 W), CW (307 +/- 63 W), and N (221 +/- 65 W). It was confirmed that precooling reduces heat strain during exercise in the heat. No differences in heat strain and gross efficiency were observed between precooling of the body part with the exercising muscles and precooling of the tissues elsewhere in the body. PMID:16729380

Daanen, H A; van Es, E M; de Graaf, J L

2006-05-01

229

Regional Muscle and Whole-Body Composition Factors Related to Mobility in Older Individuals: A Review  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe previously reported locomotor muscle and whole-body composition factors related to mobility in older individuals. Methods: A narrative review of the literature, including a combination of search terms related to muscle and whole-body composition factors and to mobility in older individuals, was carried out. Statistical measures of association and risk were consolidated to summarize the common effects between studies. Results: Fifty-three studies were reviewed. Muscle and whole-body factors accounted for a substantial amount of the variability in walking speed, with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.30 to 0.47. Muscle power consistently accounted for a greater percentage of the variance in mobility than did strength. Risks associated with high fat mass presented a minimum odds ratio (OR) of 0.70 and a maximum OR of 4.07, while the minimum and maximum ORs associated with low lean mass were 0.87 and 2.30 respectively. Whole-body and regional fat deposits accounted for significant amounts of the variance in mobility. Conclusion: Muscle power accounts for a greater amount of the variance in the level of mobility in older individuals than does muscle strength. Whole-body fat accounts for a greater amount of the variance in level of mobility than does whole-body lean tissue. Fat stored within muscle also appears to increase the risk of a mobility limitation in older individuals. PMID:20808481

Kidde, Jason; Marcus, Robin; Dibble, Lee; Smith, Sheldon

2009-01-01

230

Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}  

SciTech Connect

Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mougey, E.H. [Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-03-01

231

Scanning personnel for internal deposition of radioactive material with personnel contamination whole body friskers and portal monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for using personnel contamination devices such as whole body friskers and portal monitors for internal contamination monitoring was evaluated. Internally deposited radioactive material is typically determined with whole body counting systems. Whole body counts have traditionally been performed on personnel when they report for work, on a periodic basis (i.e., annually), when an uptake is suspected, and on

Lobdell

1996-01-01

232

Effect of whole-body and local heating on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Animal studies suggest that alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is compromised during whole-body heating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether whole-body heating and/or local surface heating reduce cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in human skin. Protocol I: Six subjects were exposed to neutral skin temperature (i.e., 34 degrees C), whole-body heating, and local heating of forearm skin to increase skin blood flow to the same relative magnitude as that observed during whole-body heating. Protocol II: In eight subjects forearm skin was locally heated to 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C. During both protocols, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was assessed by local delivery of norepinephrine (NE) via intradermal microdialysis. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored over each microdialysis membrane via laser-Doppler flowmetry. In protocol I, whole-body and local heating caused similar increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The EC50 (log NE dose) of the dose-response curves for both whole body (-4.2 +/- 0.1 M) and local heating (-4.7 +/- 0.4 M) were significantly greater (i.e., high dose required to cause 50% reduction in CVC) relative to neutral skin temperature (- 5.6 +/- 0.0 M; P<0.05 for both). In both local and whole-body heated conditions CVC did not return to pre-heating values even at the highest dose of NE. In protocol II, calculated EC50 for 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C local heating was - 5.5 +/- 0.4, -4.6 +/- 0.3, -4.5 +/- 0.3, - 4.2 +/- 0.4 M, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the EC50 for 37,40 and 42 degrees C were significantly greater than the EC50 for 34 degrees C. These results indicate that even during administration of high concentrations of NE, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction does not fully compensate for local heating and whole-body heating induced vasodilatation in young, healthy subjects. Moreover, these data suggest that elevated local temperatures, above 37 degrees C, and whole-body heating similarly attenuate cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction responsiveness.

Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

2002-01-01

233

Whole body mechanics differ among running and cutting maneuvers in skilled athletes.  

PubMed

Quick changes of direction during running (cutting) represent a whole body mechanical challenge, as they require deceleration and translation of the body during ongoing movement. While much is known with respect to whole body demands during walking turns, whole body mechanics and anticipatory adjustments necessary for cutting are unclear. As the ability to rapidly change direction is critical to athletes' success in many sports, a better understanding of whole body adjustments made during cuts is needed. Whole body center of mass velocity and position during the approach and execution steps of three tasks (straight running, 45° sidestep cut, and 90° sidestep cut) performed as fast as possible were compared in 25 healthy soccer athletes. Repeated measure ANOVA revealed that overall, braking and translation were greater during the cuts compared to the straight run. Interestingly, with systematically increased cut angle, disproportionately greater braking but proportionately greater translation was observed. Anticipatory adjustments made prior to the execution of the cuts suggested that individuals evenly distributed the deceleration and redirection demands across steps of the 45° cut but prioritized deceleration over translation during the approach step of the 90° cut. PMID:25149902

Havens, Kathryn L; Sigward, Susan M

2014-08-01

234

Patient-specific biomechanical model as whole-body CT image registration tool.  

PubMed

Whole-body computed tomography (CT) image registration is important for cancer diagnosis, therapy planning and treatment. Such registration requires accounting for large differences between source and target images caused by deformations of soft organs/tissues and articulated motion of skeletal structures. The registration algorithms relying solely on image processing methods exhibit deficiencies in accounting for such deformations and motion. We propose to predict the deformations and movements of body organs/tissues and skeletal structures for whole-body CT image registration using patient-specific non-linear biomechanical modelling. Unlike the conventional biomechanical modelling, our approach for building the biomechanical models does not require time-consuming segmentation of CT scans to divide the whole body into non-overlapping constituents with different material properties. Instead, a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm is used for tissue classification to assign the constitutive properties automatically at integration points of the computation grid. We use only very simple segmentation of the spine when determining vertebrae displacements to define loading for biomechanical models. We demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of our approach on CT images of seven patients suffering from cancer and aortic disease. The results confirm that accurate whole-body CT image registration can be achieved using a patient-specific non-linear biomechanical model constructed without time-consuming segmentation of the whole-body images. PMID:25721296

Li, Mao; Miller, Karol; Joldes, Grand Roman; Doyle, Barry; Garlapati, Revanth Reddy; Kikinis, Ron; Wittek, Adam

2015-05-01

235

Whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system: the value of MR imaging  

PubMed Central

In clinical practice various modalities are used for whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system, including radiography, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Multislice CT is far more sensitive than radiographs in the assessment of trabecular and cortical bone destruction and allows for evaluation of fracture risk. The introduction of combined PET-CT scanners has markedly increased diagnostic accuracy for the detection of skeletal metastases compared with PET alone. The unique soft-tissue contrast of MRI enables for precise assessment of bone marrow infiltration and adjacent soft tissue structures so that alterations within the bone marrow may be detected before osseous destruction becomes apparent in CT or metabolic changes occur on bone scintigraphy or PET scan. Improvements in hard- and software, including parallel image acquisition acceleration, have made high resolution whole-body MRI clinically feasible. Whole-body MRI has successfully been applied for bone marrow screening of metastasis and systemic primary bone malignancies, like multiple myeloma. Furthermore, it has recently been proposed for the assessment of systemic bone diseases predisposing for malignancy (e.g., multiple cartilaginous exostoses) and muscle disease (e.g., muscle dystrophy). The following article gives an overview on state-of-the-art whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system and highlights present and potential future applications, especially in the field of whole-body MRI. PMID:17554538

Reiser, Maximilian F.; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

2007-01-01

236

Predictors of whole-body vibration levels among urban taxi drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify a set of important WBV predictors that could be used to develop a statistical instrument for exposure assessment in a large epidemiologic study, a total of 432 WBV measures were taken from a sample of 247 male drivers in Taipei City, Taiwan. In accordance with the ISO 2631-1 (1997) methods, we measured the frequency-weighted vertical acceleration (z-axis) over

CHEN JC; CHANG WR; SHIH TS; CHEN CJ; CHANG WP; DENNERLEIN JT; RYAN LM; CHRISTIANI DC

2003-01-01

237

Transmission of Vertical Whole Body Vibration to the Human Body Juha Kiiski,1  

E-print Network

were assessed with skin-mounted triaxial accelerometers at the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar spine amplification of peak acceleration could occur between 10 and 40 Hz for the ankle, 10 and 25 Hz for the knee, 10

238

Reducing whole-body vibration and musculoskeletal injury with a new car seat  

E-print Network

supports the lumbar spine, was quantita- tively tested to determine its effectiveness and potentials-axis at the lumbar spine and ITs significantly decreased 31.6% (p 5 0.01) and 19.8% (p 5 0.05), respectively-axis of the lumbar spine and ITs by 43.0% (p 5 0.05) and 34.5% (p 5 0.01). This reduction in WBV allows more

Makhsous, Mohsen

239

Brown adipose tissue improves whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans.  

PubMed

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted scientific interest as an antidiabetic tissue owing to its ability to dissipate energy as heat. Despite a plethora of data concerning the role of BAT in glucose metabolism in rodents, the role of BAT (if any) in glucose metabolism in humans remains unclear. To investigate whether BAT activation alters whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans, we studied seven BAT-positive (BAT(+)) men and five BAT-negative (BAT(-)) men under thermoneutral conditions and after prolonged (5-8 h) cold exposure (CE). The two groups were similar in age, BMI, and adiposity. CE significantly increased resting energy expenditure, whole-body glucose disposal, plasma glucose oxidation, and insulin sensitivity in the BAT(+) group only. These results demonstrate a physiologically significant role of BAT in whole-body energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity in humans, and support the notion that BAT may function as an antidiabetic tissue in humans. PMID:25056438

Chondronikola, Maria; Volpi, Elena; Børsheim, Elisabet; Porter, Craig; Annamalai, Palam; Enerbäck, Sven; Lidell, Martin E; Saraf, Manish K; Labbe, Sebastien M; Hurren, Nicholas M; Yfanti, Christina; Chao, Tony; Andersen, Clark R; Cesani, Fernando; Hawkins, Hal; Sidossis, Labros S

2014-12-01

240

Whole-body FDG-PET imaging for staging of Hodgkin`s disease and lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Accurate staging of Hodgkin`s disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma (NHL) is important for treatment management. In this study, the utility of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) wholebody PET was evaluated as an imaging modality for initial staging or restaging of 7 HD and 11 NHL patients. Whole-body PET-based staging results were compared to the patient`s clinical stage based on conventional staging studies, which included combinations of CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, MRI scans, gallium scans, lymphangiograms, staging laparatomies and bone scans. Accurate staging was performed in 17 of 18 patients using a whole-body PET-based staging algorithm compared to the conventional staging algorithm in 15 of 18 patients. In 5 of 18 patients, whole-body PET-based staging showed additional lesions not detected by conventional staging modalities, whereas conventional staging demonstrated additional lesions in 4 of 18 patients not detected by whole-body PET. The total cost of conventional staging was $66,292 for 16 CT chest scans, 16 CT abdominal/pelvis scans, three limited MRI scans, four bone scans, give gallium scans, two laparotomies and one lymphangiogram. In contrast, scans cost $36,250 for 18 whole-body PET studies and additional selected correlative studies: one plain film radiograph, one limited CT, one bone marrow san, one upper GI and one endoscopy. A whole-body FDG-PET-based staging algorithm may be an accurate and cost-effective method for staging or restaging HD and NHL. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Hoh, C.K.; Glaspy, J.; Rosen, P. [Crump Institute of Biological Imaging, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-03-01

241

Whole body heat stress attenuates baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity during postexercise muscle ischemia  

PubMed Central

Both whole body heat stress and stimulation of muscle metabolic receptors activate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) through nonbaroreflex pathways. In addition to stimulating muscle metaboreceptors, exercise has the potential to increase internal temperature. Although we and others report that passive whole body heating does not alter the gain of the arterial baroreflex, it is unknown whether increased body temperature, often accompanying exercise, affects baroreflex function when muscle metaboreceptors are stimulated. This project tested the hypothesis that whole body heating alters the gain of baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and heart rate during muscle metaboreceptor stimulation engaged via postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI). MSNA, blood pressure (BP, Finometer), and heart rate were recorded from 11 healthy volunteers. The volunteers performed isometric handgrip exercise until fatigue, followed by 2.5 min of PEMI. During PEMI, BP was acutely reduced and then raised pharmacologically using the modified Oxford technique. This protocol was repeated two to three times when volunteers were normothermic, and again during heat stress (increase core temperature ? 0.7°C) conditions. The slope of the relationship between MSNA and BP during PEMI was less negative (i.e., decreased baroreflex gain) during whole body heating when compared with the normothermic condition (?4.34 ± 0.40 to ?3.57 ± 0.31 units·beat?1·mmHg?1, respectively; P = 0.015). The gain of baroreflex control of heart rate during PEMI was also decreased during whole body heating (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that whole body heat stress reduces baroreflex control of MSNA and heart rate during muscle metaboreceptor stimulation. PMID:19213933

Cui, Jian; Shibasaki, Manabu; Davis, Scott L.; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Crandall, Craig G.

2009-01-01

242

Acute volume expansion preserves orthostatic tolerance during whole-body heat stress in humans  

PubMed Central

Whole-body heat stress reduces orthostatic tolerance via a yet to be identified mechanism(s). The reduction in central blood volume that accompanies heat stress may contribute to this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute volume expansion prior to the application of an orthostatic challenge attenuates heat stress-induced reductions in orthostatic tolerance. In seven normotensive subjects (age, 40 ± 10 years: mean ±s.d.), orthostatic tolerance was assessed using graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) until the onset of symptoms associated with ensuing syncope. Orthostatic tolerance (expressed in cumulative stress index units, CSI) was determined on each of 3 days, with each day having a unique experimental condition: normothermia, whole-body heating, and whole-body heating + acute volume expansion. For the whole-body heating + acute volume expansion experimental day, dextran 40 was rapidly infused prior to LBNP sufficient to return central venous pressure to pre-heat stress values. Whole-body heat stress alone reduced orthostatic tolerance by ?80% compared to normothermia (938 ± 152 versus 182 ± 57 CSI; mean ±s.e.m., P < 0.001). Acute volume expansion during whole-body heating completely ameliorated the heat stress-induced reduction in orthostatic tolerance (1110 ± 69 CSI, P < 0.001). Although heat stress results in many cardiovascular and neural responses that directionally challenge blood pressure regulation, reduced central blood volume appears to be an underlying mechanism responsible for impaired orthostatic tolerance in the heat-stressed human. PMID:19139044

Keller, David M; Low, David A; Wingo, Jonathan E; Brothers, R Matthew; Hastings, Jeff; Davis, Scott L; Crandall, Craig G

2009-01-01

243

Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research  

SciTech Connect

The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

1991-01-01

244

Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research  

SciTech Connect

The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

1991-12-31

245

Railway noise annoyance and the importance of number of trains, ground vibration, and building situational factors.  

PubMed

Internationally accepted exposure-response relationships show that railway noise causes less annoyance than road traffic and aircraft noise. Railway transport, both passenger and freight transport, is increasing, and new railway lines are planned for environmental reasons. The combination of more frequent railway traffic and faster and heavier trains will, most probably, lead to more disturbances from railway traffic in the near future. To effectively plan for mitigations against noise and vibration from railway traffic, new studies are needed to obtain a better basis of knowledge. The main objectives of the present study was to investigate how the relationship between noise levels from railway traffic and general annoyance is influenced by (i) number of trains, (ii) the presence of ground borne vibrations, and (iii) building situational factors, such as orientation of balcony/patio and bedroom window. Socio-acoustic field studies were executed in residential areas; (1) with relatively intense railway traffic; (2) with strong vibrations, and; (3) with the most intense railway traffic in the country. Data was obtained for 1695 respondents exposed to sound levels ranging from L(Aeq,24h) 45 to 65 dB. Both number of trains and presence of ground-borne vibrations, and not just the noise level per se, are of relevance for how annoying railway noise is perceived. The results imply that, for the proportion annoyed to be equal, a 5 - 7 dB lower noise level is needed in areas where the railway traffic causes strong ground-borne vibrations and in areas with a very large number of trains. General noise annoyance was twice as high among residents in dwellings with balcony / patio oriented towards the railway and about 1.5 times higher among residents with bedroom windows facing the railway. PMID:22918150

Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Ögren, Mikael; Jerson, Tomas; Öhrström, Evy

2012-01-01

246

Muscle contributions to whole-body sagittal plane angular momentum during walking  

E-print Network

Muscle contributions to whole-body sagittal plane angular momentum during walking R.R. Neptune n into swing. In human walking, the primary mechanism to regulate angular momentum is muscle force generation. Muscles accelerate body segments and generate ground reaction forces that alter angular momentum about

247

Tasks prioritization for whole-body realtime imitation of human motion by humanoid robots  

E-print Network

with the balance problem by constrain- ing the robot feet to remain flat in double support and the COM projection; track the robot end-effectors (two hands and the free foot) and minimize human-humanoid joint angleTasks prioritization for whole-body realtime imitation of human motion by humanoid robots Sophie

Boyer, Edmond

248

Whole-body angular momentum during stair walking using passive and powered lower-limb prostheses*  

E-print Network

a passive prosthesis in maintaining dynamic balance during stair walking. & 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rightsWhole-body angular momentum during stair walking using passive and powered lower-limb prostheses to evaluate dynamic balance in individuals with a transtibial amputation using powered and passive prostheses

249

Validation of a whole-body cortisol extraction procedure for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We developed and validated a whole-body cortisol extraction technique for catfish fry. Their small size (< 1 g) makes it difficult to measure cortisol, a common indicator of a stress response, using conventional assay methods. Three volume enhancement methods were tested: CAL method (zero calibrator...

250

Compliant Control of Whole-Body Multi-Contact Behaviors in Humanoid Robots  

E-print Network

Compliant Control of Whole-Body Multi-Contact Behaviors in Humanoid Robots Luis Sentis 1 of this chapter is to summarize my collaborative work in the area of compliant control of humanoid robots-body compliant contact interactions. A hierarchical organization of the controller imposes priorities between

Sentis, Luis

251

DETECTION OF RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION-INDUCED WHOLE BODY HEATING FOLLOWING CHEMICAL IMPAIRMENT OF THERMOREGULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Heating by radiofrequency (RF) radiation at high intensities can cause biological changes by whole-body hyperthermia or by altered thermal gradients within the body. However, there have been reports of effects at low intensities of RF radiation without evidence of increased tempe...

252

Moving along the Mental Number Line: Interactions between Whole-Body Motion and Numerical Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Active head turns to the left and right have recently been shown to influence numerical cognition by shifting attention along the mental number line. In the present study, we found that passive whole-body motion influences numerical cognition. In a random-number generation task (Experiment 1), leftward and downward displacement of participants…

Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia; Mast, Fred W.

2012-01-01

253

Partial and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort— Part I: Uniform environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects exposed to uniform environments were polled for their local and overall (whole-body) thermal sensation and comfort. Sensation and comfort for local body parts vary greatly. In cool environments, hands and feet feel colder than other body parts. The head, insensitive to cold but sensitive to warm, feels warmer than the rest of the body in warm environments. Overall sensation

Edward Arens; Hui Zhang; Charlie Huizenga

2006-01-01

254

More than twelve different human behavioural traits and whole-body medical disorders are reported to  

E-print Network

disorders (especially obsessive­compulsive disorder), suicide, eating disorders, substance-abuse disordersMore than twelve different human behavioural traits and whole-body medical disorders are reported, respectively) seem to have a role in neuropsychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety

Murphy, Dennis L.

255

Absolute accuracy of the Cyberware WB4 whole-body scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner is one of the first scanning systems in the world that generates a high resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory of Wright-Patterson AFB intends to use the scanner to enable quick and reliable acquisition of anthropometric data. For this purpose, a

Hein A. Daanen; Stacie E. Taylor; Matthew A. Brunsman; Joseph H. Nurre

1997-01-01

256

Solid anthropomorphic infant whole body DXA phantom: Design, evaluation, and multisite testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires phantoms for quality control and cross-calibration. No commercially available phantoms are designed specifically for infant whole-body scanning. We fabricated a phantom closely matching a 7-kg human infant in body habitus using PVC, nylon-mix, and poly...

257

Command Recognition of Robot with Low Dimension Whole-Body Haptic Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed ``haptic armor'', a whole-body haptic sensor that has an ability to estimate contact position. Although it is developed for safety assurance of robots in human environment, it can also be used as an interface. This paper proposes a command recognition method based on finger trace information. This paper also discusses some technical issues for improving recognition

Tatsuya Ito; Toshiaki Tsuji

2010-01-01

258

Published online 6 August 2003 Bipedalism in lizards: whole-body modelling reveals  

E-print Network

Published online 6 August 2003 Bipedalism in lizards: whole-body modelling reveals a possible to discussions in evolutionary biology. Bipedal locomotion has evolved on numerous occasions in lizards. Traits advantages of bipedal locomotion in lizards remain debated. Earlier claims that bipedalism would increase

D'Août, Kristiaan

259

DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING  

EPA Science Inventory

DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING. R Slade, J L McKee and G E Hatch. PTB, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Reliable non-invasive markers for detecting oxidative stress in vivo are currently not available. We pr...

260

A Tactile Sensing Element for a Whole Body Robot Skin Takayuki HOSHI, and Hiroyuki SHINODA  

E-print Network

- 1 - A Tactile Sensing Element for a Whole Body Robot Skin Takayuki HOSHI, and Hiroyuki SHINODA {star, shino}@alab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp In this paper, we propose a new tactile sensing element to realize robot skins. The sensing element has a large sensing area (several square centimeters) and acquires

Shinoda, Hiroyuki

261

Nasal visualization on radioiodine whole-body scintigraphy due to benign abnormality.  

PubMed

Nasal iodine activity can be observed on Iodine (I) or I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) commonly as a normal variant caused by nasal or salivary secretion of the tracer. We encountered 2 patients whose increased accumulation of I activity was associated with underlying abnormalities. One patient had a nasal polyp, whereas the other had an abscess. PMID:25674863

Jiang, Xue; Wang, Qiao; Huang, Rui

2015-04-01

262

A validation of computational phantoms from photographic images for patient-tailored whole body counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempted to validate a new method for patient-tailored efficiency calibration. Digital calibration with Monte Carlo simulations was used to substitute the lack of precision limitation due to the limited number of experimental phantoms in whole body counting calibration for internal dosimetry. The validity of this approach was examined by comparing the simulation results to the measured values from

Ji Seok Kim; Jong Hwi Jeong; Wi Ho Ha; Kun Woo Cho; Jai Ki Lee

2010-01-01

263

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

2011-01-01

264

Humantenna: Using the Body as an Antenna for Real-Time Whole-Body Interaction  

E-print Network

of heavily instrumenting ei- ther the environment or the user. In this paper, we use the human body explored sensors that leverage characteristics of the human body for sensing. Harrison et al. demonstrated sensing system that recognizes whole-body gestures. Humantenna works by using the human body as an antenna

Anderson, Richard

265

Optimization of Whole-body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging  

EPA Science Inventory

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature lacks information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in devel...

266

Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P < 0.03) during the 2nd wk of bed rest. Leg and whole body lean mass decreased after bed rest (P < 0.05). Serum cortisol, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, and testosterone values did not change. Arteriovenous model calculations based on the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine in five subjects revealed a 50% decrease in muscle protein synthesis (PS; P < 0.03). Fractional PS by tracer incorporation into muscle protein also decreased by 46% (P < 0.05). The decrease in PS was related to a corresponding decrease in the sum of intracellular amino acid appearance from protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P < 0.01). Neither model-derived nor whole body values for protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

1996-01-01

267

PERSISTENCE OF LYMPHOCYTES WITH DECENTRIC CHROMOSOMES FOLLOWING WHOLE-BODY X IRRADIATION OF MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Thirty-six male C57B1/6 mice were whole-body x-irradiated with 3 Gy to generate lymphocytes with dicentric chromosomes to study the Persistence of these lymphocytes in the spleen and peripheral blood to estimate the lifespan of mature 8- and 7-cells. lood and spleen were removed ...

268

Whole-Body Cerenkov Luminescence Tomography with the Finite Element SP3 Method  

E-print Network

in vivo imaging in small animals. Our exact reconstruction method enables optical molecular imaging--Cerenkov, Mathematical model, Light propaga- tion in tissues, Tomography, Molecular imaging. INTRODUCTION Whole-body Cerenkov tomographic imaging pro- vides a new molecular imaging strategy to image radionuclides in vivo

Tian, Jie

269

Time-dependent whole-body fluorescence tomography of probe bio-distributions in mice  

E-print Network

of probe distributions through out the whole body of small animals. Configured in a plane parallel geometry dependent (t=2.2 min.) in vivo imaging of mice was performed following injections of a fluorescing probe, "Novel fluorescent contrast agents for optical imaging of in vivo tumors based on a receptor-targeted dye

Larson-Prior, Linda

270

AMPK: Regulating Energy Balance at the Cellular and Whole Body Levels  

PubMed Central

AMP-activated protein kinase appears to have evolved in single-celled eukaryotes as an adenine nucleotide sensor that maintains energy homeostasis at the cellular level. However, during evolution of more complex multicellular organisms, the system has adapted to interact with hormones so that it also plays a key role in balancing energy intake and expenditure at the whole body level. PMID:24583766

Hardie, D. Grahame; Ashford, Michael L. J.

2014-01-01

271

AMMONIA ABATEMENT SYSTEM FOR WHOLE-BODY SMALL ANIMAL INHALATION EXPOSURES TO ACID MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Conducting whole-body acid aerosol inhalation exposures of laboratory animals is complicated by ammonia arising from the excrement of the test animals which is sufficient to completely neutralize much of the acid aerosol. he neutralization of acid by ammonia con only be controlle...

272

Insulin and amino acids stimulate whole body protein synthesis in neonates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insulin and amino acids (AA) stimulate muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. To determine the effects of insulin and AA on whole body protein turnover, hyperinsulinemic (0 and 100 ng/(kg[0.66]/min))-euglycemic-AA clamps were performed during euaminoacidemia or hyperaminoacidemia in fasted 7-d-...

273

The estimation of whole-body zinc and Zn turnover in rheumatoid and osteoarthritis using 65Zn tracer.  

PubMed

1. A method of estimating whole-body zinc, and Zn balances using a two-compartment model in combination with whole-body counting of 65Zn, is described. The method is applied to patients with rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. 2. The results suggested that there was not a wide variation in whole-body Zn and Zn turnover in individuals with these two diseases and no clearcut difference between patients with one or the other. PMID:666994

Kennedy, A C; Bessent, R G; Davis, P; Reynolds, P M

1978-07-01

274

A simulation study of a long axial field of view whole-body PET scanner using cylindrical and anthropomorphic phantoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical whole-body PET scanners mostly have an axial field of view (AFOV) ranging from 15–21 cm in length, which limits sensitivity and prevents the acquisition of whole-body dynamic images. We present results from a simulation study for a fully 3D, 2 meter long AFOV whole body PET scanner where we use cylindrical and anthropomorphic phantoms to characterize the count-rate performance

Jonathan K. Poon; Lawrence R. MacDonald; Simon R. Cherry; Ramsey D. Badawi

2008-01-01

275

Estimation of whole-body SAR from electromagnetic fields using personal exposure meters.  

PubMed

In this article, personal electromagnetic field measurements are converted into whole-body specific absorption rates for exposure of the general public. Whole-body SAR values calculated from personal exposure meter data are compared for different human spheroid phantoms: the highest SAR values (at 950 MHz) are obtained for the 1-year-old child (99th percentile of 17.9 microW/kg for electric field strength of 0.36 V/m), followed by the 5-year-old child, 10-year-old child, average woman, and average man. For the 1-year-old child, whole-body SAR values due to 9 different radiofrequency sources (FM, DAB, TETRA, TV, GSM900 DL, GSM1800 DL, DECT, UMTS DL, WiFi) are determined for 15 different scenarios. An SAR matrix for 15 different exposure scenarios and 9 sources is provided with the personal field exposure matrix. Highest 95th percentiles of the whole-body SAR are equal to 7.9 microW/kg (0.36 V/m, GSM900 DL), 5.8 microW/kg (0.26 V/m, DAB/TV), and 7.1 microW/kg (0.41 V/m, DECT) for the 1-year-old child, with a maximal total whole-body SAR of 11.5 microW/kg (0.48 V/m) due to all 9 sources. All values are below the basic restriction of 0.08 W/kg for the general public. 95th percentiles of whole-body SAR per V/m are equal to 60.1, 87.9, and 42.7 microW/kg for GSM900, DAB/TV, and DECT sources, respectively. Functions of the SAR versus measured electric fields are provided for the different phantoms and frequencies, enabling epidemiological and dosimetric studies to make an analysis in combination with both electric field and actual whole-body SAR. PMID:20041435

Joseph, Wout; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

2010-05-01

276

Prediction of RBC aggregability and deformability by whole body bioimpedance measurements analyzed according to Hanai's mixture conductivity theory.  

PubMed

Bioelectrical impedancemetry (BIA) has been used to evaluate hemorheological parameters in vitro, and whole body impedance measurements are also correlated to some hemorheologic factors, due to their close relationship with determinants of electric properties of blood. In previous studies, we have determined a set of predictive equations for hematocrit, whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity in both sedentary and trained individuals. Recent developments of the interpretation of BIA analysis based on Hanai's mixture conductivity theory allows a more interpretative analysis of the relationships between these electric measurements and body composition. Impedance can be analyzed in terms of resistance and resistivity of the whole body and even more, assuming some simplifications, resistance R and resistivity ? of total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW). In this study we thus investigated relationships between blood rheology and these calculations of R and ? in a sample of 83 subjects (age: 9-64 yr; BMI: 17-44 kg/m(2)). BIA was performed with a multifrequency bioelectrical impedancemeter using low intensity at the following frequencies: 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 kHz. Viscometric measurements were done with a falling ball viscometer. Hematocrit was measured with microcentrifuge. We found a new prediction of Quemada's viscometric index of RBC rigidity "k" which was positively correlated to the resistance of ECW (R(e)) and even more if it was related to this volume: k = 0.005809 R(e)/ECW + 1.1784 (r = 0.487; Bland-Altman mean difference: 0.0124; range: -0.00481 to 0.00296). A new finding was that red blood cells (RBC) aggregability, that in the previous studies was not related to whole body impedance, despite its in vitro measurability with such measurements, was correlated to extracellular resistance and resistivity. The Myrenne index "M" was negatively correlated to the resistivity of the extracellular fluid ?e and is predicted by: M = -27.4755 ?(e) + 1121.57029 (r = 0.463; Bland-Altman mean difference: 0.00194; range: -0.842 to 0.842). Furthermore, the SEFAM index "S(10)" is correlated to the ?e and is predicted by S(10) = -59.38579 (?(e)-40) + 63.083 (r = 0.761; Bland-Altman mean difference: 0.000722; range: -1.77 to 1.77). Therefore, a more in-depth analysis of electric properties of the body provides a closer approach of RBC rheology, although, of course, most remains to be understood in this intriguing domain. PMID:21339635

Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Brun, Jean-Frédéric

2011-01-01

277

A vibration monitoring acquisition and diagnostic system for helicopter drive train bench tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated drive train test stand vibration monitoring system called VMADS has been developed by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., and has been installed at Bell's transmission bench test facility. VMADS provides the operator with warning and alarm indications for preselected degraded conditions, and acquires vibration data to be used by engineers to improve the diagnostics for better fault detection and fault isolation. VMADS is used as a test bed for new monitoring and diagnostic algorithm evaluation and validation, a necessary step to ensure development of accurate, reliable integrated health usage monitoring systems for the Bell rotorcraft fleet. This paper highlights the VMADS features for helicopter and tiltrotor aircraft drive train bench test monitoring and diagnostics and discusses supportive ongoing health and usage monitoring activities at BHTI, both military and commercial for enhanced safety and reduced maintenance costs. Bell is translating VMADS developed capability to airborne applications, while simultaneously enhancing the original VMADS capabilities.

Dousis, Dimitri A.

278

Optimization of Training Sets For Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns From Vibrating Solids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial neural network is disclosed that processes holography generated characteristic pattern of vibrating structures along with finite-element models. The present invention provides for a folding operation for conditioning training sets for optimally training forward-neural networks to process characteristic fringe pattern. The folding pattern increases the sensitivity of the feed-forward network for detecting changes in the characteristic pattern The folding routine manipulates input pixels so as to be scaled according to the location in an intensity range rather than the position in the characteristic pattern.

Decker, Arthur J. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

279

Clinical examination or whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: the Holy Grail of spondyloarthritis imaging  

PubMed Central

Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging allows acquisition of diagnostic images in the shortest scan time, leading to better patient compliance and artifact-free images. Methods of clinical examination of the anterior chest wall joints vary between physician groups and consideration of the rules of rib motion is suggested. The type of joint and its synovial lining may also aid imaging/clinical correlation. This well-written study by experts in the field with a standardized design and methodology allows good scientific analysis and suggests the advantages of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in anterior chest wall imaging. Selection of clinical examination criteria and specific joints may have had an influence on the study results and the lack of association reported. PMID:22380535

2012-01-01

280

Survival of penicillamine-treated mice following whole-body irradiation  

SciTech Connect

D-penicillamine (..beta..,..beta..-dimetnylcysteine) protected male mice against whole-body radiation lethality when the drug was injected (ip) before but not after irradiation. The LD/sub 50/30/ of control mice was 679 +- 28 rad, compared to values of 709 +- 25, 766 +- 28, and 808 +- 36 rad for animals given 10 or 100 mg penicillamine or 40 mg L-cysteine, respectively, 15 min before whole-body exposure to 500 to 1000 rad of /sup 60/Co-..gamma.. rays. Dose reduction factors were 1.04 +- 0.04 and 1.13 +- 0.04 for low and high doses of penicillamine and 1.19 +- 0.05 for cysteine.

Ward, W.F.; Shih-Hoellwarth, A.; Johnson, P.M.

1980-01-01

281

Whole body and tissue blood volumes of two strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss )  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Estimates of apparent packed cell, plasma and total blood volumes for the whole body and for 13 selected tissues were compared between Kamloops and Wytheville strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the simultaneous injection of two vascular tracers, radiolabeled trout erythrocytes (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). 2. Whole body total blood volume, plasma volume and packed cell volume were slightly, but not significantly greater in the Wytheville trout, whereas, the apparent plasma volumes and total blood volumes in 4 of 13 tissues were significantly greater in the Kamloops strain. 3. Differences were most pronounced in highly perfused organs, such as the liver and kidney and in organs of digestion such as the stomach and intestines. 4. Differences in blood volumes between the two strains may be related to the greater permeability of the vascular membranes in the Kamloops strain fish.

Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

1990-01-01

282

Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion  

PubMed Central

We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

2014-01-01

283

Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion.  

PubMed

We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-Ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

2014-01-01

284

MRI compatible small animal monitoring and trigger system for whole body scanners.  

PubMed

Performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments with small animals requires continuous monitoring of vital parameters, especially the respiration rate. Clinical whole-body MR scanners represent an attractive option for preclinical imaging as dedicated animal scanners are cost-intensive in both investment and maintenance, thus limiting their availability. Even though impressive image quality is achievable with clinical MR systems in combination with special coils, their built-in physiologic monitoring and triggering units are often not suited for small animal imaging. In this work, we present a simple, MRI compatible low cost solution to monitor the respiration and heart rate of small animals in a clinical whole-body MR scanner. The recording and processing of the biosignals as well as the optimisation of the respiratory trigger generation is decribed. Additionally rat and mouse in-vivo MRI experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the monitoring and respiratory trigger system in suppressing motion artifacts. PMID:23962379

Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Pfeiffer, Norman; Krumbein, Ines; Herrmann, Lutz; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

2014-03-01

285

Performance evaluation of the whole-body PET scanner ECAT EXACT HR + following the IEC standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance parameters of the whole-body PET scanner ECAT EXACT HR+ (CTI\\/Siemens, Knoxville, TN) were determined following the standard proposed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The tests were expanded by some measurements concerning the accuracy of the correction algorithms and the geometric fidelity of the reconstructed images. The scanner consists of 32 rings, each with 576 BGO detectors (4.05×4.39×30

Lars-Eric Adam; Joachim Zaers; Hermann Ostertag; Herbert Trojan; Matthias E. Bellemann; Gunnar Brix

1997-01-01

286

Performance Evaluation of a Whole-Body PET Scanner Using the NEMA Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the performance of the newly developed high- resolution whole-body PET scanner ECAT EXACT HR '. Methods: The scanner consists of four rings of 72 bismuth germanate block detectors each, covering an axial field of view of 15.5 cm with a patient port of 56.2 cm. A single block detector is divided into an 8 x 8 matrix,

Gunnar Brix; Joachim Zaers; Lars-Eric Adam; Matthias E. Bellemann; Hermann Ostertag; Herbert Trojan; Uwe Haberkorn; Josef Doll; Franz Oberdorfer; Walter J. Lorenz

1997-01-01

287

Performance characteristics of an eight-ring whole body PET scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical characteristics of the multislice whole-body positron emission tomographic scanner (model PC4096-15WB Scanditronix) and its performance parameters are described. Spatial resolution at the center of the field of view was found to be 4.9 mm in-plane and 4.6 mm (cross slices) and 6.0 mm (direct slices) in the axial direction. The sensitivity for true and scattered coincidences is approximately

Elena Rota Kops; Hans Herzog; August Schmid; Sven Holte; Ludwig E. Feinendegen

1990-01-01

288

Quantitative role of the splanchnic bed in whole body leucine metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the splanchnic bed in the economy of whole body leucine (leu) metabolism was assessed in 5 chronically catheterized conscious fasting mongrel dogs. Using primed continuous intravenous infusions of L-(¹⁵N, 1-¹³C)-leu and L-1-¹⁴C-leu the metabolic fate of leu carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the splanchnic region was compared with that in the body as a whole, by

Y. M. Yu; D. A. Wagner; E. Tredget; J. Walesreweski; J. F. Burke; V. R. Young

1986-01-01

289

Effect of ciJ-Diamminedichloroplatinum(II) Combinedwith Whole Body Hyperthermia on Renal Injury1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of whole body hyperthermia (WBH) on cis-diamminedi- chloroplatinum(II) (DDP) induced renal toxicity and antitumor effect was studied using a F344 rat model. Renal injury at 5 and 14 days after treatment was evaluated using animal mortality, renal functional assays (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine), and histopathological methods. WBH (120 min at 41.5°C) enhanced both antitumor effects and toxic side

Jan Wondergem; Ruth Ellen Bulger; Frederick R. Strebel; Robert A. Newman; Elizabeth L. Travis; L. Clifton Stephens; Joan M. C. Bull

1988-01-01

290

Advantage of delayed whole-body FDG-PET imaging for tumour detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed imaging that coincides with the highest uptake of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by tumour may be advantageous in oncological positron emission tomography (PET), where delineation of metastasis from normal tissue background is important. In order to identify the better imaging protocol for tumour detection, whole-body FDG-PET images acquired at 1 h and 2 h after injection were evaluated in 22

Kazuo Kubota; Masatoshi Itoh; Kaoru Ozaki; Shuichi Ono; Manabu Tashiro; Keiichiro Yamaguchi; Takashi Akaizawa; Kenji Yamada; Hiroshi Fukuda

2001-01-01

291

Whole Body Screening Using High-Temperature Superconducting MR Volume Resonators: Mice Studies  

PubMed Central

High temperature superconducting (HTS) surface resonators have been used as a low loss RF receiver resonator for improving magnetic resonance imaging image quality. However, the application of HTS surface resonators is significantly limited by their filling factor. To maximize the filling factor, it is desirable to have the RF resonator wrapped around the sample so that more nuclear magnetic dipoles can contribute to the signal. In this study, a whole new Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu2O3 (Bi-2223) superconducting saddle resonator (width of 5 cm and length of 8 cm) was designed for the magnetic resonance image of a mouse's whole body in Bruker 3 T MRI system. The experiment was conducted with a professionally-made copper saddle resonator and a Bi-2223 saddle resonator to show the difference. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with the HTS saddle resonator at 77 K was 2.1 and 2 folds higher than that of the copper saddle resonator at 300 K for a phantom and an in-vivo mice whole body imaging. Testing results were in accordance with predicted ones, and the difference between the predicted SNR gains and measured SNR gains were 2.4%?2.7%. In summary, with this HTS saddle system, a mouse's whole body can be imaged in one scan and could reach a high SNR due to a 2 folds SNR gain over the professionally-made prototype of copper saddle resonator at 300 K. The use of HTS saddle resonator not only improves SNR but also enables a mouse's whole body screen in one scan. PMID:22493666

Lin, In-Tsang; Yang, Hong-Chang; Chen, Jyh-Horng

2012-01-01

292

MONICA: a compact, portable dual gamma camera system for mouse whole-body imaging  

SciTech Connect

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named "MONICA" for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed ?looking up? through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV?10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1 cm), 2.2 mm; sensitivity, 149 cps (counts per seconds)/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM, full width at half maximum), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2=0.99 for 0?185 MBq (0?5 mCi) in the field of view (FOV); spatial uniformity, <3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-min images acquired throughout the 168-h study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g., limited imaging space, portability and, potentially, cost are important.

Choyke, Peter L.; Xia, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.

2010-04-01

293

Estimating relative physical workload using heart rate monitoring: a validation by whole-body indirect calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring physical workload in occupational medicine is fundamental for risk prevention. An indirect measurement of total and relative energy expenditure (EE) from heart rate (HR) is widely used but it has never been validated. The aim of this study was to validate this HR-estimated energy expenditure (HREEE) method against whole-body indirect calorimetry. Twenty-four-hour HR and EE values were recorded continuously

Martin Garet; Gil Boudet; Christophe Montaurier; Michel Vermorel; Jean Coudert; Alain Chamoux

2005-01-01

294

Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase as a mediator of whole body energy balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream constituent of a kinase cascade that acts as a sensor of cellular\\u000a energy levels. Current data unequivocally indicate that hypothalamic AMPK plays a key role in the control of the whole body\\u000a energy balance, by integrating peripheral signals, such as hormones and metabolites, with central signals, such as neuropeptides,\\u000a and eliciting allostatic

Pablo Blanco Martínez de Morentin; Carmen R. González; Asisk K. Saha; Luís Martins; Carlos Diéguez; Antonio Vidal-Puig; Manuel Tena-Sempere; Miguel López

2011-01-01

295

Applications of specialized coils for high-resolution MRI on a whole-body scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the application of a mini-coil surface system for high-resolution MRI, 60 volunteers were examined in a 1.5-T whole-body scanner. Two replaceable probe heads were available: a circular 2.5-cm coil and a quadratic 5-cm coil, both of which were placed directly on the skin. The skin layers, Achilles tendon and finger joints were examined with the 2.5-cm coil and

Jürgen Mäurer; Herman Requardt; Bernhard Sander; Friedrich D. Knollmann; Arne-jörn Lemke; Thomas J. Vogl; Roland Felix

1996-01-01

296

Performance evaluation of the whole-body PET scanner ECAT EXACT HR +  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance parameters of the whole-body PET scanner ECAT EXACT HR+ (CTI\\/Siemens, Knoxville, TN) were determined following the standard proposed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The tests were expanded by some measurements concerning the accuracy of the correction algorithms and the geometric fidelity of the reconstructed images. The scanner consists of 32 rings, each with 576 BGO detectors (4.05×4.39×30

Lars-Eric Adam; Joachim Zaers; Hermann Ostertag; Herbert Trojan; Matthias E. Bellemann; Gunnar Brix; Walter J. Lorenz

1996-01-01

297

A simulation study for the design of a prototype insert for whole-body PET scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing an insert device that will improve image resolution within a smaller field-of-view for clinical whole-body PET scanners. We modified SimSET (Simulation System for Emission Tomography) to simulate the insert and a PET scanner. The system consists of two detector rings. The inner ring represents an insert (r=153 mm) with high-resolution detectors using 10 mm thick LSO. The

Martin Janecek; Heyu Wu; Yuan-Chuan Tai

2006-01-01

298

A high-throughput whole-body PET scanner using flat panel PS-PMTs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for whole-body studies has been developed. The scanner has 720 block detectors, each of which consists of a flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier and a 16×8 BGO crystal array. The detector system is composed of 12 layers of block detector rings stacked axially, and each ring consists of a circular array of 60 block

M. Watanabe; K. Shimizu; T. Omura; N. Sato; M. Takahashi; T. Kosugi; K. Ote; A. Katabe; R. Yamada; T. Yamashita; E. Tanaka

2004-01-01

299

Combined 17 O\\/ 1 H MRI study in a whole-body scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method of obtaining consecutive1H and natural-abundance17O images is described with a scanner’s original body resonator (for1H) and a homemade linear birdcage (for17O). Two kinds of experiments were performed to test the method. In the first experiment, a proton image of the phantom was\\u000a acquired with a whole-body resonator. In the second experiment, the phantom was inserted into an

M. Kempka; J. Hankiewicz; D. Fiat

2003-01-01

300

A high-throughput whole-body PET scanner using flat panel PS-PMTs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for whole-body studies has been developed. The scanner has 720 block detectors, each of which consists of a flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier and a 16×8 BGO crystal array. The detector system is composed of 12 layers of block detector rings stacked axially, and each ring consists of a circular array of 60 block

M. Watanabe; K. Shimizu; T. Omura; N. Sato; M. Takahashi; T. Kosugi; K. Ote; A. Katabe; R. Yamada; T. Yamashita; E. Tanaka

2003-01-01

301

PET performance of the GEMINI TF PET — MR: The world's first whole body PET — MRI scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GEMINI TF PET-MRI (Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH) is a newly released whole body hybrid imaging system with a Philips Achieva 3T system and a Philips TF (TruFlight) PET. We report the standard NEMA NU2 measurements for the scanner. Compared to PET-CT, modifications to the PET were made to avoid mutual system interference and deliver uncompromising performance which is equivalent

Navdeep Ojha; Jerome Griesmer; Zhiqiang Hu; Ling Shao; David Izquierdo; Josef Machac; Osman Ratib; Habib Zaidi; Valentin Fuster; Zahi A Fayad

2010-01-01

302

High resolution insert for clinical whole body PET scanners: design and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing an insert device that will improve image resolution within a smaller FOV for clinical whole-body PET scanners. To optimize its design, we modified simSET to simulate the insert and a PET scanner. The system consists of two detector rings. The inner ring represents an insert (r = 153 mm) with high-resolution detectors using 10 mm thick LSO.

Martin Janecek; Heyu Wu; Y.-C. Tai

2004-01-01

303

A biomimetic framework for coordinating and controlling whole body movements in humanoid robots.  

PubMed

An integrated model for the coordination of whole body movements of a humanoid robot with a compliant ankle similar to the human case is described. It includes a synergy formation part, which takes into account the motor redundancy of the body model, and an intermittent controller, which stabilizes in a robust way postural sway movements, thus combining the hip strategy with ankle strategy. PMID:24110934

Morasso, Pietro; Rea, Francesco; Mohan, Vishwanathan

2013-01-01

304

MONICA: A Compact, Portable Dual Gamma Camera System for Mouse Whole-Body Imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named “MONICA” for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed “looking up” through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV ± 10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1-cm), 2.2-mm; sensitivity, 149 cps/MBq (5.5 cps/?Ci); energy resolution (FWHM), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2 = 0.99 for 0–185 MBq (0–5 mCi) in the field-of-view (FOV); spatial uniformity, < 3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-minute images acquired throughout the 168-hour study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g. limited imaging space, portability, and, potentially, cost are important. PMID:20346864

Xi, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Karkareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

2009-01-01

305

Serially Sectioned Images of the Whole Body (Eighth Report: Segmentation of the Upper Limb's Structures)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body of a Korean male cadaver was serially milled to make sectioned images. Segmentation of various anatomical structures can expand the utilization of the sectioned images such as three-dimensional (3D) recon- struction of the structures of real human. Following previous outlining of lower limb's structures, we decided to make segmented images of upper limb's structures in detail. Ninety-one structures

Dong Sun Shin; Min Suk Chung; Sung Bae Hwang; Jin Seo Park; Wonsug Jung

2009-01-01

306

Impaired Cutaneous Vasodilation and Sweating in Grafted Skin During Whole-Body Heating  

PubMed Central

The aim of this investigation was to identify the consequences of skin grafting on cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in split-thickness grafted skin during indirect whole-body heating 5 to 9 months after surgery. In addition, thermoregulatory function was examined at donor skin sites on a separate day. Skin blood flow and sweat rate (SR) were assessed from both grafted (n = 14) or donor skin (n = 11) and compared with the respective adjacent control skin during indirect whole-body heating. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated from the ratio of skin blood flow (arbitrary units; au) to mean arterial pressure. Whole-body heating significantly increased internal temperature (37.0 ± 0.1 °C to 37.8 ± 0.1 °C; P < .05). Cutaneous vasodilation (ie, the increase in CVC from baseline, ?CVC) during whole-body heating was significantly attenuated in grafted skin (?CVC = 0.14 ± 0.15 au/mm Hg) compared with adjacent control skin (?CVC = 0.84 ± 0.11 au/mm Hg; P < .05). Increases in sweat rate (?SR) were also significantly lower in grafted skin (?SR = 0.08 ± 0.08 mg/cm2/min) compared with adjacent control skin (?SR = 1.16 ± 0.20 mg/cm2/min; P < .05). Cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during heating were not significantly different between donor sites (?CVC = 0.71 ± 0.19 au/mm Hg; ?SR = 1.04 ± 0.15 mg/cm2/min) and adjacent control skin (?CVC = 0.50 ± 0.10 au/mm Hg; ?SR = 0.83 ± 0.17 mg/cm2/min). Greatly attenuated or absence of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating suggests impairment of thermoregulatory function in grafted skin, thereby, diminishing the contribution of this skin to overall temperature control during a heat stress. PMID:17438492

Davis, Scott L.; Shibasaki, Manabu; Low, David A.; Cui, Jian; Keller, David M.; Purdue, Gary F.; Hunt, John L.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Kowalske, Karen J.; Crandall, Craig G.

2009-01-01

307

Evaluation of a Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging System for Whole Body Composition Analysis in Rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the EchoMRI-900 combination rat and mouse quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) body composition method in comparison to traditional whole-body chemical carcass composition analysis (CCA) for measurements of fat and fat-free mass in rodents. Live and postmortem (PM) QMR fat and lean mass measurements were obtained for lean, obese and outbred strains of rats and mice, and compared with measurements

Joshua P. Nixon; Minzhi Zhang; ChuanFeng Wang; Michael A. Kuskowski; Colleen M. Novak; James A. Levine; Charles J. Billington; Catherine M. Kotz

2010-01-01

308

Central insulin administration improves whole-body insulin sensitivity via hypothalamus and parasympathetic outputs in men.  

PubMed

Animal studies suggest that insulin action in the brain is involved in the regulation of peripheral insulin sensitivity. Whether this holds true in humans is unknown. Using intranasal application of insulin to the human brain, we studied the impacts of brain insulin action on whole-body insulin sensitivity and the mechanisms involved in this process. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp before and after intranasal application of insulin and placebo in randomized order in lean and obese men. After insulin spray application in lean subjects, a higher glucose infusion rate was necessary to maintain euglycemia compared with placebo. Accordingly, clamp-derived insulin sensitivity index improved after insulin spray. In obese subjects, this insulin-sensitizing effect could not be detected. Change in the high-frequency band of heart rate variability, an estimate of parasympathetic output, correlated positively with change in whole-body insulin sensitivity after intranasal insulin. Improvement in whole-body insulin sensitivity correlated with the change in hypothalamic activity as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Intranasal insulin improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in lean but not in obese men. Furthermore, brain-derived peripheral insulin sensitization is associated with hypothalamic activity and parasympathetic outputs. Thus, the findings provide novel insights into the regulation of insulin sensitivity and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in humans. PMID:25028522

Heni, Martin; Wagner, Robert; Kullmann, Stephanie; Veit, Ralf; Mat Husin, Haliza; Linder, Katarzyna; Benkendorff, Charlotte; Peter, Andreas; Stefan, Norbert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas

2014-12-01

309

Effect of alcohol consumption on whole-body protein turnover in healthy adults.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the whole-body protein turnover, either before or after continuous, moderate ethanol-induced oxidative stress by red wine consumption over a relatively short period in healthy volunteers. Ten healthy adults received an individual regular diet over 20 days. After 10 days, the subjects consumed 0.4 ml ethanol kg(-1) day(-1) as red wine together with dinner over a 10-day period. After 8 and 18 days, respectively, a (15)N-labelled yeast protein was administered in a dosage of 4.2 mg kg(-1) body weight. Urine and faeces were collected over 48 h, respectively. The (15)N-enrichment was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, whereas the protein flux rates were calculated by a three-compartment model. The whole-body protein turnover without/with red wine consumption amounted to 3.73±0.6 and 3.49±0.6 g kg(-1) day(-1) (not significant), respectively. Moderate alcohol consumption does not induce significant short-term changes in the whole-body protein turnover of healthy adults. PMID:21390988

Wutzke, Klaus D; Krentz, Helga; Bruns, Gerrit

2011-03-01

310

Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR was assessed using transfer function analysis. In normothermic and heat-stressed conditions, each subject breathed at a fixed rate (0. 25 Hz) while beat-by-beat HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were obtained. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature, HR, and forearm skin blood flow. Spectral analysis of HR and SBP revealed that the heat stress significantly reduced HR and SBP variability within the high-frequency range (0.2-0.3 Hz), reduced SBP variability within the low-frequency range (0.03-0.15 Hz), and increased the ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability (all P < 0.01). Transfer function gain analysis showed that the heat stress reduced dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR within the high-frequency range (from 1.04 +/- 0.06 to 0.54 +/- 0.6 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P < 0.001) without significantly affecting the gain in the low-frequency range (P = 0.63). These data suggest that whole body heating reduced high-frequency dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR associated with spontaneous changes in blood pressure. Reduced vagal baroreflex regulation of HR may contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance known to occur in humans during heat stress.

Crandall, C. G.; Zhang, R.; Levine, B. D.

2000-01-01

311

Retrospective respiration-gated whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography of mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging technique that has a great potential for preclinical whole-body imaging. To date, most whole-body PAT systems require multiple laser shots to generate one cross-sectional image, yielding a frame rate of <1 Hz. Because a mouse breathes at up to 3 Hz, without proper gating mechanisms, acquired images are susceptible to motion artifacts. Here, we introduce, for the first time to our knowledge, retrospective respiratory gating for whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography. This new method involves simultaneous capturing of the animal's respiratory waveform during photoacoustic data acquisition. The recorded photoacoustic signals are sorted and clustered according to the respiratory phase, and an image of the animal at each respiratory phase is reconstructed subsequently from the corresponding cluster. The new method was tested in a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system with a hardware-limited frame rate of 0.625 Hz. After respiratory gating, we observed sharper vascular and anatomical images at different positions of the animal body. The entire breathing cycle can also be visualized at 20 frames/cycle.

Xia, Jun; Chen, Wanyi; Maslov, Konstantin; Anastasio, Mark A.; Wang, Lihong V.

2014-01-01

312

Analysis of adipose tissue distribution using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity is an increasing problem in the western world and triggers diseases like cancer, type two diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a clinically viable method to measure the amount and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) in the body. However, analysis of MRI images by manual segmentation is a tedious and time-consuming process. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method to quantify the amount of different AT types from whole-body MRI data with less user interaction. Initially, body fat is extracted by automatic thresholding. A statistical shape model of the abdomen is then used to differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral AT. Finally, fat in the bone marrow is removed using morphological operators. The proposed method was evaluated on 15 whole-body MRI images using manual segmentation as ground truth for adipose tissue. The resulting overlap for total AT was 93.7% +/- 5.5 with a volumetric difference of 7.3% +/- 6.4. Furthermore, we tested the robustness of the segmentation results with regard to the initial, interactively defined position of the shape model. In conclusion, the developed method proved suitable for the analysis of AT distribution from whole-body MRI data. For large studies, a fully automatic version of the segmentation procedure is expected in the near future.

Wald, Diana; Schwarz, Tobias; Dinkel, Julien; Delorme, Stefan; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

2011-03-01

313

Retrospective respiration-gated whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography of mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging technique that has a great potential for preclinical whole-body imaging. To date, most whole-body PAT systems require multiple laser shots to generate one cross-sectional image, yielding a frame rate of <1??Hz. Because a mouse breathes at up to 3 Hz, without proper gating mechanisms, acquired images are susceptible to motion artifacts. Here, we introduce, for the first time to our knowledge, retrospective respiratory gating for whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography. This new method involves simultaneous capturing of the animal’s respiratory waveform during photoacoustic data acquisition. The recorded photoacoustic signals are sorted and clustered according to the respiratory phase, and an image of the animal at each respiratory phase is reconstructed subsequently from the corresponding cluster. The new method was tested in a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system with a hardware-limited frame rate of 0.625 Hz. After respiratory gating, we observed sharper vascular and anatomical images at different positions of the animal body. The entire breathing cycle can also be visualized at 20??frames/cycle. PMID:24395586

Xia, Jun; Chen, Wanyi; Maslov, Konstantin; Anastasio, Mark A.; Wang, Lihong V.

2014-01-01

314

Multiplane spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging of small animals in vivo.  

PubMed

We have successfully developed a multiscale acoustic-resolution photoacoustic tomography system in a single imaging platform. By switching between ultrasound transducers (center frequencies 5 and 40 MHz) and optical condensers, we have photoacoustically imaged microvasculatures of small animals in vivo at different scales. Further, we have extended the field of view of our imaging system to entire bodies of small animals. At different imaging planes, we have noninvasively imaged the major blood vessels (e.g., descending aorta, intercostal vessels, cephalic vessels, brachial vessels, femoral vessels, popliteal vessels, lateral marginal vessels, cranial mesenteric vessels, mammalian vessels, carotid artery, jugular vein, subclavian vessels, iliac vessels, and caudal vessels) as well as intact internal organs (e.g., spleen, liver, kidney, intestine, cecum, and spinal cord) of the animals in vivo. The spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging clearly reveals the spectral responses of the internal structures. Similar to other existing preclinical whole-body imaging systems, this whole-body photoacoustic tomography can be a useful tool for small-animal research. PMID:25115270

Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong

2014-08-12

315

Dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation  

PubMed Central

In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15–20cm) of a single bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study, was employed along with extensive Monte Carlo simulations and an initial clinical FDG patient dataset to validate and demonstrate the potential of the proposed statistical estimation methods. Both simulated and clinical results suggest that hybrid regression in the context of whole-body Patlak Ki imaging considerably reduces MSE without compromising high CNR. Alternatively, for a given CNR, hybrid regression enables larger reductions than OLS in the number of dynamic frames per bed, allowing for even shorter acquisitions of ~30min, thus further contributing to the clinical adoption of the proposed framework. Compared to the SUV approach, whole body parametric imaging can provide better tumor quantification, and can act as a complement to SUV, for the task of tumor detection. PMID:24080994

Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

2013-01-01

316

Scanning personnel for internal deposition of radioactive material with personnel contamination whole body friskers and portal monitors  

SciTech Connect

The potential for using personnel contamination devices such as whole body friskers and portal monitors for internal contamination monitoring was evaluated. Internally deposited radioactive material is typically determined with whole body counting systems. Whole body counts have traditionally been performed on personnel when they report for work, on a periodic basis (i.e., annually), when an uptake is suspected, and on termination. These counts incur significant expense. The monitored personnel pass through whole body friskers and portal monitors daily. This investigation was performed to determine if the external contamination monitors could provide an alternative to the more Costly whole body counting. The ability to detect 1% of a DAC for critical radioisotopes was applied as a detection criteria for this investigation. The results of whole body counts were used to identify the typical internal contamination radionuclides. From this list, the radioisotopes that would be the most difficult to measure were identified. From this review, {sup 60}Co and {sup 131}I were determined to be the critical radionuclides. One percent of a DAC for each isotope was placed, one at a time, in a humanoid phantom. The phantom was placed in the whole body frisker and {open_quotes}counted{close_quotes}. The phantom was carried through the portal monitor at a speed equivalent to a person walking through the monitor. Frequency of detection was derived for both systems. Practical aspects of integrating this screening system with traditional internal dosimetry programs are discussed.

Lobdell, J.L. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States)

1996-06-01

317

Focusing of Rayleigh waves generated by high-speed trains under the condition of ground vibration boom  

E-print Network

In the present paper, the effects of focusing of Rayleigh waves generated by high speed trains in the supporting ground under the condition of ground vibration boom are considered theoretically. These effects are similar to the effects of focusing of sound waves radiated by aircraft under the condition of sonic boom. In particular, if a railway track has a bend to provide the possibility of changing direction of train movement, the Rayleigh surface waves generated by high-speed trains under the condition of ground vibration boom may become focused. This results in concentration of their energy along a simple caustic line at one side of the track and in the corresponding increase in ground vibration amplitudes. The effect of focusing of Rayleigh waves may occur also if a train moves along a straight line with acceleration and its current speed is higher than Rayleigh wave velocity in the ground. The obtained results are illustrated by numerical calculations.

Krylov, Victor V

2015-01-01

318

The whole-body withdrawal response of Lymnaea stagnalis. I. Identification of central motoneurones and muscles.  

PubMed

Two muscle systems mediated the whole-body withdrawal response of Lymnaea stagnalis: the columellar muscle (CM) and the dorsal longitudinal muscle (DLM). The CM was innervated by the columellar nerves and contracted longitudinally to shorten the ventral head-foot complex and to pull the shell forward and down over the body. The DLM was innervated by the superior and inferior cervical nerves and the left and right parietal nerves. During whole-body withdrawal, the DLM contracted synchronously with the CM and shortened the dorsal head-foot longitudinally. The CM and the DLM were innervated by a network of motoneurones. The somata of these cells were located in seven ganglia of the central nervous system (CNS), but were especially concentrated in the bilaterally symmetrical A clusters of the cerebral ganglia. The CM was innervated by cells in the cerebral and pedal ganglia and the DLM by cells in the cerebral, pedal, pleural and left parietal ganglia. Individual motoneurones innervated large, but discrete, areas of muscle, which often overlapped with those innervated by other motoneurones. Motoneuronal action potentials evoked one-for-one non-facilitating excitatory junction potentials within muscle fibres. No all-or-nothing action potentials were recorded in the CM or DLM, and they did not appear to be innervated by inhibitory motoneurones. The whole network of motoneurones was electrotonically coupled, with most cells on one side of the CNS strongly coupled to each other but weakly coupled to cells on the contralateral side of the CNS. This electrotonic coupling between motoneurones is probably important in producing synchronous contraction of the CM and DLM when the animal retracts its head-foot complex during whole-body withdrawal. PMID:1919418

Ferguson, G P; Benjamin, P R

1991-07-01

319

Time-Course of Changes in Inflammatory Response after Whole-Body Cryotherapy Multi Exposures following Severe Exercise  

PubMed Central

The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n?=?11) completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS), the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC) for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day). For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL) -1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), protein C-reactive (CRP) and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post) following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05). Indeed, IL-1? (Post 1 h) and CRP (Post 24 h) levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h) increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05), TNF-?, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory. PMID:21829501

Pournot, Hervé; Bieuzen, François; Louis, Julien; Fillard, Jean-Robert; Barbiche, Etienne; Hausswirth, Christophe

2011-01-01

320

Whole-body effective half-lives for radiolabeled antibodies and related issues  

SciTech Connect

Radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) are being developed and used in medical imaging and therapy in rapidly increasing numbers. Data on the whole body half effective half-lives were calculated from external dose rates obtained from attending physicians and radiation safety officers at participating institutions. Calculations were made using exponential regression analysis of data from patients receiving single and multiple administrations. Theses data were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, isotope label, radiation energy, antibody type, disease treated, administration method, and number of administrations.

Kaurin, D.G.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Baum, J.W.; Barber, D.E.

1996-08-01

321

Methods for calculating phase angle from measured whole body bioimpedance modulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assuming the Cole equation we have developed a method to calculate the Cole parameters (R0, R?, ?, ?Z) and the phase angle from four frequency measurements of impedance modulus values. The values obtained compare well with impedance measurements obtained using the Solatron 1294/1260 as obtained when making whole body measurements on five persons. We have also performed calculations using an algorithm based on the Kramers-Kronig approach. The results which are presented show that it is possible to obtain complete body impedance data combining relatively simple measurements with advanced calculation using a laptop. This extends the potential of portable equipment, since the measurements will require less instrumentation.

Nordbotten, Bernt J.; Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Grimnes, Sverre

2010-04-01

322

Superconducting magnet with self-shield for whole body magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

The authors of this paper developed a superconducting magnet with self-shield for whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that features a magnetic field strength of 0.5 T, 1.0 T, and 1.5 T, and has the following characteristics: Low leakage magnetic field due to the directly mounted magnetic shield; very small in the 0.5 mT range. Reduced helium consumption due to the use of a high adiabatic cryostat and refrigerator; does not need liquid nitrogen. Horizontal service port reduces overhead clearance requirements. Superior mechanical strength; can even be transported in the cooled state. Fitted with an emergency run down unit.

Shimada, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Moritsu, K.; Takechi, M.; Watanabe, T. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Ako Works, 651 Tenwa, Ako 678-02 (JP))

1991-03-01

323

A 2-Tesla active shield magnet for whole body imaging and spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the development and testing of a 2T superconducting Active Shield magnet, with a 0.99m diameter warm bore for whole-body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy. The magnet and cryostat were designed to meet the same performance standards as existing MRI magnets, but with the volume of the stray field region reduced to less than 4% of that for an unshielded magnet. The 0.5 mT stray field contour is within 5m axially and 3m radially of the magnet center. The system weight is only 14 tonnes.

Davies, F.J.; Elliott, R.T.; Hawksworth, D.G. (Oxford Magnet Technology Ltd., Wharf Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1BP (GB))

1991-03-01

324

Whole-body MRI as an unconventional diagnostic tool in a pediatric patient with systemic infection  

PubMed Central

Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), a tickborne infection usually manifesting as fever, malaise, cytopenia, spleen enlargement, and hepatitis. Herein, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl with HGA whose whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed an unusual picture characterized by small, widespread punctuate millimetric nodules, hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on STIR sequences. This firstly reported finding may represent an alternative tool for identifying atypical infectious diseases. PMID:25535572

Picco, Paolo; Pala, Giovanna; Rizzo, Francesca; Damasio, Beatrice; Buoncompagni, Antonella; Martini, Alberto

2014-01-01

325

Ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography for small-animal whole-body imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report herein a novel three-dimensional photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system for small-animal whole-body imaging. The PACT system, based on a 512-element full-ring ultrasonic transducer array, was cylindrically focused and capable of forming a two-dimensional image in 1.6 seconds. The pulsed laser could either illuminate directly from the top or be reshaped to illuminate the sample from the side. Top illumination was mainly used for mouse brain and mouse embryo imaging. Side illumination provided in vivo anatomical images of an adult mouse. By translating the mouse along the elevational direction, the system provided serial cross-sectional images.

Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-02-01

326

Whole-body MRI as an unconventional diagnostic tool in a pediatric patient with systemic infection.  

PubMed

Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), a tickborne infection usually manifesting as fever, malaise, cytopenia, spleen enlargement, and hepatitis. Herein, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl with HGA whose whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed an unusual picture characterized by small, widespread punctuate millimetric nodules, hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on STIR sequences. This firstly reported finding may represent an alternative tool for identifying atypical infectious diseases. PMID:25535572

Picco, Paolo; Naselli, Aldo; Pala, Giovanna; Rizzo, Francesca; Damasio, Beatrice; Buoncompagni, Antonella; Martini, Alberto

2014-12-01

327

Effects of whole-body irradiation on the development of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Travassos, 1914) Lane, 1923, in rats  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF NIPPOSTRONGYLUS BSASILIENSIS (SSAVASSOS, 1414) LANE, 1923, IN RATS A Thesis By Gilbert Wayne Gatlin Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1966 Major Subject Zoolocay EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF NIPPOSTRONGYLUS ~SSASIEIEN IS (IlViVASSOS, 19144 LANE, 1923, IN RATS A Thesis By Gilbert Wayne Gatlin...

Gatlin, Gilbert Wayne

1966-01-01

328

Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry of the Serotonin Transporter Ligand 11C-DASB Determined from Human Whole-Body PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

11C-Labeled 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylsulfanyl)- benzonitrile (DASB) is a selective radioligand for the in vivo quantitation of serotonin transporters (SERTs) using PET. The goal of this study was to provide dosimetry estimates for 11C- DASB based on human whole-body PET. Methods: Dynamic whole-body PET scans were acquired for 7 subjects after the injection of 669 97 MBq (18.1 2.6 mCi) of 11C-DASB. The

Jian-Qiang Lu; Masanori Ichise; Jeih-San Liow; Subroto Ghose; Doug Vines; Robert B. Innis

329

Ovarian cancer recurrence: role of whole-body positron emission tomography using 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy- D -glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This study was designed to assess the value of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) for the diagnosis of recurrent ovarian cancer. Twenty-five patients who had previously undergone surgery for ovarian cancer were imaged using whole-body FDG-PET. During the 4 weeks preceding the PET study, conventional imaging, comprising computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of

Tatsuo Torizuka; Shuji Nobezawa; Toshihiko Kanno; Masami Futatsubashi; Etsuji Yoshikawa; Hiroyuki Okada; Munetaka Takekuma; Makoto Maeda; Yasuomi Ouchi

2002-01-01

330

A Parallel Excitation Based Fluorescence Molecular Tomography System for Whole-Body Simultaneous Imaging of Small Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenges remain in imaging complete dynamic physiological processes in vivo through the whole small animal body using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). In this article, a novel non-contact full-angle\\u000a FMT system that enables whole-body simultaneous imaging of small animals is presented. The whole-body simultaneous imaging\\u000a ability is achieved by employing a line-shaped parallel excitation source, which can provide extended spatial sampling

Fei Liu; Xin Liu; Daifa Wang; Bin Zhang; Jing Bai

2010-01-01

331

Effects of vibration and exercise training on bone mineral density and muscle strength in post-menopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a specific vibration programme with those of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and muscular strength in post-menopausal women, over a period of 6 months. Thirty-two healthy, inactive post-menopausal women aged 46–62 years were divided into exercise (=10), vibration (=13), and control

Styliani K. Karakiriou; Helen T. Douda; Ilias G. Smilios; Konstantinos A. Volaklis; Savvas P. Tokmakidis

2011-01-01

332

Effects of vibration and exercise training on bone mineral density and muscle strength in post-menopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a specific vibration programme with those of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and muscular strength in post-menopausal women, over a period of 6 months. Thirty-two healthy, inactive post-menopausal women aged 46–62 years were divided into exercise (n = 10), vibration (n

Styliani K. Karakiriou; Helen T. Douda; Ilias G. Smilios; Konstantinos A. Volaklis; Savvas P. Tokmakidis

2012-01-01

333

Automated registration and quantification of biophotonic mouse images using a whole body atlas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biophotonic imaging is a novel, relatively low-cost method for in-vivo imaging of tumors in mouse models. This technique, utilizing luminescent cancer cells, can improve productivity for cancer investigators and reduce the number of mice needed to conduct an experiment by allowing longitudinal studies. However, many of the tools provided with these systems are intended for interactive use and are time consuming to use when large numbers of images are captured. Many studies require a specific determination of the location and tumor size, particularly relative to the anatomical details of the mouse; whether this is the entire mouse body, single organs, or custom, user defined regions. An automated method of registering mouse images to a whole body atlas mask with well defined anatomical details is presented. Bilinear scaling is used within the registration process and is shown to be successful since the trapezoidal shape chosen merges well with the natural shape of the mouse. After successful registration, quantification of the photon flux can be performed for the whole body and specific regions using a summation of intensity levels and photon flux per intensity level. Registration accuracy rates over 90% were achieved although results vary relative to the positioning of the mouse. This work provides a base to explore 3D and temporal registration techniques for such data sets.

Soria, Michael; Eschrich, Steven; Goldgof, Dmitry

2009-02-01

334

Whole body proteolysis rate is elevated in HIV-associated insulin resistance  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is characterized by impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and insulin resistance with respect to glucose metabolism, but not amino acid metabolism. We examined whether whole body leucine and protein metabolism are dysregulated in HIV-infected people with IGT. Glucose and leucine kinetics were measured under fasting insulin conditions and during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemia using primed constant infusions of 2H2-glucose and 13C-leucine in 10 HIV-seronegative control subjects, 16 HIV+ with normal glucose tolerance, and 21 HIV+IGT. Glucose disposal rate during hyperinsulinemia was lower in HIV+IGT than the other two groups. Absolute plasma leucine levels and rate of appearance (whole body proteolysis) were higher in HIV+IGT at all insulin levels, but declined in response to hyperinsulinemia in parallel to those in the other two groups. HIV+IGT had greater visceral adiposity, fasting serum IL-8 and FFA levels, and higher lipid oxidation rates during the clamp than the other two groups. The findings implicate several factors in the insulin-signaling pathway that may be further dysregulated in HIV+IGT, and support the notion that insulin-signaling pathways for glucose and leucine metabolism may be disrupted by increased proinflammatory adipocytokines (IL-8) and increased lipid oxidation. Increased proteolysis may provide amino acids for gluconeogenesis; exacerbating hyperglycemia in HIV. PMID:17003352

Reeds, Dominic N.; Cade, W.Todd; Patterson, Bruce W.; Powderly, William G.; Klein, Samuel; Yarasheski, Kevin E.

2006-01-01

335

Whole body MRI: Improved Lesion Detection and Characterization With Diffusion Weighted Techniques  

PubMed Central

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an established functional imaging technique that interrogates the delicate balance of water movement at the cellular level. Technological advances enable this technique to be applied to whole-body MRI. Theory, b-value selection, common artifacts and target to background for optimized viewing will be reviewed for applications in the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Whole-body imaging with DWI allows novel applications of MRI to aid in evaluation of conditions such as multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and skeletal metastases, while the quantitative nature of this technique permits evaluation of response to therapy. Persisting signal at high b-values from restricted hypercellular tissue and viscous fluid also permits applications of DWI beyond oncologic imaging. DWI, when used in conjunction with routine imaging, can assist in detecting hemorrhagic degradation products, infection/abscess, and inflammation in colitis, while aiding with discrimination of free fluid and empyema, while limiting the need for intravenous contrast. DWI in conjunction with routine anatomic images provides a platform to improve lesion detection and characterization with findings rivaling other combined anatomic and functional imaging techniques, with the added benefit of no ionizing radiation. PMID:23960006

Attariwala, Rajpaul; Picker, Wayne

2013-01-01

336

Hematological Profile and Martial Status in Rugby Players during Whole Body Cryostimulation  

PubMed Central

Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (?110°C to ?140°C). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers. PMID:23383348

Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Porcelli, Simone; Mauri, Clara; Colombini, Alessandra; Grasso, Dalila; Zani, Viviana; Bonomi, Felice Giulio; Melegati, Gianluca; Banfi, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

337

Optimization of whole-body zebrafish sectioning methods for mass spectrometry imaging.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in developmental, toxicity, and carcinogenicity studies. The optimal medium for embedding and cryosectioning a whole organism or soft-tissue specimen for histological examination is a synthetic polymer mixture that is incompatible with MSI as a result of ion suppression. We describe the optimal methods and results for embedding and cryosectioning whole-body ZF for MALDI-MSI. We evaluated 13 distinct embedding media formulations and found a supportive hydrogel with the consistency of cartilage to be the optimal embedding medium. The hydrogel medium does not interfere with MSI data collection, aids in tissue stability, is readily available for purchase, and is easy to prepare and handle during cryosectioning. Additionally, we decreased the matrix cluster interference commonly caused by ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid by adding ammonium phosphate to the solvent spray solution. The optimized methods developed in our laboratory produced high-quality cryosections, as well as high-quality mass spectral images of sectioned ZF. PMID:23997659

Nelson, Kimberly A; Daniels, Gabrielle J; Fournie, John W; Hemmer, Michael J

2013-09-01

338

Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography of patients using a standard clinical scanner.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technique of whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of patients with a standard clinical scanner. Thirty-three patients referred for stenoses, occlusions, aneurysms, assessment of patency of vascular grafts, vasculitis and vascular aplasia were examined in a 1.5-T scanner using its standard body coil. Three-dimensional sequences were acquired in four stations after administration of one intravenous injection of 40 ml conventional gadolinium contrast agent. Different vessel segments were evaluated as either diagnostic or nondiagnostic and regarding the presence of stenoses with more than 50% diameter reduction, occlusions or aneurysms. Of 923 vessel segments, 67 were not evaluable because of poor contrast filling (n=31), motion artefacts (n=20), venous overlap (n=12) and other reasons (n=4). Stenoses of more than 50%, occlusions or aneurysms were observed in 26 patients (129 segments). In nine patients additional unsuspected pathology was found. In 10 out of 14 patients (71/79 segments) there was conformity between MRA and digital subtraction angiography regarding the grade of stenosis. This study shows that whole-body MRA with a standard clinical scanner is feasible. Motion artefacts and the timing of the contrast agent through the different segments are still problems to be solved. PMID:15895235

Hansen, Tomas; Wikström, Johan; Eriksson, Mats-Ola; Lundberg, Anders; Johansson, Lars; Ljungman, Christer; Hoogeven, Romhild; Ahlström, Håkan

2006-01-01

339

Bone-specific insulin resistance disrupts whole-body glucose homeostasis via decreased osteocalcin activation.  

PubMed

Insulin signaling in osteoblasts has been shown recently to contribute to whole-body glucose homeostasis in animals fed a normal diet; however, it is unknown whether bone contributes to the insulin resistance that develops in animals challenged by a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we evaluated the consequences of osteoblast-specific overexpression of or loss of insulin receptor in HFD-fed mice. We determined that the severity of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance that mice develop when fed a HFD is in part a consequence of osteoblast-dependent insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in osteoblasts led to a decrease in circulating levels of the active form of osteocalcin, thereby decreasing insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance developed in osteoblasts as the result of increased levels of free saturated fatty acids, which promote insulin receptor ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Together, these results underscore the involvement of bone, among other tissues, in the disruption of whole-body glucose homeostasis resulting from a HFD and the involvement of insulin and osteocalcin cross-talk in glucose intolerance. Furthermore, our data indicate that insulin resistance develops in bone as the result of lipotoxicity-associated loss of insulin receptors. PMID:24642469

Wei, Jianwen; Ferron, Mathieu; Clarke, Christopher J; Hannun, Yusuf A; Jiang, Hongfeng; Blaner, William S; Karsenty, Gerard

2014-04-01

340

Calibration of the Accuscan II In Vivo System for Whole Body Counting  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the April 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for whole body counting. The source used for the calibration was a NIST traceable BOMAB manufactured by DOE as INL2006 BOMAB containing Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu-152, Sb-125 and Y-88 with energies from 27 keV to 1836 keV with a reference date of 11/29/2006. The actual usable energy range was 86.5 keV to 1597 keV on 4/21/2011. The BOMAB was constructed inside the Accuscan II counting 'tub' in the order of legs, thighs, abdomen, thorax/arms, neck, and head. Each piece was taped to the backwall of the counter. The arms were taped to the thorax. The phantom was constructed between the v-ridges on the backwall of the Accuscan II counter. The energy and efficiency calibrations were performed using the INL2006 BOMAB. The calibrations were performed with the detectors in the scanning mode. This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibration including performance verification and validation counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for whole body counting and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

Orval R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

2011-08-01

341

Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.

Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

1984-11-01

342

Consequences of Lethal-Whole-Body Gamma Radiation and Possible Ameliorative Role of Melatonin  

PubMed Central

Gamma radiation induces the generation of free radicals, leading to serious cellular damages in biological systems. Radioprotectors act as prophylactic agents that are administered to shield normal cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiation. Melatonin synergistically acts as an immune-stimulator and antioxidant. We investigated the possible radioprotective role of melatonin (100?mg/kg i.p.) against lethal-whole-body radiation- (10?Gy) induced sickness, body weight loss, and mortality in rats. Results of the present study suggest that exposure to lethal-whole-body radiation incurred mortality, body weight loss, and apoptosis and it also depleted the immunity and the antioxidant status of the rats. Our results show that melatonin pretreatment provides protection against radiation induced mortality, oxidative stress, and immune-suppression. The melatonin pretreated irradiated rats showed less change in body weight as compared to radiation only group. On the other hand, melatonin appeared to have another radioprotective role, suggesting that melatonin may reduce apoptosis through a caspase-3-mediated pathway by blocking caspase-3 activity. PMID:25431791

Mihandoost, Ehsan; Shirazi, Alireza; Mahdavi, Seied Rabie; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar

2014-01-01

343

Whole-body computerized tomography and concomitant spine and head injuries: a study of 355 cases.  

PubMed

The authors present a prospective study on the coexistence of spinal injury (SI) and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in patients who were involved in traffic accidents and arrived at the Emergency Department of Hospital das Clinicas of the University of Sao Paulo between September 1, 2003 and December 31, 2009. A whole-body computed tomography was the diagnostic method employed in all cases. Both lesions were observed simultaneously in 69 cases (19.4%), predominantly in males (57 individuals, 82.6%). Cranial injuries included epidural hematoma, acute subdural hematoma, brain contusion, ventricular hemorrhage and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. The transverse processes were the most fragile portion of the vertebrae and were more susceptible to fractures. The seventh cervical vertebra was the most commonly affected segment, with 24 cases (34.78%). The distribution of fractures was similar among the other cervical vertebrae, the first four thoracic vertebrae and the lumbar spine. Neurological deficit secondary to SI was detected in eight individuals (11.59%) and two individuals (2.89%) died. Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage was the most common intracranial finding (82.6%). Spinal surgery was necessary in 24 patients (34.78%) and brain surgery in 18 (26%). Four patients (5.79%) underwent cranial and spinal surgeries. The authors conclude that it is necessary a judicious assessment of the entire spine of individuals who presented in coma after suffering a brain injury associated to multisystemic trauma and whole-body CT scan may play a major role in this scenario. PMID:22391772

Rosi Junior, Jefferson; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Rocha, Edson Pedro; Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Rasslan, Samir; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

2012-07-01

344

Rat Cardiovascular Responses to Whole Body Suspension: Head-down and Non-Head-Down Tilt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rat whole body suspension technique mimics responses seen during exposure to microgravity and was evaluated as a model for cardiovascular responses with two series of experiments. In one series, changes were monitored in chronically catheterized rats during 7 days of Head-Down Tilt (HDT) or Non-Head-Down Tilt (N-HDT) and after several hours of recovery. Elevations of mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures of approx. 20 % (P less than 0.05) in HDT rats began as early as day 1 and were maintained for the duration of suspension. Pulse pressures were relatively unaffected, but heart rates were elevated approx. 10 %. During postsuspension (2-7 h), most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. N-HDT rats exhibited elevations chiefly on days 3 and 7. In the second series, blood pressure was monitored in 1- and 3-day HDT and N-HDT rats to evaluate responses to rapid head-up tilt. MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated (P less than 0.05) in HDT and N-HDT rats during head-up tilt after 1 day of suspension, while pulse pressures remained un changed. HDT rats exhibited elevated pretilt MAP and failed to respond to rapid head-up tilt with further increase of MAP on day 3, indicating some degree of deconditioning. The whole body suspended rat may be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

1992-01-01

345

Feasibility of intrafraction whole-body motion tracking for total marrow irradiation  

PubMed Central

With image-guided tomotherapy, highly targeted total marrow irradiation (TMI) has become a feasible alternative to conventional total body irradiation. The uncertainties in patient localization and intrafraction motion of the whole body during hour-long TMI treatment may pose a risk to the safety and accuracy of targeted radiation treatment. The feasibility of near-infrared markers and optical tracking system (OTS) is accessed along with a megavoltage scanning system of tomotherapy. Three near-infrared markers placed on the face of a rando phantom are used to evaluate the capability of OTS in measuring changes in the markers’ positions as the rando is moved in the translational direction. The OTS is also employed to determine breathing motion related changes in the position of 16 markers placed on the chest surface of human volunteers. The maximum uncertainty in locating marker position with the OTS is 1.5 mm. In the case of normal and deep breathing motion, the maximum marker position change is observed in anterior–posterior direction with the respective values of 4 and 12 mm. The OTS is able to measure surface changes due to breathing motion. The OTS may be optimized to monitor whole body motion during TMI to increase the accuracy of treatment delivery and reduce the radiation dose to the lungs. PMID:21639586

Sharma, Manju; Santos, Troy Dos; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P.; Hui, Susanta Kumar

2011-01-01

346

Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature.  

PubMed

This study sought to (a) compare and contrast the effect of 2 commonly used cryotherapy treatments, 4 min of -110 °C whole body cryotherapy and 8 °C cold water immersion, on knee skin temperature and (b) establish whether either protocol was capable of achieving a skin temperature (<13 °C) believed to be required for analgesic purposes. After ethics committee approval and written informed consent was obtained, 10 healthy males (26.5±4.9?yr, 183.5±6.0?cm, 90.7±19.9?kg, 26.8±5.0?kg/m2, 23.0±9.3% body fat; mean±SD) participated in this randomised controlled crossover study. Skin temperature around the patellar region was assessed in both knees via non-contact, infrared thermal imaging and recorded pre-, immediately post-treatment and every 10?min thereafter for 60?min. Compared to baseline, average, minimum and maximum skin temperatures were significantly reduced (p<0.001) immediately post-treatment and at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60?min after both cooling modalities. Average and minimum skin temperatures were lower (p<0.05) immediately after whole body cryotherapy (19.0±0.9 °C) compared to cold water immersion (20.5±0.6 °C). However, from 10 to 60?min post, the average, minimum and maximum skin temperatures were lower (p<0.05) following the cold water treatment. Finally, neither protocol achieved a skin temperature believed to be required to elicit an analgesic effect. PMID:23780900

Costello, J T; Donnelly, A E; Karki, A; Selfe, J

2014-01-01

347

Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in developmental, toxicity, and carcinogenicity studies. The optimal medium for embedding and cryosectioning a whole organism or soft-tissue specimen for histological examination is a synthetic polymer mixture that is incompatible with MSI as a result of ion suppression. We describe the optimal methods and results for embedding and cryosectioning whole-body ZF for MALDI-MSI. We evaluated 13 distinct embedding media formulations and found a supportive hydrogel with the consistency of cartilage to be the optimal embedding medium. The hydrogel medium does not interfere with MSI data collection, aids in tissue stability, is readily available for purchase, and is easy to prepare and handle during cryosectioning. Additionally, we decreased the matrix cluster interference commonly caused by ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid by adding ammonium phosphate to the solvent spray solution. The optimized methods developed in our laboratory produced high-quality cryosections, as well as high-quality mass spectral images of sectioned ZF. PMID:23997659

Nelson, Kimberly A.; Daniels, Gabrielle J.; Fournie, John W.; Hemmer, Michael J.

2013-01-01

348

Effect of different carbohydrate drinks on whole body carbohydrate storage after exhaustive exercise.  

PubMed

Seven untrained male subjects participated in a double-blind, crossover study conducted to determine the efficacy of different carbohydrate drinks in promoting carbohydrate storage in the whole body and skeletal muscle during recovery from exhaustive exercise. The postabsorptive subjects first completed an exercise protocol designed to deplete muscle fibers of glycogen, then consumed 330 ml of one of three carbohydrate drinks (18.5% glucose polymer, 18.5% sucrose, or 12% sucrose; wt/vol) and also received a primed constant infusion of [1-(13)C]glucose for 2 h. Nonoxidative glucose disposal (3.51 +/- 0.28, 18.5% glucose polymer; 2.96 +/- 0.32, 18.5% sucrose; 2.97 +/- 0.16, 12% sucrose; all mmol. kg(-1). h(-1)) and storage of muscle glycogen (5.31 +/- 1.11, 18.5% glucose polymer; 4.07 +/- 1.05, 18.5% sucrose; 3.45 +/- 0.85, 12% sucrose; all mmol. kg wet wt(-1). h(-1); P < 0.05) were greater after consumption of the glucose polymer drink than after either sucrose drink. The results suggest that the consumption of a glucose polymer drink (containing 61 g carbohydrate) promotes a more rapid storage of carbohydrate in the whole body, skeletal muscle in particular, than an isoenergetic sucrose drink. PMID:10797108

Bowtell, J L; Gelly, K; Jackman, M L; Patel, A; Simeoni, M; Rennie, M J

2000-05-01

349

Blood-forming system in rats after whole-body microwave exposure; reference to the lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The influence of 2.45 GHz microwave (RF/MW) irradiation on blood-forming cells after whole-body irradiation of rats was investigated. The exposures were conducted with a field power density of 5-10 mW/cm2, and whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1-2 W/kg. Four experimental subgroups were created and irradiated 2, 8, 15 or 30 days, for 2 h a day, 7 days a week. Concurrent sham-exposed rats were also included in the study. The cell response was assessed by number and type of the bone marrow nuclear cells and peripheral blood white cells using standard laboratory methods. Significant decrease in lymphoblast count was obtained at 15 and 30th experimental day (P < 0.05), whereas other examined parameters did not significantly differed in comparison to the sham-exposed controls. The findings point out at stress response in blood-forming system in rats after selected microwave exposure, which could be considered rather as sign of adaptation than malfunction. PMID:15475186

Trosic, Ivancica; Busljeta, Ivana; Pavicic, Ivan

2004-12-01

350

Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ˜15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ˜45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45 to ˜35 min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging.

Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

2013-10-01

351

Treatment of posttraumatic arthrofibrosis of the radioulnar joint with vibration therapy (VMTX Vibromax Therapeutics™): A case report and narrative review of literature  

PubMed Central

Objective To present the clinical features of post traumatic arthrofibrosis and response to treatment with Vibromax Therapeutics™ (VMTX™) in 28 year old male soccer player. Rationale Many studies have reported an increase in muscle performance after whole-body vibration, but to date none have evaluated the possibility of vibration application as a therapy for functional restoration after injury. Conclusions Vibration training is being utilized in, strength training, performance enhancement and rehabilitation. Despite the lack of research in this area, the literature that is currently available and the results of this case study imply that vibration therapy has the potential to aid in the management of acute soft tissue injury and the sequela of disuse and immobilization. PMID:18327298

Macintyre, Ian; Kazemi, Mohsen

2008-01-01

352

Design Study of a Whole-Body PET Scanner with Improved Spatial and Timing Resolution  

PubMed Central

Current state-of-art whole-body PET scanners achieve a system spatial resolution of 4–5 mm with limited sensitivity. Since the reconstructed spatial resolution and image quality are limited by the count statistics, there has not been a significant push for developing higher resolution whole-body PET scanners. Our goal in this study is to investigate the impact of improved spatial resolution together with time-of-flight (TOF) capability on lesion uptake estimation and lesion detectability, two important tasks in whole-body oncologic studies. The broader goal of this project is the development of a new state-of-art TOF PET scanner operating within an MRI while pushing the technology in PET system design. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to test the effects of crystal size (4 mm and 2.6 mm wide crystals), TOF timing resolution (300ps and 600ps), and 2-level depth-of-interaction (DOI) capability. Spatial resolution was calculated by simulating point sources in air at multiple positions. Results show that smaller crystals produced improved resolution, while degradation of resolution due to parallax error could be reduced with a 2-level DOI detector. Lesion phantoms were simulated to measure the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) and area under the LROC curve (ALROC) for 0.5 cm diameter lesions with 6:1 activity uptake relative to the background. Smaller crystals produce higher CRC, leading to increased ALROC values or a reduction in scan time. Improved timing resolution provides faster CRC convergence and once again leads to an increase in ALROC value or reduced scan time. Based on our choice of timing resolution and crystal size, improved timing resolution (300ps) with larger crystals (4 mm wide) has similar ALROC as smaller crystals (2.6 mm wide) with 600ps timing resolution. A 2-level DOI measurement provides some CRC and ALROC improvement for lesions further away from the center, leading to a more uniform performance within the imaging field-of-view (FOV). Given a choice between having either an improved spatial resolution, improved timing resolution, or DOI capability, improved spatial or timing resolution provide an overall higher ALROC relative to a 2-level DOI detector. PMID:24379455

Surti, S.; Shore, Adam R.; Karp, Joel S.

2013-01-01

353

A method for exposing rodents to resuspended particles using whole-body plethysmography  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies have reported increased risks of cardiopulmonary-related hospitalization and death in association with exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) across a wide range of urban areas. In response to these findings, researchers have conducted animal inhalation exposures aimed at reproducing the observed toxicologic effects. However, it is technically difficult to quantitate the actual amount of PM delivered to the lung in such studies, and dose is frequently estimated using default respiration parameters. Consequently, the interpretation of PM-induced effects in rodents exposed via whole-body inhalation is often compromised by the inability to determine deposited dose. To address this problem, we have developed an exposure system that merges the generation of dry, aerosolized particles with whole-body plethysmography (WBP), thus permitting inhalation exposures in the unrestrained rat while simultaneously obtaining data on pulmonary function. Results This system was validated using an oil combustion-derived particle (HP12) at three nominal concentrations (3, 12, and 13 mg/m3) for four consecutive exposure days (6 hr/day); a single 6-hour exposure to 13 mg/m3 of HP12 was also conducted. These results demonstrated that the system was both reliable and consistent over these exposure protocols, achieving average concentrations that were within 10% of the targeted concentration. In-line filters located on the exhaust outlets of individual WBP chambers showed relative agreement in HP12 mass for each day and were not statistically different when compared to one another (p = 0.16). Temperatures and relative humidities were also similar between chambers during PM and air exposures. Finally, detailed composition analyses of both HP12 filter and bulk samples showed that grinding and aerosolization did not change particle chemistry. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to expose rodents to resuspended, dry PM via whole-body inhalation while these animals are maintained in WBP chambers. This new methodology should significantly improve the ability to assess dosimetry under minimally stressful exposure conditions. PMID:16911796

Wichers, Lindsay B; Ledbetter, Allen D; McGee, John K; Kellogg, Robert B; Rowan, William H; Nolan, Julianne P; Costa, Daniel L; Watkinson, William P

2006-01-01

354

Responses of primate caudal parabrachial nucleus and Kolliker-fuse nucleus neurons to whole body rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The caudal aspect of the parabrachial (PBN) and Kolliker-Fuse (KF) nuclei receive vestibular nuclear and visceral afferent information and are connected reciprocally with the spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic cortex. Hence, they may be important sites of vestibulo-visceral integration, particularly for the development of affective responses to gravitoinertial challenges. Extracellular recordings were made from caudal PBN cells in three alert, adult female Macaca nemestrina through an implanted chamber. Sinusoidal and position trapezoid angular whole body rotation was delivered in yaw, roll, pitch, and vertical semicircular canal planes. Sites were confirmed histologically. Units that responded during rotation were located in lateral and medial PBN and KF caudal to the trochlear nerve at sites that were confirmed anatomically to receive superior vestibular nucleus afferents. Responses to whole-body angular rotation were modeled as a sum of three signals: angular velocity, a leaky integration of angular velocity, and vertical position. All neurons displayed angular velocity and integrated angular velocity sensitivity, but only 60% of the neurons were position-sensitive. These responses to vertical rotation could display symmetric, asymmetric, or fully rectified cosinusoidal spatial tuning about a best orientation in different cells. The spatial properties of velocity and integrated velocity and position responses were independent for all position-sensitive neurons; the angular velocity and integrated angular velocity signals showed independent spatial tuning in the position-insensitive neurons. Individual units showed one of three different orientations of their excitatory axis of velocity rotation sensitivity: vertical-plane-only responses, positive elevation responses (vertical plane plus ipsilateral yaw), and negative elevation axis responses (vertical plane plus negative yaw). The interactions between the velocity and integrated velocity components also produced variations in the temporal pattern of responses as a function of rotation direction. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a vestibulorecipient region of the PBN and KF integrates signals from the vestibular nuclei and relay information about changes in whole-body orientation to pathways that produce homeostatic and affective responses.

Balaban, Carey D.; McGee, David M.; Zhou, Jianxun; Scudder, Charles A.

2002-01-01

355

Gene Expression Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton or Gamma-Irradiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew members face potential consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment including acute radiation syndrome and cancer. The space radiation environment is ample with protons, and numerous studies have been devoted to the understanding of the health consequences of proton exposures. In this project, C57BL/6 mice underwent whole-body exposure to 250 MeV of protons at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2 and 6 Gy and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation. Standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes in the tissue showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest dose of 0.1 Gy, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. Results of gene expression changes showed consistent up- or down- regulation, up to 10 fold, of a number of genes across exposure doses that may play a role in proton-induced oxidative stress including Gpx2. A separate study in C57BL/6 mice using the same four hour time point but whole-body gamma-irradiation showed damage to the small intestine with lesions appearing at the smallest dose of 0.05 Gy and increasing with increasing absorbed dose. Expressions of genes associated with oxidative stress processes were analyzed at four hours and twenty-four hours after exposure to gamma rays. We saw a much greater number of genes with significant up- or down-regulation twenty-four hours post-exposure as compared to the four hour time point. At both four hours and twenty-four hours post-exposure, Duox1 and Mpo underwent up-regulation for the highest dose of 6 Gy. Both protons and gamma rays lead to significant variation in gene expressions and these changes may provide insight into the mechanism of injury seen in the GI tract following radiation exposure. We have also completed experiments using a BALB/c mouse model undergoing whole-body exposure to protons. Doses of 0, 0.1, 1 and 2 Gy were used and results will be compared to the work mentioned above. The most striking result preliminarily is that both strains of mice show a greater number of genes changing at the lowest dose of exposure for their respective pathways.

Purgason, Ashley; Zhang, Ye; Mangala, Lingegowda; Nie, Ying; Gridley, Daila; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Seidel, Derek V.; Wu, Honglu

2014-01-01

356

Design Study of a Whole-Body PET Scanner with Improved Spatial and Timing Resolution.  

PubMed

Current state-of-art whole-body PET scanners achieve a system spatial resolution of 4-5 mm with limited sensitivity. Since the reconstructed spatial resolution and image quality are limited by the count statistics, there has not been a significant push for developing higher resolution whole-body PET scanners. Our goal in this study is to investigate the impact of improved spatial resolution together with time-of-flight (TOF) capability on lesion uptake estimation and lesion detectability, two important tasks in whole-body oncologic studies. The broader goal of this project is the development of a new state-of-art TOF PET scanner operating within an MRI while pushing the technology in PET system design. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to test the effects of crystal size (4 mm and 2.6 mm wide crystals), TOF timing resolution (300ps and 600ps), and 2-level depth-of-interaction (DOI) capability. Spatial resolution was calculated by simulating point sources in air at multiple positions. Results show that smaller crystals produced improved resolution, while degradation of resolution due to parallax error could be reduced with a 2-level DOI detector. Lesion phantoms were simulated to measure the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) and area under the LROC curve (ALROC) for 0.5 cm diameter lesions with 6:1 activity uptake relative to the background. Smaller crystals produce higher CRC, leading to increased ALROC values or a reduction in scan time. Improved timing resolution provides faster CRC convergence and once again leads to an increase in ALROC value or reduced scan time. Based on our choice of timing resolution and crystal size, improved timing resolution (300ps) with larger crystals (4 mm wide) has similar ALROC as smaller crystals (2.6 mm wide) with 600ps timing resolution. A 2-level DOI measurement provides some CRC and ALROC improvement for lesions further away from the center, leading to a more uniform performance within the imaging field-of-view (FOV). Given a choice between having either an improved spatial resolution, improved timing resolution, or DOI capability, improved spatial or timing resolution provide an overall higher ALROC relative to a 2-level DOI detector. PMID:24379455

Surti, S; Shore, Adam R; Karp, Joel S

2013-07-01

357

Carotid baroreceptor stimulation alters cutaneous vascular conductance during whole-body heating in humans  

PubMed Central

Prior studies investigating carotid baroreflex control of the cutaneous vasculature have yielded mixed findings. However, previously used methodological and analytical techniques may limit the ability to detect carotid baroreflex-mediated changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dynamic carotid baroreceptor stimulation (i.e. 5 s trials) using neck pressure (NP, simulated carotid hypotension) and neck suction (NS, simulated carotid hypertension) will decrease and increase CVC, respectively, during normothermic and whole-body heating conditions in resting humans. Data were obtained from nine subjects (age, 31 ± 2 year). The ratio of forearm skin blood flux (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and arterial blood pressure (Finapres) was used as an index of CVC. Multiple 5 s trials of NP (+40Torr) and NS (?60Torr), as well as breath-hold/airflow control trials, were applied during end-expiratory breath-holds while subjects were normotheric and heat stressed (change in core temperature ?0.75°C). CVC responses to each NP and NS trial were averaged into 1 s intervals during the following periods: 3 s prestimulus, 5 s during stimulus, and 5 s poststimulus. Peak CVC responses (3 s average) to NP and NS were compared to prestimulus values using paired t test. During normothermia, NP decreased CVC by 0.032 ± 0.007 arbitrary units (a.u.) mmHg?1; (P < 0.05); however, breath-hold/airflow control trials resulted in similar decreases in CVC. NS did not change CVC (? = 0.002 ± 0.005 a.u. mmHg?1; P = 0.63). During whole-body heating, NP decreased CVC (by 0.16 ± 0.04 a.u. mmHg?1; (P < 0.05), whereas NS increased CVC by 0.07 ± 0.03 a.u. mmHg?1; (P < 0.05). Furthermore, these changes were greater than, or directionally different from, the breath-hold/airflow control trials. These findings indicate that carotid baroreceptor stimulation elicits dynamic changes in CVC and that these changes are more apparent during whole-body heating. PMID:17008379

Keller, David M; Davis, Scott L; Low, David A; Shibasaki, Manabu; Raven, Peter B; Crandall, Craig G

2006-01-01

358

ALARA considerations for the whole body neutron irradiation facility source removal project at Brookhaven National Laboratory.  

PubMed

This paper describes the activities that were involved with the safe removal of fourteen PuBe sources from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Whole Body Neutron Irradiation Facility (WBNIF). As part of a Department of Energy and BNL effort to reduce the radiological inventory, the WBNIF was identified as having no future use. In order to deactivate the facility and eliminate the need for nuclear safety management and long-term surveillance, it was decided to remove the neutron sources and dismantle the facility. In addition, the sources did not have DOT Special Form documentation so they would need to be encapsulated once removed for offsite storage or disposal. The planning and the administrative as well as engineering controls put in place enabled personnel to safely remove and encapsulate the sources while keeping exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). PMID:16404183

Sullivan, Patrick T

2006-02-01

359

Skeletal muscle response to spaceflight, whole body suspension, and recovery in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of a 7-day spaceflight (SF), 7- and 14-day-long whole body suspension (WBS), and 7-day-long recovery on the muscle weight and the morphology of the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats were investigated. It was found that the effect of 7-day-long SF and WBS were highly comparable for both the soleus and the EDL, although the soleus muscle from SF rats showed greater cross-sectional area reduction than that from WBS rats. With a longer duration of WBS, there was a continued reduction in cross-sectional fast-twitch fiber area. Muscle plasticity, in terms of fiber and capillary responses, showed differences in responses of the two types of muscles, indicating that antigravity posture muscles are highly susceptible to unloading.

Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Dombrowski, M. J.

1990-01-01

360

Body K and 40K in Chinese subjects measured with a whole-body counter.  

PubMed

More than 380 Chinese adults of both sexes were studied for their total body K and 40K using the National Tsing Hua University whole-body counter. The K values were found to have an average of 1.75 +/- 0.4 g K kg-1 body weight for males and 1.41 +/- 0.1 g K kg-1 body weight for females. The average K value for both sexes was 1.69 +/- 0.4 g K kg-1 body weight. The annual absorbed dose for the average male was calculated to be 0.21 +/- 0.04 mGy and for the average female was 0.17 +/- 0.01 mGy. The average for both sexes was 0.20 +/- 0.04 mGy. The 40K activity per unit body weight varied inversely with slenderness, and total body K varied directly with body-build index. PMID:2512270

Lan, C Y; Weng, P S

1989-11-01

361

Whole body FDG PET imaging for staging of malignant melanoma: Is it cost effective?  

SciTech Connect

Whole Body FDG PET imaging (WBPET) was performed in a total of 51 patients for staging of malignant melanoma. In 31/51 patients, concurrent conventional imaging (CI) modalities, typically CT of chest, abdomen and pelvis and MRI of the brain, were also performed for staging. The clinical cost effectiveness of WBPET as a single imaging modality was compared to CI for evaluating the extent of metastatic disease and the overall imaging cost. Two WBPET imaging protocols were used: 17/31 patients (Group I) had a standard WBPET acquisition of 45 min/bed position, and 14/31 patients (Group II) had an additional dedicated brain acquisition of 30 min with attenuation correction. All patients received 10 mCi of FDG and were imaged using the previously described WBPET imaging technique. In the two groups WBPET and CI were compared as a revealing same (=), more(>), or less (<) extensive disease.

Yao, W.J.; Hoh, C.K.; Glaspy, J.A. [John Wayne Cancer Inst., Los Angeles, CA (United States)]|[UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-05-01

362

Peripheral vasculature: whole-body MR angiography with midfemoral venous compression--initial experience.  

PubMed

Five volunteers and 10 patients suspected of having peripheral vascular disease underwent multistation contrast material-enhanced three-dimensional whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. The first examination, based on standard protocol, lasted 72 seconds, while the following two examinations, performed with a high-spatial-resolution T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo sequence for the last two stations (lower extremities) lasted 170 seconds. In the second high-resolution examination, midfemoral venous compression was used. Intraindividual comparison showed the high-resolution protocol with venous compression resulted in the best qualitative and quantitative image quality through higher signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the calf arteries. Despite prolonged acquisition times, there was no venous contamination. The data suggest that midfemoral venous compression should be incorporated in multistation protocols of the lower extremities to improve depiction of calf arteries without disturbing venous overlap. PMID:14990848

Herborn, Christoph U; Ajaj, Waleed; Goyen, Mathias; Massing, Sandra; Ruehm, Stefan G; Debatin, Jörg F

2004-03-01

363

Whole-Body Lifetime Occupational Lead Exposure and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease  

SciTech Connect

We enrolled 121 PD patients and 414 age-, sex-, and race-, frequency-matched controls in a case–control study. As an indicator of chronic Pb exposure, we measured concentrations of tibial and calcaneal bone Pb stores using 109Cadmium excited K-series X-ray fluorescence. As an indicator of recent exposure, we measured blood Pb concentration. We collected occupational data on participants from 18 years of age until the age at enrollment, and an industrial hygienist determined the duration and intensity of environmental Pb exposure. We employed physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to combine these data, and we estimated whole-body lifetime Pb exposures for each individual. Logistic regression analysis produced estimates of PD risk by quartile of lifetime Pb exposure.

Coon , Steven; Stark, Azadeh; Peterson, Edward; Gloi, Aime; Kortsha, Gene; Pounds, Joel G.; Chettle, D. R.; Gorell, Jay M.

2006-12-01

364

Whole-body imaging of the distribution of mercury released from dental fillings into monkey tissues  

SciTech Connect

The fate of mercury (Hg) released from dental silver amalgam tooth fillings into human mouth air is uncertain. A previous report about sheep revealed uptake routes and distribution of amalgam Hg among body tissues. The present investigation demonstrates the bodily distribution of amalgam Hg in a monkey whose dentition, diet, feeding regimen, and chewing pattern closely resemble those of humans. When amalgam fillings, which normally contain 50% Hg, are made with a tracer of radioactive {sup 203}Hg and then placed into monkey teeth, the isotope appears in high concentration in various organs and tissues within 4 wk. Whole-body images of the monkey revealed that the highest levels of Hg were located in the kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and jaw. The dental profession's advocacy of silver amalgam as a stable tooth restorative material is not supported by these findings.

Hahn, L.J.; Kloiber, R.; Leininger, R.W.; Vimy, M.J.; Lorscheider, F.L. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1990-11-01

365

Optoacoustic 3D whole-body tomography: experiments in nude mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a 3D whole-body optoacoustic tomography system for applications in preclinical research on mice. The system is capable of generating images with resolution better than 0.6 mm. Two pulsed lasers, an Alexandrite laser operating at 755 nm and a Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm and 1064nm were used for light delivery. The tomographic images were obtained while the objects of study (phantoms or mice) were rotated within a sphere outlined by a concave arc-shaped array of 64 piezo-composite transducers. During the scan, the mouse was illuminated orthogonally to the array with two wide beams of light from a bifurcated fiber bundle. Illumination at 532 nm showed superficial vasculature, but limited penetration depth at this wavelength prevented the detection of deeper structures. Illumination at 755 and 1064 nm showed organs and blood vessels, respectively. Filtering of the optoacoustic signals using high frequency enhancing wavelets further emphasized the smaller blood vessels.

Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Fronheiser, Matt; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Conjusteau, André; Liopo, Anton; Motamedi, Massoud; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

2009-02-01

366

Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a system for three-dimensional whole-body optoacoustic tomography of small animals for applications in preclinical research. The tomographic images are obtained while the objects of study (phantoms or mice) are rotated within a sphere outlined by a concave arc-shaped array of 64 piezocomposite transducers. Two pulsed lasers operating in the near-IR spectral range (755 and 1064 nm) with an average pulsed energy of about 100 mJ, a repetition rate of 10 Hz, and a pulse duration of 15 to 75 ns are used as optical illumination sources. During the scan, the mouse is illuminated orthogonally to the array with two wide beams of light from a bifurcated fiber bundle. The system is capable of generating images of individual organs and blood vessels through the entire body of a mouse with spatial resolution of ~0.5 mm.

Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Fronheiser, Matthew; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Conjusteau, Andre; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

2009-11-01

367

Paradoxical insights into whole body metabolic adaptations following SGLT2 inhibition  

PubMed Central

It is well known that glycemic control over time reduces microvascular and macrovascular complications in human subjects with type 2 diabetes. In addition, preclinical models of type 2 diabetes have demonstrated that long-term hyperglycemia exacerbates insulin resistance and reduces ? cell function; therefore, therapies that reduce blood glucose levels are of great interest in not only controlling complications, but for restoring known defects in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Pharmacological inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduces plasma glucose by limiting glucose absorption in the kidney and increasing glucose excretion in the urine. In this issue of the JCI, Merovci and colleagues and Ferrannini and colleagues independently report a paradoxical increase in endogenous glucose production in patients with type 2 diabetes following SGLT2 inhibition, despite an overall decrease in fasting plasma glucose. Together, these studies provide a unique insight into the effects of SGLT2 inhibition on whole body metabolism. PMID:24463446

Cefalu, William T.

2014-01-01

368

Optimal self-calibration of tomographic reconstruction parameters in whole-body small animal optoacoustic imaging  

PubMed Central

In tomographic optoacoustic imaging, multiple parameters related to both light and ultrasound propagation characteristics of the medium need to be adequately selected in order to accurately recover maps of local optical absorbance. Speed of sound in the imaged object and surrounding medium is a key parameter conventionally assumed to be uniform. Mismatch between the actual and predicted speed of sound values may lead to image distortions but can be mitigated by manual or automatic optimization based on metrics of image sharpness. Although some simple approaches based on metrics of image sharpness may readily mitigate distortions in the presence of highly contrasting and sharp image features, they may not provide an adequate performance for smooth signal variations as commonly present in realistic whole-body optoacoustic images from small animals. Thus, three new hybrid methods are suggested in this work, which are shown to outperform well-established autofocusing algorithms in mouse experiments in vivo. PMID:25431756

Mandal, Subhamoy; Nasonova, Elena; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Razansky, Daniel

2014-01-01

369

Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-07-01

370

Whole-body ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography of small animals in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a novel small-animal whole-body imaging system called ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography (RC-PACT). RC-PACT is based on a confocal design of free-space ring-shaped light illumination and 512-element full-ring ultrasonic array signal detection. The free-space light illumination maximizes the light delivery efficiency, and the full-ring signal detection ensures a full two-dimensional view aperture for accurate image reconstruction. Using cylindrically focused array elements, RC-PACT can image a thin cross section with 0.10 to 0.25 mm in-plane resolutions and 1.6 s/frame acquisition time. By translating the mouse along the elevational direction, RC-PACT provides a series of cross-sectional images of the brain, liver, kidneys, and bladder.

Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad R.; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Kun; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-05-01

371

Optimal self-calibration of tomographic reconstruction parameters in whole-body small animal optoacoustic imaging.  

PubMed

In tomographic optoacoustic imaging, multiple parameters related to both light and ultrasound propagation characteristics of the medium need to be adequately selected in order to accurately recover maps of local optical absorbance. Speed of sound in the imaged object and surrounding medium is a key parameter conventionally assumed to be uniform. Mismatch between the actual and predicted speed of sound values may lead to image distortions but can be mitigated by manual or automatic optimization based on metrics of image sharpness. Although some simple approaches based on metrics of image sharpness may readily mitigate distortions in the presence of highly contrasting and sharp image features, they may not provide an adequate performance for smooth signal variations as commonly present in realistic whole-body optoacoustic images from small animals. Thus, three new hybrid methods are suggested in this work, which are shown to outperform well-established autofocusing algorithms in mouse experiments in vivo. PMID:25431756

Mandal, Subhamoy; Nasonova, Elena; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Razansky, Daniel

2014-09-01

372

Extension of a data-driven gating technique to 3D, whole body PET studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respiratory gating can be used to separate a PET acquisition into a series of near motion-free bins. This is typically done using additional gating hardware; however, software-based methods can derive the respiratory signal from the acquired data itself. The aim of this work was to extend a data-driven respiratory gating method to acquire gated, 3D, whole body PET images of clinical patients. The existing method, previously demonstrated with 2D, single bed-position data, uses a spectral analysis to find regions in raw PET data which are subject to respiratory motion. The change in counts over time within these regions is then used to estimate the respiratory signal of the patient. In this work, the gating method was adapted to only accept lines of response from a reduced set of axial angles, and the respiratory frequency derived from the lung bed position was used to help identify the respiratory frequency in all other bed positions. As the respiratory signal does not identify the direction of motion, a registration-based technique was developed to align the direction for all bed positions. Data from 11 clinical FDG PET patients were acquired, and an optical respiratory monitor was used to provide a hardware-based signal for comparison. All data were gated using both the data-driven and hardware methods, and reconstructed. The centre of mass of manually defined regions on gated images was calculated, and the overall displacement was defined as the change in the centre of mass between the first and last gates. The mean displacement was 10.3 mm for the data-driven gated images and 9.1 mm for the hardware gated images. No significant difference was found between the two gating methods when comparing the displacement values. The adapted data-driven gating method was demonstrated to successfully produce respiratory gated, 3D, whole body, clinical PET acquisitions.

Schleyer, Paul J.; O'Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.

2011-07-01

373

Whole-body angular momentum during stair walking using passive and powered lower-limb prostheses.  

PubMed

Individuals with a unilateral transtibial amputation have a greater risk of falling compared to able-bodied individuals, and falling on stairs can lead to serious injuries. Individuals with transtibial amputations have lost ankle plantarflexor muscle function, which is critical for regulating whole-body angular momentum to maintain dynamic balance. Recently, powered prostheses have been designed to provide active ankle power generation with the goal of restoring biological ankle function. However, the effects of using a powered prosthesis on the regulation of whole-body angular momentum are unknown. The purpose of this study was to use angular momentum to evaluate dynamic balance in individuals with a transtibial amputation using powered and passive prostheses relative to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent and descent. Ground reaction forces, external moment arms, and joint powers were also investigated to interpret the angular momentum results. A key result was that individuals with an amputation had a larger range of sagittal-plane angular momentum during prosthetic limb stance compared to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent. There were no significant differences in the frontal, transverse, or sagittal-plane ranges of angular momentum or maximum magnitude of the angular momentum vector between the passive and powered prostheses during stair ascent or descent. These results indicate that individuals with an amputation have altered angular momentum trajectories during stair walking compared to able-bodied individuals, which may contribute to an increased fall risk. The results also suggest that a powered prosthesis provides no distinct advantage over a passive prosthesis in maintaining dynamic balance during stair walking. PMID:25213178

Pickle, Nathaniel T; Wilken, Jason M; Aldridge, Jennifer M; Neptune, Richard R; Silverman, Anne K

2014-10-17

374

Relationships Between Urinary Inositol Excretions and Whole Body Glucose Tolerance and Skeletal Muscle Insulin Receptor Phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the relationships of urinary D-chiro-inositol and myo-inositol excretions to indices of whole body glucose tolerance and total content and tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (activation) in skeletal muscle of older, non-diabetic subjects. 15 adults (age 65 ± 8 y; BMI 27.9 ± 3.3 kg/m2; mean ± SD) completed duplicate assessments of oral (75-g OGTT) and intravenous (300 mg/kg body weight IVGTT) glucose tolerance challenges and 24-h urinary D-chiro-inositol and myo-inositol excretions. Skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies were obtained at min 60 of the OGTTs. Subjects with higher urinary D-chiro-inositol excretion had higher insulin (Rho = 0.51, P ? 0.05) and C-peptide (Rho = 0.56, P ? 0.05) area under the curves, and lower insulin sensitivity index (Rho = -0.60, P ? 0.05) during the IVGTT. The urinary myo / D-chiro-inositol ratio was also inversely related to insulin area under the curve (Rho = -0.59, P ? 0.05). Urinary D-chiro-inositol (Rho = -0.60, P ? 0.05) and myo-inositol (Rho = -0.60, P ? 0.05) were inversely related to tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (tyrosines 1162/1163), but not total content of the insulin receptor during the OGTT. The apparent relationships were modestly weakened when adjustments were made for sex. These findings support previous research linking higher urinary D-chiro-inositol excretion with a progressive decline in whole body glucose tolerance. This is the first report to link higher urinary D-chiro-inositol excretion to a blunted activation of skeletal muscle insulin receptor signaling in older, non-diabetic subjects. PMID:18940392

Stull, April J.; Thyfault, John P.; Haub, Mark D.; Ostlund, Richard E.; Campbell, Wayne W.

2008-01-01

375

Alterations with Movement Duration in the Kinematics of a Whole Body Pointing Movement  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to investigate how the organization of a whole body movement is altered when movement duration (MD) is varied. Subjects performed the same whole body pointing movement over long, normal and short MDs. The kinematic trajectories were then analyzed on a normalized time base. A principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that the degree of coordination between the elevation angles of the body did not change with MD. This lack of significant differences in the coordination was interesting given that small spatial and temporal differences were observed in the individual kinematic trajectories. They were revealed by studying the trajectories of the elevation angles, joint markers and center of mass. The elevation angle excursions displayed modifications primarily in their spatial characteristics. These alterations were more marked for the short rather than long duration movements. The temporal characteristics of the elevation angles as measured by the time to peak of angular velocity were not modified in the same fashion hence displaying a dissociation in the tuning of the spatial and temporal aspects of the elevation angles. Modifications in the temporal characteristics of the movement were also studied by examining the velocity profiles of the joint markers. Interestingly, unlike the disordered nature of this variable for the elevation angles, the time to peak velocity was neatly ordered as a function of MD for the joint markers – It arrived first for the short duration movements, followed by those of the normal and finally long duration movements. Despite the modifications observed in the kinematic trajectories, a PCA with the elevation angle excursions at different MDs revealed that two principal components were sufficient to account for nearly all the variance in the data. Our results suggest that although similar, the kinematic trajectories at different MDs are not achieved by a simple time scaling. PMID:23341899

Casteran, Matthieu; Manckoundia, Patrick; Pozzo, Thierry; Thomas, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

376

Dietary crude protein intake influences rates of whole-body protein synthesis in weanling horses.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to measure whole-body protein kinetics in weanling horses receiving forage and one of two different concentrates: (1) commercial crude protein (CCP) concentrate, which with the forage provided 4.1?g CP/kg bodyweight (BW)/day (189?mg lysine (Lys)/kg BW/day), and (2) recommended crude protein (RCP) concentrate which, with the same forage, provided 3.1?g CP/kg BW/day (194?mg Lys/kg BW/day). Blood samples were taken to determine the response of plasma amino acid concentrations to half the daily concentrate allocation. The next day, a 2 h-primed, constant infusion of [(13)C]sodium bicarbonate and a 4 h-primed, constant infusion of [1-(13)C]phenylalanine were used with breath and blood sampling to measure breath (13)CO2 and blood [(13)C]phenylalanine enrichment. Horses on the CCP diet showed an increase from baseline in plasma isoleucine, leucine, lysine, threonine, valine, alanine, arginine, asparagine, glutamine, ornithine, proline, serine, and tyrosine at 120?min post-feeding. Baseline plasma amino acid concentrations were greater with the CCP diet for histidine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, valine, asparagine, proline, and serine. Phenylalanine, lysine, and methionine were greater in the plasma of horses receiving the RCP treatment at 0 and 120?min. Phenylalanine intake was standardized between groups; however, horses receiving the RCP diet had greater rates of phenylalanine oxidation (P?=?0.02) and lower rates of non-oxidative phenylalanine disposal (P?=?0.04). Lower whole-body protein synthesis indicates a limiting amino acid in the RCP diet. PMID:24973006

Tanner, S L; Wagner, A L; Digianantonio, R N; Harris, P A; Sylvester, J T; Urschel, K L

2014-11-01

377

Fully automated shape model positioning for bone segmentation in whole-body CT scans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysing osteolytic and osteoblastic bone lesions in systematically affected skeletons, e.g. in multiple myeloma or bone metastasis, is a complex task. Quantification of the degree of bone destruction needs segmentation of all lesions but cannot be managed manually. Automatic bone lesion detection is necessary. Our future objective is comparing modified bones with healthy shape models. For applying model based strategies successfully, identification and position information of single bones is necessary. A solution to these requirements based on bone medullary cavities is presented in this paper. Medullary cavities are useful for shape model positioning since they have similar position and orientation as the bone itself but can be separated more easily. Skeleton segmentation is done by simple thresholding. Inside the skeleton medullary cavities are segmented by a flood filling algorithm. The filled regions are considered as medullary cavity objects. To provide automatic shape model selection, medullary cavity objects are assigned to bone structures with pattern recognition. To get a good starting position for shape models, principal component analysis of medullary cavities is performed. Bone identification was tested on 14 whole-body low-dose CT scans of multiple myeloma patients. Random forest classification assigns medullary cavities of long bones to the corresponding bone (overall accuracy 90%). Centroid and first principal component of medullary cavity are sufficiently similar to those of bone (mean centroid difference 21.7 mm, mean difference angle 1.54° for all long bones of one example patient) and therefore suitable for shape model initialization. This method enables locating long bone structures in whole-body CT scans and provides useful information for a reasonable shape model initialization.

Fränzle, A.; Sumkauskaite, M.; Hillengass, J.; Bäuerle, T.; Bendl, R.

2014-03-01

378

Clinical value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in health screening of general adult population  

PubMed Central

Background Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) and angiography (WB-MRA) has become increasingly popular in population-based research. We evaluated retrospectively the frequency of potentially relevant incidental findings throughout the body. Materials and methods 22 highly health-conscious managers (18 men, mean age 47±9 years) underwent WB-MRI and WB-MRA between March 2012 and September 2013 on a Discovery MR750w wide bore 3 Tesla device (GE Healthcare) using T1 weighted, short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) acquisitions according to a standardized protocol. Results A suspicious (pararectal) malignancy was detected in one patient which was confirmed by an endorectal sonography. Incidental findings were described in 20 subjects, including hydrocele (11 patients), benign bony lesion (7 patients) and non-specific lymph nodes (5 patients). Further investigations were recommended in 68% (ultrasound: 36%, computed tomography: 28%, mammography: 9%, additional MRI: 9%). WB-MRA were negative in 16 subjects. Vascular normal variations were reported in 23%, and a 40% left proximal common carotid artery stenosis were described in one subject. Conclusions WB-MRI and MRA lead to the detection of clinically relevant diseases and unexpected findings in a cohort of healthy adults that require further imaging or surveillance in 68%. WB-MR imaging may play a paramount role in health screening, especially in the future generation of (epi)genetic based screening of malignant and atherosclerotic disorders. Our study is the first which involved a highly selected patient group using a high field 3-T wide bore magnet system with T1, STIR, MRA and whole-body DWI acquisitions as well.

Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Richter, Antje; Karlinger, Kinga; Berczi, Viktor; Pickuth, Dirk

2015-01-01

379

Detection of myeloma in skeleton of mice by whole-body optical fluorescence imaging.  

PubMed

Development of new therapies for myeloma has been hindered by the lack of suitable preclinical animal models of the disease in which widespread tumor foci in the skeleton can be detected reliably. Traditional means of detecting skeletal tumor infiltration such as histopathology are cumbersome and labor-intensive and do not allow temporal monitoring of tumor progression or regression in response to therapy. To resolve this problem, we modified the Radl 5TGM1 model of myeloma bone disease such that fluorescent myeloma tumors can be optically imaged in situ. Here, we show that murine myeloma 5TGM1 tumor cells, engineered to express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP; 5TGM1-eGFP cells), can be imaged in a temporal fashion using a fluorescence illuminator and a charge-coupled device camera in skeletons of live C57BL/KaLwRij mice. High-resolution, whole-body images of tumor-bearing mice revealed that myeloma cells homed almost exclusively to the skeleton, with multiple focal tumor foci in the axial skeleton, consistent with myeloma tumor distribution in humans. Finally, the tested antitumor treatment effect of Velcade (bortezomib), a proteasome inhibitor used clinically in myeloma, was readily detected by GFP imaging, suggesting the power of the technique in combination with the Radl 5TGM1-eGFP model for rapid preclinical assessment and sensitive monitoring of novel and potential therapeutics. Whole-body GFP imaging is practical, convenient, inexpensive, and rapid, and these advantages should enable a high throughput when evaluating in vivo efficacy of new potential antimyeloma therapeutics and assessing response to treatment. PMID:17541032

Oyajobi, Babatunde O; Muñoz, Steve; Kakonen, Rami; Williams, Paul J; Gupta, Anjana; Wideman, Christi L; Story, Beryl; Grubbs, Barry; Armstrong, Allison; Dougall, William C; Garrett, I Ross; Mundy, Gregory R

2007-06-01

380

Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: This study reports the effects of ingesting branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) on protein metabolism in four men. METHODS: To calculate leg protein synthesis and breakdown, we used a new model that utilized the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and the sampling of the leg arterial-venous difference and muscle biopsies. In addition, protein-bound enrichments provided for the direct calculation of muscle fractional synthetic rate. Four control subjects ingested an equivalent amount of essential amino acids (threonine, methionine, and histidine) to discern the effects of branched-chain amino acid nitrogen vs the effects of essential amino acid nitrogen. Each drink also included 50 g of carbohydrate. RESULTS: Consumption of the branched-chain and the essential amino acid solutions produced significant threefold and fourfold elevations in their respective arterial concentrations. Protein synthesis and breakdown were unaffected by branched-chain amino acids, but they increased by 43% (p < .05) and 36% (p < .03), respectively, in the group consuming the essential amino acids. However, net leg balance of phenylalanine was unchanged by either drink. Direct measurement of protein synthesis by tracer incorporation into muscle protein (fractional synthetic rate) revealed no changes within or between drinks. Whole-body phenylalanine flux was significantly suppressed by each solution but to a greater extent by the branched-chain amino acids (15% and 20%, respectively) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men.

Ferrando, A. A.; Williams, B. D.; Stuart, C. A.; Lane, H. W.; Wolfe, R. R.

1995-01-01

381

Frequency response characteristics of whole body autoregulation of blood flow in rats.  

PubMed

Previously, we demonstrated that very low-frequency (VLF) blood pressure variability (BPV) depends on voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+)-channels, suggesting that autoregulation of blood flow and/or myogenic vascular function significantly contributes to VLF BPV. To further substantiate this possibility, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency response characteristic of whole body autoregulation of blood flow is consistent with the frequency range of VLF BPV (0.02-0.2 Hz) in rats. In anesthetized rats (n = 11), BPV (0.016-0.5 Hz) was induced by computer-regulated cardiac pacing while blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output (CO) were recorded during control conditions (NaCl, 1 ml/h iv) and during alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor stimulation (phenylephrine, 1 mg.ml(-1).h(-1) iv) that has been reported to facilitate myogenic vascular function. Baroreceptor-heart rate reflex responses were elicited to confirm a functional baroreflex despite anesthesia. During control conditions, transfer function analyses between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and CO, and between MAP and total vascular conductance (CO/MAP) indicated autoregulation of blood flow at 0.016 Hz, passive vascular responses between 0.033 and 0.2 Hz, and vascular responses compatible with baroreflex-mediated mechanisms at 0.333 and 0.5 Hz. Stimulation of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors extended the frequency range of autoregulation of blood flow to frequencies up to 0.033 Hz. In conclusion, depending on sympathetic vascular tone, whole body autoregulation of blood flow operates most effectively at frequencies below 0.05 Hz. This frequency range overlaps with the lower end of the frequency band of VLF BPV in rats. Baroreceptor reflex-like mechanisms contribute to LF (0.2-0.6 Hz) but not VLF BPV-induced vascular responses. PMID:19252087

Stauss, Harald M; Rarick, Kevin R; Deklotz, Richard J; Sheriff, Don D

2009-05-01

382

Compact whole-body fluorescent imaging of nude mice bearing EGFP expressing tumor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issue of tumor has been a hotspot of current medicine. It is important for tumor research to detect tumors bearing in animal models easily, fast, repetitively and noninvasivly. Many researchers have paid their increasing interests on the detecting. Some contrast agents, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Discosoma red fluorescent protein (Dsred) were applied to enhance image quality. Three main kinds of imaging scheme were adopted to visualize fluorescent protein expressing tumors in vivo. These schemes based on fluorescence stereo microscope, cooled charge-coupled-device (CCD) or camera as imaging set, and laser or mercury lamp as excitation light source. Fluorescence stereo microscope, laser and cooled CCD are expensive to many institutes. The authors set up an inexpensive compact whole-body fluorescent imaging tool, which consisted of a Kodak digital camera (model DC290), fluorescence filters(B and G2;HB Optical, Shenyang, Liaoning, P.R. China) and a mercury 50-W lamp power supply (U-LH50HG;Olympus Optical, Japan) as excitation light source. The EGFP was excited directly by mercury lamp with D455/70 nm band-pass filter and fluorescence was recorded by digital camera with 520nm long-pass filter. By this easy operation tool, the authors imaged, in real time, fluorescent tumors growing in live mice. The imaging system is external and noninvasive. For half a year our experiments suggested the imaging scheme was feasible. Whole-body fluorescence optical imaging for fluorescent expressing tumors in nude mouse is an ideal tool for antitumor, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenesis drug screening.

Chen, Yanping; Xiong, Tao; Chu, Jun; Yu, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

2005-01-01

383

The calculation of a size correction factor for a whole-body counter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-Body counting techniques use radiation detectors in order to evaluate the internal exposure from radionuclides. The Whole-Body Counter (WBC) of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is used for in vivo measurements of workers for routine purposes as well as for the public in case of an emergency. The system has been calibrated using the phantom provided by CANBERRA (RMC phantom) in combination with solid and point sources. Furthermore, four bottle phantoms of different sizes have been used to calibrate the system to measure potassium, 40K, for different sized workers. However, the use of different phantoms in combination with different sources is time consuming and expensive. Moreover, the purchase and construction of the reference standards need specific knowledge. An alternative option would be the use of Monte Carlo simulation. In this study, the Monte Carlo technique has been firstly validated using the 40K measurements of the four phantoms. After the validation of the methodology, the Monte Carlo code, MCNP, has been used with the same simulated geometries (phantom detector) and different sources in order to calculate the efficiency of the system for different photon energies in the four phantoms. The simulation energies correspond to the following radionuclides: 131I, 137Cs, 60Co, and 88Y. A size correction calibration factor has been defined in order to correct the efficiency of the system for the different phantoms and energies for uniform distribution. The factors vary from 0.64 to 1.51 depending on the phantom size and photon energy.

Carinou, E.; Koukouliou, V.; Budayova, M.; Potiriadis, C.; Kamenopoulou, V.

2007-09-01

384

A study to define a set of requirements for cleansing agents for use in the Space Station whole body shower  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research is to define a set of requirements for a whole body cleansing agent to be used in the Space Station Whole Body Shower System. In addition, cleansing agent candidates are to be identified that are likely to satisfy requirements defined in the first part of the study. It is understood that the main reason for having a Whole Body Shower is to satisfy the physiological, psychological and social needs of the crew throughout the duration of duty in the Space Station. The cleansing agent must also be compatible with the vortex water/gas separator and the water reclamation system. To accomplish these goals the study was divided into six tasks.

1985-01-01

385

Comparing the Performance-Enhancing Effects of Squats on a Vibration Platform With Conventional Squats in Recreationally Resistance-Trained Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rønnestad, B.R. Comparing the performance-en- hancing effects of squats on a vibration platform with conven- tional squats in recreationally resistance-trained men. J. Strength Cond. Res. 18(4):000-000. 2004.—The purpose of this investigation was to compare the performance-enhancing effects of squats on a vibration platform with conventional squats in recreationally resistance-trained men. The subjects were 14 re- creationally resistance-trained men (age, 21-40

Bent R. Rønnestad

2004-01-01

386

VIBRATIONS IN DYNAMIC DRIVING SIMULATOR: STUDY AND IMPLEMENTATION.  

E-print Network

. The human body is a strongly damped system and therefore, when a part of it is excited at its natural Assistance Systems (ADAS) conception and their impact on human comportment in critical driving situation be the optimal intensities of vibration? 2.1. The whole body vibration Human vibration is defined as the effect

Boyer, Edmond

387

Dual modality optical coherence and whole-body photoacoustic tomography imaging of chick embryos in multiple development stages  

PubMed Central

Chick embryos are an important animal model for biomedical studies. The visualization of chick embryos, however, is limited mostly to postmortem sectional imaging methods. In this work, we present a dual modality optical imaging system that combines swept-source optical coherence tomography and whole-body photoacoustic tomography, and apply it to image chick embryos at three different development stages. The explanted chick embryos were imaged in toto with complementary contrast from both optical scattering and optical absorption. The results serve as a prelude to the use of the dual modality system in longitudinal whole-body monitoring of chick embryos in ovo. PMID:25401028

Liu, Mengyang; Maurer, Barbara; Hermann, Boris; Zabihian, Behrooz; Sandrian, Michelle G.; Unterhuber, Angelika; Baumann, Bernhard; Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.; Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Drexler, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

388

A new method for calculating the distribution of radioactivity in man measured with a whole-body counter  

SciTech Connect

A whole-body counter with a scanning bed and two opposite (antero-posterior) probes was used to obtain profiles of count rates of radioactivity held in the whole body. The distribution of the activity in the patient was calculated by solving an overdetermined system (more equations than unknowns) of linear equations with the Chebyshev method, the least-squares method, and an iterative method. The iterative method gave the best results, especially in the case of distributions with peaks of radioactivity. Some in-vivo applications of the method are presented.

Novario, R.; Conte, L. (Univ. of Milan (Italy))

1990-05-01

389

A software tool for stitching two PET/CT body segments into a single whole-body image set.  

PubMed

A whole-body PET/CT scan extending from the vertex of the head to the toes of the patient is not feasible on a number of commercially available PET/CT scanners due to a limitation in the extent of bed travel on these systems. In such cases, the PET scan has to be divided into two parts: one covering the upper body segment, while the other covering the lower body segment. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate, using phantom and patient studies, a software tool that was developed to stitch two body segments and output a single whole-body image set, thereby facilitating the interpretation of whole-body PET scans. A mathematical model was first developed to stitch images from two body segments using three landmarks. The model calculates the relative positions of the landmarks on the two segments and then generates a rigid transformation that aligns these landmarks on the two segments. A software tool was written to implement this model while correcting for radioactive decay between the two body segments, and output a single DICOM whole-body image set with all the necessary tags. One phantom, and six patient studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the software. In these studies, six radio-opaque markers (BBs) were used as landmarks (three on each leg). All studies were acquired in two body segments with BBs placed in the overlap region of the two segments. The PET/CT images of each segment were then stitched using the software tool to create a single DICOM whole-body PET/CT image. Evaluation of the stitching tool was based on visual inspection, consistency of radiotracer uptake in the two segments, and ability to display the resultant DICOM image set on two independent workstations. The software tool successfully stitched the two segments of the phantom image, and generated a single whole-body DICOM PET/CT image set that had the correct alignment and activity concentration throughout the image. The stitched images were viewed by two independent workstations from two different manufacturers, attesting the ability of the software tool to produce a DICOM compliant image set. The study demonstrated that this software tool allows the stitching of two segments of a whole-body PET/CT scan with minimal user interaction, thereby facilitating the interpretation of whole body PET/CT scans from a number of scanners with limited extent of bed travel. PMID:22584164

Chang, Tingting; Chang, Guoping; Clark, John W; Rohren, Eric M; Mawlawi, Osama R

2012-01-01

390

[Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with an occult abdominal neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome].  

PubMed

Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is a rare neurological disorder. In children, the etiology varies, although it is a paraneoplastic manifestation (mainly of neuroblastoma) in 40% to 80% of cases. Whole-body MRI promises to be a powerful tool in the search for a possible primary tumor in this condition for which the diagnostic algorithm is yet to be established. We present the case of a two-year-old boy with signs of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome in whom a retroperitoneal neuroblastoma was detected by whole-body MRI. PMID:22818898

Miras Azcón, F; Culiañez Casas, M; Pastor Pons, E

2014-01-01

391

CT-PET weighted image fusion for separately scanned whole body rat  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The limited resolution and lack of spatial information in positron emission tomography (PET) images require the complementary anatomic information from the computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, multimodality image fusion techniques such as PET/CT are critical in mapping the functional images to structural images and thus facilitate the interpretation of PET studies. In our experimental situation, the CT and PET images are acquired in separate scanners at different times and the inherent differences in the imaging protocols produce significant nonrigid changes between the two acquisitions in addition to dissimilar image characteristics. The registration conditions are also poor because CT images have artifacts due to the limitation of current scanning settings, while PET images are very blurry (in transmission-PET) and have vague anatomical structure boundaries (in emission-PET). Methods: The authors present a new method for whole body small animal multimodal registration. In particular, the authors register whole body rat CT image and PET images using a weighted demons algorithm. The authors use both the transmission-PET and the emission-PET images in the registration process emphasizing particular regions of the moving transmission-PET image using the emission-PET image. After a rigid transformation and a histogram matching between the CT and the transmission-PET images, the authors deformably register the transmission-PET image to the CT image with weights based on the intensity-normalized emission-PET image. For the deformable registration process, the authors develop a weighted demons registration method that can give preferences to particular regions of the input image using a weight image. Results: The authors validate the results with nine rat image sets using the M-Hausdorff distance (M-HD) similarity measure with different outlier-suppression parameters (OSP). In comparison with standard methods such as the regular demons and the normalized mutual information (NMI)-based nonrigid free-form deformation (FFD) registration, the proposed weighted demons registration method shows average M-HD errors: 3.99?±?1.37 (OSP?=?10), 5.04?±?1.59 (OSP?=?20) and 5.92?±?1.61 (OSP?=??) with statistical significance (p?whole body multimodal registration between CT and PET images, the utilization of both the transmission-PET and the emission-PET images in the registration process by emphasizing particular regions of the transmission-PET image using an emission-PET image is effective. This method holds promise for other image fusion applications where multiple (more than two) input images should be registered into a single informative image. PMID:22225323

Suh, Jung W.; Kwon, Oh-Kyu; Scheinost, Dustin; Sinusas, Albert J.; Cline, Gary W.; Papademetris, Xenophon

2012-01-01

392

Effects of short-term ingestion of Russian Tarragon prior to creatine monohydrate supplementation on whole body and muscle creatine retention and anaerobic sprint capacity: a preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Extracts of Russian Tarragon (RT) have been reported to produce anti-hyperglycemic effects and influence plasma creatine (Cr) levels while supplementing with creatine monohydrate (CrM). The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if short-term, low-dose aqueous RT extract ingestion prior to CrM supplementation influences whole body Cr retention, muscle Cr or measures of anaerobic sprint performance. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, and crossover manner; 10 recreationally trained males (20?±?2 yrs; 179?±?9 cm; 91.3?±?34 kg) ingested 500 mg of aqueous RT extract (Finzelberg, Andernach, Germany) or 500 mg placebo 30-minutes prior to ingesting 5 g of CrM (Creapure®, AlzChem AG, Germany) twice per day for 5-days then repeated after a 6-week wash-out period. Urine was collected at baseline and during each of the 5-days of supplementation to determine urine Cr content. Whole body Cr retention was estimated from urine samples. Muscle biopsies were obtained for determination of muscle free Cr content. Participants also performed two 30-second Wingate anaerobic capacity tests prior to and following supplementation for determination of peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and total work (TW). Data were analysed by repeated measures MANOVA. Results Whole body daily Cr retention increased in both groups following supplementation (0.0?±?0.0; 8.2?±?1.4, 6.5?±?2.4, 5.6?±?3.2, 6.1?±?2.6, 4.8?±?3.2 g?·?d-1; p?=?0.001) with no differences observed between groups (p?=?0.59). After 3 and 5-days of supplementation, respectively, both supplementation protocols demonstrated a significant increase in muscle free Cr content from baseline (4.8?±?16.7, 15.5?±?23.6 mmol?·?kg-1 DW, p?=?0.01) with no significant differences observed between groups (p?=?0.34). Absolute change in MP (9?±?57, 35?±?57 W; p?=?0.031), percent change in MP (2.5?±?10.5, 6.7?±?10.4%; p?=?0.026), absolute change in TW (275?±?1,700, 1,031?±?1,721 J; p?=?0.032), and percent change in TW (2.5?±?10.5, 6.6?±?10.4%; p?=?0.027) increased over time in both groups with no differences observed between groups. Conclusions Short-term CrM supplementation (10 g?·?d-1 for 5-days) significantly increased whole body Cr retention and muscle free Cr content. However, ingesting 500 mg of RT 30-min prior to CrM supplementation did not affect whole body Cr retention, muscle free Cr content, or anaerobic sprint capacity in comparison to ingesting CrM with a placebo. PMID:24568653

2014-01-01

393

Relative role of motion and PSF compensation in whole-body oncologic PET-MR imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Respiratory motion and partial-volume effects are the two main sources of image degradation in whole-body PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR allows measurement of respiratory motion using MRI while collecting PET events. Improved PET images may be obtained by modeling respiratory motion and point spread function (PSF) within the PET iterative reconstruction process. In this study, the authors assessed the relative impact of PSF modeling and MR-based respiratory motion correction in phantoms and patient studies using a whole-body PET-MR scanner. Methods: An asymmetric exponential PSF model accounting for radially varying and axial detector blurring effects was obtained from point source acquisitions performed in the PET-MR scanner. A dedicated MRI acquisition protocol using single-slice steady state free-precession MR acquisitions interleaved with pencil-beam navigator echoes was developed to track respiratory motion during PET-MR studies. An iterative ordinary Poisson fully 3D OSEM PET reconstruction algorithm modeling all the physical effects of the acquisition (attenuation, scatters, random events, detectors efficiencies, PSF), as well as MR-based nonrigid respiratory deformations of tissues (in both emission and attenuation maps) was developed. Phantom and 18F-FDG PET-MR patient studies were performed to evaluate the proposed quantitative PET-MR methods. Results: The phantom experiment results showed that PSF modeling significantly improved contrast recovery while limiting noise propagation in the reconstruction process. In patients with soft-tissue static lesions, PSF modeling improved lesion contrast by 19.7%–109%, enhancing the detectability and assessment of small tumor foci. In a patient study with small moving hepatic lesions, the proposed reconstruction technique improved lesion contrast by 54.4%–98.1% and reduced apparent lesion size by 21.8%–34.2%. Improvements were particularly important for the smallest lesion undergoing large motion at the lung-liver interface. Heterogeneous tumor structures delineation was substantially improved. Enhancements offered by PSF modeling were more important when correcting for motion at the same time. Conclusions: The results suggest that the proposed quantitative PET-MR methods can significantly enhance the performance of tumor diagnosis and staging as compared to conventional methods. This approach may enable utilization of the full potential of the scanner in oncologic studies of both the lower abdomen, with moving lesions, as well as other parts of the body unaffected by motion. PMID:24694156

Petibon, Yoann; Huang, Chuan; Ouyang, Jinsong; Reese, Timothy G.; Li, Quanzheng; Syrkina, Aleksandra; Chen, Yen-Lin; El Fakhri, Georges

2014-01-01

394

Relative role of motion and PSF compensation in whole-body oncologic PET-MR imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Respiratory motion and partial-volume effects are the two main sources of image degradation in whole-body PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR allows measurement of respiratory motion using MRI while collecting PET events. Improved PET images may be obtained by modeling respiratory motion and point spread function (PSF) within the PET iterative reconstruction process. In this study, the authors assessed the relative impact of PSF modeling and MR-based respiratory motion correction in phantoms and patient studies using a whole-body PET-MR scanner. Methods: An asymmetric exponential PSF model accounting for radially varying and axial detector blurring effects was obtained from point source acquisitions performed in the PET-MR scanner. A dedicated MRI acquisition protocol using single-slice steady state free-precession MR acquisitions interleaved with pencil-beam navigator echoes was developed to track respiratory motion during PET-MR studies. An iterative ordinary Poisson fully 3D OSEM PET reconstruction algorithm modeling all the physical effects of the acquisition (attenuation, scatters, random events, detectors efficiencies, PSF), as well as MR-based nonrigid respiratory deformations of tissues (in both emission and attenuation maps) was developed. Phantom and{sup 18}F-FDG PET-MR patient studies were performed to evaluate the proposed quantitative PET-MR methods. Results: The phantom experiment results showed that PSF modeling significantly improved contrast recovery while limiting noise propagation in the reconstruction process. In patients with soft-tissue static lesions, PSF modeling improved lesion contrast by 19.7%–109%, enhancing the detectability and assessment of small tumor foci. In a patient study with small moving hepatic lesions, the proposed reconstruction technique improved lesion contrast by 54.4%–98.1% and reduced apparent lesion size by 21.8%–34.2%. Improvements were particularly important for the smallest lesion undergoing large motion at the lung-liver interface. Heterogeneous tumor structures delineation was substantially improved. Enhancements offered by PSF modeling were more important when correcting for motion at the same time. Conclusions: The results suggest that the proposed quantitative PET-MR methods can significantly enhance the performance of tumor diagnosis and staging as compared to conventional methods. This approach may enable utilization of the full potential of the scanner in oncologic studies of both the lower abdomen, with moving lesions, as well as other parts of the body unaffected by motion.

Petibon, Yoann; Syrkina, Aleksandra [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)] [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Huang, Chuan; Ouyang, Jinsong; Li, Quanzheng; El Fakhri, Georges, E-mail: elfakhri@pet.mgh.harvard.edu [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Reese, Timothy G. [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States) [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 Thirteenth Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States) [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

2014-04-15

395

A whole-body pharmacokinetic model for the early assessment of targeted radionuclide therapy agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early assessment of targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) agent effectiveness based on its pharmacokinetic (PK) properties could provide a means to expedite agent development or rejection. A whole-body PK model was developed that not only simplifies the complex radiation dosimetry and physiology of TRT but also provides criteria for normal tissue and tumor PK parameters that achieve effective TRT while limiting toxicity. Because biologically effective dose (BED) may be more of a relevant quantity than absorbed dose for establishing tumor response relationships, the model was expanded to include BED. The model consisted of two coupled normal body compartments and one decoupled tumor compartment. Differential equations were used to develop an equation that predicted TRT efficacy. PK scenarios were created by pairing normal body influx and efflux parameters with a range of tumor influx and efflux parameters. Each PK scenario yielded a maximum delivered tumor absorbed dose that limited the whole body dose to 2 Gy. The dose rate and repair rate were used for BED. The relationships between the tumor influx-to-efflux ratio (k34:k 43), central compartment efflux-to-influx ratio (k12:k 21), central elimination (ke1), and tumor repair rate (mu), and tumor BED were investigated. The model was used to find the PK parameters for NM404 and FLT within a xenograft model. The TCC of both Compartment 1 and tumor were fit to the equations of the model using Levenberg-Marquardt. The parameter errors were propagated into dosimetry uncertainties. Sensitivity functions were derived for each PK parameter that described the change in TCC as a result of a change in the PK parameter value at each time. Cramer-Rao Lower Bounds (CRLB) theory was used to derive optimal sampling schedules based on the sensitivity of the derived PK parameters. The experimental and optimal sampling schedules were compared by running simulations that measured the precision and accuracy of the measured PK parameters. The TRT PK model that was developed has the capability of predicting effectiveness when PK parameters are known. This work also represents a step in the direction of establishing relative PK criteria of when the BED formalism is more applicable than absorbed dose for TRT.

Grudzinski, Joseph J.

396

Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans  

PubMed Central

That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg?1 min?1 in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular conductances (VC) during leg and arm exercise, to find out if the maximal muscular vasodilatory response is restrained during maximal combined arm and leg exercise. Six Swedish elite cross-country skiers, age (mean ± s.e.m.) 24 ± 2 years, height 180 ± 2 cm, weight 74 ± 2 kg, and maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2,max) 5.1 ± 0.1 l min?1 participated in the study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flows, intra-arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, as well as blood gases in the femoral and subclavian vein, right atrium and femoral artery were determined during skiing (roller skis) at ?76% of V?O2,max and at V?O2,max with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise) and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). During submaximal exercise cardiac output (26–27 l min?1), mean blood pressure (MAP) (?87 mmHg), systemic VC, systemic oxygen delivery and pulmonary V?O2 (?4 l min?1) attained similar values regardless of exercise mode. The distribution of cardiac output was modified depending on the musculature engaged in the exercise. There was a close relationship between VC and V?O2 in arms (r = 0.99, P < 0.001) and legs (r = 0.98, P < 0.05). Peak arm VC (63.7 ± 5.6 ml min?1 mmHg?1) was attained during double poling, while peak leg VC was reached at maximal exercise with the diagonal technique (109.8 ± 11.5 ml min?1 mmHg?1) when arm VC was 38.8 ± 5.7 ml min?1 mmHg?1. If during maximal exercise arms and legs had been vasodilated to the observed maximal levels then mean arterial pressure would have dropped at least to 75–77 mmHg in our experimental conditions. It is concluded that skeletal muscle vascular conductance is restrained during whole body exercise in the upright position to avoid hypotension. PMID:15121799

Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; van Hall, G; Holmberg, H -C; Rosdahl, H; Saltin, B

2004-01-01

397

The influence of activewear worn under standard work coveralls on whole-body heat loss.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of activewear undergarments worn under the standard mining coveralls on whole-body heat exchange and change in body heat content during work in the heat. Each participant performed 60 min of cycling at a constant rate of heat production of 400 W followed by 60 min of recovery in a whole-body calorimeter regulated at 40°C and 15% relative humidity donning one of the four clothing ensembles: (1) cotton underwear and shorts only (Control, CON); (2) Activewear only (ACT); (3) Coveralls+Cotton undergarments (COV+COT); or (4) Coveralls+Activewear undergarments (COV+ACT). In the latter two conditions a hard hat with earmuffs, gloves, and socks with closed toe shoes were worn. We observed that both COV+COT and COV+ACT resulted in a similar mean (±SE) change in body heat content, which was significantly greater compared with the CON and ACT during exercise, suggesting that the rate of thermal strain was elevated to a similar degree in both coverall conditions (CON: 245±32 kJ; ACT: 260±29 kJ; COV+COT: 428±36 kJ; COV+ACT: 466±15 kJ; p<0.001). During recovery, the negative change in body heat content was greater for both COV+COT and COV+ACT compared with the CON and ACT but similar between COV+COT and COV+ACT due to the greater amount of heat stored during exercise (CON: -83±16 kJ; ACT: -104±33 kJ; COV+COT: -198±30 kJ; COV+ACT: -145±12 kJ; p=0.048). Core temperatures and heart rate were also significantly elevated for the COV+COT and COV+ACT compared with the CON and ACT conditions during and following exercise (p<0.05). These results suggest that while activewear undergarments are not detrimental, they provide no thermoregulatory benefit when replacing the cotton undergarment worn under the standard coverall during work in the heat. PMID:21966970

Stapleton, Jill M; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Kenny, Glen P

2011-11-01

398

A gamma camera count rate saturation correction method for whole-body planar imaging  

PubMed Central

Whole-body (WB) planar imaging has long been one of the staple methods of dosimetry, and its quantification has been formalized by the MIRD Committee in pamphlet no 16. One of the issues not specifically addressed in the formalism occurs when the count rates reaching the detector are sufficiently high to result in camera count saturation. Camera dead-time effects have been extensively studied, but all of the developed correction methods assume static acquisitions. However, during WB planar (sweep) imaging, a variable amount of imaged activity exists in the detector’s field of view as a function of time and therefore the camera saturation is time dependent. A new time-dependent algorithm was developed to correct for dead-time effects during WB planar acquisitions that accounts for relative motion between detector heads and imaged object. Static camera dead-time parameters were acquired by imaging decaying activity in a phantom and obtaining a saturation curve. Using these parameters, an iterative algorithm akin to Newton’s method was developed, which takes into account the variable count rate seen by the detector as a function of time. The algorithm was tested on simulated data as well as on a whole-body scan of high activity Samarium-153 in an ellipsoid phantom. A complete set of parameters from unsaturated phantom data necessary for count rate to activity conversion was also obtained, including build-up and attenuation coefficients, in order to convert corrected count rate values to activity. The algorithm proved successful in accounting for motion-and time-dependent saturation effects in both the simulated and measured data and converged to any desired degree of precision. The clearance half-life calculated from the ellipsoid phantom data was calculated to be 45.1 h after dead-time correction and 51.4 h with no correction; the physical decay half-life of Samarium-153 is 46.3 h. Accurate WB planar dosimetry of high activities relies on successfully compensating for camera saturation which takes into account the variable activity in the field of view, i.e. time-dependent dead-time effects. The algorithm presented here accomplishes this task. PMID:20071766

Hobbs, Robert F; Baechler, Sébastien; Senthamizhchelvan, Srinivasan; Prideaux, Andrew R; Esaias, Caroline E; Reinhardt, Melvin; Frey, Eric C; Loeb, David M; Sgouros, George

2010-01-01

399

Design and performance evaluation of a whole-body Ingenuity TF PET-MRI system.  

PubMed

The Ingenuity TF PET-MRI is a newly released whole-body hybrid PET-MR imaging system with a Philips time-of-flight GEMINI TF PET and Achieva 3T X-series MRI system. Compared to PET-CT, modifications to the positron emission tomography (PET) gantry were made to avoid mutual system interference and deliver uncompromising performance which is equivalent to the standalone systems. The PET gantry was redesigned to introduce magnetic shielding for the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Stringent electromagnetic noise requirements of the MR system necessitated the removal of PET gantry electronics to be housed in the PET-MR equipment room. We report the standard NEMA measurements for the PET scanner. PET imaging and performance measurements were done at Geneva University Hospital as described in the NEMA Standards NU 2-2007 manual. The scatter fraction (SF) and noise equivalent count rate (NECR) measurements with the NEMA cylinder (20 cm diameter) were repeated for two larger cylinders (27 cm and 35 cm diameter), which better represent average and heavy patients. A NEMA/IEC torso phantom was used for overall assessment of image quality. The transverse and axial resolution near the center was 4.7 mm. Timing and energy resolution of the PET-MR system were measured to be 525 ps and 12%, respectively. The results were comparable to PET-CT systems demonstrating that the effect of design modifications required on the PET system to remove the harmful effect of the magnetic field on the PMTs was negligible. The absolute sensitivity of this scanner was 7.0 cps kBq(-1), whereas SF was 26%. NECR measurements performed with cylinders having three different diameters, and image quality measurements performed with IEC phantom yielded excellent results. The Ingenuity TF PET-MRI represents the first commercial whole-body hybrid PET-MRI system. The performance of the PET subsystem was comparable to the GEMINI TF PET-CT system using phantom and patient studies. It is conceived that advantages of hybrid PET-MRI will become more evident in the near future. PMID:21508443

Zaidi, H; Ojha, N; Morich, M; Griesmer, J; Hu, Z; Maniawski, P; Ratib, O; Izquierdo-Garcia, D; Fayad, Z A; Shao, L

2011-05-21

400

Thermophysiological responses of human volunteers to whole body RF exposure at 220 MHz.  

PubMed

Since 1994, our research has demonstrated how thermophysiological responses are mobilized in human volunteers exposed to three radio frequencies, 100, 450, and 2450 MHz. A significant gap in this frequency range is now filled by the present study, conducted at 220 MHz. Thermoregulatory responses of heat loss and heat production were measured in six adult volunteers (five males, one female, aged 24-63 years) during 45 min whole body dorsal exposures to 220 MHz radio frequency (RF) energy. Three power densities (PD = 9, 12, and 15 mW/cm(2) [1 mW/cm(2) = 10 W/m(2)], whole body average normalized specific absorption rate [SAR] = 0.045 [W/kg]/[mW/cm(2)] = 0.0045 [W/kg]/[W/m(2)]) were tested at each of three ambient temperatures (T(a) = 24, 28, and 31 degrees C) plus T(a) controls (no RF). Measured responses included esophageal (T(esoph)) and seven skin temperatures (T(sk)), metabolic rate (M), local sweat rate, and local skin blood flow (SkBF). Derived measures included heart rate (HR), respiration rate, and total evaporative water loss (EWL). Finite difference-time domain (FDTD) modeling of a seated 70 kg human exposed to 220 MHz predicted six localized "hot spots" at which local temperatures were also measured. No changes in M occurred under any test condition, while T(esoph) showed small changes (< or =0.35 degrees C) but never exceeded 37.3 degrees C. As with similar exposures at 100 MHz, local T(sk) changed little and modest increases in SkBF were recorded. At 220 MHz, vigorous sweating occurred at PD = 12 and 15 mW/cm(2), with sweating levels higher than those observed for equivalent PD at 100 MHz. Predicted "hot spots" were confirmed by local temperature measurements. The FDTD model showed the local SAR in deep neural tissues that harbor temperature-sensitive neurons (e.g., brainstem, spinal cord) to be greater at 220 than at 100 MHz. Human exposure at both 220 and 100 MHz results in far less skin heating than occurs during exposure at 450 MHz. However, the exposed subjects thermoregulate efficiently because of increased heat loss responses, particularly sweating. It is clear that these responses are controlled by neural signals from thermosensors deep in the brainstem and spinal cord, rather than those in the skin. PMID:15906370

Adair, Eleanor R; Blick, Dennis W; Allen, Stewart J; Mylacraine, Kevin S; Ziriax, John M; Scholl, Dennis M

2005-09-01

401

The Potential Neural Mechanisms of Acute Indirect Vibration  

PubMed Central

There is strong evidence to suggest that acute indirect vibration acts on muscle to enhance force, power, flexibility, balance and proprioception suggesting neural enhancement. Nevertheless, the neural mechanism(s) of vibration and its potentiating effect have received little attention. One proposal suggests that spinal reflexes enhance muscle contraction through a reflex activity known as tonic vibration stretch reflex (TVR), which increases muscle activation. However, TVR is based on direct, brief, and high frequency vibration (>100 Hz) which differs to indirect vibration, which is applied to the whole body or body parts at lower vibration frequency (5-45 Hz). Likewise, muscle tuning and neuromuscular aspects are other candidate mechanisms used to explain the vibration phenomenon. But there is much debate in terms of identifying which neural mechanism(s) are responsible for acute vibration; due to a number of studies using various vibration testing protocols. These protocols include: different methods of application, vibration variables, training duration, exercise types and a range of population groups. Therefore, the neural mechanism of acute vibration remain equivocal, but spinal reflexes, muscle tuning and neuromuscular aspects are all viable factors that may contribute in different ways to increasing muscular performance. Additional research is encouraged to determine which neural mechanism(s) and their contributions are responsible for acute vibration. Testing variables and vibration applications need to be standardised before reaching a consensus on which neural mechanism(s) occur during and post-vibration. Key points There is strong evidence to suggest that acute indirect vibration acts on muscle to enhance force, power, flexibility, balance and proprioception, but little attention has been given to the neural mechanism(s) of acute indirect vibration. Current findings suggest that acute vibration exposure may cause a neural response, but there is little consensus on identifying which neural mechanism(s) are specifically responsible. This is due to a number of studies using various vibration testing protocols (i.e.varying frequencies, amplitudes, durations, and methods of application). Spinal reflexes, muscle tuning and neuromuscular aspects and central motor command are all viable neuromechanical factors that may contribute at different stages to transiently increasing muscular performance. Additional research is encouraged to determine when (pre, during and post) the different neural mechanism(s) respond to direct and indirect vibration stimuli. PMID:24149291

2011-01-01

402

Measurement of net whole-body transcapillary fluid transport and effective vascular compliance in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Net whole-body transcapillary fluid transport (TFT) between the circulation and the interstitial (extravascular) space may be calculated as: IV - deltaPV - UV - IL, where IV=infused or ingested volume (when applicable), deltaPV = change in plasma volume, UV=urine volume, and IL=insensible loss. RESULTS: Infusion of 30 mL/kg isotonic saline over 25 minutes increased supine TFT from a basal capillary reabsorption of -106+/-24 mL/h (mean+/-SE) to a net filtration of 1,229+/-124 mL/h. One hour after infusion, reabsorption of -236+/-102 mL/h was seen, and control reabsorption levels returned by 3 hours. Four hours of 30 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP) elicited no net TFT, probably because of upper body reabsorptive compensation for lower body capillary filtration. When ingestion of 1 L of isotonic saline accompanied LBNP, filtration of 145+/-10 mL/h occurred. Reabsorption of extravascular fluid into the circulation always followed LBNP. CONCLUSION: Application of this technique could aid understanding of physiologic conditions, experimental interventions, disease states, and therapies that cause or are influenced by fluid shifts between intravascular and interstitial compartments.

Watenpaugh, D. E.; Gaffney, F. A.; Schneider, S. M. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

403

Whole-body kinetic image of a redox probe in mice using Overhauser-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

Overhauser-enhanced MRI (OMRI) enables visualization of free radicals in animals based on dynamic nuclear polarization. Real-time data of tissue redox status gathered from kinetic images of redox-sensitive nitroxyl radical probes using OMRI provided both anatomic and physiological information. Phantom experiments demonstrated the linear correlation between the enhancement factor and the concentration of a membrane-impermeable probe, carboxy-PROXYL (3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl- pyrrolidine-1-oxyl). Whole-body OMRI images illustrated the in vivo kinetics of carboxy-PROXYL for 25 min. Initial distribution was observed in lung, heart, liver, and kidney, but not brain, corresponding to its minimal lipophilicity. Based on these images (pixel size, 1.33 × 1.33 mm; slice thickness, 50mm), a time-concentration curve with low coefficient of variance (<0.21) was created to assess pharmacokinetic behaviors. A biexponential curve showed a distribution phase from 1 to 10 min and an elimination phase from 15 to 25 min. The ? rate constant was greater than the ? rate constant in ROIs, confirming that its pharmacokinetics obeyed a two-compartment model. As a noninvasive technique, combining OMRI imaging with redox probes to monitor tissue redox status may be useful in acquiring valuable information regarding organ function for preclinical and clinical studies of oxidative diseases. PMID:22579576

Kosem, Nuttavut; Naganuma, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Phumala Morales, Noppawan; Yasukawa, Keiji; Hyodo, Fuminori; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Utsumi, Hideo

2012-07-15

404

Whole Body Muscle Activity during the FIFA 11+ Program Evaluated by Positron Emission Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated the effect of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program on whole body muscle activity using positron emission tomography. Methods Ten healthy male volunteers were divided into a control group and a group that performed injury prevention exercises (The 11+). The subjects of the control group were placed in a sitting position for 20 min and 37 MBq of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was injected intravenously. The subjects then remained seated for 45 min. The subjects of the exercise group performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, after which FDG was injected. They then performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, and rested for 25 min in a sitting position. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography images were obtained 50 min after FDG injection in each group. Regions of interest were defined within 30 muscles. The standardized uptake value was calculated to examine the FDG uptake of muscle tissue per unit volume. Results FDG accumulation within the abdominal rectus, gluteus medius and minimus were significantly higher in the exercise group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The hip abductor muscles and abdominal rectus were active during part 2 of the FIFA 11+ program. PMID:24066082

Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Toratani, Tatsuhiro; Kosaka, Masahiro; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Taki, Junichi; Yahata, Tetsutaro; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

405

Whole-body plethysmography in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) with and without jackets.  

PubMed

Indwelling central venous catheters are often used to facilitate frequent phlebotomy while minimizing stress and anesthetic effects on animals. However, nonhuman primates with central venous catheters must wear protective jackets. Jackets routinely are removed for aerosol exposure to agents and respiratory measurements by whole-body plethysmography (WBP) because of the potentially confounding effects of jackets on these procedures. However, removing the jacket may dislodge the catheter, making it unusable. Using each animal as its own control, we tested 12 African green monkeys to determine whether minute volume, tidal volume, respiratory rate, or accumulated volume measurements by WBP differed depending on whether the animal wore a protective jacket or not. We found no statistical differences in any measured respiratory parameter and concluded that the jackets could be left in place on the animal while undergoing plethysmography without compromising the calculations for determining the inhaled dose of aerosolized agent. In addition, this study revealed no obvious contraindications to leaving the jacket in place in other nonhuman primate species, provided that the jacket fits appropriately and that plethysmography is performed correctly. PMID:18947172

Foster, Chad D; Hunter, Ty C; Gibbs, Paul H; Leffel, Elizabeth K

2008-09-01

406

Blood-brain barrier permeability after gamma whole-body irradiation: an in vivo microdialysis study.  

PubMed

The effects of total-body irradiation on the permeability of rat striatal blood-brain barrier (BBB) to [3H]alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIBA) and [14C]sucrose were investigated using the microdialysis technique. Seven days, 3 and 6 weeks, and 3, 5, and 8 months after gamma exposure at a dose of 4.5 Gy, no modification of the permeability to both [3H]AIBA and [14C]sucrose was observed. But, in the course of the initial syndrome, we observed a significant but transient increase in the BBB permeability to the two markers between 3 and 17 h after exposure. A secondary transient "opening" of the BBB to [14C]sucrose was noticed about 28 h following irradiation without the corresponding increase in BBB permeability to [3H]AIBA. On the contrary, the transport of [3H]AIBA through the BBB was decreased between 33 and 47 h postradiation. In conclusion, our experiments showed early modifications of BBB permeability after a moderate-dose whole-body exposure. Confirmation of these results with other tracers, in another experimental model or in humans, would have clinical applications for designing appropriate pharmacotherapy in radiotherapy and treatment of accidental overexposure. PMID:12182325

Diserbo, Michel; Agin, Amaud; Lamproglou, Ioannis; Mauris, Jér?me; Staali, Fatiha; Multon, Eric; Amourette, Christine

2002-07-01

407

Evolution of Encephalopathy during Whole Body Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the predictive ability of stage of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) for death or moderate/severe disability at 18 months among neonates undergoing hypothermia. Study design Stage of encephalopathy was evaluated at <6 hr of age, during study intervention and at discharge among 204 participants in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network Trial of whole body hypothermia for HIE. HIE was examined as a predictor of outcome by regression models. Results Moderate and severe HIE occurred at <6 hrs of age among 68% and 32% of 101 hypothermia group infants and 60% and 40% of 103 control group infants, respectively. At 24 and 48 hrs of study intervention, infants in the hypothermia group had less severe HIE than infants in the control group. Persistence of severe HIE at 72 hrs increased the risk of death or disability after controlling for treatment group. The discharge exam improved the predictive value of stage of HIE at < 6hrs for death/disability. Conclusions On serial neurological examinations, improvement in stage of HIE was associated with cooling. Persistence of severe HIE at 72 hours and an abnormal neurological exam at discharge was associated with a greater risk of death or disability. PMID:22050871

Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; Tyson, Jon E.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Bann, Carla M.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Bara, Rebecca; Pappas, Athina; McDonald, Scott A.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Walsh, Michele C.

2011-01-01

408

Whole-body contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography: new advances at 3.0 T.  

PubMed

During the past decade, technical improvements and numerous advances in scanner hardware and software have significantly improved image quality, speed, and reliability of 3-dimensional (3-D) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA). The accuracy of CE-MRA is now comparable with that of computed tomography angiography or even conventional catheter angiography. Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) accounts for 50,000 to 60,000 cases of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and for about 100,000 cases of amputation annually in the United States. Proper treatment of the arterial disease requires a comprehensive assessment of the underlying vascular morphology because it is crucial to localize and gauge the severity of arterial lesions for further therapeutic decision making.Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography has been widely implemented in noninvasive evaluation of PVD with high diagnostic accuracy. The lack of ionizing radiation and the use of contrast agent with relatively small potential nephrotoxicity in population of PVD with high prevalence of renal impairment are the appealing features for broad acceptance of CE-MRA in initial diagnosis and repeated follow-up studies of patients with PVD. The minimum anatomical coverage for evaluation of PVD comprises the aortic bifurcation to the ankles; however, because of the systemic nature of atherosclerosis hypertension, renal or cerebrovascular disease frequently coexist. Thus, many clinicians regard evaluation of the whole-body arterial vasculature as desirable. PMID:17621226

Nael, Kambiz; Fenchel, Michael C; Kramer, Ulrich; Finn, J Paul; Ruehm, Stefan G; Gruehm, Stefan

2007-04-01

409

Automated prostate segmentation in whole-body MRI scans for epidemiological studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The whole prostatic volume (PV) is an important indicator for benign prostate hyperplasia. Correlating the PV with other clinical parameters in a population-based prospective cohort study (SHIP-2) requires valid prostate segmentation in a large number of whole-body MRI scans. The axial proton density fast spin echo fat saturated sequence is used for prostate screening in SHIP-2. Our automated segmentation method is based on support vector machines (SVM). We used three-dimensional neighborhood information to build classification vectors from automatically generated features and randomly selected 16 MR examinations for validation. The Hausdorff distance reached a mean value of 5.048 ± 2.413, and a mean value of 5.613 ± 2.897 compared to manual segmentation by observers A and B. The comparison between volume measurement of SVM-based segmentation and manual segmentation of observers A and B depicts a strong correlation resulting in Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (?) of 0.936 and 0.859, respectively. Our automated methodology based on SVM for prostate segmentation can segment the prostate in WBI scans with good segmentation quality and has considerable potential for integration in epidemiological studies.

Habes, Mohamad; Schiller, Thilo; Rosenberg, Christian; Burchardt, Martin; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

2013-09-01

410

Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to