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1

Occupational exposure to whole body vibration-train drivers.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration exposure of the train drivers working for State Railway Lines is assessed by referring to ISO standard 2631 -1 and EU directive 2002/44/EC. The vibration measurements were done in the cabins of suburban and intercity train drivers. Suburban train driver performs his job usually in standing posture. Whereas intercity train driver works generally in seated (bending forward) posture and exposed to longer periods of continuous vibration, compared to suburban train drivers. The mean accelerations, a, along lateral, y, and vertical, z, directions measured on the driver seat (on the cabin floor) of the intercity (suburban) train were 1.4a (y) = 0.55 (0.28) m/s(2) and a (z) = 0.65 (0.23) m/s(2). Daily exposure action values suggested in EU directive are exceeded in case of intercity train drivers and their exposure falls within the health caution zone of ISO 2631-1. Intercity train drivers are therefore under the risk of having spinal disorders. A health surveillance plan requiring every five years the reassessment of the state of the spinal system of train drivers is suggested. As an early preventive measure, extended work day or more than one shift in a day is advised to be discouraged. PMID:19218752

Birlik, Gülin

2009-01-01

2

Whole Body Vibration Training - Improving Balance Control and Muscle Endurance  

PubMed Central

Exercise combined with whole body vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular, although additional effects of WBV in comparison to conventional exercises are still discussed controversially in literature. Heterogeneous findings are attributed to large differences in the training designs between WBV and “control” groups in regard to training volume, load and type. In order to separate the additional effects of WBV from the overall adaptations due to the intervention, in this study, a four-week WBV training setup was compared to a matched intervention program with identical training parameters in both training settings except for the exposure to WBV. In a repeated-measures matched-subject design, 38 participants were assigned to either the WBV group (VIB) or the equivalent training group (CON). Training duration, number of sets, rest periods and task-specific instructions were matched between the groups. Balance, jump height and local static muscle endurance were assessed before and after the training period. The statistical analysis revealed significant interaction effects of group×time for balance and local static muscle endurance (p<0.05). Hence, WBV caused an additional effect on balance control (pre vs. post VIB +13%, p<0.05 and CON +6%, p?=?0.33) and local static muscle endurance (pre vs. post VIB +36%, p<0.05 and CON +11%, p?=?0.49). The effect on jump height remained insignificant (pre vs. post VIB +3%, p?=?0.25 and CON ±0%, p?=?0.82). This study provides evidence for the additional effects of WBV above conventional exercise alone. As far as balance and muscle endurance of the lower leg are concerned, a training program that includes WBV can provide supplementary benefits in young and well-trained adults compared to an equivalent program that does not include WBV. PMID:24587114

Ritzmann, Ramona; Kramer, Andreas; Bernhardt, Sascha; Gollhofer, Albert

2014-01-01

3

Vibration Exposure and Biodynamic Responses during Whole-Body Vibration Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABERCROMBY, A. F. J., W. E. AMONETTE, C. S. LAYNE, B. K. MCFARLIN, M. R. HINMAN, and W. H. PALOSKI. Vibration Exposure and Biodynamic Responses during Whole-Body Vibration Training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 1794-1800, 2007. Purpose: Excessive, chronic whole-body vibration (WBV) has a number of negative side effects on the human body, including disorders of

ANDREW F. J. ABERCROMBY; WILLIAM E. AMONETTE; CHARLES S. LAYNE; BRIAN K. MCFARLIN; MARTHA R. HINMAN; WILLIAM H. PALOSKI

2007-01-01

4

Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Muscle Strength and Sprint Performance in Sprint-trained Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Despite the expanding use of Whole Body Vibration training among athletes, it is not known whether adding Whole Body Vibration training to the conventional training of sprint-trained athletes will improve speed-strength performance. Twenty experienced sprint-trained athletes (13 ?, 7 ?, 17-30 years old) were randomly assigned to a Whole Body Vibration group (N=10: 6 ? and 4 ?) or

Christophe Delecluse; Machteld Roelants; Rudi Diels

5

Strength Increase after Whole-Body Vibration Compared with Resistance Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

DELECLUSE, C., M. ROELANTS, and S. VERSCHUEREN. Strength Increase after Whole-Body Vibration Compared with Resistance Training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 1033-1041, 2003. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the effect of a 12-wk period of whole-body vibration training and resistance training on human knee-extensor strength. Methods: Sixty-seven untrained females

CHRISTOPHE DELECLUSE; MACHTELD ROELANTS; SABINE VERSCHUEREN

2003-01-01

6

Effects of whole-body vibration training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV) training on sprint running kine- matics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volun- teers (12 women and 12 men) participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12) into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30

Giorgos Paradisis; Elias Zacharogiannis

2007-01-01

7

Whole body vibration: unsupervised training or combined with a supervised multi-purpose exercise for fitness?  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of an unsupervised whole body vibration (WBV) training and two different supervised multi-purpose exercise programmes, with and without WBV, on body composition, functional fitness and self-reported well-being in middle-aged adults. Fifty-four healthy participants (age 48.6 ± 6.7 years) were randomly assigned to a vibration group (VG), a multi-purpose exercise group (MG) and a multi-purpose exercise with vibration group (VMG) and trained 3 days a week for 4 months. VG performed a standardised unsupervised WBV protocol, MG a supervised multi-purpose exercise and VMG a multi-purpose exercise including vibration. After training, drop out was significantly higher in VG group (P = 0.016) when compared to VMG group. In both MG and VMG, body composition, sit-up, push-up, sit and reach, agility test, hopping test and self-reported general health significantly improved (P < 0.05). No additive effects were generated by the vibration stimulus. Percentage of body fat and agility test in VG had a significant opposite trend compared to VMG group (P < 0.05). In summary, an unsupervised WBV training should not be chosen for training protocol. However, positive effects on physical fitness and the best results in adherence could be achieved integrating WBV practice into a multi-purpose exercise training. PMID:24479642

Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

2014-01-01

8

Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition in adolescents with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after 20 weeks of WBV training. Repeated measures of ANOVA adjusting by height, weight and Tanner stage were used to analyze possible group by time interactions on body composition. The adjusted percentages of change in body composition were also compared between control and WBV groups. No group by time interactions were found for any variable, but the WBV group showed a higher reduction in body fat at the upper limbs (p<0.05), and a tendency toward higher percent increase in whole body lean body mass. Overall, a 20-week WBV training is not enough by itself for increasing lean body mass in adolescents with DS, but it might be helpful for improving body composition in this population. Its relationship with health and autonomy enhances the importance of these results. PMID:23474995

González-Agüero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Casajús, José A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

2013-05-01

9

Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

2013-01-01

10

The acute effect of whole body vibration training on flexibility and explosive strength of young gymnasts.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of a single bout of whole body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young artistic gymnasts. Thirty-two young competitive gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study, and were allocated to either the vibration group or traditional body weight training according to the vibration protocol. The vibration intervention consisted of a single bout of eccentric and concentric squatting movements on a vibration platform that was turned on (vibration group: VG n = 15), whereas the traditional body weight (no vibration) group performed the same training protocol with the WBV device turned off (NVG: n= 17). Flexibility (sit and reach test) and explosive strength tests [squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), and single leg squat (right leg (RL) and left leg (LL))] were performed initially (pre-test), immediately after the intervention (post-test 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the intervention programme (post-test 15). Four 2x3 ANOVAs were used to examine the interaction between group (VG vs NVG) and time (pre, post 1, and post 15) with respect to examined variables. The results revealed that a significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to SJ (p < 0.05). However, no significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to flexibility, CMJ, RL and LL after the end of the intervention programme (p > 0.05). Further, the percentage improvement of the VG was significantly greater in all examined variables compared to the NVG. This study concluded that WBV training improves flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young trained artistic gymnasts and maintains the initial level of performance for at least 15 minutes after the WBV intervention programme. PMID:25177103

Dallas, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V

2014-08-01

11

THE ACUTE EFFECT OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON FLEXIBILITY AND EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH OF YOUNG GYMNASTS  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of a single bout of whole body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young artistic gymnasts. Thirty-two young competitive gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study, and were allocated to either the vibration group or traditional body weight training according to the vibration protocol. The vibration intervention consisted of a single bout of eccentric and concentric squatting movements on a vibration platform that was turned on (vibration group: VG n = 15), whereas the traditional body weight (no vibration) group performed the same training protocol with the WBV device turned off (NVG: n= 17). Flexibility (sit and reach test) and explosive strength tests [squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), and single leg squat (right leg (RL) and left leg (LL))] were performed initially (pre-test), immediately after the intervention (post-test 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the intervention programme (post-test 15). Four 2x3 ANOVAs were used to examine the interaction between group (VG vs NVG) and time (pre, post 1, and post 15) with respect to examined variables. The results revealed that a significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to SJ (p < 0.05). However, no significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to flexibility, CMJ, RL and LL after the end of the intervention programme (p > 0.05). Further, the percentage improvement of the VG was significantly greater in all examined variables compared to the NVG. This study concluded that WBV training improves flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young trained artistic gymnasts and maintains the initial level of performance for at least 15 minutes after the WBV intervention programme. PMID:25177103

Kirialanis, P.; Mellos, V.

2014-01-01

12

Benefits of whole body vibration training in patients hospitalised for COPD exacerbations - a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with stable COPD show improvements in exercise capacity and muscular function after the application of whole body vibration. We aimed to evaluate whether this modality added to conventional physiotherapy in exacerbated hospitalised COPD patients would be safe and would improve exercise capacity and quality of life. Methods 49 hospitalised exacerbated COPD patients were randomized (1:1) to undergo physiotherapy alone or physiotherapy with the addition of whole body vibration. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference of the 6-minute walking test (day of discharge – day of admission). Secondary assessments included chair rising test, quality of life, and serum marker analysis. Results Whole body vibration did not cause procedure-related adverse events. Compared to physiotherapy alone, it led to significantly stronger improvements in 6-minute walking test (95.55?±?76.29 m vs. 6.13?±?81.65 m; p?=?0.007) and St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (-6.43?±?14.25 vs. 5.59?±?19.15, p?=?0.049). Whole body vibration increased the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma coactivator-1-? and serum levels of irisin, while it decreased serum interleukin-8. Conclusion Whole body vibration during hospitalised exacerbations did not cause procedure-related adverse events and induced clinically significant benefits regarding exercise capacity and health-related quality of life that were associated with increased serum levels of irisin, a marker of muscle activity. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005979. Registered 17 March 2014. PMID:24725369

2014-01-01

13

Effect of Training with Whole Body Vibration on the Sitting Balance of Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of task-oriented training with whole body vibration (WBV) on the sitting balance of stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 stroke patients who were randomly divided into experimental (n1=15) and control (n2=15) groups. [Methods] Subjects in both groups received general training five times per week. Subjects in the experimental group practiced an additional task-oriented training program with WBV, which was performed for 15 minutes, five times per week, for four weeks. The center of pressure (COP) path length and average velocity were used to assess subjects static sitting balance, and the Modified Functional Reach Test (MFRT) was used to assess their dynamic sitting balance. The paired t-test was performed to test the significance of differences between before and after the intervention. The independent t-test was conducted to test the significance of differences between the groups. [Results] Following the intervention, the experimental group showed a significant change in MFRT. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that task-oriented training with WBV is feasible and efficacious for stroke patients. PMID:25276025

Choi, Sung-Jin; Shin, Won-Seob; Oh, Bok-Kyun; Shim, Jae-Kwang; Bang, Dae-Hyouk

2014-01-01

14

Stochastic Resonance Whole-Body Vibration, Musculoskeletal Symptoms, and Body Balance: A Worksite Training Study  

PubMed Central

Background Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training (SR-WBV) was tested to reduce work-related musculoskeletal complaints. Methods Participants were 54 white-collar employees of a Swiss organization. The controlled crossover design comprised two groups each given 4 weeks of exercise and no training during a second 4-week period. Outcome was daily musculoskeletal well-being, musculoskeletal pain, and surefootedness. In addition, participants performed a behavioral test on body balance prior to when SR-WBV started and after 4 weeks of SR-WBV. Results Across the 4-week training period, musculoskeletal well-being and surefootedness were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas musculoskeletal pain was significantly reduced only in those who reported low back pain during the last 4 weeks prior to the study (p < 0.05). Body balance was significantly increased by SR-WBV (p < 0.05). Conclusion SR-WBV seems to be an efficient option in primary prevention of musculoskeletal complaints and falls at work. PMID:24106645

Elfering, Achim; Arnold, Sibille; Schade, Volker; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

2013-01-01

15

Effects of whole body vibration training on balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine whether a whole body vibration training program (WBV) is able to improve static standing balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescents with DS aged 11-20 years (DSG) and 27 adolescent, age/sex matched, without DS (CG) joined the study. Participants of each group were divided into two comparable groups, those who performed WVB (in DSG: VDSG; in CG: VCG) and those who did not perform WVB (in DSG: nVDSG; in CG: nVCG). Static-standing-balance under four conditions (C1: open-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C2: closed-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C3: open-eyes/compliant-foot-support; C4: closed-eyes/compliant-foot-support) was examine, before and after a 20-week WBV training program. For balance study, Postural-Parameters (PPs), based on center of pressure (COP) oscillations (anterior/posterior and medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity), and PPs ratios among the four conditions were calculated. After WBV training, no significant differences were found in any parameter in the VCG and nVCG and neither in the nVDSG, but there was a decrease of mean values in the analyzed PPs under C4, with significant differences in medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity, and a significant decrease in the ratio C4/C1 of the mean velocity in VDSG. Therefore, WBV training had positive effects in the balance of DS adolescents although only under specific conditions, with vision and somatosensory input altered. The positive results of this study are encouraging and open a wide field of research, looking for the most efficient program for this population. PMID:23872530

Villarroya, M Adoración; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moros, Teresa; Gómez-Trullén, Eva; Casajús, José A

2013-10-01

16

Whole-Body Vibration Training Effect on Physical Performance and Obesity in Mice  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25317067

Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

2014-01-01

17

Effect of a whole-body vibration training modifying the training frequency of workouts per week in active adults.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration by varying the training frequency (2 or 3 sessions per week) on the development of strength, body composition, and mechanical power. Forty-one (32 men and 9 women) recreationally active subjects (21.4 ± 3.0 years old; 172.6 ± 10.9 cm; 70.9 ± 12.3 kg) took part in the study divided in 2 experimental groups (G2 = 2 sessions per week, G3 = 3 sessions per week) and a control group (CG). The frequency of vibration (50 Hz), amplitude (4 mm), time of work (60 seconds), and time of rest (60 seconds) were constant for G2 and G3 groups. Maximum isokinetic strength, body composition, and performance in vertical jumps were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the training cycle. A statistically significant increase of isokinetic strength was observed in G2 and G3 at angular velocities of 60, 180, and 270°·s. Total fat-free mass was statistically significantly increased in G2 (0.9 ± 1.0 kg) and G3 (1.5 ± 0.7 kg). In addition, statistically significant differences between G3 and CG (1.04 ± 1.7%) (p = 0.05) were found. There were no statistically significant changes in the total fat mass, fat percentage, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density in any of the groups. Both vibration training schedules produced statistically significant improvements in isokinetic strength. The vibration magnitude of the study presented an adaptation stimulus for muscle hypertrophy. The vibration training used in this study may be valid for athletes to develop both strength and hypertrophy of the lower limbs. PMID:24832971

Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A; Alcaraz, Pedro E

2014-11-01

18

Effects of Whole Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Bone Mineral Density and Anthropometry in Obese Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two exercise programs, whole body vibration and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometry in obese postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Eighty Egyptian obese postmenopausal women were enrolled in this study; their age ranged from 50 to 68 years. Their body mass index ranged (30–36?kg/m2). The exercise prescription consisted of whole body vibration (WBV) and resistance training. Bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometrical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. Changes from baseline to eight months in BMD and anthropometric parameters were investigated. Results. BMD at the greater trochanter, at ward's triangle, and at lumbar spine were significantly higher after physical training, using both WBV and resistive training. Moreover, both exercise programs were effective in BMI and waist to the hip ratio. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity duration and BMD at all sites. The highest values of R2 were found for the models incorporating WBV plus BMI. Conclusion. The study suggests that both types of exercise modalities had a similar positive effect on BMD at all sites in obese postmenopausal women. Significant association was noted between physical activity and anthropometric variables and BMD measures at all sites. PMID:25136473

Zaki, Moushira Erfan

2014-01-01

19

[Whole body vibration (acceleration) training increases bone mineral density and serum levels of osteocalcin in elderly women].  

PubMed

Hip bone mineral density (BMD) and serum markers of bone turnover during drug (antiresorptic medicaments) and non-drug (acceleration training) therapy in elderly women suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis has been investigated. The hip BMD measured in elderly women after a 24-week antiresorptic therapy (alendronate) and increased by 2.01%. 24-week acceleration training resulted in 1.56% benefit in hip BMD and also serum levels of osteocalcin (+50%, p < 0.05) significantly increased in postmenopausal women. We have determined that the osteogenic effect of acceleration training is mediated by stimulated bone formation. Our findings suggest that whole body vibration (acceleration) training may be a beneficial technique to prevent and treat osteoporosis. PMID:21033380

Kotel'nikov, G P; Piatin, V F; Bulgakova, S V; Shirolapov, I V

2010-01-01

20

EMG and Heart Rate Responses Decline within 5 Days of Daily Whole-Body Vibration Training with Squatting  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined the acute effects of a 5-day daily whole-body vibration (WBV) training on electromyography (EMG) responses of the m. rectus femoris and m. gastrocnemius lateralis, heart rate (HR, continuously recorded), and blood lactate levels. The purpose of the study was to investigate the adaptation of muscle activity, heart rate and blood lactate levels during 5 days of daily training. Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either squat exercises with vibration at 20 Hz on a side alternating platform (SE+V, n?=?20, age ?=?31.9±7.5 yrs., height ?=?178.8±6.2 cm, body mass ?=?79.2±11.4 kg) or squat exercises alone (SE, n?=?21, age ?=?28.4±7.3 years, height ?=?178.9±7.4 cm, body mass ?=?77.2±9.7 kg). On training day 1, EMG amplitudes of the m. rectus femoris were significantly higher (P<0.05) during SE+V than during SE. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant on training days 3 and 5. The heart rate (HR) response was significantly higher (P<0.05) during SE+V than during SE on all training days, but showed a constant decline throughout the training days. On training day 1, blood lactate increased significantly more after SE+V than after SE (P<0.05). On the following training days, this difference became much smaller but remained significantly different. The specific physiological responses to WBV were largest on the initial training day and most of them declined during subsequent training days, showing a rapid neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptation to the vibration stimulus. PMID:24905721

Rosenberger, André; Liphardt, Anna-Maria; Bargmann, Arne; Müller, Klaus; Beck, Luis; Mester, Joachim; Zange, Jochen

2014-01-01

21

Whole-body vibration training increases physical fitness measures without alteration of inflammatory markers in older adults.  

PubMed

This study investigated in older adults whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training results in significant increases of physical fitness measures without alterations in markers of inflammation. Sixteen volunteers completed a WBV programme 3 d.wk(-1) during 9 weeks. The programme consisted of lower and upper-body unloaded static and dynamic exercises. Training improved significantly several tests which evaluate physical fitness, such as 30-s chair stand, arm curl or chair sit and reach test. There was a significant increase in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) between pre- and post-training conditions. Muscle power values, reached at 20, 40 and 60% MVIC, were also significantly greater after training. However, mRNA or protein levels for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-1?, tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-10 did not significantly differ from basal values. Our data confirm the usefulness of WBV training for counteracting the loss of muscle strength associated with sarcopenia in older adults and show that WBV training could be a safe training method which induces no inflammatory effects. PMID:24237186

Cristi, Carlos; Collado, Pilar S; Márquez, Sara; Garatachea, Nuria; Cuevas, María J

2014-01-01

22

Whole body vibration and the snowmobile.  

PubMed

The whole body vibration from the seat and foot board was measured during ten years from 11 different snowmobiles to evaluate the exposure and the need for technical improvements. In a questionnaire more than half of the drivers had back pains but only a few of them considered the whole body vibration as a health hazard. However in the literature there is often comments on spinal injuries related to shock vibration. The frequency-weighted acceleration of snowmobile vibration was from 1 to 6.1 m/s2 and the risk evaluation using the ISO standard predicted the problems. Speed and the unevenness of the driving terrain caused vibration. The damping depends on the properties of the seat, terrain and speed limits. Also the driving posture is important. Especially on the snowmobile tracks the whole body vibration was high and according to modern knowledge more attention should be paid the technical properties of snowmobiles. PMID:7710588

Anttonen, H; Niskanen, J

1994-01-01

23

Changes in circulating angiogenic factors after an acute training bout before and after resistance training with or without whole-body-vibration training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both Resistance Exercise and Whole-Body-Vibration training are currently considered as countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Here we investigated the effects of whole-body vibration superimposed upon resistance exercise. Within this context, the present study focuses on changes in circulating angiogenic factors as indicators of skeletal muscle adaption. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male subjects (25.2 ± 4.2 yr) were included in this two-group parallel-designed study and randomly assigned to one of the training interventions: either resistance exercise (RE) or resistance vibration exercise (RVE). Participants trained 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks (completing 16 training sessions), where one session took 9 ± 1 min. Participants trained with weights on a guided barbell. The individual training load was set at 80% of their 1-Repetition-Maximum. Each training session consisted of three sets with 8 squats and 12 heel raises, following an incremental training design with regards to weight (RE and RVE) and vibration frequency (RVE only). The vibration frequency was increased from 20 Hz in the first week till 40 Hz during the last two weeks with 5-Hz weekly increments. At the first and 16 ^{th} training session, six blood samples (pre training and 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 35 min and 75 min post training) were taken. Circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Endostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) were determined in serum using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Results: MMP-2 levels increased by 7.0% (SE = 2.7%, P < 0.001) within two minutes after the exercise bout and then decreased to 5.7% below baseline (SE = 2.4%, P < 0.001) between 15 and 75 minutes post exercise. This response was comparable before and after the training programs (P = 0.70) and also between the two intervention groups (P = 0.42). Preliminary analyses indicate that a similar pattern applies to circulating MMP-9, VEGF and Endostatin levels. Conclusion: The present findings suggest 1) that resistance exercise, both with and without superimposed vibration, leads to a transient rise in circulating angiogenic factors, 2) which is not altered after a period of resistance exercise with or without vibration.

Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; May, Francisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Joern; Rosenberger, Andre

2012-07-01

24

Whole body vibration in sport: a critical review.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration training is a recent area of study in athletic conditioning, health and rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the effectiveness of this type of training in sport. A search was conducted across several electronic databases and studies on effects of whole body vibration training on sport performance were reviewed. Thirteen articles were included in the final analysis. The following variables were considered: participants investigated (sex and age), characteristics of the vibration (frequency and amplitude), training (type of sport, exposure time and intensity, tests used, type of study, effects examined and results obtained). This review considers proposed neural mechanisms and identifies studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of WBV in sports. It considers where WBV might act and suggests that vibration can be an effective training stimulus. Future studies should focus on evaluating the long-term effects of vibration training and identify optimum frequency and amplitude, improve strength and muscular performance. PMID:24998609

Costantino, C; Gimigliano, R; Olvirri, S; Gimigliano, F

2014-12-01

25

Effect of a combination of whole-body vibration and low resistance jump training on neural adaptation.  

PubMed

This study investigated and compared the effects of an eight-week program of whole body vibration combined with counter-movement jumping (WBV + CMJ) or counter-movement jumping (CMJ) alone on players. Twenty-four men's volleyball players of league A or B were randomized to the WBV + CMJ or CMJ groups (n = 12 and 12; mean [SD] age of 21.4 [2.2] and 21.7 [2.2] y; height of 175.6 [4.6] and 177.6 [3.9] cm; and weight, 69.9 [12.8] and 70.5 [10.7] kg, respectively). The pre- and post-training values of the following measurements were compared: H-reflex, first volitional (V)-wave, rate of electromyography rise (RER) in the triceps surae and absolute rate of force development (RFD) in plantarflexion and vertical jump height. After training, the WBV + CMJ group exhibited increases in H reflexes (p = 0.029 and <0.001); V-wave (p < 0.001); RER (p = 0.003 and <0.001); jump height (p < 0.001); and RFD (p = 0.006 and <0.001). The post-training values of V wave (p = 0.006) and RFD at 0-50 (p = 0.009) and 0-200 ms (p = 0.008) in the WBV + CMJ group were greater than those in the CMJ group. This study shows that a combination of WBV and power exercise could impact neural adaptation and leads to greater fast force capacity than power exercise alone in male players. PMID:24650336

Wang, Hsing-Kuo; Un, Chi-Pang; Lin, Kwan-Hwa; Chang, En-Chung; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang; Su, Sheng-Chu

2014-01-01

26

Effects of combined whole-body vibration and resistance training on muscular strength and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to be osteogenic in animal models; however, its application in humans is not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-month program involving WBV plus resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism in older postmenopausal women. Fifty-five estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women were assigned to a resistance training group (R, n=22), a WBV plus resistance training group (WBVR, n=21), or a control group (CON, n=12). R and WBVR performed upper and lower body resistance exercises 3 days/week at 80% 1 Repetition Maximum (1RM). WBVR received vibration (30-40 Hz, 2-2.8 g) in three different positions preceding the resistance exercises. Daily calcium intake, bone markers (Bone alkaline phosphatase (Bone ALP); C-terminal telopeptide of Type I collagen (CTX), and BMD of the spine, dual femur, forearm, and total body (DXA) were measured at baseline and after the intervention. At baseline, there were no significant group differences in strength, BMD, or bone marker variables. After 8 months of R or WBVR, there were no significant group or time effects in Bone ALP, CTX, or total body, spine, left hip or right trochanter BMD. However, right total hip and right femoral neck BMD significantly (p<0.05) decreased in all groups. A group x time interaction (p<0.05) was detected at radius 33% BMD site, with CON slightly increasing, and WBVR slightly decreasing. R and WBVR significantly (p<0.05) increased 1RM strength for all exercises, while CON generally maintained strength. WBVR had significantly (p<0.05) greater percent increases in muscular strength than R at 4 months for lat pull down, seated row, hip abduction and hip adduction and at 8 months for lat pull down, hip abduction and hip adduction. Bone metabolism in postmenopausal women was not affected by resistance training either with or without WBV. In contrast, the addition of WBV augmented the positive effects of resistance training on muscular strength in these older women. PMID:20601282

Bemben, Debra A; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Michael G; Knehans, Allen W

2010-09-01

27

Whole-body vibration exposure: a comprehensive field study.  

PubMed

A comprehensive field study investigated whole-body vibration exposure levels experienced by the train operators of a large metropolitan subway system. The purposes of the study were to measure mechanical vibrations transmitted to the seated train operators, to calculate daily whole-body vibration exposure levels, and to compare these levels with maximum acceptable exposure levels recommended by the international standard on whole-body vibration (ISO 2631). The study also sought to identify factors that may influence mechanical vibrations transmitted to the operators and quantify their effects on the measured vibration levels. The study was carried out by dividing the subway system into subway lines, each line into southbound and northbound directions, and each direction into station-to-station observations. Triaxial measurements were made on all subway lines and for all car types used in the system. For each line, at least two round trips of data were collected. Time-weighted averages of the two sets of data were used for final presentation. A total of 48 round trips were made and more than 100 hours of vibration data was collected and analyzed. All phases of the study were carried out in accordance with the procedures outlined in ISO 2631. It was determined that 6 out of 20 subway lines had vibration levels higher than daily exposure limits recommended by ISO 2631. It was also determined that train speed was the most significant factor influencing vibration exposure levels. PMID:7825516

Ozkaya, N; Willems, B; Goldsheyder, D

1994-12-01

28

Effect of whole body vibrations on sound localization I. Frissena  

E-print Network

Effect of whole body vibrations on sound localization I. Frissena and C. Guastavinob a IRCCyN, 1 the efficacy of sound spatialization. While effects of whole-body vibrations have been found to impair simple did we observe an effect of whole-body vibrations on localization performance. 1 Introduction Exposure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

29

Short-term effect of whole-body vibration training on balance, flexibility and lower limb explosive strength in elite rhythmic gymnasts.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training results in short-term performance improvements in flexibility, strength and balance tests in comparison to an equivalent exercise program performed without vibration. Eleven elite rhythmic gymnasts completed a WBV trial, and a control, resistance training trial without vibration (NWBV). The vibration trial consisted of eccentric and concentric squatting exercises on a vibration platform that was turned on, whereas the NWBV involved the same training protocol with the platform turned off. Balance was assessed using the Rhythmic Weight Shift (RWS) based on the EquiTest Dynamic Posturography system; flexibility was measured using the sit & reach test, and lower limb explosive strength was evaluated using standard exercises (squat jump, counter movement jump, single leg squat). All measurements were performed before (pre) immediately after the training program (post 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the program (post 15). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA was used with condition (WBV-NWBV) as the primary factor and time (pre, post 1, post 15) as the nested within subjects factor, followed by post-hoc pairwise comparison with Bonferroni corrections. Results confirmed the hypothesis of the superiority of WBV training, especially in the post 15 measurement, in all flexibility and strength measures, as well as in a number of balance tests. PMID:24055361

Despina, Tsopani; George, Dallas; George, Tsiganos; Sotiris, Papouliakos; Alessandra, Di Cagno; George, Korres; Maria, Riga; Stavros, Korres

2014-02-01

30

MEASUREMENT OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION EXPOSURE FROM GARBAGE TRUCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese garbage truck drivers are exposed to mechanical whole-body vibration during their work. Some drivers have suffered from low back pain from this vibration. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the whole-body vibration from the garbage trucks and low back pain or occupational disease, due to the lack of investigations. A field study was conducted in order

S. Maeda; M. Morioka

1998-01-01

31

Changes in balance, functional performance and fall risk following whole body vibration training and vitamin D supplementation in institutionalized elderly women. A 6 month randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Falls in the elderly constitute a growing public health problem. This randomized controlled trial investigated the potential benefit of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) training and/or vitamin D supplementation on balance, functionality and estimated fall risk in institutionalized elderly women. A total of 113 women (mean age: 79.6) were randomly assigned to either a WBV or a no-training group, receiving either a conventional dose (880 IU/d) or a high dose (1600 IU/d) of vitamin D3. The WBV group performed exercises on a vibration platform 3×/week. Balance was evaluated by computerized posturography. Functionality was assessed by 10 m walk test, Timed up and Go (TUG) performance and endurance capacity (Shuttle Walk). Fall risk was determined with the Physiological Profile Assessment. Performance on the 10 m walk test and on TUG improved over time in all groups. For none of the parameters, high-dose vitamin D resulted in a better performance than conventional dosing. The improvements in the WBV group in endurance capacity, walking at preferred speed, and TUG were significantly larger than the changes with supplementation alone. No additional benefit of WBV training could be detected on fall risk and postural control, although sway velocity and maximal isometric knee extension strength improved only in the WBV group. This trial showed that a high-dose vitamin D supplementation is not more efficient than conventional dosing in improving functionality in institutionalized elderly. WBV training on top of vitamin D supplementation provided an added benefit with regard to walking, TUG performance, and endurance capacity. PMID:21256028

Bogaerts, An; Delecluse, Christophe; Boonen, Steven; Claessens, Albrecht L; Milisen, Koen; Verschueren, Sabine M P

2011-03-01

32

Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute responses of blood hormone concentrations and neuromuscular performance following\\u000a whole-body vibration (WBV) treatment. Fourteen male subjects [mean (SD) age 25 (4.6)?years] were exposed to vertical sinusoidal\\u000a WBV, 10 times for 60?s, with 60?s rest between the vibration sets (a rest period lasting 6?min was allowed after 5 vibration\\u000a sets). Neuromuscular

Carmelo Bosco; M. Iacovelli; O. Tsarpela; M. Cardinale; M. Bonifazi; J. Tihanyi; M. Viru; A. De Lorenzo; A. Viru

2000-01-01

33

Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration Exposure from Garbage Trucks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese garbage truck drivers are exposed to mechanical whole-body vibration during their work. Some drivers have suffered from low back pain from this vibration. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the whole-body vibration from the garbage trucks and low back pain or occupational disease, due to the lack of investigations. A field study was conducted in order to characterize the health risks associated with garbage truck work. Three different types of truck were tested at different loadings and on different road surfaces, with the vibrations measured at the driver/seat interface (x,y, andz-axes). The vibrations were compared with the health risk guidance according to Annex B of ISO 2631-1 [1]. The findings of this study indicated that Japanese garbage truck drivers should not operate trucks for 2.5 h in a day, under current working conditions.

Maeda, S.; Morioka, M.

1998-08-01

34

Whole body vibration in cystic fibrosis - a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: In cystic fibrosis (CF), bone mass deficits as well as a lack of muscle mass and force have been described. The bone mass deficits are thought to be at least in part secondary to the reduced muscle mass. Whole body vibration has recently been suggested as an effective technique to increase muscle force and power. The aim of this

J. Roth; M. Wust; R. Rawer; D. Schnabel; G. Armbrecht; G. Beller; I. Rembitzki; U. Wahn; D. Felsenberg; D. Staab

2008-01-01

35

Therapeutic Effect of Whole Body Vibration on Chronic Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect on pain reduction and strengthening of the whole body vibration (WBV) in chronic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Patients were randomly divided into two groups: the study group (WBV with home based exercise) and control group (home based exercise only). They performed exercise and training for 8 weeks. Eleven patients in each group completed the study. Pain intensity was measured with the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), functional scales were measured with Korean Western Ontario McMaster score (KWOMAC) and Lysholm Scoring Scale (LSS), quadriceps strength was measured with isokinetic torque and isometric torque and dynamic balance was measured with the Biodex Stability System. These measurements were performed before training, at 1 month after training and at 2 months after training. Results NRS was significantly decreased in each group, and change of pain intensity was significantly larger in the study group than in the control group after treatment. Functional improvements in KWOMAC and LSS were found in both groups, but no significant differences between the groups after treatment. Dynamic balance, isokinetic strength of right quadriceps and isometric strengths of both quadriceps muscles improved in both groups, but no significant differences between the groups after treatment. Isokinetic strength of left quadriceps did not improve in both groups after treatment. Conclusion In chronic knee OA patients, WBV reduced pain intensity and increased strength of the right quadriceps and dynamic balance performance. In comparison with the home based exercise program, WBV was superior only in pain reduction and similarly effective in strengthening of the quadriceps muscle and balance improvement. PMID:24020031

Park, Young Geun; Kwon, Bum Sun; Park, Jin-Woo; Cha, Dong Yeon; Nam, Ki Yeun; Sim, Kyoung Bo; Chang, Jihea

2013-01-01

36

Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration in Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibration in 100 different vehicles has been measured, evaluated and assessed according to British Standard BS 6841 (1987) and International Standard ISO 2631 (1997). Vibration was measured in 14 categories of vehicle including cars, lift trucks, tractors, lorries, vans and buses. In each vehicle, the vibration was measured in five axes: vertical vibration beneath the seat, fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical vibration on the seat pan and fore-and-aft vibration at the backrest. The alternative methods of evaluating the vibration (use of different frequency weightings, different averaging methods, the inclusion of different axes, vibration dose values and equivalent r.m.s. acceleration) as defined in the standards have been compared. BS 6841 (1987) suggests that an equivalent acceleration magnitude is calculated using vibration measured at four locations around the seat (x -, y -, z -seat and x -backrest); ISO 2631 (1997) suggests that vibration is measured in the three translational axes only on the seat pan but only the axis with the most severe vibration is used to assess vibration severity. Assessments made using the procedure defined in ISO 2631 tend to underestimate any risks from exposure to whole-body vibration compared to an evaluation made using the guidelines specified in BS 6841; the measurements indicated that the 17 m/s1.75 “health guidance caution zone” in ISO 2631 was less likely to be exceeded than the 15 m/s1.75 “action level” in BS 6841. Consequently, ISO 2631 “allows” appreciably longer daily exposures to whole-body vibration than BS 6841.

PADDAN, G. S.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

2002-05-01

37

Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute responses of blood hormone concentrations and neuromuscular performance following whole-body vibration (WBV) treatment. Fourteen male subjects [mean (SD) age 25 (4.6) years] were exposed to vertical sinusoidal WBV, 10 times for 60 s, with 60 s rest between the vibration sets (a rest period lasting 6 min was allowed after 5 vibration sets). Neuromuscular performance tests consisting of counter-movement jumps and maximal dynamic leg presses on a slide machine, performed with an extra load of 160% of the subjects body mass, and with both legs were administered before and immediately after the WBV treatment. The average velocity, acceleration, average force, and power were calculated and the root mean square electromyogram (EMGrms) were recorded from the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles simultaneously during the leg-press measurement. Blood samples were also collected, and plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol (C) were measured. The results showed a significant increase in the plasma concentration of T and GH, whereas C levels decreased. An increase in the mechanical power output of the leg extensor muscles was observed together with a reduction in EMGrms activity. Neuromuscular efficiency improved, as indicated by the decrease in the ratio between EMGrms and power. Jumping performance, which was measured using the counter-movement jump test, was also enhanced. Thus, it can be argued that the biological mechanism produced by vibration is similar to the effect produced by explosive power training (jumping and bouncing). The enhancement of explosive power could have been induced by an increase in the synchronisation activity of the motor units, and/or improved co-ordination of the synergistic muscles and increased inhibition of the antagonists. These results suggest that WBV treatment leads to acute responses of hormonal profile and neuromuscular performance. It is therefore likely that the effect of WBV treatment elicited a biological adaptation that is connected to a neural potentiation effect, similar to those reported to occur following resistance and explosive power training. In conclusion, it is suggested that WBV influences proprioceptive feedback mechanisms and specific neural components, leading to an improvement of neuromuscular performance. Moreover, since the hormonal responses, characterised by an increase in T and GH concentration and a decrease in C concentration, and the increase in neuromuscular effectiveness were simultaneous but independent, it is speculated that the two phenomena might have common underlying mechanisms. PMID:10774867

Bosco, C; Iacovelli, M; Tsarpela, O; Cardinale, M; Bonifazi, M; Tihanyi, J; Viru, M; De Lorenzo, A; Viru, A

2000-04-01

38

Absorption of energy during vertical whole-body vibration exposure.  

PubMed

Absorbed power (PAbs) during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration in a sitting posture was measured on 15 male and 15 female subjects. Different experimental conditions were applied, such as vibration level (0.5-1.4 m s(-2)) and frequency (2-100 Hz), body weight (54-93 kg) and, relaxed and erected upper body positions. Results show that PAbs was strongly related to the frequency of the vibration, peaking within the range of 4-6 Hz. The peak was predominantly located in the lower end of this range for females and for the relaxed sitting position. PAbs increased with acceleration level and body weight. Almost a ten-fold increase in PAbs was observed at the critical frequency when the vibration exposure was raised from 0.5 to 1.4 m s(-2). If risk assessment is based on the assumption that the amount of PAbs, independent of the frequency of the vibration, indicates a hazard, then the ISO-standard 2631 under- and overestimates the risk at frequencies below and above about 6 Hz, respectively. The results also indicate a need for differentiated guidelines for females and males. Many types of vehicles produce whole-body vibration with frequencies which coincide with the range where the highest PAbs was observed. PAbs is a 'new' concept for measurement of whole-body vibration exposure. Although not yet thoroughly evaluated, this measure may be a better quantity for risk assessment than those specified in ISO 2631 since it also takes the dynamic force applied to the human body into account. PMID:9672085

Lundström, R; Holmlund, P; Lindberg, L

1998-04-01

39

Absorption of Energy during Whole-Body Vibration Exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorbed power,PAbs, during exposure to vertical and horizontal whole-body vibration in sitting posture was measured using 15 male and 15 female subjects. Different experimental conditions were applied, such as vibration level (0·25-1·4 m/s2), frequency (1·13-80 Hz), body weight (54-93 kg), relaxed and erect upper body posture. Results show thatPAbswas strongly related to frequency of the vibration peaking, within the range of 4-6 Hz and below 2·5 Hz for vertical and horizontal directions respectively.PAbsincreased with acceleration level and body weight. If risk assessment is based on the assumption that the amount ofPAbs, independence of the frequency of the vibration, indicates a hazard, then the frequency weighting procedure in ISO-standard 2631 can be questioned. The ISO weighting for horizontal vibration seems to underestimate the risk for frequencies within the range of about 1·5-3 Hz and overestimate them above about 5 Hz. For the vertical direction the frequency weighting overestimates the risk for frequencies above about 6 Hz. The results also indicate a need for differential guidelines for females and males. Many types of vehicle produce whole-body vibration with frequencies in the range where the highestPAbswas observed. Although not yet thoroughly evaluated,PAbsmay be a better quantity for risk assessment than acceleration as specified in ISO 2631, since it also takes into account the dynamic force applied to the human body.

Lundström, R.; Holmlund, P.

1998-08-01

40

Whole body vibration alters proprioception in the trunk  

E-print Network

wore a harness across their chest to which a weight was attached by a Kevlar cable via a load cell and a pulley. The load cell recorded the tension in the cable. A small preload (0.5 kg) was applied to maintain tension in the cable. A sudden... ahead of print). Pope MH, Hansson TH. Vibration of the spine and low back pain. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1992;279:49-59. Pope MH, Magnusson M, Wilder DG. Kappa Delta Award. Low back pain and whole body vibration. Clin Orthop 1998;354:241-8. Pope MH...

Li, Lu; Lamis, Farhana; Wilson, Sara E.

2008-01-01

41

Acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) training to identify possible explanations for preventive effects against musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this quasi-experimental pilot study. Acute physiological and psychological effects of SR-WBV training were examined using electromyography of descending trapezius (TD) muscle, heart rate variability (HRV), different skin parameters (temperature, redness and blood flow) and self-report questionnaires. All subjects conducted a sham SR-WBV training at a low intensity (2 Hz with noise level 0) and a verum SR-WBV training at a higher intensity (6 Hz with noise level 4). They were tested before, during and after the training. Conclusions were drawn on the basis of analysis of variance. RESULTS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this study (age = 22.4 ± 2.1 years; body mass index = 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m2). Muscular activity of the TD and energy expenditure rose during verum SR-WBV compared to baseline and sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). Muscular relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than at baseline and after sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). During verum SR-WBV the levels of HRV were similar to those observed during sham SR-WBV. The same applies for most of the skin characteristics, while microcirculation of the skin of the middle back was higher during verum compared to sham SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Skin redness showed significant changes over the three measurement points only in the middle back area (P = 0.022). There was a significant rise from baseline to verum SR-WBV (0.86 ± 0.25 perfusion units; P = 0.008). The self-reported chronic pain grade indicators of pain, stiffness, well-being, and muscle relaxation showed a mixed pattern across conditions. Muscle and joint stiffness (P = 0.018) and muscular relaxation did significantly change from baseline to different conditions of SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Moreover, muscle relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than after sham SR-WBV (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Verum SR-WBV stimulated musculoskeletal activity in young healthy individuals while cardiovascular activation was low. Training of musculoskeletal capacity and immediate increase in musculoskeletal relaxation are potential mediators of pain reduction in preventive trials. PMID:24147265

Elfering, Achim; Zahno, Jasmine; Taeymans, Jan; Blasimann, Angela; Radlinger, Lorenz

2013-01-01

42

Whole-body vibration exposure in sport: four relevant cases.  

PubMed

This study investigates the whole-body vibration exposure in kite surfing, alpine skiing, snowboarding and cycling. The vibration exposure was experimentally evaluated following the ISO 2631 guidelines. Results evidenced that the most critical axis is the vertical one. The weighted vibration levels are always larger than 2.5 m/s(2) and the vibration dose values are larger than 25 m/s(1.75). The exposure limit values of the EU directive are reached after 8-37 min depending on the sport. The vibration magnitude is influenced by the athletes' speed, by their skill level and sometimes by the equipment. The large vibration values suggest that the practice of sport activities may be a confounding factor in the aetiology of vibration-related diseases. Practitioner Summary: The vibration exposure in some sports is expected to be large, but has never been quantified in the literature. Results of experiments performed in cycling, alpine and water sports outlined vibration levels exceeding the EU standard limit values. PMID:25267689

Tarabini, Marco; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

2014-09-30

43

Whole-body vibration transmitted to the framesaw operator.  

PubMed

At the moment there are more than 40 framesaws in use in Croatia, and many framesaw operators have a serious spine problem. Complex measurements have been carried out in order to determine the vibration level on the operator's seat. This paper reports and analyzes the measurement results of the whole-body vibration transmitted to a framesaw operator during an ordinary working day. Vibrations were measured at all operations performed during the normal framesaw working cycle. For all the measurements frequency spectra were obtained and the results graphically represented according to the ISO 2631-1-1986 recommendations. The weighted r.m.s. acceleration was also calculated and the duration of each single framesaw operation was measured. The energy-equivalent vibration level, corresponding to the total duration of exposure was calculated, too. The values so obtained were compared with the daily exposure limits according to the ISO 2631-1-1997. The measurement results showed that the framesaw operator, under the given measuring conditions, is exposed to a higher vibration level than the given daily exposure limits. Also, the energy-equivalent vibration level calculated according to the guidelines given in the new ISO 2631-1-1997 is higher than the limits recommended for an effective 4-h daily exposure. PMID:15627420

Goglia, V; Grbac, I

2005-01-01

44

Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration improves postural control in health care professionals: a worksite randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Slip, trip, and fall injuries are frequent among health care workers. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training was tested to improve postural control. Participants included 124 employees of a Swiss university hospital. The randomized controlled trial included an experimental group given 8 weeks of training and a control group with no intervention. In both groups, postural control was assessed as mediolateral sway on a force plate before and after the 8-week trial. Mediolateral sway was significantly decreased by stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training in the experimental group but not in the control group that received no training (p < .05). Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training is an option in the primary prevention of balance-related injury at work. PMID:24806038

Elfering, Achim; Schade, Volker; Stoecklin, Lukas; Baur, Simone; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

2014-05-01

45

Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is strong epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. A prototype health surveillance scheme for WBV is presented in this paper. Surveillance is the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. The aims are to assess health status and diagnose vibration-induced disorders at an early stage, to inform the workers on the potential risk associated with vibration exposure, to give preventive advice to employers and employees and to control whether preventive measures which have been taken, were successful. It is suggested that a pre-placement health examination should be offered to each worker who will be exposed to WBV so as to make the worker aware of the hazards, to obtain baseline health data, and to identify medical conditions that may increase the risk due to WBV. The case history should focus on personal history, work history, and leisure activities involving driving of vehicles. The personal medical history should detail back pain complaints, disorders in the spine, any injuries or surgery to the musculoskeletal system. A physical examination on the lower back should be performed on workers who have experienced LBP symptoms over the past 12 months. The preplacement examination should be followed by periodic health reassessment with a regular interval according to the legislation of the country. It is suggested that periodic medical examination should be made available at least every 2 years to all workers who are exposed to WBV. Any change in vibration exposure at the workplace should be reported by the employer. If an increase in vibration exposure or a change in health status have occurred, the medical re-examination should be offered at shorter intervals at the discretion of the attending physician. There should be a periodic medical examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

2002-05-01

46

Lower limbs power and stiffness after whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The interest in whole-body vibration (WBV) for the enhancement of neuromuscular performance has received considerable attention. However, scientific evidence supporting the optimal prescription of WBV settings is lacking. This study investigated the acute effect of WBV combining high frequency/high peak-to-peak displacement (HH) or low frequency/low peak-to-peak displacement (LL) vs. sham intervention (SHAM) on lower limb muscle power and stiffness. A total of 223 volunteers were randomly assigned to either the HH, LL or SHAM group. Countermovement jump (CMJ) height, maximal and average power, maximal and average lower limbs stiffness obtained during a hopping test were recorded before and after the respective intervention. After the intervention, the HH group showed an increase of 4.64% in CMJ height (p<0.001) whereas the values of both the LL and SHAM groups did not change. In addition, maximal and average power of the lower limbs were significantly increased in all groups (p<0.001; 10.89% and 12.82%, respectively) while no effect on lower limbs stiffness was observed. Our data show that high frequency combined with high peak-to-peak displacement is the most optimal WBV setting for CMJ height enhancement. Further investigation should be undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of WBV on lower limbs stiffness. PMID:23143701

Colson, S S; Petit, P-D

2013-04-01

47

Prostate cancer and occupational whole-body vibration exposure.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is common and its etiology largely unknown; therefore, it is important to explore all potential risk factors that are biologically plausible. Recent literature suggests a relationship between whole-body vibration (WBV) and prostate cancer risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether occupational WBV was a risk factor for prostate cancer. Existing data, collected on 447 incident cases and 532 population controls (or their proxies), in Montreal, Canada, were used to evaluate this question. Personal interviews collected detailed job descriptions for every job held, the tasks involved, and type of equipment used. For each job, experts assessed the intensity and daily duration of WBV exposure. Inter-rater agreement for WBV ratings was examined using the kappa statistic, with values that ranged from 0.83 to 0.94. Logistic regression models explored the relationship between WBV exposure and prostate cancer, using various combinations of intensity, daily duration, and years of exposure. Potential confounders were also examined. Occupations with WBV exposure demonstrated an increased statistically non-significant risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-2.09]. The risk for transport equipment operation, a job with WBV exposure, was significantly elevated (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.07-3.39). These results, together with those of an earlier study, suggest that workers in heavy equipment and transport equipment operation may have increased risk of prostate cancer. Further investigation is warranted. PMID:22539558

Nadalin, Victoria; Kreiger, Nancy; Parent, Marie-Elise; Salmoni, Alan; Sass-Kortsak, Andrea; Siemiatycki, Jack; Sloan, Margaret; Purdham, James

2012-10-01

48

Practical approach to measurement and evaluation of exposure to whole-body vibration in the workplace.  

PubMed

This article will present an overview of the history and current state-of-the-art of occupationally induced human whole-body vibration. A recommended step-by-step approach for recognizing, measuring, evaluating, and controlling whole-body vibration will be outlined. The fundamentals of vibration physics, potential vibration sources to which laborers may be exposed, and the propagation characteristics of vibration through the human body will be presented. Currently available national and international whole-body severity criteria and standards will be summarized, and the components constituting a vibration measurement instrumentation chain will be discussed in detail. PMID:8899917

Thalheimer, E

1996-02-01

49

The Effects of Quadriceps Strength Following Static and Dynamic Whole Body Vibration Exercise.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown performance benefits from including whole-body vibration (WBV) whether as a training modality or an acute exercise protocol when utilized as a component of the resistance training program. Some studies have indicated that performing dynamic exercises as compared to static position exercises while exposed to WBV might be beneficial, however, evidence is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if an acute bout of dynamic vs. static squats performed during WBV results in increases in quadriceps force production via dynamic isokinetic knee extension and flexion exercise. PMID:25268289

Bush, Jill A; Blog, Gabriel L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A

2014-09-29

50

Measurement of whole-body vibration in taxi drivers.  

PubMed

In a previous epidemiological study we reported that the prevalence (45.8%) of low-back pain (LBP) and the two-year incidence (25.9%) of LBP in 284 male taxi drivers in Japan was comparable with rates reported for other occupational drivers in which LBP frequently occurs. LBP was significantly related with the level of uncomfortable road vibrations, and, importantly, increased with total mileage. The aim of this study was to measure whole-body vibration (WBV) on the driver's seat pan of 12 taxis operating under actual working conditions. The results were evaluated according to the health guidelines in International Standard ISO 2631-1:1997. Finally, the relation between total mileage and WBV was investigated. The majority of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of the taxis fell into the "potential health risks" zone, under ISO 2631-1:1997. It was clear that the taxi drivers were exposed to serious WBV magnitudes. Therefore, occupational health and safety management should be carried out to help prevent adverse health effects in taxi drivers. In particular, reduction of WBV in taxis and shortening of driving time to reduce duration of WBV exposure should be considered. Moreover, because many taxi drivers work 18 h every other day, the shortening of working hours and taking of rest breaks while working should be considered. Frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of taxis had a tendency to decrease as total mileage increased. The relation between total mileage and WBV should be investigated by taking measurements on the floor and the back rest in addition to the seat pan. PMID:15090686

Funakoshi, Mitsuhiko; Taoda, Kazushi; Tsujimura, Hiroji; Nishiyama, Katsuo

2004-03-01

51

Signal Processing Methods for Removing the Effects of Whole Body Vibration upon Speech  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humans may be exposed to whole-body vibration in environments where clear speech communications are crucial, particularly during the launch phases of space flight and in high-performance aircraft. Prior research has shown that high levels of vibration cause a decrease in speech intelligibility. However, the effects of whole-body vibration upon speech are not well understood, and no attempt has been made to restore speech distorted by whole-body vibration. In this paper, a model for speech under whole-body vibration is proposed and a method to remove its effect is described. The method described reduces the perceptual effects of vibration, yields higher ASR accuracy scores, and may significantly improve intelligibility. Possible applications include incorporation within communication systems to improve radio-communication systems in environments such a spaceflight, aviation, or off-road vehicle operations.

Bitner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.

2014-01-01

52

Evaluation of an occupational health intervention programme on whole-body vibration in forklift truck drivers: a controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate process and outcome of a multifaceted occupational health intervention programme on whole-body vibration (WBV) in forklift truck drivers. Methods: An experimental pretest\\/post-test control group study design. The authors trained occupational health services ( OHS) in the experimental group in the use of the programme. OHS in the control group were asked to deliver care as usual. In

C. T. J. Hulshof; J. H. A. M. Verbeek; I. T. J. Braam; M. Bovenzi; F. J. H. van Dijk

2006-01-01

53

Possible Mechanisms of Low Back Pain due to Whole-Body Vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole-body vibration and low back pain.In vitroexperiments, using percutaneous pin-mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4·5 Hz. The frequency response was affected by posture, seating, and seat-back inclination. The response appears to be largely determined by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats, and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

Pope, M. H.; Wilder, D. G.; Magnusson, M.

1998-08-01

54

The effects of whole-body vibration training and vitamin D supplementation on muscle strength, muscle mass, and bone density in institutionalized elderly women: a 6-month randomized, controlled trial.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia and osteoporosis represent a growing public health problem. We studied the potential benefit of whole-body vibration (WBV) training given a conventional or a high dose of daily vitamin D supplementation in improving strength, muscle mass, and bone density in postmenopausal women. In a 2 × 2 factorial-design trial, 113 institutionalized elderly females aged over 70 years (mean age 79.6 years) were randomly assigned either to a WBV or a no-training group, receiving either a conventional dose (880 IU/day) or a high dose (1600 IU/day) of vitamin D(3). The primary aim was to determine the effects of 6 months of WBV and/or vitamin D supplementation on isometric and dynamic strength, leg muscle mass, and hip bone mineral density (BMD). Additionally, the increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels between conventional and high-dose supplementation was compared. After 6 months of treatment, dynamic muscle strength, hip BMD, and vitamin D serum levels improved significantly in all groups, whereas isometric strength and muscle mass did not change. When compared with no training, the WBV program did not result in additional improvements. When compared with 880 IU, a high dose of 1600 IU of vitamin D did result in higher serum vitamin D levels but did not result in additional improvements. In institutionalized women older than 70 years, the WBV training protocol tested is not more efficient in enhancing muscle mass, strength, and hip BMD compared with vitamin D supplementation. A higher dose of 1600 IU of vitamin D does not provide additional musculoskeletal benefit in this population compared with conventional doses. PMID:20648661

Verschueren, Sabine M P; Bogaerts, An; Delecluse, Christophe; Claessens, Albrecht L; Haentjens, Patrick; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Boonen, Steven

2011-01-01

55

The Effect of Whole Body Horizontal Vibration in Position Sense and Dynamic Stability of the Spine  

E-print Network

In many workplaces, workers are exposed to whole body vibration which involves multi-axis motion in fore-aft (x axis), lateral (y axis) and vertical (z axis) directions. In previous studies, our laboratory has found changes in biomechanical...

Lamis, Farhana

2008-06-09

56

Subjective response to seated fore-and-aft direction whole-body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective response to seated, fore-and-aft direction, whole-body vibration of the type experienced in automobiles was investigated. Fore-and-aft acceleration was measured at the seat guide of a small automobile when driving over two representative road surfaces, and was replicated in a laboratory setting using a whole-body vibration test rig and rigid seat. A single 15s section of each of the two

T. M. Hacaambwa; J. Giacomin

2007-01-01

57

[The effect of whole-body vibration: an unrecognized medical problem].  

PubMed

Exposure to whole-body vibration is a growing concern in industry, traffic and in other branches of the economy. This harmful physical factor endangers work efficiency and human health not only at work but also in everyday life, in public transportation and even at home. In spite of increasing exposure to vibrations, our medical practice does not pay adequate attention to the health effects of whole-body vibration. The paper deals with the basic characteristics of vibration (frequency, amplitude, velocity and acceleration), its adequate evaluation (effective or weighted average value, peak values, rating and weighting procedure of vibration measurement) and exposure (vibration direction, exposure time, transmission and dissipation). In industry and traffic, vibrations present complex oscillatory motions, characterized by a wide frequency spectrum, variable amplitude and acceleration, and different directions. To assess the harmful effects of vibration, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has proposed three standards for acceptable human exposure to whole-body vibration: fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary, exposure limit and reduced comfort boundary. Quantitative parameters of vibration for some vehicles, and for constructional, industrial and agricultural machinery are also given. The most pronounced long-term effect of whole-body vibration is damage to the spine. The spinal region most frequently affected is the lumbar part, where spinal deformation, lumbago and sciatica can develop. The possible cause of spinal damage could be mechanical overload and metabolic changes of the intervertebral disc. Other organ systems, such as peripheral and autonomic nervous, vestibular, vascular, digestive and female reproductive systems are also liable to become affected. Risk assessment of chronic health effects is based on the appropriate evaluation of whole-body vibration exposure and individual response. Health risk increases with the intensity and duration of vibration exposure. The concomitant factors are forced sitting posture and heavy physical work. Human response to whole-body vibration depends on factors promoting the development of degenerative changes such as constitution, previous spine disease and young age. The main problems in diagnosing whole-body vibration syndrome are differentiation of vibration induced disorders from age dependent changes of the spine and lack of a specific diagnostic method for assessing those changes. Therefore, only permanent medical surveillance can guarantee proper assessment of the damage induced by whole-body vibration. For vibration exposed workers preplacement and periodic examinations are recommended. Those should include a basic medical examination and an X-ray of the spine, or at least of its lumbar part. PMID:8311700

Bogadi-Sare, A

1993-09-01

58

Using consumer electronic devices to estimate whole-body vibration exposure.  

PubMed

The cost and complexity of commercially available devices for measuring whole-body vibration is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard at workplaces. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by use of an accelerometer calibrator, and by collecting 42 simultaneous pairs of measurements from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and one of two gold standard vibration measurement devices (Svantech SV111 [Svantech, Warsaw, Poland] or Brüel & Kjær 4447 [Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S, Nærum, Denmark]) while driving light vehicles on a variety of different roadway surfaces. While sampling rate limitations make the accelerometer data collected from the iPod Touch unsuitable for frequency analysis, the vibration amplitudes recorded are sufficiently accurate (errors less than 0.1 m/s(2)) to assist workplaces manage whole-body vibration exposures. PMID:24498944

Wolfgang, Rebecca; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

2014-01-01

59

An overview of strategies to reduce whole-body vibration exposure on drivers: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) at the workplace cost a lot. These MSD, low back pain in particular, can be caused by exposure to whole body vibration (WBV). Preventive strategies to reduce vibration exposure may contribute to a decrease in MSD. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore which evidence-based preventive strategies reduce vibration exposure on drivers. A systematic literature

Ivo J. Tiemessen; Carel T. J. Hulshof; Monique H. W. Frings-Dresen

2007-01-01

60

Modeling of Spinal Column of Seated Human Body under Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spinal column such as low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column. Thus the modeling of seated human body is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of whole-body vibration to

Gen Tamaoki; Takuya Yoshimura; Kaoru Kuriyama; Kazuma Nakai

2008-01-01

61

Self-reported low back symptoms in urban bus drivers exposed to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The prevalence of self-reported low back symptoms was investigated by a postal questionnaire in a group of 234 urban bus drivers exposed to whole-body vibration and postural stress and in a control group of 125 maintenance workers employed at the same bus municipal company. The average vertical whole-body vibration magnitude measured on the seat pan of the buses was 0.4 m/s2. After controlling for potential confounders, the prevalence odds ratios for the bus drivers compared to the controls significantly exceeded 1 for several types of low back symptoms (leg pain, acute low back pain, low back pain). The occurrence of low back symptoms increased with increasing whole-body vibration exposure expressed in terms of total (lifetime) vibration dose (years m2/s4), equivalent vibration magnitude (m/s2), and duration of exposure (years of service). The highest prevalence of disc protrusion was found among the bus drivers with more severe whole-body vibration exposure. Frequent awkward postures at work were also related to some types of low back symptoms. It is concluded that bus driving is associated with an increased risk for low back troubles. This excess risk may be due to both whole-body vibration exposure and prolonged sitting in a constrained posture. The findings of this study also indicated that among the bus drivers low back symptoms occurred at whole-body vibration exposure levels that were lower than the health-based exposure limits proposed by the International Standard ISO 2631/1. PMID:1411756

Bovenzi, M; Zadini, A

1992-09-01

62

Self-reported back pain in tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A postal questionnaire on symptoms of ill health and exposure to whole-body vibration was completed by 577 workers (response rate 79%) who were employed in certain functions by two companies 11 years before. The relation between the occupational history of driving vibrating vehicles (mainly agricultural tractors) and back pain has been analyzed. The prevalence of reported back pain is

Hendriek C. Boshuizen; Paulien M. Bongers; Carel T. J. Hulshof

1990-01-01

63

Measurement of whole-body vibration exposure from speed control humps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of speed control humps is to introduce shocks and high vibration levels when a car passes over them if its speed is higher than the allowable limit. Hump geometry is a major factor in altering the level of these shocks and specifying the speed limit. However, there is no study of the relationship between whole body vibration

E. Khorshid; F. Alkalby; H. Kamal

2007-01-01

64

Whole body vibration in mountain-rescue operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mountain-rescue operations injured people are generally exposed to vibrations and shocks that can be potential causes of physical conditions worsening. Such vibrations can derive both from patient's body manipulations (e.g. when it is being loaded and immobilized on a stretcher) and from forces coming from the transport devices and vehicles. Despite the general feeling that during this kind of operations the levels of transmitted vibrations to the injured can be quite large and potentially dangerous, there is practically no study in literature providing reliable parameters (i.e. measurements) to support or dismiss these beliefs. This paper reports the results of a measurement campaign carried-out in order to outline, identify and quantify the excitations a human body is exposed to, during typical transportation phases related to mountain-rescue operations. The work mainly presents and discusses the experimental setup with the aim of focusing on the problems related to this kind of measurements; the results of the experimental campaign carried-out for the measurement of the vibrations undergone by a human body during a simulated rescue operation are presented and discussed as well. Such simulation includes three phases of transportation: on a hand-held stretcher, on an ambulance and on a helicopter. The work is not intended to supply a complete characterization and analysis of vibrations transmission during any rescue operation but just to provide a preliminary overview and to define a measurement method that can be applied for a more comprehensive characterization. With such aims measurements were carried out in on-field situations stated as "typical" by rescue experts and data then analyzed both with standard procedures and algorithms (e.g. ISO 2631s weighting curves) and with the commonly used statistical indexes; in the analysis it is important to be aware that standardized measurement procedures and indexes, created to verify comfort or health-risks of workers, might not fit the case of a generic patient who experienced a serious mountain accident. The work includes also a laboratory activity mainly related to mechanical characterization of the stretcher used in the field tests. The most interesting result of the study is the comparison of the vibration levels in the various rescue phases that, even when using different indicators, shows that the most critical issue is due to hand transportation despite the bad judgment usually expressed for helicopter flight.

Alberti, E.; Chiappa, D.; Moschioni, G.; Saggin, B.; Tarabini, M.

2006-12-01

65

Whole-body vibration and ergonomic study of US railroad locomotives  

Microsoft Academic Search

US locomotive operators have exposure to multi-axis whole-body vibration (WBV) and shocks while seated. This study assessed operator-related and ergonomic seating design factors that may have confounding or mitigating influence on WBV exposure and its effects. Vibration exposure was measured according to international guidelines (ISO 2631-1; 1997); ergonomic work place factors and vibration effects were studied with a cross-sectional survey

Eckardt Johanning; Paul Landsbergis; Siegfried Fischer; Eberhard Christ; Benno Göres; Raymond Luhrman

2006-01-01

66

Musculoskeletal disorders in dumper operators exposed to whole body vibration at Indian mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dumper operators are exposed to whole body vibration (WBV) in the course of their work. The exposure to WBV in a coal mine in Central India was investigated through measurement of the magnitude of vibration and exposure time. The vibration magnitude along the dominant Z-axis ranged from 0.644 to 1.82 m\\/s in terms of root mean square acceleration. When evaluated in

B. B. Mandal; A. K. Srivastava

2010-01-01

67

EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION ON STRENGTH AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN VOLLEYBALL AND BEACH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS  

PubMed Central

The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (p<0.001), a WBV use effect (p<0.001) and a discipline effect (p<0.001). Significantly greater improvements in the SJ (p<0.001) and CMJ (p<0.001) and in 1RM (p<0.001) were found in the WBV training groups than in traditional training groups. Significant 3-way interaction effects (training, WBV use, discipline kind) were also found for SJ, CMJ and 1RM (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001, respectively). It can be concluded that implementation of 6-week WBV training in routine practice in volleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

Zmijewski, P.; Jimenez-Olmedo, J.M.; Jové-Tossi, M.A.; Martínez-Carbonell, A.; Suárez-Llorca, C.; Andreu-Cabrera, E.

2014-01-01

68

Localised Muscle Tissue Oxygenation During Dynamic Exercise With Whole Body Vibration  

PubMed Central

Despite increasing use of whole body vibration during exercise an understanding of the exact role of vibration and the supporting physiological mechanisms is still limited. An important aspect of exercise analysis is the utilisation of oxygen, however, there have been limited studies considering tissue oxygenation parameters, particularly during dynamic whole body vibration (WBV) exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding WBV during heel raise exercises and assessing changes in tissue oxygenation parameters of the lateral gastrocnemius using Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty healthy subjects completed ten alternating sets of 15 heel raises (vibration vs. no vibration). Synchronous oxygenation and motion data were captured prior to exercise to determine baseline levels, for the duration of the exercise and 20 sec post exercise for the recovery period. Both vibration and no vibration conditions elicited a characteristic increase in deoxyhaemoglobin and decreases in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index and normalised tissue haemoglobin index which are indicative of local tissue hypoxia. However, the addition of vibration elicited significantly lower (p < 0. 001) depletions in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, normalised tissue haemoglobin index but no significant differences in deoxyhaemoglobin. These findings suggest that addition of vibration to exercise does not increase the cost of the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius muscle, but does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters, potentially resulting from increased blood flow to the calf or a vasospastic response in the feet. However, further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings. Key pointsWhole body vibration affects tissue oxygenation of the lateral gastrocnemius.The underlying mechanism could be either increased blood flow or a vasospastic response in the feet.The local metabolic cost of heel raise activity on the lateral gastrocnemius does not appear to be increased by whole body vibration. PMID:24149209

Robbins, Daniel; Elwell, Clare; Jimenez, Alfonso; Goss-Sampson, Mark

2012-01-01

69

Loading and Concurrent Synchronous Whole-Body Vibration Interaction Increases Oxygen Consumption During Resistance Exercise  

PubMed Central

Exercise is commonly used as an intervention to increase caloric output and positively affect body composition. A major challenge is the low compliance often seen when the prescribed exercise is associated with high levels of exertion. Whole-body vibration (WBV) may allow increased caloric output with reduced effort; however, there is limited information concerning the effect of WBV on oxygen consumption (VO2). Therefore, this study assessed the synergistic effects of resistance training and WBV on VO2. We examined VO2 at different loads (0%, 20%, and 40% body weight (BW)) and vibration intensities (No vibration (NV), 35HZ, 2-3mm (35L), 50Hz, 57mm (50H)) in ten men (26.5 ± 5.1 years). Data were collected during different stages (rest, six 30s sets of squatting, and recovery). Repeated measures ANOVA showed a stage x load x vibration interaction. Post hoc analysis revealed no differences during rest; however, a significant vibration x load interaction occurred during exercise. Both 35L and 50H produced greater VO2 than NV at a moderate load of 20%BW. Although 40%BW produced greater VO2 than 20%BW or 0%BW using NV, no significant difference in VO2 was seen among vibratory conditions at 40%BW. Moreover, no significant differences were seen between 50H and 35L at 20%BW and NV at 40%BW. During recovery there was a main effect for load. Post hoc analyses revealed that VO2 at 40%BW was significantly higher than 20%BW or 0%BW, and 20%BW produced higher VO2 than no load. Minute-by-minute analysis revealed a significant impact on VO2 due to load but not to vibratory condition. We conclude that the synergistic effect of WBV and active squatting with a moderate load is as effective at increasing VO2 as doubling the external load during squatting without WBV. Key Points Synchronous whole body vibration in conjunction with moderate external loading (app 20% BW) can increase oxygen consumption to the same extent as heavier loading (40% BW) during performance of the parallel squat. While the application of synchronous whole body vibration had no effect on recovery oxygen, under bot vibratory and non-vibratory conditions, the heavier the external load the greater the recovery oxygen consumption levels. Regardless of vibratory condition, during the squatting exercise bout 40% BW produced higher heart rates than 20%BW or 0% BW, and 20% BW produced higher heart rates than 0% BW. There were strong trends toward higher heart rates in both vibratory conditions (50 Hz, 5-6mm; 35 Hz, 2-3 mm) than in the non-vibratory condition regardless of external loading. PMID:24149154

Serravite, Daniel H.; Edwards, David; Edwards, Elizabeth S.; Gallo, Sara E.; Signorile, Joseph F.

2013-01-01

70

Acute effects of whole-body vibration on trunk muscle functioning in young healthy adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the immediate effects of different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the performance of trunk muscles of healthy young adults. A group of 30 healthy subjects (15 men; 15 women; age, 26.8 ± 3.74 years; body mass index, 21.9 ± 1.802) participated in the study. Each subject received 3 sessions of vibration exercise with different exercise parameters with frequencies of 25 Hz and 40 Hz and sham stimulation in a random order on different days. Before and after each WBV exercise session, subjects were assessed for trunk muscle strength/endurance tests and trunk proprioception tests. There was a significant increase in trunk extensor strength (p ? 0.05) after low-frequency (25 Hz) WBV exercise, but high-frequency (40 Hz) vibration exercise had resulted in a significant decrease in trunk extensor endurance (p ? 0.05). Statistical gender difference (p = 0.04) was found for trunk extensor endurance with lower WBV training. No change was noted in the trunk proprioception with different frequencies of WBV. In conclusions, the immediate response of the body to WBV was different for low and high frequencies. Low-frequency vibration enhanced trunk extensor strength, but high-frequency vibration would decrease endurance of the trunk extensor muscles. Males are more sensitive than females in trunk extensor endurance for lower frequency WBV exposure. These results indicated that short-term WBV with low frequency was effective to improve trunk extensor strength in healthy adults, and that could be helpful for relevant activities of trunk extensor performing and preventing sport injury. PMID:24714536

Ye, Jiajia; Ng, Gabriel; Yuen, Kenneth

2014-10-01

71

Reducing whole-body vibration and musculoskeletal injury with a new car seat design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new car seat design, which allows the back part of the seat (BPS) to lower down while a protruded cushion supports the lumbar spine, was quantitatively tested to determine its effectiveness and potentials in reducing whole-body vibration (WBV) and musculoskeletal disorders in automobile drivers. Nine subjects were tested to drive with the seat in: 1) the conventional seating arrangement

M. Makhsous; R. Hendrix; Z. Crowther; E. Nam; F. Lin

2005-01-01

72

A quantitative meta-analytic examination of whole-body vibration effects on human performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-body vibration exerts a substantive influence in many work environments. The primary objective for this work was to quantify such effects by identifying those moderating variables that influence the degree to which performance is affected. To achieve this, a comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted, which synthesized the existing research evidence. A total of 224 papers and reports were identified and, from

G. E. Conway; J. L. Szalma; P. A. Hancock

2007-01-01

73

Whole-body vibration and health effects in the agricultural machinery drivers.  

PubMed

Recently farm mechanization has been widespread and developing rapidly, in particular riding farm machines are increasingly used in paddy fields in Japan. We have no information available on the actual situation regarding whole-body vibration on the seats of these farm machines from the standpoint of labour protection. Measurement and evaluation of whole-body vibration was performed on the seats of popular riding agricultural machineries. Whole-body vibration on the seats of combine harvesters and wheel tractors exceeded exposure limits and the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary limit of 8 hr and also shortened the reduced comfort boundary limits of ISO 2631 (1985). Some combines, tractors and carieers had only less than one hour exposure duration as compared with the ISO 2631-1 standard (1997). On the other hand a questionnaire was also performed on the subject of agricultural machine operators. Any specific injury or other effects, i.e. low back injuries were not found among the group of operators as compared with those in non-operator farmers. It seems to be difficult to find out the health effects of whole-body vibration itself, because there may be a lot of causes, i.e. working posture, operating heavy materials, in farm working conditions. PMID:9583309

Futatsuka, M; Maeda, S; Inaoka, T; Nagano, M; Shono, M; Miyakita, T

1998-04-01

74

NEUROMOTOR RESPONSE TO WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRANSMISSIBILITY IN THE HORIZONTAL DIRECTION AND ITS MATHEMATICAL MODEL  

E-print Network

NEUROMOTOR RESPONSE TO WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRANSMISSIBILITY IN THE HORIZONTAL DIRECTION AND ITS MATHEMATICAL MODEL By Vinay Hanumanthareddygari Submitted to graduate degree program in Mechanical Engineering and the Graduate Faculty... of the University of Kansas School of Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Committee: ______________________ Dr. Sara E. Wilson, Chairperson ______________________ Dr. Terry N. Faddis...

Hanumanthareddygari, Vinay

2010-09-02

75

Reducing whole-body vibration and musculoskeletal injury with a new car seat  

E-print Network

identified between WBV and low back pain (LBP) (Griff car seat design, which allows the back part of the seat (BPS) to lower down while a protruded cushion in reducing whole- body vibration (WBV) and musculoskeletal disorders in automobile drivers. Nine subjects

Makhsous, Mohsen

76

The effect of occupational whole-body vibration on standing balance: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse health effects from exposure to occupational whole-body vibration (WBV) are common among drivers. In particular some researchers consider that there is kinaesthetic and balance disturbance from WBV exposure in the workplace and this might be one of the aetiological factors responsible for occupational low back pain in drivers. The purpose of this study was to undertake a critical review

Ramakrishnan Mani; Stephan Milosavljevic; S. John Sullivan

2010-01-01

77

Two way assessment of other physical work demands while measuring the whole body vibration magnitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct observation, instead of using self-administered questionnaires might give more reliable and specific information about physical work demands at the workplace. This information is of use in a population already at risk of developing low back pain (LBP) due to whole body vibration (WBV) exposure. The aims of this study are to assess the WBV exposure in an exposed population

Ivo J. H. Tiemessen; Carel T. J. Hulshof; Monique H. W. Frings-Dresen

2008-01-01

78

Whole-body vibration exposure in subway cars and review of adverse health effects.  

PubMed

New York City Transit Authority subway operators have a high prevalence of back problems. To evaluate a possible dose-response relationship for whole-body vibration, we studied subway car vibrations measured and analyzed according to the International Standard Organization 2631 and Verein Deutscher Ingenieure 2057 standards. Vibration transducers in triaxial orientation were mounted in a disc pad directly on the subway operator's seat. The relatively high lateral and vertical accelerations, primarily the combined effects, may all contribute to the high rate of musculoskeletal complaints, especially of the lower back. Other factors aggravating whole-body vibrations include primitive ergonomic cab and seat design, forced body posture, high noise levels, and organizational work stress. PMID:1831231

Johanning, E; Wilder, D G; Landrigan, P J; Pope, M H

1991-05-01

79

Physiological response to whole-body vibration in athletes and sedentary subjects.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a new exercise method, with good acceptance among sedentary subjects. The metabolic response to WBV has not been well documented. Three groups of male subjects, inactive (SED), endurance (END) and strength trained (SPRINT) underwent a session of side-alternating WBV composed of three 3-min exercises (isometric half-squat, dynamic squat, dynamic squat with added load), and repeated at three frequencies (20, 26 and 32 Hz). VO(2), heart rate and Borg scale were monitored. Twenty-seven healthy young subjects (10 SED, 8 SPRINT and 9 END) were included. When expressed in % of their maximal value recorded in a treadmill test, both the peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and heart rate (HR) attained during WBV were greatest in the SED, compared to the other two groups (VO(2): 59.3 % in SED vs 50.8 % in SPRINT and 48.0 % in END, p<0.01; HR 82.7 % in SED vs 80.4 % in SPRINT and 72.4 % in END, p<0.05). In conclusions, the heart rate and metabolic response to WBV differs according to fitness level and type, exercise type and vibration frequency. In SED, WBV can elicit sufficient cardiovascular response to benefit overall fitness and thus be a potentially useful modality for the reduction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25157652

Gojanovic, B; Feihl, F; Gremion, G; Waeber, B

2014-12-23

80

Changes in postural sway frequency and complexity in altered sensory environments following whole body vibrations.  

PubMed

Studies assessing whole body vibration (WBV) have produced largely positive effects, with some neutral, on postural control with frequencies between 25 and 40 Hz. However no conclusive evidence indicates that 25-40 Hz elicits the optimal beneficial effects. To address this issue, a larger range of vibration intensity (10-50 Hz at peak-to-peak amplitudes of 2 and 5mm) was employed while increasing the postural complexity (altered somatosensory and/or visual information) to assess acute effects of 4-min of WBV on postural control. Twelve healthy young adults underwent postural assessment at four time intervals (prior to, immediately following and 10 and 20 min post WBV). Findings revealed both postural sway frequency and sway complexity/regularity were affected by WBV. Baseline posture demonstrated increased sway frequency (p=.04) following WBV with no changes in sway complexity. When the support surface was altered, changes in both the frequency and complexity of sway were elicited (p=.027, .002, respectively). When both somatosensory and visual information were altered delayed improvements in postural control were elicited (p=.05 and .01, for frequency and complexity, respectively). Given the differential acute effects as a function of postural task complexity, future longitudinal studies could determine the overall training effect on sway frequency and complexity. PMID:22516837

Dickin, D Clark; McClain, Matthew A; Hubble, Ryan P; Doan, Jon B; Sessford, David

2012-10-01

81

Whole body vibration therapy in fracture prevention among adults with chronic disease.  

PubMed

Due to various physical impairments, individuals with chronic diseases often live a sedentary lifestyle, which leads to physical de-conditioning. The associated muscle weakness, functional decline and bone loss also render these individuals highly susceptible to falls and fragility fractures. There is an urgent need to search for safe and effective intervention strategies to prevent fragility fractures by modifying the fall-related risk factors and enhancing bone health. Whole body vibration (WBV) therapy has gained popularity in rehabilitation in recent years. In this type of treatment, mechanical vibration is delivered to the body while the individual is standing on an oscillating platform. As mechanical loading is one of the most powerful stimuli to induce osteogenesis, it is proposed that the mechanical stress applied to the human skeleton in WBV therapy might be beneficial for enhancing bone mass. Additionally, the vibratory signals also constitute a form of sensory stimulation and can induce reflex muscle activation, which could potentially induce therapeutic effects on muscle strength and important sensorimotor functions such as postural control. Increasing research evidence suggests that WBV is effective in enhancing hip bone mineral density, muscle strength and balance ability in elderly patients, and could have potential for individuals with chronic diseases, who often cannot tolerate vigorous impact or resistance exercise training. This article aims to discuss the potential role of WBV therapy in the prevention of fragility fractures among people with chronic diseases. PMID:22474623

Pang, Marco Yc

2010-11-18

82

The Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Mobility and Balance in Parkinson Disease: a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in health–compromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease. PMID:25031483

Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A.; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary

2014-01-01

83

The effects of whole body vibration on balance, joint position sense and cutaneous sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body vibration (WBV) may enhance muscular strength and power but little is known about its influence on sensory-motor\\u000a function. Vibration of a single muscle or tendon affects the afferent system in a manner that depends on amplitude and frequency.\\u000a WBV stimulates many muscle groups simultaneously and the frequencies and amplitudes used are different from many of the studies\\u000a on

Ross D. PollockSally ProvanFinbarr; Sally Provan; Finbarr C. Martin; Di J. Newham

84

Nonlinear subjective and dynamic responses of seated subjects exposed to horizontal whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the magnitude of fore-and-aft and lateral vibration on the subjective and mechanical responses of seated subjects has been investigated experimentally using simultaneous measurements of relative discomfort and apparent mass. Twelve male subjects were exposed to sinusoidal vibration at nine frequencies (between 1.6 and 10 Hz) at four magnitudes (in the range 0.125-1.0 m s -2 r.m.s.) in both horizontal directions (fore-and-aft and lateral). The method of magnitude estimation was used to estimate discomfort relative to that caused by a 4 Hz reference vibration in the same axis. The apparent mass was calculated from the acceleration and the applied force so as to quantify the mechanical response of the body. With each direction of excitation, the apparent mass was normalised by dividing it by the apparent mass obtained at 4 Hz, so that the mechanical responses could be compared with the subjective responses. The relative discomfort and the normalised apparent mass were similarly affected by the frequency and magnitude of vibration, with significant correlations between the relative discomfort and the normalised apparent mass. The results indicate that the discomfort caused by horizontal whole-body vibration is associated with the apparent mass in a frequency range where motion of the whole body is dominant. In this frequency range, the nonlinear subjective responses may be attributed, at least in part, to the nonlinear dynamic responses to horizontal whole-body vibration.

Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Nawayseh, N.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

2009-03-01

85

Microcirculation of skeletal muscle adapts differently to a resistive exercise intervention with and without superimposed whole-body vibrations.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is commonly practiced and may enhance peripheral blood flow. Here, we investigated muscle morphology and acute microcirculatory responses before and after a 6-week resistive exercise training intervention without (RE) or with (RVE) simultaneous whole-body vibrations (20 Hz, 6 mm peak-to-peak amplitude) in 26 healthy men in a randomized, controlled parallel-design study. Total haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were measured in gastrocnemius muscle (GM) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2 ) was measured via spirometry, and skeletal muscle morphology was determined in soleus (SOL) muscle biopsies. Our data reveal that exercise-induced muscle deoxygenation both before and after 6 weeks training was similar in RE and RVE (P = 0·76), although VO2 was 20% higher in the RVE group (P<0·001). The RVE group showed a 14%-point increase in reactive hyperaemia (P = 0·007) and a 27% increase in blood volume (P<0·01) in GM after 6 weeks of training. The number of capillaries around fibres was increased by 15% after 6 weeks training in both groups (P<0·001) with no specific effect of superimposed WBV (P = 0·61). Neither of the training regimens induced fibre hypertrophy in SOL. The present findings suggest an increased blood volume and vasodilator response in GM as an adaptation to long-term RVE, which was not observed after RE alone. We conclude that RVE training enhances vasodilation of small arterioles and possibly capillaries. This effect might be advantageous for muscle thermoregulation and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to exercising muscle and removal of carbon dioxide and metabolites. PMID:25041226

Beijer, Asa; Degens, Hans; Weber, Tobias; Rosenberger, André; Gehlert, Sebastian; Herrera, Frankyn; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias; Zange, Jochen; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

2014-07-21

86

Exploring the Effects of Seated Whole Body Vibration Exposure on Repetitive Asymmetric Lifting Tasks.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT This study investigated changes in the physiological and behavioral responses to repetitive asymmetric lifting activity after exposure to whole body vibrations. Seventeen healthy volunteers repeatedly lifted a box (15% of lifter's capacity) positioned in front of them at ankle level to a location on their left side at waist level at the rate of 10 lifts/minute for a period of 60 minutes. Prior to lifting, participants were seated on a vibrating platform for 60 minutes; in one of the two sessions the platform did not vibrate. Overall, the physiological responses assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy signals for the erector spinae muscles decreased significantly over time during the seating and the lifting tasks (p < 0.001). During repetitive asymmetric lifting, behavioral changes included increases in peak forward bending motion, twisting moment and three-dimensional movement velocities of the spine. The lateral bending moment of the spine and the duration of each lift decreased significantly over the 60 minutes of repetitive lifting. With exposure to whole body vibration, participants twisted further (p = 0.046) and twisted faster (p = 0.025). These behavioral changes would suggest an increase in back injury risk when repetitive lifting tasks are preceded by whole body vibration exposure. PMID:25264920

Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Jagacinski, Richard J; Sommerich, Carolyn M

2014-09-29

87

Safety and severity of accelerations delivered from whole body vibration exercise devices to standing adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) devices are used as a means to augment training, and their potential to treat a range of musculoskeletal diseases and injuries is now being considered. The goal of this work is to determine the degree to which acceleration delivered by WBV devices at the plantar surfaces of a standing human is transmitted through the axial and appendicular skeleton, and how this mechanical challenge corresponds to the safety Threshold Limit Values (TLV) established by the International Standards Organization ISO-2631. Design Non-blinded laboratory assessment of a range of WBV devices as it pertains to acceleration transmission to healthy volunteers. Methods Using skin and bite-bar mounted accelerometers, transmissibility to the tibia and cranium was determined in six healthy adults standing on a programmable WBV device as a function of frequency and intensity. Measures of transmissibility were then made from three distinct types of WBV platforms, which delivered a 50-fold range of peak-to-peak acceleration intensities (0.3 to 15.1g p-p; where 1g is earth’s gravitational field). Results For a given frequency, transmissibility was independent of intensity when below 1g. Transmissibility declined non-linearly with increasing frequency. Depending on the WBV device, vibration ranged from levels considered safe by ISO-2631 for up to eight hours each day (0.3gp-p @ 30Hz), to levels that were seven times higher than what is considered a safe threshold for even one minute of exposure each day (15.1g p-p @ 30Hz). Transmissibility to the cranium was markedly attenuated by the degree of flexion in the knees. Conclusions Vibration can have adverse effects on a number of physiologic systems. This work indicates that readily accessible WBV devices markedly exceed ISO guidelines for safety, and extreme caution must be practiced when considering their use. PMID:23453990

Muir, Jesse; Kiel, Douglas P.; Rubin, Clinton T.

2013-01-01

88

Whole-Body Vibration to Treat Low Back Pain: Fact or Fad?  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence base for whole-body vibration as a treatment for low back pain (LBP). Summary of key points: Whole-body vibration through occupational exposure has previously been recognized as an aetiological factor in LBP. Previous studies have identified whole-body vibration (WBV) as a cause of LBP in various sitting-based occupations that involve machinery and repetitive vibration. In the last decade, however, WBV has been advocated as a safe and effective treatment for LBP. Despite the growing popularity of WBV in clinical practice, this systematic review of the literature identified only two studies that investigated the effectiveness of WBV as a treatment option for LBP, and an assessment of the quality of these studies demonstrated several methodological problems that may have biased their findings. While there is emerging evidence for the effectiveness of WBV in treating some medical conditions, the evidence for WBV as a treatment for LBP remains equivocal. Recommendations: Based on the current body of evidence, routine use of WBV to treat LBP should be undertaken with caution. Further rigorous research designed to investigate the effectiveness of WBV as a safe and high-quality treatment for LBP is required. PMID:22210985

Perraton, Luke; Machotka, Zuzana

2011-01-01

89

Good Vibrations – Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Attention in Healthy Individuals and Individuals with ADHD  

PubMed Central

Objectives Most of the current treatment strategies of ADHD are associated with a number of disadvantages which strengthen the need for alternative or additional approaches for the treatment of ADHD. In this respect, Whole Body Vibration (WBV) might be interesting as it was found to have beneficial effects on a variety of physiological measures. The present study explored the effects of WBV on attention of healthy individuals and adults diagnosed with ADHD. Methods Eighty-three healthy individuals and seventeen adults diagnosed with ADHD participated in the study. WBV treatment was applied passively, while participants were sitting on a chair which was mounted on a vibrating platform. A repeated measure design was employed in order to explore potential effects of WBV treatment on attention within subjects. Attention (i.e. inhibitory control) was measured with a color-word interference paradigm. Results A period of two minutes of WBV treatment had significant beneficial effects of small to medium size on attention of both healthy individuals and adults with ADHD. The effect of WBV treatment on attention did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions WBV was demonstrated to improve cognitive performance of healthy individuals as well as of individuals with ADHD. WBV treatment is relatively inexpensive and easy to apply and might therefore be of potential relevance for clinical use. The application of WBV treatment as a cognitive enhancement strategy and as a potential treatment of cognitive impairments is discussed. PMID:24587412

Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

2014-01-01

90

ACUTE EFFECT OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ON SPRINT AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN ELITE SKELETON ATHLETES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bullock, N, Martin, DT, Ross, A, Rosemond, CD, Jordan, MJ, and Marino, FE. Acute effect of whole-body vibration on sprint and jumping performance in elite skeleton athletes. J Strength Cond Res 22: 1371-1374, 2008—The winter sliding sport known as skeleton requires athletes to produce a maximal sprint followed by high speed sliding down a bobsled track. Athletes are required to

NICOLA BULLOCK; DAVID T. MARTIN; ANGUS ROSS; C. DOUG ROSEMOND; MATTHEW J. JORDAN; FRANK E. MARINO

2008-01-01

91

Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different

J. Hoy; N. Mubarak; S. Nelson; M. Sweerts de Landas; M. Magnusson; O. Okunribido; M. Pope

2005-01-01

92

Whole-Body Vibration and Rehabilitation of Chronic Diseases: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

The objectives of the study were to review the current literature and findings on the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training method on performance and its ability to aid in the rehabilitation of chronic diseases (neurological, musculoskeletal or metabolic conditions). Six electronic databases were searched. The combination of the search terminology used included WBV and several neurological, musculoskeletal and metabolic conditions. Twenty six papers were found to be relevant for this review and were included for critical evaluation with regards to sample characteristics, research intervention and methodology. Most studies were conducted on patients diagnosed with neurological conditions (n = 15) while less were performed on patients suffering from musculoskeletal (n = 7) or metabolic (n = 4) disorders. Comparisons were difficult to draw on because of the different pathologies and the differences in the methodology of each study. Some of the observed methodological flaws included limitations in relation to insufficient randomisation, lack of sample homogeneity (size, age variability) and poor blinding in most studies. No consensus could be reached as to whether WBV is more effective than other interventions or no intervention at all, while the additional effects that WBV may have in relation to other interventions could not be assumed. Nevertheless, chronic WBV training seems to only improve strength in neurological patients while balance and mobility improves only in patients suffering from musculoskeletal or metabolic but not from neurological conditions. Although WBV did not prove to be more effective compared to other training methods, it can be used, in some cases, as a less fatiguing and less time-consuming method to enhance physical capabilities. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of WBV in relation to no treatment at all, and to age. Key pointsChronic WBV training seems to only improve strength in neurological patients while balance and mobility improves only in patients suffering from musculoskeletal or metabolic conditions.WBV did not prove to be more effective than other interventions, while the positive effects of WBV in relation to no intervention at all could not be established.No consensus could be reached as to which vibration type is more effective.WBV training could be used as a safe, less fatiguing and less time-consuming type of exercise for patients with neurologic conditions instead of other more demanding interventions. PMID:24149191

Chanou, Konstantina; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Jamurtas, Athanasios

2012-01-01

93

Neuromuscular response of the trunk to inertial based sudden perturbations following whole body vibration exposure.  

PubMed

The effects of whole body vibration exposure on the neuromuscular responses following inertial-based trunk perturbations were examined. Kinematic and surface EMG (sEMG) data were collected while subjects were securely seated on a robotic platform. Participants were either exposed to 10min of vibration or not, which was followed by sudden inertial trunk perturbations with and without timing and direction knowledge. Amplitude of sEMG was analyzed for data collected during the vibration protocol, whereas the onset of sEMG activity and lumbar spine angle were analyzed for the perturbation protocol. Data from the vibration protocol did not show a difference in amplitude of sEMG for participants exposed to vibration and those not. The perturbation protocol data showed that those not exposed to vibration had a 14% faster muscle onset, despite data showing no difference in fatigue level. PMID:25241645

MacIntyre, Danielle; Cort, Joel A

2014-12-01

94

Predicting discomfort from whole-body vertical vibration when sitting with an inclined backrest.  

PubMed

Current methods for evaluating seat vibration to predict vibration discomfort assume the same frequency weightings and axis multiplying factors can be used at the seat surface and the backrest irrespective of the backrest inclination. This experimental study investigated the discomfort arising from whole-body vertical vibration when sitting on a rigid seat with no backrest and with a backrest inclined at 0° (upright), 30°, 60°, and 90° (recumbent). Within each of these five postures, 12 subjects judged the discomfort caused by vertical sinusoidal whole-body vibration (at frequencies from 1 to 20 Hz at magnitudes from 0.2 to 2.0 m s(-2) r.m.s.) relative to the discomfort produced by a reference vibration (8 Hz at 0.4 m s(-2) r.m.s.). With 8-Hz vertical vibration, the subjects also judged vibration discomfort with each backrest condition relative to the vibration discomfort with no backrest. The locations in the body where discomfort was experienced were determined for each frequency at two vibration magnitudes. Equivalent comfort contours were determined for the five conditions of the backrest and show how discomfort depends on the frequency of vibration, the presence of the backrest, and the backrest inclination. At frequencies greater than about 8 Hz, the backrest increased vibration discomfort, especially when inclined to 30°, 60°, or 90°, and there was greater discomfort at the head or neck. At frequencies around 5 and 6.3 Hz there was less vibration discomfort when sitting with an inclined backrest. PMID:23190680

Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J

2013-05-01

95

Evaluation of a six-week whole-body vibration intervention on neuromuscular performance in older adults.  

PubMed

Perchthaler, D, Grau, S, and Hein, T. Evaluation of a 6-week whole-body vibration intervention on neuromuscular performance in older adults. J Strength Cond Res 29(1): 86-95, 2015-Research in the field of whole-body vibration (WBV) for the enhancement of neuromuscular performance is becoming increasingly popular. However, additional understanding of optimal WBV training protocols is still necessary to develop optimal and effective training and prevention concepts, especially for elderly people. The intention of this study was to evaluate a 6-week WBV intervention program based on optimal vibration loads adapted from the literature on lower-limb strength parameters and performance, as well as on perceived exertion according to a subjective rating. A total of 21 older adults were allocated randomly into either a WBV training or control group (CO). Before and after the intervention period, jump height was measured during a countermovement jump. In addition, isolated isokinetic maximal knee extension and flexion strength, mean power, and work were recorded using a motor-driven dynamometer. Borg's scale for rating of perceived exertion was used to evaluate the intensity of WBV exercises within each training session. After the intervention period, jump height increased by 18.55% (p < 0.001) in the WBV group, whereas values of the CO remained unchanged. There were no statistically significant differences in isokinetic maximal strength, mean power, or work values in knee extension or flexion (all p > 0.05). Finally, the subjective perceived exertion of the WBV exercises and respective training parameters ranged between moderate rating levels of 7 and 13 of Borg's scale. Our data show that WBV is a feasible and safe training program for elderly people to increase multijoint strength performance of the lower limbs during a countermovement jump. This could help to determine the potential of WBV programs in training of the elderly to prevent age-related reduction of neuromuscular performance. PMID:25028997

Perchthaler, Dennis; Grau, Stefan; Hein, Tobias

2015-01-01

96

Neurocognitive responses to a single session of static squats with whole body vibration.  

PubMed

Amonette, WE, Boyle, M, Psarakis, MB, Barker, J, Dupler, TL, and Ott, SD. Neurocognitive responses to a single session of static squats with whole body vibration. J Strength Cond Res 29(1): 96-100, 2015-The purpose of this study was to determine if the head accelerations using a common whole body vibration (WBV) exercise protocol acutely reduced neurocognition in healthy subjects. Second, we investigated differential responses to WBV plates with 2 different delivery mechanisms: vertical and rotational vibrations. Twelve healthy subjects (N = 12) volunteered and completed a baseline (BASE) neurocognitive assessment: the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT). Subjects then participated in 3 randomized exercise sessions separated by no more than 2 weeks. The exercise sessions consisted of five 2-minute sets of static hip-width stance squats, with the knees positioned at a 45° angle of flexion. The squats were performed with no vibration (control [CON]), with a vertically vibrating plate (vertical vibration [VV]), and with a rotational vibrating plate (rotational vibration [RV]) set to 30 Hz with 4 mm of peak-to-peak displacement. The ImPACT assessments were completed immediately after each exercise session and the composite score for 5 cognitive domains was analyzed: verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, and impulse control. Verbal memory scores were unaffected by exercise with or without vibration (p = 0.40). Likewise, visual memory was not different (p = 0.14) after CON, VV, or RV. Significant differences were detected for visual motor speed (p = 0.006); VV was elevated compared with BASE (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences (p = 0.26) in reaction time or impulse control (p = 0.16) after exercise with or without vibration. In healthy individuals, 10 minutes of 30 Hz, 4-mm peak-to-peak displacement vibration exposure with a 45° angle of knee flexion did not negatively affect neurocognition. PMID:25536489

Amonette, William E; Boyle, Mandy; Psarakis, Maria B; Barker, Jennifer; Dupler, Terry L; Ott, Summer D

2015-01-01

97

Low back and neck pain in locomotive engineers exposed to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and excess risk of low back pain and neck pain in locomotive engineers, and to investigate the relationship of both with whole-body vibration exposure. A cross-sectional survey comparing locomotive engineers with other rail worker referents was conducted. Current vibration levels were measured, cumulative exposures calculated for engineers and referents, and low back and neck pain assessed by a self-completed questionnaire. Median vibration exposure in the z- (vertical) axis was 0.62 m/s(2). Engineers experienced more frequent low back and neck pain, odds ratios (ORs) of 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-2.64) and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.22-3.02), respectively. The authors conclude that vibration close to the "action levels" of published standards contribute to low back and neck pain. Vibration levels need to be assessed conservatively and control measures introduced. PMID:24499248

McBride, David; Paulin, Sara; Herbison, G Peter; Waite, David; Bagheri, Nasser

2014-01-01

98

Fluid dynamic aspects of cardiovascular behavior during low-frequency whole-body vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of the cardiovascular system during low frequency whole-body vibration, such as encountered by astronauts during launch and reentry, is examined from a fluid mechanical viewpoint. The vibration characteristics of typical manned spacecraft and other vibration environments are discussed, and existing results from in vivo studies of the hemodynamic aspects of this problem are reviewed. Recent theoretical solutions to related fluid mechanical problems are then used in the interpretation of these results and in discussing areas of future work. The results are included of studies of the effects of vibration on the work done by the heart and on pulsatile flow in blood vessels. It is shown that important changes in pulse velocity, the instantaneous velocity profile, mass flow rate, and wall shear stress may occur in a pulsatile flow due to the presence of vibration. The significance of this in terms of changes in peripheral vascular resistance and possible damage to the endothelium of blood vessels is discussed.

Nerem, R. M.

1973-01-01

99

Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different positions were adopted (bending, leaning and twisting) and postural analyses were conducted using the OWAS and RULA techniques. Forklift vibrations at the seat (exposure) were measured in the three orthogonal axes ( x-fore and aft, y-lateral and z-vertical) under actual working conditions according to the recommendations of ISO 2631-1. The results showed that LBP was more prevalent amongst forklift drivers than among non-drivers and driving postures in which the trunk is considerably twisted or bent forward associated with greatest risk. Furthermore, forklift drivers showed to be exposed to acceptable levels of vibration in the x- and y-directions (i.e., below the EU Physical Agents Directive on Vibration Exposure recommended action level—0.5 m/s 2), but not in the z-direction. There were indications that whole-body vibration acts associatively with other factors (not independently) to precipitate LBP.

Hoy, J.; Mubarak, N.; Nelson, S.; Sweerts de Landas, M.; Magnusson, M.; Okunribido, O.; Pope, M.

2005-06-01

100

On the Health Risk of the Lumbar Spine due to Whole-Body VIBRATION—THEORETICAL Approach, Experimental Data and Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The guidance on the effects of vibration on health in standards for whole-body vibration (WBV) does not provide quantitative relationships between WBV and health risk. The paper aims at the elucidation of exposure-response relationships. An analysis of published data on the static and dynamic strength of vertebrae and bone, loaded with various frequencies under different conditions, provided the basis for a theoretical approach to evaluate repetitive loads on the lumbar spine (“internal loads”). The approach enabled the calculation of “equivalent”—with respect to cumulative fatigue failure—combinations of amplitudes and numbers of internal cyclic stress. In order to discover the relation between external peak accelerations at the seat and internal peak loads, biodynamic data of experiments (36 subjects, three somatotypes, two different postures—relaxed and bent forward; random WBV,aw, r.m.s. 1·4 ms-2, containing high transients) were used as input to a biomechanical model. Internal pressure changes were calculated using individual areas of vertebral endplates. The assessment of WBV was based on the quantitative relations between peak accelerations at the seat and pressures predicted for the disk L5/S1. For identical exposures clearly higher rates of pressure rise in the bent forward compared to the relaxed posture were predicted. The risk assessment for internal forces considered the combined internal static and dynamic loads, in relation to the predicted individual strength, and Miner's hypothesis. For exposure durations between 1 min and 8 h, energy equivalent vibration magnitudes (formula B.1, ISO 2631-1, 1997) and equivalent vibration magnitudes according to formula B.2 (time dependence over-energetic) were compared with equivalent combinations of upward peak accelerations and exposure durations according to predicted cumulative fatigue failures of lumbar vertebrae. Formula B.1 seems to underestimate the health risk caused by high magnitudes, formula B.2 is recommended for the evaluation of such conditions.

Seidel, H.; Blüthner, R.; Hinz, B.; Schust, M.

1998-08-01

101

Whole-body vibration therapy for osteoporosis: state of the science.  

PubMed

Clinical guidelines for osteoporosis recommend dietary and pharmacologic interventions and weight-bearing exercise to prevent bone fractures. These interventions sometimes have low adherence and can cause adverse effects. A proposed alternative or adjunctive treatment is whole-body vibration therapy (WBV), in which energy produced by a forced oscillation is transferred to an individual from a mechanical vibration platform. Whole-body vibration platforms are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for medical purposes. This review provides a broad overview of important issues related to WBV therapy for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Relying on key informants and a search of the gray and published literature from January 2000 to August 2011, the investigators found that the designs of WBV platforms and protocols for their use vary widely. The optimal target population for the therapy is not defined. Although WBV has some theoretical advantages, key informants have voiced several concerns, including uncertain safety and potential consumer confusion between low-intensity vibration platforms intended for osteoporosis therapy and high-intensity platforms intended for exercise. Finally, the scant literature did not establish whether WBV therapy leads to clinically important increases in bone mineral density or reduces risk for fracture. PMID:22084334

Wysocki, Andrea; Butler, Mary; Shamliyan, Tatyana; Kane, Robert L

2011-11-15

102

Measurement of whole-body vibration exposure from speed control humps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of speed control humps is to introduce shocks and high vibration levels when a car passes over them if its speed is higher than the allowable limit. Hump geometry is a major factor in altering the level of these shocks and specifying the speed limit. However, there is no study of the relationship between whole body vibration due to passing over a speed control hump and lower back pain or occupational diseases. In this study, an experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate health risks associated with different geometry speed control humps. Vibration levels and shocks are measured by a seat pad accelerometer placed under the driver's seat to evaluate hazard risks on the human body's lower back. The assessment is based on two standard methods of measuring whole body vibration: the British standard BS 6841 and the new ISO/DIS standard 2631-5. These methods are used to assess the effects of vehicle type, passenger location in the vehicle, vehicle speed, and speed control hump geometry. It was found that circular speed control humps currently installed on many public roads should be modified in order to eliminate hazards. Two newly designed speed humps were proved to be less hazardous than circular speed control humps.

Khorshid, E.; Alkalby, F.; Kamal, H.

2007-07-01

103

Whole-body vibration improves functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a relatively novel form of exercise used to improve neuromuscular performance in healthy individuals. Its usefulness as a therapy for patients with neurological disorders, in particular spinal cord injury (SCI), has received little attention in clinical settings and, surprisingly, even less in animal SCI models. We performed severe compression SCI at a low-thoracic level in Wistar rats followed by daily WBV starting 7 (10 rats) or 14 (10 rats) days after injury (WBV7 and WBV14, respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Rats with SCI but no WBV training (sham, 10 rats) and intact animals (10 rats) served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, WBV did not improve BBB score, plantar stepping, or ladder stepping during the 12-week period. Accordingly, WBV did not significantly alter plantar H-reflex, lesion volume, serotonergic input to the lumbar spinal cord, nor cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs to lumbar motoneurons at 12 weeks after SCI. However, compared to sham, WBV14, but not WBV7, significantly improved body weight support (rump-height index) during overground locomotion and overall recovery between 6-12 weeks and also restored the density of synaptic terminals in the lumbar spinal cord at 12 weeks. Most remarkably, WBV14 led to a significant improvement of bladder function at 6-12 weeks after injury. These findings provide the first evidence for functional benefits of WBV in an animal SCI model and warrant further preclinical investigations to determine mechanisms underpinning this noninvasive, inexpensive, and easily delivered potential rehabilitation therapy for SCI. PMID:23157611

Wirth, Felicitas; Schempf, Greta; Stein, Gregor; Wellmann, Katharina; Manthou, Marilena; Scholl, Carolin; Sidorenko, Malina; Semler, Oliver; Eisel, Leonie; Harrach, Rachida; Angelova, Srebrina; Jaminet, Patrick; Ankerne, Janina; Ashrafi, Mahak; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Schubert, Harald; Abdulla, Diana; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N; Irintchev, Andrey; Schönau, Eckhard

2013-03-15

104

Therapeutic impact of low amplitude high frequency whole body vibrations on the osteogenesis imperfecta mouse bone?  

PubMed Central

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by extremely brittle bone. Currently, bisphosphonate drugs allow a decrease of fracture by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone mass but with possible long term side effects. Whole body mechanical vibrations (WBV) treatment may offer a promising route to stimulate bone formation in OI patients as it has exhibited health benefits on both muscle and bone mass in human and animal models. The present study has investigated the effects of WBV (45 Hz, 0.3 g, 15 minutes/days, 5 days/week) in young OI (oim) and wild type female mice from 3 to 8 weeks of age. Vibration therapy resulted in a significant increase in the cortical bone area and cortical thickness in the femur and tibia diaphysis of both vibrated oim and wild type mice compared to sham controls. Trabecular bone was not affected by vibration in the wild type mice; vibrated oim mice, however, exhibited significantly higher trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia. Femoral stiffness and yield load in three point bending were greater in the vibrated wild type mice than in sham controls, most likely attributed to the increase in femur cortical cross sectional area observed in the ?CT morphology analyses. The vibrated oim mice showed a trend toward improved mechanical properties, but bending data had large standard deviations and there was no significant difference between vibrated and non-vibrated oim mice. No significant difference of the bone apposition was observed in the tibial metaphyseal trabecular bone for both the oim and wild type vibrated mice by histomorphometry analyses of calcein labels. At the mid diaphysis, the cortical bone apposition was not significantly influenced by the WBV treatment in both the endosteum and periosteum of the oim vibrated mice while a significant change is observed in the endosteum of the vibrated wild type mice. As only a weak impact in bone apposition between the vibrated and sham groups is observed in the histological sections, it is possible that WBV reduced bone resorption, resulting in a relative increase in cortical thickness. Whole body vibration appears as a potential effective and innocuous means for increasing bone formation and strength, which is particularly attractive for treating the growing skeleton of children suffering from brittle bone disease or low bone density pathologies without the long term disadvantages of current pharmacological therapies. PMID:23352925

Vanleene, Maximilien; Shefelbine, Sandra J.

2013-01-01

105

Therapeutic impact of low amplitude high frequency whole body vibrations on the osteogenesis imperfecta mouse bone.  

PubMed

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by extremely brittle bone. Currently, bisphosphonate drugs allow a decrease of fracture by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone mass but with possible long term side effects. Whole body mechanical vibrations (WBV) treatment may offer a promising route to stimulate bone formation in OI patients as it has exhibited health benefits on both muscle and bone mass in human and animal models. The present study has investigated the effects of WBV (45Hz, 0.3g, 15minutes/days, 5days/week) in young OI (oim) and wild type female mice from 3 to 8weeks of age. Vibration therapy resulted in a significant increase in the cortical bone area and cortical thickness in the femur and tibia diaphysis of both vibrated oim and wild type mice compared to sham controls. Trabecular bone was not affected by vibration in the wild type mice; vibrated oim mice, however, exhibited significantly higher trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia. Femoral stiffness and yield load in three point bending were greater in the vibrated wild type mice than in sham controls, most likely attributed to the increase in femur cortical cross sectional area observed in the ?CT morphology analyses. The vibrated oim mice showed a trend toward improved mechanical properties, but bending data had large standard deviations and there was no significant difference between vibrated and non-vibrated oim mice. No significant difference of the bone apposition was observed in the tibial metaphyseal trabecular bone for both the oim and wild type vibrated mice by histomorphometry analyses of calcein labels. At the mid diaphysis, the cortical bone apposition was not significantly influenced by the WBV treatment in both the endosteum and periosteum of the oim vibrated mice while a significant change is observed in the endosteum of the vibrated wild type mice. As only a weak impact in bone apposition between the vibrated and sham groups is observed in the histological sections, it is possible that WBV reduced bone resorption, resulting in a relative increase in cortical thickness. Whole body vibration appears as a potential effective and innocuous means for increasing bone formation and strength, which is particularly attractive for treating the growing skeleton of children suffering from brittle bone disease or low bone density pathologies without the long term disadvantages of current pharmacological therapies. PMID:23352925

Vanleene, Maximilien; Shefelbine, Sandra J

2013-04-01

106

Equal sensation curves for whole-body vibration expressed as a function of driving force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that the seated human is most sensitive to whole-body vertical vibration at about 5 Hz. Similarly, the body shows an apparent mass resonance at about 5 Hz. Considering these similarities between the biomechanical and subjective responses, it was hypothesized that, at low frequencies, subjective ratings of whole-body vibration might be directly proportional to the driving force. Twelve male subjects participated in a laboratory experiment where subjects sat on a rigid seat mounted on a shaker. The magnitude of a test stimulus was adjusted such that the subjective intensity could be matched to a reference stimulus, using a modified Bruceton test protocol. The sinusoidal reference stimulus was 8-Hz vibration with a magnitude of 0.5 m/s2 rms (or 0.25 m/s2 rms for the 1-Hz test); the sinusoidal test stimuli had frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 16, and 32 Hz. Equal sensation contours in terms of seat acceleration showed data similar to those in the literature. Equal sensation contours in terms of force showed a nominally linear response at 1, 2, and 4 Hz, but an increasing sensitivity at higher frequencies. This is in agreement with a model derived from published subjective and objective fitted data. .

Mansfield, Neil J.; Maeda, Setsuo

2005-06-01

107

Whole body vibration exposures in metropolitan bus drivers: A comparison of three seats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a repeated measures study design, three different seats were evaluated as 12 metropolitan bus drivers drove a standardized test route including city streets, old and new freeways, and a street segment containing 10 large speed humps. Three comparisons were made: (1) comparing seats made by different manufactures (Seats 1 and 2), (2) comparing seats with a standard foam (Seat 2) and silicone foam (Seat 3) seat pans, and (3) comparing WBV exposures based on individual factors such as seat pressure settings and body weight. Whole body vibration (WBV) exposures were measured using a tri-axial seat pan accelerometer and the attenuation capabilities of each seat were evaluated by comparing the vibrations measured at the floor and seat of the bus. There were significant WBV exposure differences between the various street types, which was shown across all seat types. The city street and older freeway segments had the highest WBV exposures with both segments producing WBV exposures slightly above the action limit for vibration dose value (VDV). Relative to Seat 2, Seat 1 performed better at attenuating impulsive and shock related WBV exposures; however, neither seat performed significantly better when average vibration ( A w) and VDV WBV exposures were compared. In addition, no performance differences were seen between the standard foam (Seat 2) and silicone foam (Seat 3) seat pans. Seat suspension stiffness (air pressure) was also examined, and the results indicated that the higher the seat air pressure the lower the A w, VDV, and static compressive dose ( S ed) vibration exposures. This study provided a unique opportunity to evaluate on-the-job whole body vibration exposures in a standardized, controlled setting.

Blood, R. P.; Ploger, J. D.; Yost, M. G.; Ching, R. P.; Johnson, P. W.

2010-01-01

108

Varying whole body vibration amplitude differentially affects tendon and ligament structural and material properties  

PubMed Central

Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular for helping to maintain bone mass and strengthening muscle. Vibration regimens optimized for bone maintenance often operate at hypogravity levels (<1 G) and regimens for muscle strengthening often employ hypergravity (>1 G) vibrations. The effect of vibratory loads on tendon and ligament properties is unclear though excessive vibrations may be injurious. Our objective was to evaluate how tendon gene expression and the mechanical/histological properties of tendon and ligament were affected in response to WBV in the following groups: no vibration, low vibration (0.3 G peak-to-peak), and high vibration (2 G peak-to-peak). Rats were vibrated for 20 min a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks. Upon sacrifice, the medial collateral ligament (MCL), patellar tendon (PT), and the Achilles Tendon (AT) were isolated with insertion sites intact. All tissues were tensile tested to determine structural and material properties or used for histology. Patellar tendon was also subjected to quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate expression of anabolic and catabolic genes. No differences in biomechanical data between the control and the low vibration groups were found. There was evidence of significant weakness in the MCL with high vibration, but no significant effect on the PT or AT. Histology of the MCL and PT showed a hypercellular tissue response and some fiber disorganization with high vibration. High vibration caused an increase in collagen expression and a trend for an increase in IGF-1 expression suggesting a potential anabolic response to prevent tendon overuse injury. PMID:23623311

Keller, Benjamin V.; Davis, Matthew L.; Thompson, William R.; Dahners, Laurence E.; Weinhold, Paul S.

2014-01-01

109

Benefits of whole-body vibration to people with COPD: a community-based efficacy trial  

PubMed Central

Background Benefits of community-based whole-body vibration (WBV) as a mode of exercise training for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been investigated. The low skill demand of WBV may enhance habitual sustainability to physical activity by people with COPD, provided efficacy of WBV can be established. The purpose of this trial was to compare a community-based WBV intervention with a sham WBV (SWBV) intervention and monitor exacerbations, exercise tolerance, and functional performance of the lower limbs of people with COPD. Methods Community-dwelling adults with a GOLD clinical diagnosis of COPD were recruited to the trial. This was a Phase II efficacy trial with crossover to sham intervention interspersed with two-week washout. Each six-week intervention consisted of two sessions per week of either WBV or SWBV. The interventions were completed in the home of each participant under supervision. The outcome measures were selected psychological (perceived dyspnoea) and physiological (heart rate and oxygen saturation) responses to exercise, simulated activities of daily living (timed-up-and got test and 5-chair stands test), and selected kinematic variables of gait across the 14-week trial. Results Sixteen adults with stable COPD were recruited to the trial. No exacerbations were reported during the WBV or SWBV interventions. After WBV, performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) and gait improved (p???0.05), while there was no change after SWBV (p?>?0.05). Despite five withdrawals during the washout period, a 100% compliance to each six-week intervention was noted. Conclusions Results showed that WBV did not exacerbate symptoms of COPD that can be associated with physical inactivity. The WBV intervention improved tests to simulate ADLs such as rising from a chair, turning, and walking gait with greater effect than a SWBV intervention. If a placebo effect was systemic to the WBV intervention, the effect was negligible. As a standalone community-based intervention, WBV was an efficacious mode of exercise training for people with stable COPD that did not negatively effect exercise tolerance or exacerbate the disease, while concurrently improving functional performance of the lower limbs. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000508875. PMID:24606997

2014-01-01

110

Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.  

PubMed

According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

2009-01-01

111

Power absorbed during whole-body vertical vibration: Effects of sitting posture, backrest, and footrest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have quantified the power absorbed in the seated human body during exposure to vibration but have not investigated the effects of body posture or the power absorbed at the back and the feet. This study investigated the effects of support for the feet and back and the magnitude of vibration on the power absorbed during whole-body vertical vibration. Twelve subjects were exposed to four magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 rms) of random vertical vibration (0.25-20 Hz) while sitting on a rigid seat in four postures (feet hanging, maximum thigh contact, average thigh contact, and minimum thigh contact) both with and without a rigid vertical backrest. Force and acceleration were measured at the seat, the feet, and the backrest to calculate the power absorbed at these three locations. At all three interfaces (seat, feet, and back) the absorbed power increased in proportion to the square of the magnitude of vibration, with most power absorbed from vibration at the seat. Supporting the back with the backrest decreased the power absorbed at the seat at low frequencies but increased the power absorbed at high frequencies. Supporting the feet with the footrest reduced the total absorbed power at the seat, with greater reductions with higher footrests. It is concluded that contact between the thighs and the seat increases the power absorbed at the seat whereas a backrest can either increase or decrease the power absorbed at the seat.

Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

2010-07-01

112

Whole-body vibration during manual wheelchair propulsion with selected seat cushions and back supports.  

PubMed

Although the exposure to whole-body vibrations (WBV) has been shown to be detrimental to seated humans, the effects of wheelchairs and seating systems on the transmission of vibration to an individual have not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to determine if the selected wheelchair seat cushions and back supports minimize the transmission of vibrations. Thirty-two wheelchair users traversed an activities of daily living course three times using 16 randomly selected seating systems as well as their own. Vibrations were measured using triaxial accelerometers at the seat and participant's head. The weighted fore-to-aft (Tx), vertical (Tz), and resultant (Tr) transmissibility based on the vibrational-dose-value (VDV) were used to determine if differences existed among the four seat cushions and back supports. The obstacles that seem to have the largest effect on the transmission of WBV are the single event shocks and the repeated event shocks. Comparisons between the individuals own seating system and the tested seating systems suggest that the individuals are not using the most appropriate seating system in terms of the reduction of vibration transmission. PMID:14518796

DiGiovine, Carmen P; Cooper, Rory A; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Boninger, Michael L; Wolf, Erik J; Guo, Songfeng

2003-09-01

113

Six-degree-of-freedom whole-body vibration exposure levels during routine skidder operations.  

PubMed

This research focuses on quantifying six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure levels that occur in Northern Ontario skidders during routine field operating tasks. 6-DOF vibration running root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration levels at the operator/seat interface were determined for eight skidders while driving loaded, driving unloaded, picking up a load, dropping off a load and ploughing logs under field operating conditions. The acceleration data were weighted in accordance with ISO 2631-1:1997 and evaluated for both health and comfort outcomes. The mean running RMS weighted translational and rotational accelerations all exceeded 0.36 m/s(2) and 0.14 rad/s(2). The greatest average accelerations occurred while driving unloaded with this condition displaying translational vibration total values (VTV) that exceeded the upper limit of the ISO 2631-1:1997 health caution zone within an average of 2.3 h. Utilizing 6-DOF VTV, virtually all operating conditions would be designated as uncomfortable. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study provides one of the most comprehensive reports on vibration exposures in seated vehicle operators. The results are geared towards ergonomists with discussions on health effects and measurement concerns, while providing the raw vibration exposure data that will be useful to vehicle, component and vibration sensor designers. PMID:20432089

Jack, R J; Oliver, M; Dickey, J P; Cation, S; Hayward, G; Lee-Shee, N

2010-05-01

114

[Spectrum analysis of stabilograms with special reference to changes following whole body vibration].  

PubMed

The location of the body's gravicenter in the horizontal plane was measured by means of a force platform. The 4 male subjects stood upright with eyes closed. Power-density spectra of the frontal and sagittal stabilograms were estimated. Repeated investigations made it possible to assess intraindividual variability and to evaluate significant interindividual differences. The power spectral density was not altered by a controlled sitting posture observed for 30 min. Low-frequency whole-body vibration with an exposure time of 30 min and a permissible level according to the "fatigue decreased proficiency boundary" (International Standard ISO 2631) induced a significant increase of the power spectral density below 0.25 Hz and a decrease above this frequency. The results indicate that the power density spectral analysis of stabilograms is a suitable method for evaluating a biological effect of vibration. PMID:614750

Seidel, H; Bräuer, D

1977-01-01

115

Random Whole Body Vibration over 5 Weeks Leads to Effects Similar to Placebo: A Controlled Study in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background. Random whole body vibration (WBV) training leads to beneficial short-term effects in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the effect of WBV lasting several weeks is not clear. Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess a random WBV training over 5 weeks in PD. Methods. Twenty-one participants with PD were allocated to either an experimental or a placebo group matched by age, gender, and Hoehn&Yahr stage. The WBV training consisted of 5 series, 60?s each. In the placebo group, vibration was simulated. The primary outcome was the change of performance in Functional reach test (FRT), step-walk-turn task, biomechanical Gait Analysis, Timed up and go test (TUG), and one leg stance. Findings. In most of the parameters, there was no significant interaction of “time?group.” Both groups improved significantly in Gait parameters, TUG, and one leg stance. Only in the FRT [F(1,15) = 8.397; P < 0.05] and in the TUG [F(1,15) = 4.971; P < 0.05] the experimental group performed significantly better than the placebo group. Conclusions. Random WBV training over 5 weeks seems to be less effective than reported in previous studies performing short-term training. The slight improvements in the FRT and TUG are not clinically relevant. PMID:25371843

Gaßner, Heiko; Janzen, Annette; Schwirtz, Ansgar; Jansen, Petra

2014-01-01

116

Modeling of Spinal Column of Seated Human Body under Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spinal column such as low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column. Thus the modeling of seated human body is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of whole-body vibration to the spinal column. This model has the spinal column and the support structures such as the muscles of the back and the abdomen. The spinal column is made by the vertebrae and the intervertebral disks that are considered the rigid body and the rotational spring and damper respectively. The parameter of this model is decided by the literature and the body type of the subject with respect to the mass and the model structure. And stiffness and damping parameters are searched by fitting the model simulation results to the experimental measured data with respect to the vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and the head and with respect to the driving-point apparent mass. In addition, the natural modes of the model compare with the result of experimental modal analysis. The influence of the abdomen and the muscles of the back are investigated by comparing three models with respect to above vibration characteristics. Three model are the proposed model, the model that has the spinal column and the model that has the muscles of the back in addition to the spinal column.

Tamaoki, Gen; Yoshimura, Takuya; Kuriyama, Kaoru; Nakai, Kazuma

117

Survey of Technical Preventative Measures to Reduce Whole-Body Vibration Effects when Designing Mobile Machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering solutions to minimize the effects on operators of vibrating mobile machinery can be conveniently grouped into three areas: Reduction of vibration at source by improvement of the quality of terrain, careful selection of vehicle or machine, correct loading, proper maintenance, etc.Reduction of vibration transmission by incorporating suspension systems (tyres, vehicle suspensions, suspension cab and seat) between the operator and the source of vibration.Improvement of cab ergonomics and seat profiles to optimize operator posture. These paper reviews the different techniques and problems linked to categories (2) and (3). According to epidemiological studies, the main health risk with whole-body vibration exposure would appear to be lower back pain. When designing new mobile machinery, all factors which may contribute to back injury should be considered in order to reduce risk. For example, optimized seat suspension is useless if the suspension seat cannot be correctly and easily adjusted to the driver's weight or if the driver is forced to drive in a bent position to avoid his head striking the ceiling due to the spatial requirement of the suspension seat.

DONATI, P.

2002-05-01

118

Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to whole body vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and to identify the common sources of exposure and the occupations and industries where such exposures arise.?METHODS—A postal questionnaire was posted to a random community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to WBV in the past week, including occupational and common non-occupational sources. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and national prevalence estimates were derived from census information. Estimates were also made of the average estimated daily personal dose of vibration (eVDV).?RESULTS—From the 12 907 responses it was estimated that 7.2 million men and 1.8 million women in Great Britain are exposed to WBV at work in a 1 week period if the occupational use of cars, vans, buses, trains, and motor cycles is included within the definition of exposure. The eVDV of >374 000 men and 9000 women was estimated to exceed a proposed British Standard action level of 15 ms-1.75. Occupations in which the estimated exposures most often exceeded 15 ms-1.75 included forklift truck and mechanical truck drivers, farm owners and managers, farm workers, and drivers of road goods vehicles. These occupations also contributed the largest estimated numbers of workers in Great Britain with such levels of exposure. The highest estimated median occupational eVDVs were found in forklift truck drivers, drivers of road goods vehicles, bus and coach drivers, and technical and wholesale sales representatives, among whom a greater contribution to total dose was received from occupational exposures than from non-occupational ones; but in many other occupations the reverse applied. The most common sources of occupational exposure to WBV are cars, vans, forklift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, and loaders.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to whole body vibration is common, but only a small proportion of exposures exceed the action level proposed in British standards, and in many occupations, non-occupational sources are more important than those at work. The commonest occupational sources of WBV and occupations with particularly high exposures have been identified, providing a basis for targeting future control activities.???Keywords: whole body vibration; population; prevalence; exposure PMID:10810108

Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

119

Whole-Body Vibration Exposure Study in U.S. Railroad Locomotives—An Ergonomic Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-body vibration exposure of locomotive engineers and the vibration attenuation of seats in 22 U.S. locomotives (built between 1959 and 2000) was studied during normal revenue service and following international measurement guidelines. Triaxial vibration measurements (duration mean 155 min, range 84–383 min) on the seat and on the floor were compared. In addition to the basic vibration evaluation (aw rms),

Eckardt Johanning; Siegfried Fischer; Eberhard Christ; Benno Göres; Paul Landsbergis

2002-01-01

120

The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

2013-01-01

121

Analysis of non-linear response of the human body to vertical whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The human response to vibration is typically studied using linear estimators of the frequency response function, although different literature works evidenced the presence of non-linear effects in whole-body vibration response. This paper analyses the apparent mass of standing subjects using the conditioned response techniques in order to understand the causes of the non-linear behaviour. The conditioned apparent masses were derived considering models of increasing complexity. The multiple coherence function was used as a figure of merit for the comparison between the linear and the non-linear models. The apparent mass of eight male subjects was studied in six configurations (combinations of three vibration magnitudes and two postures). The contribution of the non-linear terms was negligible and was endorsed to the change of modal parameters during the test. Since the effect of the inter-subject variability was larger than that due to the increase in vibration magnitude, the biodynamic response should be more meaningfully modelled using a linear estimator with uncertainty rather than looking for a non-linear modelling. PMID:25105223

Tarabini, Marco; Solbiati, Stefano; Moschioni, Giovanni; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

2014-01-01

122

Whole-body vibration transmissibility in supine humans: effects of board litter and neck collar.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration has been identified as a stressor to supine patients during medical transportation. The transmissibility between the input platform acceleration and the output acceleration of the head, sternum, pelvis, head-sternum, and pelvis-sternum of eight supine subjects were investigated. Vibration files were utilized in the fore-aft, lateral, and vertical directions. The power spectral density across the bandwidth of 0.5-20 Hz was approximately flat for each file. A comparison between a baseline rigid-support and a support with a long spinal board strapped to a litter has shown that the latter has considerable effects on the transmitted motion in all directions with a double magnification in the vertical direction around 5 Hz. The results also showed that the neck-collar has increased the relative head-sternum flexion-extension because of the input fore-aft vibration, but reduced the head-sternum extension-compression due to the input vertical vibration. PMID:24075288

Meusch, John; Rahmatalla, Salam

2014-05-01

123

Whole body vibration exposures in forklift operators: comparison of a mechanical and air suspension seat.  

PubMed

Using a repeated measures design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures when 12 forklift operators drove the same forklift with a mechanical suspension and an air suspension seat. A portable PDA-based WBV data acquisition system collected and analysed time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 WBV measurement standards. Tri-axial measurements of weighted vibration (A(w)), crest factor, vibration dose values, time-weighted average-peak, raw (+) peak, raw (-) peak and static compression dose (S(ed)) were compared between seats. There were significant differences in z-axis WBV exposures with the air suspension seat, yielding lower WBV exposures. In addition, there were differences between seats in how they attenuated WBV exposures based on the driver's weight. In the mechanical suspension seat, WBV exposures were weight-dependent, with lighter drivers having higher WBV exposures, whereas with the air suspension seat, the same trends were not as prevalent. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study contributes to the understanding of how different seat suspensions can influence WBV transmission and how some components of vibration transmission are dependent on the weight of the driver. Additional systematic studies are needed to quantify how various factors can influence WBV exposures. PMID:20967660

Blood, Ryan P; Ploger, James D; Johnson, Peter W

2010-11-01

124

Effects of whole body vibration on biogenic amines in rat brain.  

PubMed Central

The effects of whole body vibration on the concentrations of noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) in the whole brain and brain regions of rats were investigated. Compared with control rats, vibration with 20 Hz frequency decreased the brain concentration of NA only when the acceleration (intensity) was increased to 5.0 G (p less than 0.05). The concentration of DA in the whole brain was not affected by acceleration. When acceleration was kept at a constant 0.4 G level and rats were exposed for the same 240 minute period to 5, 20, or 30 Hz vibration, neither NA nor DA concentrations changed in the whole brain. Regional changes in the concentration of biogenic amines in the brain of rats exposed to vibration of 20 Hz and 5.0 G showed few significant differences. Thus NA significantly decreased only in the hypothalamus (p less than 0.01), although in the hippocampus the decrease was nearly significant (p less than 0.10). The concentration of 5-HT significantly increased in the hypothalamus and cerebellum (p less than 0.05). DA tended to increase in the cortex and decrease in the striatum (p less than 0.10). These experiments seem to indicate that NA in the whole brain and especially in the hypothalamus is a better indicator of vibration exposure than 5-HT, and that NA is affected by the intensity but not by the frequency of vibration. NA and 5-HT in the hypothalamus change in the opposite direction. DA concentrations in the brain are basically unaffected by vibration. PMID:3970872

Ariizumi, M; Okada, A

1985-01-01

125

Whole-body vibration and ergonomic study of US railroad locomotives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US locomotive operators have exposure to multi-axis whole-body vibration (WBV) and shocks while seated. This study assessed operator-related and ergonomic seating design factors that may have confounding or mitigating influence on WBV exposure and its effects. Vibration exposure was measured according to international guidelines (ISO 2631-1; 1997); ergonomic work place factors and vibration effects were studied with a cross-sectional survey instrument distributed to a randomly selected group of railroad engineers ( n=2546) and a control group; and during vehicle inspections. The survey response rate was 47% for the RR engineers ( n=1195) and 41% for the controls ( n=323). Results of the mean basic vibration measurements were for the x, y, z-direction and vector sum 0.14, 0.22, 0.28 and 0.49 m/s 2 respectively; almost all crest factors (CF), MTVV and VDV values were above the critical ratios given in ISO 2631-1. The prevalence of serious neck and lower back disorders among locomotive engineers was found to be nearly double that of the sedentary control group without such exposure. Railroad engineers rated their seats mostly unacceptable regarding different adjustment and comfort aspects (3.02-3.51; scale 1=excellent to 4=unacceptable), while the control group rated their chairs more favorably (1.96-3.44). Existing cab and seat design in locomotives can result in prolonged forced awkward spinal posture of the operator combined with WBV exposure. In a logistic regression analysis, time at work being bothered by vibration (h/day) was significantly associated with an increased risk of low back pain, shoulder and neck pain, and sciatic pain among railroad engineers. Customized vibration attenuation seats and improved cab design of the locomotive controls should be further investigated.

Johanning, Eckardt; Landsbergis, Paul; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Luhrman, Raymond

2006-12-01

126

Reducing whole-body vibration of vehicle drivers with a new sitting concept.  

PubMed

A new car seat design, which allows the back part of the seat (BPS) to lower down while a protruded cushion supports the lumbar spine, was quantitatively tested to determine its effectiveness in reducing whole-body vibration (WBV) in automobile drivers. Results on 12 drivers show that, by reducing contact between the seat and the ischial tuberosities (TTs), the new seating design reduced both contact pressure and amplitude of harmful vibrations transmitted through the body. Significant reduction of WBV, in terms of RMS and VDV, was found as large as 30% by this seating design (P < 0.05), especially at lumbar spine region. This reduction in WBV allows more sustained driving than permitted by conventional seating devices, by around 2 hours daily, before reaching harmful WBV levels. The new seating design also promotes improved posture by restoring normal spinal curvature. Such seating devices, implemented in cars, buses, large trucks, and other high-vibration vehicles, may effectively reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among long term drivers. PMID:17271468

Lin, F; Crowther, Z; Makhsous, M

2004-01-01

127

Whole body vibration exposure in heavy earth moving machinery operators of metalliferrous mines.  

PubMed

As mining operations get mechanized, the rate of profit generation increases and so do the rate of occupational hazards. This study deals with one such hazard - occupational vibration. The present study was carried out to determine the whole body vibration (WBV) exposure of the heavy earth moving machinery (HEMM) operators in two types of metalliferous mines in India, when they were engaged in the mining activity. Cross-comparison was done of the vibration dose value (VDV) for HEMM operators as well as each type of mine. The VDV for the shovel operator in bauxite mine was observed to be 13.53 +/- 5.63 m/s(7/4) with 25% of the readings higher than the prescribed limit whereas in iron ore mine VDV for dumper operator was 10.81 +/- 3.44 m/s(7/4) with 14.62% readings on the higher side. Cross-comparison of the VDV values for bauxite and iron ore mines revealed that it was 9.57 +/- 4.93 and 8.21 +/- 5.12 m/s(7/4) with 21.28 and 14.95% of the readings on the higher side respectively. The Student's t test level was found to be insignificant for both type of mines, indicating that the WBV exposure is not dependent on the type of mine but is dependent on the working condition and type of HEMM in operation. PMID:17874194

Vanerkar, A P; Kulkarni, N P; Zade, P D; Kamavisdar, A S

2008-08-01

128

Time domain detection of shocks and impacts in whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

A method for detecting shocks and impacts in whole-body vibration time histories has been developed that is suitable for implementation as a computer algorithm. The procedure consists of comparing the magnitudes of a higher-order mean value and the impulsiveness calculated for successive time segments of the acceleration-time history. The indicators were the ratio of the 12th-order root mean value to the root mean square RMT/RMS, and the impulsiveness corresponding to a cumulative probability value of 0.97, I(0.97) (i.e., the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions exceeded 3% of the time divided by 2RMS). Both indicators have a value of 2.16 for random vibration with a Gaussian amplitude distribution, and deviate from this value when the motion possesses other characteristics. For seat motion in the Z-direction analyzed using frequency weighting W(b), and time segments of ~20 s, shocks and impacts could be identified when RMT/RMS ? 2.5, and I(0.97) ? 2.6. A subjective visual classification of 160 exposures to vibration recorded in a range of military vehicles operating under different conditions was performed by a jury of two observers. The subjective classification agreed with computer identification of shocks and impacts in 94% of the cases. PMID:20953070

Brammer, Anthony J; Roddan, George; Morrison, James B

2010-01-01

129

Whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain: study protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Low back pain affects approximately 80% of people at some stage in their lives. Exercise therapy is the most widely used nonsurgical intervention for low back pain in practice guidelines. Whole body vibration exercise is becoming increasingly popular for relieving musculoskeletal pain and improving health-related quality of life. However, the efficacy of whole body vibration exercise for low back pain is not without dispute. This study aims to estimate the effect of whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 120 patients with chronic low back pain. Patients will be randomly assigned into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group will participate in whole body vibration exercise twice a week for 3 months. The control group will receive general exercise twice a week for 3 months. Primary outcome measures will be the visual analog scale for pain, the Oswestry Disability Index and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures will include muscle strength and endurance of spine, trunk proprioception, transversus abdominis activation capacity, and quality of life. We will conduct intention-to-treat analysis if any participants withdraw from the trial. Discussion Important features of this study include the randomization procedures, single-blind, large sample size, and a standardized protocol for whole body vibration in chronic low back pain. This study aims to determine whether whole body vibration exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise for chronic low back pain. Therefore, our results will be useful for patients with chronic low back pain as well as for medical staff and health-care decision makers. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003708. PMID:24693945

2014-01-01

130

Effect of Seating on Exposures to Whole-Body Vibration in Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibration isolation efficiency of seating has been evaluated in 100 work vehicles in 14 categories (cars, vans, lift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, dumpers, excavators, helicopters, armoured vehicles, mobile cranes, grass rollers, mowers and milk floats). Seat isolation efficiency, expressed by the SEAT value, was determined for all seats (67 conventional seats and 33 suspension seats) from the vertical acceleration measured on the floors and on the seats of the vehicles.For most categories of vehicle, the average SEAT value was less than 100%, indicating that the average seat provided some attenuation of vibration. However, there were large variations in SEAT values between vehicles within categories. Two alternative vibration frequency weightings (Wb from BS 6841, 1987; Wk from ISO 2631, 1997) yielded SEAT values that differed by less than 6%. Overall, the SEAT values determined by two alternative methods (the ratio of r.m.s. values and the ratio of vibration dose values) differed by less than 4·5% when using weighting Wb, although larger differences may be expected in some situations. The median SEAT value for the suspension seats was 84·6%; the median SEAT value for the conventional seats was 86·9% (based on weighting Wb and the ratio of r.m.s. values).Predicted SEAT values were obtained assuming that each seat could be interchanged between vehicles without altering its transmissibility. The calculations suggest that 94% of the vehicles investigated might benefit from changing the current seat to a seat from one of the other vehicles investigated. Although the predictions are based on assumptions that will not always apply, it is concluded that the severity of whole-body vibration exposures in many work environments can be lessened by improvements to seating dynamics.

PADDAN, G. S.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

2002-05-01

131

EFFECT OF MAGNITUDE OF VERTICAL WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ON ABSORBED POWER FOR THE SEATED HUMAN BODY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power absorbed by 12 male subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration at six magnitudes of random vibration (0·25, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5, 2·0 and 2·5 ms?2r.m.s.) has been measured in the laboratory. All subjects showed greatest absorbed power at about 5 Hz, but the frequency of this peak in the absorbed power reduced with increasing vibration magnitude. The total

N. J. Mansfield; M. J. Griffin

1998-01-01

132

Skeletal effects of whole-body vibration in adult and aged mice.  

PubMed

Low-amplitude, whole-body vibration (WBV) may be anabolic for bone. Animal studies of WBV have not evaluated skeletal effects in aged animals. We exposed 75 male BALB/c mice (7 month/young-adult; 22 month/aged) to 5 weeks of daily WBV (15 min/day, 5 day/wk; 90 Hz sine wave) at acceleration amplitudes of 0 (sham), 0.3, or 1.0 g. Whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) increased with time in 7 month (p < 0.001) but not 22 month (p = 0.34) mice, independent of WBV (p = 0.60). In 7 month mice, lower-leg BMC increased with time in 0.3 and 1.0 g groups (p < 0.005) but not in the sham group (p = 0.09), indicating a positive WBV effect. In 22 month mice, there were no changes with time in lower-leg BMC (p = 0.11). WBV did not affect tibial trabecular or cortical bone structure (by microCT), dynamic indices of trabecular or cortical bone formation, trabecular osteoclast surface, or the mass of the reproductive fat pad (p > 0.05). Each of these outcomes was diminished in 7 month versus 22 month animals (p < 0.05). In summary, 5 weeks of daily exposure to low-amplitude WBV had no skeletal effects in aged male mice. The potential of WBV to enhance bone mass in age-related osteoporosis is not supported in this preclinical study. PMID:19658155

Lynch, Michelle A; Brodt, Michael D; Silva, Matthew J

2010-02-01

133

All-terrain vehicle use in agriculture: exposure to whole body vibration and mechanical shock.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock were measured in 12 New Zealand farmers during their daily use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). As per the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guidelines for WBV exposure, frequencies between 0 and 100Hz were recorded via a seat-pad tri-axial accelerometer during 20min of ATV use. The farmers were also surveyed to estimate seasonal variation in daily ATV usage as well as 7-day and 12-month prevalence of spinal pain. Frequency-weighted vibration exposure and total riding time were calculated to determine the daily vibration dose value (VDV). The daily VDV of 16.6m/s(1.75) was in excess of the 9.1m/s(1.75) action limit set by ISO guidelines suggesting an increased risk of low back injury from such exposure. However, the mean shock factor R, representing cumulative adverse health effects, was 0.31 indicating that these farmers were not exposed to excessive doses of mechanical shock. Extrapolation of daily VDV data to estimated seasonal variations of farmers in ATV riding time demonstrated that all participants would exceed the ISO recommended maximum permissible limits during the spring lambing season, as compared to lower exposures calculated for summer, autumn and winter. Low back pain was the most commonly reported complaint for both 7 day (50%) and 12 month prevalence (67%), followed by the neck (17% and 42%) and the upper back (17% and 25%) respectively. The results demonstrate high levels of vibration exposure within New Zealand farmers and practical recommendations are needed to reduce their exposure to WBV. PMID:19944407

Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bergman, Frida; Rehn, Borje; Carman, Allan B

2010-07-01

134

Acute Bone Marker Responses to Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Exercise in Young Women  

PubMed Central

Whole-body vibration (WBV) augments the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise (RE). However, its acute effects on bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been determined. This study examined BTM responses to acute high intensity RE and high intensity RE with WBV (WBV+RE) in young women (n=10) taking oral contraceptives in a randomized, cross-over repeated measures design. WBV+RE exposed subjects to 5 one-minute bouts of vibration (20 Hz, 3.38 peak–peak displacement, separated by 1 minute of rest) prior to RE. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Pre), immediately post WBV (PostVib), immediately post RE (IP), and 30 minutes post RE (P30). Bone ALP did not change at any time point. TRAP5b significantly (p<0.05) increased from the Pre to PostVib, then decreased from IP to P30 for both conditions. CTX significantly decreased (p<0.05) from Pre to PostVib and from Pre to P30 only for WBV+RE. WBV+RE showed a greater decrease in CTX than RE (-12.6 ± 4.7% vs. -1.13 ± 3.5%). In conclusion, WBV was associated with acute decreases in CTX levels not elicited with resistance exercise alone in young women. PMID:22902255

Sherk, Vanessa D.; Chrisman, Carmen; Smith, Jessica; Young, Kaelin C.; Singh, Harshvardhan; Bemben, Michael G.; Bemben, Debra A.

2014-01-01

135

Mathematical models for the apparent masses of standing subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear lumped parameter models of the apparent masses of human subjects in standing positions when exposed to vertical whole-body vibration have been developed. Simple models with a single degree-of-freedom (d.o.f.) and with two (d.o.f.) were considered for practical use. Model parameters were optimised using both the mean apparent mass of 12 male subjects and the apparent masses of individual subjects measured in a previous study. The calculated responses of two (d.o.f.) models with a massless support structure showed best agreement with the measured apparent mass and phase, with errors less than 0.1 in the normalised apparent mass (i.e., corresponding to errors less than 10% of the static mass) and errors less than 5° in the phase for a normal standing posture. The model parameters obtained with the mean measured apparent masses of the 12 subjects were similar to the means of the 12 sets of parameters obtained when fitting to the individual apparent masses. It was found that the effects of vibration magnitude and postural changes on the measured apparent mass could be represented by changes to the stiffness and damping in the two (d.o.f.) models.

Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

2003-02-01

136

Whole Body Vibration at Different Exposure Frequencies: Infrared Thermography and Physiological Effects  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3 ± 2.6 years) participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44?Hz) with 1?mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P ? 0.05). Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35?Hz. At 40 and 44?Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10?min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature. PMID:25664338

Sonza, Anelise; Robinson, Caroline C.; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton A.

2015-01-01

137

Uncertainty in the evaluation of occupational exposure to whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties associated with field assessments of daily exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) have been investigated in four categories of work vehicles (fork lift trucks, wheel loaders, garbage trucks, buses) in different working conditions. A total of 50 vehicles were included in the study. WBV exposures were measured in different field conditions in marble quarries, marble laboratories, dockyards, paper mills, transportation and public utilities: over 700 individual vibration measurements were analysed to quantify relevant uncertainty components due to changes in the operators' working methods, variations in the characteristics and conditions of the machines, changes in the characteristics of the travelling surface, uncertainty in the evaluation of exposure duration, and systematic errors due to measurement equipment. The methods used in the study to calculate measurement uncertainties are in accordance with the ISO publication "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement". The study made it possible to isolate major sources of uncertainty in field assessment of daily exposures to WBV. The investigation revealed that, in all the field conditions, differences in the characteristics of the machines and/or in working cycles were the most relevant uncertainty components. The overall relative uncertainty p in WBV field assessment was in the range 14% < p<32%, whereas the relative uncertainty caused by transducer and measurement equipment in a correctly calibrated system is less than 4%.

Pinto, Iole; Stacchini, Nicola

2006-12-01

138

Preliminary results on the mobility after whole body vibration in immobilized children and adolescents.  

PubMed

The present article is a preliminary report on the effect of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) on the mobility in long-term immobilized children and adolescents. WBV was applied to 6 children and adolescents (diagnoses: osteogenesis imperfecta, N=4; cerebral palsy, N=1; dysraphic defect of the lumbar spine, N=1) over a time period of 6 months. WBV was applied by a vibrating platform constructed on a tilt-table. The treatment effect was measured by alternations of the tilt-angle of the table and with the "Brief assessment of motor function" (BAMF). All 6 individuals were characterized by an improved mobility, which was documented by an increased tilt-angle or an improved BAMF-score. The authors concluded WBV might be a promising approach to improve mobility in severely motor-impaired children and adolescents. Therefore, the Cologne Standing-and-Walking- Trainer powered by Galileo is a suitable therapeutic device to apply WBV in immobilized children and adolescents. PMID:17396011

Semler, O; Fricke, O; Vezyroglou, K; Stark, C; Schoenau, E

2007-01-01

139

Acute bone marker responses to whole-body vibration and resistance exercise in young women.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) augments the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise (RE). However, its acute effects on bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been determined. This study examined BTM responses to acute high-intensity RE and high-intensity RE with WBV (WBV+RE) in young women (n=10) taking oral contraceptives in a randomized, crossover repeated measures design. WBV+RE exposed subjects to 5 one-minute bouts of vibration (20 Hz, 3.38 peak-peak displacement, separated by 1 min of rest) before RE. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Pre), immediately after WBV (PostVib), immediately after RE (IP), and 30-min after RE (P30). Bone alkaline phosphatase did not change at any time point. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b significantly increased (p<0.05) from the Pre to PostVib, then decreased from IP to P30 for both conditions. C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) significantly decreased (p<0.05) from Pre to PostVib and from Pre to P30 only for WBV+RE. WBV+RE showed a greater decrease in CTX than RE (-12.6% ± 4.7% vs -1.13% ± 3.5%). In conclusion, WBV was associated with acute decreases in CTX levels not elicited with RE alone in young women. PMID:22902255

Sherk, Vanessa D; Chrisman, Carmen; Smith, Jessica; Young, Kaelin C; Singh, Harshvardhan; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

2013-01-01

140

Influence of Combined Whole-Body Vibration Plus G-Loading on Visual Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent engineering analyses of the integrated Ares-Orion stack show that vibration levels for Orion crews have the potential to be much higher than those experienced in Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle vehicles. Of particular concern to the Constellation Program (CxP) is the 12 Hz thrust oscillation (TO) that the Ares-I rocket develops during the final 20 seconds preceding first-stage separation, at maximum G-loading. While the structural-dynamic mitigations being considered can assure that vibration due to TO is reduced to below the CxP crew health limit, it remains to be determined how far below this limit vibration must be reduced to enable effective crew performance during launch. Moreover, this "performance" vibration limit will inform the operations concepts (and crew-system interface designs) for this critical phase of flight. While Gemini and Apollo studies provide preliminary guidance, the data supporting the historical limits were obtained using less advanced interface technologies and very different operations concepts. In this study, supported by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Human Research Program, we investigated display readability-a fundamental prerequisite for any interaction with electronic crew-vehicle interfaces-while observers were subjected to 12 Hz vibration superimposed on the 3.8 G loading expected for the TO period of ascent. Two age-matched groups of participants (16 general population and 13 Crew Office) performed a numerical display reading task while undergoing sustained 3.8 G loading and whole-body vibration at 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g in the eyeballs in/out (x-axis) direction. The time-constrained reading task used an Orion-like display with 10- and 14-pt non-proportional sans-serif fonts, and was designed to emulate the visual acquisition and processing essential for crew system monitoring. Compared to the no-vibration baseline, we found no significant effect of vibration at 0.15 and 0.3 g on task error rates (ER) or response times (RT). Significant degradations in both ER and RT, however, were observed at 0.5 and 0.7 g for 10-pt, and at 0.7 g for 14-pt font displays. These objective performance measures were mirrored by participants' subjective ratings. Interestingly, we found that the impact of vibration on ER increased with distance from the center of the display, but only for vertical displacements. Furthermore, no significant ER or RT aftereffects were detected immediately following vibration, regardless of amplitude. Lastly, given that our reading task required no specialized spaceflight expertise, our finding that effects were not statistically distinct between our two groups is not surprising. The results from this empirical study provide initial guidance for evaluating the display readability trade-space between text-font size and vibration amplitude. However, the outcome of this work should be considered preliminary in nature for a number of reasons: 1. The single 12 Hz x-axis vibration employed was based on earlier load-cycle models of the induced TO environment at the end of Ares-I first stage flight. Recent analyses of TO mitigation designs suggest that significant concurrent off-axis vibration may also occur. 2. The shirtsleeve environment in which we tested fails to capture the full kinematic and dynamic complexity of the physical interface between crewmember and the still-to-bematured helmet-suit-seat designs, and the impact these will have for vibration transmission and consequent performance. 3. By examining performance in this reading and number processing task, we are only assessing readability, a first and necessary step that in itself does not directly address the performance of more sophisticated operational tasks such as vehicle-health monitoring or manual control of the vehicle.

Adelstein, Bernard D.; Beutter, Brent Robert; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Stone, Leland S.; Anderson, Mark R.; Renema, Fritz; Paloski, William H.

2009-01-01

141

The Fate of Mrs Robinson: Criteria for Recognition of Whole-Body Vibration Injury as AN Occupational Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recently published critical reviews conclude that there is strong epidemiological evidence for a relationship between occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV), low back pain (LBP) and back disorders. Whether this exposure is only a modest or a substantial risk factor for the onset and recurrence of LBP is still a matter of debate. In spite of this controversy, four

C. T. J. Hulshof; G. van der Laan; I. T. J. Braam; J. H. A. M. Verbeek

2002-01-01

142

Low back pain in drivers: The relative role of whole-body vibration, posture and manual materials handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the relative role of whole-body vibration (WBV), posture and manual materials handling (MMH) as risk factors for low back pain (LBP). Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history, posture and MMH performed was obtained from 394 workers who drove vehicles as part of their job (according to seven predefined occupational groups) and

O. O. Okunribido; M. Magnusson; M. H. Pope

2006-01-01

143

Low back pain in drivers exposed to whole body vibration: analysis of a dose-response pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Analysis of a dose-response pattern between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and low back pain (LBP) in a group of drivers. Methods: This study assessed individual factors, work- related risk factors, various LBP outcome measures and LBP disability in a group of drivers (n = 571) approached at baseline (T0), as well as the WBV magnitude of a

I J H Tiemessen; C T J Hulshof; M H W Frings-Dresen

2008-01-01

144

THE FATE OF MRS ROBINSON: CRITERIA FOR RECOGNITION OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION INJURY AS AN OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recently published critical reviews conclude that there is strong epidemiological evidence for a relationship between occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV), low back pain (LBP) and back disorders. Whether this exposure is only a modest or a substantial risk factor for the onset and recurrence of LBP is still a matter of debate. In spite of this controversy, four

C. T. J. HULSHOF; G. VAN DER LAAN; I. T. J. BRAAM; J. H. A. M. VERBEEK

2002-01-01

145

Loads on a spinal implant measured in vivo during whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

After spinal surgery, patients often want to know whether driving a car or using public transportation can be dangerous for their spine. In order to answer this question, a clinically proven vertebral body replacement (VBR) has been modified. Six load sensors and a telemetry unit were integrated into the inductively powered implant. The modified implant allows the measurement of six load components. Telemeterized devices were implanted in five patients; four of them agreed to exposure themselves to whole-body vibration. During the measurements, the patients sat on a driver seat fixed to a hexapod. They were exposed to random single-axis vibrations in X, Y, and Z directions as well as in multi-axis XYZ directions with frequencies between 0.3 and 30 Hz. Three intensity levels (unweighted root mean square values of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s(2)) were applied. Three postures were studied: sitting freely, using a vertical backrest, and a backrest declined by an angle of 25 degrees . The patients held their hands on their thighs. As expected, the maximum force on the VBR increased with increasing intensity and the number of axes. For the highest intensity level and multi-axis vibration, the maximum forces increased by 89% compared to sitting relaxed. Leaning at the backrest as well as lower intensity levels markedly decreased the implant loads. Driving a car or using public transportation systems-when the patient leans towards the backrest-leads to lower implant loads than walking, and can therefore be allowed already shortly after surgery. PMID:20186440

Rohlmann, Antonius; Hinz, Barbara; Blüthner, Ralph; Graichen, Friedmar; Bergmann, Georg

2010-07-01

146

Assessment of the influence of whole body vibration on Cochlear function  

PubMed Central

Background Whole body vibration (WBV) is a potentially harmful consequence resulting from the dissipation of energy by industrial machineries. The result of WBV exposure on the auditory system remains unknown. The objective of the present research was to evaluate the influence of WBV on cochlear function, in particular outer hair cell function. It is hypothesized that WBV impairs cochlear function resulting in decreased Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAE) levels (Ldp) in rabbits subjected to WBV. Methods Twelve rabbits were equally divided into vibration and control groups. Animals in vibration group were exposed to 1.0?ms-2 r.m.s vertical WBV at 4–8?Hz for 8?h/day during 5 consecutive days. Outer hair cell function was assessed by comparing repeated-measurements of DPOAE levels (Ldp) across a range of f2 frequencies in rabbits both exposed and unexposed to WBV. DPOAE level shifts (LSdp) were compared across ears, frequencies, groups, and times. Results No differences were seen over time in DPOAE levels in the non-exposed rabbits (p?=?0.082). Post-exposure Ldp in rabbits exposed to WBV were significantly increased at all test frequencies in both ears compared to baseline measures (p?=?0.021). The greatest increase in Ldp following exposure was seen at 5888.5?Hz (mean shift?=?13.25?dB). Post-exposure Ldp in rabbits exposed to WBV were not significantly different between the right and left ears (p?=?0.083). Conclusion WBV impairs cochlear function resulting in increased DPOAE responses in rabbits exposed to WBV. DPOAE level shifts occurred over a wide range of frequencies following prolonged WBV in rabbits. PMID:22720724

2012-01-01

147

Loads on a spinal implant measured in vivo during whole-body vibration  

PubMed Central

After spinal surgery, patients often want to know whether driving a car or using public transportation can be dangerous for their spine. In order to answer this question, a clinically proven vertebral body replacement (VBR) has been modified. Six load sensors and a telemetry unit were integrated into the inductively powered implant. The modified implant allows the measurement of six load components. Telemeterized devices were implanted in five patients; four of them agreed to exposure themselves to whole-body vibration. During the measurements, the patients sat on a driver seat fixed to a hexapod. They were exposed to random single-axis vibrations in X, Y, and Z directions as well as in multi-axis XYZ directions with frequencies between 0.3 and 30 Hz. Three intensity levels (unweighted root mean square values of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s2) were applied. Three postures were studied: sitting freely, using a vertical backrest, and a backrest declined by an angle of 25°. The patients held their hands on their thighs. As expected, the maximum force on the VBR increased with increasing intensity and the number of axes. For the highest intensity level and multi-axis vibration, the maximum forces increased by 89% compared to sitting relaxed. Leaning at the backrest as well as lower intensity levels markedly decreased the implant loads. Driving a car or using public transportation systems—when the patient leans towards the backrest—leads to lower implant loads than walking, and can therefore be allowed already shortly after surgery. PMID:20186440

Hinz, Barbara; Blüthner, Ralph; Graichen, Friedmar; Bergmann, Georg

2010-01-01

148

Effect of whole-body vibration on bone properties in aging mice.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that whole-body vibration (WBV) can improve measures of bone health for certain clinical conditions and ages. In the elderly, there also is particular interest in assessing the ability of physical interventions such as WBV to improve coordination, strength, and movement speed, which help prevent falls and fractures and maintain ambulation for independent living. The current study evaluated the efficacy of WBV in an aging mouse model. Two levels of vibration--0.5 and 1.5g--were applied at 32Hz to CB57BL/6 male mice (n=9 each) beginning at age 18 months and continuing for 12 weeks, 30 min/day, in a novel pivoting vibration device. Previous reports indicate that bone parameters in these mice begin to decrease substantially at 18 months, equivalent to mid-fifties for humans. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and biomechanical assessments were made in the femur, radius, and lumbar vertebra to determine the effect of these WBV magnitudes and durations in the aging model. Sera also were collected for analysis of bone formation and breakdown markers. Mineralizing surface and cell counts were determined histologically. Bone volume in four regions of the femur did not change significantly, but there was a consistent shift toward higher mean density in the bone density spectrum (BDS), with the two vibration levels producing similar results. This new parameter represents an integral of the conventional density histogram. The amount of high density bone statistically improved in the head, neck, and diaphysis. Biomechanically, there was a trend toward greater stiffness in the 1.5 g group (p=0.139 vs. controls in the radius), and no change in strength. In the lumbar spine, no differences were seen due to vibration. Both vibration groups significantly reduced pyridinoline crosslinks, a collagen breakdown marker. They also significantly increased dynamic mineralization, MS/BS. Furthermore, osteoclasts were most numerous in the 1.5 g group (p? 0.05). These findings suggest that some benefits of WBV found in previous studies of young and mature rodent models may extend to an aging population. Density parameters indicated 0.5 g was more effective than 1.5 g. Serological markers, by contrast, favored 1.5 g, while biomechanically and histologically the results were mixed. Although the purported anabolic effect of WBV on bone homeostasis may depend on location and the parameter of interest, this emerging therapy at a minimum does not appear to compromise bone health by the measures studied here. PMID:20638490

Wenger, Karl H; Freeman, James D; Fulzele, Sadanand; Immel, David M; Powell, Brian D; Molitor, Patrick; Chao, Yuh J; Gao, Hong-Sheng; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Hamrick, Mark W; Isales, Carlos M; Yu, Jack C

2010-10-01

149

A MODAL ANALYSIS OF WHOLE-BODY VERTICAL VIBRATION, USING A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF THE HUMAN BODY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional model of human biomechanical responses to whole-body vibration has been developed, by using the finite element method. Beam, spring and mass elements were used to model the spine, viscera, head, pelvis and buttocks tissue in the mid-sagittal plane. The model was developed by comparison of the vibration mode shapes with those previously measured in the laboratory. At frequencies

S. Kitazaki; M. J. Griffin

1997-01-01

150

Two way assessment of other physical work demands while measuring the whole body vibration magnitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct observation, instead of using self-administered questionnaires might give more reliable and specific information about physical work demands at the workplace. This information is of use in a population already at risk of developing low back pain (LBP) due to whole body vibration (WBV) exposure. The aims of this study are to assess the WBV exposure in an exposed population and to assess other physical work demands in two ways, by direct observation and with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. We therefore assessed the WBV magnitude and 5 WBV-related physical work demands by using the PalmTrac system and a self-administered questionnaire in a group of drivers ( N=10). The main findings are 7 out of 10 drivers are exceeding the EU action value. About 50% of the drivers under-estimated the time 'bending', 60% the time 'walking+standing' and 60% over-estimated the time when 'lifting.' We concluded that 7 drivers from this group are at risk of developing LBP and substantial differences exists for the 5 physical work demands comparing the PalmTrac method with the questionnaire. Direct observational assessment in WBV measurements yields extra information. This is useful for preventive activities necessary as drivers are exceeding the EU action value.

Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

2008-03-01

151

Acute effects of whole-body vibration on running gait in marathon runners.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) on running gait. The running kinematic of sixteen male marathon runners was assessed on a treadmill at iso-efficiency speed after 10 min of WBV and SHAM (i.e. no WBV) conditions. A high-speed camera (210 Hz) was used for the video analysis and heart rate (HR) was also monitored. The following parameters were investigated: step length (SL), flight time (FT), step frequency (SF), contact time (CT), HR and the internal work (WINT). Full-within one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the randomised crossover design indicated that when compared to SHAM conditions, WBV decreased the SL and the FT by ~4% (P < 0.0001) and ~7.2% (P < 0.001), respectively, and increased the SF ~4% (P < 0.0001) while the CT was not changed. This effect occurred during the first minute of running: the SL decreased ~3.5% (P < 0.001) and SF increased ~3.3% (P < 0.001). During the second minute the SL decreased ~1.2% (P = 0.017) and the SF increased ~1.1% (P = 0.02). From the third minute onwards, there was a return to the pre-vibration condition. The WINT was increased by ~4% (P < 0.0001) during the WBV condition. Ten minutes of WBV produced a significant alteration of the running kinematics during the first minutes post exposure. These results provide insights on the effects of WBV on the central components controlling muscle function. PMID:24576194

Padulo, Johnny; Filingeri, Davide; Chamari, Karim; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Bosco, Gerardo; Annino, Giuseppe; Tihanyi, Jozsef; Pizzolato, Fabio

2014-01-01

152

Validity of self reported occupational exposures to hand transmitted and whole body vibration  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To assess the accuracy with which workers report their exposure to occupational sources of hand transmitted (HTV) and whole body vibration (WBV).?METHODS—179 Workers from various jobs involving exposure to HTV or WBV completed a self administered questionnaire about sources of occupational exposure to vibration in the past week. They were then observed at work over 1 hour, after which they completed a second questionnaire concerning their exposures during this observation period. The feasibility of reported sources of exposure during the past week was examined by questioning managers and by inspection of tools and machines in the workplace. The accuracy of reported sources and durations of exposure in the 1 hour period were assessed relative to what had been observed.?RESULTS—The feasibility of exposure in the previous week was confirmed for 97% of subjects who reported exposure to HTV, and for 93% of subjects who reported exposure to WBV. The individual sources of exposure reported were generally plausible, but occupational use of cars was substantially overreported, possibly because of confusion with their use in travel to and from work. The accuracy of exposures reported during the observation period was generally high, but some sources of HTV were confused—for example, nailing and stapling guns reported as riveting hammers, and hammer drills not distinguished from other sorts of drill. Workers overestimated their duration of exposure to HTV by a median factor of 2.5 (interquartile range (IQR) 1.6-5.9), but estimated durations of exposure were more accurate when the exposure was relatively continuous rather than for intermittent short periods. Reported durations of exposure to WBV were generally accurate (median ratio of reported to observed time 1.1, IQR 1.0-1.2).?CONCLUSIONS—Sources of recent occupational exposure to vibration seem to be reported with reasonable accuracy, but durations of exposure to HTV are systematically overestimated, particularly when the exposure is intermittent and for short periods. This raises the possibility that dose-response relations may have been biased in some of the studies on which exposure standards might be based, and that the levels in currently proposed standards may be too high. Future studies should pay attention to this source of error during data collection.???Keywords: vibration; exposure; assessment; validity PMID:10810109

Palmer, K.; Haward, B.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

153

Predictors of whole-body vibration exposure experienced by highway transport truck operators.  

PubMed

Whole-body-vibration (WBV) exposure levels experienced by transport truck operators were investigated to determine whether operator's exposure exceeded the 1997 International Standards Organization (ISO) 2631-1 WBV guidelines. A second purpose of the study was to determine which truck characteristics predicted the levels of WBV exposures experienced. The predictor variables selected based on previous literature and our transportation consultant group included road condition, truck type, driver experience, truck mileage and seat type. Tests were conducted on four major highways with 5 min random samples taken every 30 min of travel at speeds greater than or equal to 80 km/h (i.e. highway driving). Results indicated operators were not on average at increased risk of adverse health effects from daily exposures when compared to the ISO WBV guidelines. Significant regression models predicting the frequency-weighted RMS accelerations for the x (F((5,97)) = 8.63, p < 0.01), y (F((5,97)) = 7.74, p < 0.01), z (F((5,61)) = 9.83, p < 0.01) axes and the vector sum of the orthogonal axes (F((5,61)) = 13.89, p < 0.01) were observed. Road condition was a significant predictor (p < 0.01) of the frequency-weighted RMS accelerations for all three axes and the vector sum of the axes, as was truck type (p < 0.01) for the z-axis and vector sum. Future research should explore the effects of seasonal driving, larger vehicle age differences, greater variety of seating and suspension systems and team driving situations. PMID:15513718

Cann, Adam P; Salmoni, Alan W; Eger, Tammy R

2004-10-22

154

Whole-body vibration in underground load-haul-dump vehicles.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibrations (WBV) were measured at the seatpan of load-haul-dump (LHD) vehicles of 3.5-, 5-, 6- and 8-yard capacity at two underground mines. Twenty-two sets of measurements were made involving 11 vehicles, 8 operators and 4 work locations. In each set frequency-weighted rms and peak accelerations were measured in the x, y and z directions, as defined by the ISO (1982), during mucking, driving full, dumping and driving empty. Significant differences in rms accelerations were found between vehicle sizes and between operational tasks (less than or equal to 0.05). The smallest (3.5 yd) vehicle produced the greatest accelerations in the x and z directions. Accelerations in the x and z directions were also greater when driving full and empty than when mucking and dumping. The highest frequency-weighted rms accelerations of 2.0 to 2.8 m/s-2 were recorded in the z (longitudinal) direction. Peak accelerations ranged from 1.2 to greater than or equal to 20 m/s2, resulting in crest-factor ratios in excess of six. The exposure periods for each task were used to calculate mean daily acceleration exposures (m/s2). Of the 22 sets of measurements, 20 exceeded the International Standards Organization (ISO) six-hour daily exposure limit in the z direction of acceleration, and 9 exceeded the six-hour daily exposure limits in all three directions. Acceleration exposure ratios calculated using resultant acceleration vectors as described in ISO (1982), were found to exceed the ISO exposure limit for health or safety in all 22 cases. One-third octave band frequency analysis of the weighted signals indicated that the dominant frequencies were usually 1.6 to 3.15 Hz, except when the vehicles were idling and higher frequencies predominated. PMID:2598904

Village, J; Morrison, J B; Leong, D K

1989-10-01

155

Effect of stochastic resonance whole body vibration on functional performance in the frail elderly: A pilot study.  

PubMed

The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and the effect size of a four-week stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) intervention on functional performance and strength in frail elderly individuals. Twenty-seven participants have been recruited and randomly distributed in an intervention group (IG) and a sham group (SG). Primary outcomes were feasibility objectives like recruitment, compliance and safety. Secondary outcomes were short physical performance battery (SPPB), isometric maximum voluntary contraction (IMVC) and isometric rate of force development (IRFD). The intervention was feasible and safe. Furthermore it showed significant effects (p=0.035) and medium effect size (0.43) within the IG in SPPB. SR-WBV training over four weeks with frail elderly individuals is a safe intervention method. The compliance was good and SR-WBV intervention seems to improve functional performance. Further research over a longer time frame for the strength measurements (IMVC and IRFD) is needed to detect potential intervention effects in the force measurements as well. Clinical Trial register: NTC01704976. PMID:25042993

Kessler, Jessica; Radlinger, Lorenz; Baur, Heiner; Rogan, Slavko

2014-01-01

156

Effects of experimental exposure to high-frequency whole-body vertical vibration on the nervous system of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

changes in the nervous system of dogs, rabbits, and cats exposed to the acute and chronic action of whole-body vertical vibration (50 Hz, 0.8 ram, 105 dB, 4 h) were studied. In the acute experiments extensive and universal circulatory disorders developed: regional angiospasms, cerebral edema, acute swelling of ganglionic cells, vasopareses, confluent diapedetic hemorrhages into the brain and viscera. These

A. S. Mel'kumova; V. V. Russkikh

1973-01-01

157

Reporting whole-body vibration intervention studies: recommendations of the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is receiving increasing interest as a therapeutic modality to improve neuromuscular performance or to increase bone mass or density. In order to help improve the quality of reports about WBV treatment studies, the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions (ISMNI) invited experts in the field to provide suggestions on how the intervention should be described in such reports. The recommendations are presented here. PMID:20811143

Rauch, F; Sievanen, H; Boonen, S; Cardinale, M; Degens, H; Felsenberg, D; Roth, J; Schoenau, E; Verschueren, S; Rittweger, J

2010-09-01

158

Whole-body vibration and low back pain: a systematic, critical review of the epidemiological literature 1992–1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: A previous extensive review of the literature including that from the middle of 1992 concluded that whole-body vibrations\\u000a may contribute to low back pain, but that the exposure-response relationship had not been clarified. We reviewed the literature\\u000a of the past 7?years to find out: (i) whether there is evidence in the recent epidemiological literature for a causal association\\u000a between

S. Lings; C. Leboeuf-Yde

2000-01-01

159

A DECADE OF IMPROVEMENT IN WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION AND LOW BACK PAIN FOR FREIGHT CONTAINER TRACTOR DRIVERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor

K. Nishiyama; K. Taoda; T. Kitahara

1998-01-01

160

Distinct frequency dependent effects of whole-body vibration on non-fractured bone and fracture healing in mice.  

PubMed

Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) provokes anabolic effects in non-fractured bone; however, in fracture healing, inconsistent results were reported and optimum vibration conditions remain unidentified. Here, we investigated frequency dependent effects of LMHFV on fracture healing. Twelve-week-old, female C57BL/6 mice received a femur osteotomy stabilized using an external fixator. The mice received whole-body vibrations (20?min/day) with 0.3g peak-to-peak acceleration and a frequency of either 35 or 45?Hz. After 10 and 21 days, the osteotomized femurs and intact bones (contra-lateral femurs, lumbar spine) were evaluated using bending-testing, µ-computed tomography, and histomorphometry. In non-fractured trabecular bone, vibration with 35?Hz significantly increased the relative amount of bone (+28%) and the trabecular number (+29%), whereas cortical bone was not influenced. LMHFV with 45?Hz failed to provoke anabolic effects in trabecular or cortical bone. Fracture healing was not significantly influenced by whole-body vibration with 35?Hz, whereas 45?Hz significantly reduced bone formation (-64%) and flexural rigidity (-34%) of the callus. Although the exact mechanisms remain open, our results suggest that small vibration setting changes could considerably influence LMHFV effects on bone formation in remodeling and repair, and even disrupt fracture healing, implicating caution when treating patients with impaired fracture healing. PMID:24729351

Wehrle, Esther; Wehner, Tim; Heilmann, Aline; Bindl, Ronny; Claes, Lutz; Jakob, Franz; Amling, Michael; Ignatius, Anita

2014-08-01

161

Effect of Magnitude of Vertical Whole-Body Vibration on Absorbed Power for the Seated Human Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The power absorbed by 12 male subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration at six magnitudes of random vibration (0·25, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5, 2·0 and 2·5 ms-2r.m.s.) has been measured in the laboratory. All subjects showed greatest absorbed power at about 5 Hz, but the frequency of this peak in the absorbed power reduced with increasing vibration magnitude. The total absorbed power increased approximately in proportion to the square of the acceleration magnitude: normalizing the absorbed power to the square of the r.m.s. vibration magnitude removed most of the differences, although the changes in resonance frequency were still evident. The frequency dependence of absorbed power at a constant magnitude of acceleration was approximated by a simple weighting having slopes of ±6 dB/octave either side of 5 Hz. Comparing the characteristics of this absorbed power weighting to standard frequency weightings showed substantial differences, especially at high frequencies. It is concluded that the differences from currently accepted frequency weightings are so great that the absorbed power is unlikely to yield good general predictions of the discomfort or risks of injury from whole-body vertical vibration.

Mansfield, N. J.; Griffin, M. J.

1998-08-01

162

Low-magnitude high-frequency loading via whole body vibration enhances bone-implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Osseointegration is vital to avoid long-time implants loosening after implantation surgery. This study investigated the effect of low-magnitude high-frequency (LMHF) loading via whole body vibration on bone-implant osseointegration in osteoporotic rats, and a comparison was made between LMHF vibration and alendronate on their effects. Thirty rats were ovariectomized to induce osteoporosis, and then treated with LMHF vibration (VIB) or alendronate (ALN) or a control treatment (OVX). Another 10 rats underwent sham operation to establish Sham control group. Prior to treatment, hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium implants were inserted into proximal tibiae bilaterally. Both LMHF vibration and alendronate treatment lasted for 8 weeks. Histomorphometrical assess showed that both group VIB, ALN and Sham significantly increased bone-to-implant contact and peri-implant bone fraction (p?whole body vibration enhances bone-to-implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats, but its effectiveness is weaker than alendronate. PMID:22058045

Chen, BaiLing; Li, YiQiang; Xie, DengHui; Yang, XiaoXi

2012-05-01

163

Lower body versus whole body resistive exercise training and energy requirements of older men and women.  

PubMed

A person's energy requirement is defined as the metabolizable energy intake (MEI) consumed over a period of body weight stability. Controversy exists regarding whether resistive exercise training (RT) influences the energy requirement of older people. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of RT on the energy requirement of older people. The subjects were 11 men (M) and 17 women (W); age range, 55 to 78 years. During a 14-week precisely controlled diet study, each subject consumed foods and beverages portioned to provide sufficient MEI to match their energy requirement and to keep body weight stable at +/- 0.5 kg of their starting weight. MEI was determined from bomb calorimeter analyses of the gross energy (GE) content of food, urine, and feces samples collected during 4-day intake-balance periods at study weeks 2, 8, and 14 (baseline, week RT6, and week RT12, respectively). MEI = GE(food)-GE(urine) - GE(feces). Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured using an indirect calorimeter. From study weeks 3 to 14, 10 subjects (4 M, 6 W) remained sedentary (SED), 9 subjects (4 M, 5 W) performed lower body RT (LBRT) 3 times/week, and 9 subjects (3 M, 6 W) performed whole body RT (WBRT) 3 times/week. Body weight was not different among the SED, LBRT, and WBRT groups at baseline and were not changed over time or influenced by RT. At baseline, MEI was not different among the 3 groups. From weeks RT1 to RT12, MEI had to be increased by 17% +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM), 14% +/- 7%, and 12% +/- 7% in the SED, LBRT, and WBRT groups, respectively, to maintain stable body weights. At week RT12, the MEI required to maintain stable body weight was not significantly different among the SED, LBRT, and WBRT groups (9.45 +/- 0.95, 9.40 +/- 0.83, and 8.64 +/-0.53 MJ/d, respectively). At week RT12, the MEI and MEI/REE ratio were higher in men versus women, independent of group assignment. These data suggest that RT, whether performed using the lower body only or the whole body, does not increase the energy requirement of older people. Also, these data show that the energy requirement of older men is greater than that of older women. PMID:12145771

Campbell, Wayne W; Kruskall, Laura J; Evans, William J

2002-08-01

164

Evaluation of an occupational health intervention programme on whole?body vibration in forklift truck drivers: a controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate process and outcome of a multifaceted occupational health intervention programme on whole?body vibration (WBV) in forklift truck drivers. Methods An experimental pretest/post?test control group study design. The authors trained occupational health services (OHS) in the experimental group in the use of the programme. OHS in the control group were asked to deliver care as usual. In total, 15 OHS, 32 OHS professionals, 26 companies, and 260 forklift drivers were involved. Post?test measurements were carried out one year after the start of the programme. Results Baseline data before the start of the programme showed no difference between experimental and control group. Results of the outcome evaluation indicate a slight, although not statistically significant, reduction of WBV exposure in the experimental group (p?=?0.06). Process evaluation revealed a positive influence on company policy toward WBV, attitude and intended behaviour of forklift drivers, and a trend towards an increase in knowledge of OHS professionals and company managers. The number of observed control measures with a major impact (levelling of surface and reduction of speed) was rather low. In those cases where control measures had been taken, there was a significant reduction in WBV exposure. This limited effect of the programme might be caused by the short period of follow up and the dropout of participants. The feasibility and the usefulness of the programme within the OHS setting were rated good by the participants. Conclusions This programme to decrease WBV exposure was partially effective. Significant effects on intermediate objectives were observed. More research on the effectiveness of intervention in the field of WBV is needed. PMID:16551762

Hulshof, C T J; Verbeek, J H A M; Braam, I T J; Bovenzi, M; van Dijk, F J H

2006-01-01

165

a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

1998-08-01

166

Effect of phase on discomfort caused by vertical whole-body vibration and shock-Experimental investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study has investigated the effect of ``phase'' on the subjective responses of human subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration and shock. The stimuli were formed from two frequency components: 3 and 9 Hz for continuous vibrations and 3 and 12 Hz for shocks. The two frequency components, each having 1.0 ms-2 peak acceleration, were combined to form various waveforms. The effects of the vibration magnitude on the discomfort caused by the input stimuli were also investigated with both the continuous vibrations and the shocks. Various objective measurements of acceleration and force at the seat surface, the effects of different frequency weightings and second and fourth power evaluations were compared with judgments of the discomfort of the stimuli. It was found that a 6% to 12% increase in magnitude produced a statistically significant increase in discomfort with both the continuous vibrations and the shocks. Judgments of discomfort caused by changes in vibration magnitude were highly correlated with all of the objective measurements used in the study. The effects on discomfort of the phase between components in the continuous vibrations were not statistically significant, as predicted using evaluation methods with a power of 2. However, small changes in discomfort were correlated with the vibration dose value (VDV) of the Wb frequency-weighted acceleration. The effect of phase between frequency components within the shocks was statistically significant, although no objective measurement method used in the study was correlated with the subjective judgments.

Matsumoto, Yasunao; Griffin, Michael J.

2002-03-01

167

Effect of phase on discomfort caused by vertical whole-body vibration and shock--experimental investigation.  

PubMed

An experimental study has investigated the effect of "phase" on the subjective responses of human subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration and shock. The stimuli were formed from two frequency components: 3 and 9 Hz for continuous vibrations and 3 and 12 Hz for shocks. The two frequency components, each having 1.0 ms(-2) peak acceleration, were combined to form various waveforms. The effects of the vibration magnitude on the discomfort caused by the input stimuli were also investigated with both the continuous vibrations and the shocks. Various objective measurements of acceleration and force at the seat surface, the effects of different frequency weightings and second and fourth power evaluations were compared with judgments of the discomfort of the stimuli. It was found that a 6% to 12% increase in magnitude produced a statistically significant increase in discomfort with both the continuous vibrations and the shocks. Judgments of discomfort caused by changes in vibration magnitude were highly correlated with all of the objective measurements used in the study. The effects on discomfort of the phase between components in the continuous vibrations were not statistically significant, as predicted using evaluation methods with a power of 2. However, small changes in discomfort were correlated with the vibration dose value (VDV) of the Wb frequency-weighted acceleration. The effect of phase between frequency components within the shocks was statistically significant, although no objective measurement method used in the study was correlated with the subjective judgments. PMID:11931305

Matsumoto, Yasunao; Griffin, Michael J

2002-03-01

168

Whole-body vibration improves functional capacity and quality of life in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Exercise intolerance is a common development in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is little data on the use of an isolated program using vibration platform training on functional capacity in these patients, which is an area that deserves investigation. Aim To investigate the effect of training on a vibrating platform (whole-body vibration [WBV]) on functional performance and quality of life of subjects with COPD. Methods A randomized controlled crossover pilot study with eleven subjects with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]% predicted =14.63±11.14; forced vital capacity [FVC]% predicted =48.84±15.21; FEV1/FVC =47.39±11.63) underwent a 12-week WBV training program. Participants were randomized into the intervention group (IG) undergoing three sessions per week for a total of 12 weeks and control group (CG) without intervention. We evaluated the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), distance walked (DW), duration of the walk (TW), and index of perceived exertion (IPE), quality of life using St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and developed a 12-week program of training on a vibrating platform. Results The mean age was 62.91±8.82 years old (72.7% male). The DW increased at the end of training with a difference between groups of 75 m; all domains of the SGRQ improved at the end of training. The effect size Cohen’s d ranged from small to large for all the measured results. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that WBV may potentially be a safe and feasible way to improve functional capacity in the 6MWT of patients with COPD undergoing a training program on the vibrating platform as well as in all domains of the SGRQ quality of life. However, further studies with a larger number of patients are needed to establish the long-term effect on functional capacity and quality of life in these patients. PMID:25624756

Braz Júnior, Donato S; Dornelas de Andrade, Arméle; Teixeira, Andrei S; Cavalcanti, Cléssyo A; Morais, André B; Marinho, Patrícia EM

2015-01-01

169

Necessary research for standardization of subjective scaling of whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

Researches into the relationship between the physical quantity of vibration and the subjectively perceived quantity become important in designs for the vibration environment. Subjective experimental methods to obtain the relationship between the physical quantity of vibration and the subjectively perceived quantity are different depending on the design objectives which consider the human sense of vibration characteristic. In this review, the following are outlined: (i) fundamental methods for obtaining the design objectives for vibration environments; (ii) reported findings on the physical quantity of vibration environments and the human characteristics of sense vibration; and (iii) problems with and limits of the ISO 2631-1 standard, which defines the subjective response of the ride comfort in public transportation. Finally, the directions of research into the subjective experimental methods for obtaining design objectives in the vibration environment considering of the human characteristics of sense vibration are described. PMID:16100916

Maeda, Setsuo

2005-07-01

170

The role of whole body vibration, posture and manual materials handling as risk factors for low back pain in occupational drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It seems evident that occupational drivers have an increased risk of developing back pain. Not only are they exposed to whole body vibration (vibration), their work often includes exposure to several other risk factors for low back pain (LBP), particularly the seated posture (posture) and manual materials handling (MMH). Excessive demands on posture are likely to be aggravated by vibration

O. O. Okunribido; M. Magnusson; M. H. Pope

2008-01-01

171

Evaluation of Frequency Weighting (iso 2631-1) for Acute Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Gastric Motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and the ISO 2631/1-1997 frequency weighting on gastric motility. The gastric motility was measured by electrogastrography (EGG) in nine healthy volunteers. Sinusoidal vertical vibration at a frequency of 4, 6·3, 8, 12, 16, 31·5, or 63 Hz was given to the subjects for 10 min. The magnitude of exposure at 4 Hz was 1·0m/s2 (r.m.s.). The magnitudes of the other frequencies gave the same frequency-weighted acceleration according to ISO 2631/1-1997. The pattern of the dominant frequency histogram (DFH) was changed to a broad distribution pattern by vibration exposure. Vibration exposure had the effect of significantly reducing the percentage of time for which the dominant component had a normal rhythm and increasing the percentage of time for which there was tachygastria (p<0·05). Vibration exposure generally reduced the mean percentage of time with the dominant frequency in normal rhythm component. There was a significant difference between the condition of no vibration and exposure to 4 and 6·3 Hz of vibration frequency (p<0·05). The frequency weighting curve given in ISO 2631/1-1997 was not adequate for use in evaluating the physiological effects of WBV exposure on gastric motility.

ISHITAKE, T.; MIYAZAKI, Y.; NOGUCHI, R.; ANDO, H.; MATOBA, T.

2002-05-01

172

SURVEY OF TECHNICAL PREVENTATIVE MEASURES TO REDUCE WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION EFFECTS WHEN DESIGNING MOBILE MACHINERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering solutions to minimize the effects on operators of vibrating mobile machinery can be conveniently grouped into three areas: •Reduction of vibration at source by improvement of the quality of terrain, careful selection of vehicle or machine, correct loading, proper maintenance, etc.•Reduction of vibration transmission by incorporating suspension systems (tyres, vehicle suspensions, suspension cab and seat) between the operator and

P. Donati

2002-01-01

173

Evaluation of whole-body vibration exposure using a fourth power method and comparison with ISO 2631  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical whole-body vibrations recorded at the driver-seat interface on skidders were analyzed by using a "fourth power" procedure for predicting the discomfort and the degradation in health caused by the motions. The root-mean-square acceleration and the crest factor of the vibrations were also evaluated for eight skidder vehicles by fixing the integration period at 1 minute. For motions with large crest factor values, a relationship was found for predicting the "fourth power" vibration parameters, such as the root-mean-quad acceleration and the Vibration Dose Value from the root-mean-square acceleration and the crest factor. That relationship was found to be in good general agreemnt with the experimental results, indicating that, for the same rms level, greater discomfort would be felt with increasing peak levels. With respect to the "fourth power" procedure, it was established that for vibration exposure on skidders, the ISO 2631 evaluation procedure would underestimate the vibration dose by up to three times for comfort and as much as seven times for health, depending on the creast factor value.

Boileau, P.-E.; Turcot, D.; Scory, H.

1989-02-01

174

Inter-cycle variation in whole-body vibration exposures of operators driving track-type loader machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-body vibration (WBV) measurements are an important aspect of performing risk assessments for those exposed to vibration. A large array of variables affect the outcome of a vibration measurement and its extrapolation to a daily dose measure: e.g. variability in driving style, road surface roughness, loading. The variability in vibration emission is an inherent property for most vibrating environments and there is a risk that a vibration measurement might not be representative of the long-term exposures. It is important to acknowledge the variation inherent to WBV exposure to help understand how this variation will affect health risk assessments. A field investigation was conducted in order to characterise the variation of WBV magnitudes between work cycles of track-type loaders. Six different track-type loaders were measured at four different work sites. The vibrations were measured at the operators seat in three translational axes ( x-, y-, and z-axis) in accordance with ISO 2631-1 (1997). The findings indicate the worst axis of vibration for the track-type loaders was predominantly the fore-and-aft ( x-axis), for most operations. The most severe emission values were measured for machine C at site 2 (1.12 ms -2 rms) and machine D at site 2 (1.03 ms -2 rms). These machines would exceed the action value of the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive within 2 h of exposure. All of the machines measured would exceed the exposure action value of the Directive within an 8 h working period. The lateral ( y-axis) produced the greatest amount of variability between work cycles (coefficient of variation up to 20%). It is concluded that the inherent variability between work cycles and tasks reinforces the requirement to perform a full task analysis prior to measuring WBV exposures to ensure that all tasks are measured and that adequate cycles are measured to obtain a reliable indication of the vibration emission.

Newell, Geraldine S.; Mansfield, Neil J.; Notini, Luca

2006-12-01

175

Low-magnitude high-frequency loading, by whole-body vibration, accelerates early implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis deteriorates jaw bone quality and may compromise early implant osseointegration and early implant loading. The influence of low?magnitude, high?frequency (LMHF) vibration on peri?implant bone healing and implant integration in osteoporotic bones remains poorly understood. LMHF loading via whole?body vibration (WBV) for 8 weeks has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance bone?to?implant contact, peri?implant bone fraction and implant mechanical properties in osteoporotic rats. In the present study, LMHF loading by WBV was performed in osteoporotic rats, with a loading duration of 4 weeks during the early stages of bone healing. The results indicated that 4?week LMHF loading by WBV partly reversed the negative effects of osteoporosis and accelerated early peri?implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25270245

Liang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Meng-Chun; Xu, Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Hua-Wei; Dong, Wei; Li, Jin-Yuan; Hu, Min

2014-12-01

176

Low-magnitude high-frequency loading, by whole-body vibration, accelerates early implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis deteriorates jaw bone quality and may compromise early implant osseointegration and early implant loading. The influence of low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibration on peri-implant bone healing and implant integration in osteoporotic bones remains poorly understood. LMHF loading via whole-body vibration (WBV) for 8 weeks has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance bone-to-implant contact, peri-implant bone fraction and implant mechanical properties in osteoporotic rats. In the present study, LMHF loading by WBV was performed in osteoporotic rats, with a loading duration of 4 weeks during the early stages of bone healing. The results indicated that 4-week LMHF loading by WBV partly reversed the negative effects of osteoporosis and accelerated early peri-implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25270245

LIANG, YONG-QIANG; QI, MENG-CHUN; XU, JIANG; XU, JUAN; LIU, HUA-WEI; DONG, WEI; LI, JIN-YUAN; HU, MIN

2014-01-01

177

Multi-body Dynamics Modelling of Seated Human Body under Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spine such as chronic lumbago or low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column and to make up appropriate guidelines or counter plans. In ISO2631-11) or ISO2631-52) assessment of vibration effects

Takuya YOSHIMURA; Kazuma NAKAI; Gen TAMAOKI

2005-01-01

178

Postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhances endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

A recent study demonstrated that heat stress induces mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes, thereby implying that heat stress may be an effective treatment to enhance endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle. However, whether heat stress actually induces mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle in vivo is unclear. In the present study, we report the novel findings that 1) whole body heat stress produced by exposure of ICR mice to a hot environment (40°C, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk) induced mitochondrial adaptations such as increased mitochondrial enzyme activity (citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and respiratory chain protein content (complexes I-V) in skeletal muscle in vivo and 2) postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhanced endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations (treadmill running, 25 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk). Moreover, to determine the candidate mechanisms underlying mitochondrial adaptations, we investigated the acute effects of postexercise whole body heat stress on the phosphorylation status of cellular signaling cascades that subsequently induce mitochondrial gene transcription. We found that whole body heat stress boosted the endurance exercise-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, increased the phosphorylation status of p70S6K, a biomarker of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity, and unexpectedly dephosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase in skeletal muscle. Our present observations suggest that heat stress can act as an effective postexercise treatment. Heat stress treatment appeared to be clinically beneficial for people who have difficulty participating in sufficient exercise training, such as the elderly, injured athletes, and patients. PMID:25080501

Tamura, Yuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Yuki; Terada, Shin; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hatta, Hideo

2014-10-01

179

The ISO standard: Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international guideline is discussed in terms of safety and human tolerance. Charts for equal subjective vibration intensity, subjective judgement of equal fatigue, and severe discomfort boundaries are included.

Vongierke, H. E.

1975-01-01

180

Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during vertical whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear biodynamic responses are evident in many studies of the apparent masses of sitting and standing subjects in static postures that require muscle activity for postural control. In the present study, 12 male subjects adopted a relaxed semi-supine posture assumed to involve less muscle activity than during static sitting and standing. The supine subjects were exposed to two types of vertical vibration (in the x-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 m s -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 10.35 to 7.32 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 m s -2 rms. This nonlinear response was apparent in both the vertical ( x-axis) apparent mass and in the horizontal ( z-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. As the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 m s -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass with intermittent random vibration decreased from 9.28 to 8.06 Hz whereas, over the same range of magnitudes with continuous random vibration, the resonance frequency decreased from 9.62 to 7.81 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms) was 1.37 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 1.71 with the continuous random vibration. With the intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration of the same magnitudes. The response was typical of thixotropy that may be a primary cause of the nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration.

Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

2008-04-01

181

Effect of Phase on Human Responses to Vertical Whole-Body Vibration and SHOCK—ANALYTICAL Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the “phase” on human responses to vertical whole-body vibration and shock has been investigated analytically using alternative methods of predicting subjective responses (using r.m.s., VDV and various frequency weightings). Two types of phase have been investigated: the effect of the relative phase between two frequency components in the input stimulus, and the phase response of the human body. Continuous vibrations and shocks, based on half-sine and one-and-a-half-sine accelerations, each of which had two frequency components, were used as input stimuli. For the continuous vibrations, an effect of relative phase was found for the vibration dose value (VDV) when the ratio between two frequency components was three: about 12% variation in the VDV of the unweighted acceleration was possible by changing the relative phase. The effect of the phase response of the body represented by frequency weightings was most significant when the frequencies of two sinusoidal components were about 3 and 9 Hz. With shocks, the effect of relative phase was observed for all stimuli used. The variation in the r.m.s. acceleration and in the VDV caused by variations in the relative phase varied between 3 and 100%, depending on the nature of stimulus and the frequency weighting. The phase of the frequency weightings had a different effect on the r.m.s. and the VDV.

MATSUMOTO, Y.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

2002-03-01

182

Low back pain in drivers: The relative role of whole-body vibration, posture and manual materials handling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the relative role of whole-body vibration (WBV), posture and manual materials handling (MMH) as risk factors for low back pain (LBP). Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history, posture and MMH performed was obtained from 394 workers who drove vehicles as part of their job (according to seven predefined occupational groups) and 59 who did not. The intention was to reflect a wide range of exposures with the lower end of the exposure spectrum defined as that of non-manual workers who do not drive as part of their job. Based on the questionnaire responses and direct measurements of vibration exposure, personal aggregate measures of exposure were computed for each of the respondents, i.e., total vibration dose (TVD), posture score (PS) and manual handling score (MHS). Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for back pain were obtained from logistics regression models and log-linear backward elimination analysis was performed. The findings showed that 'combined exposure' due to posture and one or both of vibration and MMH, rather than the individual exposure to one of the three factors (WBV, posture, MMH) is the main contributor of the increased prevalence of LBP.

Okunribido, O. O.; Magnusson, M.; Pope, M. H.

2006-12-01

183

Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during longitudinal horizontal whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resonance frequencies in frequency response functions of the human body (e.g. apparent mass and transmissibility) decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear biodynamic response is found with various sitting and standing postures requiring postural control. The present study measured the apparent mass of the body in a relaxed semi-supine posture with two types of longitudinal horizontal vibration (in the z-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ms -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 3.7 to 2.4 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 ms -2 rms. A nonlinear response was apparent in both the horizontal ( z-axis) apparent mass and the vertical ( x-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. With intermittent random vibration, as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 ms -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass decreased from 3.2 to 2.5 Hz whereas, with continuous random vibration over the same range of magnitudes, the resonance frequency decreased from 3.4 to 2.4 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms) was 0.6 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 0.9 Hz with the continuous random vibration. With intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration at the same magnitudes. The responses were consistent with passive thixotropy being a primary cause of nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration, although reflex activity of the muscles may also have an influence.

Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

2008-04-01

184

Whole-body vibration as potential intervention for people with low bone mineral density and osteoporosis: a review.  

PubMed

Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis are health concerns among older adults and individuals with physical, neurological, and/or mobility impairments. Detrimental changes in bone density and bone architecture occurring in these individuals may be due in part to the reduction/cessation of physical activity and the accompanying reduction of mechanical strain on bone. Changes in bone architecture predispose these individuals to fragility fractures during low-trauma events. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been examined as an intervention for maintaining or improving bone mass among people with low BMD, because it may emulate the mechanical strains observed during normal daily activities. This article provides an overview of WBV including terminology, safety considerations, and a summary of the current literature; it is intended for rehabilitation healthcare providers considering WBV as a potential therapy for individuals with osteoporosis. PMID:19882487

Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Giangregorio, Lora M; Craven, B Catharine

2009-01-01

185

Myoelectric Response of Back Muscles to Vertical Random Whole-Body Vibration with Different Magnitudes at Different Postures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Back muscle forces contribute essentially to the whole-body vibration-induced spinal load. The electromyogram (EMG) can help to estimate these forces during whole-body vibration (WBV). Thirty-eight subjects were exposed to identical random low-frequency WBV (0·7, 1·0 and 1·4 m/s-2 r.m.s. weighted acceleration) at a relaxed, erect and bent forward postures. The acceleration of the seat and the force between the seat and the buttocks were measured. Six EMGs were derived from the right side of the m. trapezius pars descendens, m. ileocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, m. ileocostalis lumborum pars lumborum; m. longissimus thoracis pars thoracis, m. longissimus thoracis pars lumborum, and lumbar multifidus muscle. All data were filtered for anti-aliasing and sampled with 1000 Hz. Artefacts caused by the ECG in the EMG were identified and eliminated in the time domain using wavelets. The individually rectified and normalized EMGs were averaged across subjects. The EMGs without WBV exhibited characteristic patterns for the three postures examined. The coherence and transfer functions indicated characteristic myoelectric responses to random WBV with several effects of posture and WBV magnitude. A comprehensive set of transfer functions from the seat acceleration or the mean normalized input force to the mean processed EMG was presented.The results can be used for the development of more sophisticated models with a separate control of various back muscle groups. However, the EMG-force relationship under dynamic conditions needs to be examined in more detail before the results can be implemented. Since different reflex mechanisms depending on the frequency of WBV are linked with different types of active muscle fibres, various time delays between the EMG and muscle force may be necessary.

BLÜTHNER, R.; SEIDEL, H.; HINZ, B.

2002-05-01

186

a Comparison of Standardized Methods for Predicting the Hazards of Whole-Body Vibration and Repeated Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of measuring, evaluating and assessing whole-body vibration and repeated shock are offered in ISO 2631 (1974, 1985), BS 6841 (1987), and ISO 2631 (1997). This paper presents a comparison of guidance on the health effects of vibration and repeated shock given in these standards. International Standard 2631 (1974,1985) offered a set of exposure limits. British Standard 6841 (1987) defines a measurement and evaluation procedure (based on frequency weightings and the vibration dose value, VDV), gives an action level that can be used to assess vibration severity, and mentions some appropriate actions (consideration of the fitness of exposed persons, design of safety precautions, regular health checks). International Standard 2631 (1997) is unclear in several important areas: which body postures and axes are to be assessed; whether evaluations of multi-axis vibration should be based on the “worst axis” or a combination of the frequency-weighted acceleration in all axes; why a new frequency weighting,Wk, is proposed for vertical vibration when it is almost within the error tolerance of an existing weighting,Wb; why a 1·4 multiplying factor is used to evaluate vibration with respect to health but not with respect to comfort; how to choose between different time-dependencies (overall r.m.s.,VDV, running r.m.s., and no-time-dependency); allowing use of either the maximum value of a running r.m.s. (i.e.,MTVV) or theVDV; allowing different averaging periods when calculating theMTVV; using the crest factor to choose between r.m.s. and either theVDVorMTVVmethods; defining two inconsistent criteria for deciding whether to use either theVDVorMTVVmethods; giving no guidance on howMTVVvalues should be assessed; including two very different “health guidance caution zones” (for interpreting r.m.s. andVDVmeasures); providing ambiguous wording for the health guidance caution zones. Very different conclusions can be reached according to what is measured, how the vibration is evaluated and how it is assessed according to ISO 2631 (197). However, even though it employs a slightly different frequency weighting for vertical vibration, and a 1·4 multiplying factor for horizontal vibration, ISO 2631 (1997) can be interpreted so as to provide evaluations similar to those made according to BS 6841 (1987). It is concluded that the recently revised International Standard for measuring, evaluating and assessing human exposures to vibration and shock will cause unnecessary confusion.

Griffin, M. J.

1998-08-01

187

Whole-body vibration exposure study in U.S. railroad locomotives--an ergonomic risk assessment.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration exposure of locomotive engineers and the vibration attenuation of seats in 22 U.S. locomotives (built between 1959 and 2000) was studied during normal revenue service and following international measurement guidelines. Triaxial vibration measurements (duration mean 155 min, range 84-383 min) on the seat and on the floor were compared. In addition to the basic vibration evaluation (aw rms), the vector sum (av), the maximum transient vibration value (MTVV/aw), the vibration dose value (VDV/(aw T1/4)), and the vibration seat effective transmissibility factor (SEAT) were calculated. The power spectral densities are also reported. The mean basic vibration level (aw rms) was for the fore-aft axis x = 0.18 m/sec2, the lateral axis y = 0.28 m/sec2, and the vertical axis z = 0.32 m/sec2. The mean vector sum was 0.59 m/sec2 (range 0.27 to 1.44). The crest factors were generally at or above 9 in the horizontal and vertical axis. The mean MTVV/aw was 5.3 (x), 5.1 (y), and 4.8 (z), and the VDV/(aw T1/4) values ranged from 1.32 to 2.3 (x-axis), 1.33 to 1.7 (y-axis), and 1.38 to 1.86 (z-axis), generally indicating high levels of shocks. The mean seat transmissibility factor (SEAT) was 1.4 (x) and 1.2 (y) and 1 (z), demonstrating a general ineffectiveness of any of the seat suspension systems. In conclusion, these data indicate that locomotive rides are characterized by relatively high shock content (acceleration peaks) of the vibration signal in all directions. Locomotive vertical and lateral vibrations are similar, which appears to be characteristic for rail vehicles compared with many road/off-road vehicles. Tested locomotive cab seats currently in use (new or old) appear inadequate to reduce potentially harmful vibration and shocks transmitted to the seated operator, and older seats particularly lack basic ergonomic features regarding adjustability and postural support. PMID:12486777

Johanning, Eckardt; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Landsbergis, Paul

2002-01-01

188

Low-back disorders in agricultural tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration and postural stress.  

PubMed

The occurrence of low-back pain (LBP) was investigated in a population of 1155 tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and postural stress (response rate 91.2%) and in a control group of 220 office workers (response rate 92.2%). The subjects were questioned about several types of low-back symptom (LBP, sciatic pain, acute LBP, transient and chronic LBP) and various work- and individual-related risk factors, by using a standardized questionnaire. Vibration measurements were performed on a representative sample of the vehicles driven by the tractor drivers in the last ten years. Vibration magnitude and duration of exposure were used to calculate a vibration dose for each tractor driver. Perceived postural load was assessed in terms of frequency and/or duration of awkward postures at work. The prevalence of LBP was found to be greater in the tractor drivers than in the controls. After controlling for potential confounders by logistic modelling, low-back disorders were found to be significantly associated with both vibration dose and postural load. Back accidents and age were also significant predictors for LBP. Quantitative regression analysis indicated that vibration exposure and postural load were independent contributors to the increased risk for LBP according to a multiplicative model. The exposure levels for WBV recently recommended by a proposal of European Directive on physical agents seem to be more adequate to prevent long-term health effects on the lower back than the exposure limits suggested by the International Standard ISO 2631/1. PMID:15676973

Bovenzi, M; Betta, A

1994-08-01

189

Comparison of whole-body vibration exposures in buses: effects and interactions of bus and seat design.  

PubMed

Bus and seat design may be important for the drivers' whole-body vibration (WBV). WBV exposures in buses during actual operation were assessed. WBV attenuation performance between an air-suspension seat and a static pedestal seat in low-floor buses was compared; there were no differences in WBV attenuation between the seats. Air-suspension seat performance in a high-floor and low-floor bus was compared. Relative to the pedestal seat with its relatively static, limited travel seat suspension, the air-suspension seat with its dynamic, longer travel suspension provided little additional benefit. Relative to the measurement collected at the bus floor, the air-suspension seat amplified the WBV exposures in the high-floor bus. All WBV exposures were below European Union (EU) daily exposure action values. The EU Vibration Directive only allows the predominant axis of vibration exposure to be evaluated but a tri-axial vector sum exposure may be more representative of the actual health risks. PMID:25290555

Jonsson, Per M G; Rynell, Patrik W; Hagberg, Mats; Johnson, Peter W

2014-10-01

190

Psychophysical relationships characterizing human response to whole-body sinusoidal vertical vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation determined that the psychophysical relationships between subjective discomfort evaluations to vibratory stimuli and subjective evaluations of the intensity of vibratory stimuli can be expressed in a linear fashion. Furthermore, significant differences were found to exist between discomfort and intensity subjective response for several but not all discrete frequencies investigated. The implication of these results is that ride quality criteria based upon subjective evaluation of vibration intensity should be applied cautiously in the development of criteria for human comfort.

Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.

1976-01-01

191

A whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit improves aerobic fitness and muscle strength in sedentary young females.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine if a time-effective whole-body aerobic resistance-training circuit using only body-weight exercises is as effective in improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness, as well as muscular strength and endurance as a traditional concurrent style training combining resistance and endurance training. Thirty-four sedentary females (20.9±3.2 y; 167.6±6.4 cm; 65.0±15.2 kg) were assigned to either: 1) a combined resistance and aerobic exercise group (COMBINED; n=17); or 2) a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance-training circuit group (CIRCUIT; n=17). Training was 3 days per week for 5 weeks. Pre- and post-training measures included a VO2peak test, anaerobic Wingate cycling test, and muscular strength and endurance tests. Following training, VO2peak improved with CIRCUIT by 11% (p=0.015), with no change for COMBINED (p=0.375). Both relative peak power output and relative average power output improved with CIRCUIT by 5% (p=0.027) and 3.2% (p=0.006) respectively and with COMBINED by 5.3% (p=0.025) and 5.1% (p=0.003). Chest and hamstrings 1-RM improved with CIRCUIT by 20.6% (p=0.011) and 8.3% (p=0.022) and with COMBINED by 35.6% (p<0.001) and 10.2% (p=0.004) respectively. Only the COMBINED group improved back (11.7%; p=0.017) and quadriceps (9.6%; p=0.006) 1-RM. The COMBINED group performed more repetitions at 60% of their pre-training 1-RM for back (10.0%; p=0.006) and hamstring (23.3%; P=0.056) vs CIRCUIT. Our results suggest that a circuit-based, whole-body aerobic resistance-training program can elicit a greater cardiorespiratory response and similar muscular strength gains with less time commitment, compared to a traditional resistance training program combined with aerobic exercise. PMID:25486302

Myers, Terrence R; Schneider, Matthew G; Schmale, Matthew S; Hazell, Tom J

2014-12-01

192

Reducing whole-body vibration and musculoskeletal injury with a new car seat design  

Microsoft Academic Search

significantly decreased 31.6% (p5 0.01) and 19.8% (p5 0.05), respectively, by using the WO-BPS posture. At the same time, vibration dose values significantly decreased along the z-axis of the lumbar spine and ITs by 43.0% (p5 0.05) and 34.5% (p5 0.01). This reduction in WBV allows more sustained driving than permitted by conventional seating devices, by several hours, before sustaining

M. MAKHSOUS; R. HENDRIX; Z. CROWTHERk; E. NAMyy; F. LINyz

2005-01-01

193

Vehicle design influences whole body vibration exposures: effect of the location of the front axle relative to the cab.  

PubMed

Using a repeated measure design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures among 13 drivers who drove a truck with the cab over the front axle (cab-over design) and a truck with the cab situated behind the front axle (non-cab-over design). The drivers drove both trucks over a standardized route that comprised three distinct segments: a freeway segment, a city street segment with stop-and-go driving (traffic lights), and a city street segment without traffic lights. A portable WBV data acquisition system collected tri-axial time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 standards. Simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) data were also collected to compare vehicle speeds. The GPS data indicated that there were no speed differences between the two vehicles. However, average and impulsive z-axis vibration levels were significantly higher for the cab-over design than for the non-cab-over design. In addition, significant WBV exposure differences between road types were found, with the freeway segments having the lowest exposures and the city street segments without traffic lights having the highest exposures. Vehicle type and the associated WBV exposures should be considered when purchasing vehicles to be used by full-time professional vehicle operators. PMID:21623531

Blood, Ryan P; Rynell, Patrik W; Johnson, Peter W

2011-06-01

194

Development of a Protocol for Epidemiologal Studies of Whole-Body Vibration and Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Lower Back  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It seems evident from a large number of studies that there is a positive relationship between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and the occurrence of low back pain. There are existing standards for evaluating the human exposure to WBV, which are based on other factors than the effect of musculoskeletal disorders. Several national and international standards also exist for evaluating human exposure to WBV. The exposure limit values or health guidance caution zones included in some of these standards are not or only to a limited extent based on systematic epidemiological investigations. It has not yet been possible to establish a clear exposure-response relationship. There are many confounding or contributing factors which influence the hazards to workers caused by exposure to WBV. Reliable methods for the detection and prevention of injury due to vibration exposure at work, alone or in combination with other risk factors, need to be implemented. The aim of this paper was to design a protocol and a questionnaire for conducting collaborative studies of WBV and musculoskeletal back disorders. The protocol will be tested in a pilot study before it will be used in multi-center studies.

Magnusson, M. L.; Pope, M. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.

1998-08-01

195

Minimum health and safety requirements for workers exposed to hand-transmitted vibration and whole-body vibration in the European Union; a review.  

PubMed

In 2002, the Parliament and Commission of the European Community agreed "minimum health and safety requirements" for the exposure of workers to the risks arising from vibration. The Directive defines qualitative requirements and also quantitative requirements in the form of "exposure action values" and "exposure limit values". The quantitative guidance is based on, but appears to conflict with, the guidance in International Standards for hand-transmitted vibration (ISO 5349) and whole-body vibration (ISO 2631). There is a large internal inconsistency within the Directive for short duration exposures to whole-body vibration: the two alternative methods give very different values. It would appear prudent to base actions on the qualitative guidance (i.e. reducing risk to a minimum) and only refer to the quantitative guidance where there is no other reasonable basis for the identification of risk (i.e. similar exposures are not a suspected cause of injury). Health surveillance and other precautions will be appropriate wherever there is reason to suspect a risk and will not be restricted to conditions where the exposure action value is exceeded. PMID:15090658

Griffin, M J

2004-05-01

196

Minimum health and safety requirements for workers exposed to hand-transmitted vibration and whole-body vibration in the European Union; a review  

PubMed Central

In 2002, the Parliament and Commission of the European Community agreed "minimum health and safety requirements" for the exposure of workers to the risks arising from vibration. The Directive defines qualitative requirements and also quantitative requirements in the form of "exposure action values" and "exposure limit values". The quantitative guidance is based on, but appears to conflict with, the guidance in International Standards for hand-transmitted vibration (ISO 5349) and whole-body vibration (ISO 2631). There is a large internal inconsistency within the Directive for short duration exposures to whole-body vibration: the two alternative methods give very different values. It would appear prudent to base actions on the qualitative guidance (i.e. reducing risk to a minimum) and only refer to the quantitative guidance where there is no other reasonable basis for the identification of risk (i.e. similar exposures are not a suspected cause of injury). Health surveillance and other precautions will be appropriate wherever there is reason to suspect a risk and will not be restricted to conditions where the exposure action value is exceeded. PMID:15090658

Griffin, M

2004-01-01

197

Relationship between improvements in motor performance and changes in anticipatory postural adjustments during whole-body reaching training.  

PubMed

Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) provide postural stability and play an important role in ensuring appropriate motor performance. APAs also change in various situations. However, it is unknown whether changes in APAs during repetitive movement training contribute to improvement in motor performance. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between improvement in motor performance and changes in APAs during repeated reaching training, as well as the learning effects on APA changes. Sixteen healthy subjects (23 ± 2 years of age) stood barefoot on a force platform and reached as quickly and accurately as possible to a target placed at their maximum reach distance immediately following a beep signal in a reaction time condition. Whole-body reaching training with the right arm was repeated 100 times for three consecutive days. Motor performance and APAs were evaluated on the first day, after discontinuation of training for one day, and again at three months. In addition, reaching with the left arm (untrained limb) was tested on the first and the fifth training day. Body position segments were measured using three-dimensional motion analysis. Surface electromyography of eight postural muscles in both lower limbs was recorded. Kinetics data were recorded using the force platform. Whole-body reaching training induced not only improvements in motor performance (e.g., increased peak hand velocity), but also changes in APAs (e.g., earlier APA onset and increased amplitude). These changes were strongly correlated with and occurred earlier than improvements in motor performance. The learning effects on APAs were retained after the discontinuation of training and were generalized to the untrained limb. These results suggest that change in APAs contributes to improvement in motor performance; that is, the central nervous system may be able to adapt APAs for improvement in motor performance. PMID:25108269

Saito, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Masanori; Kasahara, Satoshi; Fukushima, Junko

2014-10-01

198

Escape conditioning and low-frequency whole-body vibration - The effects of frequency, amplitude, and controls for noise and activation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seven experiments are reported on low-frequency whole-body vibration and rats' escape conditioning in a modified Skinner box. In the first three studies, conditioning was observed but was independent of frequency. In experiment four, the number of escape responses was directly related to vibration amplitude. Experiment five was a control for vibration noise and noise termination; experiments six and seven studied vibration-induced activation. Noise termination did not produce conditioning. In experiment six, subjects made more responses when responding led to termination than when it did not. In experiment seven, subjects preferred a bar which terminated vibration to one which did not.

Wike, E. L.; Wike, S. S.

1972-01-01

199

The development of an intervention programme to reduce whole-body vibration exposure at work induced by a change in behaviour: a study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure at work is common and studies found evidence that this exposure might cause low back pain (LBP). A recent review concluded there is a lack of evidence of effective strategies to reduce WBV exposure. Most research in this field is focussed on the technical implications, although changing behaviour towards WBV exposure might be promising

Ivo J. H. Tiemessen; Carel T. J. Hulshof; Monique H. W. Frings-Dresen

2007-01-01

200

City bus driving and low back pain: A study of the exposures to posture demands, manual materials handling and whole-body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate worker exposure to posture demands, manual materials handling (MMH) and whole body vibration as risks for low back pain (LBP). Using validated questionnaire, information about driving experience, driving (sitting) posture MMH, and health history was obtained from 80 city bus drivers. Twelve drivers were observed during their service route driving (at least one

Olanrewaju O. Okunribido; Steven J. Shimbles; Marianne Magnusson; Malcolm Pope

2007-01-01

201

Neck pain combined with arm pain among professional drivers of forest machines and the association with whole-body vibration exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence of neck pain and arm pain among professional forest machine drivers and to find out if pain were related to their whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 529 forest machine drivers in northern Sweden and the response was 63%. Two pain groups were formed; 1) neck

B. Rehn; T. Nilsson; R. Lundström; M. Hagberg; L. Burström

2009-01-01

202

Numerical assessment of fore-and-aft suspension performance to reduce whole-body vibration of wheel loader drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While driving off-road vehicles, operators are exposed to whole-body vibration acting in the fore-and-aft direction. Seat manufacturers supply products equipped with fore-and-aft suspension but only a few studies report on their performance. This work proposes a computational approach to design fore-and-aft suspensions for wheel loader seats. Field tests were conducted in a quarry to analyse the nature of vibration to which the driver was exposed. Typical input signals were recorded to be reproduced in the laboratory. Technical specifications are defined for the suspension. In order to evaluate the suspension vibration attenuation performance, a model of a sitting human body was developed and coupled to a seat model. The seat model combines the models of each suspension component. A linear two-degree-of-freedom model is used to describe the dynamic behaviour of the sitting driver. Model parameters are identified by fitting the computed apparent mass frequency response functions to the measured values. Model extensions are proposed to investigate postural effects involving variations in hands and feet positions and interaction of the driver's back with the backrest. Suspension design parameters are firstly optimized by computing the seat/man model response to sinusoidal acceleration. Four criteria including transmissibility, interaction force between the driver's back and the backrest and relative maximal displacement of the suspension are computed. A new suspension design with optimized features is proposed. Its performance is checked from calculations of the response of the seat/man model subjected to acceleration measured on the wheel loader during real work conditions. On the basis of the computed values of the SEAT factors, it is found possible to design a suspension that would increase the attenuation provided by the seat by a factor of two.

Fleury, Gérard; Mistrot, Pierre

2006-12-01

203

Occupational exposure to whole-body vibration: unfavourable effects due to the use of old earth-moving machinery in mine reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term exposure to high levels of whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), particularly for the drivers of off-road vehicles. Based on the results of an extensive vibration survey carried out in the mine reclamation sites of the Geo-Mineral Park of Sardinia, this article analyses the effect produced by the use of old

Valentina Dentoni; Giorgio Massacci

2012-01-01

204

Effects of real and sham whole-body mechanical vibration on spinal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of whole-body mechanical vibration (WBV) on indices of motoneuronal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction in healthy humans. Real and sham WBV at 30?Hz had no effect on reflexes measured during muscle contraction. Real WBV at 30 and 50?Hz depressed the H-reflex ?45%. These depressions diminished across the five inter-bout rest intervals. The depression converted to 27% and 7% facilitation over the 15-min long recovery period following real WBV at 30 and 50?Hz, respectively. The depression, measured during the inter-bout rest, correlated r?=?0.48 (P?=?0.007) with the subsequent facilitation, measured during the follow-up. The depression produced by sham vs real WBV was significant but less (23%), recovered faster, and the facilitation was absent in the 15-min long follow-up period. WBV produced time-varying depression followed by facilitation of the H-reflex at rest. A lack of change in volitional wave suggests that WBV did not affect the efferent neural drive. PMID:24646403

Hortobágyi, T; Rider, P; DeVita, P

2014-12-01

205

Does body mass index increase the risk of low back pain in a population exposed to whole body vibration?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) influences the risk of low back pain (LBP) in a population exposed to whole body vibration (WBV). For this a self-administered questionnaire was sent to 467 participants, driving occupational vehicles. Vibration measurements were performed according to ISO 2631-1 on a representative sample (n=30) of this population. For each participant, we calculated the current root mean square (r.m.s.) over an 8 h (A(8)) working day. The questionnaire response rate was 47% (n=221). We did not find a significant correlation between BMI and the onset of LBP in the last 7 days (r=0.07, p=0.34) nor for LBP in past 12 months (r=-0.30, p=0.63). No significant increased risk was found for the onset of LBP with the increase of BMI, neither for the last 7 days (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 0.93-1.23) nor for the past 12 months LBP (OR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.89-1.09). Introducing the interaction with WBV exposure in the logistic regression model, did not result a significant increased risk in the onset of LBP-7 days (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.92-1.01) nor in the onset of LBP 12 months (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.93-1.01) either. Occupational participants exposed to WBV, with a high BMI do not have an increased risk for the development of LBP. PMID:18206134

Noorloos, Daniëlle; Tersteeg, Linda; Tiemessen, Ivo J H; Hulshof, Carel T J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

2008-11-01

206

The relative importance of whole body vibration and occupational lifting as risk factors for low-back pain  

PubMed Central

Aims: To explore the impact of occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) on low back pain (LBP) in the general population and to estimate the burden of LBP attributable to occupational WBV in comparison with that due to occupational lifting. Methods: A questionnaire including sections on WBV at work, LBP, and potential risk factors was mailed to a community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Sources and durations of exposure to occupational WBV were ascertained for the past week and personal vibration doses (eVDV) were estimated. Analysis was confined to subjects reporting exposures in the past week as typical of their work. Associations of LBP with eVDV, driving industrial vehicles, and occupational lifting were explored by logistic regression and attributable numbers were calculated. Results: Significant associations were found between daily lifting of weights greater than 10 kg at work and LBP, troublesome LBP (which made it difficult to put on hosiery), and sciatica (prevalence ratios 1.3 to 1.7); but the risk of these outcomes in both sexes varied little by eVDV and only weak associations were found with riding on industrial vehicles. Assuming causal associations, the numbers of cases of LBP in Britain attributable to occupational WBV were estimated to be 444 000 in men and 95 000 in women. This compared with an estimated 940 000 male cases and 370 000 female cases of LBP from occupational lifting. Conclusions: The burden of LBP in Britain from occupational exposure to WBV is smaller than that attributable to lifting at work. PMID:14504358

Palmer, K; Griffin, M; Syddall, H; Pannett, B; Cooper, C; Coggon, D

2003-01-01

207

An Updated Review of Epidemiologic Studies on the Relationship Between Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to update the information on the epidemiologic evidence of the adverse health effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spinal system by means of a review of the epidemiologic studies published between 1986 and 1996. In a systematic search of epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with exposure to WBV, 37 articles were retrieved. The quality of each study was evaluated according to criteria concerning the assessment of vibration exposure, assessment of health effects, and methodology. The epidemiologic studies reaching an adequate score on each of the above mentioned criteria, were included in the final review. A meta-analysis was also conducted in order to combine the results of independent epidemiologic studies. After applying the selection criteria, 16 articles reporting the occurrence of LBP disorders in 19 WBV-exposed occupational groups, reached a sufficient score. The study design was cross-sectional for 13 occupational groups, longitudinal for 5 groups and of case-control type for one group. The main reasons for the exclusion of studies were insufficient quantitative information on WBV exposure and the lack of control groups. The findings of the selected studies and the results of the meta-analysis of both cross-sectional and cohort studies showed that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of LBP, sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. Owing to the cross-sectional design of the majority of the reviewed studies, this epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to outline a clear exposure-response relationship between WBV exposure and LBP disorders. Upon comparing the epidemiological studies included in this review with those conducted before 1986, it is concluded that research design and the quality of exposure and health effect data in the field of WBV have improved in the last decade.

Bovenzi, M.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

1998-08-01

208

Acute whole body UVA irradiation combined with nitrate ingestion enhances time trial performance in trained cyclists.  

PubMed

Dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to increase nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, reduce blood pressure (BP) and enhance exercise performance. Acute exposure to ultraviolet (UV)-A light also increases NO bioavailability and reduces BP. We conducted a randomized, counterbalanced placebo-controlled trial to determine the effects of UV-A light alone and in combination with nitrate on the responses to sub-maximal steady-state exercise and time trial (TT) performance. Nine cyclists (VO2max 53.1?±?4.4?ml/kg/min) completed five performance trials comprising 10?min submaximal steady-state cycling followed by a 16.1?km TT. Following a familiarization the final four trials were preceded, in random order, by either (1) Nitrate gels (NIT)?+?UV-A, (2) Placebo (PLA)?+?UV-A, (3) NIT?+?Sham light (SHAM) and (4) PLA?+?SHAM (control). The NIT gels (2?×?60?ml gels,?~8.1?mmol nitrate) or a low-nitrate PLA were ingested 2.5?h prior to the trial. The light exposure consisted of 20?J/cm(2) whole body irradiation with either UV-A or SHAM light. Plasma nitrite was measured pre- and post-irradiation and VO2 was measured continuously during steady-state exercise. Plasma nitrite was higher for NIT?+?SHAM (geometric mean (95% CI), 332 (292-377) nM; P?=?0.029) and NIT?+?UV-A (456 (312-666) nM; P?=?0.014) compared to PLA?+?SHAM (215 (167-277) nM). Differences between PLA?+?SHAM and PLA?+?UV-A (282 (248-356) nM) were small and non-significant. During steady-state exercise VO2 was reduced following NIT?+?UVA (P?=?0.034) and tended to be lower in NIT?+?SHAM (P?=?0.086) but not PLA?+?UV-A (P?=?0.381) compared to PLA?+?SHAM. Performance in the TT was significantly faster following NIT?+?UV-A (mean?±?SD 1447?±?41?s P?=?0.005; d?=?0.47), but not PLA?+?UV-A (1450?±?40?s; d?=?0.41) or NIT?+?SHAM (1455?±?47?s; d?=?0.28) compared to PLA?+?SHAM (1469?±?52?s). These findings demonstrate that exposure to UV-A light alone does not alter the physiological responses to exercise or improve performance in a laboratory setting. A combination of UV-A and NIT, however, does improve cycling TT performance in this environment, which may be due to a larger increase in NO availability. PMID:25289793

Muggeridge, David J; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Willis, Gareth; Thornhill, Laurence; Weller, Richard B; James, Philip E; Easton, Chris

2014-10-01

209

Effect of whole body vibration therapy on circulating serotonin levels in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Studies have reported that whole body vibration (WBV) played a vital role in bone remodeling. Circulating serotonin is also involved in negative regulating bone mass in rodents and humans. However, both WBV and inhibition of serotonin biosynthesis may suppress receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of WBV therapy on the levels of serum serotonin in ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 276.15±37.75 g were ovariectomized to induce osteoporosis, and another ten rats underwent sham operation to establish sham control (SHAM) group. After 3 months, ovariectomized rats were divided into three subgroups and then separately treated with WBV, Alendronate (ALN) and normal saline (OVX), SHAM group was given normal saline. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed. Serum serotonin, RANKL, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density (BMD), bone strength were evaluated. Results: The serum serotonin level was significantly lower in WBV group than OVX and ALN groups (P<0.05 and P<0.001). RANKL levels significantly decreased in WBV and ALN groups compared to OVX group (P<0.001 for both). BMD and biomechanical parameters of femur significantly increased (P<0.05 for both) and bone turnover levels decreased (P<0.001 for both) in WBV group compared to OVX group. Conclusion: These data indicated that WBV enhanced the bone strength and BMD in ovariectomized rats most likely by reducing the levels of circulating serotonin. PMID:24592309

Wei, Qiu-Shi; Huang, Li; Chen, Xian-Hong; Wang, Hai-Bin; Sun, Wei-Shan; Huo., Shao-Chuan; Li, Zi-Qi; Deng, Wei-Min

2014-01-01

210

Effect of whole-body vibration for 3 months on arterial stiffness in the middle-aged and elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common problem of middle-aged and older adults. Increased arterial stiffness is a CVD risk factor. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise for middle-aged and older adults; however, there have been few studies investigating the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness. This study mainly investigated the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. Methods A total of 38 (21 women and 17 men) middle-aged and elderly subjects (average age, 61.9 years) were randomly divided into the WBV group and the control group for a 3-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of 30 Hz and 3.2 g WBV in a natural full standing posture at a sports center. The brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of systemic arterial stiffness, and blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the intervention. Results After 3 months, there were no significant changes in blood pressure or heart rate in both groups. However, the bilateral baPWV was significantly reduced in the WBV group (decreased by 0.65 m/second [P=0.014]; 0.63 m/second [P=0.041] in either side), but not in the control group. The comparison between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study found that 3 months of WBV had a positive effect on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults and could therefore be regarded as a supplementary exercise. Larger-scale studies are needed to confirm the effects of WBV in the future. PMID:24872684

Lai, Chung-Liang; Chen, Han-Yu; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Liao, Wan-Chun; Liu, Bing-Tang; Lee, Meng-Chih; Chen, Hsin-Shui

2014-01-01

211

The Fate of Mrs Robinson: Criteria for Recognition of Whole-Body Vibration Injury as AN Occupational Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recently published critical reviews conclude that there is strong epidemiological evidence for a relationship between occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV), low back pain (LBP) and back disorders. Whether this exposure is only a modest or a substantial risk factor for the onset and recurrence of LBP is still a matter of debate. In spite of this controversy, four European Union countries have decided to recognize and compensate LBP and certain spinal disorders as an occupational disease. In this paper, we review the criteria currently in use for the recognition of this occupational disease. A search of the literature was performed; additional information was obtained in work visits to national occupational disease institutes in Germany, France and Belgium, in annual reports and national statistics on occupational diseases. Belgium was the first country to add WBV injury to the official list of occupational diseases (1978), followed by Germany (1993), the Netherlands (1997), and France (1999). The incidence of newly recognized cases in 1999 varied considerably: 763 in Belgium, 269 in France, 16 in Germany, and 10 reported cases in the Netherlands. The findings of this review indicate that significant differences exist in the established and applied diagnostic and exposure criteria in the four EU countries. This is illustrated by the case of Mrs Robinson, a 41-year-old forklift driver with LBP, who would probably get recognition and compensation in the Netherlands and Belgium but would be rejected in France and Germany. The development of uniform internationally accepted criteria is recommended, also from an epidemiological point of view, as many data are collected in the process of recognition of this occupational disease.

HULSHOF, C. T. J.; VAN DER LAAN, G.; BRAAM, I. T. J.; VERBEEK, J. H. A. M.

2002-05-01

212

An updated review of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between exposure to whole-body vibration and low back pain (1986–1997)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to update the information on the epidemiologic evidence of the adverse health effects of whole-body\\u000a vibration (WBV) on the spinal system by means of a review of the epidemiologic studies published between 1986 and 1997. In\\u000a a systematic search, using several databases, of epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with

M. Bovenzi; C. T. J. Hulshof

1999-01-01

213

The feasibility of whole body vibration in institutionalised elderly persons and its influence on muscle performance, balance and mobility: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN62535013  

PubMed Central

Background Fatigue or lack of interest can reduce the feasibility of intensive physical exercise in nursing home residents. Low-volume exercise interventions with similar training effects might be an alternative. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the feasibility of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) in institutionalised elderly, and its impact on functional capacity and muscle performance. Methods Twenty-four nursing home residents (15 female, 9 male; mean age 77.5 ± 11.0 years) were randomised (stratification for age, gender and ADL-category) to 6 weeks static WBV exercise (WBV+, N = 13) or control (only static exercise; N = 11). Outcome measures were exercise compliance, timed up-and-go, Tinetti-test, back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, handgrip strength and linear isokinetic leg extension. Results At baseline, WBV+ and control groups were similar for all outcome variables. Twenty-one participants completed the program and attended respectively 96% and 86% of the exercise sessions for the WBV+ and control groups. Training-induced changes in timed up-and-go and Tinetti-test were better for WBV+ compared to control (p = 0.029 for timed up-and-go, p = 0.001 and p = 0.002 for Tinetti body balance and total score respectively). In an alternative analysis (Worst Rank Score & Last Observation Carried Forward) the differences in change remained significant on the Tinetti body balance and total score. No other significant differences in change between both groups were observed. Conclusion In nursing home residents with limited functional dependency, six weeks static WBV exercise is feasible, and is beneficial for balance and mobility. The supplementary benefit of WBV on muscle performance compared to classic exercise remains to be explored further. PMID:16372905

Bautmans, Ivan; Van Hees, Ellen; Lemper, Jean-Claude; Mets, Tony

2005-01-01

214

Metrics of whole-body vibration and exposure–response relationship for low back pain in professional drivers: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between alternative measures of exposure to whole-body vibration\\u000a (WBV) and low back pain (LBP) in professional drivers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The incidence of 12-month LBP, high pain intensity (numerical rating scale score > 5), and disability in the lower back (Roland\\u000a and Morris disability scale score ? 12) was investigated in a cohort of 537 drivers over

Massimo Bovenzi

2009-01-01

215

Predicting the health risks related to whole-body vibration and shock: a comparison of alternative assessment methods for high-acceleration events in vehicles.  

PubMed

In this paper, alternative assessment methods for whole-body vibration and shocks are compared by means of 70 vibration samples measured from 13 work vehicles, deliberately selected to represent periods containing shocks. Five methodologies (ISO 2631-1:1997, BS 6841:1987, ISO 2631-5:2004, DIN SPEC 45697:2012 and one specified by Gunston [2011], 'G-method') were applied to the vibration samples. In order to compare different evaluation metrics, limiting exposures were determined by calculating times to reach the upper limit thresholds given in the methods. Over 10-fold shorter times to exposure thresholds were obtained for the tri-axial VDV (BS 6841) than for the dominant r.m.s. (ISO 2631-1) when exposures were of high magnitude or contained substantial shocks. Under these exposure conditions, the sixth power approaches (ISO 2631-5, DIN SPEC, G-method) are more stringent than a fourth power VDV method. The r.m.s. method may lead to misleading outcomes especially if a lengthy measurement includes a small number of severe impacts. In conclusion, methodologies produce different evaluations of the vibration severity depending on the exposure characteristics, and the correct method must be selected. Practitioner Summary: Health risks related to whole-body vibration and high acceleration events may be predicted by means of several different methods. This study compares five such methods giving emphasis on their applicability in the presence of shocks. The results showed significant discrepancies between the risk assessments, especially for the most extreme exposures. PMID:25312024

Rantaharju, Taneli; Mansfield, Neil J; Ala-Hiiro, Jussi M; Gunston, Thomas P

2014-10-14

216

The effects of whole body vibration on bone mineral density for a person with a spinal cord injury: a case study.  

PubMed

Bone mineral density (BMD) loss is a medical concern for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Concerns related to osteoporosis have lead researchers to use various interventions to address BMD loss within this population. Whole body vibration (WBV) has been reported to improve BMD for postmenopausal women and suggested for SCI. The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of WBV on BMD for an individual with SCI. There were three progressive phases (standing only, partial standing, and combined stand with vibration), each lasting 10 weeks. Using the least significant change calculation, significant positive changes in BMD were reported at the trunk (0.46 g/cm(2)) and spine (.093 g/cm(2)) for phase 3 only. Increases in leg lean tissue mass and reduction in total body fat were noted in all three phases. PMID:20147770

Davis, Ronald; Sanborn, Charlotte; Nichols, David; Bazett-Jones, David M; Dugan, Eric L

2010-01-01

217

Effects of 10 Days of Endurance Exercise Training on the Suppression of Whole Body and Regional Lipolysis by Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate in premenopausal women (10 sedentary obese women) the effects of 10 days of exercise on the suppression of whole body and regional lipolysis by insulin. Lipolysis was determined using 2H5-glycerol infusion and microdialysis of sc adipose tissue during a two-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (10 (LO) and 20 (MO) mU\\/mzmin). Microdialysis probes were positioned

R. C. HICKNER; S. B. RACETTE; E. F. BINDER; J. S. FISHER; W. M. KOHRT

2009-01-01

218

[The labor of freight-container tractor drivers and low back pain. Correlation with whole-body vibration exposure].  

PubMed

In order to determine the causal factors of low back pain (LBP) which prevails among freight-container tractor drivers, vibration measurements of the seat of ten freight-container tractors and one heavy truck, a survey on the daily working hours of 240 tractor drivers for a month, and a time study of work on 28 person-days were conducted. Vibration measurement was made under routine conditions on paved public roads for 40 km under laden and unladen conditions. For the evaluation of vibration exposure, ISO 2631 was used. With the freight-container tractors, the mean vibration levels were high in X and Z directions, particularly in X direction. In the heavy truck, the vibration level was consistently higher in Z direction. According to the evaluation made by ISO 2631, the X component of the vibration was found to be serious. The magnitude of the vibration level was greatly influenced by the condition of the road surface with bridges tending to produce a high level of vibration. Vibration levels of the new model tractors were not necessarily always lower than that of the old models. It was estimated from the foregoing results and the time study that in more than 90% of the drivers the daily exposure time (i.e. driving hours) exceeded the allowable exposure time of fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP), and in about one-third of the drivers the allowable exposure time of exposure limit (EL) was exceeded. These results suggest that long exposure to severe vibration during work is one of the possible causal factors of LBP of freight-container drivers. PMID:2950261

Nakata, M; Nishiyama, K

1986-09-01

219

Earth moving machine whole-body vibration and the contribution of Sub-1Hz components to ISO 2631-1 metrics.  

PubMed

Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is an occupational hazard for operators of industrial vehicles, such as earth-moving machines. Quantification of WBV exposure in terms of impact on health forms one aspect of the Standard ISO 2631-1 (1997). Regarding assessment of risk to health, ISO 2631-1 (1997) states that if WBV components below 1 Hz are not ;relevant nor important' then they can be excluded from the assessment. In this paper the influence of sub-1 Hz components in WBV acquired from a sample of 46 earth moving machines is evaluated in terms of their contribution to ISO 2631-1 WBV exposure dose metrics: frequency weighted r.m.s. and the vibration dose value (VDV). For the majority of machines, a high proportion of the horizontal (x- and y-axis) WBV r.m.s. and VDV values was generated by sub-1 Hz vibration components; there was a much lower proportion of the vertical (z-axis) vibration generated by such components. PMID:19672014

Mansfield, Neil J; Newell, Geraldine S; Notini, Luca

2009-08-01

220

Whole body motion-detection tasks can yield much lower thresholds than direction-recognition tasks: implications for the role of vibration  

PubMed Central

Earlier spatial orientation studies used both motion-detection (e.g., did I move?) and direction-recognition (e.g., did I move left/right?) paradigms. The purpose of our study was to compare thresholds measured with motion-detection and direction-recognition tasks on a standard Moog motion platform to see whether a substantial fraction of the reported threshold variation might be explained by the use of different discrimination tasks in the presence of vibrations that vary with motion. Thresholds for the perception of yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis and for interaural translation in an earth-horizontal plane were determined for four healthy subjects with standard detection and recognition paradigms. For yaw rotation two-interval detection thresholds were, on average, 56 times smaller than two-interval recognition thresholds, and for interaural translation two-interval detection thresholds were, on average, 31 times smaller than two-interval recognition thresholds. This substantive difference between recognition thresholds and detection thresholds is one of our primary findings. For motions near our measured detection threshold, we measured vibrations that matched previously established vibration thresholds. This suggests that vibrations contribute to whole body motion detection. We also recorded yaw rotation thresholds on a second motion device with lower vibration and found direction-recognition and motion-detection thresholds that were not significantly different from one another or from the direction-recognition thresholds recorded on our Moog platform. Taken together, these various findings show that yaw rotation recognition thresholds are relatively unaffected by vibration when moderate (up to ?0.08 m/s2) vibration cues are present. PMID:24068754

Chaudhuri, Shomesh E.; Karmali, Faisal

2013-01-01

221

Apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass of standing subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the standing human body during exposure to vertical vibration have been investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration over the frequency range 2.0-20 Hz at three vibration magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 m s -2 rms. Subjects stood in five different postures: upright, lordotic, anterior lean, knees bent and knees more bent. The vertical acceleration at the floor and the forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions at the floor were used to obtain the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass. The resonance frequency of the apparent mass was significantly reduced with knees bent and knees more bent postures, but there were only minor effects on the resonance frequency by changing the position of the upper body. Considerable cross-axis apparent mass, up to about 30% of the static mass of subjects, was found. The cross-axis apparent mass was influenced by all postural changes used in the study. In all postures the resonance frequencies of the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass tended to decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear characteristic tended to be less clear in some postures in which subjects increased muscle tension.

Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

2006-05-01

222

Seven Day Insertion Rest in Whole Body Vibration Improves Multi-Level Bone Quality in Tail Suspension Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration with rest days on bone quality at multiple levels. Methods Forty-nine three-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups, namely, vibrational loading for X day followed by X day rest (VLXR, X?=?1, 3, 5, 7), vibrational loading every day (VLNR), tail suspension (SPD), and baseline control (BCL). One week after tail suspension, rats were loaded by vibrational loading (35 Hz, 0.25 g, 15 min/day) except SPD and BCL. Fluorescence markers were used in all rats. Eight weeks later, femora were harvested to investigate macromechanical properties, and micro-computed tomography scanning and fluorescence test were used to evaluate microarchitecture and bone growth rate. Atomic force microscopy analyses and nanoindentation test were used to analyze the nanostructure and mechanical properties of bone material, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy was used for quantitative chemical analyses. Results Microarchitecture, mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate and macromechanical properties were improved in VL7R. Grain size and roughness were significantly different among all groups. No statistical difference was found for the mechanical properties of the bone material, and the chemical composition of all groups was almost similar. Conclusions Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration with rest days altered bone microarchitecture and macro-biomechanical properties, and VL7R was more efficacious in improving bone loss caused by mechanical disuse, which provided theoretical basis and explored the mechanisms of vibration for improving bone quality in clinics. PMID:24637608

Zhang, Rui; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Gao, Jiazi; Fang, Juan; Fan, Yubo

2014-01-01

223

Whole body scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body scanning is a useful technique with applications in the apparel industry, human systems engineering and medical field. A worldwide review of whole body scanners describes eight commercially available systems. The scanners differ considerably in price (US$50?000–410?000), resolution (1–8mm) and speed (0.2–3s). Most scanners use laser stripe projection; other techniques are patterned light projection and stereo photogrammetry. To cover

Hein A. M. Daanen; G. Jeroen van de Water

1998-01-01

224

Acute changes in neuromuscular excitability after exhaustive whole body vibration exercise as compared to exhaustion by squatting exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of hard squatting exercise with (VbX+) and without (VbX)) vibration on neuromuscular function were tested in 19 healthy young volunteers. Before and after the exercise, three different tests were performed: maximum serial jumping for 30 s, electromyography during isometric knee extension at 70% of the maximum voluntary torque, and the quantitative analysis of the patellar tendon reflex.

Jorn Rittweger; Marcus Mutschelknauss; Dieter Felsenberg

2003-01-01

225

A new framework for evaluating potential risk of back disorders due to whole body vibration and repeated mechanical shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have examined the potential relationship between exposure to occupational vibration and low back pain associated with operation of vehicles. Only a handful of studies, however, have attempted to differentiate between the relative contributions of the steady state and transient mechanical shock components (the latter also being known as ‘jarring and jolting’, ‘high acceleration event’, ‘multiple shocks’

Thomas Waters; Christin Rauche; Ash Genaidy; Tarek Rashed

2007-01-01

226

City bus driving and low back pain: a study of the exposures to posture demands, manual materials handling and whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate worker exposure to posture demands, manual materials handling (MMH) and whole body vibration as risks for low back pain (LBP). Using validated questionnaire, information about driving experience, driving (sitting) posture MMH, and health history was obtained from 80 city bus drivers. Twelve drivers were observed during their service route driving (at least one complete round trip) and vibration measurements were obtained at the seat and according to the recommendations of ISO 2631 (1997), for three models of bus (a mini-bus, a single-decker bus, a double-decker bus). The results showed that city bus drivers spend about 60% of the daily work time actually driving, often with the torso straight or unsupported, perform occasional and light MMH, and experience discomforting shock/jerking vibration events. Transient and mild LBP (not likely to interfere with work or customary levels of activity) was found to be prevalent among the drivers and a need for ergonomic evaluation of the drivers' seat was suggested. PMID:17225292

Okunribido, Olanrewaju O; Shimbles, Steven J; Magnusson, Marianne; Pope, Malcolm

2007-01-01

227

Whole-body vibration experienced by haulage truck operators in surface mining operations: a comparison of various analysis methods utilized in the prediction of health risks.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) was measured on eight surface haulage trucks in three size classes (35, 100, 150ton haul capacities). Vibration was measured at the seat/operator interface in accordance with the ISO 2631-1 standard during 1h of normal operation. Highest acceleration readings were observed in the z-axis (vertical). Estimated equivalent daily exposure values in the range of 0.44-0.82 ms(-2) were observed using the frequency-weighted r.m.s method and 8.7-16.4ms(-1.75) using the vibration dose value method. Assessment was carried out using ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. Operators of surface haulage trucks are regularly exposed to WBV levels that exceed safety limits as dictated by the ISO 2631-1 standard. However, according to ISO 2631-5 the probability of an adverse health effect remains low. These findings confirm an apparent disagreement between the two analysis methods. PMID:20185120

Smets, Martin P H; Eger, Tammy R; Grenier, Sylvain G

2010-10-01

228

Back Disorder Intervention Strategies for Mass Transit Operators Exposed to Whole-Body VIBRATION—COMPARISON of Two Transit System Approaches and Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occupational long-term whole-body vibration (WBV) has been recognized as a major risk factor for low back disorders, one of the most important reasons for medical impairment and early permanent disability among mass transit operators. Although no firm health and safety vibration exposure threshold limits have been established, the available data suggests that rail vehicle operators would probably fall under the proposed WBV “action levels” of the EU directive provisions for protection from physical hazards. This provision calls for technical, administrative and medical controls. This paper examines and compares the current conditions, provisions and plans of two major mass transit systems, the New Yorker MTA and the Munich MVV. The available data, information and publications (English/German) on working conditions, vibration exposure, epidemiology and intervention strategies (primary and secondary prevention) for rail bound mass transit workers were reviewed. Results strongly suggest that the MTA transit system has currently and in the near future no effective and meaningful controls in place to significantly reduce the WBV exposure of subway operators. It appears that the MVV system has more and better control measures in place to reduce harmful effects of WBV. Results of a scientific evaluation of a participatory, collaborative project in the MVV system suggest that the MVV may have developed a successful method of a “condition prevention” (Verhältnisprävention)—and “behavioral prevention” (Verhaltensprävention) intervention strategy, which appears beneficial for WBV exposed workers with existing low back pain. Long-term outcomes and benefits need to be assessed further.

Johanning, E.

1998-08-01

229

A new framework for evaluating potential risk of back disorders due to whole body vibration and repeated mechanical shock.  

PubMed

A number of studies have examined the potential relationship between exposure to occupational vibration and low back pain associated with operation of vehicles. Only a handful of studies, however, have attempted to differentiate between the relative contributions of the steady state and transient mechanical shock components (the latter also being known as 'jarring and jolting', 'high acceleration event', 'multiple shocks' and 'impact') of the vibration exposure. The primary objective of this paper is to present a review of current studies that examine mechanical shock, present a case for the importance of evaluating both steady state and mechanical shock components and propose a new framework for evaluating the health effects due to occupational vibration exposure. A computerized bibliographical search of several databases was performed with special reference to the health effects of mechanical shock in relation to lower back disorders. Based on the analysis, eight experimental studies and nine epidemiological studies with relevance to exposure to 'mechanical shock' were identified. These studies suggested that rough vehicle rides are prevalent and that repeated exposure to mechanical shock may increase the risk of lower back pain. There is an urgent need for assessing the health effects of mechanical shocks in epidemiological studies. In particular, the new ISO 2631-5: International Organization for Standardization 2004 standard for shock exposure assessment should be evaluated with regard to musculoskeletal health effects. PMID:17536775

Waters, Thomas; Rauche, Christin; Genaidy, Ash; Rashed, Tarek

2007-03-01

230

Combined isometric and vibration training does not enhance strength beyond that of isometric training alone.  

PubMed

Research considering combined vibration and strength training is extensive yet results are equivocal. However, to date there appears no research which has considered the combination of both direct vibration and whole---body vibration when used in an isometric deadlift position. The aims of this study were to compare groups performing isometric training with and without direct and whole---body vibration. Twenty four participants (19---24 years) were randomly divided into: isometric training with vibration (ST+VT: n=8), isometric training without vibration (ST: n=8), and control (CON: n=8). Within the training groups participants trained twice per week, for 6 weeks, performing 6---sets of maximal isometric deadlift contractions, increasing in duration from 30 seconds to 40 seconds (weeks 1---6). Hip and knee angle was maintained at 60° and 110°, respectively for both testing and training. Training sessions for ST+VT were identical to ST with the addition of a direct vibratory stimulus through hand---held straps and whole---body vibration via standing on vibration a platform. The amplitude remained constant (2mm) throughout the intervention whilst the frequency increased from 35Hz to 50Hz. Pre--- and post---test isometric strength was measured using an isometric deadlift dynamometer. Results revealed significant increases in isometric strength for both ST+VT (p < 0.001, 23.8%) and ST (p < 0.001, 32.5%) compared to CON, with no significant differences between ST+VT and ST training groups. The present study provides evidence to suggest that there are no greater gains to be incurred by the addition of a vibratory stimulus to traditional strength training. PMID:25295625

Fisher, J; Van-Dongen, M; Sutherland, R

2014-10-01

231

Whole body vibration improves osseointegration by up-regulating osteoblastic activity but down-regulating osteoblast-mediated osteoclastogenesis via ERK1/2 pathway.  

PubMed

Due to the reduction in bone mass and deterioration in bone microarchitecture, osteoporosis is an important risk factor for impairing implant osseointegration. Recently, low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibration (LM: <1×g; HF: 20-90Hz) has been shown to exhibit anabolic, but anti-resorptive effects on skeletal homeostasis. Therefore, we hypothesized that LMHF loading, in terms of whole body vibration (WBV), may improve implant fixation under osteoporotic status. In the in vivo study, WBV treatment (magnitude: 0.3g, frequency: 40Hz, time: 30min/12h, 5days/week) was applied after hydroxyapatite-coated titanium implants were inserted in the bilateral tibiae of ovariectomized rats. The bone mass and the osteospecific gene expressions were measured at 12weeks post implantation. In the in vitro study, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities were fully investigated using various experimental assays. Micro-CT examination showed that WBV could enhance osseointegration by improving microstructure parameters surrounding implants. WBV-regulated gene levels in favor of bone formation over resorption may be the reason for the favorable adaptive bone remolding on bone-implant surface. The in vitro study showed that vibration (magnitude: 0.3g, frequency: 40Hz, time: 30min/12h) up-regulated osteoblast differentiation, matrix synthesis and mineralization. However, mechanically regulated osteoclastic activity was mainly through the effect on osteoblastic cells producing osteoclastogenesis-associated key soluble factors, including RANKL and M-CSF. Osteoblasts were therefore the direct target cells during the mechanotransduction process. The ERK1/2 pathway was demonstrated to play an essential role in vibration-induced enhancement of bone formation and decreased bone resorption. Our data suggests that WBV was a helpful non-pharmacological intervention for improving osseointegration under osteoporosis. PMID:25304090

Zhou, Yi; Guan, Xiaoxu; Liu, Tie; Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Mengfei; Yang, Guoli; Wang, Huiming

2015-02-01

232

Long-term sick leave and disability pensioning due to back disorders of tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

In a historical 11-year follow-up study, disability pensioning and the incidence of the first sick leave of 4 weeks or longer due to back disorders has been investigated in a group of drivers exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV), mainly of agricultural tractors. The reference group comprised workers not or only slightly exposed to WBV from the same and another company. The vibration exposure of the tractor drivers was roughly around the ISO-2631 fatigue-decreased proficiency limit. The incidence of a first long-term sick leave due to back disorders was 3 per 100 person-years in tractor drivers and 2 per 100 person-years in the entire reference group. However, the incidence was not substantially increased in tractor drivers when the referents comprised only those working at the same company, suggesting selection bias. The highest relative risk (ca. 3) was found for long-term sick leave due to intervertebral disc disorders and this risk seemed to increase with the received WBV dose. That especially the incidence of intervertebral disc disorders increased, agrees well with findings in other studies. Data on disability pensioning due to back disorders are too scarce to be conclusive, but a trend towards younger disablement in tractor drivers is evident. Exposure to WBV, together with twisted posture and prolonged sitting, are considered to be responsible for the increased incidences observed in tractor drivers. PMID:2139013

Boshuizen, H C; Hulshof, C T; Bongers, P M

1990-01-01

233

Psychophysical assessment of sinusoidal whole-body vibration in z-axis between 0.6 and 5 Hz combined with different noise levels.  

PubMed

Nine healthy sitting males evaluated the intensity of vertical whole-body vibration (WBV) in z-axis at four frequencies (F1 = 0.63 Hz, F2 = 1.25 Hz, F3 = 2.5 Hz, F4 = 5 Hz) and two intensities (I1 = 1 ms-2 rms, I2 = 2 ms-2 rms) by cross-modality matching (CMM). The subjects were simultaneously exposed to low-frequency noise at two levels (L1 = 65 dBA, L2 = 86 dBA). L1 and L2 were context conditions which did not have to be evaluated by CMM. The results indicate a flat response between F2 and F3; the sensitivity increases towards F1. Different exponents of Stevens' power law for the frequencies of WBV contradict the frequency range tested to be a sensory continuum. L2 caused practically significantly stronger sensations of the WBV-intensity from F1 to F3 (I1) and at F2 (I2). No synergistic effect of noise and WBV was shown at F3I2. Weighting factors were calculated for all exposure conditions using Stevens' power law. The weighting of F2 and F3 contradicts that of the International Standard ISO 2631-1985 (E). The results enable recommendations for the frequency weighting of WBV between 0.63 and 1 Hz, as well as for the equivalence of noise and WBV with combined exposure. PMID:2744873

Seidel, H; Richter, J; Kurerov, N N; Schajpak, E J; Blüthner, R; Erdmann, U; Hinz, B

1989-01-01

234

Whole body vibration exercise improves body balance and walking velocity in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate: Galileo and Alendronate Intervention Trail (GAIT).  

PubMed

A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. Fifty-two ambulatory postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age: 74.2 years, range: 51-91 years) were randomly divided into two groups: an exercise group and a control group. A four-minute WBV exercise was performed two days per week only in the exercise group. No exercise was performed in the control group. All the women were treated with alendronate. After 6 months of the WBV exercise, the indices for flexibility, body balance, and walking velocity were significantly improved in the exercise group compared with the control group. The exercise was safe and well tolerated. The reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen during the 6-month period were comparable between the two groups. The present study showed the benefit and safety of WBV exercise for improving physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. PMID:22947545

Iwamoto, J; Sato, Y; Takeda, T; Matsumoto, H

2012-09-01

235

Addition of synchronous whole-body vibration to body mass resistive exercise causes little or no effects on muscle damage and inflammation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if a moderate intensity whole-body vibration (WBV) body mass resistive exercise session causes additional muscle damage, soreness, and inflammation compared with the same exercise session without vibration (NoV). Ten recreationally active male university students completed 2 separate 24-hour study periods incorporating an exercise session with WBV or NoV. Muscle torque was measured (at 0, 60, and 240°·s-1 angular velocities), soreness (10-point scale) in the upper (UE [triceps]) and lower (LE [quadriceps]) extremities, and muscle inflammation markers (interleukin [IL]-1?, IL-6, IL-10) were measured at 4 time points (preexercise, immediately postexercise, 4 hours post, and 24 hours post). Diet was controlled. Compared with NoV, WBV increased (p < 0.01) muscle soreness at 24 hours postexercise in both the UE (2.2 ± 1.7 vs. 0.6 ± 0.9) and LE (2.0 ± 1.5 vs. 0.7 ± 0.7). Muscle torque was decreased immediately postexercise (p < 0.05) in the UE and LE at 0°·s and in the UE at 240°·s, but there was no difference between exercise treatments. The exercise session caused significant but small increases in IL-1? and IL-6 but with no differences between exercise treatments. Interleukin-10 was increased with WBV (2.9 ± 2.0 to 3.6 ± 1.9 pg·ml-1; p < 0.03). These data suggest that the addition of WBV to exercise has little effect on muscle function and damage, soreness, or inflammation. PMID:23615482

Hazell, Tom J; Olver, T Dylan; Hamilton, Craig D; Lemon, Peter W R

2014-01-01

236

The development of an intervention programme to reduce whole-body vibration exposure at work induced by a change in behaviour: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure at work is common and studies found evidence that this exposure might cause low back pain (LBP). A recent review concluded there is a lack of evidence of effective strategies to reduce WBV exposure. Most research in this field is focussed on the technical implications, although changing behaviour towards WBV exposure might be promising as well. Therefore, we developed an intervention programme to reduce WBV exposure in a population of drivers with the emphasis on a change in behaviour of driver and employer. The hypothesis is that an effective reduction in WBV exposure, in time, will lead to a reduction in LBP as WBV exposure is a proxy for an increased risk of LBP. Methods/Design The intervention programme was developed specifically for the drivers of vibrating vehicles and their employers. The intervention programme will be based on the most important determinants of WBV exposure as track conditions, driving speed, quality of the seat, etc. By increasing knowledge and skills towards changing these determinants, the attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE) of both drivers and employers will be affected having an effect on the level of exposure. We used the well-known ASE model to develop an intervention programme aiming at a change or the intention to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The developed programme consists of: individual health surveillance, an information brochure, an informative presentation and a report of the performed field measurements. Discussion The study protocol described is advantageous as the intervention program actively tries to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The near future will show if this intervention program is effective by showing a decrease in WBV exposure. PMID:18005400

Tiemessen, Ivo JH; Hulshof, Carel TJ; Frings-Dresen, Monique HW

2007-01-01

237

[Exposure to whole-body vibration of forklift truck operators in dockyards--actual exposure in Japan and evaluation by EN 13059].  

PubMed

Low-back disorders are well documented as occupational hazards among forklift truck operators. The potential risk factors that may lead to low-back pain include exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV). In Europe, test methods were developed to evaluate WBV in industrial trucks, and the European Standard which defines the methods has been published. We measured the vibrations of forklift trucks operated in the Hanshin harbour area adopting procedures based on the CEN test and report the evaluation results. If the WBV magnitudes of the ride on forklift trucks in the workplace were less than or comparable to those in the CEN test, the CEN test could be considered useful for the risk assessment of forklift truck operators exposed to WBV. In order to verify the applicability of the CEN test to the evaluation of WBV exposure in the field, we conducted measurements of the WBV of four forklift trucks for 19 d. The trucks had already been examined by the CEN test. The truck velocity, driver position (sitting or not), and gear lever position were also measured, and video footage was obtained for the study. The results indicate that the vertical WBV magnitudes of the four forklift trucks were below the CEN test values. No dominant WBV direction was observed on any of the measurement days. The Health value (obtained by combining the values determined from the vibration in orthogonal coordinates) was comparable to that from the CEN test for one truck. The values for the other three trucks were lower. The data obtained for three forklift trucks were analyzed in each operating condition. The vertical WBV magnitudes and Health values for the three trucks were below the CEN test values when the trucks were travelling forwards with a load. The WBV in the anterior-posterior direction had the largest adverse effect on the human body of the three orthogonal directions when the trucks were used for loading and unloading. The results suggest the CEN test can be applied to the evaluation of exposure to WBV from forklift trucks operating in the vicinity of the Hanshin harbour. It was observed that the anterior-posterior WBV is considerable, mostly through exposure occurring in the lifting mode. However, the CEN test is based on the travelling mode, and further WBV measurements under real working conditions with exact descriptions of detailed work situations and operating conditions are required. PMID:17062995

Tsujimura, Hiroji; Taoda, Kazushi; Nishiyama, Katsuo

2006-09-01

238

Whole body transmission-emission scanning with whole body camera.  

PubMed

Whole body transmission-emission scanning was carried out using a whole body camera. A disk source 30 cm in diameter filled with 99mTc was used for transmission scanning. Correct interpretation of emission scanning requires accurate anatomical orientation of the images. The value of whole body transmission-emission scanning is emphasized. PMID:813536

Suzuki, Y; Mori, H; Michigishi, T; Hisada, K; Matsudaira, M

1975-12-01

239

Neck pain combined with arm pain among professional drivers of forest machines and the association with whole-body vibration exposure.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence of neck pain and arm pain among professional forest machine drivers and to find out if pain were related to their whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 529 forest machine drivers in northern Sweden and the response was 63%. Two pain groups were formed; 1) neck pain; 2) neck pain combined with arm pain. From WBV exposure data (recent measurements made according to ISO 2631-1, available information from reports) and from the self-administered questionnaire, 14 various WBV exposure/dose measures were calculated for each driver. The prevalence of neck pain reported both for the previous 12 months and for the previous 7 d was 34% and more than half of them reported neck pain combined with pain in one or both arms. Analysis showed no significant association between neck pain and high WBV exposure; however, cases with neck pain more often experienced shocks and jolts in the vehicle as uncomfortable. There was no significant association between the 14 WBV measures and type of neck pain (neck pain vs. neck pain combined with arm pain). It seems as if characteristics of WBV exposure can explain neither existence nor the type of neck pain amongst professional drivers of forest machines. The logging industry is important for several industrialised countries. Drivers of forest machines frequently report neuromusculoskeletal pain from the neck. The type of neck pain is important for the decision of treatment modality and may be associated with exposure characteristics at work. PMID:19787503

Rehn, B; Nilsson, T; Lundström, R; Hagberg, M; Burström, L

2009-10-01

240

Vibration or balance training on neuromuscular performance in osteopenic women.  

PubMed

Maintaining neuromuscular function in older age is an important topic for aging societies, especially for older women with low bone density who may be at risk of falls and bone fracture. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of resistive exercise with either whole-body vibration training (VIB) or coordination/balance training (BAL) on neuromuscular function (countermovement jump, multiple 1-leg hopping, sit-to-stand test). 68 postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis were recruited for the study. 57 subjects completed the 9-month, twice weekly, intervention period. All subjects conducted 30?min of resistance exercise each training day. The VIB-group performed additional training on the Galileo vibration exercise device. The BAL-group performed balance training. An "intent-to-treat" analysis showed greater improvement in the VIB-group for peak countermovement power (p=0.004). The mean [95% confidence interval] effect size for this parameter was a ?+?0.9[0.3 to 1.5] W/kg greater change in VIB than BAL after 9 months. In multiple 1-leg hopping, a significantly better performance in the VIB-group after the intervention period was seen on a "per-protocol" analysis only. Both groups improved in the sit-to-stand test. The current study provides evidence that short-duration whole-body vibration exercise can have a greater impact on some aspects of neuromuscular function in post-menopausal women with low bone density than proprioceptive training. PMID:23549694

Stolzenberg, N; Belavý, D L; Rawer, R; Felsenberg, D

2013-11-01

241

Long-term effects of 6-week whole-body vibration on balance recovery and activities of daily living in the postacute phase of stroke: a randomized, controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The long-term effects of 6-weeks whole-body vibration, as a novel method of somatosensory stimulation, on postural control and activities of daily living were compared with those of 6 weeks of exercise therapy on music of the same intensity in the postacute phase of stroke. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with moderate to severe functional disabilities were randomized within 6

I. J. W. van Nes; H. Latour; F. Schils; R. Meijer; A. van Kuijk; A. C. H. Geurts

2006-01-01

242

Effect of Low-Magnitude Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Alendronate in Ovariectomized Rats: A Random Controlled Osteoporosis Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

Background Alendronate (ALE) is a conventional drug used to treat osteoporosis. Low-magnitude whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been developed as a potential treatment for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-magnitude WBV could enhance the protective effect of ALE on bone properties in ovariectomized rats. Methods A total of 128 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (SHAM, OVX+VEH, OVX+WBV, OVX + ALE, OVX+WBV+ALE). The level of WBV applied was 0.3 g at 45–55 Hz for 20 min/day, 5 day/week and for 3 months. ALE was administered in dose of 1 mg/Kg once a week. Every four weeks eight rats from each group were sacrificed and their blood and both tibiae were harvested. The expression of osteocalcin and CTX in serum was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the tibiae were subjected to metaphyseal three-point bending and ?CT analysis. Results Osteocalcin rose after ovariectomy and was not appreciably changed by either alendronate or WBV alone or in combination. Alendronate treatment significantly prevented an increase in CTX. WBV alone treatment did not alter this effect. Compared with the OVX+WBV group, nearly all tested indices such as the BV/TV, TV apparent, Tb.N, Tb.Th, and Conn.D were higher in the OVX+ALE group at week 12.Compared with the OVX+WBV group, certain tested indices such as BV/TV, TV apparent, Tb.N, and Con.D, were higher in the OVX+WBV+ALE group at week 12. At week 12, tibiae treated with WBV+ALE exhibited a significantly higher Fmax compared to the OVX+VEH group, and a significant difference was also found in energy absorption between the OVX+WBV+ALE and OVX+VEH groups. Conclusions Compared with the WBV, ALE was more effective at preventing bone loss and improved the trabecular architecture. However, WBV enhanced the effect of alendronate in ovariectomized rats by inducing further improvements in trabecular architecture. PMID:24796785

Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Wei; Ding, Ruo-Ting; Yu, Hui; Chen, Jian-Ting

2014-01-01

243

Modelling the effects of exposure to whole-body vibration on low-back pain and its long-term consequences for sickness absence and associated work disability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BackgroundExposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known risk factor for the occurrence of low-back pain (LBP). Little is known about the long-term course of back pain in workers exposed to WBV and the consequences for (temporary) disability, due to lack of cohort studies with sufficiently long follow-up periods. MethodsA systematic review of the literature was performed to assess associations between exposure to WBV and LBP, sickness absence due to low-back disorders and permanent disability. A meta-analysis was used to estimate the prevalences of LBP and sickness absence due to low-back disorders in occupational populations, depending on relevant exposure characteristics. These prevalences were converted into probabilities for transitions between no complaints, LBP, sickness due to LBP, and disability. A Markov model was applied to evaluate a hypothetical cohort of workers without LBP at the start of the cohort and a follow-up of 40 years (40 cycles of 1 year) to reflect a long-life career with continuous exposure to WBV. ResultsIn this hypothetical cohort it was estimated that among workers with the highest exposure to WBV on average about 47 weeks of their working life were lost due to sick leave because of LBP, which is approximately 2.5% of their working life. When all workers on prolonged sick leave for 52 weeks would remain disabled for the rest of their working life, a maximum of 23.4% of their working life could be lost due to high WBV exposure. Among workers without or low exposure to WBV the corresponding losses were 0.8% and 7.8%, respectively. ConclusionThe approach to assess years of work lost due to an occupational exposure may provide a more adequate description for stakeholders than the traditional measures of relative risk or attributable risk fraction. The concept of work years lost may also facilitate a better appreciation of the potential benefits of preventive measures.

Burdorf, A.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

2006-12-01

244

Hanford whole body counting manual  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

1990-06-01

245

Delivery drivers and low-back pain: A study of the exposures to posture demands, manual materials handling and whole-body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposures of drivers to posture demands, manual materials handling (MMH) and vibration as risk factors for LBP were investigated. A validated questionnaire was used to obtain information about driving experience, driving (sitting) posture, MMH, and health history among 64 drivers in short-haul delivery jobs. Twelve persons were observed and videotaped during their work and vibration measurements were obtained for

Olanrewaju O. Okunribido; Marianne Magnusson; Malcolm Pope

2006-01-01

246

Health risk evaluation of whole-body vibration by ISO 2631-5 and ISO 2631-1 for operators of agricultural tractors and recreational vehicles.  

PubMed

This paper presents experimental research evaluation of the vibration exposure for the health risk prediction during vehicle operation. The vibration measurements were carried out on a recreational vehicle and two types of agricultural tractors. The vibration levels were measured for different surfaces and vehicle speed conditions. Based on the analysis of the results in the small agricultural tractor operated in the workplace (frameworks), Sed exceeded 0.80 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004, and Av exceeded 0.89 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997. That means that operators driving small agricultural tractors more than 8 h a day have a high probability of adverse health effects. However, the exposure value for the recreational vehicle had Sed < 0.5 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004 and Av < 0.5 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997 on highways and local roads. That means Recreational Vehicle operators driving more than 8 h a day, have a low probability of adverse health effects. Also, for the recreational vehicle, vibration was taken at different speeds (40-60 km/h, 80 km/h, 100-120 km/h). However, the speed change did not appear to affect the vibration dose variation while driving a vehicle on the highway and road. Finally, the health effect index of ISO2631-5:2004 are almost the same as assessment of health effect by ISO2631-1:1997. PMID:23558167

Park, Min-Soo; Fukuda, Takabumi; Kim, Tae-Gu; Maeda, Setsuo

2013-01-01

247

Thermogenic Capacity Is Antagonistically Regulated in Classical Brown and White Subcutaneous Fat Depots by High Fat Diet and Endurance Training in Rats: IMPACT ON WHOLE-BODY ENERGY EXPENDITURE.  

PubMed

This study investigated the regulation of thermogenic capacity in classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) and subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) white adipose tissue (WAT) and how it affects whole-body energy expenditure in sedentary and endurance-trained rats fed ad libitum either low fat or high fat (HF) diets. Analysis of tissue mass, PGC-1? and UCP-1 content, the presence of multilocular adipocytes, and palmitate oxidation revealed that a HF diet increased the thermogenic capacity of the interscapular and aortic brown adipose tissues, whereas exercise markedly suppressed it. Conversely, exercise induced browning of the SC Ing WAT. This effect was attenuated by a HF diet. Endurance training neither affected skeletal muscle FNDC5 content nor circulating irisin, but it increased FNDC5 content in SC Ing WAT. This suggests that locally produced FNDC5 rather than circulating irisin mediated the exercise-induced browning effect on this fat tissue. Importantly, despite reducing the thermogenic capacity of classical BAT, exercise increased whole-body energy expenditure during the dark cycle. Therefore, browning of subcutaneous WAT likely exerted a compensatory effect and raised whole-body energy expenditure in endurance-trained rats. Based on these novel findings, we propose that exercise-induced browning of the subcutaneous WAT provides an alternative mechanism that reduces thermogenic capacity in core areas and increases it in peripheral body regions. This could allow the organism to adjust its metabolic rate to accommodate diet-induced thermogenesis while simultaneously coping with the stress of chronically increased heat production through exercise. PMID:25344623

Wu, Michelle V; Bikopoulos, George; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

2014-12-01

248

a Comparison of Evaluations and Assessments Obtained Using Alternative Standards for Predicting the Hazards of Whole-Body Vibration and Repeated Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are three current standards that might be used to assess the vibration and shock transmitted by a vehicle seat with respect to possible effects on human health: ISO 2631/1 (1985), BS 6841 (1987) and ISO 2631-1 (1997). Evaluations have been performed on the seat accelerations measured in nine different transport environments (bus, car, mobile crane, fork-lift truck, tank, ambulance, power boat, inflatable boat, mountain bike) in conditions that might be considered severe. For each environment, limiting daily exposure durations were estimated by comparing the frequency weighted root mean square (i.e., r.m.s.) accelerations and the vibration dose values (i.e.,VDV), calculated according to each standard with the relevant exposure limits, action level and health guidance caution zones. Very different estimates of the limiting daily exposure duration can be obtained using the methods described in the three standards. Differences were observed due to variations in the shapes of the frequency weightings, the phase responses of the frequency weighting filters, the method of combining multi-axis vibration, the averaging method, and the assessment method. With the evaluated motions, differences in the shapes of the weighting filters results in up to about 31% difference in r.m.s. acceleration between the “old” and the “new” ISO standard and up to about 14% difference between BS 6841 and the “new” ISO 2631. There were correspondingly greater differences in the estimates of safe daily exposure durations. With three of the more severe motions there was a difference of more than 250% between estimated safe daily exposure durations based on r.m.s. acceleration and those based on fourth power vibration dose values. The vibration dose values provided the more cautious assessments of the limiting daily exposure duration.

Lewis, C. H.; Griffin, M. J.

1998-08-01

249

Examination of the frequency-weighting curve for accelerations measured on the seat and at the surface supporting the feet during horizontal whole-body vibrations in x- and y-directions.  

PubMed

In a laboratory experiment, six male subjects were exposed to sinusoidal (0.8, 1.6, 3.15, 6.3 and 12.5 Hz) or random octave band-width white noise (mid-frequencies identical to those of the sinusoidal vibrations) whole-body vibration in x- or y-directions, at six levels of magnitude (0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 m/s(2) r.m.s. non- and frequency-weighted) with two repetitions. In order to examine time effects, additional reference stimuli were used. Each subject was exposed to these 304 exposure conditions with a duration of about one minute on four different days (76 exposures per day). The subject's sensations of vibration intensity and vibration comfort were obtained by cross modality matching (length of a line). The subjects sat with an upright posture on a hard seat without backrest, hands on the thighs. The derived equivalent sensation contours suggest an underestimation of the sensation varying in extent from 2 dB to 8 dB at 1.6, 3.15, 6.3 and 12.5 Hz in comparison with the reference frequency 0.8 Hz for both types and directions of signals by the current evaluation methods according to ISO 2631-1 with the most pronounced effects revealed at the frequencies 3.15 and 6.3 Hz and at lower intensities (overall vibration total value a(ov) around 0.48 m/s(2) to 0.8 m/s(2) at the reference frequency 0.8 Hz). PMID:20953088

Schust, Marianne; Kreisel, Alexander; Seidel, Helmut; Blüthner, Ralph

2010-01-01

250

The significance of lateral whole-body vibrations related to separately and simultaneously applied vertical motions. A validation study of ISO 2631.  

PubMed

Sensitivity of lateral motions relative to vertical motions were determined and compared to predictions provided by ISO 2631. Two experiments were executed where lateral and vertical motions were applied consecutively or simultaneously and where the magnitude of a single- or dual-axis test signal was adjusted until it was judged as equivalent to a preceding single-axis reference motion of the same frequency. Experiment 1: References consisted of vertical sinusoidal motions presented with 1.6-12.5 Hz and weighted accelerations of a(zw) = 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 m s(-2) r.m.s., single-axis test signals were lateral motions of the same frequency. 26 subjects (15 men, 11 women, 20-56 yr) participated in the experiments. Accelerations adjusted for lateral vibrations above 1.6 Hz were considerably lower than predicted suggesting that the weighting factors provided in ISO 2631 are incorrect. Experiment 2: References consisted of single-axis vertical or lateral sinusoidal motions presented with 1.6-12.5 Hz and a weighted acceleration of a(zw) = 1.25 m s(-2) r.m.s. The dual-axis test signals consisted of a constant fraction of the reference acceleration (10, 25, 50, 75, 90%) and a perpendicularly oriented adjustable component. 31 subjects (15 men, 16 women, 19-51 yr) participated in the experiments. Both experiments revealed that ISO 2631 is qualitatively valid, the weighting of lateral motions above 1.6 Hz, however, should be increased in order to meet the actual sensitivity particularly in case of multi-axis vibrations. PMID:10693830

Griefahn, B; Bröde, P

1999-12-01

251

Effect of balance exercise in combination with whole-body vibration on muscle activity of the stepping limb during a forward fall in older women: A randomized controlled pilot study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of balance exercise combined with whole-body vibration (WBV) on step performance and lower limb muscle activity during simulated forward falls using the tether-release method in older women. Twenty older women were assigned to either a WBV plus balance exercise group (WBV, n=10) or a balance exercise without vibration group (standard balance exercise group [STE], n=10). WBV performed weight-bearing exercises on a WBV platform combined with other balance exercises as a home program, whereas STE performed the same exercises without WBV. The exercise volume was equal in both intervention groups (3×/week for 12 weeks×30min/session). The EMG and kinematic data of the stepping leg from the balance recovery step were examined before and after the intervention. While both groups extended step length during forward falls after the intervention, only WBV increased step velocity. EMG analysis of the balance recovery step showed that both groups increased peak EMG of knee flexor and extensor muscles after intervention. After intervention, WBV increased peak EMG of the plantar flexors, which are used to exert the push-off forces just before the leg swing. Balance exercise in older women resulted in significant improvements in the balance recovery step after a simulated forward fall. WBV also had the additional benefit of improved step velocity, which was reflected in increased activity of the plantar flexors in the stepping leg. PMID:25482957

Ochi, Akira; Abe, Tomokazu; Yamada, Kazumasa; Ibuki, Satoko; Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Ichihashi, Noriaki

2014-12-01

252

Systematically Controlling for the Influence of Age, Sex, Hertz and Time Post-Whole-Body Vibration Exposure on Four Measures of Physical Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Cross-Over Study  

PubMed Central

Though popular, there is little agreement on what whole-body vibration (WBV) parameters will optimize performance. This study aimed to clarify the effects of age, sex, hertz and time on four physical function indicators in community-dwelling older adults (N = 32). Participants were exposed to 2?min WBV per session at either 2?Hz or 26?Hz and outcome measures were recorded at 2, 20 and 40?min post-WBV. Timed get up-and-go and chair sit-and-reach performances improved post-WBV for both sexes, were significantly different between 2?Hz and 26?Hz treatments (P ? 0.05) and showed statistically significant interactions between age and gender (P ? 0.01). Counter movement jump and timed one-legged stance performances showed a similar but non-significant response to 2?Hz and 26?Hz treatments, though male subjects showed a distinct trended response. Age and gender should be statistically controlled and both 2?Hz and 26?Hz exert a treatment effect. PMID:21977028

Merriman, Harold L.; Brahler, C. Jayne; Jackson, Kurt

2011-01-01

253

Effect of subway car design on vibration exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted to determine the vibration characteristics of subway train cars in terms of the whole-body vibration exposure levels transmitted to train operators. A total of five car types was tested and analyzed. To be able to compare different car types, vibration measurements were made under conditions for which all variables other than the car type were

Nihat Özkaya; David Goldsheyder; Bernardus Willems

1997-01-01

254

Running up Blueberry Hill: Whole Body Interaction  

E-print Network

Running up Blueberry Hill: Whole Body Interaction with Musical Harmony Simon Holland, Paul Marshall Interaction Lab The Open University Department of Philosophy University of Edinburgh Music Computing Lab-conceptualising Musical Harmony · Mathematics: Lakoff and Nunez · Music: Zbikowski, Katie Wilkie · Embodied cognition

Holland, Simon

255

WHOLE BODY COUNTING AND NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The composition of the human body can be described using a number of different models. The most basic is the atomic model. This chapter describes several nuclear-based techniques that have been used to obtain direct in vivo chemical assays of the whole body of humans. In particular, the body's co...

256

Whole body insulin resistance in myotonic dystrophy.  

PubMed

To quantitate the degree of whole body insulin resistance in patients with myotonic dystrophy, three separate euglycemic insulin infusions were given to ambulatory patients and the results compared with findings in normal control subjects. Basal glucose and insulin values were similar for the two groups. There was no significant difference in insulin clearance rates between normal subjects and patients at the three insulin infusion rates used. A highly significant decrease in the whole body glucose disposal rate was seen during the 120-minute insulin infusion in the patients with myotonic dystrophy compared with normal subjects at all three insulin dosages (20 mU/m2/min: 2.18 +/- 0.29 [standard error] versus 5.49 +/- 1.72 mg/kg/min, p less than 0.0001; 80 mU/m2/min: 4.16 +/- 0.34 versus 8.49 +/- 0.45 mg/kg/min, p less than 0.0001; 200 mU/m2/min: 5.22 +/- 0.53 versus 10.06 +/- 0.50 mg/kg/min, p less than 0.0001). These marked decreases in glucose disposal rates for the patients were adjusted in accordance with their 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to correct for the difference in muscle mass between patients and controls. This adjusted glucose disposal rate was 15 to 25% lower (p less than 0.02) in the patients with myotonic dystrophy at insulin infusion rates of 20 and 80 mU. During the 200 mU insulin infusions, the adjusted glucose disposal rate remained lower than that in normal subjects but was of borderline statistical significance. These studies suggest that moderately severe whole body insulin resistance is responsible for the postprandial hyperinsulinemia typically seen in patients with myotonic dystrophy. PMID:6367619

Moxley, R T; Corbett, A J; Minaker, K L; Rowe, J W

1984-02-01

257

The acute effects of vibration training on balance and stability amongst soccer players.  

PubMed

Abstract Acute whole body vibration training (WBVT) is a tool used amongst coaches to improve performance prior to activity. Its effects on other fitness components, such as balance and stability, along with how different populations respond are less well understood. The aim of the current research is to determine the effect of acute WBVT on balance and stability amongst elite and amateur soccer players. Forty-four healthy male soccer players (22 elite and 22 amateur) were assigned to a treatment or control group. The intervention group then performed 3 × 60 seconds static squat on vibration platform at 40 Hz (±4 mm) with Y balance test (YBT) scores and dynamic postural stability index (DPSI) measured pre and post. DPSI was significantly lower in the elite players in the acute WBVT compared to amateur players (F1, 40= 6.80; P = 0.013). YBT anterior reach distance showed a significant improvement in both amateur and elite players in the acute WBVT group (F1, 40= 32.36; P < 0.001). The improvement in DPSI amongst the elite players indicates a difference in responses to acute high frequency vibration between elite and amateur players during a landing stability task. The results indicate that acute WBVT improves anterior YBT reach distances through a possible improvement in flexibility amongst both elite and amateur players. In conclusion, acute WBVT training appears to improve stability amongst elite soccer players in comparison to amateur players, the exact reasoning behind this difference requires further investigation. PMID:25357208

Cloak, Ross; Nevill, Alan; Wyon, Matthew

2014-10-30

258

Vibration therapy.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration training is a method for muscle strengthening that is increasingly used in a variety of clinical situations. Key descriptors of vibration devices include the frequency, the amplitude, and the direction of the vibration movement. In a typical vibration session, the user stands on the device in a static position or performs dynamic movements. Most authors hypothesize that vibrations stimulate muscle spindles and alpha-motoneurons, which initiate a muscle contraction. An immediate effect of a non-exhausting vibration session is an increase in muscle power. Most studies of the longer term use of vibration treatment in various disorders have pursued three therapeutic aims: increasing muscle strength, improving balance, and increasing bone mass. In a small pilot trial in children we noted improvements in standing function, lumbar spine bone mineral density, tibial bone mass, and calf muscle cross-sectional area. PMID:19740225

Rauch, Frank

2009-10-01

259

Measures of internal lumbar load in professional drivers - the use of a whole-body finite-element model for the evaluation of adverse health effects of multi-axis vibration.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to (1) employ the method for evaluation of vibration containing multiple shocks according to ISO/CD 2631-5:2014 (Model 1) and DIN SPEC 45697:2012 in a cohort of 537 professional drivers, (2) deliver the results for a re-analysis of epidemiological data obtained in the VIBRISKS study, (3) clarify the extent to which vibration acceleration and individual variables influence risk values, such as the daily compressive dose Sed and the risk factor R, and (4) compare the results with in vivo measurements and those obtained in previous studies with similar models. The risk factor R was influenced by the acceleration, lifetime exposure duration, sitting posture, age at the start of exposure and body mass/body mass index in order of decreasing effect. Age and annual and daily exposure duration had only a marginal effect. The daily compressive dose Sed and the risk factor R showed weak linear association with the daily vibration exposure A(8) and the vibration dose value VDV. The study revealed high shear forces in the lumbar spine. PMID:25290764

Schust, Marianne; Menzel, Gerhard; Hofmann, Jörg; Forta, Nazim Gizem; Pinto, Iole; Hinz, Barbara; Bovenzi, Massimo

2014-10-01

260

Complex effects of stable noise, sinusoidal vs stochastic low frequency whole-body vibration and dynamic muscular work in temporary hearing threshold shifts (TTS) at a dry-bulb temperature of 30/sup 0/C  

SciTech Connect

In the metal industry occupational loss of hearing occurred twice as often among those working with vibrating equipment than among those not exposed to vibration. Occupational loss of hearing also occurred frequently in miners. In the same pits, hearing loss occurred less often among those engaged in pit-propping and among other specialist workers. The generation and development of occupational hearing loss in miners is, in fact, said to depend critically upon vibration, to the effects of which coal-face workers are particularly exosed when drilling. No absolute conclusions can, however, be drawn from these observations, since in many cases the number of different environmental factors prevailing in production life is very large and varies in each stage of production. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine under controlled laboratory conditions the temporary hearing thresholds (TTS) of subjects who, during dynamic muscular work, are exposed at slightly elevated ambient temperature to either noise or vibration separately or to combinations of these factors.

Manninen, O.

1982-01-01

261

Two algorithms for the sorting of unknown train vibration signals into freight and passenger train  

E-print Network

Two algorithms for the sorting of unknown train vibration signals into freight and passenger train in particular. To facilitate this, two algorithms have been constructed with the aim of sorting unknown train vibration signals into freight and passenger train categories so that they can be further analysed. 307

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

Vibration Training: An Overview of the Area, Training Consequences, and Future Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan, M.J., S.R. Norris, D.J. Smith, and W. Her- zog. Vibration training: an overview of the area, training con- sequences, and future considerations. J. Strength Cond. Res. 19(2):459-466. 2005.—The effects of vibration on the human body have been documented for many years. Recently, the use of vibration for improving the training regimes of athletes has been investigated. Vibration has been

Matthew J. Jordan; Stephen R. Norris; David J. Smith; Walter Herzog

2005-01-01

263

Whole-body 35-GHz security scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 35GHz imager designed for Security Scanning has been previously demonstrated. That imager was based on a folded conical scan technology and was constructed from low cost materials such as expanded polystyrene and printed circuit board. In conjunction with an illumination chamber it was used to collect indoor imagery of people with weapons and contraband hidden under their clothing. That imager had a spot size of 20mm and covered a field of view of 20 x 10 degrees that partially covered the body of an adult from knees to shoulders. A new variant of this imager has been designed and constructed. It has a field of view of 36 x 18 degrees and is capable of covering the whole body of an adult. This was achieved by increasing the number of direct detection receivers from the 32 used in the previous design to 58, and by implementing an improved optical design. The optics consist of a front grid, a polarisation device which converts linear to circular polarisation and a rotating scanner. This new design uses high-density expanded polystyrene as a correcting element on the back of the front grid. This gives an added degree of freedom that allows the optical design to be diffraction limited over a very wide field of view. Obscuration by the receivers and associated components is minimised by integrating the post detection electronics at the receiver array.

Appleby, Roger; Anderton, Rupert N.; Price, Sean; Sinclair, Gordon N.; Coward, Peter R.

2004-08-01

264

Adaptations of mouse skeletal muscle to low intensity vibration training  

PubMed Central

Purpose We tested the hypothesis that low intensity vibration training in mice improves contractile function of hindlimb skeletal muscles and promotes exercise-related cellular adaptations. Methods We subjected C57BL/6J mice to 6 wk, 5 d·wk?1, 15 min·d?1 of sham or low intensity vibration (45 Hz, 1.0 g) while housed in traditional cages (Sham-Active, n=8; Vibrated-Active, n=10) or in small cages to restrict physical activity (Sham-Restricted, n=8; Vibrated-Restricted, n=8). Contractile function and resistance to fatigue were tested in vivo (anterior and posterior crural muscles) and ex vivo on the soleus muscle. Tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were evaluated histologically for alterations in oxidative metabolism, capillarity, and fiber types. Epididymal fat pad and hindlimb muscle masses were measured. Two-way ANOVAs were used to determine effects of vibration and physical inactivity. Results Vibration training resulted in a 10% increase in maximal isometric torque (P=0.038) and 16% faster maximal rate of relaxation (P=0.030) of the anterior crural muscles. Posterior crural muscles were unaffected by vibration, with the exception of greater rates of contraction in Vibrated-Restricted mice compared to Vibrated-Active and Sham-Restricted mice (P=0.022). Soleus muscle maximal isometric tetanic force tended to be greater (P=0.057) and maximal relaxation was 20% faster (P=0.005) in Vibrated compared to Sham mice. Restriction of physical activity induced muscle weakness but was not required for vibration to be effective in improving strength or relaxation. Vibration training did not impact muscle fatigability or any indicator of cellular adaptation investigated (P?0.431). Fat pad but not hindlimb muscle masses were affected by vibration training. Conclusion Vibration training in mice improved muscle contractility, specifically strength and relaxation rates, with no indication of adverse effects to muscle function or cellular adaptations. PMID:23274599

McKeehen, James N.; Novotny, Susan A.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Nuckley, David J.; Lowe, Dawn A.

2013-01-01

265

Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data  

SciTech Connect

A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C. [Blasland, Bouck and Lee, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

266

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2011-04-01

267

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2011-04-01

268

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2010-04-01

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21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2014-04-01

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21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2012-04-01

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21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2010-04-01

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21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2012-04-01

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21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2014-04-01

274

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2013-04-01

275

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2013-04-01

276

Mutual Stabilization of Rhythmic Vocalization and Whole-Body Movement  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1) whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2) whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice) in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition) that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition). The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure. PMID:25502730

Miyata, Kohei; Kudo, Kazutoshi

2014-01-01

277

Whole body cholesterol metabolism is impaired in Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

We previously reported impaired cholesterol biosynthesis in rodent Huntington Disease (HD) models and HD patients' fibroblasts and post mortem brains. We also found that plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24OHC), the brain specific elimination product of cholesterol considered a marker of brain cholesterol turnover, were significantly reduced in HD patients at any disease stage. In the present study we analysed by mass spectrometry the fasting plasma levels of cholesterol, its biosynthetic precursors lanosterol and lathosterol, of the whole-body elimination products 27-hydroxycholesterol and of brain 24OHC in a cohort of premanifest and HD patients at different disease stages. We found that the cholesterol precursors lanosterol and lathosterol (both index of whole body cholesterol synthesis), the levels of the bile acid precursor 27-hydroxycholesterol, and of the brain specific 24OHC, were all significantly reduced in manifest HD patients, suggesting that whole-body and brain cholesterol homeostasis are both impaired in HD. PMID:21406216

Leoni, V; Mariotti, C; Nanetti, L; Salvatore, E; Squitieri, F; Bentivoglio, A R; Bandettini di Poggio, M; Bandettini Del Poggio, M; Piacentini, S; Monza, D; Valenza, M; Cattaneo, E; Di Donato, S

2011-05-01

278

BABYSCAN - a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima  

E-print Network

BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for $^{137}$Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described.

Hayano, Ryugo S; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

2014-01-01

279

Whole body bone scintigraphy in osseous hydatosis: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydatid disease is common in many parts of the world, and causes considerable health and economic loss. This disease may develop in almost any part of the body. Bone involvement is often asymptomatic, and its diagnosis is primarily based on radiographic findings. A whole body bone scan is able to show the extent and distribution of lesions. We describe an

Abdolali Ebrahimi; Majid Assadi; Mohsen Saghari; Mohammad Eftekhari; Amir Gholami; Reza Ghasemikhah; Sakineh Assadi

2007-01-01

280

REGIONAL AND WHOLE BODY COMPOSITION AND BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS (BIA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study determined the symmetry of regional (half) body composition and then related any dissymmetry to differences in bioelectrical impedance (Z). Seventy-three volunteers (45 women, 28 men) were measured for whole body Z at 50 kHz and body composition by pencil beam dual x-ray absorptiometry. Z...

281

BABYSCAN: a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima.  

PubMed

BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for (137)Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described. PMID:25118889

Hayano, Ryugo S; Yamanaka, Shunji; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

2014-09-01

282

Small-animal whole-body photoacoustic tomography: a review.  

PubMed

With the wide use of small animals for biomedical studies, in vivo small-animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging whole-body imaging modality that shows great potential for preclinical research. As a hybrid technique, PAT is based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from either endogenous tissue chromophores, such as oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, or exogenous contrast agents. Because ultrasound scatters much less than light in tissue, PAT generates high-resolution images in both the optical ballistic and diffusive regimes. Using near-infrared light, which has relatively low blood absorption, PAT can image through the whole body of small animals with acoustically defined spatial resolution. Anatomical and vascular structures are imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, while functional and molecular images are enabled by the wide choice of exogenous optical contrasts. This paper reviews the rapidly growing field of small-animal whole-body PAT and highlights studies done in the past decade. PMID:24108456

Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V

2014-05-01

283

Human whole body motion characterization from embedded Kinect  

E-print Network

Human whole body motion characterization from embedded Kinect Consuelo Granata ISIR, UPMC-CNRS UMR and to interpret theirs orders. These challenging tasks can obviously benefit from considering the human body--Non-verbal communications such as kinesthetics, or body language and posture are important codes used to establish

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Aerobic fitness level does not modulate changes in whole-body protein turnover produced by unaccustomed increases in energy expenditure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of a sudden increase in energy expenditure (EE) on whole-body protein turnover vary between studies, and the possibility that fitness level modulates those responses has not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that aerobically trained individuals may exhibit adaptations that protec...

285

Towards Whole-Body Fluorescence Imaging in Humans  

PubMed Central

Dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (DNIF) whole-body imaging of small animals has become a popular tool in experimental biomedical research. In humans, however, the field of view has been limited to body parts, such as rheumatoid hands, diabetic feet or sentinel lymph nodes. Here we present a new whole-body DNIF-system suitable for adult subjects. We explored whether this system (i) allows dynamic whole-body fluorescence imaging and (ii) can detect modulations in skin perfusion. The non-specific fluorescent probe indocyanine green (ICG) was injected intravenously into two subjects, and fluorescence images were obtained at 5 Hz. The in- and out-flow kinetics of ICG have been shown to correlate with tissue perfusion. To validate the system, skin perfusion was modulated by warming and cooling distinct areas on the chest and the abdomen. Movies of fluorescence images show a bolus passage first in the face, then in the chest, abdomen and finally in the periphery (?10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds, respectively). When skin perfusion is augmented by warming, bolus arrives about 5 seconds earlier than when the skin is cooled and perfusion decreased. Calculating bolus arrival times and spatial fitting of basis time courses extracted from different regions of interest allowed a mapping of local differences in subcutaneous skin perfusion. This experiment is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-body dynamic fluorescence imaging in humans. Since the whole-body approach demonstrates sensitivity to circumscribed alterations in skinperfusion, it may be used to target autonomous changes in polyneuropathy and to screen for peripheral vascular diseases. PMID:24391820

Piper, Sophie K.; Habermehl, Christina; Schmitz, Christoph H.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Obrig, Hellmuth; Steinbrink, Jens; Mehnert, Jan

2013-01-01

286

Natural beta-carotene and whole body irradiation in rats.  

PubMed

beta-carotene and other carotenoids are reported to be potent free radical quenchers, singlet oxygen scavengers, and lipid antioxidants. Whole-body irradiation is known to cause an immunosuppression effect in mammals through the possible initiation and production of reactive oxygen species. We decided to test the possible antioxidative effect against whole-body irradiation of a natural beta-carotene, composed of equal amounts of the all-trans and 9-cis isomers, obtained from the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil. Rats were fed on ground commercial food enriched with natural beta-carotene (50 mg/kg diet). On completion of 1 week with beta-carotene, the rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, after which their livers and blood were removed for beta-carotene and retinol analysis in comparison with control livers of animals irradiated or not, or supplemented with beta-carotene after irradiation. A normal increase in body weight with no ill effects was noted in the groups of rats whose diet was supplemented by beta-carotene before and after irradiation, compared with the reduction in the specific growth rate in the group of rats irradiated without beta-carotene. Liver beta-carotene and retinol decreased significantly after irradiation compared with the rats which were not irradiated. This decrease was not shown in rats fed beta-carotene prior to irradiation, and the effect of irradiation was partially cured by supplementation with beta-carotene after irradiation. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the irradiated animals showed a selective decline in 9-cis beta-carotene and in retinol over all-trans beta-carotene and retinyl-esters. These results suggest that 9-cis beta-carotene and retinol protect in vivo against the cellular damage by free radicals induced after whole-body irradiation. PMID:9008005

Ben-Amotz, A; Rachmilevich, B; Greenberg, S; Sela, M; Weshler, Z

1996-11-01

287

Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.  

PubMed

The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent. PMID:24636222

Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M

2014-04-01

288

Heat load tests of superconducting magnets vibrated electromagnetically for the Maglev train  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconducting magnets on Maglev trains vibrate due to harmonic ripples of electromagnetic flux generated by ground coils. Heat load caused by vibration in the magnet amounted to several tens of watts in the electromagnetic vibration test. This was mainly because a.c. loss was induced in the helium vessel housing the superconducting coil, due to relative vibration between the aluminium thermal

J. Ohmori; H. Nakao; T. Yamashita; Y. Sanada; M. Shudou; M. Kawai; M. Fujita; M. Terai; A. Miura

1997-01-01

289

Five-Day Whole-Body Cryostimulation, Blood Inflammatory Markers, and Performance in High-Ranking Professional Tennis Players  

PubMed Central

Context Tournament season can provoke overreaching syndrome in professional tennis players, which may lead to deteriorated performance. Thus, appropriate recovery methods are crucial for athletes in order to sustain high-level performance and avoid injuries. We hypothesized that whole-body cryostimulation could be applied to support the recovery process. Objective To assess the effects of 5 days of whole-body cryostimulation combined with moderate-intensity training on immunologic, hormonal, and hematologic responses; resting metabolic rate; and tennis performance in a posttournament season. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting National Olympic Sport Centre. Patients or Other Participants Twelve high-ranking professional tennis players. Intervention(s) Participants followed a moderate-intensity training program. A subgroup was treated with the 5-day whole-body cryostimulation (?120°C) applied twice a day. The control subgroup participated in the training only. Main Outcome Measure(s) Pretreatment and posttreatment blood samples were collected and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 6, testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase. Resting metabolic rate and performance of a tennis drill were also assessed. Results Proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor ?) decreased and pleiotropic cytokine (interleukin 6) and cortisol increased in the group exposed to cryostimulation. In the same group, greater stroke effectiveness during the tennis drill and faster recovery were observed. Neither the training program nor cryostimulation affected resting metabolic rate. Conclusions Professional tennis players experienced an intensified inflammatory response after the completed tournament season, which may lead to overreaching. Applying whole-body cryostimulation in conjunction with moderate-intensity training was more effective for the recovery process than the training itself. The 5-day exposure to cryostimulation twice a day ameliorated the cytokine profile, resulting in a decrease in tumor necrosis factor ? and an increase in interleukin 6. PMID:23182015

Ziemann, Ewa; Olek, Robert Antoni; Kujach, Sylwester; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Antosiewicz, J?drzej; Garsztka, Tomasz; Laskowski, Rados?aw

2012-01-01

290

Skeletal muscle and whole body protein turnover in thyroid disease.  

PubMed

The effects of disturbances of thyroid hormone secretion on leg and whole body amino acid and protein metabolism have been investigated in seven patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis and eight patients with untreated hypothyroidism; the results were compared to those obtained in 11 normal control subjects. After treatment, the patients were restudied. Arterio-venous exchanges of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine across leg tissue in the post-absorptive state were used as indices of net protein balance and myofibrillar protein breakdown, respectively. Whole body protein turnover was measured using stable isotope labelling techniques with 1-[1-13C] leucine. Efflux of tyrosine from leg tissues was six-fold greater in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis than in normal control subjects (-19.39 +/- 2.21 vs. -4.20 +/- 0.31 nmol 100 g-1 leg tissue min-1, P less than 0.005, mean +/- SEM), but 3-methyl-histidine efflux was not significantly different (-0.11 +/- 0.03 nmol 100 g-1 leg tissue min-1 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.02 nmol 100 g-1 leg tissue min-1). After treatment, when the thyrotoxic patients became euthyroid, tyrosine efflux was normalized (at -4.94 +/- 0.84 nmol 100 g-1 leg tissue min-1) and 3-methylhistidine efflux was unchanged. In hypothyroid patients, neither tyrosine nor 3-methylhistidine effluxes were significantly different from those in normal subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3130261

Morrison, W L; Gibson, J N; Jung, R T; Rennie, M J

1988-02-01

291

Central nervous system effects of whole-body proton irradiation.  

PubMed

Space missions beyond the protection of Earth's magnetosphere expose astronauts to an environment that contains ionizing proton radiation. The hazards that proton radiation pose to normal tissues, such as the central nervous system (CNS), are not fully understood, although it has been shown that proton radiation affects the neurogenic environment, killing neural precursors and altering behavior. To determine the time and dose-response characteristics of the CNS to whole-body proton irradiation, C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1 GeV/n proton radiation at doses of 0-200 cGy and behavioral, physiological and immunohistochemical end points were analyzed over a range of time points (48 h-12 months) postirradiation. These experiments revealed that proton radiation exposure leads to: 1. an acute decrease in cell division within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, with significant differences detected at doses as low as 10 cGy; 2. a persistent effect on proliferation in the subgranular zone, at 1 month postirradiation; 3. a decrease in neurogenesis at doses as low as 50 cGy, at 3 months postirradiation; and 4. a decrease in hippocampal ICAM-1 immunoreactivity at doses as low as 10 cGy, at 1 month postirradiation. The data presented contribute to our understanding of biological responses to whole-body proton radiation and may help reduce uncertainty in the assessment of health risks to astronauts. These findings may also be relevant to clinical proton beam therapy. PMID:24937778

Sweet, Tara Beth; Panda, Nirlipta; Hein, Amy M; Das, Shoshana L; Hurley, Sean D; Olschowka, John A; Williams, Jacqueline P; O'Banion, M Kerry

2014-07-01

292

Nutrient Metabolism Whole-Body Nitrogen and Splanchnic Amino Acid Metabolism Differ in Rats  

E-print Network

, indicating a lower whole-body net protein synthesis. Free 13 C-leucine from the AA diet appeared into liver protein was higher in the AA group (P 0.05). We conclude that whole-body protein homeostasis kinetics, the degree of whole-body amino acid oxidation and utilization for protein synthesis (2

Bequette, Brian J.

293

Nonlinear Vibrational Behaviour of an Elasto-Pneumatic Training Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the nonlinear vibrational response of a stepping-board with nonlinear elasto-pneumatic force elements. Experimental investigations often show too high vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF) between the test persons and the training tool during exercises. The goal of this contribution is to identify the main factors of the dynamical behaviour and thus the biomechanical impact on humans of this training tool. Therefore this paper presents a mechanical model in order to investigate the interaction between the nonlinear behaviour of the board and the athlete. The multiphysical modelling consists of the linear-elastic structural stiffness part and the nonlinear part due to the pneumatic components. This leads to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation.

Körner, Claudia; Hetzler, Hartmut; Seemann, Wolfgang

294

Vibration as an exercise modality: how it may work, and what its potential might be.  

PubMed

Whilst exposure to vibration is traditionally regarded as perilous, recent research has focussed on potential benefits. Here, the physical principles of forced oscillations are discussed in relation to vibration as an exercise modality. Acute physiological responses to isolated tendon and muscle vibration and to whole body vibration exercise are reviewed, as well as the training effects upon the musculature, bone mineral density and posture. Possible applications in sports and medicine are discussed. Evidence suggests that acute vibration exercise seems to elicit a specific warm-up effect, and that vibration training seems to improve muscle power, although the potential benefits over traditional forms of resistive exercise are still unclear. Vibration training also seems to improve balance in sub-populations prone to fall, such as frail elderly people. Moreover, literature suggests that vibration is beneficial to reduce chronic lower back pain and other types of pain. Other future indications are perceivable. PMID:20012646

Rittweger, Jörn

2010-03-01

295

Suitability of Kinect for measuring whole body movement patterns during exergaming.  

PubMed

Exergames provide a challenging opportunity for home-based training and evaluation of postural control in the elderly population, but affordable sensor technology and algorithms for assessment of whole body movement patterns in the home environment are yet to be developed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of Kinect, a commonly available video game sensor, for capturing and analyzing whole body movement patterns. Healthy adults (n=20) played a weight shifting exergame under five different conditions with varying amplitudes and speed of sway movement, while 3D positions of ten body segments were recorded in the frontal plane using Kinect and a Vicon 3D camera system. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to extract and compare movement patterns and the variance in individual body segment positions explained by these patterns. Using the identified patterns, balance outcome measures based on spatiotemporal sway characteristics were computed. The results showed that both Vicon and Kinect capture >90% variance of all body segment movements within three PCs. Kinect-derived movement patterns were found to explain variance in trunk movements accurately, yet explained variance in hand and foot segments was underestimated and overestimated respectively by as much as 30%. Differences between both systems with respect to balance outcome measures range 0.3-64.3%. The results imply that Kinect provides the unique possibility of quantifying balance ability while performing complex tasks in an exergame environment. PMID:25173920

van Diest, Mike; Stegenga, Jan; Wörtche, Heinrich J; Postema, Klaas; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J; Lamoth, Claudine J C

2014-09-22

296

A hybrid modelling approach for predicting ground vibration from trains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction of ground vibration from trains presents a number of difficulties. The ground is effectively an infinite medium, often with a layered structure and with properties that may vary greatly from one location to another. The vibration from a passing train forms a transient event, which limits the usefulness of steady-state frequency domain models. Moreover, there is often a need to consider vehicle/track interaction in more detail than is commonly used in frequency domain models, such as the 2.5D approach, while maintaining the computational efficiency of the latter. However, full time-domain approaches involve large computation times, particularly where three-dimensional ground models are required. Here, a hybrid modelling approach is introduced. The vehicle/track interaction is calculated in the time domain in order to be able t account directly for effects such as the discrete sleeper spacing. Forces acting on the ground are extracted from this first model and used in a second model to predict the ground response at arbitrary locations. In the present case the second model is a layered ground model operating in the frequency domain. Validation of the approach is provided by comparison with an existing frequency domain model. The hybrid model is then used to study the sleeper-passing effect, which is shown to be less significant than excitation due to track unevenness in all the cases considered.

Triepaischajonsak, N.; Thompson, D. J.

2015-01-01

297

EFFECT OF WHOLE-BODY X-IRRADIATION ON SERUM PROTEIN OF RABBITS (EFFECT OF WHOLE BODY X-IRRADIATION AT ONE TIME)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various fractions of the serum proteins of xirradiated rabbits were ; measured by the paper-electrophoretic method. After 400 r whole-body ; irradiation, total protein and albumin were decreased, while alpha â-, ; alpha â and gamma globulins were increased. After 1,000 r whole-body ; irradiation, total protein, albumin, and gamma -globulin were decreased with an ; increase of alpha

Yoshino

1960-01-01

298

Whole body bone scintigraphy in osseous hydatosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease is common in many parts of the world, and causes considerable health and economic loss. This disease may develop in almost any part of the body. Bone involvement is often asymptomatic, and its diagnosis is primarily based on radiographic findings. A whole body bone scan is able to show the extent and distribution of lesions. We describe an unusual case of multifocal skeletal hydatosis and also explain the clinical and diagnostic points. We hope to stimulate a high index of suspicion among clinicians to facilitate early diagnosis and to consider this disease as a differential diagnosis in cases of multiple abnormal activity in bone scintigraphy especially among people in endemic areas. PMID:17880713

Ebrahimi, Abdolali; Assadi, Majid; Saghari, Mohsen; Eftekhari, Mohammad; Gholami, Amir; Ghasemikhah, Reza; Assadi, Sakineh

2007-01-01

299

Whole-body mathematical model for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A whole-body mathematical model (10) for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics. In one embodiment, model (10) includes 17 interacting compartments, of which nine lie entirely outside of intracranial vault (14). Compartments (F) and (T) are defined to distinguish ventricular from extraventricular CSF. The vasculature of the intracranial system within cranial vault (14) is also subdivided into five compartments (A, C, P, V, and S, respectively) representing the intracranial arteries, capillaries, choroid plexus, veins, and venous sinus. The body's extracranial systemic vasculature is divided into six compartments (I, J, O, Z, D, and X, respectively) representing the arteries, capillaries, and veins of the central body and the lower body. Compartments (G) and (B) include tissue and the associated interstitial fluid in the intracranial and lower regions. Compartment (Y) is a composite involving the tissues, organs, and pulmonary circulation of the central body and compartment (M) represents the external environment.

Lakin, William D. (Inventor); Penar, Paul L. (Inventor); Stevens, Scott A. (Inventor); Tranmer, Bruce I. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

300

Integrated Whole Body MR/PET: Where Are We?  

PubMed Central

Whole body integrated magnetic resonance imaging (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging systems have recently become available for clinical use and are currently being used to explore whether the combined anatomic and functional capabilities of MR imaging and the metabolic information of PET provide new insight into disease phenotypes and biology, and provide a better assessment of oncologic diseases at a lower radiation dose than a CT. This review provides an overview of the technical background of combined MR/PET systems, a discussion of the potential advantages and technical challenges of hybrid MR/PET instrumentation, as well as collection of possible solutions. Various early clinical applications of integrated MR/PET are also addressed. Finally, the workflow issues of integrated MR/PET, including maximizing diagnostic information while minimizing acquisition time are discussed. PMID:25598673

Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Jae Sung

2015-01-01

301

Electromyographic assessment of muscle fatigue during isometric vibration training at varying frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance exercise is essential to improve or maintain muscle performance. Vibration training has been suggested as an alternative option for muscle conditioning, aiming especially at improving muscle strength and power. Several studies link the effects of vibration training to enhanced neuromuscular stimulation, measured by electromyography (EMG) and typically ascribed to involuntary reflex mechanisms. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear,

M. Mischi; C. Rabotti; M. Cardinale

2010-01-01

302

Whole-body counting in the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect

In 1978 the Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program was organized to perform radiation measurements and assess radiation doses for the people of the Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. One of the major field components of this program is whole- body counting (WBC). WBC is used to monitor the quantity of gamma- emitting radionuclides present in individuals. A primary objective of the program was to establish {sup 137}Cesium body contents among the Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik populations. {sup 137}Cs was the only gamma-emitting fission radionuclide detected in the 1,967 persons monitored. {sup 137}Cs body burdens tended to increase with age for both sexes, and were higher in males. The average {sup 137}Cs dose Annual Effective Dose for the three populations was as follows: For Enewetak, the dose was 22{+-}4 {mu}Sv. For Utirik, the dose was 33{+-} 3 {mu}Sv. Since 1985 the Rongelap people have been self-exiled to Mejatto. Biological elimination should have reduced their dose to virtually zero, and the measured dose was 2{+-}2 {mu}Sv. If they had remained on Rongelap Island, the calculated dose would have been 99 {mu}Sv, which is about one-third of the background dose. 7 refs., 1 tab. (MHB)

Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

1991-01-01

303

Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives.  

PubMed

Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below -100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC. PMID:24648779

Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

2014-01-01

304

Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis following whole body irradiation in rats  

SciTech Connect

The effect of radiation on the mechanism and source of in vivo thromboxane B/sub 2/ (TxB/sub 2/) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F/sub 1..cap alpha../ (6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha..) synthesis was evaluated. Rats were irradiated with 2, 10, or 20 gray (Gy) whole body gamma irradiation and showed an increase in urine TxB/sup 2/ after either 10 or 20 Gy. Urine 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ was elevated only after exposure to 20 Gy. Irradiation did not alter urine volume and osmolarity, nor was there a correlation between urine osmolarity and the urinary concentration of TxB/sup 2/ or 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../. Rats were pretreated with indomethacin to determine if radiation-induced alterations in urine TxB/sup 2/ and 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ could be suppressed. Pretreatment with indomethacin significantly decreased urine TxB..cap alpha.. and 6-keto-PFG/sub 1..cap alpha../ in both irradiated and nonirradiated animals. Finally, the sources of urinary cyclooxygenase products were investigated using an isogravitometric cross-perfusion system. These experiments demonstrated that urine TxB..cap alpha.. is derived from extrarenal sources, whereas 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha.. is synthesized primarily by the kidney. It may be concluded that radiation exposure increases in vivo cyclooxygenase pathway activity by both renal and ultrarenal tissues.

Schneidkraut, M.J.; Kot, P.A.; Ramwell, P.W.; Rose, J.C.

1984-01-01

305

Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives  

PubMed Central

Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below ?100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC. PMID:24648779

Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

2014-01-01

306

The European Vibration Directive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union adopted a Directive in 2002 on minimum requirements for the health and safety of workers exposed to vibration. This is known as the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive. It builds on existing general employers' duties to manage risks to health and safety, and introduces exposure action and limit values for both hand-arm vibration and whole-body vibration, setting minimum

Chris M. NELSON; Paul F. BRERETON

2005-01-01

307

Polyarteritis nodosa: MDCT as a 'One-Stop Shop' Modality for Whole-Body Arterial Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare disease, which is characterized by aneurysm formation and occlusion in the arteries of multiple systems. Due to its extensive involvement, whole-body evaluation is necessary for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We report a case of polyarteritis nodosa using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as a 'one-stop shop' modality for whole-body arterial evaluation. With precise protocol design, MDCT can be used as a reliable noninvasive modality providing comprehensive whole-body arterial evaluation.

Tsai, W.-L.; Tsai, I-C.; Lee Tain, E-mail: s841082@ym.edu.t [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, C.-W. [Taichung Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming University, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taiwan (China)

2008-07-15

308

Effects of a whole body compression garment on markers of recovery after a heavy resistance workout in men and women.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of a whole body compression garment on recovery from a typical heavy resistance training workout in resistance-trained men and women. Eleven men (mean +/- SD: age, 23.0 +/- 2.9 years) and 9 women (mean +/- SD: age 23.1 +/- 2.2 years) who were highly resistance trained gave informed consent to participate in the study. A within-group (each subject acted as their own control), balanced, and randomized treatment design was used. Nutritional intakes, activity, and behavioral patterns (e.g., no pain medications, ice, or long showers over the 24 hours) were replicated 2 days before each test separated by 72 hours. An 8-exercise whole body heavy resistance exercise protocol using barbells (3 sets of 8-10 repetition maximum, 2.0- to 2.5-minute rest) was performed after which the subject showered and put on a specific whole body compression garment one designed for women and one for men (CG) or just wore his/her normal noncompression clothing (CON). Subjects were then tested after 24 hours. Dependent measures included sleep quality, vitality rating, resting fatigue rating, muscle soreness, muscle swelling via ultrasound, reaction movement times, bench throw power, countermovement vertical jump power, and serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK) measured from a blood sample obtained via venipuncture of an arm vein. We observed significant (p < or = 0.05) differences between CG and CON conditions in both men and women for vitality (CG > CON), resting fatigue ratings (CG < CON), muscle soreness (CG < CON), ultrasound measure swelling (CG < CON), bench press throw (CG > CON), and CK (CG < CON). A whole body compression garment worn during the 24-hour recovery period after an intense heavy resistance training workout enhances various psychological, physiological, and a few performance markers of recovery compared with noncompressive control garment conditions. The use of compression appears to help in the recovery process after an intense heavy resistance training workout in men and women. PMID:20195085

Kraemer, William J; Flanagan, Shawn D; Comstock, Brett A; Fragala, Maren S; Earp, Jacob E; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Ho, Jen-Yu; Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Solomon-Hill, Glenn; Penwell, Zachary R; Powell, Matthew D; Wolf, Megan R; Volek, Jeff S; Denegar, Craig R; Maresh, Carl M

2010-03-01

309

Effects of train noise and vibration on human heart rate during sleep: an experimental study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Transportation of goods on railways is increasing and the majority of the increased numbers of freight trains run during the night. Transportation noise has adverse effects on sleep structure, affects the heart rate (HR) during sleep and may be linked to cardiovascular disease. Freight trains also generate vibration and little is known regarding the impact of vibration on human sleep. A laboratory study was conducted to examine how a realistic nocturnal railway traffic scenario influences HR during sleep. Design Case–control. Setting Healthy participants. Participants 24 healthy volunteers (11 men, 13 women, 19–28?years) spent six consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Interventions All participants slept during one habituation night, one control and four experimental nights in which train noise and vibration were reproduced. In the experimental nights, 20 or 36 trains with low-vibration or high-vibration characteristics were presented. Primary and secondary outcome measures Polysomnographical data and ECG were recorded. Results The train exposure led to a significant change of HR within 1?min of exposure onset (p=0.002), characterised by an initial and a delayed increase of HR. The high-vibration condition provoked an average increase of at least 3?bpm per train in 79% of the participants. Cardiac responses were in general higher in the high-vibration condition than in the low-vibration condition (p=0.006). No significant effect of noise sensitivity and gender was revealed, although there was a tendency for men to exhibit stronger HR acceleration than women. Conclusions Freight trains provoke HR accelerations during sleep, and the vibration characteristics of the trains are of special importance. In the long term, this may affect cardiovascular functioning of persons living close to railways. PMID:23793667

Croy, Ilona; Smith, Michael G; Waye, Kerstin Persson

2013-01-01

310

Influence of Whole Body Protein Turnover Rate on Resting Energy Expenditure in Patients with Cancer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body protein turnover and resting energy expenditure are measured simultaneously in weight stable and weight losing patients with lung (n = 22) or colorectal cancer (n = 38). These results were compared with those from weight stable and weight losing non-cancer controls (n = 22). Rates of whole body protein turnover were calculated from the plateau isotopie enrichment of

Kenneth C. H. Fearon; Douglas T. Hansel; Thomas Preston; Jane A. Plumb; John Davies; David Shapiro; Alan Shenkin; Kenneth C. Caiman; Henry J. G. Burns

1988-01-01

311

Statistical Analysis of the Whole Body Absorption Depending on Anatomical Human Characteristics at the  

E-print Network

Statistical Analysis of the Whole Body Absorption Depending on Anatomical Human Characteristics, and large and complex problems (as the computation of the SAR induced in a 3D heterogeneous human body) can on that, several studies have used 3D human body models to analyze the relationship between the whole body

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

Whole-Body Cerenkov Luminescence Tomography with the Finite Element SP3 Method  

E-print Network

Whole-Body Cerenkov Luminescence Tomography with the Finite Element SP3 Method JIANGHONG ZHONG, JIE Bai oversaw the review of this article. Abstract--Generation of an accurate Cerenkov luminescence-active approach toward whole-body Cerenkov luminescence tomography. The finite element framework employs

Tian, Jie

313

Combined effect of noise and vibration produced by high-speed trains on annoyance in buildings.  

PubMed

The effects of noise and vibration on annoyance in buildings during the passage of a nearby high-speed train have been investigated in a laboratory experiment with recorded train noise and 20 Hz vibration. The noises included the effects of two types of fac?ade: windows-open and windows-closed. Subjects were exposed to six levels of noise and six magnitudes of vibration, and asked to rate annoyance using an 11-point numerical scale. The experiment consisted of four sessions: (1) evaluation of noise annoyance in the absence of vibration, (2) evaluation of total annoyance from simultaneous noise and vibration, (3) evaluation of noise annoyance in the presence of vibration, and (4) evaluation of vibration annoyance in the absence of noise. The results show that vibration did not influence ratings of noise annoyance, but that total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration was considerably greater than the annoyance caused by noise alone. The noise annoyance and the total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration were associated with subject self-ratings of noise sensitivity. Two classical models of total annoyance due to combined noise sources (maximum of the single source annoyance or the integration of individual annoyance ratings) provided useful predictions of the total annoyance caused by simultaneous noise and vibration. PMID:23556582

Lee, Pyoung Jik; Griffin, Michael J

2013-04-01

314

Optimization of Training Sets for Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns from Vibrating Solids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial neural networks have been used for a number of years to process holography-generated characteristic patterns of vibrating structures. This technology depends critically on the selection and the conditioning of the training sets. A scaling operation called folding is discussed for conditioning training sets optimally for training feed-forward neural networks to process characteristic fringe patterns. Folding allows feed-forward nets to be trained easily to detect damage-induced vibration-displacement-distribution changes as small as 10 nm. A specific application to aerospace of neural-net processing of characteristic patterns is presented to motivate the conditioning and optimization effort.

Decker, Arthur J.

2001-01-01

315

[Vibrational physical exercises as the rehabilitation in gerontology].  

PubMed

Vibration biomechanical stimulation as the physiological basis of vibration physical exercises (whole body vibration) causes reflecting muscle contractions like tonic vibration reflex. This type of intervention leads to high intensive stimulation of proprioceptors as called muscle spindles which result in alteration in parameters of activity and developments of human physiological functions. This type of training has broad positive influence on organism. Acceleration physical exercises improve muscle performance, flexibility, nervous function, significantly increase bone mineral density, physiological secretion of anabolic hormones, growth and anti-aging factors; normalize/decrease cortisol as anti-stress effect and are beneficial for balance and mobility as well. It is showed acceleration training caused by vibration stimulus is beneficial for people suffering from osteoporosis and obesity, for rehabilitation of nervous and motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and stroke. PMID:19947400

Piatin, V F; Shirolapov, I V; Nikitin, O L

2009-01-01

316

Multiple vibration displacements at multiple vibration frequencies stress impact on human femur computational analysis.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration training using single-frequency methods has been reported to improve bone mineral density. However, the intensities can exceed safe levels and have drawn unfavorable comments from subjects. In a previous article, whole-body vibration training using multiple vibration displacements at multiple vibration frequencies (MVDMVF) was reported. This article presents the computational simulation evaluation of stress dispersion on a femur with and without the MVDMVF input. A model of bone femur was developed from a computed tomography image of the lower limb with Mimics software from Materialise (Plymouth, Michigan). We analyzed the mesh model in COMSOL Multiphysics (COMSOL, Inc; Burlington, Massachusetts) with and without MVDMVF input, with constraints and load applied to the femur model. We compared the results with published joint stresses during walking, jogging, and stair-climbing and descending and with standard vibration exposure limits. Results showed stress levels on the femur are significantly higher with MVDMVF input than without. The stress levels were within the published levels during walking and stair-climbing and descending but below the stress levels during jogging. Our computational results demonstrate that MVDMVF generates stress level equivalent to the level during walking and stair-climbing. This evidence suggests that MVDMVF is safe for prolonged use in subjects with osteoporosis who ambulate independently. PMID:21480091

Ezenwa, Bertram; Yeoh, Han Teik

2011-01-01

317

Whole-body to tissue concentration ratios for use in biota dose assessments for animals.  

PubMed

Environmental monitoring programs often measure contaminant concentrations in animal tissues consumed by humans (e.g., muscle). By comparison, demonstration of the protection of biota from the potential effects of radionuclides involves a comparison of whole-body doses to radiological dose benchmarks. Consequently, methods for deriving whole-body concentration ratios based on tissue-specific data are required to make best use of the available information. This paper provides a series of look-up tables with whole-body:tissue-specific concentration ratios for non-human biota. Focus was placed on relatively broad animal categories (including molluscs, crustaceans, freshwater fishes, marine fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) and commonly measured tissues (specifically, bone, muscle, liver and kidney). Depending upon organism, whole-body to tissue concentration ratios were derived for between 12 and 47 elements. The whole-body to tissue concentration ratios can be used to estimate whole-body concentrations from tissue-specific measurements. However, we recommend that any given whole-body to tissue concentration ratio should not be used if the value falls between 0.75 and 1.5. Instead, a value of one should be assumed. PMID:20931337

Yankovich, Tamara L; Beresford, Nicholas A; Wood, Michael D; Aono, Tasuo; Andersson, Pål; Barnett, Catherine L; Bennett, Pamela; Brown, Justin E; Fesenko, Sergey; Fesenko, J; Hosseini, Ali; Howard, Brenda J; Johansen, Mathew P; Phaneuf, Marcel M; Tagami, Keiko; Takata, Hyoe; Twining, John R; Uchida, Shigeo

2010-11-01

318

Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise: a crossover study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted of WBC everyday during the recovery period. WBC included single 3-min daily exposures to low temperatures (-140 to -19 °C) in the cryo-cabin. During the recovery period, subjects were tested for biochemical markers, perceived pain sensation, and physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal isometric torque production, and maximally explosive isometric torque production). Majority of the observed variables showed statistically significant time effects (P < 0.05) in control group, which indicates the presence of muscle damage. Significant interaction between the control and WBC condition was evident for the rate of torque development (P < 0.05). Pain measures substantially differed between the WBC and the control condition after the exercise. Results of this study are not completely supportive of the use of WBC for recovery enhancement after strenuous training. PMID:23614691

Fonda, B; Sarabon, N

2013-10-01

319

Feasibility and analysis of thermal parameters for the whole-body-hyperthermia system IRATHERM-2000.  

PubMed

The infrared system IRATHERM-2000, with water-filtered infrared A wavelength underwent 20 treatments of whole body hyperthermia in conjunction with chemotherapy. In all the sessions, the aimed systemic temperature (41.8 degrees C, maximum 42.0 degrees C) could be achieved and maintained for 60 min. Due to increasing clinical experience, the unnegligible local toxicity, exhibited as heat-induced superficial lesions, and neurotoxicity, could be reduced during the course of the study. Data from three other series accomplished at the von Ardenne Clinic, totalling 120 heat sessions, were available and included for a comparative analysis. Analysis of the toxicity shows that a correlation exists between thermal side-effects and heat-up periods (until steady-state), maximum temperatures, and superficial thermal doses. The time needed to reach the plateau seems to correlate with fluid loss, which, thus, indirectly influences toxicity, and most importantly the initial power level. The typical heat-up time in such a standard set-up amounts to 100-150 min, for a temperature rise from 37.5 to 42.0 degrees C. Evaluation of the energy balance reveals a highly patient-specific range for the reactive evaporation in the IRATHERM system, resulting in a power (heat) loss of up to 1400 W via sweat production of approximately 2 l/h. In order to counterbalance this effect, an accordingly high infrared power, ranging from 1200-1500 W, needs to be delivered, resulting in a significant thermal skin exposition. Concepts used to reduce the heat loss by reactive evaporation include prevention of convection by appropriate sealing of the heating chamber and increasing the humidity by a nebulizer. For the more trained user, the heat-up time can be considerably shortened, particularly, in the introductory phase of the heating process, by employing higher, but still tolerable, patient-specific power levels. However, such a strategy requires, due to higher risks, close monitoring of skin temperatures together with a considerable amount of clinical experience. The results of the IRATHERM pilot study were compared, not only with previous groups where the IRATHERM was applied, but also with results of various other investigators where the Enthermics Radiant Heat Device was employed. In the authors' opinion, improved understanding of the mechanisms and crucial parameters underlying whole body hyperthermia, will enable a controllable and tolerable therapy through proficient contribution to equipment and methods. PMID:10949129

Wust, P; Riess, H; Hildebrandt, B; Löffel, J; Deja, M; Ahlers, O; Kerner, T; von Ardenne, A; Felix, R

2000-01-01

320

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Whole Body Donation Among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a survey conducted among medical practitioners in India. The study's objective was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of whole body donation among medical professionals in India. Outcomes and results are discussed.

2011-05-05

321

Optimization of Whole-body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging (2013)  

EPA Science Inventory

Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

322

Impact of whole-body computed tomography on mortality and surgical management of severe blunt trauma  

PubMed Central

Introduction The mortality benefit of whole-body computed tomography (CT) in early trauma management remains controversial and poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of whole-body CT compared with selective CT on mortality and management of patients with severe blunt trauma. Methods The FIRST (French Intensive care Recorded in Severe Trauma) study is a multicenter cohort study on consecutive patients with severe blunt trauma requiring admission to intensive care units from university hospital trauma centers within the first 72 hours. Initial data were combined to construct a propensity score to receive whole-body CT and selective CT used in multivariable logistic regression models, and to calculate the probability of survival according to the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) for 1,950 patients. The main endpoint was 30-day mortality. Results In total, 1,696 patients out of 1,950 (87%) were given whole-body CT. The crude 30-day mortality rates were 16% among whole-body CT patients and 22% among selective CT patients (p = 0.02). A significant reduction in the mortality risk was observed among whole-body CT patients whatever the adjustment method (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34-0.99 after adjustment for baseline characteristics and post-CT treatment). Compared to the TRISS predicted survival, survival significantly improved for whole-body CT patients but not for selective CT patients. The pattern of early surgical and medical procedures significantly differed between the two groups. Conclusions Diagnostic whole-body CT was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality among patients with severe blunt trauma. Its use may be a global indicator of better management. PMID:22687140

2012-01-01

323

Vibration training for upper body: transmission of platform vibrations through cables.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vibration transmission from a vibration platform through Vectran cables to the upper body and its relationship to induced muscular activation. Fifteen clinically healthy participants performed 3 different arm exercises-biceps curl, triceps curl, and lateral raise. Vibration transmission to the upper body was assessed over a wide range of accelerations (from 1.90 to 5.98 g) and frequencies (from 25 to 40 Hz). To assess the vibration transmission, 7 triaxial accelerometers were attached from the hand up to the head, and the root-mean-square of acceleration signal of each site-specific body point was calculated. Muscular activity of biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoid, and upper trapezius was recorded. The results showed a significant attenuation of the platform accelerations transmitted through the Vectran cables to the upper body. Handle vibration ranged between 27 and 44% of the acceleration delivered by the platform depending on platform vibration parameters (acceleration/frequency). Vibration increased the muscle activity of biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoid, and upper trapezius muscles significantly only during biceps curl exercises. No frequency or acceleration effect was found on the size of the muscle response. The results of the present study suggest that a cable-pulley resistance system on a vibration platform channels the vibration safely from the platform to the arms and induces additional muscle activation in some arm muscles when biceps curl exercises are performed. PMID:24077381

Tankisheva, Ekaterina; Boonen, Steven; Delecluse, Christophe; Druyts, Hans Lj; Verschueren, Sabine M P

2014-04-01

324

Basic study of entire whole-body PET scanners based on the OpenPET geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional PET scanner has a 15-25 cm axial field-of-view (FOV) and images a whole body using about six bed positions. An OpenPET geometry can extend the axial FOV with a limited number of detectors. The entire whole-body PET scanner must be able to process a large amount of data effectively. In this work, we study feasibility of the fully 3D entire whole-body PET scanner using the GATE simulation. The OpenPET has 12 block detector rings with the ring diameter of 840 mm and each block detector ring consists of 48 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The OpenPET has the axial length of 895.95 mm with five parts of 58.95 mm open gaps. The OpenPET has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits. NECR of the OpenPET decreases by single data loss. But single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into two parts. Also, multiple coincidences are found to be important for the entire whole-body PET scanner. The entire whole-body PET scanner with the OpenPET geometry promises to provide a large axial FOV with the open space and to have sufficient performance values. But single data loss at the grouping circuits and multiple coincidences are limited to the peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) for the entire whole-body PET scanner.

Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo

2010-09-01

325

Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs  

PubMed Central

We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously administered antibiotics, or probiotics affects whole body nitrogen and amino acid turnover. We quantified whole body urea kinetics, threonine fluxes, and threonine disposal into protein, oxidation, and tissue protein synthesis with stable isotope techniques. Compared with controls, antibiotics reduced the number and diversity of bacterial species in the distal small intestine (SI) and colon. Antibiotics decreased plasma urea concentrations via decreased urea synthesis. Antibiotics elevated threonine plasma concentrations and turnover, as well as whole body protein synthesis and proteolysis. Antibiotics decreased protein synthesis rate in the proximal SI and liver but did not affect the distal SI, colon, or muscle. Probiotics induced a bifidogenic microbiota and decreased plasma urea concentrations but did not affect whole body threonine or protein metabolism. Probiotics decreased protein synthesis in the proximal SI but not in other tissues. In conclusion, modulation of the gut microbiota by antibiotics and probiotics reduced hepatic ureagenesis and intestinal protein synthesis, but neither altered whole body net threonine balance. These findings suggest that changes in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism resulting from antibiotic- or probiotic-induced shifts in the microbiota are localized to the gut and liver and have limited impact on whole body growth and anabolism in neonatal piglets. PMID:23139222

Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars; de Bruijn, Adrianus; Schierbeek, Henk; Boye, Mette; Boehm, Günther; Renes, Ingrid; Burrin, Douglas

2013-01-01

326

Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}  

SciTech Connect

Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mougey, E.H. [Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-03-01

327

Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs.  

PubMed

We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously administered antibiotics, or probiotics affects whole body nitrogen and amino acid turnover. We quantified whole body urea kinetics, threonine fluxes, and threonine disposal into protein, oxidation, and tissue protein synthesis with stable isotope techniques. Compared with controls, antibiotics reduced the number and diversity of bacterial species in the distal small intestine (SI) and colon. Antibiotics decreased plasma urea concentrations via decreased urea synthesis. Antibiotics elevated threonine plasma concentrations and turnover, as well as whole body protein synthesis and proteolysis. Antibiotics decreased protein synthesis rate in the proximal SI and liver but did not affect the distal SI, colon, or muscle. Probiotics induced a bifidogenic microbiota and decreased plasma urea concentrations but did not affect whole body threonine or protein metabolism. Probiotics decreased protein synthesis in the proximal SI but not in other tissues. In conclusion, modulation of the gut microbiota by antibiotics and probiotics reduced hepatic ureagenesis and intestinal protein synthesis, but neither altered whole body net threonine balance. These findings suggest that changes in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism resulting from antibiotic- or probiotic-induced shifts in the microbiota are localized to the gut and liver and have limited impact on whole body growth and anabolism in neonatal piglets. PMID:23139222

Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars; de Bruijn, Adrianus; Schierbeek, Henk; Boye, Mette; Boehm, Günther; Renes, Ingrid; van Goudoever, Johannes; Burrin, Douglas

2013-02-01

328

Protein dynamics in whole body and in splanchnic and leg tissues in type I diabetic patients.  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the mechanism of insulin's anticatabolic effect in humans, protein dynamics were evaluated in the whole-body, splanchnic, and leg tissues in six C-peptide-negative type I diabetic male patients in the insulin-deprived and insulin-treated states using two separate amino acid models (leucine and phenylalanine). L-(1-13C,15N)leucine, L-(ring-2H5)phenylalanine, and L-(ring-2H2) tyrosine were infused intravenously, and isotopic enrichments of [1-13C,15N]-leucine, (13C)leucine, (13C)ketoisocaproate, (2H5)phenylalanine, [2H4]tyrosine, (2H2)tyrosine, and 13CO2 were measured in arterial, hepatic vein, and femoral vein samples. Whole-body leucine flux, phenylalanine flux, and tyrosine flux were decreased (< 0.01) by insulin treatment, indicating an inhibition of protein breakdown. Moreover, insulin decreased (< 0.05) the rates of leucine oxidation and leucine transamination (P < 0.01), but the percent rate of ketoisocaproate oxidation was increased by insulin (P < 0.01). Insulin also reduced (< 0.01) whole-body protein synthesis estimated from both the leucine model (nonoxidative leucine disposal) and the phenylalanine model (disposal of phenylalanine not accounted by its conversion to tyrosine). Regional studies demonstrated that changes in whole body protein breakdown are accounted for by changes in both splanchnic and leg tissues. The changes in whole-body protein synthesis were not associated with changes in skeletal muscle (leg) protein synthesis but could be accounted for by the splanchnic region. We conclude that though insulin decreases whole-body protein breakdown in patients with type I diabetes by inhibition of protein breakdown in splanchnic and leg tissues, it selectively decreases protein synthesis in splanchnic tissues, which accounted for the observed decrease in whole-body protein synthesis. Insulin also augmented anabolism by decreasing leucine transamination. Images PMID:7769135

Nair, K S; Ford, G C; Ekberg, K; Fernqvist-Forbes, E; Wahren, J

1995-01-01

329

Effect of whole-body and local heating on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Animal studies suggest that alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is compromised during whole-body heating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether whole-body heating and/or local surface heating reduce cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in human skin. Protocol I: Six subjects were exposed to neutral skin temperature (i.e., 34 degrees C), whole-body heating, and local heating of forearm skin to increase skin blood flow to the same relative magnitude as that observed during whole-body heating. Protocol II: In eight subjects forearm skin was locally heated to 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C. During both protocols, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was assessed by local delivery of norepinephrine (NE) via intradermal microdialysis. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored over each microdialysis membrane via laser-Doppler flowmetry. In protocol I, whole-body and local heating caused similar increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The EC50 (log NE dose) of the dose-response curves for both whole body (-4.2 +/- 0.1 M) and local heating (-4.7 +/- 0.4 M) were significantly greater (i.e., high dose required to cause 50% reduction in CVC) relative to neutral skin temperature (- 5.6 +/- 0.0 M; P<0.05 for both). In both local and whole-body heated conditions CVC did not return to pre-heating values even at the highest dose of NE. In protocol II, calculated EC50 for 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C local heating was - 5.5 +/- 0.4, -4.6 +/- 0.3, -4.5 +/- 0.3, - 4.2 +/- 0.4 M, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the EC50 for 37,40 and 42 degrees C were significantly greater than the EC50 for 34 degrees C. These results indicate that even during administration of high concentrations of NE, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction does not fully compensate for local heating and whole-body heating induced vasodilatation in young, healthy subjects. Moreover, these data suggest that elevated local temperatures, above 37 degrees C, and whole-body heating similarly attenuate cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction responsiveness.

Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

2002-01-01

330

Whole body and leg acetate kinetics at rest, during exercise and recovery in humans  

PubMed Central

We have used a constant [1,2-13C]acetate infusion (0.12 ?mol min?1 kg1) for 2 h at rest, followed by 2 h of one-legged knee-extensor exercise at 65 % of leg maximal workload, and 3 h of recovery in six post-absorptive volunteers to quantify whole-body and leg acetate kinetics and determine whether the whole-body acetate correction factor can be used to correct leg substrate oxidation. The acetate whole-body rate of appearance (Ra) was not significantly different at rest, during exercise or during recovery (365-415 ?mol min?1). The leg net acetate uptake was similar at rest and during recovery (?10 ?mol min?1), but increased ?5-fold with exercise. At rest the leg acetate uptake (?15 ?mol min?1) and release (?5 ?mol min?1) accounted for 4 and 1.5 % of whole-body acetate disposal (Rd) and Ra, respectively. When the leg acetate kinetics were extrapolated to the total body skeletal muscle mass, then skeletal muscle accounted for ?16 and ?6 % of acetate Rd and Ra. With exercise, leg acetate uptake increased ?6-fold, whereas leg acetate release increased 9-fold compared with rest. Whole-body acetate carbon recovery increased with time of infusion at rest and during recovery from 21 % after 1.5 h of infusion to 45 % in recovery after 7 h of infusion. Leg and whole-body acetate carbon recovery were similar under resting conditions, both before and after exercise. During exercise whole-body acetate carbon recovery was ?75 %, however, acetate carbon recovery of the active leg was substantially higher (?100 %). It is concluded that inactive skeletal muscle plays a minor role in acetate turnover. However, active skeletal muscle enhances several-fold acetate uptake and subsequent oxidation, as well as release and its contribution to whole-body acetate turnover. Furthermore, under resting conditions the whole-body acetate correction factor can be used to correct for leg, skeletal muscle, substrate oxidation, but not during exercise. PMID:12096068

van Hall, G; Sacchetti, M; Rådegran, G

2002-01-01

331

Whole body exposure at 2100 MHz induced by plane wave of random incidences in a population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the whole body exposure induced by plane wave coming from a random direction of arrival is analyzed at 2100 MHz. This work completes previous studies on the influence of different parameters on the whole body exposure (such as morphology, frequency or usage in near field). The Visible Human phantom has been used to build a surrogate model to predict the whole body exposure depending on the highlighted surface of the phantom and on the direction of arrival of the incident plane wave. For the Visible Human, the error on the whole body averaged Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is on average 4%. The surrogate model is applied to other 3D anthropomorphic phantoms for a frontal incidence with an averaged error of 10%. The great interest of the surrogate model is the possibility to apply a Monte Carlo process to assess probability distribution function of a population. A recent French anthropometric database of more than 3500 adults is used to build the probability distribution function of the whole body SAR for a random direction of arrival.

Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; El Habachi, Aimad; Wiart, J.

2010-11-01

332

Brown adipose tissue improves whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans.  

PubMed

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted scientific interest as an antidiabetic tissue owing to its ability to dissipate energy as heat. Despite a plethora of data concerning the role of BAT in glucose metabolism in rodents, the role of BAT (if any) in glucose metabolism in humans remains unclear. To investigate whether BAT activation alters whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans, we studied seven BAT-positive (BAT(+)) men and five BAT-negative (BAT(-)) men under thermoneutral conditions and after prolonged (5-8 h) cold exposure (CE). The two groups were similar in age, BMI, and adiposity. CE significantly increased resting energy expenditure, whole-body glucose disposal, plasma glucose oxidation, and insulin sensitivity in the BAT(+) group only. These results demonstrate a physiologically significant role of BAT in whole-body energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity in humans, and support the notion that BAT may function as an antidiabetic tissue in humans. PMID:25056438

Chondronikola, Maria; Volpi, Elena; Børsheim, Elisabet; Porter, Craig; Annamalai, Palam; Enerbäck, Sven; Lidell, Martin E; Saraf, Manish K; Labbe, Sebastien M; Hurren, Nicholas M; Yfanti, Christina; Chao, Tony; Andersen, Clark R; Cesani, Fernando; Hawkins, Hal; Sidossis, Labros S

2014-12-01

333

Variations in response to whole-body vibration Intensity dependent effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

When equal sensation contours were obtained from 24 subjects starting at four different intensities (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.5 m sr.m.s.), significant differences in the shapes of the average contours were obtained. As the overall intensity range increased (from 0.5 to 3.5 m s r.m.s.), the contours became significantly less linear in shape. Implications of these results for the International

D. J. OBORNE; P. BOARER; T. O. HEATH

1981-01-01

334

Modelling resonances of the standing body exposed to vertical whole-body vibration: Effects of posture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lumped parameter mathematical models representing anatomical parts of the human body have been developed to represent body motions associated with resonances of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body standing in five different postures: 'upright', 'lordotic', 'anterior lean', 'knees bent', and 'knees more bent'. The inertial and geometric parameters of the models were determined from published anthropometric data. Stiffness and damping parameters were obtained by comparing model responses with experimental data obtained previously. The principal resonance of the vertical apparent mass, and the first peak in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass, of the standing body in an upright posture (at 5-6 Hz) corresponded to vertical motion of the viscera in phase with the vertical motion of the entire body due to deformation of the tissues at the soles of the feet, with pitch motion of the pelvis out of phase with pitch motion of the upper body above the pelvis. Upward motion of the body was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the pelvis. Changing the posture of the upper body had minor effects on the mode associated with the principal resonances of the apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass, but the mode changed significantly with bending of the legs. In legs-bent postures, the principal resonance (at about 3 Hz) was attributed to bending of the legs coupled with pitch motion of the pelvis in phase with pitch motion of the upper body. In this mode, extension of the legs was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the upper body and the upward vertical motion of the viscera.

Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

2008-10-01

335

Transmission of Vertical Whole Body Vibration to the Human Body Juha Kiiski,1  

E-print Network

were assessed with skin-mounted triaxial accelerometers at the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar spine amplification of peak acceleration could occur between 10 and 40 Hz for the ankle, 10 and 25 Hz for the knee, 10

336

Predictors of whole-body vibration levels among urban taxi drivers.  

PubMed

To identify a set of important WBV predictors that could be used to develop a statistical instrument for exposure assessment in a large epidemiologic study, a total of 432 WBV measures were taken from a sample of 247 male drivers in Taipei City, Taiwan. In accordance with the ISO 2631-1 (1997) methods, we measured the frequency-weighted vertical acceleration (z-axis) over drivers' seat surface, under conditions representing different types of rides (vacant vs. short vs. long) assigned to random destinations. Mixed effect models were used to analyse the WBV data including repeated measures. For this group of urban taxi drivers regularly exposed to WBV of low intensity (mean = 0.31 ms( - 2), ranging from 0.17 to 0.55 ms( - 2) r.m.s.), our analyses indicated that average driving speed was the primary predictor (p < 0.0001). As average driving speed increased, measured vertical acceleration increased in a quadratic-linear manner (p < 0.0001). Other WBV predictors, after adjusting for the effects of other covariates, included automobile manufacturer (p = 0.02), engine size (p = 0.04), body weight (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.02), use of seat cushion (p = 0.03), and traffic period (p = 0.02). Our study suggests that a similar statistical approach could be employed in future studies to improve the quality and efficiency of WBV exposure assessment in professional drivers. PMID:12850932

Chen, J C; Chang, W R; Shih, T S; Chen, C J; Chang, W P; Dennerlein, J T; Ryan, L M; Christiani, D C

2003-09-15

337

Whole-body MRI using a sliding table and repositioning surface coil approach  

PubMed Central

Objective To introduce and assess a new way of performing whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a non-integrated surface coil approach as available on most clinical MRI systems worldwide. Methods Ten consecutive asymptomatic subjects prospectively underwent whole-body MRI for health screening. Whole-body MRI included T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted sequences, and was performed using a non-integrated surface coil to image four different stations without patient repositioning. The four separately acquired stations were merged, creating seamless coronal whole-body T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted images. Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations were qualitatively assessed. Results The average time (±SD) taken to change the surface coil from one station to the next station was 53.8 (±7.1) s. The average total extra examination time ± SD was 2 min 41.4 s (±15.3 s). Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations of T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted whole-body MRI were overall graded as “good” to “excellent”. Conclusion This study shows that a time-efficient and high-quality whole-body MRI examination can easily be performed by using a non-integrated sliding surface coil approach. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00330-009-1674-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19997846

Kwee, Thomas; Kibune, Satoshi; Ochiai, Reiji; Sakamoto, Tetsuro; Niwa, Tetsu; Van Cauteren, Marc; Luijten, Peter

2009-01-01

338

Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research  

SciTech Connect

The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

1991-01-01

339

Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research  

SciTech Connect

The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

1991-12-31

340

Solid anthropomorphic infant whole body DXA phantom: Design, evaluation, and multisite testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires phantoms for quality control and cross-calibration. No commercially available phantoms are designed specifically for infant whole-body scanning. We fabricated a phantom closely matching a 7-kg human infant in body habitus using PVC, nylon-mix, and poly...

341

Prototyping Whole Body Navigation of Harmony Space Simon Holland, Paul Marshall, Jon Bird and Yvonne Rogers  

E-print Network

necessary to transform an existing desktop music application to a system using whole body interaction. The desktop tool used was called Harmony Space [1,2]. It is grounded in two well-established theories of music of musical harmonic relationships [1,5,6]. This level of description focuses on objects, locations, shapes

342

Whole-body ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography of  

E-print Network

and long imaging time (more than 1 h), and X-ray CT utilizes carcinogenic ionizing radiation, which may to the wide use of animals for human disease studies, small animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly tomography. Photoacoustic tomography utilizes non-ionizing laser illumination to generate a local temperature

Wang, Lihong

343

DETECTION OF RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION-INDUCED WHOLE BODY HEATING FOLLOWING CHEMICAL IMPAIRMENT OF THERMOREGULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Heating by radiofrequency (RF) radiation at high intensities can cause biological changes by whole-body hyperthermia or by altered thermal gradients within the body. However, there have been reports of effects at low intensities of RF radiation without evidence of increased tempe...

344

More than twelve different human behavioural traits and whole-body medical disorders are reported to  

E-print Network

disorders (especially obsessive­compulsive disorder), suicide, eating disorders, substance-abuse disordersMore than twelve different human behavioural traits and whole-body medical disorders are reported, respectively) seem to have a role in neuropsychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety

Murphy, Dennis L.

345

PERSISTENCE OF LYMPHOCYTES WITH DECENTRIC CHROMOSOMES FOLLOWING WHOLE-BODY X IRRADIATION OF MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Thirty-six male C57B1/6 mice were whole-body x-irradiated with 3 Gy to generate lymphocytes with dicentric chromosomes to study the Persistence of these lymphocytes in the spleen and peripheral blood to estimate the lifespan of mature 8- and 7-cells. lood and spleen were removed ...

346

DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING  

EPA Science Inventory

DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING. R Slade, J L McKee and G E Hatch. PTB, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Reliable non-invasive markers for detecting oxidative stress in vivo are currently not available. We pr...

347

Whole body air displacement plethysmography compared with hydrodensitometry for body composition analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo assess the acceptability and feasibility of whole body air displacement plethysmography in children and to determine its precision and agreement with hydrodensitometry, an appropriate reference method.METHODSAge specific two component model equations were used to predict fat mass from body density in 22 children aged 8–12 years and in 10 adults for comparison of methods. Precision for each method was

Odile Dewit; N J Fuller; Mary S Fewtrell; M Elia; J C K Wells

2000-01-01

348

Motion of the whole body's center of mass when stepping over obstacles of different heights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tripping over obstacles and imbalance during gait were reported as two of the most common causes of falls in the elderly. Imbalance of the whole body during obstacle crossing may cause inappropriate movement of the lower extremities and result in foot-obstacle contact. Thus, this study was performed to investigate the effect of obstacle height on the motion of the whole

Li-Shan Chou; Kenton R. Kaufman; Robert H. Brey; Louis F. Draganich

2001-01-01

349

Whole-Body Trajectory Optimization for Humanoid Falling Jiuguang Wang, Eric C. Whitman and Mike Stilman  

E-print Network

-body trajectories for humanoid robots in order to minimize damage due to falling. In this work, the falling problemWhole-Body Trajectory Optimization for Humanoid Falling Jiuguang Wang, Eric C. Whitman and Mike to the full-body dynamics and constraints of the robot in joint space. We extend previous work in this domain

350

AMMONIA ABATEMENT SYSTEM FOR WHOLE-BODY SMALL ANIMAL INHALATION EXPOSURES TO ACID MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Conducting whole-body acid aerosol inhalation exposures of laboratory animals is complicated by ammonia arising from the excrement of the test animals which is sufficient to completely neutralize much of the acid aerosol. he neutralization of acid by ammonia con only be controlle...

351

Gamma camera imaging for studying intestinal absorption and whole-body distribution of selenomethionine.  

PubMed

Se metabolism in humans is not well characterised. Currently, the estimates of Se absorption, whole-body retention and excretion are being obtained from balance and tracer studies. In the present study, we used gamma camera imaging to evaluate the whole-body retention and distribution of radiolabelled selenomethionine (SeMet), the predominant form of Se present in foods. A total of eight healthy young men participated in the study. After consumption of a meal containing 4 MBq [??Se]L-SeMet ([??Se]SeMet), whole-body gamma camera scanning was performed for 45 min every hour over a 6 h period, every second hour for the next 18 h and once on each of the subsequent 6 d. Blood, urine and faecal samples were collected to determine the plasma content of [??Se]SeMet as well as its excretion in urine and faeces. Imaging showed that 87·9 (sd 3·3)% of the administered activity of [??Se]SeMet was retained within the body after 7 d. In contrast, the measured excretion in urine and faeces for the 7 d period was 8·2 (sd 1·1)% of the activity. Time-activity curves were generated for the whole body, stomach, liver, abdomen (other than the stomach and the liver), brain and femoral muscles. Gamma camera imaging allows for the assessment of the postprandial absorption of SeMet. This technique may also permit concurrent studies of organ turnover of SeMet. PMID:23930999

Madsen, Jan L; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Elema, Dennis R; Søndergaard, Lasse R; Rasmussen, Palle; Fuglsang, Stefan; Ljungberg, Michael; Damgaard, Morten

2014-02-01

352

Computerized segmentation of whole-body bone scintigrams and its use in automated diagnostics  

E-print Network

benign and malignant diseases, infec- tions, degenerative changes [2]. Bone scintigraphy has high sensitivity and the changes of the bone metabolism are seen earlier than changes in bone structure detectedComputerized segmentation of whole-body bone scintigrams and its use in automated diagnostics Luka

Kononenko, Igor

353

A Tactile Sensing Element for a Whole Body Robot Skin Takayuki HOSHI, and Hiroyuki SHINODA  

E-print Network

- 1 - A Tactile Sensing Element for a Whole Body Robot Skin Takayuki HOSHI, and Hiroyuki SHINODA {star, shino}@alab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp In this paper, we propose a new tactile sensing element to realize robot skins. The sensing element has a large sensing area (several square centimeters) and acquires

Shinoda, Hiroyuki

354

AMPK: Regulating Energy Balance at the Cellular and Whole Body Levels  

PubMed Central

AMP-activated protein kinase appears to have evolved in single-celled eukaryotes as an adenine nucleotide sensor that maintains energy homeostasis at the cellular level. However, during evolution of more complex multicellular organisms, the system has adapted to interact with hormones so that it also plays a key role in balancing energy intake and expenditure at the whole body level. PMID:24583766

Hardie, D. Grahame; Ashford, Michael L. J.

2014-01-01

355

Whole Body Stiffness as a Function of Developmental Level in Children's Hopping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates whole body stiffness as a function of developmental level in the hopping of seven children of four-eight years. Proposes that stiffness may be a key parameter that is controlled by the central nervous system when children hop. (RJC)

Getchell, Nancy; Roberton, Mary Ann

1989-01-01

356

Moving along the Mental Number Line: Interactions between Whole-Body Motion and Numerical Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Active head turns to the left and right have recently been shown to influence numerical cognition by shifting attention along the mental number line. In the present study, we found that passive whole-body motion influences numerical cognition. In a random-number generation task (Experiment 1), leftward and downward displacement of participants…

Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia; Mast, Fred W.

2012-01-01

357

Optimization of Whole-body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging  

EPA Science Inventory

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature lacks information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in devel...

358

Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static whole-body PET\\/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless,

Arman Rahmim

2013-01-01

359

CHANGES IN LEUKOCYTE PHAGOCYTOSIS IN RABBITS AFTER WHOLE-BODY Co⁶° IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate possible factors in the failure of homotransplantation, ; the influence of in vivo irradiation of leukocytes on their subsequent ability to ; phagocytize bacteria was examined. Rabbits were exposed to a 848rad, whole-body ; dose of Co⁶° gamma radiation, which was shown in previous experiments to ; be sublethal for the animals. At intervals, 1 to 50 days

A. Puza; J. Simko; E. Kunstadt; M. Zaduban

1962-01-01

360

Hematological changes after partial-body or whole-body irradiation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice were given head, trunk, or lower body, or whole-body exposures to ; 500 R of x ray under anesthetic condition. Comparisons were made of the effects ; of these four groups of exposure on leukocyte, thrombocyte, and erythrocyte count ; in the circulating blood. The change in leukocyte count followed essentially the ; same pattern in all types of

E. Kojima; F. Sato; S. Tsuchihashi; W. Nakamura

1973-01-01

361

Effect of geometrical constraints on PET performance in whole body simultaneous PET-MR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous PET-MR scanners are being developed for whole body imaging. These systems require compact and MR compatible readout for the PET component. Another important modification is the geometry of the PET scanner which is determined by space constraints imposed by the surrounding MR scanner. The maximal radius of the PET scanner is limited and it becomes difficult to insert end

S. Vandenberghe; V. Keereman; S. Staelens; V. Schulz; P. Marsden

2009-01-01

362

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

2011-01-01

363

Insulin and amino acids stimulate whole body protein synthesis in neonates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insulin and amino acids (AA) stimulate muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. To determine the effects of insulin and AA on whole body protein turnover, hyperinsulinemic (0 and 100 ng/(kg[0.66]/min))-euglycemic-AA clamps were performed during euaminoacidemia or hyperaminoacidemia in fasted 7-d-...

364

Acute Whole-Body Cooling for Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess existing original research addressing the efficiency of whole-body cooling modalities in the treatment of exertional hyperthermia. Data Sources: During April 2007, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Reviews databases as well as ProQuest for theses and dissertations to identify research studies evaluating whole-body cooling treatments without limits. Key words were cooling, cryotherapy, water immersion, cold-water immersion, ice-water immersion, icing, fanning, bath, baths, cooling modality, heat illness, heat illnesses, exertional heatstroke, exertional heat stroke, heat exhaustion, hyperthermia, hyperthermic, hyperpyrexia, exercise, exertion, running, football, military, runners, marathoner, physical activity, marathoning, soccer, and tennis. Data Synthesis: Two independent reviewers graded each study on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Seven of 89 research articles met all inclusion criteria and a minimum score of 4 out of 10 on the PEDro scale. Conclusions: After an extensive and critical review of the available research on whole-body cooling for the treatment of exertional hyperthermia, we concluded that ice-water immersion provides the most efficient cooling. Further research comparing whole-body cooling modalities is needed to identify other acceptable means. When ice-water immersion is not possible, continual dousing with water combined with fanning the patient is an alternative method until more advanced cooling means can be used. Until future investigators identify other acceptable whole-body cooling modalities for exercise-induced hyperthermia, ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion are the methods proven to have the fastest cooling rates. PMID:19180223

McDermott, Brendon P; Casa, Douglas J; Ganio, Matthew S; Lopez, Rebecca M; Yeargin, Susan W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

2009-01-01

365

The influence of a rail embankment on the vibrations generated by moving trains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed trains can generate strong vibrations that propagate away from the track. In this paper, an efficient method is presented to calculate the displacements generated by a train moving over an embankment. It is based on a domain-type integral equation which is solved numerically with the use of slowness-domain techniques. By expressing the field in terms of reflection and transmission properties of the layers, the effects of stratification of the embedding medium are taken into account. The results are compared to actual measurements and agree qualitatively.

Ditzel, A.; Herman, G. C.

2004-04-01

366

Comparison of diffuse optical tomography of human breast with whole-body and breast-only positron emission tomography  

E-print Network

Comparison of diffuse optical tomography of human breast with whole-body and breast-only positron-dimensional tomographic breast images of three females with sus- picious masses using diffuse optical tomography DOT information maximization algorithm. We also compared DOT and whole-body PET images of 14 patients with breast

Yodh, Arjun G.

367

A dual-frequency circularly polarizing whole-body MR antenna for 69/170 MHz.  

PubMed

The design concept of a dual-frequency whole-body MR antenna for circular polarization is presented. First, the principle of the capacitively shortened transmission line antenna, which is the basis of the design, is discussed. Emphasis is given to the antenna design at high frequencies. Two variants of possible antenna constructions are described and the RF efficiency is calculated for both frequencies. The antenna performance is discussed for the example of 69 and 170 MHz, the nuclear magnetic resonance frequencies of the nuclei 31P and 1H at 4 T. For 31P experiments, a whole-body antenna is useful only for transmitting and, thus, the antenna performance can be optimized for 1H. The design principle is not limited to two frequencies; however, the RF efficiency decreases with an increasing number of resonance frequencies. Results of a laboratory version and 1H images at 4 T are presented. PMID:1881332

Dürr, W; Rauch, S

1991-06-01

368

Whole body and tissue blood volumes of two strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss )  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Estimates of apparent packed cell, plasma and total blood volumes for the whole body and for 13 selected tissues were compared between Kamloops and Wytheville strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the simultaneous injection of two vascular tracers, radiolabeled trout erythrocytes (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). 2. Whole body total blood volume, plasma volume and packed cell volume were slightly, but not significantly greater in the Wytheville trout, whereas, the apparent plasma volumes and total blood volumes in 4 of 13 tissues were significantly greater in the Kamloops strain. 3. Differences were most pronounced in highly perfused organs, such as the liver and kidney and in organs of digestion such as the stomach and intestines. 4. Differences in blood volumes between the two strains may be related to the greater permeability of the vascular membranes in the Kamloops strain fish.

Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

1990-01-01

369

Glucose metabolism in mice during and after whole-body hyperthermia  

SciTech Connect

Researchers studied glucose turnover in male inbred mice during and after whole-body hyperthermia for 1 hour at 40 degrees or 41 degrees C by giving them injections of (/sup 14/C)glucose with and without a glucose load and measuring the expired /sup 14/Co/sub 2/. Expiration of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was increased during hyperthermia but decreased considerably afterward. The latter effect was enhanced by a glucose load. This inhibition depended on the glucose concentration. Metabolic studies showed a depletion of several glycolytic metabolites, especially glycogen and lactate, after whole-body hyperthermia. Combined treatment of hyperthermia and a glucose injection 1 hour later led to an increased level of glucose 6-phosphate, which indicated a block in glycolysis between glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate. This inhibition did not occur when glucose was given before the hyperthermia treatment. Lactate accumulation was not observed under any conditions.

Schubert, B.; Streffer, C.; Tamulevicius, P.

1982-06-01

370

Clinical examination or whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: the Holy Grail of spondyloarthritis imaging  

PubMed Central

Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging allows acquisition of diagnostic images in the shortest scan time, leading to better patient compliance and artifact-free images. Methods of clinical examination of the anterior chest wall joints vary between physician groups and consideration of the rules of rib motion is suggested. The type of joint and its synovial lining may also aid imaging/clinical correlation. This well-written study by experts in the field with a standardized design and methodology allows good scientific analysis and suggests the advantages of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in anterior chest wall imaging. Selection of clinical examination criteria and specific joints may have had an influence on the study results and the lack of association reported. PMID:22380535

2012-01-01

371

Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion  

PubMed Central

We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

2014-01-01

372

The effect of gamma-rays on the hemoglobin of whole-body irradiated mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the UV-visible absorption spectrum of mouse hemoglobin as a result of whole body irradiation were studied. White albino adult mice were exposed to a Cs-137 gamma-source at a dose rate of 47.5 Gy\\/h to different absorbed dose values ranging from 1 to 8 Gy. Blood specimens were taken 24 h after irradiation. The UV-visible absorption spectra of hemoglobin

H. A. Ashry; N. S. Selim; A. Z. El-Behay

1994-01-01

373

Whole Body Screening Using High-Temperature Superconducting MR Volume Resonators: Mice Studies  

PubMed Central

High temperature superconducting (HTS) surface resonators have been used as a low loss RF receiver resonator for improving magnetic resonance imaging image quality. However, the application of HTS surface resonators is significantly limited by their filling factor. To maximize the filling factor, it is desirable to have the RF resonator wrapped around the sample so that more nuclear magnetic dipoles can contribute to the signal. In this study, a whole new Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu2O3 (Bi-2223) superconducting saddle resonator (width of 5 cm and length of 8 cm) was designed for the magnetic resonance image of a mouse's whole body in Bruker 3 T MRI system. The experiment was conducted with a professionally-made copper saddle resonator and a Bi-2223 saddle resonator to show the difference. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with the HTS saddle resonator at 77 K was 2.1 and 2 folds higher than that of the copper saddle resonator at 300 K for a phantom and an in-vivo mice whole body imaging. Testing results were in accordance with predicted ones, and the difference between the predicted SNR gains and measured SNR gains were 2.4%?2.7%. In summary, with this HTS saddle system, a mouse's whole body can be imaged in one scan and could reach a high SNR due to a 2 folds SNR gain over the professionally-made prototype of copper saddle resonator at 300 K. The use of HTS saddle resonator not only improves SNR but also enables a mouse's whole body screen in one scan. PMID:22493666

Lin, In-Tsang; Yang, Hong-Chang; Chen, Jyh-Horng

2012-01-01

374

Effect of Whole-Body Hyperthermia on the Disposition and Metabolism of Adriamycin in Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of whole-body hyperthermia on the disposi tion and metabolism of Adriamycin were investigated in male New Zealand rabbits. Hyperthermia (rectal temper ature, 42.3 ±0.1°(S.D.)) was produced in nonacclima- tized, unrestrained animals by placing them in a humidity (95%)- and temperature (34 )-regulated chamber. Normo- thermic controls (rectal temperature, 39.7 ±0.1°)were maintained at ambient temperature and humidity. Adria mycin

Edward G. Mimnaugh; Randall W. Waring; Branimir I. Sikic; Richard L. Magin; Roger Drew; Charles L. Litterst; Theodore E. Gram; Anthony M. Guarino

375

Whole-body Fluorescent Optical Imaging Based on Power Light Emitting Diode  

Microsoft Academic Search

With complex configuration, the general whole-body fluorescence optical imaging system is power-consuming for it is mainly composed of laser or mercury lamp, filter and fiber-optic cable. In this paper we aimed at setting up a compact imaging system based on power light emitting diode (LED). We first discussed fluorescence excitation efficiency of mercury lamp and LED. Then we developed a

Yanping Chen; Tao Xiong; Li Yu; Shaoqun Zeng; Qingming Luo

2005-01-01

376

Eye–head coordination in the guinea pig I. Responses to passive whole-body rotations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vestibular reflexes act to stabilize the head and eyes in space during locomotion. Head stability is essential for postural\\u000a control, whereas retinal image stability enhances visual acuity and may be essential for an animal to distinguish self-motion\\u000a from that of an object in the environment. Guinea pig eye and head movements were measured during passive whole-body rotation\\u000a in order to

N. Shanidze; A. H. Kim; Y. Raphael; W. M. King

2010-01-01

377

A Whole-body Control Framework for Humanoids Operating in Human Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomorrow's humanoids will operate in human en- vironments, where efficient manipulation and locomotion skills, and safe contact interactions will be critical design factors. We report here our recent efforts into these issues, materialized into a whole-body control framework. This framework integrates task-oriented dynamic control and control prioritization (14) allowing to control multiple task primitives while complying with physical and movement-related

Luis Sentis; Oussama Khatib

2006-01-01

378

Computer Assisted Estimation of Anthropometric Parameters from Whole Body Scanner Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we describe a tool for the semi-automatic evaluation of anthropometric parameters from whole body scanner data.\\u000a It is based on a user friendly interface allowing the interactive visualization of the mesh and the use of specifically designed\\u000a measurements tools able to obtain standardized anthropometric estimates that can be compared with manually acquired data.\\u000a The “virtual” measurements procedures

Christian Lovato; Umberto Castellani; Simone Fantoni; Chiara Milanese; Carlo Zancanaro; Andrea Giachetti

2009-01-01

379

New bioimpedance analysis system: improved phenotyping with whole-body analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is a potential field and clinical method for evaluating skeletal muscle mass (SM) and %fat. A new BIA system has 8-(two on each hand and foot) rather than 4-contact electrodes allowing for rapid ‘whole-body’ and regional body composition evaluation.Design: This study evaluated the 50 kHz BC-418 8-contact electrode and TBF-310 4-contact electrode foot–foot BIA systems (Tanita

A Pietrobelli; F Rubiano; M-P St-Onge; S B Heymsfield

2004-01-01

380

A new technique for establishing dry weight in hemodialysis patients via whole body bioimpedance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for establishing dry weight in hemodialysis patients via whole body bioimpedance.BackgroundQuantitative techniques are necessary to achieve dry weight (DW) in patients with kidney failure. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a non-invasive method that determines the volume of body fluid compartments. The current work evaluates the use of BIS data in hemodialysis patients for the prediction of DW.MethodsA new

Paul W. Chamney; Matthias Krämer; Christiane Rode; Wolfgang Kleinekofort; Volker Wizemann

2002-01-01

381

Relationship between Gastrointestinal F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose Accumulation and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Whole-Body PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern and intensity of F-18-FDG uptake in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are variable and can often cause confusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between GI tract symptoms and GI uptake of F-18-FDG. We evaluated whole-body FDG-PET of 314 persons (M:F = 147:167; 13–83 years) in whom pathologic GI tract disorders had not been observed.

Seok-ki Kim; June-Key Chung; Byung Tae Kim; Sun Jung Kim; Jae Min Jeong; Dong Soo Lee; Myung Chul Lee

1999-01-01

382

MONICA: A Compact, Portable Dual Gamma Camera System for Mouse Whole-Body Imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named “MONICA” for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed “looking up” through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV ± 10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1-cm), 2.2-mm; sensitivity, 149 cps/MBq (5.5 cps/?Ci); energy resolution (FWHM), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2 = 0.99 for 0–185 MBq (0–5 mCi) in the field-of-view (FOV); spatial uniformity, < 3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-minute images acquired throughout the 168-hour study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g. limited imaging space, portability, and, potentially, cost are important. PMID:20346864

Xi, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Karkareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

2009-01-01

383

Whole-Body Cerenkov Luminescence Tomography with the Finite Element SP 3 Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation of an accurate Cerenkov luminescence imaging model is a current issue of nuclear tomography with optical techniques.\\u000a The article takes a pro-active approach toward whole-body Cerenkov luminescence tomography. The finite element framework employs\\u000a the equation of radiative transfer via the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation to model Cerenkov photon\\u000a propagation in a small animal. After this forward model is

Jianghong Zhong; Jie Tian; Xin Yang; Chenghu Qin

2011-01-01

384

Systemic immunotoxicity in AJ mice following 6-month whole body inhalation exposure to diesel exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of these studies was to determine the effects of subchronic diesel exposure on indicators of systemic immunity in mice. AJ mice were exposed daily for 6 months (6 h\\/day) to atmospheres containing one of four concentrations (30, 100, 300, and 1000 ?g\\/m3) of diluted diesel exhaust (DE) in whole body exposure chambers. The effects of DE were compared

Scott W Burchiel; Fredine T Lauer; Jacob D McDonald; Matthew D Reed

2004-01-01

385

The effect of cold after whole-body irradiation of the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice were placed in a cold environment (4 °C) directly after whole-body irradiation. Those irradiated with a lethal dose showed higher lethality than mice irradiated with the same dose but placed in room temperature. The response was also altered after irradiation with a sublethal dose. At various periods after irradiation mice were injected with125IUdR, the tissue uptake of which is

Kerstin Rosander

1993-01-01

386

Evaluation of Radio-Protective Effect of Melatonin on Whole Body Irradiation Induced Liver Tissue Damage  

PubMed Central

Objective: Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of melatonin against radiation-induced oxidative injury to the rat liver after whole body irradiation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study,thirty-two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 only received melatonin (30 mg/kg on the first day and 30 mg/kg on the following days), group 3 only received whole body gamma irradiation of 10 Gy, and group 4 received 30 mg/kg melatonin 30 minutes prior to radiation plus whole body irradiation of 10 Gy plus 30 mg/kg melatonin daily through intraperitoneal (IP) injection for three days after irradiation. Three days after irradiation, all rats were sacrificed and their livers were excised to measure the biochemical parameters malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Each data point represents mean ± standard error on the mean (SEM) of at least eight animals per group. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare different groups, followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests (p<0.05). Results: The results demonstrated that whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage by increasing MDA levels and decreasing GSH levels. Hepatic MDA levels in irradiated rats that were treated with melatonin (30 mg/kg) were significantly decreased, while GSH levels were significantly increased, when compared to either of the control groups or the melatonin only group. Conclusion: The data suggest that administration of melatonin before and after irradiation may reduce liver damage caused by gamma irradiation. PMID:23577309

Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazale; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-khansari, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

387

Comparing the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men.  

PubMed

This study compared the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men. Twenty-one men were randomly assigned to vibration-stretching (VS; n = 8), vibration only (VO; n = 6), or stretching only (SO; n = 7) groups that trained 3 times per week for 3 weeks. All 3 groups performed 9 total sets of 30-second stretches. The VS group performed four 30-second upper-body vibration exercises and five 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. The VO group performed nine 30-second upper-body vibration exercises. The SO group performed nine 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. Shoulder flexion (SF), shoulder extension (SE), and shoulder transverse extension (STE) were assessed by a Leighton Flexometer and back scratch tests bilaterally (BSR, BSL) were measured via tape measure. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated groups at baseline and a 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA evaluated the interventions over time. At baseline, there were no group differences in age, height, or weight. There was a significant (p < 0.01) time main effect for each flexibility outcome variable (SF: +6.1%, +3.9%, +3.4%; SE: +8.9%, +13.5%, +26.9%; STE: +12.8%, +8.7%, +24.3%; BSR: +4.4 cm, +3.4 cm, +3.1 cm; BSL: +3.6 cm, +2.3 cm, +6.1 cm) for SO, VO, and VS, respectively. Shoulder extension was the only variable that showed a significant (p < 0.05) interaction effect for group by time. In conclusion, vibration training, alone or combined with stretching, is a viable alternative to a standard stretching routine when attempting to increase shoulder flexibility. Adding vibration training to a flexibility regimen may improve the likelihood of regularly performing flexibility sessions because of increased variety. PMID:23478479

Ferguson, Steven L; Kim, Eonho; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Michael G

2013-12-01

388

Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR was assessed using transfer function analysis. In normothermic and heat-stressed conditions, each subject breathed at a fixed rate (0. 25 Hz) while beat-by-beat HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were obtained. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature, HR, and forearm skin blood flow. Spectral analysis of HR and SBP revealed that the heat stress significantly reduced HR and SBP variability within the high-frequency range (0.2-0.3 Hz), reduced SBP variability within the low-frequency range (0.03-0.15 Hz), and increased the ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability (all P < 0.01). Transfer function gain analysis showed that the heat stress reduced dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR within the high-frequency range (from 1.04 +/- 0.06 to 0.54 +/- 0.6 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P < 0.001) without significantly affecting the gain in the low-frequency range (P = 0.63). These data suggest that whole body heating reduced high-frequency dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR associated with spontaneous changes in blood pressure. Reduced vagal baroreflex regulation of HR may contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance known to occur in humans during heat stress.

Crandall, C. G.; Zhang, R.; Levine, B. D.

2000-01-01

389

Cardiovascular and autonomic responses to whole-body cryostimulation in essential hypertension.  

PubMed

Over recent years, a considerable increase in the popularity of cryostimulation and whole body cryotherapy (WBC) procedures has occurred both among healthy individuals and in various groups of patients, including those with primary untreated hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of WBC on the functional parameters of cardiovascular system in normotensive and primarily hypertensive individuals. The study included 26 young male volunteers with normal blood pressure range (NormoBP) and 13 with essential arterial hypertension (HyperBP). Each subject was exposed to cryotherapeutic factor (whole-body cryotherapy/cryostimulation, WBC) at a temperature of approximately -115°C to -125°C for a period of 3 min. The cardiovascular and autonomic parameters were measured noninvasively with Task Force® Monitor. Measurements in a supine position and tilt test were performed "before WBC" and "after WBC". Our study revealed that cryogenic temperatures exert strong modulatory effect on the cardiovascular system. Both groups showed adaptive changes of myocardial and vascular parameters in response to rapid cooling of virtually the whole body surface. While the profiles of some of these changes were similar in both the groups, also several considerable intergroup differences were documented. Consequently, the cryostimulation and cryotherapy treatment should be prescribed carefully to individuals who present with cardiovascular failure of any degree. PMID:25108050

Zalewski, Pawel; Buszko, Katarzyna; Zawadka-Kunikowska, Monika; S?omko, Joanna; Szrajda, Justyna; Klawe, Jacek J; Tafil-Klawe, Malgorzata; Sinski, Maciej; Newton, Julia

2014-10-01

390

Whole-body acoel regeneration is controlled by Wnt and Bmp-Admp signaling.  

PubMed

Whole-body regeneration is widespread in the Metazoa, yet little is known about how underlying molecular mechanisms compare across phyla. Acoels are an enigmatic phylum of invertebrate worms that can be highly informative about many questions in bilaterian evolution, including regeneration. We developed the three-banded panther worm, Hofstenia miamia, as a new acoelomorph model system for molecular studies of regeneration. Hofstenia were readily cultured, with accessible embryos, juveniles, and adults for experimentation. We developed molecular resources and tools for Hofstenia, including a transcriptome and robust systemic RNAi. We report the identification of molecular mechanisms that promote whole-body regeneration in Hofstenia. Wnt signaling controls regeneration of the anterior-posterior axis, and Bmp-Admp signaling controls regeneration of the dorsal-ventral axis. Perturbation of these pathways resulted in regeneration-abnormal phenotypes involving axial feature duplication, such as the regeneration of two heads following Wnt perturbation or the regeneration of ventral cells in place of dorsal ones following bmp or admp RNAi. Hofstenia regenerative mechanisms are strikingly similar to those guiding regeneration in planarians. However, phylogenetic analyses using the Hofstenia transcriptome support an early branching position for acoels among bilaterians, with the last common ancestor of acoels and planarians being the ancestor of the Bilateria. Therefore, these findings identify similar whole-body regeneration mechanisms in animals separated by more than 550 million years of evolution. PMID:24768051

Srivastava, Mansi; Mazza-Curll, Kathleen L; van Wolfswinkel, Josien C; Reddien, Peter W

2014-05-19

391

Impact of 10 Sessions of Whole Body Cryostimulation on Cutaneous Microcirculation Measured by Laser Doppler Flowmetry  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the basic and evoked blood flow in the skin microcirculation of the hand, one day and ten days after a series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions, in healthy individuals. The study group included 32 volunteers – 16 women and 16 men. The volunteers underwent 10 sessions of cryotherapy in a cryogenic chamber. The variables were recorded before the series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions (first measurement), one day after the last session (second measurement) and ten days later (third measurement). Rest flow, post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, reaction to temperature and arterio–venous reflex index were evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry. The values recorded for rest flow, a post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, a reaction to temperature and arterio – venous reflex index were significantly higher both in the second and third measurement compared to the initial one. Differences were recorded both in men and women. The values of frequency in the range of 0,01 Hz to 2 Hz (heart frequency dependent) were significantly lower after whole-body cryostimulation in both men and women. In the range of myogenic frequency significantly higher values were recorded in the second and third measurement compared to the first one. Recorded data suggest improved response of the cutaneous microcirculation to applied stimuli in both women and men. Positive effects of cryostimulation persist in the tested group for 10 consecutive days. PMID:23487007

Renata, Szygu?a; Tomasz, Dybek; Andrzej, Klimek; S?awomir, Tubek

2011-01-01

392

Central insulin administration improves whole-body insulin sensitivity via hypothalamus and parasympathetic outputs in men.  

PubMed

Animal studies suggest that insulin action in the brain is involved in the regulation of peripheral insulin sensitivity. Whether this holds true in humans is unknown. Using intranasal application of insulin to the human brain, we studied the impacts of brain insulin action on whole-body insulin sensitivity and the mechanisms involved in this process. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp before and after intranasal application of insulin and placebo in randomized order in lean and obese men. After insulin spray application in lean subjects, a higher glucose infusion rate was necessary to maintain euglycemia compared with placebo. Accordingly, clamp-derived insulin sensitivity index improved after insulin spray. In obese subjects, this insulin-sensitizing effect could not be detected. Change in the high-frequency band of heart rate variability, an estimate of parasympathetic output, correlated positively with change in whole-body insulin sensitivity after intranasal insulin. Improvement in whole-body insulin sensitivity correlated with the change in hypothalamic activity as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Intranasal insulin improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in lean but not in obese men. Furthermore, brain-derived peripheral insulin sensitization is associated with hypothalamic activity and parasympathetic outputs. Thus, the findings provide novel insights into the regulation of insulin sensitivity and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in humans. PMID:25028522

Heni, Martin; Wagner, Robert; Kullmann, Stephanie; Veit, Ralf; Mat Husin, Haliza; Linder, Katarzyna; Benkendorff, Charlotte; Peter, Andreas; Stefan, Norbert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas

2014-12-01

393

Analysis of adipose tissue distribution using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity is an increasing problem in the western world and triggers diseases like cancer, type two diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a clinically viable method to measure the amount and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) in the body. However, analysis of MRI images by manual segmentation is a tedious and time-consuming process. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method to quantify the amount of different AT types from whole-body MRI data with less user interaction. Initially, body fat is extracted by automatic thresholding. A statistical shape model of the abdomen is then used to differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral AT. Finally, fat in the bone marrow is removed using morphological operators. The proposed method was evaluated on 15 whole-body MRI images using manual segmentation as ground truth for adipose tissue. The resulting overlap for total AT was 93.7% +/- 5.5 with a volumetric difference of 7.3% +/- 6.4. Furthermore, we tested the robustness of the segmentation results with regard to the initial, interactively defined position of the shape model. In conclusion, the developed method proved suitable for the analysis of AT distribution from whole-body MRI data. For large studies, a fully automatic version of the segmentation procedure is expected in the near future.

Wald, Diana; Schwarz, Tobias; Dinkel, Julien; Delorme, Stefan; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

2011-03-01

394

Increased rates of whole body protein synthesis and breakdown in children recovering from burns.  

PubMed Central

The rates of whole body protein synthesis and breakdown were determined, with the aid of a constant administration of [15N]glycine, during recovery in 11 acutely burned children, involving a total of 24 studies. Eleven studies were also conducted in seven healthy children before and after reconstructive surgery. Rates of whole body protein synthesis and breakdown, expressed as g protein/kg body weight/day, were significantly (p less than 0.05) and positiviely correlated with per cent body surface area total burn, per cent third-degree burn, and per cent open wound. These rates (synthesis, 7.1 +/- 2.1 g protein/kg/day; breakdown, 6.3 +/- 1.8 g protein/kg/day) were 80 to 100% greater (p less than 0.05) in patients with total burns greater than or equal to 60%, as compared to patients with less than 25% total burns or to the surgical patients. Because of the high energy cost of protein synthesis, it is proposed that an increased whole body protein turnover is partly responsible for the reported elevations in rates of heat production occurring in patients recovering from thermal injury. PMID:646477

Kien, C L; Young, V R; Rohrbaugh, D K; Burke, J F

1978-01-01

395

Whole Body Microwave Irradiation for Improved Dacarbazine Therapeutical Action in Cutaneous Melanoma Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

A cutaneous melanoma mouse model was used to test the efficacy of a new therapeutical approach that uses low doses of cytostatics in conjunction with mild whole body microwave exposure of 2.45?GHz in order to enhance cytostatics antitumoral effect. Materials and Methods. A microwave exposure system for C57BL/6 mouse whole body microwave irradiation was designed; groups of 40 mice (males and females) bearing experimental tumours were subjected to a combined therapy comprising low doses of dacarbazine in combination with mild whole body irradiation. Clinical parameters and serum cytokine testing using xMAP technology were performed. Results. The group that was subjected to combined therapy, microwave and cytostatic, had the best clinical evolution in terms of overall survival, tumour volume, and metastatic potential. At day 14 the untreated group had 100% mortality, while in the combined therapy group 40% of mice were surviving. Quantifying serum IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), IFN-?, GM-CSF, TNF-?, MIP-1?, MCP-1, and KC during tumorigenesis and therapy found that the combined experimental therapy decreases all the inflammatory cytokines, except chemokine MCP-1 that was found increased, suggesting an increase of the anti-tumoral immune response triggered by the combined therapy. The overall metastatic process is decreased in the combined therapy group. PMID:24377047

Albulescu, Lucian; Iacob, Nicusor; Ighigeanu, Daniel

2013-01-01

396

Hypertonic/hyperoncotic solution attenuate blood-brain barrier breakdown and brain pathology in whole body hyperthermia rats  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate the effects of hypertonic/hyperoncotic solution on blood-brain barrier damage, brain edema and morphological changes of rats during whole body hyperthermia. 90 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 5 groups: Control group (a room temperature for 4 hours); Whole body hyperthermia group without solution treatment; Whole body hyperthermia group with Ringer's solution treatment; Whole body hyperthermia group with hydroxyethyl starch and Ringer's solution treatment; Whole body hyperthermia group with Hypertonic/hyperoncotic solution treatment. All rats except those of control group were housed in a heated container and maintained at 36°C for 3 hours until the rectal temperature reached 41-42°C. Corresponding solutions were administered intravenously at the beginning of whole body hyperthermia within 30 minutes as designed. Following whole body hyperthermia, rats were subsequently cooled down for 1h. Evans blue was administered intravenously when the rectal temperature was cooled down to 37°C. The leakage of Evans blue-albumin and water content of brain were calculated and morphological changes were investigated. In group with hypertonic/hyperoncotic solution treatment, brain water content and the leakage of Evans blue-albumin were the lowest among the four whole body hyperthermia groups. Compared with the other three whole body hyperthermia groups, in which profound to moderate damages to blood-brain barrier and brain tissue and cells were found, there were only slight morphological changes in the group with hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutionon treatment. Treatment with hypertonic/hyperoncotic solution appeared to attenuate the injury to blood-brain barrier and reduce brain edema and cell morphological changes in whole body hyperthermia rats. PMID:22140599

Liu, Youtan; Tang, Jing; Ye, Jionxian; Zhan, Lifang; Huang, Shaonong; Wang, Tingting; Gu, Miaoning

2011-01-01

397

Dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation  

PubMed Central

In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15–20cm) of a single bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study, was employed along with extensive Monte Carlo simulations and an initial clinical FDG patient dataset to validate and demonstrate the potential of the proposed statistical estimation methods. Both simulated and clinical results suggest that hybrid regression in the context of whole-body Patlak Ki imaging considerably reduces MSE without compromising high CNR. Alternatively, for a given CNR, hybrid regression enables larger reductions than OLS in the number of dynamic frames per bed, allowing for even shorter acquisitions of ~30min, thus further contributing to the clinical adoption of the proposed framework. Compared to the SUV approach, whole body parametric imaging can provide better tumor quantification, and can act as a complement to SUV, for the task of tumor detection. PMID:24080994

Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

2013-01-01

398

Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation.  

PubMed

In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15-20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study, was employed along with extensive Monte Carlo simulations and an initial clinical (18)F-deoxyglucose patient dataset to validate and demonstrate the potential of the proposed statistical estimation methods. Both simulated and clinical results suggest that hybrid regression in the context of whole-body Patlak Ki imaging considerably reduces MSE without compromising high CNR. Alternatively, for a given CNR, hybrid regression enables larger reductions than OLS in the number of dynamic frames per bed, allowing for even shorter acquisitions of ~30 min, thus further contributing to the clinical adoption of the proposed framework. Compared to the SUV approach, whole-body parametric imaging can provide better tumor quantification, and can act as a complement to SUV, for the task of tumor detection. PMID:24080994

Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

2013-10-21

399

Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (˜15-20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study, was employed along with extensive Monte Carlo simulations and an initial clinical 18F-deoxyglucose patient dataset to validate and demonstrate the potential of the proposed statistical estimation methods. Both simulated and clinical results suggest that hybrid regression in the context of whole-body Patlak Ki imaging considerably reduces MSE without compromising high CNR. Alternatively, for a given CNR, hybrid regression enables larger reductions than OLS in the number of dynamic frames per bed, allowing for even shorter acquisitions of ˜30 min, thus further contributing to the clinical adoption of the proposed framework. Compared to the SUV approach, whole-body parametric imaging can provide better tumor quantification, and can act as a complement to SUV, for the task of tumor detection.

Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

2013-10-01

400

Focusing of Rayleigh waves generated by high-speed trains under the condition of ground vibration boom  

E-print Network

In the present paper, the effects of focusing of Rayleigh waves generated by high speed trains in the supporting ground under the condition of ground vibration boom are considered theoretically. These effects are similar to the effects of focusing of sound waves radiated by aircraft under the condition of sonic boom. In particular, if a railway track has a bend to provide the possibility of changing direction of train movement, the Rayleigh surface waves generated by high-speed trains under the condition of ground vibration boom may become focused. This results in concentration of their energy along a simple caustic line at one side of the track and in the corresponding increase in ground vibration amplitudes. The effect of focusing of Rayleigh waves may occur also if a train moves along a straight line with acceleration and its current speed is higher than Rayleigh wave velocity in the ground. The obtained results are illustrated by numerical calculations.

Krylov, Victor V

2015-01-01