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1

Vibration Exposure and Biodynamic Responses during Whole-Body Vibration Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABERCROMBY, A. F. J., W. E. AMONETTE, C. S. LAYNE, B. K. MCFARLIN, M. R. HINMAN, and W. H. PALOSKI. Vibration Exposure and Biodynamic Responses during Whole-Body Vibration Training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 1794-1800, 2007. Purpose: Excessive, chronic whole-body vibration (WBV) has a number of negative side effects on the human body, including disorders of

ANDREW F. J. ABERCROMBY; WILLIAM E. AMONETTE; CHARLES S. LAYNE; BRIAN K. MCFARLIN; MARTHA R. HINMAN; WILLIAM H. PALOSKI

2007-01-01

2

Strength Increase after Whole-Body Vibration Compared with Resistance Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

DELECLUSE, C., M. ROELANTS, and S. VERSCHUEREN. Strength Increase after Whole-Body Vibration Compared with Resistance Training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 1033-1041, 2003. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the effect of a 12-wk period of whole-body vibration training and resistance training on human knee-extensor strength. Methods: Sixty-seven untrained females

CHRISTOPHE DELECLUSE; MACHTELD ROELANTS; SABINE VERSCHUEREN

2003-01-01

3

Strength-training with whole-body vibration in long-distance runners: a randomized trial.  

PubMed

A parallel group randomized trial was designed to analyze the impact of 6 weeks of strength training programs performed with or without whole-body vibration on muscular and endurance performance parameters in long-distance runners. 22 endurance runners were allocated into strength with whole-body vibration (n=8), without (n=8), and control (n=6) groups. Before and after the experimental period the subjects performed the following tests: a) maximum dynamic strength test, b) maximal incremental treadmill test, and c) time to exhaustion at velocity corresponding to maximal oxygen uptake. The fractions of the aerobic and anaerobic contribution in time to exhaustion test were also calculated. Both strength trained groups showed a similar increase in maximum dynamic strength (~18%). The aerobic contribution was enhanced for strength training group without whole-body vibration (~25%) after experimental period. No statistical differences were observed in any other variable. These results suggest that 6 weeks of strength training performed with or without whole-body vibration improve similarly the maximum dynamic strength in long-distance runners. In addition, both training modes studied had no deleterious effects on the traditional parameters of endurance performance, traditional strength training program results in increased aerobic contribution during high-intensity aerobic exercise. PMID:23559412

Bertuzzi, R; Pasqua, L A; Bueno, S; Damasceno, M V; Lima-Silva, A E; Bishop, D; Tricoli, V

2013-10-01

4

Effects of whole-body vibration training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV) training on sprint running kine- matics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volun- teers (12 women and 12 men) participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12) into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30

Giorgos Paradisis; Elias Zacharogiannis

2007-01-01

5

Strength Training with Superimposed Whole Body Vibration Does Not Preferentially Modulate Cortical Plasticity  

PubMed Central

Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to investigate 4?wks of leg strength training with and without whole body vibration (WBV) on corticospinal excitability and short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI). Participants (n = 12) were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental (WBV) group. All participants completed 12 squat training sessions either with (WBV group) or without (control group) exposure to WBV (f = 35?Hz, A = 2.5?mm). There were significant (P < 0.05) increases in squat strength and corticospinal excitability and significant (P < 0.05) reductions in SICI for both groups following the 4?wk intervention. There were no differences detected between groups for any dependant variable (P > 0.05). It appears that WBV training does not augment the increase in strength or corticospinal excitability induced by strength training alone.

Weier, Ashleigh T.; Kidgell, Dawson J.

2012-01-01

6

Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

2013-01-01

7

Improving strength and postural control in young skiers: whole-body vibration versus equivalent resistance training.  

PubMed

Context: Several groups have undertaken studies to evaluate the physiologic effects of whole-body vibration (WBV). However, the value of WBV in a training program remains unknown. Objective: To investigate whether a WBV program results in a better strength and postural control performance than an equivalent exercise program performed without vibration. Design: Randomized, controlled trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-three Belgian competitive skiers (ages = 9-15 years). Intervention(s): Subjects were assigned to either the WBV group or the equivalent resistance (ER) group for 6 weeks of training at 3 times per week. Main Outcome Measure(s): Isokinetic plantar and dorsiflexion peak torque, isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque, explosive strength (high box test), and postural control were assessed before and after the training period. Results: Both training programs significantly improved isokinetic ankle and knee muscle strength and explosive strength. Moreover, the increases in explosive strength and in plantar-flexor strength at low speed were significantly higher in the WBV group than in the ER group after 6 weeks. However, neither WBV training nor ER training seemed to have an effect on postural control. Conclusions: A strength training program that includes WBV appears to have additive effects in young skiers compared with an equivalent program that does not include WBV. Therefore, our findings support the hypothesis that WBV training may be a beneficial supplementary training technique in strength programs for young athletes. PMID:17043697

Mahieu, Nele N; Witvrouw, Erik; Van de Voorde, Danny; Michilsens, Diny; Arbyn, Valérie; Van den Broecke, Wouter

2006-01-01

8

Long-Term Effect of Whole Body Vibration Training on Jump Height: Meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Manimmanakorn, N, Hamlin, MJ, Ross, JJ, and Manimmanakorn, A. Long-term effect of whole body vibration training on jump height: meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 28(6): 1739-1750, 2014-Whole body vibration (WBV) is widely promoted as a means of improving muscle strength, but the evidence of a performance benefit is unclear with some reporting improvements and others finding none. The objective of this study was to analyze the current evidence for the effectiveness of WBV on jump height. We included randomized controlled trials or matched design studies comparing the effect of WBV training on countermovement and squat jump (SJ) height, which were gathered from MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Sciencedirect, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar, and SPORTDiscus databases. The overall effect of WBV training (from the 15 studies included) compared with having no additional exercise on countermovement jump height yielded a positive standardized mean difference of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.99). The effect of WBV training on SJ height was 0.68 (0.08-1.11). Vibration exercise consisting of a higher frequency (>30 Hz, 0.86, 0.62-1.10), higher amplitude (>3 mm, 0.84, 0.52-1.17), longer exposure duration (>10 minutes per session, 0.92, 0.48-1.36), longer training period (>12 weeks, 0.87, 0.56-1.19) and among nonathletes (0.96, 0.63-1.30) had greater benefit for jump height improvement than a lower frequency (?30 Hz, 0.56, 0.13-0.99), lower amplitude (?3 mm, 0.66, 0.35-0.98), shorter exposure duration (?10 minutes per session, 0.68, 0.45-0.92), intermediate training period (4-12 weeks, 0.72, 0.35-1.09), shorter training period (<4 weeks, 0.58, -0.08 to -1.23) and in athletes (0.59, 0.31-0.88). The effect of WBV training compared with a standard cardiovascular-type exercise group from 4 studies was 0.63 (0.10-1.15). In conclusion, WBV training produces a moderate-to-large effect on jump height. Vibration training protocols with higher frequencies, higher amplitudes, longer exposures per session, and longer training periods are more likely to enhance muscle power. PMID:24276295

Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Hamlin, Michael J; Ross, Jenny J; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan

2014-06-01

9

Effects of different amplitudes (high vs. low) of whole-body vibration training in active adults.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different amplitudes of whole-body vibrations on the development of strength, mechanical power of the lower limb, and body composition. Thirty-eight recreationally active participants took part in the study. Participants were divided in two experimental groups (low amplitude group [GL] = 2 mm; high amplitude group [GH] = 4 mm) and a control group. The experimental groups performed an incremental vibratory training, 2 days per week during 6 weeks. The frequency of vibration (50 Hz), time of work (60 seconds), and time of rest (60 seconds) were constant for GL and GH groups. All the participants were on the platform in a static semi-squat position. Maximum isokinetic strength, body composition, and performance in vertical jumps (squat and countermovement jumps) were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the training cycle. A significant increase of isokinetic strength was observed in GL and GH at angular velocities of 60°.s(-1), 180°.s(-1) and 270°.s(-1). Total lean mass was significantly increased in GH (0.9 ± 1.0 kg). There were no significant changes in the total fat mass in any of the groups. Significant changes were not observed in different variables (height, peak power, and rate of force development) derived from the vertical jumps for any of the groups submitted to study. The vibration training, whatever the amplitude, produced significant improvements in isokinetic strength. However, high vibration amplitude training presents better adaptations for hypertrophy than the training with low vibration amplitude. In this sense, GH would be a better training if the practitioners want to develop both strength and hypertrophy of the lower limbs. PMID:23096064

Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Alcaraz, Pedro E

2013-07-01

10

Benefits of whole body vibration training in patients hospitalised for COPD exacerbations - a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with stable COPD show improvements in exercise capacity and muscular function after the application of whole body vibration. We aimed to evaluate whether this modality added to conventional physiotherapy in exacerbated hospitalised COPD patients would be safe and would improve exercise capacity and quality of life. Methods 49 hospitalised exacerbated COPD patients were randomized (1:1) to undergo physiotherapy alone or physiotherapy with the addition of whole body vibration. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference of the 6-minute walking test (day of discharge – day of admission). Secondary assessments included chair rising test, quality of life, and serum marker analysis. Results Whole body vibration did not cause procedure-related adverse events. Compared to physiotherapy alone, it led to significantly stronger improvements in 6-minute walking test (95.55?±?76.29 m vs. 6.13?±?81.65 m; p?=?0.007) and St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (-6.43?±?14.25 vs. 5.59?±?19.15, p?=?0.049). Whole body vibration increased the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma coactivator-1-? and serum levels of irisin, while it decreased serum interleukin-8. Conclusion Whole body vibration during hospitalised exacerbations did not cause procedure-related adverse events and induced clinically significant benefits regarding exercise capacity and health-related quality of life that were associated with increased serum levels of irisin, a marker of muscle activity. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005979. Registered 17 March 2014.

2014-01-01

11

Stochastic Resonance Whole-Body Vibration, Musculoskeletal Symptoms, and Body Balance: A Worksite Training Study  

PubMed Central

Background Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training (SR-WBV) was tested to reduce work-related musculoskeletal complaints. Methods Participants were 54 white-collar employees of a Swiss organization. The controlled crossover design comprised two groups each given 4 weeks of exercise and no training during a second 4-week period. Outcome was daily musculoskeletal well-being, musculoskeletal pain, and surefootedness. In addition, participants performed a behavioral test on body balance prior to when SR-WBV started and after 4 weeks of SR-WBV. Results Across the 4-week training period, musculoskeletal well-being and surefootedness were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas musculoskeletal pain was significantly reduced only in those who reported low back pain during the last 4 weeks prior to the study (p < 0.05). Body balance was significantly increased by SR-WBV (p < 0.05). Conclusion SR-WBV seems to be an efficient option in primary prevention of musculoskeletal complaints and falls at work.

Elfering, Achim; Arnold, Sibille; Schade, Volker; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

2013-01-01

12

A Comparison of Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Total Work in the Rotator Cuff  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Whole-body vibration machines are a relatively new technology being implemented in the athletic setting. Numerous authors have examined the proposed physiologic mechanisms of vibration therapy and performance outcomes. Changes have mainly been observed in the lower extremity after individual exercises, with minimal attention to the upper extremity and resistance training programs. Objective: To examine the effects of a novel vibration intervention directed at the upper extremity as a precursor to a supervised, multijoint dynamic resistance training program. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA institution. Patients or Other Participants: Thirteen female student-athletes were divided into the following 2 treatment groups: (1) whole-body vibration and resistance training or (2) resistance training only. Intervention(s): Participants in the vibration and resistance training group used an experimental vibration protocol of 2 × 60 seconds at 4 mm and 50 Hz, in a modified push-up position, 3 times per week for 10 weeks, just before their supervised resistance training session. Main Outcome Measure(s): Isokinetic total work measurements of the rotator cuff were collected at baseline and at week 5 and week 10. Results: No differences were found between the treatment groups (P > .05). However, rotator cuff output across time increased in both groups (P < .05). Conclusions: Although findings did not differ between the groups, the use of whole-body vibration as a precursor to multijoint exercises warrants further investigation because of the current lack of literature on the topic. Our results indicate that indirectly strengthening the rotator cuff using a multijoint dynamic resistance training program is possible.

Hand, Jason; Verscheure, Susan; Osternig, Louis

2009-01-01

13

The effect of whole-body vibration training and conventional strength training on performance measures in female athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of regular whole-body vibration (WBV) training on lower body strength and power. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III softball athletes (n = 9) completed the 9-week protocol as part of their off-season strength and conditioning program. The athletes were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Week 1, pretesting included 3 repetition maximum (3RM) back squat, standing long jump (SLJ), and vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ). Phase I training (weeks 2-4) consisted of either WBV training (group 1) or conventional strength training (CST, group 2). The primary programmatic difference between WBV and CST was the inclusion of WBV sets after squat sets. Posttesting (3RM squat, SLJ, VCMJ) occurred at week 5. Phase II training (weeks 6-8) consisted of either WBV training (group 2) or CST (group 1). Posttesting was repeated at week 9 after the completion of phase II. Three 2 × 2 mixed factorial analyses of variance were computed. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between groups or between groups and testing period for the SLJ, VCMJ, and estimated 1RM back squat. Increases (p < 0.05) were observed in SLJ, VCMJ, and back squat from pretest to posttest 1. Back squat increased (p < 0.05) from posttest 1 to posttest 2. All the athletes experienced significantly greater (p < 0.05) percent changes from pretest to posttest 1 for SLJ and VCMJ. These results indicate that the inclusion of WBV as part of an off-season strength and conditioning program has no apparent benefit over CST methods for collegiate softball players. PMID:21792072

Jones, Margaret T; Parker, Barry M; Cortes, Nelson

2011-09-01

14

Ten-week whole-body vibration training improves body composition and muscle strength in obese women.  

PubMed

This work explored the short-term effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on anthropometry, body composition and muscular strength in obese women. Fifty obese women (age = 46.8 ± 7.81[SD]y; BMI = 35.1 ± 3.55 kg/m(2)) were assigned to a ten-week WBV training period, two times a week (in each session, 14 min vibration training, 5 min rest; vibration amplitude 2.0-5.0mm, frequency 40-60 Hz), with (n = 18) or without (n = 17) radiofrequency, or to a non-exercise control group (n = 15). Subjects were instructed not to change their habitual lifestyle. Before and after the ten-week experimental period, anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the leg press, leg curl and leg extension strength tests were carried out. All changes in the two groups of WBV training, with or without radiofrequency, were similar and these groups were combined in a single WBV intervention group. As compared to controls, subjects submitted to WBV training had significantly lower BMI, total body and trunk fat, sum of skinfolds and body circumferences. On the other hand, lower limb strength tests were increased in the WBV group. These preliminary results suggest that WBV training may improve body composition and muscular strength in obese women and may be a useful adjuvant to lifestyle prescriptions. PMID:23423629

Milanese, Chiara; Piscitelli, Francesco; Zenti, Maria Grazia; Moghetti, Paolo; Sandri, Marco; Zancanaro, Carlo

2013-01-01

15

Ten-week Whole-body Vibration Training Improves Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Obese Women  

PubMed Central

This work explored the short-term effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on anthropometry, body composition and muscular strength in obese women. Fifty obese women (age=46.8±7.81[SD]y; BMI=35.1±3.55kg/m2) were assigned to a ten-week WBV training period, two times a week (in each session, 14min vibration training, 5min rest; vibration amplitude 2.0-5.0mm, frequency 40-60Hz), with (n=18) or without (n=17) radiofrequency, or to a non-exercise control group (n=15). Subjects were instructed not to change their habitual lifestyle. Before and after the ten-week experimental period, anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the leg press, leg curl and leg extension strength tests were carried out. All changes in the two groups of WBV training, with or without radiofrequency, were similar and these groups were combined in a single WBV intervention group. As compared to controls, subjects submitted to WBV training had significantly lower BMI, total body and trunk fat, sum of skinfolds and body circumferences. On the other hand, lower limb strength tests were increased in the WBV group. These preliminary results suggest that WBV training may improve body composition and muscular strength in obese women and may be a useful adjuvant to lifestyle prescriptions.

Milanese, Chiara; Piscitelli, Francesco; Zenti, Maria Grazia; Moghetti, Paolo; Sandri, Marco; Zancanaro, Carlo

2013-01-01

16

The effects of whole-body vibration in isolation or combined with strength training in female athletes.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to assess the behavior of a vibrating platform under different conditions and to compare the effects of an 8-week periodized training program with whole-body vibration (WBV) alone or in combination with conventional strength training (ST). Vibrating frequencies, displacements, and peak accelerations were tested through a piezoelectric accelerometer under different conditions of load and subjects' position. Eighteen national-level female athletes were assigned to 1 of 3 different groups performing WBV, conventional ST, or a combination of the 2 (WBV + ST). Isometric maximal voluntary contraction, dynamic maximal concentric force, and vertical jump tests were performed before and after the conditioning program. Vibrating displacements and maximum accelerations measured on the device were not always consistent with their expected values calculated from the display and manufacturers' information (sinusoidal waveforms). The WBV alone or in combination with low-intensity resistance exercise did not seem to induce significant enhancements in force and power when compared with ST. It appears that WBV cannot substitute parts of ST loading in a cohort of young female athletes. However, vibration effects might be limited by the behavior of the commercial platforms as the one used in the study. More studies are needed to analyze the performances of devices and the effectiveness of protocols. PMID:22067255

Preatoni, Ezio; Colombo, Alessandro; Verga, Monica; Galvani, Christel; Faina, Marcello; Rodano, Renato; Preatoni, Ennio; Cardinale, Marco

2012-09-01

17

EMG and Heart Rate Responses Decline within 5 Days of Daily Whole-Body Vibration Training with Squatting  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined the acute effects of a 5-day daily whole-body vibration (WBV) training on electromyography (EMG) responses of the m. rectus femoris and m. gastrocnemius lateralis, heart rate (HR, continuously recorded), and blood lactate levels. The purpose of the study was to investigate the adaptation of muscle activity, heart rate and blood lactate levels during 5 days of daily training. Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either squat exercises with vibration at 20 Hz on a side alternating platform (SE+V, n?=?20, age ?=?31.9±7.5 yrs., height ?=?178.8±6.2 cm, body mass ?=?79.2±11.4 kg) or squat exercises alone (SE, n?=?21, age ?=?28.4±7.3 years, height ?=?178.9±7.4 cm, body mass ?=?77.2±9.7 kg). On training day 1, EMG amplitudes of the m. rectus femoris were significantly higher (P<0.05) during SE+V than during SE. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant on training days 3 and 5. The heart rate (HR) response was significantly higher (P<0.05) during SE+V than during SE on all training days, but showed a constant decline throughout the training days. On training day 1, blood lactate increased significantly more after SE+V than after SE (P<0.05). On the following training days, this difference became much smaller but remained significantly different. The specific physiological responses to WBV were largest on the initial training day and most of them declined during subsequent training days, showing a rapid neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptation to the vibration stimulus.

Rosenberger, Andre; Liphardt, Anna-Maria; Bargmann, Arne; Muller, Klaus; Beck, Luis; Mester, Joachim; Zange, Jochen

2014-01-01

18

Effect of whole body vibration training on lower limb performance in selected high-level ballet students.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) training on vertical jump ability (CMJ) and knee-extensor performance at selected external loads (50, 70, and 100 kg; leg-press exercise) in elite ballerinas. Twenty-two (age, 21.25 +/- 1.5 years) full-time ballerinas were assigned randomly to the experimental (E, n = 11) and control (C, n = 11) groups. The experimental group was submitted to WBV training 3 times per week before ballet practice. During the training period, the E and C groups undertook the same amount of ballet practice. Posttraining CMJ performance significantly increased in E group (6.3 +/- 3.8%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, E group showed significant (p < 0.05-0.001) posttraining average leg-press power and velocity improvements at all the external loads considered. Consequently, the force-velocity and power-velocity relationship shifted to the right after WBV training in the E group. The results of the present study show that WBV training is an effective short-term training methodology for inducing improvements in knee-extensor explosiveness in elite ballerinas. PMID:18076222

Annino, Giuseppe; Padua, Elvira; Castagna, Carlo; Di Salvo, Valter; Minichella, Stefano; Tsarpela, Olga; Manzi, Vincenzo; D'Ottavio, Stefano

2007-11-01

19

The effects of 11 weeks whole body vibration training on jump height, contractile properties and activation of human knee extensors.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether 11 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) training applied in a way that is commonly seen in practice, i.e. without additional loads, would improve muscle activation and/or contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles and counter movement jump height in healthy subjects. Ten subjects belonging to the experimental group trained three times a week and stood bare-foot with a 110 degrees knee angle on a vibration platform (30 Hz, 8 mm amplitude). They underwent five to eight sets of 1-min vibration with 1 min rest in between. Ten control subjects followed the same training programme but stood (110 degrees knee angle) beside the platform. Before, during and following the training period the subjects were tested. Values [mean (SEM)] obtained in the last test were expressed as percentages of the baseline value and presented for control and experimental groups. Quadriceps femoris isometric muscle force [105.4 (6.2)%, 99.9 (2.0)%; P=0.69], voluntary activation [107.1 (6.0)%, 101.1 (2.3)%; P=0.55] and maximal rate of voluntary force rise [95.4 (6.0)%, 103.3 (7.7)%; P=0.57] did not improve. The maximal rate of force rise during electrical stimulation was increased [102.3 (4.5)%, 123.6 (7.5)%; P=0.02]. Counter movement jump height was not affected by WBV [103.7 (1.8)%, 103.0 (2.8)%; P=0.71]. In conclusion, 11 weeks of standard two-legged WBV training without additional training loads did not improve functional knee extensor muscle strength in healthy young subjects. PMID:12923646

de Ruiter, C J; Van Raak, S M; Schilperoort, J V; Hollander, A P; de Haan, A

2003-11-01

20

Effect of 6Month Whole Body Vibration Training on Hip Density, Muscle Strength, and Postural Control in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-frequency mechanical strain seems to stimulate bone strength in animals. In this random- ized controlled trial, hip BMD was measured in postmenopausal women after a 24-week whole body vibration (WBV) training program. Vibration training significantly increased BMD of the hip. These findings suggest that WBV training might be useful in the prevention of osteoporosis. Introduction: High-frequency mechanical strain has been

Sabine MP Verschueren; Machteld Roelants; Christophe Delecluse; Stephan Swinnen; Dirk Vanderschueren; Steven Boonen

2004-01-01

21

The effects of acute whole body vibration as a recovery modality following high-intensity interval training in well-trained, middle-aged runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of acute whole body vibration (WBV) on recovery following\\u000a a 3 km time trial (3 km TT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (8 × 400 m). Post-HIIT measures included 3 km time-trial\\u000a performance, exercise metabolism and markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase, CK) and inflammation (c-reactive protein,\\u000a CRP). A second purpose was to determine

J. Edge; T. Mündel; K. Weir; D. J. Cochrane

2009-01-01

22

The effects of acute whole body vibration as a recovery modality following high-intensity interval training in well-trained, middle-aged runners.  

PubMed

The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of acute whole body vibration (WBV) on recovery following a 3 km time trial (3 km TT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (8 x 400 m). Post-HIIT measures included 3 km time-trial performance, exercise metabolism and markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase, CK) and inflammation (c-reactive protein, CRP). A second purpose was to determine the effects of a 3 km TT and HIIT on performance and metabolism the following day. Nine well-trained, middle-aged, male runners [(mean +/- SD) age 45 +/- 6 years, body mass 75 +/- 7 kg, VO2peak 58 +/- 5 ml kg(-1 )min(-1)] performed a constant pace run at 60 and 80% velocity at VO2peak (v VO2peak) followed by a 3-km TT and a 8 x 400-m HIIT session on two occasions. Following one occasion, the athletes performed 2 x 15 min of low frequency (12 Hz) WBV, whilst the other occasion was a non-WBV control. Twenty-four hours after each HIIT session (day 2) participants performed the constant pace run (60 and 80% v VO2peak) and 3 km TT again. There was a significant decrease in 3 km TT performance (~10 s) 24 h after the HIIT session (P < 0.05); however, there were no differences between conditions (control vs. vibration, P > 0.05). Creatine kinase was significantly elevated on day 2, though there were no differences between conditions (P > 0.05). VO2peak and blood lactate were lower on day 2 (P < 0.05), again with no differences between conditions (P > 0.05). These results show no benefit of WBV on running performance recovery following a HIIT session. However, we have shown that there may be acute alterations in metabolism 24 h following such a running session in well-trained, middle-aged runners. PMID:19011891

Edge, J; Mündel, T; Weir, K; Cochrane, D J

2009-02-01

23

Effect of a combination of whole body vibration exercise and squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly  

PubMed Central

A randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the beneficial effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise plus squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly with knee osteoarthritis and/or spondylosis. Of 35 ambulatory patients (14 men and 21 women) who were recruited at our outpatient clinic, 28 (80.0%, 12 men and 16 women) participated in the trial. The subjects (mean age 72.4 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=14 in each group), ie, a WBV exercise alone group and a WBV exercise plus squat training group. A 4-minute WBV exercise (frequency 20 Hz) was performed 2 days per week in both groups; squat training (20 times per minute) was added during the 4-minute WBV training session in the WBV exercise plus squat training group. The duration of the trial was 6 months. The exercise and training program was safe and well tolerated. WBV exercise alone improved indices of body balance and walking velocity from baseline values. However, WBV exercise plus squat training was more effective for improving tandem gait step number and chair-rising time compared with WBV exercise alone. These results suggest the benefit and safety of WBV exercise plus squat training for improving physical function in terms of body balance and muscle power in the elderly.

Osugi, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Jun; Yamazaki, Michio; Takakuwa, Masayuki

2014-01-01

24

Determination of optimal whole body vibration amplitude and frequency parameters with plyometric exercise and its influence on closed-chain lower extremity acute power output and EMG activity in resistance trained males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal combination of Whole body vibration (WBV) amplitude and frequency has not been established. Purpose. To determine optimal combination of WBV amplitude and frequency that will enhance acute mean and peak power (MP and PP) output EMG activity in the lower extremity muscles. Methods. Resistance trained males (n = 13) completed the following testing sessions: On day 1, power

Nikki J. Hughes

2005-01-01

25

Whole-Body-Vibration–Induced Increase in Leg Muscle Activity During Different Squat Exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roelants, M., S.M.P. Verschueren, C. Delecluse, O. Levin, and V. Stijnen. Whole-body-vibration-induced increase in leg muscle activity during different squat exercises. J. Strength Cond. Res. 20(1):124-129. 2006.—This study analyzed leg mus- cle activity during whole-body vibration (WBV) training. Sub- jects performed standard unloaded isometric exercises on a vi- brating platform (Power Plate): high squat (HS), low squat (LS), and 1-legged

Machteld Roelants; Sabine M. P. Verschueren; Christophe Delecluse; Oron Levin; Valère Stijnen

2006-01-01

26

Visual-Motor Performance During Whole-Body Vibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven male employees of the Boeing Company were tested in the Company's human vibration facility to determine the effect of whole body vibration on visual-motor performance. Six controls: a large and a small knob; a horizontal and a vertical lever; and a ...

R. E. Chaney D. L. Parks

1964-01-01

27

Potential beneficial effects of whole-body vibration for muscle recovery after exercise.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration is an emerging strategy used by athletes and exercising individuals to potentially accelerate muscle recovery. The vibration elicits involuntary muscle stretch reflex contractions leading to increased motor unit recruitment and synchronization of synergist muscles, which may lead to greater training adaptations over time. Intense exercise training, especially eccentric muscle contractions, will inevitably lead to muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness, which may interfere with the maintenance of a planned training program. Whole-body vibration before and after exercise shows promise for attenuating muscle soreness and may be considered as an adjunct to traditional therapies (i.e., massage, cryotherapy) to accelerate muscle recovery. PMID:22130390

Kosar, Angela C; Candow, Darren G; Putland, Jessica T

2012-10-01

28

Effect of whole body vibration applied on upper extremity muscles.  

PubMed

The acute residual effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on upper extremity muscles and testosterone secretion was studied. Eight highly (G1), nine moderately trained gymnasts (G2) and seven physically active persons (CG) were recruited for the investigation. The intervention occurred in push-up position with the elbow flexed at 90°. G1 and G2 received 30 s, 30 Hz and 6 mm amplitude vibration repeated five times. Subjects were tested before and after one and ten minutes intervention in push-up movement. Contact time (Tc), fly time (Tf), TF/Tc ratio and impulse was measured from the ground reaction force-time curves recorded during self-selected (SSRM) and full range of motion (FRM). Testosterone level in urine was also determined. Tf increased significantly in SSRM for G1 and decreased in SSRM and FRM for G2. Tf/Tc ratio in FRM and impulse in SSRM increased significantly for G1 only. No significant alteration in testosterone level was observed. We concluded that WBV is a reasonable training modality for influencing dynamic work of upper extremity muscle, but the reaction to WBV is training and individual dependent. It seems that WBV do not influence dynamic work through increased testosterone secretion because of the relatively low mass of the involved muscles. PMID:23232701

Gyulai, G; Rácz, L; Di Giminiani, R; Tihanyi, József

2013-03-01

29

Kappa Delta Award. Low back pain and whole body vibration.  

PubMed

The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole body vibration and low back pain. The epidemiologic study was a two center study of drivers and sedentary workers in the United States and Sweden. The vibration exposure was measured in the vehicles. It was found that the career vibration exposure was related to low back, neck, and shoulder pain. However, disability was related to job satisfaction. In vivo experiments, using percutaneous pin mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4.5 Hz. The frequency response is affected by posture, seating, and seat back inclination. The response appears to be determined largely by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration, should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence. PMID:9755785

Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Wilder, D G

1998-09-01

30

Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute responses of blood hormone concentrations and neuromuscular performance following\\u000a whole-body vibration (WBV) treatment. Fourteen male subjects [mean (SD) age 25 (4.6)?years] were exposed to vertical sinusoidal\\u000a WBV, 10 times for 60?s, with 60?s rest between the vibration sets (a rest period lasting 6?min was allowed after 5 vibration\\u000a sets). Neuromuscular

Carmelo Bosco; M. Iacovelli; O. Tsarpela; M. Cardinale; M. Bonifazi; J. Tihanyi; M. Viru; A. De Lorenzo; A. Viru

2000-01-01

31

Do whole-body vibrations affect spatial hearing?  

PubMed

To assist the human operator, modern auditory interfaces increasingly rely on sound spatialisation to display auditory information and warning signals. However, we often operate in environments that apply vibrations to the whole body, e.g. when driving a vehicle. Here, we report three experiments investigating the effect of sinusoidal vibrations along the vertical axis on spatial hearing. The first was a free-field, narrow-band noise localisation experiment with 5- Hz vibration at 0.88 ms(- 2). The other experiments used headphone-based sound lateralisation tasks. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of vibration frequency (4 vs. 8 Hz) at two different magnitudes (0.83 vs. 1.65 ms(- 2)) on a left-right discrimination one-interval forced-choice task. Experiment 3 assessed the effect on a two-interval forced-choice location discrimination task with respect to the central and two peripheral reference locations. In spite of the broad range of methods, none of the experiments show a reliable effect of whole-body vibrations on localisation performance. PMID:24783989

Frissen, Ilja; Guastavino, Catherine

2014-07-01

32

Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p?=?0.009; effect size r?=?0.20) and SDS (p?=?0.034; r?=?0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

2014-01-01

33

Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p?=?0.009; effect size r?=?0.20) and SDS (p?=?0.034; r?=?0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.

2014-01-01

34

Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration improves postural control in health care professionals: a worksite randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Slip, trip, and fall injuries are frequent among health care workers. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training was tested to improve postural control. Participants included 124 employees of a Swiss university hospital. The randomized controlled trial included an experimental group given 8 weeks of training and a control group with no intervention. In both groups, postural control was assessed as mediolateral sway on a force plate before and after the 8-week trial. Mediolateral sway was significantly decreased by stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training in the experimental group but not in the control group that received no training (p < .05). Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training is an option in the primary prevention of balance-related injury at work. PMID:24806038

Elfering, Achim; Schade, Volker; Stoecklin, Lukas; Baur, Simone; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

2014-05-01

35

Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is strong epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. A prototype health surveillance scheme for WBV is presented in this paper. Surveillance is the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. The aims are to assess health status and diagnose vibration-induced disorders at an early stage, to inform the workers on the potential risk associated with vibration exposure, to give preventive advice to employers and employees and to control whether preventive measures which have been taken, were successful. It is suggested that a pre-placement health examination should be offered to each worker who will be exposed to WBV so as to make the worker aware of the hazards, to obtain baseline health data, and to identify medical conditions that may increase the risk due to WBV. The case history should focus on personal history, work history, and leisure activities involving driving of vehicles. The personal medical history should detail back pain complaints, disorders in the spine, any injuries or surgery to the musculoskeletal system. A physical examination on the lower back should be performed on workers who have experienced LBP symptoms over the past 12 months. The preplacement examination should be followed by periodic health reassessment with a regular interval according to the legislation of the country. It is suggested that periodic medical examination should be made available at least every 2 years to all workers who are exposed to WBV. Any change in vibration exposure at the workplace should be reported by the employer. If an increase in vibration exposure or a change in health status have occurred, the medical re-examination should be offered at shorter intervals at the discretion of the attending physician. There should be a periodic medical examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

2002-05-01

36

PAHA study: Psychological Active and Healthy Aging: psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude and happiness effects of whole-body vibration versus Multicomponent Training in aged women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence demonstrates that physical exercise and psychological wellbeing are closely interlinked, particularly in older-aged women. However, research investigating how different forms of exercise influence mental health in older-aged women is underdeveloped. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial (N?=?300) will assess the relative effectiveness of two different exercise programs (whole-body vibration and Multicomponent Training) for improving psychological wellbeing in older-aged women. The following outcomes will be assessed at three time points (that is, pre, post, and follow-up): psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude, quality of life, and happiness. Discussion Results will have important implications for preventing psychological and physiological disease in older-aged women and for managing health-related costs for this population group. Trial registration Number NCT01966562 on Clinical Gov database the 8 October 2013

2014-01-01

37

Neuromuscular fatigue induced by whole-body vibration exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and the origin of neuromuscular fatigue induced by half-squat static whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise, and to compare it to a non-WBV condition. Nine healthy volunteers completed two fatiguing protocols (WBV and non-WBV, randomly presented) consisting of five 1-min bouts of static half-squat exercise with a load corresponding to 50 % of their individual body mass. Neuromuscular fatigue of knee and ankle muscles was investigated before and immediately after each fatiguing protocol. The main outcomes were maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, voluntary activation, and doublet peak torque. Knee extensor MVC torque decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and to the same extent after WBV (-23 %) and non-WBV (-25 %), while knee flexor, plantar flexor, and dorsiflexor MVC torque was not affected by the treatments. Voluntary activation of knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles was unaffected by the two fatiguing protocols. Doublet peak torque decreased significantly and to a similar extent following WBV and non-WBV exercise, for both knee extensors (-25 %; P < 0.01) and plantar flexors (-7 %; P < 0.05). WBV exercise with additional load did not accentuate fatigue and did not change its causative factors compared to non-WBV half-squat resistive exercise in recreationally active subjects. PMID:23344670

Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Saugy, Jonas; Cardinale, Marco; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Place, Nicolas

2013-06-01

38

Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults.

Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

2014-01-01

39

Acute whole-body vibration does not affect static jump performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, whole-body vibration is being used to promote enhanced performance. Many coaches and athletes believe that it can acutely enhance explosive performance and power output. However, the scientific literature is unclear as to whether this enhancement occurs. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of whole-body vibration on static jump performance, including jump height, peak force,

Ashley Kavanaugh; Michael W. Ramsey; William A. Sands; G. Gregory Haff; Michael H. Stone

2011-01-01

40

[The effect of whole-body vibration: an unrecognized medical problem].  

PubMed

Exposure to whole-body vibration is a growing concern in industry, traffic and in other branches of the economy. This harmful physical factor endangers work efficiency and human health not only at work but also in everyday life, in public transportation and even at home. In spite of increasing exposure to vibrations, our medical practice does not pay adequate attention to the health effects of whole-body vibration. The paper deals with the basic characteristics of vibration (frequency, amplitude, velocity and acceleration), its adequate evaluation (effective or weighted average value, peak values, rating and weighting procedure of vibration measurement) and exposure (vibration direction, exposure time, transmission and dissipation). In industry and traffic, vibrations present complex oscillatory motions, characterized by a wide frequency spectrum, variable amplitude and acceleration, and different directions. To assess the harmful effects of vibration, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has proposed three standards for acceptable human exposure to whole-body vibration: fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary, exposure limit and reduced comfort boundary. Quantitative parameters of vibration for some vehicles, and for constructional, industrial and agricultural machinery are also given. The most pronounced long-term effect of whole-body vibration is damage to the spine. The spinal region most frequently affected is the lumbar part, where spinal deformation, lumbago and sciatica can develop. The possible cause of spinal damage could be mechanical overload and metabolic changes of the intervertebral disc. Other organ systems, such as peripheral and autonomic nervous, vestibular, vascular, digestive and female reproductive systems are also liable to become affected. Risk assessment of chronic health effects is based on the appropriate evaluation of whole-body vibration exposure and individual response. Health risk increases with the intensity and duration of vibration exposure. The concomitant factors are forced sitting posture and heavy physical work. Human response to whole-body vibration depends on factors promoting the development of degenerative changes such as constitution, previous spine disease and young age. The main problems in diagnosing whole-body vibration syndrome are differentiation of vibration induced disorders from age dependent changes of the spine and lack of a specific diagnostic method for assessing those changes. Therefore, only permanent medical surveillance can guarantee proper assessment of the damage induced by whole-body vibration. For vibration exposed workers preplacement and periodic examinations are recommended. Those should include a basic medical examination and an X-ray of the spine, or at least of its lumbar part. PMID:8311700

Bogadi-Sare, A

1993-09-01

41

Using consumer electronic devices to estimate whole-body vibration exposure.  

PubMed

The cost and complexity of commercially available devices for measuring whole-body vibration is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard at workplaces. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by use of an accelerometer calibrator, and by collecting 42 simultaneous pairs of measurements from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and one of two gold standard vibration measurement devices (Svantech SV111 [Svantech, Warsaw, Poland] or Brüel & Kjær 4447 [Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S, Nærum, Denmark]) while driving light vehicles on a variety of different roadway surfaces. While sampling rate limitations make the accelerometer data collected from the iPod Touch unsuitable for frequency analysis, the vibration amplitudes recorded are sufficiently accurate (errors less than 0.1 m/s(2)) to assist workplaces manage whole-body vibration exposures. PMID:24498944

Wolfgang, Rebecca; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

2014-01-01

42

Whole-body vibration during manual wheelchair propulsion with selected seat cushions and back supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the exposure to whole-body vibrations (WBV) has been shown to be detrimental to seated humans, the effects of wheelchairs and seating systems on the transmission of vibration to an individual have not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to determine if the selected wheelchair seat cushions and back supports minimize the transmission of vibrations. Thirty-two wheelchair

Carmen P. DiGiovine; Rory A. Cooper; Shirley G. Fitzgerald; Michael L. Boninger; Erik J. Wolf; Songfeng Guo

2003-01-01

43

Modeling of human reactions to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

A computer-automated approach for studying the human body vibration is presented. This includes vertical, horizontal, and torsional vibration. The procedure used is based on Finite Segment Modeling (FSM) of the human body, thus treating it as a mechanical structure. Kane's equations as developed by Huston et al. are used to formulate the governing equations of motion. The connective tissues are modeled by springs and dampers. In addition, the paper presents the transient response of different parts of the body due to a sinusoidal forcing function as well as an impulse function applied to the lower torso in the vertical direction. PMID:3657108

Amirouche, F M

1987-08-01

44

Subjective and biomechanical responses to complex whole-body vibration stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an individual is exposed to whole-body vibration they are almost always exposed to vibration that occurs in the fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical directions simultaneously. In many cases there can also be significant components of roll, pitch and yaw. Despite the nature of vibration exposure being complex, almost all laboratory studies of the subjective and biomechanical responses to vibration have

Neil J Mansfield; Setsuo Maeda

45

Measurement of whole-body vibration exposure from speed control humps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of speed control humps is to introduce shocks and high vibration levels when a car passes over them if its speed is higher than the allowable limit. Hump geometry is a major factor in altering the level of these shocks and specifying the speed limit. However, there is no study of the relationship between whole body vibration

E. Khorshid; F. Alkalby; H. Kamal

2007-01-01

46

Whole-body vibrations do not elevate the angiogenic stimulus when applied during resistance exercise.  

PubMed

Knowledge about biological factors involved in exercise-induced angiogenesis is to date still scanty. The present study aimed to investigate the angiogenic stimulus of resistance exercise with and without superimposed whole-body vibrations. Responses to the exercise regimen before and after a 6-week training intervention were investigated in twenty-six healthy male subjects. Serum was collected at the initial and final exercise sessions and circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2 and -9, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and endostatin were determined via ELISA. Furthermore, we studied the proliferative effect of serum-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro via BrdU-incorporation assay. It was found that circulating MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF and endostatin levels were significantly elevated (P<0.001) from resting levels after both exercise interventions, with higher post-exercise VEGF concentrations in the resistance exercise (RE) group compared to the resistive vibration exercise (RVE) group. Moreover, RE provoked increased endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and higher post-exercise circulating endostatin concentrations after 6 weeks of training. These effects were elusive in the RVE group. The present findings suggest that resistance exercise leads to a transient rise in circulating angiogenic factors and superimposing vibrations to this exercise type might not further trigger a potential signaling of angiogenic stimulation in skeletal muscle. PMID:24260349

Beijer, Åsa; Rosenberger, André; Bölck, Birgit; Suhr, Frank; Rittweger, Jörn; Bloch, Wilhelm

2013-01-01

47

Whole body vibration in mountain-rescue operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mountain-rescue operations injured people are generally exposed to vibrations and shocks that can be potential causes of physical conditions worsening. Such vibrations can derive both from patient's body manipulations (e.g. when it is being loaded and immobilized on a stretcher) and from forces coming from the transport devices and vehicles. Despite the general feeling that during this kind of operations the levels of transmitted vibrations to the injured can be quite large and potentially dangerous, there is practically no study in literature providing reliable parameters (i.e. measurements) to support or dismiss these beliefs. This paper reports the results of a measurement campaign carried-out in order to outline, identify and quantify the excitations a human body is exposed to, during typical transportation phases related to mountain-rescue operations. The work mainly presents and discusses the experimental setup with the aim of focusing on the problems related to this kind of measurements; the results of the experimental campaign carried-out for the measurement of the vibrations undergone by a human body during a simulated rescue operation are presented and discussed as well. Such simulation includes three phases of transportation: on a hand-held stretcher, on an ambulance and on a helicopter. The work is not intended to supply a complete characterization and analysis of vibrations transmission during any rescue operation but just to provide a preliminary overview and to define a measurement method that can be applied for a more comprehensive characterization. With such aims measurements were carried out in on-field situations stated as "typical" by rescue experts and data then analyzed both with standard procedures and algorithms (e.g. ISO 2631s weighting curves) and with the commonly used statistical indexes; in the analysis it is important to be aware that standardized measurement procedures and indexes, created to verify comfort or health-risks of workers, might not fit the case of a generic patient who experienced a serious mountain accident. The work includes also a laboratory activity mainly related to mechanical characterization of the stretcher used in the field tests. The most interesting result of the study is the comparison of the vibration levels in the various rescue phases that, even when using different indicators, shows that the most critical issue is due to hand transportation despite the bad judgment usually expressed for helicopter flight.

Alberti, E.; Chiappa, D.; Moschioni, G.; Saggin, B.; Tarabini, M.

2006-12-01

48

Non-linear dual-axis biodynamic response to vertical whole-body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seated human subjects have been exposed to vertical whole-body vibration so as to investigate the non-linearity in their biodynamic responses and quantify the response in directions other than the direction of excitation. Twelve males were exposed to random vertical vibration in the frequency range 0.25–25Hz at four vibration magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25ms?2r.m.s.). The subjects sat in four sitting

N. Nawayseh; M. J Griffin

2003-01-01

49

Biodynamics of the human body under whole-body vibration: Synthesis of the reported data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of most probable ranges of biodynamic responses of the human body exposed to whole-body vibration is essential for developing effective integrated human-machine system design tools, improved vibration mitigation devices and frequency-weighting for exposure assessment. The international standard, ISO-5982 (2001), defines such ranges for very limited conditions, namely for body seated without a back support and exposed to vertical vibration.

S. Rakheja; R. G. Dong; S. Patra; P.-É. Boileau; P. Marcotte; C. Warren

2010-01-01

50

Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration by the Category Judgment Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to establish a scale for comfort with regard to whole-body vibration by the category judgment method. Experiments were conducted with random signals as stimuli. These stimuli consisted of three types of signal, namely stimulus F, with flat PSD (Power Spectrum Density) ranging from 1 to 100 Hz, stimulus H with PSD, which became 20

Chikako KANEKO; Takahide HAGIWARA; Setsuo MAEDA

2005-01-01

51

Relationship between Whole-Body Vibration and Morbidity Patterns Among Motor Coach Operators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long-term effects of whole-body vibration on the health of 1448 interstate bus drivers are investigated on the basis of the morbidity information extracted from periodic physical examination records. Chi-square tests of the prevalence of specific chro...

G. J. Gruber H. H. Ziperman

1974-01-01

52

The effect of occupational whole-body vibration on standing balance: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse health effects from exposure to occupational whole-body vibration (WBV) are common among drivers. In particular some researchers consider that there is kinaesthetic and balance disturbance from WBV exposure in the workplace and this might be one of the aetiological factors responsible for occupational low back pain in drivers. The purpose of this study was to undertake a critical review

Ramakrishnan Mani; Stephan Milosavljevic; S. John Sullivan

2010-01-01

53

The effects of whole body vibration on mobility and balance in Parkinson disease: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in health-compromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease. PMID:25031483

Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary

2014-07-01

54

Changes in postural sway frequency and complexity in altered sensory environments following whole body vibrations.  

PubMed

Studies assessing whole body vibration (WBV) have produced largely positive effects, with some neutral, on postural control with frequencies between 25 and 40 Hz. However no conclusive evidence indicates that 25-40 Hz elicits the optimal beneficial effects. To address this issue, a larger range of vibration intensity (10-50 Hz at peak-to-peak amplitudes of 2 and 5mm) was employed while increasing the postural complexity (altered somatosensory and/or visual information) to assess acute effects of 4-min of WBV on postural control. Twelve healthy young adults underwent postural assessment at four time intervals (prior to, immediately following and 10 and 20 min post WBV). Findings revealed both postural sway frequency and sway complexity/regularity were affected by WBV. Baseline posture demonstrated increased sway frequency (p=.04) following WBV with no changes in sway complexity. When the support surface was altered, changes in both the frequency and complexity of sway were elicited (p=.027, .002, respectively). When both somatosensory and visual information were altered delayed improvements in postural control were elicited (p=.05 and .01, for frequency and complexity, respectively). Given the differential acute effects as a function of postural task complexity, future longitudinal studies could determine the overall training effect on sway frequency and complexity. PMID:22516837

Dickin, D Clark; McClain, Matthew A; Hubble, Ryan P; Doan, Jon B; Sessford, David

2012-10-01

55

The Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Mobility and Balance in Parkinson Disease: a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in health–compromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease.

Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A.; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary

2014-01-01

56

The effects of whole body vibration on balance, joint position sense and cutaneous sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body vibration (WBV) may enhance muscular strength and power but little is known about its influence on sensory-motor\\u000a function. Vibration of a single muscle or tendon affects the afferent system in a manner that depends on amplitude and frequency.\\u000a WBV stimulates many muscle groups simultaneously and the frequencies and amplitudes used are different from many of the studies\\u000a on

Ross D. PollockSally ProvanFinbarr; Sally Provan; Finbarr C. Martin; Di J. Newham

57

The effects of whole-body vibration on the wingate test for anaerobic power when applying individualized frequencies.  

PubMed

Surowiec, RK, Wang, H, Nagelkirk, PR, Frame, JW, and Dickin, DC. The effects of whole-body vibration on the Wingate test for anaerobic power when applying individualized frequencies. J Strength Cond Res 28(7): 2035-2041, 2014-Recently, individualized frequency (I-Freq) has been introduced with the notion that athletes may elicit a greater reflex response at differing levels (Hz) of vibration. The aim of the study was to evaluate acute whole-body vibration as a feasible intervention to increase power in trained cyclists and evaluate the efficacy of using I-Freq as an alternative to 30Hz, a common frequency seen in the literature. Twelve highly trained, competitive male cyclists (age, 29.9 ± 10.0 years; body height, 175.4 ± 7.8 cm; body mass, 77.3 ± 13.9 kg) participated in the study. A Wingate test for anaerobic power was administered on 3 occasions: following a control of no vibration, 30 Hz, or I-freq. Measures of peak power, average power (AP), and the rate of fatigue were recorded and compared with the vibration conditions using separate repeated measures analysis of variance. Peak power, AP, and the rate of fatigue were not significantly impacted by either the 30 Hz or I-Freq vibration interventions (p > 0.05). Given the trained status of the individuals in this study, the ability to elicit an acute response may have been muted. Future studies should further refine the vibration parameters used and assess changes in untrained or recreationally trained populations. PMID:24378660

Surowiec, Rachel K; Wang, Henry; Nagelkirk, Paul R; Frame, Jeffrey W; Dickin, D Clark

2014-07-01

58

Whole body vibration and post-activation potentiation: a study with repeated measures.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the acute effect of different intensities of whole body vibration (WBV) on muscle performance. 8 recreationally trained males were randomly subjected to one of 3 experimental conditions: (A) WBV 2?mm [45?Hz and 2?mm], (B) WBV 4?mm [45?Hz and 4?mm], and (C) no WBV. To assess PAP, the peak concentric torque of knee flexors and extensors was measured during a set of 3 unilateral knee flexor-extensions at 60°/s(-1) in an isokinetic dynamometer. The power output and height during vertical jumps were also evaluated. These measurements were performed both before and after the experimental conditions and then compared. Comparing the knee flexion data from the conditions with and without WBV indicate that WBV potentiated the peak torque during unilateral knee flexion in the isokinetic test (p<0.05). In addition, the power output (p=0.01) and vertical height of jump (p=0.03) were also potentiated by WBV. However, increasing the vibratory stimulus did not further potentiate the results. Thus, it is suggested that WBV be used before explosive events competition because WBV promotes post-activation potentiation. PMID:24408766

Avelar, N C; Salvador, F S; Ribeiro, V G C; Vianna, D M S; Costa, S J; Gripp, F; Coimbra, C C; Lacerda, A C R

2014-07-01

59

Whole-Body Vibration and Rehabilitation of Chronic Diseases: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

The objectives of the study were to review the current literature and findings on the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training method on performance and its ability to aid in the rehabilitation of chronic diseases (neurological, musculoskeletal or metabolic conditions). Six electronic databases were searched. The combination of the search terminology used included WBV and several neurological, musculoskeletal and metabolic conditions. Twenty six papers were found to be relevant for this review and were included for critical evaluation with regards to sample characteristics, research intervention and methodology. Most studies were conducted on patients diagnosed with neurological conditions (n = 15) while less were performed on patients suffering from musculoskeletal (n = 7) or metabolic (n = 4) disorders. Comparisons were difficult to draw on because of the different pathologies and the differences in the methodology of each study. Some of the observed methodological flaws included limitations in relation to insufficient randomisation, lack of sample homogeneity (size, age variability) and poor blinding in most studies. No consensus could be reached as to whether WBV is more effective than other interventions or no intervention at all, while the additional effects that WBV may have in relation to other interventions could not be assumed. Nevertheless, chronic WBV training seems to only improve strength in neurological patients while balance and mobility improves only in patients suffering from musculoskeletal or metabolic but not from neurological conditions. Although WBV did not prove to be more effective compared to other training methods, it can be used, in some cases, as a less fatiguing and less time-consuming method to enhance physical capabilities. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of WBV in relation to no treatment at all, and to age. Key pointsChronic WBV training seems to only improve strength in neurological patients while balance and mobility improves only in patients suffering from musculoskeletal or metabolic conditions.WBV did not prove to be more effective than other interventions, while the positive effects of WBV in relation to no intervention at all could not be established.No consensus could be reached as to which vibration type is more effective.WBV training could be used as a safe, less fatiguing and less time-consuming type of exercise for patients with neurologic conditions instead of other more demanding interventions.

Chanou, Konstantina; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Jamurtas, Athanasios

2012-01-01

60

Effects of seated posture on erector spinae EMG activity during whole body vibration.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the electromyographic (EMG) response of the erector spinae to whole body vibration in three different unsupported seated postures: neutral upright, forward lean, and posterior lean. Subjects were 11 healthy college-age men. EMG was collected using bipolar surface electrodes placed bilaterally over the erector spinae at the L4 level. A modified chair with attached accelerometer was affixed to an induction type vibrator. Subjects were vibrated vertically at 4.5 Hz and 6.21 m.s-2 RMS. Data were collected in each of the three postures for 30 s pre- and post-vibration and for 2 min during vibration. Mean EMG values were determined for each sampling period and compared using ANOVA. The mean value for anterior lean was significantly larger (p < 0.05) than that for posterior lean and neutral. EMG data analysed by triggered averaging showed a phase-dependent response to the vibratory cycle for the forward leaning and neutral upright postures. The results of this study indicate that the magnitude of the vibration synchronous response of the erector spinae musculature is dependent upon body posture. This response may be an important factor in the onset of muscular fatigue and the increased incidence of back disorders among individuals exposed to whole body vibration. PMID:8513774

Zimmermann, C L; Cook, T M; Goel, V K

1993-06-01

61

Oxygen uptake during whole-body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a slow voluntary movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this study we investigated metabolic power during whole-body vibration exercise (VbX) compared to mild resistance exercise.\\u000a Specific oxygen consumption (\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ) and subjectively perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion, RPE; Borg scale) were assessed in 12 young healthy subjects\\u000a (8 female and 4 male). The outcome parameters were assessed during the last minute of a 3-min exercise bout,

Jörn Rittweger; Hans Schiessl; Dieter Felsenberg

2001-01-01

62

All-terrain vehicle use in agriculture: Exposure to whole body vibration and mechanical shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock were measured in 12 New Zealand farmers during their daily use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). As per the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guidelines for WBV exposure, frequencies between 0 and 100Hz were recorded via a seat-pad tri-axial accelerometer during 20min of ATV use. The farmers were also surveyed to estimate seasonal variation

Stephan Milosavljevic; Frida Bergman; Borje Rehn; Allan B. Carman

2010-01-01

63

Gender differences in knee stability in response to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) differences between men and women in how the knee is controlled during a single-legged drop landing in response to whole-body vibration (WBV). Forty-five healthy volunteers, 30 men (age 22 ± 3 years; weight 76.8 ± 8.8 kg; height 179.0 ± 6.8 cm) and 15 women (age 22 ± 3 years; weight 61.0 ± 7.7 kg; height 161.9 ± 7.2 cm) were recruited for this study. Knee angles, vertical ground reaction forces, and the time to stabilize the knee were assessed after single-legged drop landings from a 30-cm platform. Surface EMG data in rectus femoris (RF) and hamstrings (H) and knee and ankle accelerometry signals were also acquired. The participants performed 3 pretest landings, followed by a 3-minute recovery and then completed 1 minute of WBV (30 Hz to 4 mm). Before vibration, the female subjects had a significantly higher peak vertical force value, knee flexion angles, and greater H preactivity (EMG(RMS) 50 milliseconds before activation) than did the male subjects. In addition, although not significant, the medial-lateral (ML) acceleration in both knee and ankle was also higher in women. After WBV, no significant differences were found for any of the other variables. However, there was a decrease in the RF to H activation ratio during the precontact phase and an increase in the ratio during the postcontact phase just in women, which leads to a decrement in ML acceleration. The gender differences reported in knee stability in response to WBV underline the necessity to perform specific neuromuscular training programs based on WBV together with instruction of the proper technique, which can assist the clinician in the knee injury prevention. PMID:21997457

Sañudo, Borja; Feria, Adrian; Carrasco, Luis; de Hoyo, Moisés; Santos, Rui; Gamboa, Hugo

2012-08-01

64

[Effects of whole-body vibration on human tracking performance and visual-motor reaction].  

PubMed

Dual task test (light target tracking and visual-motor reaction of visual oddball mode) and pursuit aiming test were done in 17 male healthy subjects after 30min exposure to whole-body vibrations of 20 Hz 0.15 gz or 20 Hz 0.3 gz. Mean accuracy rate of visual-motor reaction and target stimulus reaction accuracy rate after 0.3 gz vibration were significantly lower than those of control group (P < 0.05), while after 0.15 gz vibration, the changes were not significant. Comparing with control group, the total number of right and wrong pointing, pointing speed in pursuit aiming test were significantly lower (P < 0.05) after vibration. However, light target tracking error, mean reaction time of visual-motor reaction and pointing accuracy rate of pursuit aiming test had no significant change after exposure to any kind of the vibrations. It may be concluded that some kinds of effect on human tracking performance and visual-motor reaction were observed after exposure to whole-body vibration. PMID:11541271

Yao, Y; Han, L; Wu, X; Zhang, Z; Dong, M

1998-02-01

65

Whole-body vibration applied during upper body exercise improves performance.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has exercisers perform static and dynamic resistance training exercises on a ground-based platform. Exposure to WBV exposure has demonstrated benefits and no effect on lower body strength, power, and performance. The aim of this study was to determine if WBV exposure (50 Hz, 2.51 mm) has any potentiating effects postexercise by measuring the kinematic variables of a set of upper body elbow-extensor exercise (70% one-repetition maximum [1RM]) to volitional exhaustion. Sixteen recreationally active students (12 male and 4 female) performed 3 different experimental conditions on separate days. Each condition had the subjects perform 1 set of elbow-extension exercise to fatigue with 1 of 3 WBV treatments: WBV simultaneously during the set (AE); 60 seconds after application of WBV for 30 seconds (RE); and no WBV (CTRL). Kinematic parameters of each repetition were monitored by linking a rotary encoder to the highest load plate. The mean velocity and acceleration throughout the set and perceived exertion were analyzed. A significant increase (p < 0.05) was observed in the mean velocity for the whole set in the AE condition vs. the CTRL condition. The mean acceleration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the AE condition in comparison with RE (increased by 45.3%) and CTRL (increased by 50.4%) conditions. The positive effect induced by WBV on upper-limb performance is only achieved when the stimulus is applied during the exercise. However, WBV applied 60 seconds before upper body exercise results in no benefit. PMID:23085972

Marín, Pedro J; Herrero, Azael J; Milton, John G; Hazell, Tom J; García-López, David

2013-07-01

66

Fluid dynamic aspects of cardiovascular behavior during low-frequency whole-body vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of the cardiovascular system during low frequency whole-body vibration, such as encountered by astronauts during launch and reentry, is examined from a fluid mechanical viewpoint. The vibration characteristics of typical manned spacecraft and other vibration environments are discussed, and existing results from in vivo studies of the hemodynamic aspects of this problem are reviewed. Recent theoretical solutions to related fluid mechanical problems are then used in the interpretation of these results and in discussing areas of future work. The results are included of studies of the effects of vibration on the work done by the heart and on pulsatile flow in blood vessels. It is shown that important changes in pulse velocity, the instantaneous velocity profile, mass flow rate, and wall shear stress may occur in a pulsatile flow due to the presence of vibration. The significance of this in terms of changes in peripheral vascular resistance and possible damage to the endothelium of blood vessels is discussed.

Nerem, R. M.

1973-01-01

67

Low back and neck pain in locomotive engineers exposed to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and excess risk of low back pain and neck pain in locomotive engineers, and to investigate the relationship of both with whole-body vibration exposure. A cross-sectional survey comparing locomotive engineers with other rail worker referents was conducted. Current vibration levels were measured, cumulative exposures calculated for engineers and referents, and low back and neck pain assessed by a self-completed questionnaire. Median vibration exposure in the z- (vertical) axis was 0.62 m/s(2). Engineers experienced more frequent low back and neck pain, odds ratios (ORs) of 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-2.64) and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.22-3.02), respectively. The authors conclude that vibration close to the "action levels" of published standards contribute to low back and neck pain. Vibration levels need to be assessed conservatively and control measures introduced. PMID:24499248

McBride, David; Paulin, Sara; Herbison, G Peter; Waite, David; Bagheri, Nasser

2014-01-01

68

Display strobing: An effective countermeasure against visual blur from whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crews and equipment in aerospace vehicles, including spacecraft at launch, can be exposed to significant vibration. Prior to this study, we examined the ability of vibrating observers to read alphanumeric symbology on stationary (i.e., non-vibrating) flight-relevant display formats and noted performance degradation with increasing vibration amplitude and decreasing font size. Here we test the efficacy of a display strobing countermeasure for the reading decrements caused by the same 12-Hz whole-body vibration in the surge (chest-to-spine) direction applied in our prior studies. To produce the strobe countermeasure, we triggered the backlight of a stationary liquid crystal diode (LCD) display panel to flash in synchrony with the 12-Hz vibration of the observer's seat while experimentally varying both the strobe duty cycle and phase angle between the strobe onset and the vibration cycle zero-crossings. Strobing proved an effective countermeasure, restoring reading error rates during 0.7g (6.9 m/s2 half-amplitude) whole-body vibration to levels indistinguishable from those achieved under the non-strobed (equivalent luminance) non-vibrating baseline condition and improving response times although not fully to the baseline. While we noted differences in the "preferred" phase angle of individual observers, on average, no overall effect of phase angle was detected. Likewise, no effect was seen for the two duty cycles and their respective equivalent luminance levels. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of strobing for multi-axis and multi-frequency vibration, and for displays with moving images.

Adelstein, Bernard D.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Beutter, Brent R.; McCann, Robert S.; Anderson, Mark R.

2013-11-01

69

Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator.  

PubMed

Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA). The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 - 4.16 ms (-1) . PMID:24959797

Szczepaniak, Jan; Tana?, Wojciech; Kromulski, Jacek

2014-06-10

70

The feasibility of whole body vibration in institutionalised elderly persons and its influence on muscle performance, balance and mobility: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN62535013  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fatigue or lack of interest can reduce the feasibility of intensive physical exercise in nursing home residents. Low-volume exercise interventions with similar training effects might be an alternative. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the feasibility of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) in institutionalised elderly, and its impact on functional capacity and muscle performance. METHODS: Twenty-four

Ivan Bautmans; Ellen Van Hees; Jean-Claude Lemper; Tony Mets

2005-01-01

71

Whole-body vibration therapy for osteoporosis: state of the science.  

PubMed

Clinical guidelines for osteoporosis recommend dietary and pharmacologic interventions and weight-bearing exercise to prevent bone fractures. These interventions sometimes have low adherence and can cause adverse effects. A proposed alternative or adjunctive treatment is whole-body vibration therapy (WBV), in which energy produced by a forced oscillation is transferred to an individual from a mechanical vibration platform. Whole-body vibration platforms are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for medical purposes. This review provides a broad overview of important issues related to WBV therapy for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Relying on key informants and a search of the gray and published literature from January 2000 to August 2011, the investigators found that the designs of WBV platforms and protocols for their use vary widely. The optimal target population for the therapy is not defined. Although WBV has some theoretical advantages, key informants have voiced several concerns, including uncertain safety and potential consumer confusion between low-intensity vibration platforms intended for osteoporosis therapy and high-intensity platforms intended for exercise. Finally, the scant literature did not establish whether WBV therapy leads to clinically important increases in bone mineral density or reduces risk for fracture. PMID:22084334

Wysocki, Andrea; Butler, Mary; Shamliyan, Tatyana; Kane, Robert L

2011-11-15

72

Measurement of whole-body vibration exposure from speed control humps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of speed control humps is to introduce shocks and high vibration levels when a car passes over them if its speed is higher than the allowable limit. Hump geometry is a major factor in altering the level of these shocks and specifying the speed limit. However, there is no study of the relationship between whole body vibration due to passing over a speed control hump and lower back pain or occupational diseases. In this study, an experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate health risks associated with different geometry speed control humps. Vibration levels and shocks are measured by a seat pad accelerometer placed under the driver's seat to evaluate hazard risks on the human body's lower back. The assessment is based on two standard methods of measuring whole body vibration: the British standard BS 6841 and the new ISO/DIS standard 2631-5. These methods are used to assess the effects of vehicle type, passenger location in the vehicle, vehicle speed, and speed control hump geometry. It was found that circular speed control humps currently installed on many public roads should be modified in order to eliminate hazards. Two newly designed speed humps were proved to be less hazardous than circular speed control humps.

Khorshid, E.; Alkalby, F.; Kamal, H.

2007-07-01

73

Therapeutic impact of low amplitude high frequency whole body vibrations on the osteogenesis imperfecta mouse bone?  

PubMed Central

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by extremely brittle bone. Currently, bisphosphonate drugs allow a decrease of fracture by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone mass but with possible long term side effects. Whole body mechanical vibrations (WBV) treatment may offer a promising route to stimulate bone formation in OI patients as it has exhibited health benefits on both muscle and bone mass in human and animal models. The present study has investigated the effects of WBV (45 Hz, 0.3 g, 15 minutes/days, 5 days/week) in young OI (oim) and wild type female mice from 3 to 8 weeks of age. Vibration therapy resulted in a significant increase in the cortical bone area and cortical thickness in the femur and tibia diaphysis of both vibrated oim and wild type mice compared to sham controls. Trabecular bone was not affected by vibration in the wild type mice; vibrated oim mice, however, exhibited significantly higher trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia. Femoral stiffness and yield load in three point bending were greater in the vibrated wild type mice than in sham controls, most likely attributed to the increase in femur cortical cross sectional area observed in the ?CT morphology analyses. The vibrated oim mice showed a trend toward improved mechanical properties, but bending data had large standard deviations and there was no significant difference between vibrated and non-vibrated oim mice. No significant difference of the bone apposition was observed in the tibial metaphyseal trabecular bone for both the oim and wild type vibrated mice by histomorphometry analyses of calcein labels. At the mid diaphysis, the cortical bone apposition was not significantly influenced by the WBV treatment in both the endosteum and periosteum of the oim vibrated mice while a significant change is observed in the endosteum of the vibrated wild type mice. As only a weak impact in bone apposition between the vibrated and sham groups is observed in the histological sections, it is possible that WBV reduced bone resorption, resulting in a relative increase in cortical thickness. Whole body vibration appears as a potential effective and innocuous means for increasing bone formation and strength, which is particularly attractive for treating the growing skeleton of children suffering from brittle bone disease or low bone density pathologies without the long term disadvantages of current pharmacological therapies.

Vanleene, Maximilien; Shefelbine, Sandra J.

2013-01-01

74

Therapeutic impact of low amplitude high frequency whole body vibrations on the osteogenesis imperfecta mouse bone.  

PubMed

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by extremely brittle bone. Currently, bisphosphonate drugs allow a decrease of fracture by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone mass but with possible long term side effects. Whole body mechanical vibrations (WBV) treatment may offer a promising route to stimulate bone formation in OI patients as it has exhibited health benefits on both muscle and bone mass in human and animal models. The present study has investigated the effects of WBV (45Hz, 0.3g, 15minutes/days, 5days/week) in young OI (oim) and wild type female mice from 3 to 8weeks of age. Vibration therapy resulted in a significant increase in the cortical bone area and cortical thickness in the femur and tibia diaphysis of both vibrated oim and wild type mice compared to sham controls. Trabecular bone was not affected by vibration in the wild type mice; vibrated oim mice, however, exhibited significantly higher trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia. Femoral stiffness and yield load in three point bending were greater in the vibrated wild type mice than in sham controls, most likely attributed to the increase in femur cortical cross sectional area observed in the ?CT morphology analyses. The vibrated oim mice showed a trend toward improved mechanical properties, but bending data had large standard deviations and there was no significant difference between vibrated and non-vibrated oim mice. No significant difference of the bone apposition was observed in the tibial metaphyseal trabecular bone for both the oim and wild type vibrated mice by histomorphometry analyses of calcein labels. At the mid diaphysis, the cortical bone apposition was not significantly influenced by the WBV treatment in both the endosteum and periosteum of the oim vibrated mice while a significant change is observed in the endosteum of the vibrated wild type mice. As only a weak impact in bone apposition between the vibrated and sham groups is observed in the histological sections, it is possible that WBV reduced bone resorption, resulting in a relative increase in cortical thickness. Whole body vibration appears as a potential effective and innocuous means for increasing bone formation and strength, which is particularly attractive for treating the growing skeleton of children suffering from brittle bone disease or low bone density pathologies without the long term disadvantages of current pharmacological therapies. PMID:23352925

Vanleene, Maximilien; Shefelbine, Sandra J

2013-04-01

75

The effects of random whole-body-vibration on motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

It is well known that applying vibrations to men influences multiple physiological functions. The authors analysed post effects of whole-body-vibration (WBV) on motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sixty-eight persons with PD were randomly subdivided into one experimental and one control group. Motor symptoms were assessed by the UPDRS (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) motor score. A cross-over design was used to control treatment effects. The treatment consisted of 5 series of whole-body-vibration taking 60 seconds each. On average a highly significant (p<0.01) improvement of 16.8% in the UPDRS motor score was found in the treatment group. Only marginal changes (p>0.05) were found in the control group. The cross-over procedure showed comparable treatment effects (14.7% improvement after treatment). With respect to different symptom clusters only small changes were found in limb akinesia and cranial symptoms. By contrast, tremor and rigidity scores were improved by 25% and 24%, respectively. According to the structure of symptom changes it is unlikely that these effects are explainable on peripheral sensory level, exclusively. With respect to the findings of other studies one can speculate about changes in activation of the supplementary motor area and in neurotransmitter functions. PMID:16720935

Haas, Christian T; Turbanski, Stephan; Kessler, Kirn; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

2006-01-01

76

Whole body vibration exposures in metropolitan bus drivers: A comparison of three seats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a repeated measures study design, three different seats were evaluated as 12 metropolitan bus drivers drove a standardized test route including city streets, old and new freeways, and a street segment containing 10 large speed humps. Three comparisons were made: (1) comparing seats made by different manufactures (Seats 1 and 2), (2) comparing seats with a standard foam (Seat 2) and silicone foam (Seat 3) seat pans, and (3) comparing WBV exposures based on individual factors such as seat pressure settings and body weight. Whole body vibration (WBV) exposures were measured using a tri-axial seat pan accelerometer and the attenuation capabilities of each seat were evaluated by comparing the vibrations measured at the floor and seat of the bus. There were significant WBV exposure differences between the various street types, which was shown across all seat types. The city street and older freeway segments had the highest WBV exposures with both segments producing WBV exposures slightly above the action limit for vibration dose value (VDV). Relative to Seat 2, Seat 1 performed better at attenuating impulsive and shock related WBV exposures; however, neither seat performed significantly better when average vibration ( A w) and VDV WBV exposures were compared. In addition, no performance differences were seen between the standard foam (Seat 2) and silicone foam (Seat 3) seat pans. Seat suspension stiffness (air pressure) was also examined, and the results indicated that the higher the seat air pressure the lower the A w, VDV, and static compressive dose ( S ed) vibration exposures. This study provided a unique opportunity to evaluate on-the-job whole body vibration exposures in a standardized, controlled setting.

Blood, R. P.; Ploger, J. D.; Yost, M. G.; Ching, R. P.; Johnson, P. W.

2010-01-01

77

Varying whole body vibration amplitude differentially affects tendon and ligament structural and material properties  

PubMed Central

Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular for helping to maintain bone mass and strengthening muscle. Vibration regimens optimized for bone maintenance often operate at hypogravity levels (<1 G) and regimens for muscle strengthening often employ hypergravity (>1 G) vibrations. The effect of vibratory loads on tendon and ligament properties is unclear though excessive vibrations may be injurious. Our objective was to evaluate how tendon gene expression and the mechanical/histological properties of tendon and ligament were affected in response to WBV in the following groups: no vibration, low vibration (0.3 G peak-to-peak), and high vibration (2 G peak-to-peak). Rats were vibrated for 20 min a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks. Upon sacrifice, the medial collateral ligament (MCL), patellar tendon (PT), and the Achilles Tendon (AT) were isolated with insertion sites intact. All tissues were tensile tested to determine structural and material properties or used for histology. Patellar tendon was also subjected to quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate expression of anabolic and catabolic genes. No differences in biomechanical data between the control and the low vibration groups were found. There was evidence of significant weakness in the MCL with high vibration, but no significant effect on the PT or AT. Histology of the MCL and PT showed a hypercellular tissue response and some fiber disorganization with high vibration. High vibration caused an increase in collagen expression and a trend for an increase in IGF-1 expression suggesting a potential anabolic response to prevent tendon overuse injury.

Keller, Benjamin V.; Davis, Matthew L.; Thompson, William R.; Dahners, Laurence E.; Weinhold, Paul S.

2014-01-01

78

Benefits of whole-body vibration to people with COPD: a community-based efficacy trial  

PubMed Central

Background Benefits of community-based whole-body vibration (WBV) as a mode of exercise training for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been investigated. The low skill demand of WBV may enhance habitual sustainability to physical activity by people with COPD, provided efficacy of WBV can be established. The purpose of this trial was to compare a community-based WBV intervention with a sham WBV (SWBV) intervention and monitor exacerbations, exercise tolerance, and functional performance of the lower limbs of people with COPD. Methods Community-dwelling adults with a GOLD clinical diagnosis of COPD were recruited to the trial. This was a Phase II efficacy trial with crossover to sham intervention interspersed with two-week washout. Each six-week intervention consisted of two sessions per week of either WBV or SWBV. The interventions were completed in the home of each participant under supervision. The outcome measures were selected psychological (perceived dyspnoea) and physiological (heart rate and oxygen saturation) responses to exercise, simulated activities of daily living (timed-up-and got test and 5-chair stands test), and selected kinematic variables of gait across the 14-week trial. Results Sixteen adults with stable COPD were recruited to the trial. No exacerbations were reported during the WBV or SWBV interventions. After WBV, performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) and gait improved (p???0.05), while there was no change after SWBV (p?>?0.05). Despite five withdrawals during the washout period, a 100% compliance to each six-week intervention was noted. Conclusions Results showed that WBV did not exacerbate symptoms of COPD that can be associated with physical inactivity. The WBV intervention improved tests to simulate ADLs such as rising from a chair, turning, and walking gait with greater effect than a SWBV intervention. If a placebo effect was systemic to the WBV intervention, the effect was negligible. As a standalone community-based intervention, WBV was an efficacious mode of exercise training for people with stable COPD that did not negatively effect exercise tolerance or exacerbate the disease, while concurrently improving functional performance of the lower limbs. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000508875.

2014-01-01

79

Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.  

PubMed

According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

2009-01-01

80

Six-degree-of-freedom whole-body vibration exposure levels during routine skidder operations.  

PubMed

This research focuses on quantifying six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure levels that occur in Northern Ontario skidders during routine field operating tasks. 6-DOF vibration running root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration levels at the operator/seat interface were determined for eight skidders while driving loaded, driving unloaded, picking up a load, dropping off a load and ploughing logs under field operating conditions. The acceleration data were weighted in accordance with ISO 2631-1:1997 and evaluated for both health and comfort outcomes. The mean running RMS weighted translational and rotational accelerations all exceeded 0.36 m/s(2) and 0.14 rad/s(2). The greatest average accelerations occurred while driving unloaded with this condition displaying translational vibration total values (VTV) that exceeded the upper limit of the ISO 2631-1:1997 health caution zone within an average of 2.3 h. Utilizing 6-DOF VTV, virtually all operating conditions would be designated as uncomfortable. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study provides one of the most comprehensive reports on vibration exposures in seated vehicle operators. The results are geared towards ergonomists with discussions on health effects and measurement concerns, while providing the raw vibration exposure data that will be useful to vehicle, component and vibration sensor designers. PMID:20432089

Jack, R J; Oliver, M; Dickey, J P; Cation, S; Hayward, G; Lee-Shee, N

2010-05-01

81

Musculoskeletal Response to Whole-Body Vibration During Fracture Healing in Intact and Ovariectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of vibration on bone healing and muscle in intact and ovariectomized rats. Thirty ovariectomized (at 3 months of age) and 30 intact 5-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral metaphyseal osteotomy of tibia. Five days later, half of the ovariectomized and of the intact rats were exposed to whole-body vertical vibration (90 Hz, 0.5 mm, 4 × g acceleration) for 15 min twice a day during 30 days. The other animals did not undergo vibration. After decapitation of rats, one tibia was used for computed tomographic, biomechanical, and histological analyses; the other was used for gene expression analyses of alkaline phosphatase (Alp), osteocalcin (Oc), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 1, and insulinlike growth factor 1. Serum Alp and Oc were measured. Mitochondrial activity, fiber area and distribution, and capillary densities were analyzed in M. gastrocnemius and M. longissimus. We found that vibration had no effect on body weight and food intake, but it improved cortical and callus densities (97 vs. 99%, 72 vs. 81%), trabecular structure (9 vs. 14 trabecular nodes), blood supply (1.7 vs. 2.1 capillaries/fiber), and oxidative metabolism (17 vs. 23 pmol O2/s/mg) in ovariectomized rats. Vibration generally increased muscle fiber size. Tibia biomechanical properties were diminished after vibration. Oc gene expression was higher in vibrated rats. Serum Alp was increased in ovariectomized rats. In ovariectomized rats, vibration resulted in an earlier bridging; in intact rats, callus bridging occurred later after vibration. The chosen vibration regimen (90 Hz, 0.5 mm, 4 × g acceleration, 15 min twice a day) was effective in improving musculoskeletal tissues in ovariectomized rats but was not optimal for fracture healing.

Stuermer, Ewa K.; Werner, Carsten; Wicke, Michael; Kolios, Leila; Sehmisch, Stephan; Tezval, Mohammad; Utesch, Clara; Mangal, Orzala; Zimmer, Sebastian; Dullin, Christian; Stuermer, Klaus M.

2010-01-01

82

Survey of Technical Preventative Measures to Reduce Whole-Body Vibration Effects when Designing Mobile Machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering solutions to minimize the effects on operators of vibrating mobile machinery can be conveniently grouped into three areas: Reduction of vibration at source by improvement of the quality of terrain, careful selection of vehicle or machine, correct loading, proper maintenance, etc.Reduction of vibration transmission by incorporating suspension systems (tyres, vehicle suspensions, suspension cab and seat) between the operator and the source of vibration.Improvement of cab ergonomics and seat profiles to optimize operator posture. These paper reviews the different techniques and problems linked to categories (2) and (3). According to epidemiological studies, the main health risk with whole-body vibration exposure would appear to be lower back pain. When designing new mobile machinery, all factors which may contribute to back injury should be considered in order to reduce risk. For example, optimized seat suspension is useless if the suspension seat cannot be correctly and easily adjusted to the driver's weight or if the driver is forced to drive in a bent position to avoid his head striking the ceiling due to the spatial requirement of the suspension seat.

DONATI, P.

2002-05-01

83

Evaluation of whole-body vibration by the category judgment method.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is to establish a scale for comfort with regard to whole-body vibration by the category judgment method. Experiments were conducted with random signals as stimuli. These stimuli consisted of three types of signal, namely stimulus F, with flat PSD (Power Spectrum Density) ranging from 1 to 100 Hz, stimulus H with PSD, which became 20 dB higher at 100 Hz than at 1 Hz, and stimulus L that had a PSD 20 dB lower at 100 Hz. These signals were modified by Wk frequency weighting in accordance with ISO 2631-1, and the R.M.S. values were adjusted to be equal. In addition, the signal levels were varied over a range of five steps to create 15 kinds of individual stimuli. The subjects sat on a flat, horizontal metal plate mounted directly on the vibrator and were exposed to vertical vibrations before being asked to choose a numerical category to best indicate their perceived level of comfort (or otherwise) during each stimulus. The creation of this assessment scale, including the aforementioned categories, enabled not only clarification of the relationship between the vibration stimuli and the degree of comfort but also discovery of the connection between the frequency-weighted R.M.S. acceleration and the corresponding categories representing each degree of comfort without overlap. Moreover, it became clear that the subjects' assessment of the degree of comfort perceived differed with differences in the vibration spectrum. PMID:15732327

Kaneko, Chikako; Hagiwara, Takahide; Maeda, Setsuo

2005-01-01

84

Endurance exercise training blunts the deleterious effect of high-fat feeding on whole body efficiency  

PubMed Central

We recently showed that a week-long, high-fat diet reduced whole body exercise efficiency in sedentary men by >10% (Edwards LM, Murray AJ, Holloway CJ, Carter EE, Kemp GJ, Codreanu I, Brooker H, Tyler DJ, Robbins PA, Clarke K. FASEB J 25: 1088–1096, 2011). To test if a similar dietary regime would blunt whole body efficiency in endurance-trained men and, as a consequence, hinder aerobic exercise performance, 16 endurance-trained men were given a short-term, high-fat (70% kcal from fat) and a moderate carbohydrate (50% kcal from carbohydrate) diet, in random order. Efficiency was assessed during a standardized exercise task on a cycle ergometer, with aerobic performance assessed during a 1-h time trial and mitochondrial function later measured using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The subjects then underwent a 2-wk wash-out period, before the study was repeated with the diets crossed over. Muscle biopsies, for mitochondrial protein analysis, were taken at the start of the study and on the 5th day of each diet. Plasma fatty acids were 60% higher on the high-fat diet compared with moderate carbohydrate diet (P < 0.05). However, there was no change in whole body efficiency and no change in mitochondrial function. Endurance exercise performance was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), most probably due to glycogen depletion. Neither diet led to changes in citrate synthase, ATP synthase, or mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3. We conclude that prior exercise training blunts the deleterious effect of short-term, high-fat feeding on whole body efficiency.

Holloway, Cameron J.; Murray, Andrew J.; Knight, Nicholas S.; Carter, Emma E.; Kemp, Graham J.; Thompson, Campbell H.; Tyler, Damian J.; Neubauer, Stefan; Robbins, Peter A.; Clarke, Kieran

2011-01-01

85

Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to whole body vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and to identify the common sources of exposure and the occupations and industries where such exposures arise.?METHODS—A postal questionnaire was posted to a random community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to WBV in the past week, including occupational and common non-occupational sources. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and national prevalence estimates were derived from census information. Estimates were also made of the average estimated daily personal dose of vibration (eVDV).?RESULTS—From the 12 907 responses it was estimated that 7.2 million men and 1.8 million women in Great Britain are exposed to WBV at work in a 1 week period if the occupational use of cars, vans, buses, trains, and motor cycles is included within the definition of exposure. The eVDV of >374 000 men and 9000 women was estimated to exceed a proposed British Standard action level of 15 ms-1.75. Occupations in which the estimated exposures most often exceeded 15 ms-1.75 included forklift truck and mechanical truck drivers, farm owners and managers, farm workers, and drivers of road goods vehicles. These occupations also contributed the largest estimated numbers of workers in Great Britain with such levels of exposure. The highest estimated median occupational eVDVs were found in forklift truck drivers, drivers of road goods vehicles, bus and coach drivers, and technical and wholesale sales representatives, among whom a greater contribution to total dose was received from occupational exposures than from non-occupational ones; but in many other occupations the reverse applied. The most common sources of occupational exposure to WBV are cars, vans, forklift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, and loaders.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to whole body vibration is common, but only a small proportion of exposures exceed the action level proposed in British standards, and in many occupations, non-occupational sources are more important than those at work. The commonest occupational sources of WBV and occupations with particularly high exposures have been identified, providing a basis for targeting future control activities.???Keywords: whole body vibration; population; prevalence; exposure

Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

86

The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

2013-01-01

87

Adaptations in physiological properties of rat motor units following 5 weeks of whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 5-week whole-body vibration (WBV) on contractile parameters and force-frequency relationship of functionally isolated motor units of the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle: fast fatigable (FF), fast fatigue-resistant (FR), and slow (S). Moreover, myosin heavy chain isoform content was quantified. Following WBV, the maximum tetanic force of FF units was increased by ?25%. The twitch half-relaxation time in all types of motor units and the twitch contraction time in FR units were shortened. The twitch-to-tetanus force ratio was decreased and the force-frequency curves were shifted rightwards in S and FR units. Myosin heavy chain distribution was not changed. These findings suggest modifications of the excitation-contraction coupling towards shortening of a twitch contraction. The observed increase in force of FF units may contribute to gains in muscle dynamic strength reported following WBV treatment. PMID:23905655

Lochy?ski, Dawid; B?czyk, Marcin; Kaczmarek, Dominik; R?dowicz, Maria Jolanta; Celichowski, Jan; Krutki, Piotr

2013-09-01

88

Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX) and/or whole-body vibration (WBV) might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

Liu, Pei-Yang; Brummel-Smith, Kenneth; Ilich, Jasminka Z.

2011-01-01

89

Whole-body vibration and ergonomic study of US railroad locomotives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US locomotive operators have exposure to multi-axis whole-body vibration (WBV) and shocks while seated. This study assessed operator-related and ergonomic seating design factors that may have confounding or mitigating influence on WBV exposure and its effects. Vibration exposure was measured according to international guidelines (ISO 2631-1; 1997); ergonomic work place factors and vibration effects were studied with a cross-sectional survey instrument distributed to a randomly selected group of railroad engineers ( n=2546) and a control group; and during vehicle inspections. The survey response rate was 47% for the RR engineers ( n=1195) and 41% for the controls ( n=323). Results of the mean basic vibration measurements were for the x, y, z-direction and vector sum 0.14, 0.22, 0.28 and 0.49 m/s 2 respectively; almost all crest factors (CF), MTVV and VDV values were above the critical ratios given in ISO 2631-1. The prevalence of serious neck and lower back disorders among locomotive engineers was found to be nearly double that of the sedentary control group without such exposure. Railroad engineers rated their seats mostly unacceptable regarding different adjustment and comfort aspects (3.02-3.51; scale 1=excellent to 4=unacceptable), while the control group rated their chairs more favorably (1.96-3.44). Existing cab and seat design in locomotives can result in prolonged forced awkward spinal posture of the operator combined with WBV exposure. In a logistic regression analysis, time at work being bothered by vibration (h/day) was significantly associated with an increased risk of low back pain, shoulder and neck pain, and sciatic pain among railroad engineers. Customized vibration attenuation seats and improved cab design of the locomotive controls should be further investigated.

Johanning, Eckardt; Landsbergis, Paul; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Luhrman, Raymond

2006-12-01

90

Selected health risks caused by long-term, whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The problem of a "vibration disease" caused by low-frequency whole-body vibration (wbv) is critically discussed. Disorders of the nervous, circulatory, and digestive systems are interpreted not to be predominantly wbv-specific, but to be related to the totality of working conditions. Long-term wbv exposure can probably contribute to the pathogenesis of disorders of female reproductive organs (menstrual disturbances, anomalies of position) and disturbances of pregnancy (abortions, stillbirths). Animal experiments suggest harmful effects on the fetus. WBV has a minor synergistic effect on the development of noise-induced hearing loss. Degenerative changes of the spine are more prevalent among wbv-exposed workers. Model calculations demonstrate an increased spinal load in pregnant women exposed to wbv or self-induced vibration, and illustrate a possibility for the comparison of data on stress, strain, and strength. The analysis of individual exposure-effect relationships is suggested as a future approach for evaluating potential occupation-related diseases. PMID:8480768

Seidel, H

1993-04-01

91

Low back pain and association with whole body vibration among military armoured vehicle drivers in Malaysia.  

PubMed

A cross sectional study was conducted among military armoured vehicle drivers in the two largest mechanized battalions with the objective to determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP), and its association with whole body vibration (WBV) and other associated factors. A self-administered questionnaire and Human Vibration Meter were used in this study. A total of 159 respondents participated in this study and 102 (64.2%) of them were subjected to WBV measurement. One-hundred-and-seventeen respondents complained of LBP for the past 12 months giving a prevalence of 73.6%. The prevalence of LBP among tracked armoured vehicle drivers was higher (81.7%) as compared to wheeled armoured vehicle drivers (67.0%). The mean acceleration at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles (1.09 +/- 0.26 ms(-2)) and wheeled armoured vehicles (0.33 +/- 0.07 ms) were the dominant vibration directions. The mean estimated vibration dose value (eVDV) for eight-hour daily exposure at Z-axis (19.86 +/- 4.72 ms(-1.75)) in tracked armoured vehicles showed the highest estimation. Based on the European Vibration Directive (2002), the mean eVDV at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles exceeded exposure action value (EAV) (> 9.1 ms(-1.75), but did not exceed exposure limit value (ELV) (<21.0 ms(-1.75)). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only driving in forward bending sitting posture (OR = 3.63, 95% CI 1.06-12.42) and WBV exposure at X-axis (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.02-3.69) were significant risk factors to LBP. Preventive measures should be implemented to minimize risk of WBV and to improve ergonomic postures among drivers. PMID:20527267

Rozali, A; Rampal, K G; Shamsul Bahri, M T; Sherina, M S; Shamsul Azhar, S; Khairuddin, H; Sulaiman, A

2009-09-01

92

Non-linear dual-axis biodynamic response to fore-and-aft whole-body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seated subjects have participated in two experiments with fore-and-aft whole-body vibration to investigate dynamic responses at the seat and footrest in the direction of vibration and in other directions. In the first experiment, 12 males were exposed to fore-and-aft random vibration (0.25–20Hz) at four magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25ms?2 rms) while sitting on a seat with no backrest in

N. Nawayseh; M. J. Griffin

2005-01-01

93

The effects of whole body vibration on balance, joint position sense and cutaneous sensation.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) may enhance muscular strength and power but little is known about its influence on sensory-motor function. Vibration of a single muscle or tendon affects the afferent system in a manner that depends on amplitude and frequency. WBV stimulates many muscle groups simultaneously and the frequencies and amplitudes used are different from many of the studies on single musculotendinous units. We investigated the effects of WBV at two amplitudes on balance, joint position sense (JPS) and cutaneous sensation in young healthy subjects. Eighteen adults (24.3 ± 1.5 years, 15 females) were assessed before WBV (five 1 min bouts, 30 Hz) then immediately, 15 and 30 min afterwards. Two amplitudes (4 and 8 mm peak to peak) were investigated on different occasions. Standing balance was assessed with feet together and eyes closed, and standing on one leg with eyes open and closed. JPS at the knee and ankle was assessed by repositioning tasks while cutaneous sensation was recorded from six sites in the lower limb using pressure aesthesiometry. Neither amplitude affected JPS (P > 0.05). There were minimal effects on balance only in the vertical plane and only 30 min after WBV (P < 0.05). Low amplitude vibration only reduced sensation at the foot and ankle immediately after WBV (P < 0.008). High amplitude vibration impaired sensation at the foot, ankle and posterior shank for the entire test period (P < 0.008). In young healthy individuals WBV did not affect JPS or static balance, but reduced cutaneous sensation. These data may have implications for older and clinical populations with compromised postural control. PMID:21455611

Pollock, Ross D; Provan, Sally; Martin, Finbarr C; Newham, Di J

2011-12-01

94

Acute bone marker responses to whole-body vibration and resistance exercise in young women.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) augments the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise (RE). However, its acute effects on bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been determined. This study examined BTM responses to acute high-intensity RE and high-intensity RE with WBV (WBV+RE) in young women (n=10) taking oral contraceptives in a randomized, crossover repeated measures design. WBV+RE exposed subjects to 5 one-minute bouts of vibration (20 Hz, 3.38 peak-peak displacement, separated by 1 min of rest) before RE. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Pre), immediately after WBV (PostVib), immediately after RE (IP), and 30-min after RE (P30). Bone alkaline phosphatase did not change at any time point. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b significantly increased (p<0.05) from the Pre to PostVib, then decreased from IP to P30 for both conditions. C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) significantly decreased (p<0.05) from Pre to PostVib and from Pre to P30 only for WBV+RE. WBV+RE showed a greater decrease in CTX than RE (-12.6% ± 4.7% vs -1.13% ± 3.5%). In conclusion, WBV was associated with acute decreases in CTX levels not elicited with RE alone in young women. PMID:22902255

Sherk, Vanessa D; Chrisman, Carmen; Smith, Jessica; Young, Kaelin C; Singh, Harshvardhan; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

2013-01-01

95

Mathematical models for the apparent masses of standing subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear lumped parameter models of the apparent masses of human subjects in standing positions when exposed to vertical whole-body vibration have been developed. Simple models with a single degree-of-freedom (d.o.f.) and with two (d.o.f.) were considered for practical use. Model parameters were optimised using both the mean apparent mass of 12 male subjects and the apparent masses of individual subjects measured in a previous study. The calculated responses of two (d.o.f.) models with a massless support structure showed best agreement with the measured apparent mass and phase, with errors less than 0.1 in the normalised apparent mass (i.e., corresponding to errors less than 10% of the static mass) and errors less than 5° in the phase for a normal standing posture. The model parameters obtained with the mean measured apparent masses of the 12 subjects were similar to the means of the 12 sets of parameters obtained when fitting to the individual apparent masses. It was found that the effects of vibration magnitude and postural changes on the measured apparent mass could be represented by changes to the stiffness and damping in the two (d.o.f.) models.

Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

2003-02-01

96

Acute Bone Marker Responses to Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Exercise in Young Women  

PubMed Central

Whole-body vibration (WBV) augments the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise (RE). However, its acute effects on bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been determined. This study examined BTM responses to acute high intensity RE and high intensity RE with WBV (WBV+RE) in young women (n=10) taking oral contraceptives in a randomized, cross-over repeated measures design. WBV+RE exposed subjects to 5 one-minute bouts of vibration (20 Hz, 3.38 peak–peak displacement, separated by 1 minute of rest) prior to RE. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Pre), immediately post WBV (PostVib), immediately post RE (IP), and 30 minutes post RE (P30). Bone ALP did not change at any time point. TRAP5b significantly (p<0.05) increased from the Pre to PostVib, then decreased from IP to P30 for both conditions. CTX significantly decreased (p<0.05) from Pre to PostVib and from Pre to P30 only for WBV+RE. WBV+RE showed a greater decrease in CTX than RE (-12.6 ± 4.7% vs. -1.13 ± 3.5%). In conclusion, WBV was associated with acute decreases in CTX levels not elicited with resistance exercise alone in young women.

Sherk, Vanessa D.; Chrisman, Carmen; Smith, Jessica; Young, Kaelin C.; Singh, Harshvardhan; Bemben, Michael G.; Bemben, Debra A.

2014-01-01

97

Effects of whole body vibration on motor unit recruitment and threshold  

PubMed Central

Whole body vibration (WBV) has been suggested to elicit reflex muscle contractions but this has never been verified. We recorded from 32 single motor units (MU) in the vastus lateralis of 7 healthy subjects (34 ± 15.4 yr) during five 1-min bouts of WBV (30 Hz, 3 mm peak to peak), and the vibration waveform was also recorded. Recruitment thresholds were recorded from 38 MUs before and after WBV. The phase angle distribution of all MUs during WBV was nonuniform (P < 0.001) and displayed a prominent peak phase angle of firing. There was a strong linear relationship (r = ?0.68, P < 0.001) between the change in recruitment threshold after WBV and average recruitment threshold; the lowest threshold MUs increased recruitment threshold (P = 0.008) while reductions were observed in the higher threshold units (P = 0.031). We investigated one possible cause of changed thresholds. Presynaptic inhibition in the soleus was measured in 8 healthy subjects (29 ± 4.6 yr). A total of 30 H-reflexes (stimulation intensity 30% Mmax) were recorded before and after WBV: 15 conditioned by prior stimulation (60 ms) of the antagonist and 15 unconditioned. There were no significant changes in the relationship between the conditioned and unconditioned responses. The consistent phase angle at which each MU fired during WBV indicates the presence of reflex muscle activity similar to the tonic vibration reflex. The varying response in high- and low-threshold MUs may be due to the different contributions of the mono- and polysynaptic pathways but not presynaptic inhibition.

Woledge, Roger C.; Martin, Finbarr C.; Newham, Di J.

2012-01-01

98

Effects of whole body vibration on motor unit recruitment and threshold.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) has been suggested to elicit reflex muscle contractions but this has never been verified. We recorded from 32 single motor units (MU) in the vastus lateralis of 7 healthy subjects (34 ± 15.4 yr) during five 1-min bouts of WBV (30 Hz, 3 mm peak to peak), and the vibration waveform was also recorded. Recruitment thresholds were recorded from 38 MUs before and after WBV. The phase angle distribution of all MUs during WBV was nonuniform (P < 0.001) and displayed a prominent peak phase angle of firing. There was a strong linear relationship (r = -0.68, P < 0.001) between the change in recruitment threshold after WBV and average recruitment threshold; the lowest threshold MUs increased recruitment threshold (P = 0.008) while reductions were observed in the higher threshold units (P = 0.031). We investigated one possible cause of changed thresholds. Presynaptic inhibition in the soleus was measured in 8 healthy subjects (29 ± 4.6 yr). A total of 30 H-reflexes (stimulation intensity 30% Mmax) were recorded before and after WBV: 15 conditioned by prior stimulation (60 ms) of the antagonist and 15 unconditioned. There were no significant changes in the relationship between the conditioned and unconditioned responses. The consistent phase angle at which each MU fired during WBV indicates the presence of reflex muscle activity similar to the tonic vibration reflex. The varying response in high- and low-threshold MUs may be due to the different contributions of the mono- and polysynaptic pathways but not presynaptic inhibition. PMID:22096119

Pollock, Ross D; Woledge, Roger C; Martin, Finbarr C; Newham, Di J

2012-02-01

99

Impairment in Extinction of Contextual and Cued Fear Following Post-Training Whole-Body Irradiation  

PubMed Central

Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24?h later. Animals were given 2?weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2?weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2?weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

Olsen, Reid H. J.; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

2014-01-01

100

Review of the Literature Whole-body vibration and postural stress among operators of construction equipment: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Operators of construction equipment perform various duties at work that expose them to a variety of risk factors that may lead to health problems. A few of the health hazards among operators of construction equipment are: (a) whole-body vibration, (b) awkward postural requirements (including static sitting), (c) dust, (d) noise, (e) temperature extremes, and (f) shift work. It has

N. Kumar Kittusamy; Bryan Buchholz

101

Voluntary activation of the ankle plantar flexors following whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the voluntary activation of the ankle plantar flexors. Twelve healthy young adults were randomly exposed to two treatments on separate occasions. The first (non-WBV) involved stretching of the plantar flexors at end range of dorsiflexion for five 1-min bouts. The second involved the same stretch with WBV (26 Hz) for five 1-min bouts. Attempted maximal voluntary contractions (AMVCs) of the plantar flexors were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer (30 degrees s(-1)) before and after each treatment. A twitch interpolation technique was used to investigate voluntary activation. Post-treatment data were normalised against pre-treatment data. Subjects were classified as maximally (n = 6) or sub-maximally (n = 6) activated using the pre-treatment twitch interpolation data. The effects of WBV were assessed by repeated measure (RM) MANOVA. After WBV, the group of subjects classified as sub-maximally activated increased peak voluntary torque and rate of voluntary torque production (P < 0.05), whereas angular displacement to peak torque reduced (P < 0.05); i.e. peak torque was produced at a longer muscle length. No significant non-WBV treatment effects were found for this group. No significant WBV effects were found for the group of subjects classified as maximally activated. This study found that the response to WBV was dependent on the level of voluntary activation of the ankle plantar flexors during a set of AMVCs. PMID:19946699

Pellegrini, Michael J; Lythgo, Noel D; Morgan, David L; Galea, Mary P

2010-03-01

102

The acute effect of whole-body vibration on the vertical jump height.  

PubMed

To determine the effectiveness of a single, 1-minute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a viable warm-up activity, 90 subjects (30 men; 60 women, mean age = 19 ± 1 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to either a nonvibration control group or 1 of 8 WBV treatments (4 frequencies × 2 AMplitudes). Subjects stood with the feet shoulder width apart and the knees flexed 10° on a Next Generation Power Plate for 1 minute with the frequency (30, 35, 40, or 50 Hz) and amplitude (2-4 or 4-6 mm) settings at the assigned levels. Before, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after the WBV or control treatment, subjects performed a series of countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs) measured using a Vertec vertical jump tester. Comparisons were made of changes in the countermovement vertical jump height (CMJH) over time and between groups, frequencies, and amplitudes using repeated measures analysis of variance (? ? 0.05). There were significant differences in CMJH over time (p = 0.008); however, these were similar for all groups, frequencies, and amplitudes (p > 0.88). Some athletes may benefit from using WBV as a warm-up activity, if the timing of WBV is optimized. The effect of WBV on performance is likely variable and minimal, with a small window of effectiveness. Gender differences were not examined, and the optimal duration, intensity, and postural position are still unclear and warrant further study. PMID:20885202

Armstrong, W Jeffrey; Grinnell, David C; Warren, Gabriel S

2010-10-01

103

Effects of whole-body vibration with an unstable surface on muscle activation.  

PubMed

The current study examined the effects of using an unstable surface during whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise on leg and trunk muscle activity during a static semi-squat. Twenty-eight recreationally active university students completed 4 different test conditions: 1) stable surface with no WBV; 2) unstable surface with no WBV; 3) unstable surface with 30 Hz WBV low amplitude; and 4) unstable surface with 50 Hz WBV low amplitude. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured for the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus abdominis (RA), and multifidus (MF) muscles. Normalized to the stable condition, WBV at 30 Hz and an unstable surface increased EMG in the GM vs the unstable and stable surfaces (~35%; p<0.05). VMO EMG decreased in the unstable vs stable condition (~20%), WBV at 30 Hz and an unstable surface increased EMG vs all other conditions (~20-40%; p<0.05). MF EMG increased with WBV at 30 Hz (25%; p<0.05) vs the stable condition but not vs all other conditions. Using an unstable surface during WBV exposure increases EMG of muscles in the lower extremities and trunk suggesting the combination of an unstable surface combined with WBV may be an effective modality to further increase EMG. PMID:24879025

Marin, P J; Hazell, T J

2014-06-01

104

Computation of trunk muscle forces, spinal loads and stability in whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-body vibration has been indicated as a risk factor in back disorders. Proper prevention and treatment management, however, requires a sound knowledge of associated muscle forces and loads on the spine. Previous trunk model studies have either neglected or over-simplified the trunk redundancy with time-varying unknown muscle forces. Trunk stability has neither been addressed. A novel iterative dynamic kinematics-driven approach was employed to evaluate muscle forces, spinal loads and system stability in a seated subject under a random vertical base excitation with ˜±1 g peak acceleration contents. This iterative approach satisfied equations of motion in all directions/levels while accounting for the nonlinear passive resistance of the ligamentous spine. The effect of posture, co-activity in abdominal muscles and changes in buttocks stiffness were also investigated. The computed vertical accelerations were in good agreement with measurements. The input base excitation, via inertial and muscle forces, substantially influenced spinal loads and system stability. The flexed posture in sitting increased the net moment, muscle forces and passive spinal loads while improving the trunk stability. Similarly, the introduction of low to moderate antagonistic coactivity in abdominal muscles increased the passive spinal loads and improved the spinal stability. A trade-off, hence, exists between lower muscle forces and spinal loads on one hand and more stable spine on the other. Base excitations with larger peak acceleration contents substantially increase muscle forces/spinal loads and, hence, the risk of injury.

Bazrgari, B.; Shirazi-Adl, A.; Kasra, M.

2008-12-01

105

Analyses of biodynamic responses of seated occupants to uncorrelated fore-aft and vertical whole-body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent mass and seat-to-head-transmissibility response functions of the seated human body were investigated under exposures to fore-aft (x), vertical (z), and combined fore-aft and vertical (x and z) axis whole-body vibration. The coupling effects of dual-axis vibration were investigated using two different frequency response function estimators based upon the cross- and auto-spectral densities of the response and excitation signals,

Santosh Mandapuram; Subhash Rakheja; Pierre Marcotte; Paul-Émile Boileau

2011-01-01

106

Does body mass index increase the risk of low back pain in a population exposed to whole body vibration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) influences the risk of low back pain (LBP) in a population exposed to whole body vibration (WBV). For this a self-administered questionnaire was sent to 467 participants, driving occupational vehicles. Vibration measurements were performed according to ISO 2631–1 on a representative sample (n=30) of this population. For

Daniëlle Noorloos; Linda Tersteeg; Ivo J. H. Tiemessen; Carel T. J. Hulshof; Monique H. W. Frings-Dresen

2008-01-01

107

Myoelectric reactions to ultra-low frequency and low-frequency whole body vibration.  

PubMed

5 healthy males were exposed to vertical sinusoidal whole body vibration (WBV) at 5 frequencies (F1 = 0.315 Hz, F2 = 0.63 Hz, F3 = 1.25 Hz, F4 = 2.5 Hz, F5 = 5.0 Hz) and 2 intensities (I1 = 1.2 ms-2 rms, F1-F5; I2 = 2.0 ms-2 rms, F2-F5). Erector spinae EMGs were derived at the levels of the first thoracic (T1) and third lumbar (L3) spinous processes, rectified and synchronously averaged, as were the accelerations of the seat and the head. WBV induced vibration-synchronous EMG activity (T1 and L3) which exceeded the activity without WBV during enhanced gravitation and decreased during lowered gravitation from F1 to F3. At F4 and F5, these phase relations changed drastically, thus suggesting a different trigger mechanism. The extreme average EMG-amplitudes remained nearly constant at F1 to F3 and increased at higher frequencies. Maximum EMG activity was higher at I2 than at I1. WBV from F1 to F3 is supposed to cause tonic muscular activity triggered by the otoliths; at higher frequencies, stretch reflexes probably gain additional importance. The results hint at an increasing sensory conflict with decreasing frequency of WBV and are interpreted within the theoretical framework of different modes of motor control. Relations between transmissibility and muscle activity suggest the usefulness of including time-variant spring-characteristics into biomechanical models. PMID:3396572

Seidel, H

1988-01-01

108

Dietary protein adequacy and lower body versus whole body resistive training in older humans  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the effects of long-term consumption of the United States Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein by older people who were sedentary or performed resistive training (RT) on body composition, skeletal muscle size and protein metabolism, and if the number of muscle groups trained influenced the muscle hypertrophy response to RT. Twelve men and 17 women (age range 54–78 years) completed this 14 week controlled diet and exercise study. Throughout the study, each subject completely consumed daily euenergetic menus that provided the RDA of 0.8 g protein kg?1 day?1. From study weeks 3–14 (weeks RT1-RT12), 10 subjects (four men, six women) performed whole body RT (WBRT), nine subjects (four men, five women) performed lower body RT (LBRT) and 10 subjects (four men, six women) remained sedentary (SED). Both the LBRT and WBRT groups performed knee extension and flexion exercises, and the WBRT group also performed chest press and arm pull exercises (three sets per exercise at 80 % of one repetition maximum, 3 days per week for 12 weeks). From week 2 (baseline) to week RT12, muscle strength increased in muscle groups trained in the LBRT and WBRT groups, and was not changed in the SED group. From baseline to week RT12, whole body muscle mass and protein-mineral mass were not changed, fat-free mass (P = 0.004) and total body water (P = 0.013) were decreased, and percentage body fat was increased (P = 0.011) in these weight-stable older people, independent of group assignment. The RT-induced increases in mid-thigh muscle area (from computed tomography scans) were comparable in the LBRT and WBRT groups (2.13 ± 1.26 cm2 and 2.17 ± 1.24 cm2, respectively), and were different from those in the SED group, which lost muscle area (-1.74 ± 0.57 cm2; group-by-time P < 0.05). From baseline to week RT12, 24 h urinary total nitrogen excretion decreased (P < 0.001), nitrogen balance shifted from near equilibrium to positive, whole body leucine oxidation (from the infusion of L-[13C]leucine) decreased (P < 0.05) and net (postabsorptive vs. postprandial) leucine balance (P < 0.05) increased from near equilibrium to positive, with no differences in responses over time among the three groups. In conclusion, the number of muscle groups trained did not influence whole body protein metabolism or RT-induced muscle hypertrophy in older people. Most of these data are consistent with a successful adaptation to the RDA for protein. However, research should continue to question whether the decreases in fat-free mass and total body water observed in all subjects, and the decrease in mid-thigh muscle area in the SED group, are physiological accommodations, and whether the RDA for protein might be marginally inadequate for older people to maintain skeletal muscle.

Campbell, Wayne W; Trappe, Todd A; Jozsi, Alison C; Kruskall, Laura J; Wolfe, Robert R; Evans, William J

2002-01-01

109

Effect of an acute bout of whole body vibration exercise on muscle force output and motor neuron excitability.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current investigation was to assess the effect of an acute bout of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle force output and motor neuron excitability. Nineteen recreationally trained college-aged males were randomly assigned to a WBV (n = 10) or a sham (S, n = 9) group. The WBV group completed a series of static, body weight squats on a vibrating platform at 30 Hz and an amplitude of approximately 3.5 mm (vertical), whereas the S group performed the same series of exercises but without vibration. Measurements were performed before (Pre) and then immediately post-exercise (Imm Post), 8 minutes post-exercise (8-Min Post), or 16 minutes post-exercise (16-Min Post) during 3 different testing sessions. The measurements involved a ballistic isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the triceps surae muscle complex and electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve for assessment of motor neuron excitability by analyzing H-reflex and M-wave responses (H(max)/M(max) ratio). Electromyography was also obtained from the triceps surae muscle complex during the MVCs. The WBV group significantly (p < or = 0.05) increased peak force at Imm Post (9.4%) and 8-Min Post (10.4%). No significant change in peak force was observed in the S group. No significant changes were observed in either group for average integrated EMG, H(max)/M(max) ratio, or rate of force development at Imm Post, 8-Min Post, or 16-Min Post. The results from this investigation indicate that an acute bout of static, body weight squat exercises, combined with WBV, increases muscle force output up to 8 minutes post-exercise. However, this increase in muscle force is not accompanied by a significant increase in motor neuron excitability or muscle activation. Thus, it is plausible to use WBV as a method for acute increase in muscle force output for athletes immediately before competition. PMID:19816218

McBride, Jeffrey M; Nuzzo, James L; Dayne, Andrea M; Israetel, Michael A; Nieman, David C; Triplett, N Travis

2010-01-01

110

Whole-body vibration and low back pain: a systematic, critical review of the epidemiological literature 1992–1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: A previous extensive review of the literature including that from the middle of 1992 concluded that whole-body vibrations\\u000a may contribute to low back pain, but that the exposure-response relationship had not been clarified. We reviewed the literature\\u000a of the past 7?years to find out: (i) whether there is evidence in the recent epidemiological literature for a causal association\\u000a between

S. Lings; C. Leboeuf-Yde

2000-01-01

111

Vehicle Design Influences Whole Body Vibration Exposures: Effect of the Location of the Front Axle Relative to the Cab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a repeated measure design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures among 13 drivers who drove a truck with the cab over the front axle (cab-over design) and a truck with the cab situated behind the front axle (non-cab-over design). The drivers drove both trucks over a standardized route that comprised three distinct segments: a freeway

Ryan P. Blood; Patrik W. Rynell; Peter W. Johnson

2011-01-01

112

The Effect of Whole Body Vibration Exposure on Muscle Function in Children With Cystic Fibrosis: A Pilot Efficacy Trial  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) exposure on muscle function in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Non-randomised controlled cross-over trial. Methods The setting was home-based WBV exposure. The participants were children (8 - 15 years) with CF (n = 7). Intervention: participants served as their own controls for the first four weeks (usual care), then underwent four weeks of parentally-supervised home-based WBV exposure followed by four weeks washout (usual care). The WBV exposure consisted of 20 - 30 minutes of intermittent (1 min vibration:1 min rest) exposure on a Galileo platform (20 - 22Hz, 1 mm amplitude) 3 days/week. The primary outcome measures of absolute and relative lower body (leg extension (LE), leg press (LP)), upper body (chess press (CP)) strength and power, and power were measured at baseline, and weeks 4, 8 and 12. Secondary exploratory outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and health-related quality of life. Results Six participants completed the training without adverse events. Muscle function changes following WBV exposure were not statistically significant. However, moderate-to-large relative effect sizes (ES) favouring WBV were evident for leg extension strength (ES = 0.66 (-0.50, 1.82)), LP relative strength (ES = 0.92 (-0.27, 2.11)), leg press peak power (ES = 0.78 (-0.50, 2.07)) and CMJ height (ES = 0.60 (-0.56 to 1.76)). Conclusions The results from this first controlled trial indicate that WBV may be a potentially effective exercise modality to safely increase leg strength and explosive power in children with CF. Potentially clinically relevant changes support continued investigation of the efficacy, mechanism and feasibility of this intervention in future large-scale studies.

O'Keefe, Kaitlin; Orr, Rhonda; Huang, Peite; Selvadurai, Hiran; Cooper, Peter; Munns, Craig Frank; Singh, Maria A Fiatarone

2013-01-01

113

Study protocol: the effect of whole body vibration on acute unilateral unstable lateral ankle sprain- a biphasic randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely caused by damage to passive structures and neuromuscular impairment. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a neuromuscular training method improving those impaired neurologic parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the current gold standard functional treatment to functional treatment plus WBV in patients with acute unilateral unstable inversion ankle sprains. Methods/Design 60 patients, aged 18–40 years, presenting with an isolated, unilateral, acute unstable inversion ankle sprain will be included in this bicentric, biphasic, randomized controlled trial. Samples will be randomized by envelope drawing. All patients will be allowed early mobilization and pain-dependent weight bearing, limited functional immobilization by orthosis, PRICE, NSARDs as well as home and supervised physiotherapy. Supervised physical therapy will take place twice a week, for 30 minutes for a period of 6 weeks, following a standardized intervention protocol. During supervised physical therapy, the intervention group will perform exercises similar to those of the control group, on a side-alternating sinusoidal vibration platform. Two time-dependent primary outcome parameters will be assessed: short-term outcome after six weeks will be postural control quantified by the sway index; mid-term outcome after one year will be assessed by subjective instability, defined by the presence of giving-way attacks. Secondary outcome parameters include: return to pre-injury level of activities, residual pain, recurrence, objective instability, energy/coordination, Foot and Ankle Disability Index and EQ 5D. Discussion This is the first trial investigating the effects of WBV in patients with acute soft tissue injury. Inversion ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely due to damage of neurological structures. Due to its unique, frequency dependent, influence on various neuromuscular parameters, WBV is a promising treatment method for patients with acute unstable inversion ankle sprains. Trial registration NCT01702597

2013-01-01

114

Distinct frequency dependent effects of whole-body vibration on non-fractured bone and fracture healing in mice.  

PubMed

Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) provokes anabolic effects in non-fractured bone; however, in fracture healing, inconsistent results were reported and optimum vibration conditions remain unidentified. Here, we investigated frequency dependent effects of LMHFV on fracture healing. Twelve-week-old, female C57BL/6 mice received a femur osteotomy stabilized using an external fixator. The mice received whole-body vibrations (20?min/day) with 0.3g peak-to-peak acceleration and a frequency of either 35 or 45?Hz. After 10 and 21 days, the osteotomized femurs and intact bones (contra-lateral femurs, lumbar spine) were evaluated using bending-testing, µ-computed tomography, and histomorphometry. In non-fractured trabecular bone, vibration with 35?Hz significantly increased the relative amount of bone (+28%) and the trabecular number (+29%), whereas cortical bone was not influenced. LMHFV with 45?Hz failed to provoke anabolic effects in trabecular or cortical bone. Fracture healing was not significantly influenced by whole-body vibration with 35?Hz, whereas 45?Hz significantly reduced bone formation (-64%) and flexural rigidity (-34%) of the callus. Although the exact mechanisms remain open, our results suggest that small vibration setting changes could considerably influence LMHFV effects on bone formation in remodeling and repair, and even disrupt fracture healing, implicating caution when treating patients with impaired fracture healing. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 32:1006-1013, 2014. PMID:24729351

Wehrle, Esther; Wehner, Tim; Heilmann, Aline; Bindl, Ronny; Claes, Lutz; Jakob, Franz; Amling, Michael; Ignatius, Anita

2014-08-01

115

[The effect of betahistine on histological changes in rabbit brain in model of whole body wide-frequency vibration].  

PubMed

In acute experiments in conscious rabbits was studied protective action of selective blocker of histamine H3-receptor betahistine (2mg/kg i/v) against histological changes in precentral and postcentral gyrus, as well as in temporal lobe of cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum, arising in case of modeling of whole body wide-frequency vibration. Betahistine attenuates edematous and degenerative changes in neurons and reciprocal glial reaction, caused by vibration, but does not eliminate edema in perivascular spaces. This effect may be related to the improvement of blood supply as a result of of vasodilatory action and decrease of oxygen consumption via vestibuloprotective effect. PMID:24003483

Shimkus, Iu Iu; Sapegin, I D

2013-01-01

116

Countermeasures against lumbar spine deconditioning in prolonged bed rest: resistive exercise with and without whole body vibration.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effect of short-duration, high-load resistive exercise, with and without whole body vibration on lumbar muscle size, intervertebral disk and spinal morphology changes, and low back pain (LBP) incidence during prolonged bed rest, 24 subjects underwent 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest and performed either resistive vibration exercise (n = 7), resistive exercise only (n = 8), or no exercise (n = 9; 2nd Berlin Bed-Rest Study). Discal and spinal shape was measured from sagittal plane magnetic resonance images. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the multifidus, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum, and psoas were measured on para-axial magnetic resonance images. LBP incidence was assessed with questionnaires at regular intervals. The countermeasures reduced CSA loss in the multifidus, lumbar erector spinae and quadratus lumborum muscles, with greater increases in psoas muscle CSA seen in the countermeasure groups (P ? 0.004). There was little statistical evidence for an additional effect of whole body vibration above resistive exercise alone on these muscle changes. Exercise subjects reported LBP more frequently in the first week of bed rest, but this was only significant in resistive exercise only (P = 0.011 vs. control, resistive vibration exercise vs. control: P = 0.56). No effect of the countermeasures on changes in spinal morphology was seen (P ? 0.22). The results suggest that high-load resistive exercise, with or without whole body vibration, performed 3 days/wk can reduce lumbar muscle atrophy, but further countermeasure optimization is required. PMID:20864564

Belavý, Daniel L; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Gast, Ulf; Richardson, Carolyn A; Hides, Julie A; Felsenberg, Dieter

2010-12-01

117

Visual Acuity Decrements Associated with Whole Body Plus or Minus Gz Vibration Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact that vibration has an adverse effect on visual acuity is well established but inadequately quantified. The operational acceleration environments of low altitude terrain avoidance flight, the increasing use of helicopters, and the potential vibrat...

C. R. O'Briant M. K. Ohlbaum

1970-01-01

118

Evaluation of Frequency Weighting (iso 2631-1) for Acute Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Gastric Motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and the ISO 2631/1-1997 frequency weighting on gastric motility. The gastric motility was measured by electrogastrography (EGG) in nine healthy volunteers. Sinusoidal vertical vibration at a frequency of 4, 6·3, 8, 12, 16, 31·5, or 63 Hz was given to the subjects for 10 min. The magnitude of exposure at 4 Hz was 1·0m/s2 (r.m.s.). The magnitudes of the other frequencies gave the same frequency-weighted acceleration according to ISO 2631/1-1997. The pattern of the dominant frequency histogram (DFH) was changed to a broad distribution pattern by vibration exposure. Vibration exposure had the effect of significantly reducing the percentage of time for which the dominant component had a normal rhythm and increasing the percentage of time for which there was tachygastria (p<0·05). Vibration exposure generally reduced the mean percentage of time with the dominant frequency in normal rhythm component. There was a significant difference between the condition of no vibration and exposure to 4 and 6·3 Hz of vibration frequency (p<0·05). The frequency weighting curve given in ISO 2631/1-1997 was not adequate for use in evaluating the physiological effects of WBV exposure on gastric motility.

ISHITAKE, T.; MIYAZAKI, Y.; NOGUCHI, R.; ANDO, H.; MATOBA, T.

2002-05-01

119

Analyses of biodynamic responses of seated occupants to uncorrelated fore-aft and vertical whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apparent mass and seat-to-head-transmissibility response functions of the seated human body were investigated under exposures to fore-aft ( x), vertical ( z), and combined fore-aft and vertical ( x and z) axis whole-body vibration. The coupling effects of dual-axis vibration were investigated using two different frequency response function estimators based upon the cross- and auto-spectral densities of the response and excitation signals, denoted as H1 and Hv estimators, respectively. The experiments were performed to measure the biodynamic responses to single and uncorrelated dual-axis vibration, and to study the effects of hands support, back support and vibration magnitude on the body interactions with the seatpan and the backrest, characterized in terms of apparent masses and the vibration transmitted to the head. The data were acquired with 9 subjects exposed to two different magnitudes of vibration applied along the individual x- and z-axis (0.25 and 0.4 m/s 2 rms), and along both the axis (0.28 and 0.4 m/s 2 rms along each axis) in the 0.5-20 Hz frequency range. The two methods resulted in identical single-axis responses but considerably different dual-axis responses. The dual-axis responses derived from the Hv estimator revealed notable effects of dual-axis vibration, as they comprised both the direct and cross-axis responses observed under single axis vibration. Such effect, termed as the coupling effect, was not evident in the dual-axis responses derived using the commonly used H1 estimator. The results also revealed significant effects of hands and back support conditions on the coupling effects and the measured responses. The back support constrained the upper body movements and thus showed relatively weaker coupling compared to that observed in the responses without the back support. The effect of hand support was also pronounced under the fore-aft vibration. The results suggest that a better understanding of the seated human body responses to uncorrelated multi-axis whole-body vibration could be developed using the power-spectral-density based Hv estimator.

Mandapuram, Santosh; Rakheja, Subhash; Marcotte, Pierre; Boileau, Paul-Émile

2011-08-01

120

Inter-cycle variation in whole-body vibration exposures of operators driving track-type loader machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-body vibration (WBV) measurements are an important aspect of performing risk assessments for those exposed to vibration. A large array of variables affect the outcome of a vibration measurement and its extrapolation to a daily dose measure: e.g. variability in driving style, road surface roughness, loading. The variability in vibration emission is an inherent property for most vibrating environments and there is a risk that a vibration measurement might not be representative of the long-term exposures. It is important to acknowledge the variation inherent to WBV exposure to help understand how this variation will affect health risk assessments. A field investigation was conducted in order to characterise the variation of WBV magnitudes between work cycles of track-type loaders. Six different track-type loaders were measured at four different work sites. The vibrations were measured at the operators seat in three translational axes ( x-, y-, and z-axis) in accordance with ISO 2631-1 (1997). The findings indicate the worst axis of vibration for the track-type loaders was predominantly the fore-and-aft ( x-axis), for most operations. The most severe emission values were measured for machine C at site 2 (1.12 ms -2 rms) and machine D at site 2 (1.03 ms -2 rms). These machines would exceed the action value of the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive within 2 h of exposure. All of the machines measured would exceed the exposure action value of the Directive within an 8 h working period. The lateral ( y-axis) produced the greatest amount of variability between work cycles (coefficient of variation up to 20%). It is concluded that the inherent variability between work cycles and tasks reinforces the requirement to perform a full task analysis prior to measuring WBV exposures to ensure that all tasks are measured and that adequate cycles are measured to obtain a reliable indication of the vibration emission.

Newell, Geraldine S.; Mansfield, Neil J.; Notini, Luca

2006-12-01

121

Apparent Mass and Absorbed Power during Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Repeated Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to mechanical shocks might pose a greater health risk than exposure to continuous vibration. Previous studies have investigated subjective responses, muscle activity or transmission of vibration to the spine or head during shock. If there is a difference between biomechanic responses of the seated body to shocks when compared to continuous vibration, then this may indicate a more, or less, hazardous vibration waveform. This paper presents measurements of apparent mass and absorbed power during exposure to random vibration, repeated shocks and combinations of shocks and random vibration. Eleven male and 13 female subjects were exposed to 15 vibration conditions generated using an electro-dynamic shaker. Subjects were exposed to five 20 s acceleration waveforms with nominally identical power spectra (random vibration, equally spaced shocks, unequally spaced shocks, random combined with equally spaced shocks, random combined with unequally spaced shocks) at each of 0·5, 1·0 and 1·5 m/s2r.m.s. The general shapes of the apparent mass or absorbed power curves were not affected by stimulus type, indicating that the biomechanical response of the body is fundamentally the same when exposed to shocks or random vibration. Two non-linear effects were observed: apparent mass resonance frequencies were slightly higher for exposure to shocks; apparent mass and absorbed power resonance frequencies decreased with increases in vibration magnitude for each stimulus type. It is concluded that the two non-linear mechanisms operate simultaneously: a stiffening effect during exposure to shocks and a softening effect as vibration magnitudes increase. Total absorbed powers were greatest for shock stimuli and least for random vibration.

MANSFIELD, N. J.; HOLMLUND, P.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.

2001-11-01

122

Power absorbed during whole-body fore-and-aft vibration: Effects of sitting posture, backrest, and footrest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the discomfort or injury associated with whole-body vibration cannot be predicted directly from the power absorbed during exposure to vibration, the absorbed power may contribute to understanding of the biodynamics involved in such responses. From measurements of force and acceleration at the seat, the feet, and the backrest, the power absorbed at these three locations was calculated for subjects sitting in four postures (feet hanging, maximum thigh contact, average thigh contact, and minimum thigh contact) both with and without a rigid vertical backrest while exposed to four magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 rms) of random fore-and-aft vibration. The power absorbed by the body at the supporting seat surface when there was no backrest showed a peak around 1 Hz and another peak between 3 and 4 Hz. Supporting the back with the backrest decreased the power absorbed at the seat at low frequencies but increased the power absorbed at high frequencies. Foot support influenced both the magnitude and the frequency of the peaks in the absorbed power spectra as well as the total absorbed power. The measurements of absorbed power are consistent with backrests being beneficial during exposure to low frequency fore-and-aft vibration but detrimental with high frequency fore-and-aft vibration.

Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

2012-01-01

123

Multi-body dynamics modelling of seated human body under exposure to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spine such as chronic lumbago or low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column and to make up appropriate guidelines or counter plans. In ISO2631-1 or ISO2631-5 assessment of vibration effects to human in the view of adverse-health effect was already presented. However, it is necessary to carry out further research to understand the effect of vibration to human body to examine their validity and to prepare for the future revision. This paper shows the detail measurement of human response to vibration, and the modelling of the seated human body for the assessment of the vibration risk. The vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and to the head are measured during the exposure to vertical excitation. The modal paramters of seated subject are extracted in order to understand the dominant natural modes. For the evaluation of adverse-health effect the multi-body modelling of the spinal column is introduced. A simplified model having 10 DOFs is counstructed so that the transmissibilities of the model fit to those of experiment. The transient response analysis is illustrated when a half-sine input is applied. The relative displacements of vertebrae are evaluated, which can be a basis for the assessment of vibration risk. It is suggested that the multi-body dynamic model is used to evaluate the vibration effect to the spinal column for seated subjects. PMID:16100921

Yoshimura, Takuya; Nakai, Kazuma; Tamaoki, Gen

2005-07-01

124

The ISO standard: Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international guideline is discussed in terms of safety and human tolerance. Charts for equal subjective vibration intensity, subjective judgement of equal fatigue, and severe discomfort boundaries are included.

Vongierke, H. E.

1975-01-01

125

Effects Related to Random Whole-Body Vibration and Posture on a Suspended Seatwith and Without Backrest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WBV-exposures are often linked with forced postures as prolonged sitting, bent forward sitting, or sitting without a backrest. No quantitative data are available to describe the exposure-effect relationships for different conditions of seating, posture, and the biological variability of workers. Experiments and subsequent predictions of forces acting within the spine during WBV can help to improve the assessment of the health risk. An experimental study was performed with 39 male subjects sitting on a suspension seat with or with no backrest contact. They were exposed to random whole-body vibration with a weighted r.m.s. value of 0·6 m/s2 at a relaxed or a forward bending posture. A two-dimensional finite element model was used for the calculation of the internal spinal load. The model simulates the human response on a suspension driver seat. Individual exposure conditions were considered by including the transfer functions between the seat cushion and the seat base as well as between the backrest and the seat base for the calculation of the vibration input to the buttocks and to the back respectively. The average peak seat transmissibility was higher for the seat with the backrest, but the peak seat-to-head transmissibility was higher for the seat without the backrest for both postures. The peak transmissibilities between the accelerations at the seat base and the compressive forces at L5/S1 were highest for the seat without the backrest during the bending posture. Various biological effects can result from identical exposures combined with different backrest contact and postures. The backrest contact and posture conditions should not be neglected in the assessment of health risk caused by whole-body vibration.

HINZ, B.; SEIDEL, H.; MENZEL, G.; BLÜTHNER, R.

2002-05-01

126

Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during vertical whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear biodynamic responses are evident in many studies of the apparent masses of sitting and standing subjects in static postures that require muscle activity for postural control. In the present study, 12 male subjects adopted a relaxed semi-supine posture assumed to involve less muscle activity than during static sitting and standing. The supine subjects were exposed to two types of vertical vibration (in the x-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 m s -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 10.35 to 7.32 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 m s -2 rms. This nonlinear response was apparent in both the vertical ( x-axis) apparent mass and in the horizontal ( z-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. As the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 m s -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass with intermittent random vibration decreased from 9.28 to 8.06 Hz whereas, over the same range of magnitudes with continuous random vibration, the resonance frequency decreased from 9.62 to 7.81 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms) was 1.37 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 1.71 with the continuous random vibration. With the intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration of the same magnitudes. The response was typical of thixotropy that may be a primary cause of the nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration.

Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

2008-04-01

127

Low back pain in drivers: The relative role of whole-body vibration, posture and manual materials handling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the relative role of whole-body vibration (WBV), posture and manual materials handling (MMH) as risk factors for low back pain (LBP). Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history, posture and MMH performed was obtained from 394 workers who drove vehicles as part of their job (according to seven predefined occupational groups) and 59 who did not. The intention was to reflect a wide range of exposures with the lower end of the exposure spectrum defined as that of non-manual workers who do not drive as part of their job. Based on the questionnaire responses and direct measurements of vibration exposure, personal aggregate measures of exposure were computed for each of the respondents, i.e., total vibration dose (TVD), posture score (PS) and manual handling score (MHS). Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for back pain were obtained from logistics regression models and log-linear backward elimination analysis was performed. The findings showed that 'combined exposure' due to posture and one or both of vibration and MMH, rather than the individual exposure to one of the three factors (WBV, posture, MMH) is the main contributor of the increased prevalence of LBP.

Okunribido, O. O.; Magnusson, M.; Pope, M. H.

2006-12-01

128

Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during longitudinal horizontal whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resonance frequencies in frequency response functions of the human body (e.g. apparent mass and transmissibility) decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear biodynamic response is found with various sitting and standing postures requiring postural control. The present study measured the apparent mass of the body in a relaxed semi-supine posture with two types of longitudinal horizontal vibration (in the z-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ms -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 3.7 to 2.4 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 ms -2 rms. A nonlinear response was apparent in both the horizontal ( z-axis) apparent mass and the vertical ( x-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. With intermittent random vibration, as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 ms -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass decreased from 3.2 to 2.5 Hz whereas, with continuous random vibration over the same range of magnitudes, the resonance frequency decreased from 3.4 to 2.4 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms) was 0.6 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 0.9 Hz with the continuous random vibration. With intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration at the same magnitudes. The responses were consistent with passive thixotropy being a primary cause of nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration, although reflex activity of the muscles may also have an influence.

Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

2008-04-01

129

BACK DISORDER INTERVENTION STRATEGIES FOR MASS TRANSIT OPERATORS EXPOSED TO WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION—COMPARISON OF TWO TRANSIT SYSTEM APPROACHES AND PRACTICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational long-term whole-body vibration (WBV) has been recognized as a major risk factor for low back disorders, one of the most important reasons for medical impairment and early permanent disability among mass transit operators. Although no firm health and safety vibration exposure threshold limits have been established, the available data suggests that rail vehicle operators would probably fall under the

E. Johanning

1998-01-01

130

Feasibility of using whole body vibration as a means for controlling spasticity in post-stroke patients: a pilot study.  

PubMed

To examine the feasibility of adapting whole body vibration (WBV) in the hemiplegic legs of post-stroke patients and to investigate the anti-spastic effects, and the improvement of motor function and walking ability. Twenty-five post-stroke patients with lower-limb spasticity were enrolled in the study. Each subject sat with hip joint angles to approximately 90° of flexion, and with knee joint angles to 0° of extension. WBV was applied at 30 Hz (4-8 mm amplitude) for 5 min on hamstrings, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The modified Ashworth scale was significantly decreased, active and passive range of motion (A-ROM, P-ROM) for ankle dorsiflexion and straight leg raising increased, and walking speed and cadence both improved during the 5-min intervention. Our proposed therapeutic approach could therefore be a novel neuro-rehabilitation strategy among patients with various severities. PMID:24439649

Miyara, Kodai; Matsumoto, Shuji; Uema, Tomohiro; Hirokawa, Takuya; Noma, Tomokazu; Shimodozono, Megumi; Kawahira, Kazumi

2014-02-01

131

Whole-body vibration exposure study in U.S. railroad locomotives--an ergonomic risk assessment.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration exposure of locomotive engineers and the vibration attenuation of seats in 22 U.S. locomotives (built between 1959 and 2000) was studied during normal revenue service and following international measurement guidelines. Triaxial vibration measurements (duration mean 155 min, range 84-383 min) on the seat and on the floor were compared. In addition to the basic vibration evaluation (aw rms), the vector sum (av), the maximum transient vibration value (MTVV/aw), the vibration dose value (VDV/(aw T1/4)), and the vibration seat effective transmissibility factor (SEAT) were calculated. The power spectral densities are also reported. The mean basic vibration level (aw rms) was for the fore-aft axis x = 0.18 m/sec2, the lateral axis y = 0.28 m/sec2, and the vertical axis z = 0.32 m/sec2. The mean vector sum was 0.59 m/sec2 (range 0.27 to 1.44). The crest factors were generally at or above 9 in the horizontal and vertical axis. The mean MTVV/aw was 5.3 (x), 5.1 (y), and 4.8 (z), and the VDV/(aw T1/4) values ranged from 1.32 to 2.3 (x-axis), 1.33 to 1.7 (y-axis), and 1.38 to 1.86 (z-axis), generally indicating high levels of shocks. The mean seat transmissibility factor (SEAT) was 1.4 (x) and 1.2 (y) and 1 (z), demonstrating a general ineffectiveness of any of the seat suspension systems. In conclusion, these data indicate that locomotive rides are characterized by relatively high shock content (acceleration peaks) of the vibration signal in all directions. Locomotive vertical and lateral vibrations are similar, which appears to be characteristic for rail vehicles compared with many road/off-road vehicles. Tested locomotive cab seats currently in use (new or old) appear inadequate to reduce potentially harmful vibration and shocks transmitted to the seated operator, and older seats particularly lack basic ergonomic features regarding adjustability and postural support. PMID:12486777

Johanning, Eckardt; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Landsbergis, Paul

2002-01-01

132

The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training  

PubMed Central

Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and changes in CS activity is often assumed. However, this relationship and absolute values of CS and maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2max) has never been assessed across different studies. A systematic PubMed search on literature published from 1983 to 2013 was performed. The search profile included: citrate, synthase, human, skeletal, muscle, training, not electrical stimulation, not in-vitro, not rats. Studies that reported changes in CS activity and V.O2max were included. Different training types and subject populations were analyzed independently to assess correlation between relative changes in V.O2max and CS activity. 70 publications with 97 intervention groups were included. There was a positive (r = 0.45) correlation (P < 0.001) between the relative change in V.O2max and the relative change in CS activity. All reported absolute values of CS and V.O2max did not correlate (r =- 0.07, n = 148, P = 0.4). Training induced changes in whole body oxidative capacity is matched by changes in muscle CS activity in a nearly 1:1 relationship. Absolute values of CS across different studies cannot be compared unless a standardized analytical method is used by all laboratories.

Vigels?, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne B; Dela, Flemming

2014-01-01

133

Effects of low-frequency whole-body vibration on motor-evoked potentials in healthy men.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether low-frequency whole-body vibration (WBV) modulates the excitability of the corticospinal and intracortical pathways related to tibialis anterior (TA) muscle activity, thus contributing to the observed changes in neuromuscular function during and after WBV exercise. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the leg area of the motor cortex were recorded in TA and soleus (SOL) muscles of seven healthy male subjects whilst performing 330 s continuous static squat exercise. Each subject completed two conditions: control (no WBV) and WBV (30 Hz, 1.5 mm vibration applied from 111 to 220 s). Five single suprathreshold and five paired TMS were delivered during each squat period lasting 110 s (pre-, during and post-WBV). Two interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between the conditioning and the testing stimuli were employed in order to study the effects of WBV on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, ISI = 3 ms) and intracortical facilitation (ICF, ISI = 13 ms). During vibration relative to squat exercise alone, single-pulse TMS provoked significantly higher TA MEP amplitude (56 +/- 14%, P = 0.003) and total area (71 +/- 19%, P = 0.04), and paired TMS with ISI = 13 ms provoked smaller MEP amplitude (-21 +/- 4%, P = 0.01) but not in SOL. Paired-pulse TMS with ISI = 3 ms elicited significantly lower MEP amplitude (TA, -19 +/- 4%, P = 0.009; and SOL, -13 +/- 4%, P = 0.03) and total area (SOL, -17 +/- 6%, P = 0.02) during vibration relative to squat exercise alone in both muscles. Tibialis anterior MEP facilitation in response to single-pulse TMS suggests that WBV increased corticospinal pathway excitability. Increased TA and SOL SICI and decreased TA ICF in response to paired-pulse TMS during WBV indicate vibration-induced alteration of the intracortical processes as well. PMID:18658234

Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L; Kossev, Andon R

2009-01-01

134

Effect of seat surface angle on forces at the seat surface during whole-body vertical vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve male subjects have been exposed to whole-body vertical random vibration so as to investigate the effect of seat surface angle, vibration magnitude and contact with a backrest on the 'vertical apparent mass' (calculated from forces normal to the seat surface and vertical acceleration) and 'fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass' (calculated from forces parallel to the seat surface and vertical acceleration). At each of four seat surface angles (0°, 5°, 10°, and 15°), the subjects were exposed to four vibration magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 rms) in the frequency range 0.25-15 Hz. The 'vertical apparent mass' and 'fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass' on the seat surface suggested resonances in the vicinity of 5 and 4 Hz, respectively. At all seat angles, both with and without a backrest, the resonance frequency in the 'vertical apparent mass' was greater than the resonance frequency in the 'fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass'. Within subjects, the two resonance frequencies were not correlated in any condition. Seat angles up to 15° had a negligible effect on the 'vertical apparent mass' but a considerable effect on the 'fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass' on the seat surface, where 'cross-axis apparent mass' increased with increasing seat angle. At all seat angles, increasing the vibration magnitude decreased the resonance frequency in both directions. The least significant decrease in resonance frequency with increasing vibration magnitude occurred in the 'fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass' at the maximum seat angle of 15°. At low frequencies, the backrest reduced the forces in both directions, with the reduction greatest in the 'fore-and-aft' direction. The 'fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass' at resonance was correlated with subject mass and subject stature.

Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

2005-06-01

135

Development of a Protocol for Epidemiologal Studies of Whole-Body Vibration and Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Lower Back  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It seems evident from a large number of studies that there is a positive relationship between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and the occurrence of low back pain. There are existing standards for evaluating the human exposure to WBV, which are based on other factors than the effect of musculoskeletal disorders. Several national and international standards also exist for evaluating human exposure to WBV. The exposure limit values or health guidance caution zones included in some of these standards are not or only to a limited extent based on systematic epidemiological investigations. It has not yet been possible to establish a clear exposure-response relationship. There are many confounding or contributing factors which influence the hazards to workers caused by exposure to WBV. Reliable methods for the detection and prevention of injury due to vibration exposure at work, alone or in combination with other risk factors, need to be implemented. The aim of this paper was to design a protocol and a questionnaire for conducting collaborative studies of WBV and musculoskeletal back disorders. The protocol will be tested in a pilot study before it will be used in multi-center studies.

Magnusson, M. L.; Pope, M. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.

1998-08-01

136

Whole body vibration compared to conventional physiotherapy in patients with gonarthrosis: a protocol for a randomized, controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative arthropathy. Load-bearing joints such as knee and hip are more often affected than spine or hands. The prevalence of gonarthrosis is generally higher than that of coxarthrosis. Because no cure for OA exists, the main emphasis of therapy is analgesic treatment through either mobility or medication. Non-pharmacologic treatment is the first step, followed by the addition of analgesic medication, and ultimately by surgery. The goal of non-pharmacologic and non-invasive therapy is to improve neuromuscular function, which in turn both prevents formation of and delays progression of OA. A modification of conventional physiotherapy, whole body vibration has been successfully employed for several years. Since its introduction, this therapy is in wide use at our facility not only for gonarthrosis, but also coxarthrosis and other diseases leading to muscular imbalance. Methods/Design This study is a randomized, therapy-controlled trial in a primary care setting at a university hospital. Patients presenting to our outpatient clinic with initial symptoms of gonarthrosis will be assessed against inclusion and exclusion criteria. After patient consent, 6 weeks of treatment will ensue. During the six weeks of treatment, patients will receive one of two treatments, conventional physiotherapy or whole-body-vibration exercises of one hour three times a week. Follow-up examinations will be performed immediately after treatment and after another 6 and 20 weeks, for a total study duration of 6 months. 20 patients will be included in each therapy group. Outcome measurements will include objective analysis of motion and ambulation as well as examinations of balance and isokinetic force. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and SF-12 scores, the patients' overall status, and clinical examinations of the affected joint will be carried out. Discussion As new physiotherapy techniques develop for the treatment of OA, it is important to investigate the effectiveness of competing strategies. With this study, not only patient-based scores, but also objective assessments will be used to quantify patient-derived benefits of therapy. Trial registration Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS) DRKS00000415 Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01037972 EudraCT 2009-017617-29

2010-01-01

137

Numerical assessment of fore-and-aft suspension performance to reduce whole-body vibration of wheel loader drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While driving off-road vehicles, operators are exposed to whole-body vibration acting in the fore-and-aft direction. Seat manufacturers supply products equipped with fore-and-aft suspension but only a few studies report on their performance. This work proposes a computational approach to design fore-and-aft suspensions for wheel loader seats. Field tests were conducted in a quarry to analyse the nature of vibration to which the driver was exposed. Typical input signals were recorded to be reproduced in the laboratory. Technical specifications are defined for the suspension. In order to evaluate the suspension vibration attenuation performance, a model of a sitting human body was developed and coupled to a seat model. The seat model combines the models of each suspension component. A linear two-degree-of-freedom model is used to describe the dynamic behaviour of the sitting driver. Model parameters are identified by fitting the computed apparent mass frequency response functions to the measured values. Model extensions are proposed to investigate postural effects involving variations in hands and feet positions and interaction of the driver's back with the backrest. Suspension design parameters are firstly optimized by computing the seat/man model response to sinusoidal acceleration. Four criteria including transmissibility, interaction force between the driver's back and the backrest and relative maximal displacement of the suspension are computed. A new suspension design with optimized features is proposed. Its performance is checked from calculations of the response of the seat/man model subjected to acceleration measured on the wheel loader during real work conditions. On the basis of the computed values of the SEAT factors, it is found possible to design a suspension that would increase the attenuation provided by the seat by a factor of two.

Fleury, Gérard; Mistrot, Pierre

2006-12-01

138

Daytime pattern of post-exercise protein intake affects whole-body protein turnover in resistance-trained males  

PubMed Central

Background The pattern of protein intake following exercise may impact whole-body protein turnover and net protein retention. We determined the effects of different protein feeding strategies on protein metabolism in resistance-trained young men. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to ingest either 80g of whey protein as 8x10g every 1.5h (PULSE; n=8), 4x20g every 3h (intermediate, INT; n=7), or 2x40g every 6h (BOLUS; n=8) after an acute bout of bilateral knee extension exercise (4x10 repetitions at 80% maximal strength). Whole-body protein turnover (Q), synthesis (S), breakdown (B), and net balance (NB) were measured throughout 12h of recovery by a bolus ingestion of [15N]glycine with urinary [15N]ammonia enrichment as the collected end-product. Results PULSE Q rates were greater than BOLUS (~19%, P<0.05) with a trend towards being greater than INT (~9%, P=0.08). Rates of S were 32% and 19% greater and rates of B were 51% and 57% greater for PULSE as compared to INT and BOLUS, respectively (P<0.05), with no difference between INT and BOLUS. There were no statistical differences in NB between groups (P=0.23); however, magnitude-based inferential statistics revealed likely small (mean effect±90%CI; 0.59±0.87) and moderate (0.80±0.91) increases in NB for PULSE and INT compared to BOLUS and possible small increase (0.42±1.00) for INT vs. PULSE. Conclusion We conclude that the pattern of ingested protein, and not only the total daily amount, can impact whole-body protein metabolism. Individuals aiming to maximize NB would likely benefit from repeated ingestion of moderate amounts of protein (~20g) at regular intervals (~3h) throughout the day.

2012-01-01

139

Whole-body vibration experienced by haulage truck operators in surface mining operations: A comparison of various analysis methods utilized in the prediction of health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body vibration (WBV) was measured on eight surface haulage trucks in three size classes (35, 100, 150ton haul capacities). Vibration was measured at the seat\\/operator interface in accordance with the ISO 2631-1 standard during 1h of normal operation. Highest acceleration readings were observed in the z-axis (vertical). Estimated equivalent daily exposure values in the range of 0.44–0.82 ms?2 were

Martin P. H. Smets; Tammy R. Eger; Sylvain G. Grenier

2010-01-01

140

Whole body vibration during fracture healing intensifies the effects of estradiol and raloxifene in estrogen-deficient rats.  

PubMed

Current osteoporosis therapies aim to delay bone destruction and have additional anabolic effects. While they have demonstrated some positive effects on bone healing, more progress is needed in this area. This study used the well-known osteoporotic agents estrogen (E) and raloxifene (R) in conjunction with biomechanical whole body vibration (WBV) at a frequency of 70 Hz twice daily for six weeks to stimulate bone healing. Eighty-four 3-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats (12 per group) were bilaterally ovariectomized to develop osteopenia within eight weeks. Osteotomy of the metaphyseal tibiae was performed and fracture healing was then studied using mechanical tests, histomorphometry, computed tomography (?CT), and gene analysis. We found that E and R improved the structure of osteopenic bones as did WBV alone, although significant levels for WBV were seldom reached. Combination treatments significantly enhanced stiffness (R+WBV; p<0.05), endosteal bone (R+WBV; p<0.01), and trabecular density (E+WBV; p<0.05, R+WBV; p<0.05). In addition, the expression of osteoclast-specific Trap was significantly reduced after treatment with E, R, or their combination with WBV (p<0.01). The effects were additive and not inhibitory, leading us to conclude that the combined applications of WBV with E or R may improve the healing of osteopenic bones. The therapies studied are all currently approved for human use, suggesting ready applicability to clinical practice. To better understand the effects of WBV on osteopenic bones, the ideal vibration regime will require further study. PMID:24735975

Stuermer, Ewa K; Komrakova, Marina; Sehmisch, Stephan; Tezval, Mohammad; Dullin, Christian; Schaefer, Nadine; Hallecker, Jan; Stuermer, Klaus M

2014-07-01

141

The relative importance of whole body vibration and occupational lifting as risk factors for low-back pain  

PubMed Central

Aims: To explore the impact of occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) on low back pain (LBP) in the general population and to estimate the burden of LBP attributable to occupational WBV in comparison with that due to occupational lifting. Methods: A questionnaire including sections on WBV at work, LBP, and potential risk factors was mailed to a community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Sources and durations of exposure to occupational WBV were ascertained for the past week and personal vibration doses (eVDV) were estimated. Analysis was confined to subjects reporting exposures in the past week as typical of their work. Associations of LBP with eVDV, driving industrial vehicles, and occupational lifting were explored by logistic regression and attributable numbers were calculated. Results: Significant associations were found between daily lifting of weights greater than 10 kg at work and LBP, troublesome LBP (which made it difficult to put on hosiery), and sciatica (prevalence ratios 1.3 to 1.7); but the risk of these outcomes in both sexes varied little by eVDV and only weak associations were found with riding on industrial vehicles. Assuming causal associations, the numbers of cases of LBP in Britain attributable to occupational WBV were estimated to be 444 000 in men and 95 000 in women. This compared with an estimated 940 000 male cases and 370 000 female cases of LBP from occupational lifting. Conclusions: The burden of LBP in Britain from occupational exposure to WBV is smaller than that attributable to lifting at work.

Palmer, K; Griffin, M; Syddall, H; Pannett, B; Cooper, C; Coggon, D

2003-01-01

142

An Updated Review of Epidemiologic Studies on the Relationship Between Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to update the information on the epidemiologic evidence of the adverse health effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spinal system by means of a review of the epidemiologic studies published between 1986 and 1996. In a systematic search of epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with exposure to WBV, 37 articles were retrieved. The quality of each study was evaluated according to criteria concerning the assessment of vibration exposure, assessment of health effects, and methodology. The epidemiologic studies reaching an adequate score on each of the above mentioned criteria, were included in the final review. A meta-analysis was also conducted in order to combine the results of independent epidemiologic studies. After applying the selection criteria, 16 articles reporting the occurrence of LBP disorders in 19 WBV-exposed occupational groups, reached a sufficient score. The study design was cross-sectional for 13 occupational groups, longitudinal for 5 groups and of case-control type for one group. The main reasons for the exclusion of studies were insufficient quantitative information on WBV exposure and the lack of control groups. The findings of the selected studies and the results of the meta-analysis of both cross-sectional and cohort studies showed that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of LBP, sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. Owing to the cross-sectional design of the majority of the reviewed studies, this epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to outline a clear exposure-response relationship between WBV exposure and LBP disorders. Upon comparing the epidemiological studies included in this review with those conducted before 1986, it is concluded that research design and the quality of exposure and health effect data in the field of WBV have improved in the last decade.

Bovenzi, M.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

1998-08-01

143

a Modal Analysis of Whole-Body Vertical Vibration, Using a Finite Element Model of the Human Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional model of human biomechanical responses to whole-body vibration has been developed, by using the finite element method. Beam, spring and mass elements were used to model the spine, viscera, head, pelvis and buttocks tissue in the mid-sagittal plane. The model was developed by comparison of the vibration mode shapes with those previously measured in the laboratory. At frequencies below 10 Hz, the model produced seven modes which coincided well with the measurements. The principal resonance of the driving point response at about 5 Hz consisted of an entire body mode, in which the head, spinal column and the pelvis move almost rigidly, with axial and shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis occurring in phase with a vertical visceral mode. The second principal resonance at about 8 Hz corresponded to a rotational mode of the pelvis, with a possible contribution from a second visceral mode. A shift of the principal resonance of the driving point response, when changing posture, was achieved only by changing the axial stiffness of the buttocks tissue. It is suggested that an increase in contact area between the buttocks and the thighs and the seat surface, when changing posture from erect to slouched, may decrease the axial stiffness beneath the pelvis, with a non-linear force-deflection relationship of tissue resulting in decreases in the natural frequencies. A change in posture from erect to slouched also increased shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis in the entire body mode, and the natural frequency was decreased as a result of the much lower shear stiffness of tissue compared to the axial stiffness.

Kitazaki, S.; Griffin, M. J.

1997-02-01

144

Response of the seated human body to whole-body vertical vibration: biodynamic responses to sinusoidal and random vibration.  

PubMed

The dependence of biodynamic responses of the seated human body on the frequency, magnitude and waveform of vertical vibration has been studied in 20 males and 20 females. With sinusoidal vibration (13 frequencies from 1 to 16 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.1-1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s.) and with random vibration (1-16 Hz) at the same magnitudes, the apparent mass of the body was similar with random and sinusoidal vibration of the same overall magnitude. With increasing magnitude of vibration, the stiffness and damping of a model fitted to the apparent mass reduced and the resonance frequency decreased (from 6.5 to 4.5 Hz). Male and female subjects had similar apparent mass (after adjusting for subject weight) and a similar principal resonance frequency with both random and sinusoidal vibration. The change in biodynamic response with increasing vibration magnitude depends on the frequency of the vibration excitation, but is similar with sinusoidal and random excitation. PMID:24730687

Zhou, Zhen; Griffin, Michael J

2014-01-01

145

Skeletal site-specific effects of whole body vibration in mature rats: from deleterious to beneficial frequency-dependent effects.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) is receiving increasing interest as an anti-osteoporotic prevention strategy. In this context, selective effects of different frequency and acceleration magnitude modalities on musculoskeletal responses need to be better defined. Our aim was to investigate the bone effects of different vibration frequencies at constant g level. Vertical WBV was delivered at 0.7 g (peak acceleration) and 8, 52 or 90 Hz sinusoidal vibration to mature male rats 10 min daily for 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Peak accelerations measured by skin or bone-mounted accelerometers at L2 vertebral and tibia crest levels revealed similar values between adjacent skin and bone sites. Local accelerations were greater at 8 Hz compared with 52 and 90 Hz and were greater in vertebra than tibia for all the frequencies tested. At 52 Hz, bone responses were mainly seen in L2 vertebral body and were characterized by trabecular reorganization and stimulated mineral apposition rate (MAR) without any bone volume alteration. At 90 Hz, axial and appendicular skeletons were affected as were the cortical and trabecular compartments. Cortical thickness increased in femur diaphysis (17%) along with decreased porosity; trabecular bone volume increased at distal femur metaphysis (23%) and even more at L2 vertebral body (32%), along with decreased SMI and increased trabecular connectivity. Trabecular thickness increased at the tibia proximal metaphysis. Bone cellular activities indicated a greater bone formation rate, which was more pronounced at vertebra (300%) than at long bone (33%). Active bone resorption surfaces were unaffected. At 8 Hz, however, hyperosteoidosis with reduced MAR along with increased resorption surfaces occurred in the tibia; hyperosteoidosis and trend towards decreased MAR was also seen in L2 vertebra. Trabecular bone mineral density was decreased at femur and tibia. Thus the most favorable regimen is 90 Hz, while deleterious effects were seen at 8 Hz. We concluded that the skeleton is frequency-scalable, thus highlighting the importance of WBV regimen conditions and suggesting that cautions are required for frequencies less than 10 Hz, at least in rats. PMID:23545229

Pasqualini, Marion; Lavet, Cédric; Elbadaoui, Mohamed; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Laroche, Norbert; Gnyubkin, Vasily; Vico, Laurence

2013-07-01

146

Effect of 6 months of whole body vibration on lumbar spine bone density in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The issue of osteoporosis-induced fractures has attracted the world’s attention. Postmenopausal women are particularly at risk for this type of fracture. The nonmedicinal intervention for postmenopausal women is mainly exercise. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise. There have been some studies investigating the effect of WBV on osteoporosis; however, the intervention models and results are different. This study mainly investigated the effect of high-frequency and high-magnitude WBV on the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Methods This study randomized 28 postmenopausal women into either the WBV group or the control group for a 6-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of high-frequency (30 Hz) and high-magnitude (3.2 g) WBV in a natural full-standing posture for 5 minutes, three times per week, at a sports center. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the lumbar BMD of the two groups before and after the intervention. Results Six months later, the BMD of the WBV group had significantly increased by 2.032% (P=0.047), while that of the control group had decreased by 0.046% (P=0.188). The comparison between the two groups showed that the BMD of the WBV group had increased significantly (P=0.016). Conclusion This study found that 6 months of high-frequency and high-magnitude WBV yielded significant benefits to the BMD of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women, and could therefore be provided as an alternative exercise.

Lai, Chung-Liang; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Chen, Chung-Nan; Liao, Wan-Chun; Wang, Chun-Hou; Lee, Meng-Chih; Hsu, Pi-Shan

2013-01-01

147

Effect of whole-body vibration for 3 months on arterial stiffness in the middle-aged and elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common problem of middle-aged and older adults. Increased arterial stiffness is a CVD risk factor. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise for middle-aged and older adults; however, there have been few studies investigating the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness. This study mainly investigated the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. Methods A total of 38 (21 women and 17 men) middle-aged and elderly subjects (average age, 61.9 years) were randomly divided into the WBV group and the control group for a 3-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of 30 Hz and 3.2 g WBV in a natural full standing posture at a sports center. The brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of systemic arterial stiffness, and blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the intervention. Results After 3 months, there were no significant changes in blood pressure or heart rate in both groups. However, the bilateral baPWV was significantly reduced in the WBV group (decreased by 0.65 m/second [P=0.014]; 0.63 m/second [P=0.041] in either side), but not in the control group. The comparison between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study found that 3 months of WBV had a positive effect on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults and could therefore be regarded as a supplementary exercise. Larger-scale studies are needed to confirm the effects of WBV in the future.

Lai, Chung-Liang; Chen, Han-Yu; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Liao, Wan-Chun; Liu, Bing-Tang; Lee, Meng-Chih; Chen, Hsin-Shui

2014-01-01

148

Effects of whole body vibration plus diet on insulin-resistance in middle-aged obese subjects.  

PubMed

We investigated the early effects of whole body vibration (WBV) added to hypocaloric diet on insulin-resistance and other parameters associated with glucose regulation in sedentary obese individuals. We randomly assigned 34 patients to WBV plus hypocaloric diet (WBV group) or diet alone (CON group) for 8 weeks. Fasting and post-load glucose, insulin, lipids, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-?, leptin, adiponectin were assessed. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was derived from oral-glucose-tolerance test. Body composition was evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both groups lost approximately 5% of weight, with greater reduction of body fat in WBV than in CON (-7.1±1.2?Kg vs. -5.3±1.0?Kg, p=0.003). Percent variation of ISI was more pronounced in WBV than in CON group (+35±4% vs. +?22±5%, p=0.002), accompanied by slight improvement in post-load glucose (-1.07±0.02 vs. -?0.12±0.01?mmol/l, p=0.031) but without changes in fasting levels. Adiponectin significantly increased in WBV group compared with CON (p=0.021 for comparison) whereas no differences in leptin and inflammatory markers were observed. In middle-aged sedentary obese subjects, WBV added to hypocaloric diet for 8 weeks improved body composition, insulin-resistance, glucose regulation and adiponectin levels to a greater extent compared with diet alone. Efficacy and feasibility of this approach in the long term need to be ascertained. PMID:24227120

Bellia, A; Sallì, M; Lombardo, M; D'Adamo, M; Guglielmi, V; Tirabasso, C; Giordani, L; Federici, M; Lauro, D; Foti, C; Sbraccia, P

2014-06-01

149

Contributions of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the electrooculogram to periocular potentials produced by whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

In this paper we report the results of an experiment to investigate the emergence of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) during the linear vestibular ocular reflex (LVOR) evoked by whole-body vibration (WBV). OVEMP and electrooculogram (EOG) montages were employed to record periocular potentials (POPs) from six subjects during WBV in the nasooccipital (NO) axis over a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 64 Hz with approximately constant peak head acceleration of 1.0 ms(-2) (i.e., 0.1 g). Measurements were made in two context conditions: a fixation context to examine the effect of gaze eccentricity (0 vs. 20°), and a visual context, where a target was either head-fixed or earth-fixed. The principal results are that from 0.5 to 2 Hz POP magnitude in the earth-fixed condition is related to head displacement, so with constant acceleration at all frequencies it reduces with increasing frequency, but at frequencies greater than 2 Hz both POP magnitude and POP gain, defined as the ratio of POP magnitude at 20 and 0°, increase with increasing frequency. By exhibiting this high-pass characteristic, a property shared with the LVOR, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the OVEMP, as commonly employed in the clinical setting, is a high-frequency manifestation of the LVOR. However, we also observed low-frequency acceleration following POPs in head-fixed conditions, consistent with a low-frequency OVEMP, and found evidence of a high-frequency visual context effect, which is also consistent with the OVEMP being a manifestation of the LVOR. PMID:22984251

Todd, Neil P M; Bell, Steven L; Paillard, Aurore C; Griffin, Michael J

2012-11-01

150

Contributions of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the electrooculogram to periocular potentials produced by whole-body vibration  

PubMed Central

In this paper we report the results of an experiment to investigate the emergence of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) during the linear vestibular ocular reflex (LVOR) evoked by whole-body vibration (WBV). OVEMP and electrooculogram (EOG) montages were employed to record periocular potentials (POPs) from six subjects during WBV in the nasooccipital (NO) axis over a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 64 Hz with approximately constant peak head acceleration of 1.0 ms?2 (i.e., 0.1 g). Measurements were made in two context conditions: a fixation context to examine the effect of gaze eccentricity (0 vs. 20°), and a visual context, where a target was either head-fixed or earth-fixed. The principal results are that from 0.5 to 2 Hz POP magnitude in the earth-fixed condition is related to head displacement, so with constant acceleration at all frequencies it reduces with increasing frequency, but at frequencies greater than 2 Hz both POP magnitude and POP gain, defined as the ratio of POP magnitude at 20 and 0°, increase with increasing frequency. By exhibiting this high-pass characteristic, a property shared with the LVOR, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the OVEMP, as commonly employed in the clinical setting, is a high-frequency manifestation of the LVOR. However, we also observed low-frequency acceleration following POPs in head-fixed conditions, consistent with a low-frequency OVEMP, and found evidence of a high-frequency visual context effect, which is also consistent with the OVEMP being a manifestation of the LVOR.

Bell, Steven L.; Paillard, Aurore C.; Griffin, Michael J.

2012-01-01

151

A summary of current Bureau research into the effects of whole-body vibration and shock on operators of underground mobile equipment  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses current research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) and shock on underground mobile equipment operators. The highlights of a comprehensive literature review of WBV, shock, and seating are presented. Factors discussed include health and physiological effects, comfort, performance, and fatigue. Vibration data were collected from shuttle cars and ramcars at several underground coal mines in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois. The data were formatted so that they could be used to drive the Bureau's motion platform, and to compare them with ANSI S3-1979, Guide for the Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration. Human subject testing in the Bureau's vibration research laboratory evaluated the effects of two different seat angles and of the presence or absence of vibration and of foam padding on heart rate, blood pressure, and subjective discomfort. Only vibration significantly increased heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressures. Vibration and a steel seat had a significant effect on subjective discomfort. The apparatus used for these tests and the experimental procedures are described in detail. Recommendations are made for additional research on the exposure of underground mining machine operators to WBV and shock.

Love, A.C.; Unger, R.L.; Bobick, T.G.; Fowkes, R.S.

1992-01-01

152

Effect of Muscle Tension on Non-Linearities in the Apparent Masses of Seated Subjects Exposed to Vertical Whole-Body Vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In subjects exposed to whole-body vibration, the cause of non-linear dynamic characteristics with changes in vibration magnitude is not understood. The effect of muscle tension on the non-linearity in apparent mass has been investigated in this study. Eight seated male subjects were exposed to random and sinusoidal vertical vibration at five magnitudes (0·35-1·4 m/s2 r.m.s.). The random vibration was presented for 60 s over the frequency range 2·0-20 Hz; the sinusoidal vibration was presented for 10 s at five frequencies (3·15, 4·0, 5·0, 6·3 and 8·0 Hz). Three sitting conditions were adopted such that, in two conditions, muscle tension in the buttocks and the abdomen was controlled. It was assumed that, in these two conditions, involuntary changes in muscle tension would be minimized. The force and acceleration at the seat surface were used to obtain apparent masses of subjects. With both sinusoidal and random vibration, there was statistical support for the hypothesis that non-linear characteristics were less clear when muscle tension in the buttocks and the abdomen was controlled. With increases in the magnitude of random vibration from 0·35 to 1·4 m/s2 r.m.s., the apparent mass resonance frequency decreased from 5·25 to 4·25 Hz with normal muscle tension, from 5·0 to 4·38 Hz with the buttocks muscles tensed, and from 5·13 to 4·5 Hz with the abdominal muscles tensed. Involuntary changes in muscle tension during whole-body vibration may be partly responsible for non-linear biodynamic responses.

MATSUMOTO, Y.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

2002-05-01

153

Effect of whole-body vibration in combined axes and with noise on subjective evaluation of ride quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on ratings of ride quality of discomfort produced by complex vibration and noise stimuli were investigated. The initial study examined effects of simultaneous vibration in the vertical and lateral axes in a simulated passenger aircraft. The second study examined the effects of simultaneously presented vertical vibration and noise stimuli. In both studies the components of complex stimuli were

RAYMOND H. KIRBY; GLYNN D. COATES; PETER J. MIKULKA; PETER S. WINNE; THOMAS K. DEMPSEY; JACK D. LEATHERWOOD

1977-01-01

154

Effect of whole-body vibration in combined axes and with noise on subjective evaluation of ride quality.  

PubMed

The effects on ratings of ride quality of discomfort produced by complex vibration and noise stimuli were investigated. The initial study examined effects of simultaneous vibration in the vertical and lateral axes in a simulated passenger aircraft. The second study examined the effects of simultaneously presented vertical vibration and noise stimuli. In both studies the components of complex stimuli were found to combine their effects at low levels of stimulation but to act separately at higher levels. PMID:871104

Kirby, R H; Coates, G D; Mikulka, P J; Winne, P S; Dempsey, T K; Leatherwood, J D

1977-03-01

155

Short-Term Lower-Body Plyometric Training Improves Whole Body BMC, Bone Metabolic Markers, and Physical Fitness in Early Pubertal Male Basketball Players.  

PubMed

The effects of a 9-week lower-body plyometric training program on bone mass, bone markers and physical fitness was examined in 51 early pubertal male basketball players divided randomly into a plyometric group (PG: 25 participants) and a control group (CG: 26 participants). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in the whole body, L2-L4 vertebrae, and in total hip, serum levels of osteocalcin (Oc) and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of Type I collagen (CTx), jump, sprint and power abilities were assessed at baseline and 9 weeks. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for baseline values. PG experienced a significant increase in Oc (p < .01) and all physical fitness except for the 5-jump test. However, there was no improvement in aBMD, BMC and BA in any measured site, except in whole body BMC of the PG. A positive correlation was observed between percentage increase (?%) of physical fitness and those of (Oc) for the PG. In summary, biweekly sessions of lower body plyometric training program were successful for improving whole body BMC, bone formation marker (Oc) and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players. PMID:24018349

Zribi, Anis; Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Bouajina, Elyes; Ben Nasr, Hela; Zaouali, Monia; Tabka, Zouhair

2014-02-01

156

Short-Term Lower-Body Plyometric Training Improves Whole-Body BMC, Bone Metabolic Markers, and Physical Fitness in Early Pubertal Male Basketball Players.  

PubMed

The effects of a 9-week lower-body plyometric training program on bone mass, bone markers and physical fitness was examined in 51 early pubertal male basketball players divided randomly into a plyometric group (PG: 25 participants) and a control group (CG: 26 participants). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in the whole body, L2-L4 vertebrae, and in total hip, serum levels of osteocalcin (Oc) and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of Type I collagen (CTx), jump, sprint and power abilities were assessed at baseline and 9 weeks. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for baseline values. PG experienced a significant increase in Oc (p < .01) and all physical fitness except for the 5-jump test. However, there was no improvement in aBMD, BMC and BA in any measured site, except in whole body BMC of the PG. A positive correlation was observed between percentage increase (?%) of physical fitness and those of (Oc) for the PG. In summary, biweekly sessions of lower body plyometric training program were successful for improving whole body BMC, bone formation marker (Oc) and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players. PMID:24662116

Zribi, Anis; Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Bouajina, Elyes; Ben Nasr, Hela; Zaouali, Monia; Tabka, Zouhair

2014-02-01

157

Changes in auditory evoked brain potentials during ultra-low frequency whole-body vibration of man or of his visual surround.  

PubMed

Auditory evoked brain potentials (AEP) were recorded from nine healthy male subjects during three types of condition: A - subject and visual field stationary; B - subject vibrated (z-axis, 0.6 Hz, 1.85 ms-2 rms), visual field stationary; C - subject stationary, visual field vibrated (as for B). The visual surround was confined to a checkerboard pattern in front of the subject. Auditory stimuli (1000 Hz, 86 dB, interstimulus interval 7 s) were delivered via headphones to evoke AEP. Vibration-synchronous activity in the EEG was eliminated by a subtraction technique. In comparison with condition A, conditions B and C caused an attenuation of P2 and N1P2 components of AEP together with an increased latency of N1. Effects of conditions B and C did not differ. Direct vestibular stimulation and mechanisms specific for whole-body vibration were rejected as modes of action. The AEP-changes and the subjective evaluation of experimental conditions, arousal and performance, as well as symptoms of kinetosis (motion sickness) suggest a sensory mismatch, leading to a "latent kinetosis" with de-arousal, as the dominating mechanism by which the processing of information was affected. This suggestion was supported by an additional pilot study. Under real working conditions a similar effect can be expected during relative motion between the driver and his visual surround, i.e. even with perfect vibro-isolation of the driver's seat. PMID:2079053

Seidel, H; Schuster, U; Menzel, G; Nikolajewitsch Kurerov, N; Richter, J; Schajpak, E J; Blüthner, R; Meister, A; Ullsperger, P

1990-01-01

158

Acute changes in neuromuscular excitability after exhaustive whole body vibration exercise as compared to exhaustion by squatting exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of hard squatting exercise with (VbX+) and without (VbX)) vibration on neuromuscular function were tested in 19 healthy young volunteers. Before and after the exercise, three different tests were performed: maximum serial jumping for 30 s, electromyography during isometric knee extension at 70% of the maximum voluntary torque, and the quantitative analysis of the patellar tendon reflex.

Jorn Rittweger; Marcus Mutschelknauss; Dieter Felsenberg

2003-01-01

159

Effect of whole-body vibration in the vertical axis on cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in piglets1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibration, being a consequence of mo- tion during transport, may impair the welfare of pigs. Therefore, the primary objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate during transport simulation the use of ACTH and cortisol plasma levels, which are part of a basic adaptation mechanism of pigs and 2) to define comfort conditions for pigs related to the frequency and

S. Perremans; J. M. Randall; G. Rombouts; E. Decuypere; R. Geers

160

DOSE-RESPONSE Relationships Between Whole-Body Vibration and Lumbar Disk DISEASE—A Field Study on 388 Drivers of Different Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a longitudinal study, the dose-response relationships between long term occupational exposure to whole-body vibration and degenerative processes in the lumbar spine caused by the lumbar disks were examined. From 1990 to 1992, 388 vibration-exposed workers from different driving jobs were examined medically and by lumbar X-ray. For each individual, a history of all exposure conditions was recorded, and a cumulative vibration dose was calculated allowing comparisons between groups of low, middle, and high intensity of exposure. 310 subjects were selected for a follow-up four years later, of whom 90·6% (n=281) agreed to participate. In comparing the exposure groups, the results indicate that the limit value ofazw(8h)=0·8 m/s2should be reviewed. The best fit between the lifelong vibration dose and the occurrence of a lumbar syndrome was obtained by applying a daily reference ofazw(8h)=0·6 ms2as a limit value. The results became more distinct still when only those subjects were included in the statistical analysis who had had no lumbar symptoms up to the end of the first year of exposure. The prevalence of lumbar syndrome is 1·55 times higher in the highly exposed group when compared to the reference group with low exposure (CI95%=1·24/1·95). Calculating the cumulative incidence of new cases of lumbar syndrome in the follow-up period yields a relative risk ofRRMH=1·37 (CI95%=0·86/2·17) for the highly exposed group. It is concluded that the limit value for the calculation of an individual lifelong vibration dose should be based on a daily reference exposure ofazw(8h)=0·6 m/s2. With increasing dose it is more and more probable that cases of lumbar syndrome are caused by exposure to vibration.

Schwarze, S.; Notbohm, G.; Dupuis, H.; Hartung, E.

1998-08-01

161

Ride quality and international standard ISO 2631 (Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of the standard, which is aimed at promoting research and production of more data, and providing some design guidance, is outlined and its contents summarized. Some of the assumptions and information on which it is based are analyzed. Its application to vehicle ride quality is considered in the context of the safety, efficiency and comfort of crew and passengers. The importance of establishing the precise criteria against which vibration limits are required is underlined, particularly the difficulties of first defining comfort and then postulating appropriate levels. Some current and future work related to improving the standard is outlined and additional suggestions offered.

Allen, G. R.

1975-01-01

162

Long-term effects of whole-body vibration on motor unit contractile function and myosin heavy chain composition in the rat medial gastrocnemius.  

PubMed

Structural and physiological mechanisms underling functional adaptations of a muscle to chronic whole-body vibration (WBV) are poorly understood. The study aimed at examining the contractile properties of motor units and the myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression in rat medial gastrocnemius muscle in response to 3- or 6-month periods of the WBV. The three-month WBV induced modifications of contractile properties principally in slow (S) and fast resistant to fatigue (FR) motor units. In S units an increase in the maximum tetanus force, a reduction in the twitch force and a decrease in the twitch-to-tetanus force ratio were found. In FR units a shortening in the twitch time parameters, a decrease in the twitch-to-tetanus ratio and an increase in the fatigue resistance were observed. In addition, a decrease in the type I and an increase in the type IIax MHC content were revealed. The six-month WBV caused a decrease in the twitch-to-tetanus force ratio in S and FR units. Other structural and physiological changes in MU properties previously seen were no longer apparent. In conclusion, responses to the long-term WBV stimulus vary between particular types of motor units, what suggests that multiple adaptive processes in muscle tissue are involved. PMID:24292613

?ochy?ski, D; Kaczmarek, D; R?dowicz, M J; Celichowski, J; Krutki, P

2013-12-01

163

Effects of isolated and combined exposures to whole-body vibration and noise on auditory-event related brain potentials and psychophysical assessment.  

PubMed

Auditory event-related brain potentials (ERP) in response to two different tone stimuli (1.1 kHz or 1 kHz, 80 dB, 50 ms; given by headphones at a regular interstimulus interval of 5 s with a probability distribution of 70:30) were recorded from 12 healthy male subjects (Ss) during four different conditions with two repetitions: A-60 dBA white noise (wN), no whole-body vibration (WBV); B-60 dBA wN plus sinusoidal WBV in the az-direction with a frequency of 2.01 Hz and acceleration of 2 m.s-2 root mean square; C-80 dBA wN, no WBV; D-80 dBA wN plus WBV. Each condition consisted of two runs of about 11 min interrupted by a break of 4 min. During the break with continuing exposure, but without auditory stimuli, Ss judged the difficulty of the tone-detection task and intensity of noise by means of cross-modality matching (CMM). Vibration-synchronous activity in the electrocardiogram was eliminated by a subtraction-technique. Noise caused an attenuation of the N1 and P2 amplitudes and prolongation of P3 latencies. The WBV did not cause systematic ERP effects. Condition B was associated with higher N1 and smaller P3 amplitudes. The factor "condition" had a significant effect on the peak latencies of P3 to target stimuli and the task difficulty judged by CMM. Both effects exhibited significant linear increases in the sequence of conditions A, B, C, D. For the evaluation of exposure conditions at work, it can be suggested that noise has a strong systematic effect which can be enhanced by WBV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1425639

Seidel, H; Blüthner, R; Martin, J; Menzel, G; Panuska, R; Ullsperger, P

1992-01-01

164

Whole-body vibration as a mode of dyspnoea free physical activity: a community-based proof-of-concept trial  

PubMed Central

Background The potential of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a mode of dyspnoea free physical activity for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown among community-based settings. Furthermore, the acute effects of WBV on people with COPD have not been profiled in community-based settings. The aim of this community-based proof-of-concept trial was to describe acute effects of WBV by profiling subjective and objective responses to physical activity. Findings Seventeen community-dwelling older adults with COPD were recruited to participate in two sessions; WBV and sham WBV (SWBV). Each session consisted of five one-minute bouts interspersed with five one-minute passive rest periods. The gravitational force was ~2.5?g for WBV and ~0.0?g for SWBV. Reliability of baseline dyspnoea, heart rate, and oxygen saturation was first established and then profiled for both sessions. Acute responses to both WBV and SWBV were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance and repeated contrasts. Small changes in dyspnoea and oxygen saturation lacked subjective and clinical meaningfulness. One session of WBV and SWBV significantly increased heart rate (p???0.02), although there was no difference among WBV and SWBV (p?=?0.67). Conclusions This community-based proof-of-concept trial showed that a session of WBV can be completed with the absence of dyspnoea for people with COPD. Furthermore, there were no meaningful differences among WBV and SWBV for heart rate and oxygen saturation. There is scope for long-term community-based intervention research using WBV given the known effects of WBV on peripheral muscle function and functional independence.

2013-01-01

165

Whole-body vibration and resistance exercise prevent long-term hindlimb unloading-induced bone loss: independent and interactive effects.  

PubMed

Skeletal unloading induced by disuse or immobilization causes a decrease in bone mass and strength. We investigated the relationship between whole-body vibration (WBV) and resistance exercise (RE) in preventing bone loss induced by 8-week hindlimb unloading in young male rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to 6 groups: age-matched control group (CON, n = 10), hindlimb unloading group (HU, n = 10), hindlimb unloading + standing group (HU + ST, n = 10), hindlimb unloading + WBV group (HU + WBV, n = 10), hindlimb unloading + RE group (HU + RE, n = 10) and hindlimb unloading + WBV + RE group (HU + WBV + RE, n = 10). After 8-week hindlimb unloading, micro-CT scanning and three-point bending test were performed in the femur. Sera were collected for analysis of bone formation and resorption markers. Compared with HU group, WBV, RE and the combination of WBV and RE (WBV + RE) significantly improved (P < 0.01) one repetition maximum (1RM) (expressed as the percentage change from baseline, HU: -23%, HU + WBV: 21%, HU + RE: 48%, HU + WBV + RE: 51%), and maintained (P < 0.05) cancellous volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and trabecular structure. No difference of cortical vBMD was found among all groups (P > 0.05). WBV had no effects on biomechanical properties of the femur diaphysis (P > 0.05). RE and WBV + RE significantly increased maximum load and cross-sectional moment of inertia of the femur diaphysis in hindlimb unloading rats (P < 0.05). There was an interaction between WBV and RE in improving cancellous bone. These results demonstrate that WBV and RE interactively maintain cancellous structure and vBMD, and independently partially mitigate the reduction of bone strength in long-term hindlimb unloading rats. PMID:22371114

Li, Zhili; Tan, Cheng; Wu, Yonghua; Ding, Ye; Wang, Huijuan; Chen, Wenjuan; Zhu, Yu; Ma, Honglei; Yang, Honghui; Liang, Wenbin; Jiang, Shizhong; Wang, Desheng; Wang, Linjie; Tang, Guohua; Wang, Jun

2012-11-01

166

Early Adolescence: Whole Body Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Whole body" denotes using the entire body to sense and experience a concept or idea. Typical whole body learning activities involve use of several senses: muscle sense, temperature, pain, pressure, and sense of equilibrium. Four whole body science activities are described, including identifying trees by touch. (Author/JN)

Cannon, Roger K., Jr.; Padilla, Michael J.

1982-01-01

167

Predictions of health risks associated with the operation of load-haul-dump mining vehicles: Part 1—Analysis of whole-body vibration exposure using ISO 2631-1 and ISO2631-5 standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicted health risks, associated with the operation of load-haul-dump (LHD) vehicles, based on ISO 2631-1 criteria are limited and have not yet been determined according to ISO 2631-5 criteria. Therefore, health risks predicted by ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 criteria are reported and compared in this paper. Whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure was measured according to procedures established in ISO 2631-1. A

T. Eger; J. Stevenson; P.-É. Boileau; A. Salmoni

2008-01-01

168

Effect of Low-Magnitude Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Alendronate in Ovariectomized Rats: A Random Controlled Osteoporosis Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

Background Alendronate (ALE) is a conventional drug used to treat osteoporosis. Low-magnitude whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been developed as a potential treatment for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-magnitude WBV could enhance the protective effect of ALE on bone properties in ovariectomized rats. Methods A total of 128 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (SHAM, OVX+VEH, OVX+WBV, OVX + ALE, OVX+WBV+ALE). The level of WBV applied was 0.3 g at 45–55 Hz for 20 min/day, 5 day/week and for 3 months. ALE was administered in dose of 1 mg/Kg once a week. Every four weeks eight rats from each group were sacrificed and their blood and both tibiae were harvested. The expression of osteocalcin and CTX in serum was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the tibiae were subjected to metaphyseal three-point bending and ?CT analysis. Results Osteocalcin rose after ovariectomy and was not appreciably changed by either alendronate or WBV alone or in combination. Alendronate treatment significantly prevented an increase in CTX. WBV alone treatment did not alter this effect. Compared with the OVX+WBV group, nearly all tested indices such as the BV/TV, TV apparent, Tb.N, Tb.Th, and Conn.D were higher in the OVX+ALE group at week 12.Compared with the OVX+WBV group, certain tested indices such as BV/TV, TV apparent, Tb.N, and Con.D, were higher in the OVX+WBV+ALE group at week 12. At week 12, tibiae treated with WBV+ALE exhibited a significantly higher Fmax compared to the OVX+VEH group, and a significant difference was also found in energy absorption between the OVX+WBV+ALE and OVX+VEH groups. Conclusions Compared with the WBV, ALE was more effective at preventing bone loss and improved the trabecular architecture. However, WBV enhanced the effect of alendronate in ovariectomized rats by inducing further improvements in trabecular architecture.

Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Wei; Ding, Ruo-Ting; Yu, Hui; Chen, Jian-Ting

2014-01-01

169

Whole Body Lexical Decision  

PubMed Central

When a person standing upright raises an arm on cue, muscles of the left and right sides of the body exhibit changes prior to and specific to the responding arm. We had standing participants perform a visual lexical decision task (“is this letter string a word?”), responding yes by raising one arm and no by raising the other arm. We recorded onset of the arm movement and onset of electromyographic activity in thigh, trunk, and shoulder muscles. We observed the expected responding arm specificity and found that the onset difference favoring word decisions was evident in similar magnitude at all measurement sites, with the difference at the levels of thigh, trunk and shoulder muscles available 225, 189, and 120 ms, respectively, prior to its manifestation at the level of arm movement. We discuss including (a) whole body reaction time along with event-related potentials in determining the decision-response, brain-body temporal relation, and (b) response execution along with response initiation in investigating mental chronometry.

Moreno, Miguel A.; Stepp, Nigel; Turvey, M. T.

2013-01-01

170

Whole-Body MRA.  

PubMed

Vascular diseases today constitute a serious health burden, ranking atherosclerosis as number one in the morbidity and mortality statistics of developed countries, with a still-growing incidence. Different treatment options are available for all vascular territories, ranging from conservative pharmacological treatment and catheter-based interventions up to surgical methods with remodelling of the vessels or bypass implantation. For treatment planning, all listed procedures have in common that they rely on initial diagnostic imaging to assess the degree and extent of stenoses. In this respect, imaging of the arterial system from the head down to the feet seems to be reasonable. Up to now no imaging technique allowed the assessment of the complete arterial system in only one exam within a reasonable time and without limiting factors like invasiveness and ionizing radiation. However, recent developments in magnetic resonance (MR) hardware and software, such as dedicated whole-body MR systems with specially designed surface coils, the movement to higher field strength and the implementation of parallel acquisition techniques (PAT), have helped to overcome the long-standing limitations of MR angiography (MRA), like reduced spatial resolution, long acquisition time, the restriction to body parts and only one field of view of a maximum 50 cm. PMID:18491112

Kramer, Harald; Quick, Harald H; Tombach, Bernd; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Barkhausen, Joerg

2008-09-01

171

Weight Bearing through Lower Limbs in a Standing Frame with and without Arm Support and Low-Magnitude Whole Body Vibration in Men and Women with Complete Motor Paraplegia  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the proportion of body weight (BW) borne through the lower limbs in persons with complete, motor paraplegia using a standing frame, with and without support of their arms. We also examined the effect of low-magnitude whole body vibration on loads borne by the lower extremities. Design Vertical ground reaction forces (GRF) were measured in 11 participants (6 men and 5 women) with paraplegia of traumatic origin (injury level T3 to T12) standing on a low-magnitude vibrating plate using a standing frame. GRF were measured in four conditions: 1) no vibration with arms on standing frame tray; 2) no vibration with arms at side; 3) vibration with arms on tray; 4) vibration with arms at side. Results GRF with arms on tray, without vibration, was 0.76 ± 0.07 BW. With arms at the side, GRF increased to 0.85 ± 0.12 BW. With vibration, mean GRF did not significantly differ from no-vibration conditions for either arm positions. Oscillation of GRF with vibration was significantly different from no-vibration conditions (p<0.001) but similar in both arm positions. Conclusion Men and women with paraplegia using a standing frame bear the majority of their weight through their lower limbs. Supporting their arms on the tray reduces the GRF by ~10% BW. Low-magnitude vibration provided additional oscillation of the load-bearing forces and was proportionally similar regardless of arm position.

Bernhardt, Kathie A.; Beck, Lisa A.; Lamb, Jeffry L.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; Amin, Shreyasee; Wuermser, Lisa-Ann

2014-01-01

172

Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners  

PubMed Central

Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, Francois; Pournot, Herve; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

2011-01-01

173

Vibration training in cardiologic rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was the analysis of the vibration training in cardiologic rehabilitation with the frequency of 3.5 Hz and ampli- tudes 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5 mm, modified within consecutive weeks of the training by 0.5 mm. 24 people aged from 20 to 36 took part in the study. They were subjected to 20-minute vibrations, within 19 consecutive

Zbigniew Damijan

174

Effect of voluntary periodic muscular activity on nonlinearity in the apparent mass of the seated human body during vertical random whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal resonance frequency in the driving-point impedance of the human body decreases with increasing vibration magnitude—a nonlinear response. An understanding of the nonlinearities may advance understanding of the mechanisms controlling body movement and improve anthropodynamic modelling of responses to vibration at various magnitudes. This study investigated the effects of vibration magnitude and voluntary periodic muscle activity on the apparent mass resonance frequency using vertical random vibration in the frequency range 0.5-20 Hz. Each of 14 subjects was exposed to 14 combinations of two vibration magnitudes (0.25 and 2.0 m s -2 root-mean square (rms)) in seven sitting conditions: two without voluntary periodic movement (A: upright; B: upper-body tensed), and five with voluntary periodic movement (C: back-abdomen bending; D: folding-stretching arms from back to front; E: stretching arms from rest to front; F: folding arms from elbow; G: deep breathing). Three conditions with voluntary periodic movement significantly reduced the difference in resonance frequency at the two vibration magnitudes compared with the difference in a static sitting condition. Without voluntary periodic movement (condition A: upright), the median apparent mass resonance frequency was 5.47 Hz at the low vibration magnitude and 4.39 Hz at the high vibration magnitude. With voluntary periodic movement (C: back-abdomen bending), the resonance frequency was 4.69 Hz at the low vibration magnitude and 4.59 Hz at the high vibration magnitude. It is concluded that back muscles, or other muscles or tissues in the upper body, influence biodynamic responses of the human body to vibration and that voluntary muscular activity or involuntary movement of these parts can alter their equivalent stiffness.

Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

2006-12-01

175

Comparative effects of whole-body vibration on sensorimotor performance achieved with a mini-stick and a macro-stick in force and position control modes.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to assess the performance of subjects in a target recentering task, performed under both normal and vibration conditions. A conventional helicopter stick and an arm-side controller were used in both position and force control modes. The task was designed to simulate instrument flying. The results showed that in the no-vibration situation, the highest performance was achieved in the force control mode and little difference was observed between the two sticks. They also showed that vibration impaired the velocity control of the performance. It is suggested that the subject might be switching over from a visual and arm afferent and efferent control in the no-vibration situation, to a visual control only under vibration condition. From this study, it appears that the more efficient stick to execute the designed task is the mini-stick operating in the force control mode. PMID:3753364

Ribot, E; Roll, J P; Gauthier, G M

1986-08-01

176

Health risk evaluation of whole-body vibration by ISO 2631-5 and ISO 2631-1 for operators of agricultural tractors and recreational vehicles.  

PubMed

This paper presents experimental research evaluation of the vibration exposure for the health risk prediction during vehicle operation. The vibration measurements were carried out on a recreational vehicle and two types of agricultural tractors. The vibration levels were measured for different surfaces and vehicle speed conditions. Based on the analysis of the results in the small agricultural tractor operated in the workplace (frameworks), Sed exceeded 0.80 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004, and Av exceeded 0.89 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997. That means that operators driving small agricultural tractors more than 8 h a day have a high probability of adverse health effects. However, the exposure value for the recreational vehicle had Sed < 0.5 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004 and Av < 0.5 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997 on highways and local roads. That means Recreational Vehicle operators driving more than 8 h a day, have a low probability of adverse health effects. Also, for the recreational vehicle, vibration was taken at different speeds (40-60 km/h, 80 km/h, 100-120 km/h). However, the speed change did not appear to affect the vibration dose variation while driving a vehicle on the highway and road. Finally, the health effect index of ISO2631-5:2004 are almost the same as assessment of health effect by ISO2631-1:1997. PMID:23558167

Park, Min-Soo; Fukuda, Takabumi; Kim, Tae-Gu; Maeda, Setsuo

2013-01-01

177

The effectiveness of a single session of Whole-Body Vibration in improving the balance and the strength in type 2 diabetic patients with mild to moderate degree of peripheral neuropathy: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. Muscle strength and the balance deficits are seen in these patients. Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) is a time-efficient method which may be beneficial for them. The immediate effects of WBV on muscle strength and balance have not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one session of WBV on muscle strength and the balance of diabetic patients. Ten diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy took part in this study. Outcome measurements were total strength, strength of tibialis anterior and quadriceps femoris muscles and the balance parameters including Unilateral Stance Test and Timed Up and Go Test. Tibialis anterior muscle strength and Timed Up and GO Test parameters showed significant differences post-exercise in comparison to baseline. A session of WBV had positive effects on muscle strength and the balance in patients with type-2 diabetes associated with neuropathy. PMID:24411154

Kordi Yoosefinejad, Amin; Shadmehr, Azadeh; Olyaei, Ghloamreza; Talebian, Saeed; Bagheri, Hossein

2014-01-01

178

a Comparison of Evaluations and Assessments Obtained Using Alternative Standards for Predicting the Hazards of Whole-Body Vibration and Repeated Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are three current standards that might be used to assess the vibration and shock transmitted by a vehicle seat with respect to possible effects on human health: ISO 2631/1 (1985), BS 6841 (1987) and ISO 2631-1 (1997). Evaluations have been performed on the seat accelerations measured in nine different transport environments (bus, car, mobile crane, fork-lift truck, tank, ambulance, power boat, inflatable boat, mountain bike) in conditions that might be considered severe. For each environment, limiting daily exposure durations were estimated by comparing the frequency weighted root mean square (i.e., r.m.s.) accelerations and the vibration dose values (i.e.,VDV), calculated according to each standard with the relevant exposure limits, action level and health guidance caution zones. Very different estimates of the limiting daily exposure duration can be obtained using the methods described in the three standards. Differences were observed due to variations in the shapes of the frequency weightings, the phase responses of the frequency weighting filters, the method of combining multi-axis vibration, the averaging method, and the assessment method. With the evaluated motions, differences in the shapes of the weighting filters results in up to about 31% difference in r.m.s. acceleration between the “old” and the “new” ISO standard and up to about 14% difference between BS 6841 and the “new” ISO 2631. There were correspondingly greater differences in the estimates of safe daily exposure durations. With three of the more severe motions there was a difference of more than 250% between estimated safe daily exposure durations based on r.m.s. acceleration and those based on fourth power vibration dose values. The vibration dose values provided the more cautious assessments of the limiting daily exposure duration.

Lewis, C. H.; Griffin, M. J.

1998-08-01

179

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892.1330 Food...Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to...

2010-04-01

180

Whole-body hyperthermia induction techniques.  

PubMed

Currently, there are three techniques used for delivery of whole-body hyperthermia. The simplest of these is direct contact between skin and some surrounding fluid. The surrounding fluid can be either water, wax, air, or other fluid medium; heat is transferred from the surrounding fluid to the body surface. Vessels in the skin surface transfer heat to the perfusing blood, which uniformly distributes it throughout the body. The second technique uses irradiation of the body surface with nonionizing radiation to deliver heat to the first few cm from the surface. This heat can be picked up by local blood perfusion and distributed throughout the body. One advantage of this method over direct contact methods is that heat is deposited throughout the first few cm and therefore temperature increases at the surface are lower. The third technique is extracorporeal perfusion which seems the most promising method for delivery of whole-body hyperthermia. This allows for greater control of central temperature via rapid change in temperature of blood passing through the external heat exchanger. The increased ability to control temperature resulting from this advanced instrumentation allows accurate delivery of whole-body hyperthermia. This permits comparison studies of therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:6467239

Milligan, A J

1984-10-01

181

Hepatobiliary kinetics after whole-body irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to study hepatobiliary kinetics after whole-body gamma irradiation. Two groups of nine male beagle dogs were irradiated with a single whole body dose of 4- and 8-Gy cobalt-60 photons. Each animal was injected with 2 mCi Tc-99m DISIDA and scintigraphic studies were obtained with a gamma camera with a parallel hole multipurpose collimator. The parameters studied included: peak activity of the liver and gall bladder and gall bladder and intestinal visualization from the time of Tc-99m DISIDA administration. Total and indirect bilirubin, LDH, SGOT, and SGPT determined as baseline studies before irradiation and at different time intervals after irradiation were not changed in irradiated animals. Whole body Co-60 irradiation with 4 and 8 Gy produced no significant changes in the Tc-99m DISIDA visualization of the gall bladder or in the peak activity in the gall bladder or the liver 1 and 7 days after irradiation. Intestinal visualization occurred significantly earlier in 8 Gy Co-60 irradiated animals on both day 1 and day 7 post irradiation, compared to baseline values where it was never observed before 195.0 minutes. Gall bladder emptying is significantly accelerated after 8 Gy but not after 4-Gy Co-60 gamma irradiation. These observations suggest that gamma irradiation stimulates gall bladder contractility without modifying intrahepatic biliary kinetics.

Durakovic, A.

1986-09-01

182

Whole body radiotherapy: A TBI-guideline.  

PubMed

Total Body Irradiation (TBI) is one main component in the interdisciplinary treatment of widely disseminated malignancies predominantly of haematopoietic diseases. Combined with intensive chemotherapy, TBI enables myeloablative high dose therapy and immuno-ablative conditioning treatment prior to subsequent transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow stem cells or peripheral blood progenitor stem cells. Jointly prepared by DEGRO and DGMP, the German Society of Radio-Oncology, and the German Association of Medical Physicists, this DEGRO/DGMP-Leitlinie Ganzkoerper-Strahlenbehandlung - DEGRO/DGMP Guideline Whole Body Radiotherapy, summarises the concepts, principles, facts and common methods of Total Body Irradiation and poses a set of recommendations for reliable and successful application of high dose large-field radiotherapy as essential part of this interdisciplinary, multi-modality treatment concept. The guideline is geared towards radio-oncologists, medical physicists, haematooncolo-gists, and all contributing to Whole Body Radiotherapy. To guide centres intending to start or actualise TBI criteria are included. The relevant treatment parameters are defined and a sample of a form is given for reporting TBI to international registries. PMID:21206634

Quast, Ulrich

2006-01-01

183

Whole body radiotherapy: A TBI-guideline  

PubMed Central

Total Body Irradiation (TBI) is one main component in the interdisciplinary treatment of widely disseminated malignancies predominantly of haematopoietic diseases. Combined with intensive chemotherapy, TBI enables myeloablative high dose therapy and immuno-ablative conditioning treatment prior to subsequent transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow stem cells or peripheral blood progenitor stem cells. Jointly prepared by DEGRO and DGMP, the German Society of Radio-Oncology, and the German Association of Medical Physicists, this DEGRO/DGMP-Leitlinie Ganzkoerper-Strahlenbehandlung - DEGRO/DGMP Guideline Whole Body Radiotherapy, summarises the concepts, principles, facts and common methods of Total Body Irradiation and poses a set of recommendations for reliable and successful application of high dose large-field radiotherapy as essential part of this interdisciplinary, multi-modality treatment concept. The guideline is geared towards radio-oncologists, medical physicists, haematooncolo-gists, and all contributing to Whole Body Radiotherapy. To guide centres intending to start or actualise TBI criteria are included. The relevant treatment parameters are defined and a sample of a form is given for reporting TBI to international registries.

Quast, Ulrich

2006-01-01

184

Whole body interaction for child-centered multimodal language learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children engage with the world with their whole bodies, and we suggest here that during dialect learning, as during other learning activities, technology be capable of responding in whole body ways. As the child becomes more engaged in a shared-reality environment, the coordination of the whole-body behaviors between the VP and child should increase, thereby enhancing the experience. In this

Berto Gonzalez; John Borland; Kathleen Geraghty

2009-01-01

185

A Simulation of the Surface EMG for Analysis of Muscle Activity during Whole Body Vibratory Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many studies have accounted for whole body vibration effects in the fields of exercise physiology, sport and rehabilitation\\u000a medicine. Generally, surface EMG is utilized to assess muscular activity during the treatment; however, large motion artifacts\\u000a appear superimposed to the raw signal, making sEMG recording not suitable before any artifact filtering. Sharp notch filters,\\u000a centered at vibration frequency and at its

A. Fratini; M. Cesarelli; P. Bifulco; M. Romano; M. Ruffo

186

Vibration Training: An Overview of the Area, Training Consequences, and Future Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan, M.J., S.R. Norris, D.J. Smith, and W. Her- zog. Vibration training: an overview of the area, training con- sequences, and future considerations. J. Strength Cond. Res. 19(2):459-466. 2005.—The effects of vibration on the human body have been documented for many years. Recently, the use of vibration for improving the training regimes of athletes has been investigated. Vibration has been

Matthew J. Jordan; Stephen R. Norris; David J. Smith; Walter Herzog

2005-01-01

187

Adaptations of mouse skeletal muscle to low intensity vibration training  

PubMed Central

Purpose We tested the hypothesis that low intensity vibration training in mice improves contractile function of hindlimb skeletal muscles and promotes exercise-related cellular adaptations. Methods We subjected C57BL/6J mice to 6 wk, 5 d·wk?1, 15 min·d?1 of sham or low intensity vibration (45 Hz, 1.0 g) while housed in traditional cages (Sham-Active, n=8; Vibrated-Active, n=10) or in small cages to restrict physical activity (Sham-Restricted, n=8; Vibrated-Restricted, n=8). Contractile function and resistance to fatigue were tested in vivo (anterior and posterior crural muscles) and ex vivo on the soleus muscle. Tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were evaluated histologically for alterations in oxidative metabolism, capillarity, and fiber types. Epididymal fat pad and hindlimb muscle masses were measured. Two-way ANOVAs were used to determine effects of vibration and physical inactivity. Results Vibration training resulted in a 10% increase in maximal isometric torque (P=0.038) and 16% faster maximal rate of relaxation (P=0.030) of the anterior crural muscles. Posterior crural muscles were unaffected by vibration, with the exception of greater rates of contraction in Vibrated-Restricted mice compared to Vibrated-Active and Sham-Restricted mice (P=0.022). Soleus muscle maximal isometric tetanic force tended to be greater (P=0.057) and maximal relaxation was 20% faster (P=0.005) in Vibrated compared to Sham mice. Restriction of physical activity induced muscle weakness but was not required for vibration to be effective in improving strength or relaxation. Vibration training did not impact muscle fatigability or any indicator of cellular adaptation investigated (P?0.431). Fat pad but not hindlimb muscle masses were affected by vibration training. Conclusion Vibration training in mice improved muscle contractility, specifically strength and relaxation rates, with no indication of adverse effects to muscle function or cellular adaptations.

McKeehen, James N.; Novotny, Susan A.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Nuckley, David J.; Lowe, Dawn A.

2013-01-01

188

Effects of Vibration Training and Detraining on Balance and Muscle Strength in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of 2 days/week versus 4 days/week of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) during eight weeks of WBV training on health-related quality of life (SF-36), balance and lower body strength, as well as short-term detraining (3 weeks) on balance and lower body strength among older adults. Thirty-four older adults were randomly assigned to a control group (Control; n = 11) or to one of the vibration training groups: WBV 2 days/week (WBV_2d; n = 11) or WBV 4 days/week (WBV_4d; n = 12). The WBV groups exercised for 8 weeks, following 3 weeks of detraining. Lower body strength increased significantly (p < 0.05) for both groups, WBV_2d and WBV_4d, after 8-week training. A significant reduction in strength was observed following 3 weeks of detraining only in WBV_2d group (p < 0.05). All variables of the SF-36 and the balance test did not change after intervention in any group. 2 days/week and 4 days/week of WBV during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength. 3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV. Key points 2 days and 4 days per week of WBV training during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength. 3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV exercise. 3 weeks of detraining did reverse the gains in strength made during 16 sessions of WBV exercise.

Marin, Pedro J.; Martin-Lopez, Aurora; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Angulo-Carrere, MT; Garcia-Pastor, Teresa; Garatachea, Nuria; Chicharro, Jose L.

2011-01-01

189

Whole-body vertical biodynamic response characteristics of the seated vehicle driver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical driving-point mechanical impedance characteristics applicable to seated vehicle drivers are measured in the 0.625–10Hz frequency range with excitation amplitudes ranging from 1.0 to 2.0ms?2 using a whole-body vehicular vibration simulator. The measurements are performed for seated subjects with feet supported and hands held in a driving position. Variations in the seated posture, backrest angle, and nature and amplitude

P.-É. Boileau; S. Rakheja

1998-01-01

190

Theoretical and experimental study of vibration, generated by monorail trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monorail transport as all other city transport vehicles is the source of high noise and vibration levels. It is less widespread than cars or underground transport but its influence in modern cities enhances. Now in Moscow the first monorail road with trains on tires is designed, therefore the problem of vibration and noise assessments and prediction of its impact on

Samuil A. Rybak; Sergey A. Makhortykh; Stanislav A. Kostarev

2002-01-01

191

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2012-04-01

192

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2012-04-01

193

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2011-04-01

194

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2011-04-01

195

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2014-04-01

196

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2014-04-01

197

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2010-04-01

198

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture detector whose position moves in one direction with respect to the...

2013-04-01

199

21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in the entire body. This generic type of device may include signal analysis and display equipment, patient and equipment supports, component parts, and accessories. (b)...

2013-04-01

200

Age Modulates attitudes to Whole Body Donation Among Medical Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study to understand the effect of medical student age on the attitude towards whole body donation. Outcomes discussed include the shift in attitude toward the nature of body donation (family member, self, unrelated stranger).

2009-07-01

201

Platelet Adhesiveness Following Whole-Body X Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four male beagle dogs received 150 rads whole-body x irradiation (WBR). Subsequent determinations of platelet to glass adhesiveness, platelet count, white blood cell count and hematocrit were made. Platelet adhesiveness showed a significant decrease in al...

M. F. Kagnoff

1969-01-01

202

Design specification for the whole-body algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The necessary requirements and guidelines for the construction of a computer program of the whole-body algorithm are presented. The minimum subsystem models required to effectively simulate the total body response to stresses of interest are (1) cardiovascular (exercise/LBNP/tilt); (2) respiratory (Grodin's model); (3) thermoregulatory (Stolwijk's model); and (4) long-term circulatory fluid and electrolyte (Guyton's model). The whole-body algorithm must be capable of simulating response to stresses from CO2 inhalation, hypoxia, thermal environmental exercise (sitting and supine), LBNP, and tilt (changing body angles in gravity).

Fitzjerrell, D. G.

1974-01-01

203

Analysis of train-induced vibrations and vibration reduction schemes above and below critical Rayleigh speeds by finite element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper simulates soil vibration under the train speed below and over the soil Rayleigh speed using the three-dimensional finite element method. Two vibration isolation schemes were studied including the soil improvement around the railway and the concrete slab constructed between the rail and soil. Numerical results indicate that the vibration increases considerably and decays slowly when the train speed

Shen-Haw Ju; Hung-Ta Lin

2004-01-01

204

Staging of colon cancer: whole-body MRI vs. whole-body PET-CT—initial clinical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To assess the accuracy of whole-body MR imaging (WB-MRI) in comparison with whole-body [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET-CT in staging patients with diagnosed colorectal carcinoma (CRC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty consecutive patients with previously diagnosed CRC underwent WB-MRI (3T) and PET-CT for staging of lymph node (N) and\\u000a distant metastases (M). Evaluation was done according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Criteria. MR

Ettore Squillaci; Guglielmo Manenti; Stefano Mancino; Carmelo Cicciò; Ferdinando Calabria; Roberta Danieli; Orazio Schillaci; Giovanni Simonetti

2008-01-01

205

Exploiting Task Intervals for Whole Body Robot Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a whole body motion algorithm and shows some steps towards its feasibility in complex scenarios. We employ the framework of Liegeois, (1977) which solves the redundant inverse kinematics problem on velocity level. To make the controller suitable for a variety of different applications, task descriptors for the relative effector positions as well as a one-and two-dimensional attitude

Michael Gienger; Herbert Janssen; Christian Goerick

2006-01-01

206

Task-oriented whole body motion for humanoid robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a whole body motion control algorithm for humanoid robots. It is based on the framework of Liegeois and solves the redundant inverse kinematics problem on velocity level. We control the hand positions as well as the hand and head attitude. The attitude is described with a novel 2-dof description suited for symmetrical problems. Task-specific command elements can be

Michael Gienger; H. Janssen; Christian Goerick

2005-01-01

207

Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR) and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA); CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75?RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP) was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001) and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001). Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP), in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients.

Popescu, Claudiu; Bojinca, Violeta; Opris, Daniela

2014-01-01

208

Whole-body average SARs in Korean male models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compliance of the reference level (electric field strength) to the basic restriction (whole-body average SAR) was examined when Korean male models at the ages of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 20 years are exposed to a plane wave in the frequency range of 10 MHz - 3 GHz. We considered the standing postures with arms up as well as arms

Ae-Kyoung Lee; Hyung-Do Choi

2011-01-01

209

Small-animal whole-body photoacoustic tomography: a review  

PubMed Central

With the wide use of small animals for biomedical studies, in vivo small-animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging whole-body imaging modality that shows great potential for preclinical research. As a hybrid technique, PAT is based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from either endogenous tissue chromophores, such as oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin, or exogenous contrast agents. Because ultrasound scatters much less than light in tissue, PAT generates high-resolution images in both the optical ballistic and diffusive regimes. Using near-infrared light, which has relatively low blood absorption, PAT can image through the whole body of small animals with acoustically defined spatial resolution. Anatomical and vascular structures are imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, while functional and molecular images are enabled by the wide choice of exogenous optical contrasts. This paper reviews the rapidly growing field of small-animal whole-body PAT and highlights studies done in the past decade.

Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

2014-01-01

210

Small-animal whole-body photoacoustic tomography: a review.  

PubMed

With the wide use of small animals for biomedical studies, in vivo small-animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging whole-body imaging modality that shows great potential for preclinical research. As a hybrid technique, PAT is based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from either endogenous tissue chromophores, such as oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, or exogenous contrast agents. Because ultrasound scatters much less than light in tissue, PAT generates high-resolution images in both the optical ballistic and diffusive regimes. Using near-infrared light, which has relatively low blood absorption, PAT can image through the whole body of small animals with acoustically defined spatial resolution. Anatomical and vascular structures are imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, while functional and molecular images are enabled by the wide choice of exogenous optical contrasts. This paper reviews the rapidly growing field of small-animal whole-body PAT and highlights studies done in the past decade. PMID:24108456

Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V

2014-05-01

211

Student Attitudes to Whole Body Donation Are Influenced by Dissection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudes to life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial…

Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Raj R.

2008-01-01

212

Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…

Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.

2009-01-01

213

Theoretical and experimental study of vibration, generated by monorail trains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monorail transport as all other city transport vehicles is the source of high noise and vibration levels. It is less widespread than cars or underground transport but its influence in modern cities enhances. Now in Moscow the first monorail road with trains on tires is designed, therefore the problem of vibration and noise assessments and prediction of its impact on the residential region appears. To assess the levels of generated vibration a physical model of interaction in the system wagon-tire-road coating-viaduct-soil has been proposed and then numerically analyzed. The model is based on the known from publications facts of automobile transport vibration and our own practice concerning underground trains vibration generation. To verify computer simulation results and adjust model parameters the series of measurements of noise and vibration near experimental monorail road was carried out. In the report the results of calculations and measurements will be presented and some outcomes of possible acoustical ecologic situation near monorail roads will be proposed.

Rybak, Samuil A.; Makhortykh, Sergey A.; Kostarev, Stanislav A.

2002-11-01

214

Responses of motor cortical cells to short trains of vibration.  

PubMed

The response discharges of precentral motor cortical cells to brief trains of vibration applied to the tendon of biceps brachii were analyzed in two alert but passive monkeys. The activity of 20 phasic-tonic and 6 tonic cells was analyzed. All had functional linkages with flexor muscles during a preceding flexion task and responded to passive movement of the elbow. Taking as a reference the stereotyped reflex response in the stretched muscle, the effect of changes in the amplitude of a constant frequency vibration (4 vibrations at 58 Hz) was quantified statistically in peristimulus histograms of the cortical cell discharges. All cells were transiently influenced by low vibration amplitudes. Most responses (71%) were excitatory and occurred at a mean latency of 24 ms, which is consistent with cells activated by input from stretch receptors. Excitatory, reproducible responses to the lowest vibration amplitudes were more frequent in phasic-tonic than in pure tonic cells. Large-amplitude vibrations always excited the motor cortical cells. The sign of the responses to vibration matched that to passive elbow movements for most cells. These findings show that elbow-related motor cortical cells are very sensitive to proprioceptive input from primary spindle afferents. PMID:8891651

Fourment, A; Chennevelle, J M; Belhaj-Saïf, A; Maton, B

1996-09-01

215

Whole body simultaneous PET/MRI: one-stop-shop?  

PubMed

Beginning of this century is hallmarked by arrival of hybrid imaging PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computerized tomography) which has become a standard of care primarily in oncology in a short span of time. Continuous research and development by industry and academia for exploiting the excellent soft tissue contrast, spectroscopy and precise measurement of various functional parameters by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with PET has resulted in emergence of whole body PET/MRI. It is expected this new hybrid modality would be warmly welcomed due to high magnitude of functional and morphostructural information at molecular level with low radiation dose which is indeed a point of concern for young and paediatric population. This short technical report for nuclear medicine readers will focus upon the various configuration and acquisition sequences of PET/MRI, attenuation correction and clinical applications of whole body simultaneous PET/MRI. PMID:24640813

Maseeh-uz-Zaman; Fatima, Nosheen; Sajjad, Zafar; Zaman, Unaiza

2014-02-01

216

The development of a whole-body algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The whole-body algorithm is envisioned as a mathematical model that utilizes human physiology to simulate the behavior of vital body systems. The objective of this model is to determine the response of selected body parameters within these systems to various input perturbations, or stresses. Perturbations of interest are exercise, chemical unbalances, gravitational changes and other abnormal environmental conditions. This model provides for a study of man's physiological response in various space applications, underwater applications, normal and abnormal workloads and environments, and the functioning of the system with physical impairments or decay of functioning components. Many methods or approaches to the development of a whole-body algorithm are considered. Of foremost concern is the determination of the subsystems to be included, the detail of the subsystems and the interaction between the subsystems.

Kay, F. J.

1973-01-01

217

A Portable Stereo Vision System for Whole Body Surface Imaging  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a whole body surface imaging system based on stereo vision technology. We have adopted a compact and economical configuration which involves only four stereo units to image the frontal and rear sides of the body. The success of the system depends on a stereo matching process that can effectively segment the body from the background in addition to recovering sufficient geometric details. For this purpose, we have developed a novel sub-pixel, dense stereo matching algorithm which includes two major phases. In the first phase, the foreground is accurately segmented with the help of a predefined virtual interface in the disparity space image, and a coarse disparity map is generated with block matching. In the second phase, local least squares matching is performed in combination with global optimization within a regularization framework, so as to ensure both accuracy and reliability. Our experimental results show that the system can realistically capture smooth and natural whole body shapes with high accuracy.

Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

2009-01-01

218

Whole body bone mineral content in healthy children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from healthy children are needed to evaluate bone mineralisation during childhood. Whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area were examined by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (Hologic 1000\\/W) in healthy girls (n=201) and boys (n=142) aged 5–19 years. Centile curves for bone area for age, BMC for age, bone area for height, and BMC for bone area

Christian Mølgaard; Birthe Lykke Thomsen; Ann Prentice; Tim J Cole; Kim Fleischer Michaelsen

1997-01-01

219

A neural mechanism of synergy formation for whole body reaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study proposes a computational model for the formation of whole body reaching synergy, i.e., coordinated movements\\u000a of lower and upper limbs, characterized by a focal component (the hand must reach a target) and a postural component (the\\u000a center of mass must remain inside the support base). The model is based on an extension of the equilibrium point hypothesis

Pietro Morasso; Maura Casadio; Vishwanathan Mohan; Jacopo Zenzeri

2010-01-01

220

Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging in lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract The current evidence regarding the usefulness of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in lymphoma is reviewed. DWI is capable of combining anatomical and functional information and is becoming a valuable tool in oncology, in particular for staging purposes. DWI may prove to be a useful biomarker in clinical decision making for patients with lymphoma. Large-scaled prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

Itti, E.; Luciani, A.; Haioun, C.; Meignan, M.

2010-01-01

221

Ground vibration from high-speed trains: Prediction and countermeasure  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines a test program in southern Sweden for measurement of the vibration induced in the ground and railway embankment by high-speed trains, together with a rigorous numerical model developed for the prediction of embankment/ground response. In this formulation the ground is modeled as a layered viscoelastic half-space, and the railway embankment is modeled as a viscoelastic beam excited by the moving loads of the train. The model uses the Kausel-Roeesset Green's functions to calculate the soil stiffness matrix at the ground-embankment interface and assembles it with the dynamic stiffness matrix of the embankment. The solution is carried out in the frequency domain, and the time histories of the motions are derived through a Fourier synthesis of the frequency components. Numerous simulations of train-induced vibration are presented for the ground conditions and embankment parameters at the test site and compared with measured records. The simulations agree well with the measurements, both in qualitative and quantitative terms. In particular, the large ground deformations registered for train speeds exceeding 140 km/h are reproduced by the simulations. With the help of the prediction model, the effectiveness of a remediation measure for the mitigation of ground vibration is explored.

Kaynia, A.M.; Madshus, C.; Zackrisson, P.

2000-06-01

222

Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.  

PubMed

The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent. PMID:24636222

Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M

2014-04-01

223

Whole-body gene expression pattern registration in Platynereis larvae  

PubMed Central

Background Digital anatomical atlases are increasingly used in order to depict different gene expression patterns and neuronal morphologies within a standardized reference template. In evo-devo, a discipline in which the comparison of gene expression patterns is a widely used approach, such standardized anatomical atlases would allow a more rigorous assessment of the conservation of and changes in gene expression patterns during micro- and macroevolutionary time scales. Due to its small size and invariant early development, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii is particularly well suited for such studies. Recently a reference template with registered gene expression patterns has been generated for the anterior part (episphere) of the Platynereis trochophore larva and used for the detailed study of neuronal development. Results Here we introduce and evaluate a method for whole-body gene expression pattern registration for Platynereis trochophore and nectochaete larvae based on whole-mount in situ hybridization, confocal microscopy, and image registration. We achieved high-resolution whole-body scanning using the mounting medium 2,2’-thiodiethanol (TDE), which allows the matching of the refractive index of the sample to that of glass and immersion oil thereby reducing spherical aberration and improving depth penetration. This approach allowed us to scan entire whole-mount larvae stained with nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP) in situ hybridization and counterstained fluorescently with an acetylated-tubulin antibody and the nuclear stain 4’6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Due to the submicron isotropic voxel size whole-mount larvae could be scanned in any orientation. Based on the whole-body scans, we generated four different reference templates by the iterative registration and averaging of 40 individual image stacks using either the acetylated-tubulin or the nuclear-stain signal for each developmental stage. We then registered to these templates the expression patterns of cell-type specific genes. In order to evaluate the gene expression pattern registration, we analyzed the absolute deviation of cell-center positions. Both the acetylated-tubulin- and the nuclear-stain-based templates allowed near-cellular-resolution gene expression registration. Nuclear-stain-based templates often performed significantly better than acetylated-tubulin-based templates. We provide detailed guidelines and scripts for the use and further expansion of the Platynereis gene expression atlas. Conclusions We established whole-body reference templates for the generation of gene expression atlases for Platynereis trochophore and nectochaete larvae. We anticipate that nuclear-staining-based image registration will be applicable for whole-body alignment of the embryonic and larval stages of other organisms in a similar size range.

2012-01-01

224

Determination of vibration-related spinal loads by numerical simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Dynamic spinal loads due to human whole body vibrations are extremely difficult to determine experimentally. However, they can be predicted by numerical simulation. This paper presents an approach for the prediction of dynamic spinal loads caused by whole body vibrations, as well as some basic considerations concerning the process of numerical simulation.Background. Long-term whole body vibrations have been found

Steffen Pankoke; Jörg Hofmann; Horst P. Wölfel

2001-01-01

225

Heat load tests of superconducting magnets vibrated electromagnetically for the Maglev train  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconducting magnets on Maglev trains vibrate due to harmonic ripples of electromagnetic flux generated by ground coils. Heat load caused by vibration in the magnet amounted to several tens of watts in the electromagnetic vibration test. This was mainly because a.c. loss was induced in the helium vessel housing the superconducting coil, due to relative vibration between the aluminium thermal

J. Ohmori; H. Nakao; T. Yamashita; Y. Sanada; M. Shudou; M. Kawai; M. Fujita; M. Terai; A. Miura

1997-01-01

226

Whole-body cryostimulation and oxidative stress in rowers: the preliminary results  

PubMed Central

Introduction The effect of whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) on the biomarkers of oxidative stress, lysosomal enzymes, creatine kinase and cortisol was studied. Material and methods The rowers underwent two 6-day training cycles: with pre-training daily WBC (temperature: from –125°C to –150°C) and without cryostimulation (control). Blood samples were taken before and after the third and sixth day of training. Results The activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase was lower (by 44% and 42%, respectively) after the third day of training with WBC than without WBC. The concentration of lipid peroxidation products was also lower after the training preceded by WBC. Moreover, the acid phosphatase activity was 50% lower after the third day of training with WBC than training without WBC. Considering the antioxidant enzymes activity during training without WBC, the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity was observed after the third day of training (by about 74% and 100%, respectively). The level of lipid peroxidation products also increased after the training without WBC. No statistically significant changes were observed in creatine kinase activity after the training preceded with WBC, while after the training without WBC activity of this enzyme was two-fold higher than before the training. Conclusions The use of WBC prior to training may reduce the risk of oxidative stress and the extent of muscle fibre injuries provoked by intense exercise. The WBC seems to be an effective and safe method for limiting exercise-induced damage; thus it may be used in biological regeneration of sportsmen.

Wozniak, Alina; Szpinda, Michal; Chwalbinska-Moneta, Jolanta; Augustynska, Beata; Jurecka, Alicja

2012-01-01

227

Student attitudes to whole body donation are influenced by dissection.  

PubMed

Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudes to life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial dissection and again after 9 weeks of anatomical dissection. Analysis of student responses to the idea of whole body donation by an unrelated stranger, a family member, or by the respondent showed that a priori attitudes to donation by a stranger did not change with exposure to dissection. However, student opposition to donation by a family member was evident immediately after the initial dissection and was sustained throughout the duration of this study. Support for the idea of donating their bodies to medical science decreased significantly among respondents after exposure to dissection (31.5% before dissection, 19.6% after dissecting for 9 weeks) but not to levels reported in the general population in other studies. This study demonstrates that where dissection forms a part of anatomy teaching, students expect to learn anatomy by dissecting donors whom they do not know. As a potential donor population, students are reluctant to become emotionally involved in the donation process and are unwilling to become donors themselves. PMID:19177413

Cahill, Kevin C; Ettarh, Raj R

2008-01-01

228

Adaptive tuning of perceptual timing to whole body motion.  

PubMed

In a previous work we have shown that sinusoidal whole-body rotations producing continuous vestibular stimulation, affected the timing of motor responses as assessed with a paced finger tapping (PFT) task (Binetti et al. (2010). Neuropsychologia, 48(6), 1842-1852). Here, in two new psychophysical experiments, one purely perceptual and one with both sensory and motor components, we explored the relationship between body motion/vestibular stimulation and perceived timing of acoustic events. In experiment 1, participants were required to discriminate sequences of acoustic tones endowed with different degrees of acceleration or deceleration. In this experiment we found that a tone sequence presented during acceleratory whole-body rotations required a progressive increase in rate in order to be considered temporally regular, consistent with the idea of an increase in "clock" frequency and of an overestimation of time. In experiment 2 participants produced self-paced taps, which entailed an acoustic feedback. We found that tapping frequency in this task was affected by periodic motion by means of anticipatory and congruent (in-phase) fluctuations irrespective of the self-generated sensory feedback. On the other hand, synchronizing taps to an external rhythm determined a completely opposite modulation (delayed/counter-phase). Overall this study shows that body displacements "remap" our metric of time, affecting not only motor output but also sensory input. PMID:23142351

Binetti, Nicola; Siegler, Isabelle A; Bueti, Domenica; Doricchi, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

229

Between-centre variability versus variability over time in DXA whole body measurements evaluated using a whole body phantom.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the variability of whole body measurements, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among geographically distinct centres versus that over time in a given centre. A Hologic-designed 28 kg modular whole body phantom was used, including high density polyethylene, gray polyvinylchloride and aluminium. It was scanned on seven Hologic QDR 4500 DXA devices, located in seven centres and was also repeatedly (n=18) scanned in the reference centre, over a time span of 5 months. The mean between-centre coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 2.0 (lean mass) to 5.6% (fat mass) while the mean within-centre CV ranged from 0.3 (total mass) to 4.7% (total area). Between-centre variability compared well with within-centre variability for total area, bone mineral content and bone mineral density, but was significantly higher for fat (p<0.001), lean (p<0.005) and total mass (p<0.001). Our results suggest that, even when using the same device, the between-centre variability remains a matter of concern, particularly where body composition is concerned. PMID:16513312

Louis, Olivia; Verlinde, Siska; Thomas, Muriel; De Schepper, Jean

2006-06-01

230

Applications of quantitative whole body autoradiographic technique in radiopharmaceutical research  

SciTech Connect

The routine evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals involves dissecting tissue distribution studies (DTDS) and gamma or positron imaging. DTDS have the following disadvantages: since not all tissues can always be sampled, sites of radiopharmaceutical uptake may be missed and because the procedure involves weighing of dissected tissue samples, the spatial resolution of this method is low and determined by the smallest amount that can be weighed accurately. Gamma camera imaging and positron emission tomography though more comprehensive in evaluating the global distribution of a compound, have relative low spatial resolution. Whole body autoradiography of small animals has a much higher spatial resolution as compared to the above and depicts the global distribution of radiopharmaceuticals. A computer-assisted quantification method of WBARG applied to positron, beta, and gamma emitters will complement the method by producing quantitative values comparable to those obtained by dissection and direct tissue counting, with the advantages of depicting the global distribution at high spatial resolution.

Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Yonekura, Y.; Meyer, M.A.; Fand, I.; Brill, A.B.

1982-01-01

231

Whole-body mathematical model for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A whole-body mathematical model (10) for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics. In one embodiment, model (10) includes 17 interacting compartments, of which nine lie entirely outside of intracranial vault (14). Compartments (F) and (T) are defined to distinguish ventricular from extraventricular CSF. The vasculature of the intracranial system within cranial vault (14) is also subdivided into five compartments (A, C, P, V, and S, respectively) representing the intracranial arteries, capillaries, choroid plexus, veins, and venous sinus. The body's extracranial systemic vasculature is divided into six compartments (I, J, O, Z, D, and X, respectively) representing the arteries, capillaries, and veins of the central body and the lower body. Compartments (G) and (B) include tissue and the associated interstitial fluid in the intracranial and lower regions. Compartment (Y) is a composite involving the tissues, organs, and pulmonary circulation of the central body and compartment (M) represents the external environment.

Lakin, William D. (Inventor); Penar, Paul L. (Inventor); Stevens, Scott A. (Inventor); Tranmer, Bruce I. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

232

A whole body counting facility in a remote Enewetak Island setting.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. As part of this new initiative, DOE agreed to design and construct a radiological laboratory on Enewetak Island, and help develop the necessary local resources to maintain and operate the facility. This cooperative effort was formalized in August 2000 between the DOE, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Enewetak/Ujelang Local Atoll Government (EULGOV). The laboratory facility was completed in May 2001. The laboratory incorporates both a permanent whole body counting system to assess internal exposures to 137Cs, and clean living space for people providing 24-h void urine samples. DOE continues to provide on-going technical assistance, training, and data quality review while EULGOV provides manpower and infrastructure development to sustain facility operations on a full-time basis. This paper will detail the special construction, transportation and installation issues in establishing a whole body counting facility in an isolated, harsh environmental setting. PMID:12132723

Bell, Thomas R; Hickman, David; Yamaguchi, Lance; Jackson, William; Hamilton, Terry

2002-08-01

233

Learning new parts for landmark localization in whole-body CT scans.  

PubMed

The goal of this work is to reliably and accurately localize anatomical landmarks in 3-D computed tomography scans, particularly for the deformable registration of whole-body scans, which show huge variation in posture, and the spatial distribution of anatomical features. Parts-based graphical models (GM) have shown attractive properties for this task because they capture naturally anatomical relationships between landmarks. Unfortunately, standard GMs are learned from manually annotated training images and the quantity of landmarks is limited by the high cost of expert annotation. We propose a novel method that automatically learns new corresponding landmarks from a database of 3-D whole-body CT scans, using a limited initial set of expert-labeled ground-truth landmarks. The newly learned landmarks, called B-landmarks, are used to build enriched GMs. We compare our method of deformable registration based on such GM landmarks to a conventional deformable registration method and to a "baseline" state-of-the-art GM. The results show our method finds new relevant anatomical correspondences and improves by up to 35% the matching accuracy of highly variable skeletal and soft-tissue landmarks of clinical interest. PMID:24710153

Potesil, Vaclav; Kadir, Timor; Brady, Michael

2014-04-01

234

Lumping of whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic models.  

PubMed

Lumping is a common pragmatic approach aimed at the reduction of whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model dimensionality and complexity. Incorrect lumping is equivalent to model misspecification with all the negative consequences to the subsequent model implementation. Proper lumping should guarantee that no useful information about the kinetics of the underlying processes is lost. To enforce this guarantee, formal standard lumping procedures and techniques need to be defined and implemented. This study examines the lumping process from a system theory point of view, which provides a formal basis for the derivation of principles and standard procedures of lumping. The lumping principle in PBPK modeling is defined as follows: Only tissues with identical model specification, and occupying identical positions in the system structure should be lumped together at each lumping iteration. In order to lump together parallel tissues, they should have similar or close time constants. In order to lump together serial tissues, they should equilibrate very rapidly with one another. The lumping procedure should include the following stages: (i) tissue specification conversion (when tissues with different model specifications are to be lumped together); (ii) classification of the tissues into classes with significantly different kinetics, according to the basic principle of lumping above; (iii) calculation of the parameters of the lumped compartments; (iv) simulation of the lumped system; (v) lumping of the experimental data; and (vi) verification of the lumped model. The use of the lumping principles and procedures to be adopted is illustrated with an example of a commonly implemented whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic model structure to characterize the pharmacokinetics of a homologous series of barbiturates in the rat. PMID:9773391

Nestorov, I A; Aarons, L J; Arundel, P A; Rowland, M

1998-02-01

235

Vibration Platform Training in Women at Risk for Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether a platform exercise program with vibration is more effective than the platform exercise alone for improving lower limb muscle strength and power in women age 45-60 with risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Randomized, controlled study Setting Academic center Participants 48 women age 45-60 years old with risk factors for knee OA (history of knee injury or surgery or BMI?25kg/m2). Interventions Subjects were randomized to a twice weekly lower limb exercise program (quarter squat, posterolateral leg lifts, calf raises) on either a vertically vibrating (35Hz, 2mm), or a non-vibrating platform. Main Outcome Measurements The main outcome measures included change in isokinetic quadriceps strength, leg press power, and stair climb power by 12 weeks. Results 39 out of 48 enrolled participants completed the study (26 vibration and 13 control exercise). Nine participants discontinued the study after randomization mainly due to lack of time. There were no intergroup differences in age, BMI, or activity level. Isokinetic knee extensor strength did not significantly improve in either group. Leg press power improved by 92.0±69.7 W in the vibration group (p<.0001) and 58.2±96.2 W in the control group (p=0.0499), but did not differ between groups (p=0.2262). Stair climb power improved by 53.4±64.7 W in the vibration group (p=0.0004) and 55.7±83.3 W in the control group (p=0.0329), but did not differ between groups (p=0.9272). Conclusions Whole body vibration platforms have been marketed for increasing strength and power. In this group of asymptomatic middle-aged women with risk factors for knee OA, addition of vibration to a 12-week exercise program did not result in significantly greater improvement in lower limb strength or power than participation in the exercise program without vibration.

Segal, Neil A.; Glass, Natalie A.; Shakoor, Najia; Wallace, Robert

2013-01-01

236

Improvement in Lesion Detection with Whole - Body Oncologic TOF - PET  

PubMed Central

Time of Flight (TOF) PET has great potential in whole-body oncological applications and recent work has demonstrated qualitatively in patient studies the improvement that can be achieved in lesion visibility. The aim of this work was to objectively quantify the improvement in lesion detectability that can be achieved in pulmonary and hepatic lesions with whole body FDG TOF-PET in a cohort of 100 patients as a function of patient body mass index (BMI), lesion location and contrast, and scanning time. Methods 100 patients with BMIs ranging from 16 to 45 were included in this study. Artificial 1-cm spherical lesions were imaged separately in air at variable locations of each patient’s lung and liver, appropriately attenuated and incorporated in the patient listmode data with four different lesion-to-background contrast ranges. The fused studies with artificial lesion present or absent were reconstructed using a listmode, un-relaxed OSEM with chronologically ordered subsets and a Gaussian TOF kernel for TOF reconstruction. Conditions were compared on the basis of performance of a 3-channel Hotelling observer (CHO-SNR) in detecting the presence of a sphere of unknown size on an anatomic background while modeling observer noise. Results TOF-PET yielded an improvement in lesion detection performance (ratio of CHO-SNR) over non-TOF PET of 8.3% in the liver and 15.1% in the lungs. The improvement in all lesions was 20.3, 12.0, 9.2 and 7.5% for mean contrast values of 2.0:1, 3.2:1, 4.4:1, and 5.7:1, respectively. Furthermore, this improvement was 9.8% in patients with BMI<30 and 11.1% in patients with BMI>30. Performance plateaued faster as a function of number of iterations with TOF than non-TOF. Conclusion TOF-PET yielded a significant improvement in lesion detection in oncologic studies over all contrasts and BMIs that was greater for lower lesion contrast. This improvement was achieved without compromising other aspects of PET imaging.

El Fakhri, Georges; Surti, Suleman; Trott, Cathryn M.; Scheuermann, Joshua; Karp, Joel S.

2011-01-01

237

The role of whole-body MRI in pediatric oncology.  

PubMed

Pediatric whole-body (WB) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established technique that, with improved accessibility and advances in technology, is being used with increasing frequency for a wide variety of applications. The advantages of WB MRI (over other imaging modalities), particularly its lack of ionizing radiation (of particular concern in pediatric imaging due to children's increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation) and the ability of MRI to image the bone marrow, solid organs, and soft tissues with superior soft-tissue contrast resolution to other techniques, promise that WB MRI has great potential in conditions that are diffuse or multifocal. There is particular interest in its role in the field of pediatric oncology (eg, lymphoma, neuroblastoma, sarcoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis). The main disadvantages of WB MRI are its relatively long scanning times, artifacts from motion (requiring patient cooperation or general anesthesia), and limited specificity. However, advances in hardware and imaging techniques, including additional sequences (out-of-phase imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and contrast enhancement) are reducing the impact of some of these challenges. PMID:24072253

Atkin, Karen L; Ditchfield, Michael R

2014-07-01

238

Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives  

PubMed Central

Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below ?100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC.

Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, Francois; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

2014-01-01

239

Whole body thermal model of man during hyperthermia  

SciTech Connect

A whole body thermal model of man has been developed to predict the changes in regional temperatures and blood flows during hyperthermia treatments with the miniannular phased array (MAPA) and annular phased array (APA) applicators. A model of the thermoregulatory response to regional heating based on the experimental and numerical studies of others has been incorporated into this study. Experimentally obtained energy deposition patterns within a human leg exposed to the MAPA were input into the model and the results were compared to those based upon a theoretical deposition pattern. Exposure of the abdomen to the APA was modeled with and without the aberrant energy deposition that has been described previously. Results of the model reveal that therapeutic heating (>42/sup 0/C) of extremity soft tissue sarcomas is possible without significant systemic heating. Very high bone temperatures (>50/sup 0/C) were obtained when the experimental absorption pattern was used. Calculations show that systemic heating due to APA exposure is reduced via evaporative spray cooling techniques coupled with high-velocity ambient air flow.

Charny, C.K.; Hagmann, M.J.; Levin, R.L.

1987-05-01

240

Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis following whole body irradiation in rats  

SciTech Connect

The effect of radiation on the mechanism and source of in vivo thromboxane B/sub 2/ (TxB/sub 2/) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F/sub 1..cap alpha../ (6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha..) synthesis was evaluated. Rats were irradiated with 2, 10, or 20 gray (Gy) whole body gamma irradiation and showed an increase in urine TxB/sup 2/ after either 10 or 20 Gy. Urine 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ was elevated only after exposure to 20 Gy. Irradiation did not alter urine volume and osmolarity, nor was there a correlation between urine osmolarity and the urinary concentration of TxB/sup 2/ or 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../. Rats were pretreated with indomethacin to determine if radiation-induced alterations in urine TxB/sup 2/ and 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ could be suppressed. Pretreatment with indomethacin significantly decreased urine TxB..cap alpha.. and 6-keto-PFG/sub 1..cap alpha../ in both irradiated and nonirradiated animals. Finally, the sources of urinary cyclooxygenase products were investigated using an isogravitometric cross-perfusion system. These experiments demonstrated that urine TxB..cap alpha.. is derived from extrarenal sources, whereas 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha.. is synthesized primarily by the kidney. It may be concluded that radiation exposure increases in vivo cyclooxygenase pathway activity by both renal and ultrarenal tissues.

Schneidkraut, M.J.; Kot, P.A.; Ramwell, P.W.; Rose, J.C.

1984-01-01

241

Measurement uncertainties in whole body counting and radon progeny.  

PubMed

Measurement uncertainty is an important quality index in gamma spectrometry related to the level of bias and precision involved in the measuring procedure. Quality control measurements during the commissioning of a 16-input whole body counter showed substantial deviations between the experimentally determined precision and the theoretical estimation, indicating either equipment malfunction or lack of reproducibility of the experimental setup. In this study, the role of the magnitude and variability of airborne background radiation present in the counting room and the human body in the deterioration of the precision of counters employing NaI(Tl) detectors was investigated. Correction methods and actions based on case-specific background features were developed and applied. The experimental observations were benchmarked using a mathematical model of the counter. The efficacy of the developed methods was tested by measurements, and updated precision values were obtained. Quasi-equilibrium between the gamma-emitters Bi and Pb in the counting room and the human body is a prerequisite for accurate direct low-level radioactivity measurements in the human body. PMID:24849902

Valakis, Stratos T; Pallada, Stavroula; Kalef-Ezra, John A

2014-07-01

242

Whole-body impedance--what does it measure?  

PubMed

Although the bioelectrical impedance technique is widely used in human nutrition and clinical research, an integrated summary of the biophysical and bioelectrical bases of this approach is lacking. We summarize the pertinent electrical phenomena relevant to the application of the impedance technique in vivo and discuss the relations between electrical measurements and biological conductor volumes. Key terms in the derivation of bioelectrical impedance analysis are described and the relation between the electrical properties of tissues and tissue structure is discussed. The relation between the impedance of an object and its geometry, scale, and intrinsic electrical properties is also discussed. Correlations between whole-body impedance measurements and various bioconductor volumes, such as total body water and fat-free mass, are experimentally well established; however, the reason for the success of the impedence technique is much less clear. The bioengineering basis for the technique is critically presented and considerations are proposed that might help to clarify the method and potentially improve its sensitivity. PMID:8780354

Foster, K R; Lukaski, H C

1996-09-01

243

A simple model to predict train-induced vibration: theoretical formulation and experimental validation  

SciTech Connect

No suitable handy tool is available to predict train-induced vibration on environmental impact assessment. A simple prediction model is proposed which has been calibrated for high speed trains. The model input data are train characteristics, train speed and track properties; model output data are soil time-averaged velocity and velocity level. Model results have been compared with numerous vibration data retrieved from measurement campaigns led along the most important high-speed European rail tracks. Model performances have been tested by comparing measured and predicted vibration values.

Rossi, Federico; Nicolini, Andrea

2003-05-01

244

Polyarteritis nodosa: MDCT as a 'One-Stop Shop' Modality for Whole-Body Arterial Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare disease, which is characterized by aneurysm formation and occlusion in the arteries of multiple systems. Due to its extensive involvement, whole-body evaluation is necessary for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We report a case of polyarteritis nodosa using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as a 'one-stop shop' modality for whole-body arterial evaluation. With precise protocol design, MDCT can be used as a reliable noninvasive modality providing comprehensive whole-body arterial evaluation.

Tsai, W.-L.; Tsai, I-C.; Lee Tain, E-mail: s841082@ym.edu.t [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, C.-W. [Taichung Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming University, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taiwan (China)

2008-07-15

245

Whole-body volume regulation and escape from antidiuresis.  

PubMed

Both individual cells and organs regulate their volume in response to sustained hypo-osmolality via solute and water losses. Similar processes occur in the whole body to regulate the volumes of extracellular fluid (ECF) and intravascular spaces toward normal levels. Body water losses occur via the phenomena "escape from antidiuresis"; solute losses occur through the secondary natriuresis induced by water retention. As a result of resistance to arginine vasopressin (AVP) signaling, escape from antidiuresis is caused by downregulation of kidney aquaporin-2 expression despite high AVP plasma levels. Recent data have implicated downregulation of vasopressin V2R as a potential mechanism of resistance, and suggest that this may be a result of decreased intrarenal angiotensin II signaling in combination with increased intrarenal nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 signaling. The natriuresis that results in volume regulation of the ECF and vascular spaces is the result of intrarenal hemodynamic changes produced by volume expansion, but the degree to which these effects are modulated by aldosterone secretion and the activity of distal sodium cotransporters and channels remains to be elucidated. The clinical implication of these volume-regulatory processes is that the chronic hyponatremic state is one of water retention and solute losses from intracellular fluid and ECF compartments. The degree to which solute losses versus water retention contribute to hyponatremia will vary in association with many factors, including the etiology of the hyponatremia, the rapidity of development of the hyponatremia, the chronicity of the hyponatremia, the volume of daily water loading, and individual variability. Understanding these volume-regulatory processes allows a better understanding of many aspects of the conundrum of patients with "clinical euvolemia" and dilutional hyponatremia from AVP-induced water retention. PMID:16843081

Verbalis, Joseph G

2006-07-01

246

Effects of train noise and vibration on human heart rate during sleep: an experimental study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Transportation of goods on railways is increasing and the majority of the increased numbers of freight trains run during the night. Transportation noise has adverse effects on sleep structure, affects the heart rate (HR) during sleep and may be linked to cardiovascular disease. Freight trains also generate vibration and little is known regarding the impact of vibration on human sleep. A laboratory study was conducted to examine how a realistic nocturnal railway traffic scenario influences HR during sleep. Design Case–control. Setting Healthy participants. Participants 24 healthy volunteers (11 men, 13 women, 19–28?years) spent six consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Interventions All participants slept during one habituation night, one control and four experimental nights in which train noise and vibration were reproduced. In the experimental nights, 20 or 36 trains with low-vibration or high-vibration characteristics were presented. Primary and secondary outcome measures Polysomnographical data and ECG were recorded. Results The train exposure led to a significant change of HR within 1?min of exposure onset (p=0.002), characterised by an initial and a delayed increase of HR. The high-vibration condition provoked an average increase of at least 3?bpm per train in 79% of the participants. Cardiac responses were in general higher in the high-vibration condition than in the low-vibration condition (p=0.006). No significant effect of noise sensitivity and gender was revealed, although there was a tendency for men to exhibit stronger HR acceleration than women. Conclusions Freight trains provoke HR accelerations during sleep, and the vibration characteristics of the trains are of special importance. In the long term, this may affect cardiovascular functioning of persons living close to railways.

Croy, Ilona; Smith, Michael G; Waye, Kerstin Persson

2013-01-01

247

Optimization of Training Sets for Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns from Vibrating Solids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial neural networks have been used for a number of years to process holography-generated characteristic patterns of vibrating structures. This technology depends critically on the selection and the conditioning of the training sets. A scaling operation called folding is discussed for conditioning training sets optimally for training feed-forward neural networks to process characteristic fringe patterns. Folding allows feed-forward nets to be trained easily to detect damage-induced vibration-displacement-distribution changes as small as 10 nm. A specific application to aerospace of neural-net processing of characteristic patterns is presented to motivate the conditioning and optimization effort.

Decker, Arthur J.

2001-01-01

248

A vibration monitoring acquisition and diagnostic system for helicopter drive train bench tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated drive train test stand vibration monitoring system called VMADS has been developed by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., and has been installed at Bell's transmission bench test facility. VMADS provides the operator with warning and alarm indications for preselected degraded conditions, and acquires vibration data to be used by engineers to improve the diagnostics for better fault detection and

Dimitri A. Dousis

1992-01-01

249

A theoretical study on the influence of the track on train-induced ground vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation is presented on the nature of train-induced ground vibration propagation. It is based on a theoretical model for the track and a layered ground. Results are given of the responses of the ground and track to a moving harmonic or quasi-static load on the rails. The dispersion characteristics of the propagating modes of vibration in the track and

X. Sheng; C. J. C. Jones; D. J. Thompson

2004-01-01

250

Individuals' Decision to Co-Donate or Donate Alone: An Archival Study of Married Whole Body Donors in Hawaii  

PubMed Central

Background Human cadavers are crucial to numerous aspects of health care, including initial and continuing training of medical doctors and advancement of medical research. Concerns have periodically been raised about the limited number of whole body donations. Little is known, however, about a unique form of donation, namely co-donations or instances when married individuals decide to register at the same time as their spouse as whole body donors. Our study aims to determine the extent of whole body co-donation and individual factors that might influence co-donation. Methods and Findings We reviewed all records of registrants to the University of Hawaii Medical School’s whole body donation program from 1967 through 2006 to identify married registrants. We then examined the 806 married individuals’ characteristics to understand their decision to register alone or with their spouse. We found that married individuals who registered at the same time as their spouse accounted for 38.2 percent of married registrants. Sex differences provided an initial lens to understand co-donation. Wives were more likely to co-donate than to register alone (p?=?0.002). Moreover, registrants’ main occupational background had a significant effect on co-donations (p?=?0.001). Married registrants (regardless of sex) in female-gendered occupations were more likely to co-donate than to donate alone (p?=?0.014). Female-gendered occupations were defined as ones in which women represented more than 55 percent of the workforce (e.g., preschool teachers). Thus, variations in donors’ occupational backgrounds explained co-donation above and beyond sex differences. Conclusions Efforts to secure whole body donations have historically focused on individual donations regardless of donors’ marital status. More attention needs to be paid, however, to co-donations since they represent a non-trivial number of total donations. Also, targeted outreach efforts to male and female members of female-gendered occupations might prove a successful way to increase donations through co-donations.

Anteby, Michel; Garip, Filiz; Martorana, Paul V.; Lozanoff, Scott

2012-01-01

251

Free Field Vibrations during the Passage of a Thalys High-Speed Train at Variable Speed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During homologation tests of the high-speed train (HST) track between Brussels and Paris, free field vibrations and track response have been measured during the passage of a Thalys HST at speeds varying between 223 and 314 km/h. These experimental data are complementary to the other, but scarce, data sets published in the literature. Apart from illustrating the physical phenomena involved, this data set can be used for the validation of numerical prediction models for train-induced vibrations.

DEGRANDE, G.; SCHILLEMANS, L.

2001-10-01

252

Efficient exploration and learning of whole body kinematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a neural network approach to early motor learning. The goal is to explore the needs for boot-strapping the control of hand movements in a biologically plausible learning scenario. The model is applied to the control of hand postures of the humanoid robot ASIMO by means of full upper body movements. For training, we use an efficient online scheme

M. Rolf; J. J. Steil; M. Gienger

2009-01-01

253

Whole-body to tissue concentration ratios for use in biota dose assessments for animals.  

PubMed

Environmental monitoring programs often measure contaminant concentrations in animal tissues consumed by humans (e.g., muscle). By comparison, demonstration of the protection of biota from the potential effects of radionuclides involves a comparison of whole-body doses to radiological dose benchmarks. Consequently, methods for deriving whole-body concentration ratios based on tissue-specific data are required to make best use of the available information. This paper provides a series of look-up tables with whole-body:tissue-specific concentration ratios for non-human biota. Focus was placed on relatively broad animal categories (including molluscs, crustaceans, freshwater fishes, marine fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) and commonly measured tissues (specifically, bone, muscle, liver and kidney). Depending upon organism, whole-body to tissue concentration ratios were derived for between 12 and 47 elements. The whole-body to tissue concentration ratios can be used to estimate whole-body concentrations from tissue-specific measurements. However, we recommend that any given whole-body to tissue concentration ratio should not be used if the value falls between 0.75 and 1.5. Instead, a value of one should be assumed. PMID:20931337

Yankovich, Tamara L; Beresford, Nicholas A; Wood, Michael D; Aono, Tasuo; Andersson, Pål; Barnett, Catherine L; Bennett, Pamela; Brown, Justin E; Fesenko, Sergey; Fesenko, J; Hosseini, Ali; Howard, Brenda J; Johansen, Mathew P; Phaneuf, Marcel M; Tagami, Keiko; Takata, Hyoe; Twining, John R; Uchida, Shigeo

2010-11-01

254

On-Line Vibration Source Detection of Running Trains Based on Acceleration Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure safety of railway operation, it is important to regularly check railway conditions such as deformation of the rails. To monitor rail deformation, this paper presents a method for detecting sources of vibrations of a running train on-line by measuring accelerations, which include the train bogie's lateral acceleration, and the crossbeam's lateral and vertical accelerations. A series of detection

Chengyou Wang; Qiugen Xiao; Hua Liang; Xin Chen; Xuanping Cai; Yunhui Liu

2006-01-01

255

Unidirectional whole body turning: a new lateralising sign in complex partial seizures  

PubMed Central

Methods: A total of 330 patients undergoing long term video-EEG study were included. "Unidirectional whole body turning" was defined as rotation of the trunk, head, and limbs by >90° and lasting >10 s. EEG correlates, MRI, and SPECT findings were compared and outcome after surgery was noted for patients with follow up data for >1 year. Results: Unidirectional whole body turning was observed in 13 patients with a mean age of 18±8 years. Concordance of the side of whole body turning with the EEG focus and MRI findings was observed in 11 of the 13 patients (84.7%) and in 26 of 28 seizures (92.8%). The six patients who underwent temporal lobectomy or resection of lesion, opposite to the direction of body turning, had good seizure outcome. Conclusion: Unidirectional whole body turning is a new lateralising sign in temporal lobe CPS with good predictive value for epileptogenic focus contralateral to the direction of turning.

Shukla, G; Bhatia, M; Padma, S; Tripathi, M; Srivastava, A; Singh, V; Saratchandra, P; Gupta, A; Gaikwad, S; Bal, C; Jain, S

2005-01-01

256

Optimization of Whole-body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging (2013)  

EPA Science Inventory

Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

257

Current Bibliographies in Medicine: Whole-Body Irradiation, January 1944 through December 1974 (229 Citations).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature search was performed to identify all English language publications from 1944 - 1974 possibly involving whole-body irradiation. A review of this literature was then made by the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments and experiments ...

L. J. Klein P. J. Perentesis

1995-01-01

258

Evolution of whole-body enantiomorphy in the tree snail genus Amphidromus  

PubMed Central

Diverse animals exhibit left–right asymmetry in development. However, no example of dimorphism for the left–right polarity of development (whole-body enantiomorphy) is known to persist within natural populations. In snails, whole-body enantiomorphs have repeatedly evolved as separate species. Within populations, however, snails are not expected to exhibit enantiomorphy, because of selection against the less common morph resulting from mating disadvantage. Here we present a unique example of evolutionarily stable whole-body enantiomorphy in snails. Our molecular phylogeny of South-east Asian tree snails in the genus Amphidromus indicates that enantiomorphy has likely persisted as the ancestral state over a million generations. Enantiomorphs have continuously coexisted in every population surveyed spanning a period of 10 years. Our results indicate that whole-body enantiomorphy is maintained within populations opposing the rule of directional asymmetry in animals. This study implicates the need for explicit approaches to disclosure of a maintenance mechanism and conservation of the genus.

SUTCHARIT, C; ASAMI, T; PANHA, S

2007-01-01

259

Impact of whole-body computed tomography on mortality and surgical management of severe blunt trauma  

PubMed Central

Introduction The mortality benefit of whole-body computed tomography (CT) in early trauma management remains controversial and poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of whole-body CT compared with selective CT on mortality and management of patients with severe blunt trauma. Methods The FIRST (French Intensive care Recorded in Severe Trauma) study is a multicenter cohort study on consecutive patients with severe blunt trauma requiring admission to intensive care units from university hospital trauma centers within the first 72 hours. Initial data were combined to construct a propensity score to receive whole-body CT and selective CT used in multivariable logistic regression models, and to calculate the probability of survival according to the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) for 1,950 patients. The main endpoint was 30-day mortality. Results In total, 1,696 patients out of 1,950 (87%) were given whole-body CT. The crude 30-day mortality rates were 16% among whole-body CT patients and 22% among selective CT patients (p = 0.02). A significant reduction in the mortality risk was observed among whole-body CT patients whatever the adjustment method (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34-0.99 after adjustment for baseline characteristics and post-CT treatment). Compared to the TRISS predicted survival, survival significantly improved for whole-body CT patients but not for selective CT patients. The pattern of early surgical and medical procedures significantly differed between the two groups. Conclusions Diagnostic whole-body CT was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality among patients with severe blunt trauma. Its use may be a global indicator of better management.

2012-01-01

260

Enhanced Levels of Whole-body Protein Turnover in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial number of patients with chronic obstructive pulmo- nary disease (COPD) are characterized by fat-free mass wasting and altered muscle and plasma amino acid levels, suggesting changes in protein metabolism. In the present study, we examined whether whole-body protein breakdown (PB) and synthesis (PS) differ between 14 stable patients with COPD and 8 healthy con- trols. Whole-body PB, PS,

MARIËLLE P. K. J. ENGELEN; NICOLAAS E. P. DEUTZ; EMIEL F. M. WOUTERS; ANNEMIE M. W. J. SCHOLS

2000-01-01

261

Whole-Body Motion Generation Integrating Operator's Intention and Robot's Autonomy in Controlling Humanoid Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a framework for whole-body motion generation integrating operator's control and robot's autonomous functions during online control of humanoid robots. Humanoid robots are biped machines that usually possess multiple degrees of freedom (DOF). The complexity of their structure and the difficulty in maintaining postural stability make the whole-body control of humanoid robots fundamentally different from fixed-base manipulators. Getting

Ee Sian Neo; Kazuhito Yokoi; Shuuji Kajita; Kazuo Tanie

2007-01-01

262

Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging for staging malignant lymphoma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

CT is currently the mainstay in staging malignant lymphoma in children, but the risk of second neoplasms due to ionizing radiation\\u000a associated with CT is not negligible. Whole-body MRI techniques and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in particular,\\u000a may be a good radiation-free alternative to CT. DWI is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and\\u000a allows quantitative assessment

Thomas C. Kwee; Taro Takahara; Malou A. Vermoolen; Marc B. Bierings; Willem P. Mali; Rutger A. J. Nievelstein

2010-01-01

263

Basic study of entire whole-body PET scanners based on the OpenPET geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional PET scanner has a 15-25 cm axial field-of-view (FOV) and images a whole body using about six bed positions. An OpenPET geometry can extend the axial FOV with a limited number of detectors. The entire whole-body PET scanner must be able to process a large amount of data effectively. In this work, we study feasibility of the fully 3D entire whole-body PET scanner using the GATE simulation. The OpenPET has 12 block detector rings with the ring diameter of 840 mm and each block detector ring consists of 48 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The OpenPET has the axial length of 895.95 mm with five parts of 58.95 mm open gaps. The OpenPET has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits. NECR of the OpenPET decreases by single data loss. But single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into two parts. Also, multiple coincidences are found to be important for the entire whole-body PET scanner. The entire whole-body PET scanner with the OpenPET geometry promises to provide a large axial FOV with the open space and to have sufficient performance values. But single data loss at the grouping circuits and multiple coincidences are limited to the peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) for the entire whole-body PET scanner.

Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo

2010-09-01

264

Regional Muscle and Whole-Body Composition Factors Related to Mobility in Older Individuals: A Review  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe previously reported locomotor muscle and whole-body composition factors related to mobility in older individuals. Methods: A narrative review of the literature, including a combination of search terms related to muscle and whole-body composition factors and to mobility in older individuals, was carried out. Statistical measures of association and risk were consolidated to summarize the common effects between studies. Results: Fifty-three studies were reviewed. Muscle and whole-body factors accounted for a substantial amount of the variability in walking speed, with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.30 to 0.47. Muscle power consistently accounted for a greater percentage of the variance in mobility than did strength. Risks associated with high fat mass presented a minimum odds ratio (OR) of 0.70 and a maximum OR of 4.07, while the minimum and maximum ORs associated with low lean mass were 0.87 and 2.30 respectively. Whole-body and regional fat deposits accounted for significant amounts of the variance in mobility. Conclusion: Muscle power accounts for a greater amount of the variance in the level of mobility in older individuals than does muscle strength. Whole-body fat accounts for a greater amount of the variance in level of mobility than does whole-body lean tissue. Fat stored within muscle also appears to increase the risk of a mobility limitation in older individuals.

Kidde, Jason; Marcus, Robin; Dibble, Lee; Smith, Sheldon

2009-01-01

265

Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs  

PubMed Central

We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously administered antibiotics, or probiotics affects whole body nitrogen and amino acid turnover. We quantified whole body urea kinetics, threonine fluxes, and threonine disposal into protein, oxidation, and tissue protein synthesis with stable isotope techniques. Compared with controls, antibiotics reduced the number and diversity of bacterial species in the distal small intestine (SI) and colon. Antibiotics decreased plasma urea concentrations via decreased urea synthesis. Antibiotics elevated threonine plasma concentrations and turnover, as well as whole body protein synthesis and proteolysis. Antibiotics decreased protein synthesis rate in the proximal SI and liver but did not affect the distal SI, colon, or muscle. Probiotics induced a bifidogenic microbiota and decreased plasma urea concentrations but did not affect whole body threonine or protein metabolism. Probiotics decreased protein synthesis in the proximal SI but not in other tissues. In conclusion, modulation of the gut microbiota by antibiotics and probiotics reduced hepatic ureagenesis and intestinal protein synthesis, but neither altered whole body net threonine balance. These findings suggest that changes in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism resulting from antibiotic- or probiotic-induced shifts in the microbiota are localized to the gut and liver and have limited impact on whole body growth and anabolism in neonatal piglets.

Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; M?lbak, Lars; de Bruijn, Adrianus; Schierbeek, Henk; Boye, Mette; Boehm, Gunther; Renes, Ingrid; Burrin, Douglas

2013-01-01

266

Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs.  

PubMed

We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously administered antibiotics, or probiotics affects whole body nitrogen and amino acid turnover. We quantified whole body urea kinetics, threonine fluxes, and threonine disposal into protein, oxidation, and tissue protein synthesis with stable isotope techniques. Compared with controls, antibiotics reduced the number and diversity of bacterial species in the distal small intestine (SI) and colon. Antibiotics decreased plasma urea concentrations via decreased urea synthesis. Antibiotics elevated threonine plasma concentrations and turnover, as well as whole body protein synthesis and proteolysis. Antibiotics decreased protein synthesis rate in the proximal SI and liver but did not affect the distal SI, colon, or muscle. Probiotics induced a bifidogenic microbiota and decreased plasma urea concentrations but did not affect whole body threonine or protein metabolism. Probiotics decreased protein synthesis in the proximal SI but not in other tissues. In conclusion, modulation of the gut microbiota by antibiotics and probiotics reduced hepatic ureagenesis and intestinal protein synthesis, but neither altered whole body net threonine balance. These findings suggest that changes in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism resulting from antibiotic- or probiotic-induced shifts in the microbiota are localized to the gut and liver and have limited impact on whole body growth and anabolism in neonatal piglets. PMID:23139222

Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars; de Bruijn, Adrianus; Schierbeek, Henk; Boye, Mette; Boehm, Günther; Renes, Ingrid; van Goudoever, Johannes; Burrin, Douglas

2013-02-01

267

Vibration, Proprioception, and Low Back Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health report 'Musculoskeletal disorders and workplace factors' lists vibration as one of the five physical workplace factors associated with low back disorders with whole body vibration increasing risk fr...

S. E. Wilson

2009-01-01

268

Training Data Optimized and Conditioned to Learn Characteristic Patterns of Vibrating Blisks and Fan Blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we have been training artificial neural networks to interpret the characteristic patterns (see the leftmost image) generated from electronic holograms of vibrating structures. These patterns not only visualize the vibration properties of structures, but small changes in the patterns can indicate structural changes, cracking, or damage. Neural networks detect these small changes well. Our objective has been to adapt the neural-network, electronic-holography combination for inspecting components in Glenn's Spin Rig.

Decker, Arthur J.

2001-01-01

269

Statistical determination of whole-body average SARs in a 2 GHz whole-body exposure system for unrestrained pregnant and newborn rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2 GHz whole-body exposure to rats over a multigeneration has been conducted as part of bio-effect research in Japan. In this study, the rats moved freely in the cage inside the exposure system. From observation of the activity of rats in the cage, we found that the rats do not stay in each position with uniform possibility. In order to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) during the entire exposure period with high accuracy, we present a new approach to statistically determine the SAR level in an exposure system. First, we divided the rat cage in the exposure system into several small areas, and derived the fraction of time the rats spent in each small area based on the classification of the documentary photos of rat activity. Then, using the fraction of time spent in each small area as a weighting factor, we calculated the statistical characteristics of the whole-body average SAR for pregnant rats and young rats during the entire exposure period. As a result, this approach gave the statistical distribution as well as the corresponding mean value, median value and mode value for the whole-body SAR so that we can reasonably clarify the relationship between the exposure level and possible biological effect.

Wang, Jianqing; Wake, Kanako; Kawai, Hiroki; Watanabe, Soichi; Fujiwara, Osamu

2012-01-01

270

Whole body exposure at 2100 MHz induced by plane wave of random incidences in a population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the whole body exposure induced by plane wave coming from a random direction of arrival is analyzed at 2100 MHz. This work completes previous studies on the influence of different parameters on the whole body exposure (such as morphology, frequency or usage in near field). The Visible Human phantom has been used to build a surrogate model to predict the whole body exposure depending on the highlighted surface of the phantom and on the direction of arrival of the incident plane wave. For the Visible Human, the error on the whole body averaged Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is on average 4%. The surrogate model is applied to other 3D anthropomorphic phantoms for a frontal incidence with an averaged error of 10%. The great interest of the surrogate model is the possibility to apply a Monte Carlo process to assess probability distribution function of a population. A recent French anthropometric database of more than 3500 adults is used to build the probability distribution function of the whole body SAR for a random direction of arrival.

Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; El Habachi, Aimad; Wiart, J.

2010-11-01

271

Modelling resonances of the standing body exposed to vertical whole-body vibration: Effects of posture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lumped parameter mathematical models representing anatomical parts of the human body have been developed to represent body motions associated with resonances of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body standing in five different postures: 'upright', 'lordotic', 'anterior lean', 'knees bent', and 'knees more bent'. The inertial and geometric parameters of the models were determined from published anthropometric data. Stiffness and damping parameters were obtained by comparing model responses with experimental data obtained previously. The principal resonance of the vertical apparent mass, and the first peak in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass, of the standing body in an upright posture (at 5-6 Hz) corresponded to vertical motion of the viscera in phase with the vertical motion of the entire body due to deformation of the tissues at the soles of the feet, with pitch motion of the pelvis out of phase with pitch motion of the upper body above the pelvis. Upward motion of the body was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the pelvis. Changing the posture of the upper body had minor effects on the mode associated with the principal resonances of the apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass, but the mode changed significantly with bending of the legs. In legs-bent postures, the principal resonance (at about 3 Hz) was attributed to bending of the legs coupled with pitch motion of the pelvis in phase with pitch motion of the upper body. In this mode, extension of the legs was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the upper body and the upward vertical motion of the viscera.

Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

2008-10-01

272

Head and Helmet Biodynamics and Tracking Performance During Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Helmet-mounted equipment is being designed to optimize military aircrew effectiveness. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of head orientation and helmet weight distribution on head, helmet, and helmet slippage rotations, and tracking ...

S. D. Smith J. A. Smith R. J. Newman

2005-01-01

273

Vibration reduction for cable-stayed bridges traveled by high-speed trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibration reduction of cable-stayed bridges subjected to the passage of high-speed trains is studied. The train is modeled as a series of sprung masses, the bridge deck and towers by nonlinear beam-column elements, and the stay cables by truss elements with Ernst's equivalent modulus. In particular, the previously derived vehicle–bridge interaction element is employed to simulate the dynamic interaction

J. D. Yau; Y. B. Yang

2004-01-01

274

Whole-body FDG-PET imaging for staging of Hodgkin`s disease and lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Accurate staging of Hodgkin`s disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma (NHL) is important for treatment management. In this study, the utility of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) wholebody PET was evaluated as an imaging modality for initial staging or restaging of 7 HD and 11 NHL patients. Whole-body PET-based staging results were compared to the patient`s clinical stage based on conventional staging studies, which included combinations of CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, MRI scans, gallium scans, lymphangiograms, staging laparatomies and bone scans. Accurate staging was performed in 17 of 18 patients using a whole-body PET-based staging algorithm compared to the conventional staging algorithm in 15 of 18 patients. In 5 of 18 patients, whole-body PET-based staging showed additional lesions not detected by conventional staging modalities, whereas conventional staging demonstrated additional lesions in 4 of 18 patients not detected by whole-body PET. The total cost of conventional staging was $66,292 for 16 CT chest scans, 16 CT abdominal/pelvis scans, three limited MRI scans, four bone scans, give gallium scans, two laparotomies and one lymphangiogram. In contrast, scans cost $36,250 for 18 whole-body PET studies and additional selected correlative studies: one plain film radiograph, one limited CT, one bone marrow san, one upper GI and one endoscopy. A whole-body FDG-PET-based staging algorithm may be an accurate and cost-effective method for staging or restaging HD and NHL. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Hoh, C.K.; Glaspy, J.; Rosen, P. [Crump Institute of Biological Imaging, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-03-01

275

Detection and semi-quantitative measurement of lung cancer metabolic activity by whole body PET  

SciTech Connect

Conventional radiologic and nuclear medicine techniques have been shown to have a limited role in the staging and monitoring of disease activity in patients with lung cancer. Both qualitative and semi-quantitative position emission tomography (PET) using the F-18 FDG technique have been applied to determine the clinical utility of whole body PET-FDG imaging in lung cancer. Nineteen whole body FDG PET scans were performed in 18 patients; 17 with lung cancer (15 non-small cell and 2 small cell) and 1 with squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea.

Tse, K.K.M.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Alavi, J.B. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

1994-05-01

276

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

2011-01-01

277

Facile whole-body imaging of internal fluorescent tumors in mice with an LED flashlight  

Microsoft Academic Search

body optical imaging, based on GFP, is external and noninvasive. It affords unprecedented continuous visual monitoring of malignant growth and spread within intact animals without the need of substrate injection or anesthesia. Quantitative measurement of tumor growth on internal organs was determined using digitized whole- body images. Imaging was with either a transilluminated epifluorescence microscope or a fluorescence light box

Meng Yang; George Luiken; Eugene Baranov; Robert M. Hoffman

2005-01-01

278

Scatter correction in the transaxial slices of a whole-body positron emission tomograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for scatter correction in a whole-body positron emission tomograph (PET) is presented. The method is based on measured scatter distributions of line sources. It extends the method originally developed by Bergstrom et al. (1983) for brain scanners to large objects. Scatter distributions were measured with line sources at different positions in cylindrical water containers with diameters ranging from

H. Hoverath; W. K. Kuebler; H. J. Osterag; J. Doll; S. I. Ziegler; M. V. Knopp; W. J. Lorenz

1993-01-01

279

CX-REACTIVE PROTEIN RESPONSES IN THE RABBIT AFTER WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cx-protein was present in the serum of all rabbits exposed to whole-body ; doses of 250 to 750 r of x rays 24 hours after exposure, and the maximum Cx-; protein titer was usually observed at this time. Not all animals gave a Cx-; protein titer 24 hours after 100 r or less. The mean 24-hour titer was about ;

R. F. Riley; M. K. Coleman; Y. Hokama

1960-01-01

280

Whole-body MRI for primary evaluation of malignant disease in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy of whole-body (WB) MRI to a combined reference standard of conventional cross-sectional imaging methods and FDG-PET in the detection of malignant disease spread in children.

S. Krohmer; I. Sorge; A. Krausse; R. Kluge; U. Bierbach; D. Marwede; T. Kahn; W. Hirsch

2010-01-01

281

Whole-Body versus Local DXA-Scan for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in COPD Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. Osteoporosis is an extrapulmonary effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD measured by DXA-scan. The best location for BMD measurement in COPD has not been determined. Aim of this study was to assess whole-body BMD and BMD of the hip and lumbar spine (local DXA) in COPD patients and compare the prevalence of osteoporosis at these locations. Methods. Whole body as well as local DXA-scan were made in 168 COPD patients entering pulmonary rehabilitation. Patient-relevant characteristics were assessed. Prevalence of osteoporosis was determined. Characteristics of patients without osteoporosis were compared to patients with osteoporosis on local DXA. Results. A higher prevalence of osteoporosis was found using local DXA compared to whole-body DXA (39% versus 21%). One quarter of patients without osteoporosis on whole body-DXA did have osteoporosis on local DXA. Significant differences in patient characteristics between patients without osteoporosis based on both DXA measurements and patients with osteoporosis based on local DXA only were found. Conclusions. DXA of the hip and lumbar spine should be made to assess bone mineral density in COPD patients. The lowest T-score of these locations should be used to diagnose osteoporosis.

Graat-Verboom, Lidwien; Spruit, Martijn A.; van den Borne, Ben E. E. M.; Smeenk, Frank W. J. M.; Wouters, Emiel F. M.

2010-01-01

282

DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING  

EPA Science Inventory

DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING. R Slade, J L McKee and G E Hatch. PTB, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Reliable non-invasive markers for detecting oxidative stress in vivo are currently not available. We pr...

283

Whole-body averaged SAR measurement based on electric field distributions on external cylindrical boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to develop a new whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) measurement system based on the external-cylindrical field scanning technique. This technique is adopted with the goal of simplifying the dosimetry estimation of human phantoms that have different postures or sizes. An experimental scale model system is constructed. We consider the anatomical European human phantom

Takashi Hikage; Yoshifumi Kawamura; Toshio Nojima

2010-01-01

284

Multifocal non-Hodgkin lymphoma in an infant with cardiac involvement: whole-body MR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is rare in infancy, and we present a case of aggressive NHL of T-cell lineage in an infant with\\u000a multifocal bone, cardiac, mediastinal nodal, paranasal sinus, calvarial, and soft-tissue deposits on presentation that were\\u000a detected on whole-body MRI.

Jyoti Kumar; Ashu Seith; Sameer Bakhshi; Raju Sharma; Atin Kumar

2007-01-01

285

Generating whole body motions for a biped humanoid robot from captured human dances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study is a system for a robot to imitate human dances. This paper describes the process to generate whole body motions which can be performed by an actual biped humanoid robot. Human dance motions are acquired through a motion capturing system. We then extract symbolic representation which is made up of prim- itive motions: essential postures

Shinichiro Nakaoka; Atsushi Nakazawa; Kazuhito Yokoi; Hirohisa Hirukawa; Katsushi Ikeuchi

2003-01-01

286

The virtual COM joints approach for whole-body rh-1 motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The full-scale humanoid robot RH-1 has been totally developed in the University Carlos III of Madrid. In this paper we present a novel approach for controlling the motion of the whole body of RH-1 robot, so that it can perform tasks in collaboration with humans. Given the mechanical limitations of the robot platform, it is not possible to achieve completely

Paolo Pierro; C. A. Monje; Carlos Balaguer

2009-01-01

287

Behavior integration for whole-body close interactions by a humanoid with soft sensor flesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order for humanoids to be able to have close interactions with humans or environments using whole body contacts, development of humanoids with soft sensor flesh is one of the key issues. Therefore we have been developed dasiamacrapsila, a humanoid with soft sensor flesh, and it can sense distributed 3D force directions during interaction behavior with humans or environments. However,

Tomoaki Yoshikai; Marika Hayashi; Yui Ishizaka; Takashi Sagisaka; Masayuki Inaba

2007-01-01

288

Anthropomorphic models for checking the calibration of whole-body counters and activation analysis systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three models of the human body have been made for checking the calibration of whole-body counters and activation analysis systems. Their weights are 41, 67 and 110 kg. Each contains simplified forms of lungs, bones, thyroid, kidneys and liver and has a chemical composition similar to that of the ICRP standard man. In addition traces of toxic elements such as

D. K. Bewley

1988-01-01

289

In-Vivo Assessment of Whole-Body Radioisotope Burdens at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Los Alamos National Laboratory program for in-vivo measurements includes the capability for the whole-body assessment of body burdens for x-ray or gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes. This capability is an important part of the health and safety program ...

D. G. Vasilik I. C. Aikin

1983-01-01

290

Long-term effects of negative pions in female mice exposed to whole-body irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Long-term effects, especially the incidence of tumors, of whole-body exposure of female NMRI mice with either negative pions (peak or plateau region) or X rays have been studied in comparison to controls. Animals were irradiated at the age of 10 days after birth. The mice were then regularly examined for deaths and signs of severe disease, moribund animals being

A. Zimmermann; Ch. Michel; Ch. Stoller

1979-01-01

291

Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P < 0.03) during the 2nd wk of bed rest. Leg and whole body lean mass decreased after bed rest (P < 0.05). Serum cortisol, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, and testosterone values did not change. Arteriovenous model calculations based on the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine in five subjects revealed a 50% decrease in muscle protein synthesis (PS; P < 0.03). Fractional PS by tracer incorporation into muscle protein also decreased by 46% (P < 0.05). The decrease in PS was related to a corresponding decrease in the sum of intracellular amino acid appearance from protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P < 0.01). Neither model-derived nor whole body values for protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

1996-01-01

292

DETECTION OF RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION-INDUCED WHOLE BODY HEATING FOLLOWING CHEMICAL IMPAIRMENT OF THERMOREGULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Heating by radiofrequency (RF) radiation at high intensities can cause biological changes by whole-body hyperthermia or by altered thermal gradients within the body. However, there have been reports of effects at low intensities of RF radiation without evidence of increased tempe...

293

A comparison of the whole-body and segmental methodologies of bioimpedance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory supports the use of a segmental methodology (SM) for bioimpedance analysis (BIA) of body water (BW). However, previous studies have generally failed to show a significant improvement when the SM is used in place of a whole-body methodology. A pilot study was conducted to compare the two methodologies in control and overweight subjects. BW of each subject was measured

B. J. Thomas; B. H. Cornish; M. J. Pattemore; M. Jacobs; L. C. Ward

2003-01-01

294

Temperature Measurements in Normal and Tumor Tissue of Dogs Undergoing Whole Body Hyperthermia1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature was measured in the left ventricle, aorta, liver, brain, lung, bone marrow, kidney, and spontaneous solid tumors in dogs undergoing whole body hyperthermia in a radiant heat device. Rectal temperature was found to be a satisfactory indicator of systemic arterial temperature during plateau temperature conditions but rectal temperature underestimated arterial temperature during heating and overestimated it during cooling. Lung

Donald E. Thrall; Rodney L. Page; Mark W. Dewhirst; Robert E. Meyer; P. Jack Hoopes; Joe N. Kornegay

295

Moving along the Mental Number Line: Interactions between Whole-Body Motion and Numerical Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Active head turns to the left and right have recently been shown to influence numerical cognition by shifting attention along the mental number line. In the present study, we found that passive whole-body motion influences numerical cognition. In a random-number generation task (Experiment 1), leftward and downward displacement of participants…

Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia; Mast, Fred W.

2012-01-01

296

Segmentation of Rodent Whole-Body Dynamic PET Images: An Unsupervised Method Based on Voxel Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account

Renaud Maroy; Raphaël Boisgard; Claude Comtat; Vincent Frouin; Pascal Cathier; Edouard Duchesnay; Freédéric Dolle; Peter E. Nielsen; Régine Trébossen; Bertrand Tavitian

2008-01-01

297

Optimization of Whole-body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging  

EPA Science Inventory

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature lacks information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in devel...

298

Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested ⁴⁷Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8

B. Dawson-Hughes; D. T. Stern; C. C. Shipp; H. M. Rasmussen

1988-01-01

299

Prolonged Whole Body Immersion in Cold Water: Hormonal and Metabolic Changes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To characterize metabolic and hormonal responses during prolonged whole body immersion, 16 divers wearing dry suits completed four immersions in 5 deg C water during each of two 5-day air saturation dives at 6.1 meters of sea water. One immersion began in...

C. J. Ryan D. J. Smith P. A. Deuster T. J. Doubt

1990-01-01

300

Correlation of symmetrical gaits and whole body mechanics: debunking myths in locomotor biodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent maturation of gait (Hildebrand) and whole body mechanics (Cavagna et al.) traditions in locomotor analyses has led to conflicting terminology. Re-evaluation of these traditions yields three primary insights. First, walking and running should be recognized by their fundamentally different mechanics. Because duty factor fails to consistently distinguish these mechanics, its use in discriminating walks from runs should be abandoned

Audrone R. Biknevicius; Stephen M. Reilly

2006-01-01

301

[An experimental study on ischemically induced brain damage by whole body calorimetry and pathohistology in the gerbil].  

PubMed

Moderate hypothermia has been reported to mitigate neuronal damage in the gerbil brain following brief periods of forebrain ischemia, but the relationship between brain damage and whole body calorimetry has not been clarified. We report the effect of hypothermia on the brain damage by whole body calorimetry using Bio Dynamic Calorimeter (BDC200, ESCO Ltd JAPAN). Although it is an indirect method, whole body calorimetry may be able to measure the brain damage, thereby enabling investigations on alleviation of brain damage. PMID:9621663

Kishi, H

1998-05-01

302

Variant and invariant features characterizing natural and reverse whole-body pointing movements.  

PubMed

Previous investigations showed that kinematics and muscle activity associated with natural whole-body movements along the gravity direction present modular organizations encoding specific aspects relative to both the motor plans and the motor programmes underlying movement execution. It is, however, still unknown whether such modular structures characterize also the reverse movements, when the displacement of a large number of joints is required to take the whole body back to a standing initial posture. To study what motor patterns are conserved across the reversal of movement direction, principal component analysis and non-negative matrix factorization were therefore applied, respectively, to the time series describing the temporal evolution of the elevation angles associated with all the body links and to the electromyographic signals of both natural and reverse whole-body movements. Results revealed that elevation angles were highly co-varying in time and that despite some differences in the global parameters characterizing the different movements (indicating differences in high-level variable associated with the selected motor plans), the level of joint co-variation did not change across movement direction. In contrast, muscle organization of the forward whole-body pointing tasks was found to be different with respect to that characterizing the reverse movements. Such results agree with previous findings, according to which the central nervous system exploits, dependently on the direction of motion, different motor plans for the execution of whole-body movements. However, in addition, this study shows how such motor plans are translated into different muscle strategies that equivalently assure a high level of co-variation in the joint space. PMID:22370741

Chiovetto, Enrico; Patanè, Laura; Pozzo, Thierry

2012-05-01

303

Whole body protein kinetics during hypocaloric and normocaloric feeding in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Optimal feeding of critically ill patients in the ICU is controversial. Existing guidelines rest on rather weak evidence. Whole body protein kinetics may be an attractive technique for assessing optimal protein intake. In this study, critically ill patients were investigated during hypocaloric and normocaloric IV nutrition. Methods Neurosurgical patients on mechanical ventilation (n?=?16) were studied during a 48-hour period. In random order 50% and 100% of measured energy expenditure was given as IV nutrition during 24 hours, corresponding to hypocaloric and normocaloric nutrition, respectively. At the end of each period, whole body protein turnover was measured using d5-phenylalanine and 13C-leucine tracers. Results The phenylalanine tracer indicated that whole-body protein synthesis was lower during hypocaloric feeding, while whole-body protein degradation and amino acid oxidation were unaltered, which resulted in a more negative protein balance, namely ?1.9?±?2.1 versus ?0.7?±?1.3 mg phenylalanine/kg/h (P?=?0.014). The leucine tracer indicated that whole body protein synthesis and degradation and amino acid oxidation were unaltered, but the protein balance was negative during hypocaloric feeding, namely ?0.3?±?0.5 versus 0.6?±?0.5 mg leucine/kg/h (P?

2013-01-01

304

Heat load tests of superconducting magnets vibrated electromagnetically for the Maglev train  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting magnets on Maglev trains vibrate due to harmonic ripples of electromagnetic flux generated by ground coils. Heat load caused by vibration in the magnet amounted to several tens of watts in the electromagnetic vibration test. This was mainly because a.c. loss was induced in the helium vessel housing the superconducting coil, due to relative vibration between the aluminium thermal shield and the coil. The heat load caused by vibration should be strictly restricted to less than 4W due to limited cryogenic refrigeration capacity. The heat load was tested using electromagnetic flux ripples for a superconducting magnet model of one coil which corresponds to 1/4 of an actual magnet. The flux ripples simulated the 6th harmonic of the actual ground levitation coil. Some ideas to reduce the heat load were tried for the magnet model, such as applying high resistance thermal radiation shielding, increasing rigidity of the vacuum vessel, and using high purity copper plating on the helium vessel. These ideas proved effective, and the maximum heat load due to vibration was held to less than 4 W per magnet for the one coil magnet model.

Ohmori, J.; Nakao, H.; Yamashita, T.; Sanada, Y.; Shudou, M.; Kawai, M.; Fujita, M.; Terai, M.; Miura, A.

305

Criteria for acceptable levels of the Shinkansen Super Express train noise and vibration in residential areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of 1187 housewives living in 18 areas along the Shinkansen Super Express (bullet train) railway was conducted by means of a self-administered health questionnaire (modified Cornell Medical Index). In addition, geographically corresponding measurements of noise level and vibration intensity were taken. The relationship of noise and vibration to positive responses (health complaints) related to bodily symptoms, illness and emotional disturbances was analyzed. The factors which correlated with an increase in the average number of positive responses included noise, vibration, age and health status. Such factors as marital status, educational level, part time work, duration of inhabitancy and occupation of the head of the houshold correlated poorly with the number of positive responses. Unhealthy respondents compared to healthy respondents are more frequently affected by noise and vibration. The rate of positive responses in the visual, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems, sleep disturbances and emotional disturbances increased accordingly as noise and vibration increased. Combined effects of noise and vibration stimuli on the total number of positive responses (an indicator of general health) were found. This study has produced results indicating that the maximum permissible noise level should not exceed 70 dB(A) in the residential areas along the Shinkansen railway.

Yamanaka, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kanada, S.; Tanahashi, M.; Muramatsu, T.; Yamada, S.

1982-10-01

306

A vibration monitoring acquisition and diagnostic system for helicopter drive train bench tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated drive train test stand vibration monitoring system called VMADS has been developed by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., and has been installed at Bell's transmission bench test facility. VMADS provides the operator with warning and alarm indications for preselected degraded conditions, and acquires vibration data to be used by engineers to improve the diagnostics for better fault detection and fault isolation. VMADS is used as a test bed for new monitoring and diagnostic algorithm evaluation and validation, a necessary step to ensure development of accurate, reliable integrated health usage monitoring systems for the Bell rotorcraft fleet. This paper highlights the VMADS features for helicopter and tiltrotor aircraft drive train bench test monitoring and diagnostics and discusses supportive ongoing health and usage monitoring activities at BHTI, both military and commercial for enhanced safety and reduced maintenance costs. Bell is translating VMADS developed capability to airborne applications, while simultaneously enhancing the original VMADS capabilities.

Dousis, Dimitri A.

307

Sensitivity of radioluminography using (14)C-labeled tracers in whole-body sections of rats.  

PubMed

Radioluminography using photostimulated luminescence recently became popular for the quantitation of radioactivity in whole-body sections. In order to estimate the limits of the method, the sensitivity was investigated using routinously prepared blood standards with known amounts of radioactivity. The blood standards underwent the typical steps similar to conventional whole-body autoradiography including freezing, sectioning, and lyophilizing. The limit of detection, defined as 3 times the standard deviation of background values, decreases with exposure time from 18 Bq/g wet tissue for 1 day of exposure to 6 Bq/g for 7 days of exposure. The respective limit of quantitation defined as 10 times the standard deviation of background is 60 to 20 Bq/g. A similar sensitivity is found when the quantitation limit is defined as reproducible measurement with coefficients of variance below 20%: 60 Bq/g can be quantified if the measure area is above 3.5 mm(2). PMID:10806056

Binder, R; Archimbaud, Y

2000-04-01

308

Vestibular-Somatosensory Interactions: Effects of Passive Whole-Body Rotation on Somatosensory Detection  

PubMed Central

Vestibular signals are strongly integrated with information from several other sensory modalities. For example, vestibular stimulation was reported to improve tactile detection. However, this improvement could reflect either a multimodal interaction or an indirect interaction driven by vestibular effects on spatial attention and orienting. Here we investigate whether natural vestibular activation induced by passive whole-body rotation influences tactile detection. In particular, we assessed the ability to detect faint tactile stimuli to the fingertips of the left and right hand during spatially congruent or incongruent rotations. We found that passive whole-body rotations significantly enhanced sensitivity to faint shocks, without affecting response bias. Critically, this enhancement of somatosensory sensitivity did not depend on the spatial congruency between the direction of rotation and the hand stimulated. Thus, our results support a multimodal interaction, likely in brain areas receiving both vestibular and somatosensory signals.

Ferre, Elisa Raffaella; Kaliuzhna, Mariia; Herbelin, Bruno; Haggard, Patrick; Blanke, Olaf

2014-01-01

309

Design, fabrication and acceptance testing of a zero gravity whole body shower  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research and development programs have established the ability of the zero gravity whole body shower to maintain a comfortable environment in which the crewman can safely cleanse and dry the body. The purpose of this program was to further advance the technology of whole body bathing and to demonstrate technological readiness including in-flight maintenance by component replacement for flight applications. Three task efforts of this program are discussed. Conceptual designs and system tradeoffs were accomplished in task 1. Task 2 involved the formulation of preliminary and final designs for the shower, while task 3 included the fabrication and test of the shower assembly. Particular attention is paid to the evaluation and correction of test anomalies during the final phase of the program.

Schumacher, E. A.; Lenda, J. A.

1974-01-01

310

Measurement of whole-body human centers of gravity and moments of inertia.  

PubMed

With the inclusion of women in combat aircraft, the question of safe ejection seat operation has been raised. The potential expanded population of combat pilots would include both smaller and larger ejection seat occupants, which could significantly affect seat performance. The method developed to measure human whole-body CG and MOI used a scale, a knife edge balance, and an inverted torsional pendulum. Subjects' moments of inertia were measured along six different axes. The inertia tensor was calculated from these values, and principal moments of inertia were then derived. Thirty-eight antropometric measurements were also taken for each subject to provide a means for direct correlation of inertial properties to body dimensions and for modeling purposes. Data collected in this study has been used to validate whole-body mass properties predictions. In addition, data will be used to improve Air Force and Navy ejection seat trajectory models for the expanded population. PMID:11542768

Albery, C B; Schultz, R B; Bjorn, V S

1998-06-01

311

Functional Fluorescently Labeled Bithiazole ?F508-CFTR Corrector Imaged in Whole Body Slices in Mice  

PubMed Central

We previously reported the identification and structure-activity analysis of bithiazole-based correctors of defective cellular processing of the cystic fibrosis-causing CFTR mutant, ?F508-CFTR. Here, we report the synthesis and uptake of a functional, fluorescently labeled bithiazole corrector. Following synthesis and functional analysis of four bithiazole-fluorophore conjugates, we found that 5, a bithazole-based BODIPY conjugate, had low micromolar potency for correction of defective ?F508-CFTR cellular misprocessing, with comparable efficacy to benchmark corrector corr-4a. Intravenous administration of 5 to mice established its stability in extrahepatic tissues for tens of minutes. By fluorescence imaging of whole-body frozen slices, fluorescent corrector 5 was visualized strongly in gastrointestinal organs, with less in lung and liver. Our results provide proof-of-concept for mapping the biodistribution of a ?F508-CFTR corrector by fluorophore labeling and fluorescence imaging of whole-body slices.

Davison, Holly R.; Taylor, Stephanie; Drake, Chris; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Derichs, Nico; Yao, Chenjuan; Jones, Ella F.; Sutcliffe, Julie; Verkman, A. S.; Kurth, Mark J.

2011-01-01

312

Functional fluorescently labeled bithiazole ?F508-CFTR corrector imaged in whole body slices in mice.  

PubMed

We previously reported the identification and structure-activity analysis of bithiazole-based correctors of defective cellular processing of the cystic fibrosis-causing CFTR mutant, ?F508-CFTR. Here, we report the synthesis and uptake of a functional, fluorescently labeled bithiazole corrector. Following synthesis and functional analysis of four bithiazole-fluorophore conjugates, we found that 5, a bithazole-based BODIPY conjugate, had low micromolar potency for correction of defective ?F508-CFTR cellular misprocessing, with comparable efficacy to benchmark corrector corr-4a. Intravenous administration of 5 to mice established its stability in extrahepatic tissues for tens of minutes. By fluorescence imaging of whole-body frozen slices, fluorescent corrector 5 was visualized strongly in gastrointestinal organs, with less in lung and liver. Our results provide proof-of-concept for mapping the biodistribution of a ?F508-CFTR corrector by fluorophore labeling and fluorescence imaging of whole-body slices. PMID:22034937

Davison, Holly R; Taylor, Stephanie; Drake, Chris; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Derichs, Nico; Yao, Chenjuan; Jones, Ella F; Sutcliffe, Julie; Verkman, A S; Kurth, Mark J

2011-12-21

313

Image reconstruction for the new simultaneous whole-body openPET/CT geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new simultaneous whole-body PET/CT imaging geometry based on the OpenPET imaging structure has been proposed. In this geometry, multiple x-ray sources are adopted to implement the same field of view at the exactly same time for the simultaneous PET and CT imaging process. In this paper, we conducted further quantitative analysis to the new geometry by computer simulation. Then we examined and compared the iterative and analytical algorithms in terms of image quality, regarding the features of the geometry. Results indicated better images were acquired with the iterative algorithms under this geometry for the whole-body range rather than the analytical method. Improved reconstruction images were still expected with generalization of modified algorithm for the proposed geometry. Technical implementation of the geometry in clinical application should also be further considered.

Yin, Yannan; Tashima, Hideaki; Obi, Takashi; Yamaya, Taiga

2014-03-01

314

Clinical examination or whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: the Holy Grail of spondyloarthritis imaging  

PubMed Central

Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging allows acquisition of diagnostic images in the shortest scan time, leading to better patient compliance and artifact-free images. Methods of clinical examination of the anterior chest wall joints vary between physician groups and consideration of the rules of rib motion is suggested. The type of joint and its synovial lining may also aid imaging/clinical correlation. This well-written study by experts in the field with a standardized design and methodology allows good scientific analysis and suggests the advantages of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in anterior chest wall imaging. Selection of clinical examination criteria and specific joints may have had an influence on the study results and the lack of association reported.

2012-01-01

315

Reducing whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic models using global sensitivity analysis: diazepam case study.  

PubMed

There are situations in drug development where one may wish to reduce the dimensionality and complexity of whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic models. A technique for formal reduction of such models, based on global sensitivity analysis, is suggested. Using this approach mean and variance of tissue(s) and/or blood concentrations are preserved in the reduced models. Extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST), a global sensitivity technique, takes a sampling approach, acknowledging parameter variability and uncertainty, to calculate the impact of parameters on concentration variance. We used existing literature rules for formal model reduction to identify all possible smaller dimensionally models. To discriminate among those competing mechanistic models extended FAST was used, whereby we treated model structural uncertainty as another factor contributing to the overall uncertainty. A previously developed 14 compartment whole body physiologically based model for diazepam disposition in rat was reduced to three alternative reduced models, with preserved arterial mean and variance concentration profiles. PMID:16369700

Gueorguieva, Ivelina; Nestorov, Ivan A; Rowland, Malcolm

2006-02-01

316

AMPK-dependent hormonal regulation of whole-body energy metabolism.  

PubMed

AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine protein kinase central to the regulation of energy balance at both the cellular and whole-body levels. In its classical role as an intracellular metabolic stress-sensing kinase, AMPK switches on fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in muscle, while switching off hepatic gluconeogenesis. AMPK also has a broader role in metabolism through the control of appetite. Regulation of AMPK activity at the whole-body level is coordinated by a growing number of hormones and cytokines secreted from adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, pancreas and the gut including leptin, adiponectin, insulin, interluekin-6, resistin, TNF-alpha and ghrelin. Understanding how these secreted signalling proteins regulate AMPK activity to control fatty acid oxidation, glucose uptake, gluconeogenesis and appetite may yield therapeutic treatments for metabolic disorders such as diabetes, insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:19245657

Dzamko, N L; Steinberg, G R

2009-05-01

317

Optimization of Training Sets For Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns From Vibrating Solids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial neural network is disclosed that processes holography generated characteristic pattern of vibrating structures along with finite-element models. The present invention provides for a folding operation for conditioning training sets for optimally training forward-neural networks to process characteristic fringe pattern. The folding pattern increases the sensitivity of the feed-forward network for detecting changes in the characteristic pattern The folding routine manipulates input pixels so as to be scaled according to the location in an intensity range rather than the position in the characteristic pattern.

Decker, Arthur J. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

318

Compatibility of imported fire ant whole body extract with cat, ragweed, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and timothy grass allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recommendations regarding the administration of imported fire ant whole body extract (IFA WBE) combined with aeroallergens or environmental allergens in a single immunotherapy injection are lacking. Objective: To evaluate the degradative effect of IFA WBE on cat, ragweed, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and timothy grass allergens. Methods: Imported fire ant whole body extract was combined with extracts of cat, ragweed, D

Tonya S. Rans; Todd M. Hrabak; Bonnie A. Whisman; Thomas J. Grier; Dawn M. LeFevre; Paul O. Kwon; Michael S. Tankersley

2009-01-01

319

Whole-body Fluorescent Optical Imaging Based on Power Light Emitting Diode  

Microsoft Academic Search

With complex configuration, the general whole-body fluorescence optical imaging system is power-consuming for it is mainly composed of laser or mercury lamp, filter and fiber-optic cable. In this paper we aimed at setting up a compact imaging system based on power light emitting diode (LED). We first discussed fluorescence excitation efficiency of mercury lamp and LED. Then we developed a

Yanping Chen; Tao Xiong; Li Yu; Shaoqun Zeng; Qingming Luo

2005-01-01

320

MONICA: a compact, portable dual gamma camera system for mouse whole-body imaging  

SciTech Connect

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named "MONICA" for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed ?looking up? through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV?10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1 cm), 2.2 mm; sensitivity, 149 cps (counts per seconds)/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM, full width at half maximum), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2=0.99 for 0?185 MBq (0?5 mCi) in the field of view (FOV); spatial uniformity, <3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-min images acquired throughout the 168-h study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g., limited imaging space, portability and, potentially, cost are important.

Choyke, Peter L.; Xia, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.

2010-04-01

321

Whole Body Screening Using High-Temperature Superconducting MR Volume Resonators: Mice Studies  

PubMed Central

High temperature superconducting (HTS) surface resonators have been used as a low loss RF receiver resonator for improving magnetic resonance imaging image quality. However, the application of HTS surface resonators is significantly limited by their filling factor. To maximize the filling factor, it is desirable to have the RF resonator wrapped around the sample so that more nuclear magnetic dipoles can contribute to the signal. In this study, a whole new Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu2O3 (Bi-2223) superconducting saddle resonator (width of 5 cm and length of 8 cm) was designed for the magnetic resonance image of a mouse's whole body in Bruker 3 T MRI system. The experiment was conducted with a professionally-made copper saddle resonator and a Bi-2223 saddle resonator to show the difference. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with the HTS saddle resonator at 77 K was 2.1 and 2 folds higher than that of the copper saddle resonator at 300 K for a phantom and an in-vivo mice whole body imaging. Testing results were in accordance with predicted ones, and the difference between the predicted SNR gains and measured SNR gains were 2.4%?2.7%. In summary, with this HTS saddle system, a mouse's whole body can be imaged in one scan and could reach a high SNR due to a 2 folds SNR gain over the professionally-made prototype of copper saddle resonator at 300 K. The use of HTS saddle resonator not only improves SNR but also enables a mouse's whole body screen in one scan.

Lin, In-Tsang; Yang, Hong-Chang; Chen, Jyh-Horng

2012-01-01

322

Hemodynamics Among Neonates With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy During Whole-Body Hypothermia and Passive Rewarming  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. To assess changes in cardiac performance, with Doppler echocardiogra- phy, among newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy during mild ther- apeutic hypothermia and during rewarming. METHODS. For 7 asphyxiated neonates (birth weight: 1840 -3850 g; umbilical artery pH: 6.70 - 6.95) who received mild whole-body hypothermia, the following he- modynamic parameters were determined immediately before rewarming (33°C) and during passive rewarming

Corinna Mirjam Gebauer; Matthias Knuepfer; Eva Robel-Tillig; Ferdinand Pulzer; Christoph Vogtmann

2010-01-01

323

Weight-Based, Low-Dose Pediatric Whole-Body PET\\/CT Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult PET\\/CT acquisition protocols need to be modified for pediatric imaging to minimize the radiation dose while main- taining diagnostic utility. We developed pediatric PET\\/CT ac- quisition protocols customized to patient weight and estimated the dosimetry and cancer risk of these low-dose protocols to communicate basic imaging risks.Methods:Pro- tocols were developed for whole-body 18 F-FDG imaging ofpa- tients in PET

Adam M. Alessio; Paul E. Kinahan; Vivek Manchanda; Victor Ghioni; Lisa Aldape; Marguerite T. Parisi

2009-01-01

324

Attenuation correction in whole-body FDG oncological studies: the role of statistical reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Whole-body fluorine-18 fluoro-2-d-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is widely used in clinical centres for diagnosis, staging and therapy\\u000a monitoring in oncology. Images are usually not corrected for attenuation since filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction\\u000a methods require a 10 to 15-min transmission scan per bed position on most current PET devices equipped with germanium-68 rod\\u000a transmission sources. Such an acquisition protocol

Max Lonneux; Ivan Borbath; Anne Bol; Ann Coppens; Mérence Sibomana; Raymond Bausart; Michel Defrise; Stanislas Pauwels; Christian Michel

1999-01-01

325

Proprioceptive deficits of the lower limb following anterior cruciate ligament deficiency affect whole body steering control.  

PubMed

The role of lower limb proprioception in the steering control of locomotion is still unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether steering control is altered in individuals with reduced lower limb proprioception. Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD) results in a decrease in proprioceptive information from the injured knee joint (Barrack et al. 1989). Therefore the whole body kinematics were recorded for eight unilateral ACLD individuals and eight CONTROL individuals during the descent of a 20 degrees incline ramp followed by either a redirection using a side or cross cutting maneuver or a continuation straight ahead. Onset of head and trunk yaw, mediolateral displacement of a weighted center of mass (COM(HT)) and mediolateral displacement of the swing foot were analyzed to evaluate differences in the steering control. Timing analyses revealed that ACLD individuals delayed the reorientation of body segments compared to CONTROL individuals. In addition, ACLD did not use a typical steering synergy where the head leads whole body reorientation; rather ACLD individuals reoriented the head, trunk and COM(HT) in the new direction at the same time. These results suggest that when lower limb proprioceptive information is reduced, the central nervous system (CNS) may delay whole body reorientation to the new travel direction, perhaps in order to integrate existing sensory information (vision, vestibular and proprioception) with the reduced information from the injured knee joint. This control strategy is maintained when visual information is present or reduced in a low light environment. Additionally, the CNS may move the head and trunk segments as, effectively, one segment to decrease the number of degrees of freedom that must be controlled and increase whole body stability during the turning task. PMID:17704908

Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Vallis, Lori Ann

2007-09-01

326

Visually evoked whole-body turning responses during stepping in place in a virtual environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans use a specific sequence of reorientation of the eyes, head and body to perform turning and redirections while walking. Gaze (eye and head) rotation in a new direction of travel precedes body rotation by as much as 1.5s and provides a stable reference frame that guides subsequent whole-body redirection. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether

Rebecca J. Reed-Jones; Mark A. Hollands; James G. Reed-Jones; Lori Ann Vallis

2009-01-01

327

Effect of Amino Acid Supplementation on Whole-Body Protein Turnover in Holstein Steers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the (15N)glycine single-dose urea end-product technique to measure whole-body protein turnover in six Holstein steers (250 ± 18 kg). Steers were implanted with Revalor-S and continu- ously infused abomasally with water ( 4 L\\/d) or amino acids (AA; in 4 L\\/d water) in a crossover experiment (two 14-d periods). The AA infusion contained the following (g\\/d): lysine (5.3),

R. H. Wessels; E. C. Titgemeyer

2010-01-01

328

Vestibular activation does not influence skin sympathetic nerve responses during whole body heating.  

PubMed

The cutaneous vasculature and eccrine sweat glands are modified by both thermal and nonthermal factors. To determine the effect of thermal stress on the vestibulosympathetic reflex, skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) and cutaneous end-organ responses were measured in 10 subjects during static head-down rotation (HDR) and dynamic yaw and pitch (30 cycles/min) to activate the otolith organs and semicircular canals. SSNA (microneurography of peroneal nerve), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial pressure), sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry), and body temperature were collected during normothermia and after whole body heating. Body temperature was controlled by perfusing neutral (34-35 degrees C) or warm (44-46 degrees C) water through a tube-lined suit. During normothermia, HDR did not alter SSNA (-0.4 +/- 4.4% change), CVC (4.2 +/- 6.9% change), or sweat rate (-2.7 +/- 1.2% change) within the innervated area of skin. Dynamic yaw and pitch also did not elicit significant changes in SSNA, CVC, or sweat rate during normothermia. Whole body heating significantly increased internal temperature (0.8 +/- 0.1 degrees C), mean skin temperature (4.1 +/- 0.2 degrees C), CVC (322 +/- 109% control), and sweat rate (0.35 +/- 0.08 mg.cm(-2).min(-1)). After whole body heating, HDR did not significantly alter SSNA (3.2 +/- 7.6% change), CVC (-7.3 +/- 3.9% change), or sweat rate (-3.3 +/- 1.9% change). Dynamic yaw and pitch also did not produce significant changes in SSNA, CVC, or sweat rate after whole body heating. These data suggest that vestibular activation by head movements is not a nonthermal factor affecting SSNA and cutaneous end-organ responses in humans. PMID:15075298

Wilson, Thad E; Kuipers, Nathan T; McHugh, Erica A; Ray, Chester A

2004-08-01

329

A biomimetic framework for coordinating and controlling whole body movements in humanoid robots.  

PubMed

An integrated model for the coordination of whole body movements of a humanoid robot with a compliant ankle similar to the human case is described. It includes a synergy formation part, which takes into account the motor redundancy of the body model, and an intermittent controller, which stabilizes in a robust way postural sway movements, thus combining the hip strategy with ankle strategy. PMID:24110934

Morasso, Pietro; Rea, Francesco; Mohan, Vishwanathan

2013-01-01

330

MONICA: A Compact, Portable Dual Gamma Camera System for Mouse Whole-Body Imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named “MONICA” for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed “looking up” through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV ± 10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1-cm), 2.2-mm; sensitivity, 149 cps/MBq (5.5 cps/?Ci); energy resolution (FWHM), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2 = 0.99 for 0–185 MBq (0–5 mCi) in the field-of-view (FOV); spatial uniformity, < 3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-minute images acquired throughout the 168-hour study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g. limited imaging space, portability, and, potentially, cost are important.

Xi, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Karkareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

2009-01-01

331

Estimation of normal hydration in dialysis patients using whole body and calf bioimpedance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescription of an appropriate dialysis target weight (dry weight) requires accurate evaluation of the degree of hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a state of normal hydration (DWcBIS) as defined by calf bioimpedance spectroscopy (cBIS) and conventional whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy (wBIS) could be characterized in hemodialysis (HD) patients and normal subjects (NS). wBIS and cBIS

Fansan Zhu; Peter Kotanko; Garry J. Handelman; Jochen G. Raimann; Li Liu; Mary Carter; Martin K. Kuhlmann; Eric Seibert; Edward F. Leonard; Nathan W. Levin

2011-01-01

332

Performance evaluation of the whole-body PET scanner ECAT EXACT HR + following the IEC standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance parameters of the whole-body PET scanner ECAT EXACT HR+ (CTI\\/Siemens, Knoxville, TN) were determined following the standard proposed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The tests were expanded by some measurements concerning the accuracy of the correction algorithms and the geometric fidelity of the reconstructed images. The scanner consists of 32 rings, each with 576 BGO detectors (4.05×4.39×30

Lars-Eric Adam; Joachim Zaers; Hermann Ostertag; Herbert Trojan; Matthias E. Bellemann; Gunnar Brix

1997-01-01

333

Performance characteristics of an eight-ring whole body PET scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical characteristics of the multislice whole-body positron emission tomographic scanner (model PC4096-15WB Scanditronix) and its performance parameters are described. Spatial resolution at the center of the field of view was found to be 4.9 mm in-plane and 4.6 mm (cross slices) and 6.0 mm (direct slices) in the axial direction. The sensitivity for true and scattered coincidences is approximately

Elena Rota Kops; Hans Herzog; August Schmid; Sven Holte; Ludwig E. Feinendegen

1990-01-01

334

Leptin and its receptors: regulators of whole-body energy homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is the adipocyte-specific product of the ob gene. Expression of leptin in fully fed animals reflects adipocyte size and body-fat mass. Leptin signals the status of body energy stores to the brain, where signals emanate to regulate food intake and whole-body energy expenditure. The leptin gene was identified in the leptin-deficient, obese ob\\/ob mouse by positional cloning techniques. Recently,

K. L. Houseknecht; C. P. Portocarrero

1998-01-01

335

Evaluation of Radio-Protective Effect of Melatonin on Whole Body Irradiation Induced Liver Tissue Damage  

PubMed Central

Objective: Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of melatonin against radiation-induced oxidative injury to the rat liver after whole body irradiation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study,thirty-two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 only received melatonin (30 mg/kg on the first day and 30 mg/kg on the following days), group 3 only received whole body gamma irradiation of 10 Gy, and group 4 received 30 mg/kg melatonin 30 minutes prior to radiation plus whole body irradiation of 10 Gy plus 30 mg/kg melatonin daily through intraperitoneal (IP) injection for three days after irradiation. Three days after irradiation, all rats were sacrificed and their livers were excised to measure the biochemical parameters malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Each data point represents mean ± standard error on the mean (SEM) of at least eight animals per group. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare different groups, followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests (p<0.05). Results: The results demonstrated that whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage by increasing MDA levels and decreasing GSH levels. Hepatic MDA levels in irradiated rats that were treated with melatonin (30 mg/kg) were significantly decreased, while GSH levels were significantly increased, when compared to either of the control groups or the melatonin only group. Conclusion: The data suggest that administration of melatonin before and after irradiation may reduce liver damage caused by gamma irradiation.

Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazale; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-khansari, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

336

Iseult\\/INUMAC Whole Body 11.7 T MRI Magnet Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Whole Body 11.7 T MRI Magnet is presently being developed at the CEA Saclay for the Iseult\\/Inumac project, a French-German initiative focused on very-high-magnetic-field molecular imaging to improve sensitivity, spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution for preclinical and\\/or clinical MR systems. The magnet will be installed at the Neurospin center, Saclay, in 2012. This actively shielded magnet system, with a

P. Vedrine; G. Aubert; F. Beaudet; J. Belorgey; C. Berriaud; P. Bredy; A. Donati; O. Dubois; G. Gilgrass; F. P. Juster; C. Meuris; F. Molinie; F. Nunio; A. Payn; T. Schild; L. Scola; A. Sinanna

2010-01-01

337

Comparison of skeletal uptakes of three diphosphonates by whole-body retention. [Technetium 99  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty normal volunteers had measurements of 24-hr whole-body retention (WBR) of three structurally related Tc-99m-labeled phosphonate skeletal imaging agents: (1-hydroxyethylidene) diphosphonate (HEDP), methylene diphosphonate (MDP), and hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP). The average WBR values, reflecting skeletal uptake, were 18.4, 30.3, and 36.6%, respectively. These results clearly illustrate that slight alterations in diphosphonate molecular structure have a significant effect upon specificity for

I. Fogelman; D. W. Pearson; R. G. Bessent

1981-01-01

338

Reducing Whole Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models Using Global Sensitivity Analysis: Diazepam Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abtract  There are situations in drug development where one may wish to reduce the dimensionality and complexity of whole body physiologically\\u000a based pharmacokinetic models. A technique for formal reduction of such models, based on global sensitivity analysis, is suggested.\\u000a Using this approach mean and variance of tissue(s) and\\/or blood concentrations are preserved in the reduced models. Extended\\u000a Fourier amplitude sensitivity test

Ivelina Gueorguieva; Ivan A. Nestorov; Malcolm Rowland

2006-01-01

339

Whole-body acoel regeneration is controlled by wnt and bmp-admp signaling.  

PubMed

Whole-body regeneration is widespread in the Metazoa, yet little is known about how underlying molecular mechanisms compare across phyla. Acoels are an enigmatic phylum of invertebrate worms that can be highly informative about many questions in bilaterian evolution, including regeneration. We developed the three-banded panther worm, Hofstenia miamia, as a new acoelomorph model system for molecular studies of regeneration. Hofstenia were readily cultured, with accessible embryos, juveniles, and adults for experimentation. We developed molecular resources and tools for Hofstenia, including a transcriptome and robust systemic RNAi. We report the identification of molecular mechanisms that promote whole-body regeneration in Hofstenia. Wnt signaling controls regeneration of the anterior-posterior axis, and Bmp-Admp signaling controls regeneration of the dorsal-ventral axis. Perturbation of these pathways resulted in regeneration-abnormal phenotypes involving axial feature duplication, such as the regeneration of two heads following Wnt perturbation or the regeneration of ventral cells in place of dorsal ones following bmp or admp RNAi. Hofstenia regenerative mechanisms are strikingly similar to those guiding regeneration in planarians. However, phylogenetic analyses using the Hofstenia transcriptome support an early branching position for acoels among bilaterians, with the last common ancestor of acoels and planarians being the ancestor of the Bilateria. Therefore, these findings identify similar whole-body regeneration mechanisms in animals separated by more than 550 million years of evolution. PMID:24768051

Srivastava, Mansi; Mazza-Curll, Kathleen L; van Wolfswinkel, Josien C; Reddien, Peter W

2014-05-19

340

Retrospective respiration-gated whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography of mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging technique that has a great potential for preclinical whole-body imaging. To date, most whole-body PAT systems require multiple laser shots to generate one cross-sectional image, yielding a frame rate of <1 Hz. Because a mouse breathes at up to 3 Hz, without proper gating mechanisms, acquired images are susceptible to motion artifacts. Here, we introduce, for the first time to our knowledge, retrospective respiratory gating for whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography. This new method involves simultaneous capturing of the animal's respiratory waveform during photoacoustic data acquisition. The recorded photoacoustic signals are sorted and clustered according to the respiratory phase, and an image of the animal at each respiratory phase is reconstructed subsequently from the corresponding cluster. The new method was tested in a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system with a hardware-limited frame rate of 0.625 Hz. After respiratory gating, we observed sharper vascular and anatomical images at different positions of the animal body. The entire breathing cycle can also be visualized at 20 frames/cycle.

Xia, Jun; Chen, Wanyi; Maslov, Konstantin; Anastasio, Mark A.; Wang, Lihong V.

2014-01-01

341

Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR was assessed using transfer function analysis. In normothermic and heat-stressed conditions, each subject breathed at a fixed rate (0. 25 Hz) while beat-by-beat HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were obtained. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature, HR, and forearm skin blood flow. Spectral analysis of HR and SBP revealed that the heat stress significantly reduced HR and SBP variability within the high-frequency range (0.2-0.3 Hz), reduced SBP variability within the low-frequency range (0.03-0.15 Hz), and increased the ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability (all P < 0.01). Transfer function gain analysis showed that the heat stress reduced dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR within the high-frequency range (from 1.04 +/- 0.06 to 0.54 +/- 0.6 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P < 0.001) without significantly affecting the gain in the low-frequency range (P = 0.63). These data suggest that whole body heating reduced high-frequency dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR associated with spontaneous changes in blood pressure. Reduced vagal baroreflex regulation of HR may contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance known to occur in humans during heat stress.

Crandall, C. G.; Zhang, R.; Levine, B. D.

2000-01-01

342

Analysis of adipose tissue distribution using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity is an increasing problem in the western world and triggers diseases like cancer, type two diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a clinically viable method to measure the amount and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) in the body. However, analysis of MRI images by manual segmentation is a tedious and time-consuming process. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method to quantify the amount of different AT types from whole-body MRI data with less user interaction. Initially, body fat is extracted by automatic thresholding. A statistical shape model of the abdomen is then used to differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral AT. Finally, fat in the bone marrow is removed using morphological operators. The proposed method was evaluated on 15 whole-body MRI images using manual segmentation as ground truth for adipose tissue. The resulting overlap for total AT was 93.7% +/- 5.5 with a volumetric difference of 7.3% +/- 6.4. Furthermore, we tested the robustness of the segmentation results with regard to the initial, interactively defined position of the shape model. In conclusion, the developed method proved suitable for the analysis of AT distribution from whole-body MRI data. For large studies, a fully automatic version of the segmentation procedure is expected in the near future.

Wald, Diana; Schwarz, Tobias; Dinkel, Julien; Delorme, Stefan; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

2011-03-01

343

Automated registration of whole-body follow-up MicroCT data of mice.  

PubMed

In vivo MicroCT imaging of disease models at multiple time points is of great importance for preclinical oncological research, to monitor disease progression. However, the great postural variability between animals in the imaging device complicates data comparison. In this paper we propose a method for automated registration of whole-body MicroCT follow-up datasets of mice. First, we register the skeleton, the lungs and the skin of an articulated animal atlas (Segars et al. 2004) to MicroCT datasets, yielding point correspondence of these structures over all time points. This correspondence is then used to regularize an intensity-based B-spline registration. This two step approach combines the robustness of model-based registration with the high accuracy of intensity-based registration. We demonstrate our approach using challenging whole-body in vivo follow-up MicroCT data and obtain subvoxel accuracy for the skeleton and the skin, based on the Euclidean surface distance. The method is computationally efficient and enables high resolution whole-body registration in approximately 17 minutes with unoptimized code, mostly executed single-threaded. PMID:21995068

Baiker, Martin; Staring, Marius; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Reiber, Johan H C; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

2011-01-01

344

Space efficient system for whole-body exposure of unrestrained rats to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to design, implement and analyze a space-efficient setup for the whole-body exposure of unrestrained Wistar rats to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields at 900 MHz. The setup was used for 2 years in a cocarcinogenesis study and part of it for 5 weeks in a central nervous system (CNS) study. Up to 216 rats could be placed in separate cages in nine different exposure chambers on three racks requiring only 9 m2 of floor area (24 rats per m2). Chambers were radial transmission lines (RTL), where the rats could freely move in their cages where food and drinking water was provided ad libitum except during RF exposure periods. Dosimetrical analysis was based on FDTD computations with heterogeneous rat models and was validated with calorimetrical measurements carried out with homogeneous phantoms. The estimated whole-body average specific absorption rates (SAR) of rats were 0 (sham), 0.4, and 1.3 W/kg in the cocarcinogenesis study and 0 (sham), 0.27, and 2.7 W/kg in the CNS study with an estimated uncertainty of 3 dB (K = 2). The instantaneous and lifetime variations of whole-body average SAR due to the movement of rats were estimated to be 2.3 and 1.3 dB (K = 1), respectively. PMID:18803252

Puranen, Lauri; Toivo, Tim; Toivonen, Tommi; Pitkäaho, Risto; Turunen, Asko; Sihvonen, Ari-Pekka; Jokela, Kari; Heikkinen, Päivi; Kumlin, Timo; Juutilainen, Jukka

2009-02-01

345

Vibrations due to a test train at variable speeds in a deep bored tunnel embedded in London clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the results of in situ vibration measur ements that have been performed within the frame of the CONVURT project at a site in Regent's Park on t he Bakerloo line of London Under- ground during 35 passages of a test train at a speed between 20 and 50 km\\/h. Vibration measurements have been performed on the

G. Degrande; P. Chatterjee; R. Klein; W. Van de Velde

346

Local heating, but not indirect whole body heating, increases human skeletal muscle blood flow  

PubMed Central

For decades it was believed that direct and indirect heating (the latter of which elevates blood and core temperatures without directly heating the area being evaluated) increases skin but not skeletal muscle blood flow. Recent results, however, suggest that passive heating of the leg may increase muscle blood flow. Using the technique of positron-emission tomography, the present study tested the hypothesis that both direct and indirect heating increases muscle blood flow. Calf muscle and skin blood flows were evaluated from eight subjects during normothermic baseline, during local heating of the right calf [only the right calf was exposed to the heating source (water-perfused suit)], and during indirect whole body heat stress in which the left calf was not exposed to the heating source. Local heating increased intramuscular temperature of the right calf from 33.4 ± 1.0°C to 37.4 ± 0.8°C, without changing intestinal temperature. This stimulus increased muscle blood flow from 1.4 ± 0.5 to 2.3 ± 1.2 ml·100 g?1·min?1 (P < 0.05), whereas skin blood flow under the heating source increased from 0.7 ± 0.3 to 5.5 ± 1.5 ml·100 g?1·min?1 (P < 0.01). While whole body heat stress increased intestinal temperature by ?1°C, muscle blood flow in the calf that was not directly exposed to the water-perfused suit (i.e., indirect heating) did not increase during the whole body heat stress (normothermia: 1.6 ± 0.5 ml·100 g?1·min?1; heat stress: 1.7 ± 0.3 ml·100 g?1·min?1; P = 0.87). Whole body heating, however, reflexively increased calf skin blood flow (to 4.0 ± 1.5 ml·100 g?1·min?1) in the area not exposed to the water-perfused suit. These data show that local, but not indirect, heating increases calf skeletal muscle blood flow in humans. These results have important implications toward the reconsideration of previously accepted blood flow distribution during whole body heat stress.

Heinonen, Ilkka; Brothers, R. Matthew; Kemppainen, Jukka; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

2011-01-01

347

Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation.  

PubMed

In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15-20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study, was employed along with extensive Monte Carlo simulations and an initial clinical (18)F-deoxyglucose patient dataset to validate and demonstrate the potential of the proposed statistical estimation methods. Both simulated and clinical results suggest that hybrid regression in the context of whole-body Patlak Ki imaging considerably reduces MSE without compromising high CNR. Alternatively, for a given CNR, hybrid regression enables larger reductions than OLS in the number of dynamic frames per bed, allowing for even shorter acquisitions of ~30 min, thus further contributing to the clinical adoption of the proposed framework. Compared to the SUV approach, whole-body parametric imaging can provide better tumor quantification, and can act as a complement to SUV, for the task of tumor detection. PMID:24080994

Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

2013-10-21

348

Sex-related differences in local and whole-body heat loss responses: Physical or physiological?  

PubMed

The current thesis examined whether sex differences in local and whole-body heat loss are evident after accounting for confounding differences in physical characteristics and rate of metabolic heat production. Three experimental studies were performed: the first examined whole-body heat loss in males and females matched for body mass and surface area during exercise at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production; the second examined local and whole-body heat loss responses between sexes during exercise at increasing requirements for heat loss; the third examined sex-differences in local sweating and cutaneous vasodilation to given doses of pharmacological agonists, as well as during passive heating. The first study demonstrated that females exhibit a lower whole-body sudomotor thermosensitivity (553 ± 77 vs. 795 ± 85 W·°C(-1), p = 0.05) during exercise performed at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production. The second study showed that whole-body sudomotor thermosensitivity is similar between sexes at a requirement for heat loss of 250 W·m(-2) (496 ± 139 vs. 483 ± 185 W·m(-2)·°C(-1), p = 0.91) and 300 W·m(-2) (283 ± 70 vs. 211 ± 66 W·m(-2)·°C(-1), p = 0.17), only becoming greater in males at a requirement for heat loss of 350 W·m(-2) (197 ± 61 vs. 82 ± 27 W·m(-2)·°C(-1), p = 0.007). In the third study, a lower sweat rate to the highest concentration of acetylcholine (0.27 ± 0.08 vs. 0.48 ± 0.13 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), p = 0.02) and methacholine (0.41 ± 0.09 vs. 0.57 ± 0.11 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), p = 0.04) employed was evidenced in females, with no differences in cholinergic sensitivity. Taken together, the results of the current thesis show that sex itself can modulate sudomotor activity, specifically the thermosensitivity of the response, during both exercise and passive heat stress. Furthermore, the results of the third study point towards a peripheral modulation of the sweat gland as a mechanism responsible for the lower sudomotor thermosensitivity in females. PMID:24971681

Gagnon, Daniel

2014-07-01

349

Comparing the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men.  

PubMed

This study compared the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men. Twenty-one men were randomly assigned to vibration-stretching (VS; n = 8), vibration only (VO; n = 6), or stretching only (SO; n = 7) groups that trained 3 times per week for 3 weeks. All 3 groups performed 9 total sets of 30-second stretches. The VS group performed four 30-second upper-body vibration exercises and five 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. The VO group performed nine 30-second upper-body vibration exercises. The SO group performed nine 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. Shoulder flexion (SF), shoulder extension (SE), and shoulder transverse extension (STE) were assessed by a Leighton Flexometer and back scratch tests bilaterally (BSR, BSL) were measured via tape measure. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated groups at baseline and a 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA evaluated the interventions over time. At baseline, there were no group differences in age, height, or weight. There was a significant (p < 0.01) time main effect for each flexibility outcome variable (SF: +6.1%, +3.9%, +3.4%; SE: +8.9%, +13.5%, +26.9%; STE: +12.8%, +8.7%, +24.3%; BSR: +4.4 cm, +3.4 cm, +3.1 cm; BSL: +3.6 cm, +2.3 cm, +6.1 cm) for SO, VO, and VS, respectively. Shoulder extension was the only variable that showed a significant (p < 0.05) interaction effect for group by time. In conclusion, vibration training, alone or combined with stretching, is a viable alternative to a standard stretching routine when attempting to increase shoulder flexibility. Adding vibration training to a flexibility regimen may improve the likelihood of regularly performing flexibility sessions because of increased variety. PMID:23478479

Ferguson, Steven L; Kim, Eonho; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Michael G

2013-12-01

350

Scanning personnel for internal deposition of radioactive material with personnel contamination whole body friskers and portal monitors  

SciTech Connect

The potential for using personnel contamination devices such as whole body friskers and portal monitors for internal contamination monitoring was evaluated. Internally deposited radioactive material is typically determined with whole body counting systems. Whole body counts have traditionally been performed on personnel when they report for work, on a periodic basis (i.e., annually), when an uptake is suspected, and on termination. These counts incur significant expense. The monitored personnel pass through whole body friskers and portal monitors daily. This investigation was performed to determine if the external contamination monitors could provide an alternative to the more Costly whole body counting. The ability to detect 1% of a DAC for critical radioisotopes was applied as a detection criteria for this investigation. The results of whole body counts were used to identify the typical internal contamination radionuclides. From this list, the radioisotopes that would be the most difficult to measure were identified. From this review, {sup 60}Co and {sup 131}I were determined to be the critical radionuclides. One percent of a DAC for each isotope was placed, one at a time, in a humanoid phantom. The phantom was placed in the whole body frisker and {open_quotes}counted{close_quotes}. The phantom was carried through the portal monitor at a speed equivalent to a person walking through the monitor. Frequency of detection was derived for both systems. Practical aspects of integrating this screening system with traditional internal dosimetry programs are discussed.

Lobdell, J.L. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States)

1996-06-01

351

Vibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low frequent vibrations may cause from disturbing up to damaging effects. There is no precise distinction between structure-borne sound and vibrations. However - depending on the frequency range - measurements and predictions require different techniques. In a wide frequency range, the generation, transmission and propagation of vibrations can be investigated similar to structure-borne sound (see Chap. 9).

Guggenberger, Johannes; Müller, Gerhard

352

Balance control in whole body coordination framework for biped humanoid robot MAHRU-R  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents balance and vibration control algorithm for bipedal humanoid robots in the motion embedded CoM Jacobian framework. The vibration control is employed during a single supporting phase, which can suppress residual vibration of the un-modelled flexibility. Because the previously proposed walking control method in the resolved momentum control framework is based on the rigid body motion, vibration control

Young-Hwan Chang; Yonghwan Oh; Doik Kim; Seokmin Hong

2008-01-01

353

Effect of sway on image fidelity in whole-body digitizing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 3D digitizers to be useful data collection tools in scientific and human factors engineering applications, the models created from scan data must match the original object very closely. Factors such as ambient light, characteristics of the object's surface, and object movement, among others can affect the quality of the image produced by any 3D digitizing system. Recently, Cyberware has developed a whole body digitizer for collecting data on human size and shape. With a digitizing time of about 15 seconds, the effect subject movement, or sway, on model fidelity is an important issue to be addressed. The effect of sway is best measured by comparing the dimensions of an object of known geometry to the model of the same object captured by the digitizer. Since it is difficult to know the geometry of a human body accurately, it was decided to compare an object of simple geometry to its digitized counterpart. Preliminary analysis showed that a single cardboard tube would provide the best artifact for detecting sway. A tube was attached to the subjects using supports that allowed the cylinder to stand away from the body. The stand-off was necessary to minimize occluded areas. Multiple scans were taken of 1 subject and the cylinder extracted from the images. Comparison of the actual cylinder dimensions to those extracted from the whole body images found the effect of sway to be minimal. This follows earlier findings that anthropometric dimensions extracted from whole body scans are very close to the same dimensions measured using standard manual methods. Recommendations for subject preparation and stabilization are discussed.

Corner, Brian D.; Hu, Anmin

1998-03-01

354

Whole body computed tomographic characteristics of skeletal and cardiac muscular metastatic neoplasia in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Muscular metastatic neoplasia has been reported to be rare in domestic animals, however previous studies were based primarily on necropsy findings. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe whole body computed tomography (CT) characteristics of confirmed muscular metastases in a cohort of dogs and cats presented for oncology evaluation. Medical records of 1201 oncology patients were reviewed. Included animals underwent pre and postcontrast whole body CT, and CT-guided tru-cut biopsy or fine needle aspiration of one or more metastatic lesions. Twenty-one dogs and six cats met inclusion criteria, representing 2.08% of all canine oncology patients and 3.1% of all feline oncology patients. Mean age was 9.6 years. Postcontrast CT characteristics included well-demarcated, oval-to-round lesions with varying enhancement patterns: ring enhancing (n = 16), heterogeneously enhancing (n = 8), or homogeneously enhancing (n = 5). Five animals showed concurrent and varying nodular patterns. In seven cases (five dogs and two cats), one single muscular nodule was observed. In 20 cases, two or more lesions were observed. In two cases, cardiac hypodense nodules were observed in the postcontrast CT, while appearing isodense in the precontrast study. Necropsy confirmed neoplasia in both of them. Locations of muscular metastases included epaxial/paraspinal muscles of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine (n = 18), superficial muscles of the thoracic wall (n = 13), scapular/shoulder region (n = 3), hind limb (n = 3), and abdominal wall muscles (n = 1). Findings supported the use of pre and postcontrast whole body CT for oncologic staging in dogs and cats, especially for primary tumors characterized by a high metastatic rate. PMID:23441584

Vignoli, Massimo; Terragni, Rossella; Rossi, Federica; Frühauf, Lukas; Bacci, Barbara; Ressel, Lorenzo; Capitani, Ombretta; Marconato, Laura

2013-01-01

355

Evaluation of whole-body MR to CT deformable image registration.  

PubMed

Multimodality image registration plays a crucial role in various clinical and research applications. The aim of this study is to present an optimized MR to CT whole-body deformable image registration algorithm and its validation using clinical studies. A 3D intermodality registration technique based on B-spline transformation was performed using optimized parameters of the elastix package based on the Insight Toolkit (ITK) framework. Twenty-eight (17 male and 11 female) clinical studies were used in this work. The registration was evaluated using anatomical landmarks and segmented organs. In addition to 16 anatomical landmarks, three key organs (brain, lungs, and kidneys) and the entire body volume were segmented for evaluation. Several parameters--such as the Euclidean distance between anatomical landmarks, target overlap, Dice and Jaccard coefficients, false positives and false negatives, volume similarity, distance error, and Hausdorff distance--were calculated to quantify the quality of the registration algorithm. Dice coefficients for the majority of patients (> 75%) were in the 0.8-1 range for the whole body, brain, and lungs, which satisfies the criteria to achieve excellent alignment. On the other hand, for kidneys, Dice coefficients for volumes of 25% of the patients meet excellent volume agreement requirement, while the majority of patients satisfy good agreement criteria (> 0.6). For all patients, the distance error was in 0-10 mm range for all segmented organs. In summary, we optimized and evaluated the accuracy of an MR to CT deformable registration algorithm. The registered images constitute a useful 3D whole-body MR-CT atlas suitable for the development and evaluation of novel MR-guided attenuation correction procedures on hybrid PET-MR systems. PMID:23835382

Akbarzadeh, A; Gutierrez, D; Baskin, A; Ay, M R; Ahmadian, A; Riahi Alam, N; Lövblad, K O; Zaidi, H

2013-01-01

356

Extraction of basic movement from whole-body movement, based on gait variability  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to quantify the step-to-step variability (SSV) in speed-variant and speed-invariant movement components of the whole-body gait pattern during running. These separate aspects of variability can be used to gain insight into the neuromuscular control strategies that are engaged during running. Ten healthy, physically active, male recreational athletes performed five treadmill running trials at five different speeds (range: 1.3–4.9 m/sec). The whole-body movement was separated into principal movements (PM) using a principal component analysis. The PMs were split into two groups: a speed-variant group, where the range of motion (amplitude of PMs) changed with running speed; and a speed-invariant group, where the range of motion was constant across various speeds. The step-to-step variability (SSV) of the two groups was then quantified. The absolute SSV was the summed variability across all gait cycles, whereas the relative SSV was the summed variability divided by the magnitude of the movement. The absolute SSV of the speed-variant movements increased with running speed. By contrast, the relative SSV of the speed-variant group (as normalized to the PM amplitude) decreased asymptotically toward a minimal level as running speed increased. Both the absolute and relative SSV of the speed-invariant movements revealed a minimum at 3.1 m/sec. The whole-body gait pattern during running can be subdivided into speed-variant and speed-invariant movements. An interpretation of the SSV based on minimal intervention theory suggests that speed-variant movements are more tightly controlled, as evidenced by a lower degree of variability compared to the speed-invariant movements.

Maurer, Christian; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Samsom, Michael; Baltich, Jennifer; Nigg, Benno M

2013-01-01

357

Whole body protein kinetics measured with a non-invasive method in severely burned children  

PubMed Central

Persistent and extensive skeletal muscle catabolism is characteristic of severe burns. Whole body protein metabolism, an important component of this process, has not been measured in burned children during the long-term convalescent period. The aim of this study was to measure whole body protein turnover in burned children at discharge (95% healed) and in healthy controls by a non-invasive stable isotope method. Nine burned children (7 boys, 2 girls; 54 ± 14 (SD)% total body area burned; 13 ± 4 yrs; 45 ± 20 kg; 154 ± 14 cm) and 12 healthy children (8 boys, 4 girls; 12 ± 3 yrs; 54 ± 16 kg;150 ± 22 cm) were studied. A single oral dose of 15N-alanine (16 mg/kg) was given, and thereafter urine was collected for 34 hours. Whole body protein flux was calculated from labeling of urinary urea nitrogen. Then, protein synthesis was calculated as protein flux minus excretion, and protein breakdown as flux minus intake. At discharge, total protein turnover was 4.53 ± 0.65 (SE) g kg bodyweight?1 day?1 in the burned children compared to 3.20 ± 0.22 g kg?1 day?1 in controls (P = 0.02). Expressed relative to lean body mass (LBM), the rates were 6.12 ± 0.94 vs. 4.60 ± 0.36 g kg LBM?1 day?1 in burn vs. healthy (P = 0.06). Total protein synthesis was also elevated in burned vs. healthy children, and a tendency for elevated protein breakdown was observed. Conclusion: Total protein turnover is elevated in burned children at discharge compared to age-matched controls, possibly reflecting the continued stress response to severe burn. The oral 15N-alanine bolus method is a convenient, non-invasive, and no-risk method for measurement of total body protein turnover.

B?rsheim, Elisabet; Chinkes, David L.; McEntire, Serina J.; Rodriguez, Nancy R.; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

2010-01-01

358

Systemic suppression of human peripheral blood phagocytic leukocytes after whole-body UVB irradiation.  

PubMed

We examined systemic effects of whole-body UVB irradiation on human peripheral blood phagocytes. We found that 24 h after a single erythemal dose of UVB radiation two phagocyte functions, adhesion and phagocytosis, were reduced by 50%. This functional suppression was accompanied by a significant decrease in the expression of complement receptors (CR1 and CR3) and IgG Fc receptors (FcRII and FcRIII). The greatest reduction (47%) was observed in CR3, which is important for both adhesion and phagocytosis. A kinetic analysis showed that both CR1 and CR3 levels started to decrease 15 min after the UVB exposure, reaching the lowest levels at 4.5- and 24-h time points, respectively. The down-modulation of CRs after whole-body UVB exposure was not due to a defective receptor synthesis or translocation from internal stores to plasma membrane because the maximal CR levels in stimulated cells were not affected by UVB. No change in the serum soluble ICAM-1 was detected after UVB, which rules out CD1 1b epitope masking by sICAM-1. UVB did not release low-receptor-density myeloid progenitor cells from storage pools into circulation. Interleukin 10, a mediator of UVB-induced immunosuppression, was unable to modulate CR expression in vitro. When seven suberythemal whole-body UVB exposures were given repeatedly within 2 weeks, a significant decrease in CR expression was seen, which was greatest after three irradiations. Our data suggest that an exposure to UVB has systemic effects in humans which, possibly due to the down-modulation of preexisting cell-surface receptors, suppress some important functions of circulating phagocytic cells. PMID:10331484

Leino, L; Saarinen, K; Kivistö, K; Koulu, L; Jansen, C T; Punnonen, K

1999-05-01

359

Therapeutic effects of whole-body devices applying pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF): A systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) delivered by whole-body mats are promoted in many countries for a wide range of therapeutic applications and for enhanced well-being. However, neither the therapeutic efficacy nor the potential health hazards caused by these mats have been systematically evaluated. We conducted a systematic review of trials investigating the therapeutic effects of low-frequency PEMF devices. We were interested in all health outcomes addressed so far in randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind trials. In total, 11 trials were identified. They were focused on osteoarthritis of the knee (3 trials) or the cervical spine (1), fibromyalgia (1), pain perception (2), skin ulcer healing (1), multiple sclerosis-related fatigue (2), or heart rate variability and well-being (1). The sample sizes of the trials ranged from 12 to 71 individuals. The observation period lasted 12 weeks at maximum, and the applied magnetic flux densities ranged from 3.4 to 200?µT. In some trials sporadic positive effects on health were observed. However, independent confirmation of such singular findings was lacking. We conclude that the scientific evidence for therapeutic effects of whole-body PEMF devices is insufficient. Acute adverse effects have not been reported. However, adverse effects occurring after long-term application have not been studied so far. In summary, the therapeutic use of low-frequency whole-body PEMF devices cannot be recommended without more scientific evidence from high-quality, double-blind trials. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21938735

Hug, Kerstin; Röösli, Martin

2011-09-21

360

Absolute accuracy of the Cyberware WB4 whole-body scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner is one of the first scanning systems in the world that generates a high resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory of Wright-Patterson AFB intends to use the scanner to enable quick and reliable acquisition of anthropometric data. For this purpose, a validation study was initiated to check the accuracy, reliability and errors of the system. A calibration object, consisting of two boxes and a cylinder, was scanned in several locations in the scanning space. The object dimensions in the resulting scans compared favorably to the actual dimensions of the calibration object.

Daanen, Hein A.; Taylor, Stacie E.; Brunsman, Matthew A.; Nurre, Joseph H.

1997-03-01

361

Ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography for small-animal whole-body imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report herein a novel three-dimensional photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system for small-animal whole-body imaging. The PACT system, based on a 512-element full-ring ultrasonic transducer array, was cylindrically focused and capable of forming a two-dimensional image in 1.6 seconds. The pulsed laser could either illuminate directly from the top or be reshaped to illuminate the sample from the side. Top illumination was mainly used for mouse brain and mouse embryo imaging. Side illumination provided in vivo anatomical images of an adult mouse. By translating the mouse along the elevational direction, the system provided serial cross-sectional images.

Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-02-01

362

Linking preclinical and clinical whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic models with prior distributions in NONMEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the NONMEM prior functionality compared to a full Bayesian method when applied to population physiological models using diazepam as\\u000a a case study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WBPBPK) models for diazepam were initially developed, tested and calibrated\\u000a for rats and man using a full Bayesian analysis as implemented in WinBUGS.

Grant Langdon; Ivelina Gueorguieva; Leon Aarons; Mats Karlsson

2007-01-01

363

Whole-body FDG-PET\\/CT on rheumatoid arthritis of large joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in joint lesions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reportedly represents the degree\\u000a of synovial inflammation. Most previous studies have focused on small joints, and the application of whole-body positron emission\\u000a tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) (PET\\/CT) for the evaluation of inflammatory activity in large joints\\u000a has not been well studied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighteen patients with RA

Kazuo Kubota; Kimiteru Ito; Miyako Morooka; Takuya Mitsumoto; Kyoko Kurihara; Hiroyuki Yamashita; Yuko Takahashi; Akio Mimori

2009-01-01

364

Radium-226 retention in placenta and whole body of rat. Preliminary studies.  

PubMed

The 226Ra retention in the placenta of rat during 3 successive pregnancies (92-213 days after injection) was about 4-5 x 10(-3)% of the injected dose (ID) constituting nearly 0.009% of the whole body 226Ra content (45-55% ID) in each pregnancy. Thus a uniform relationship was being displayed between the two contents to a reasonable extent. The implication of this observation is discussed vis-a-vis the determination of Ra body burden. PMID:2798773

Kshirsagar, S G; Sundaram, K

1989-01-01

365

A comparison of skeletal uptakes of three diphosphonates by whole-body retention: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

Twenty normal volunteers had measurements of 24-hr whole-body retention (WBR) of three structurally related Tc-99m-labeled phosphonate skeletal imaging agents: (1-hydroxyethylidene) diphosphonate (HEDP), methylene diphosphonate (MDP), and hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP). The average WBR values, reflecting skeletal uptake, were 18.4, 30.3, and 36.6%, respectively. These results clearly illustrate that slight alterations in diphosphonate molecular structure have a significant effect upon specificity for osseous tissue, and thus may affect skeletal image quality and the usefulness of the WBR technique in diagnosing metabolic bone disease.

Fogelman, I.; Pearson, D.W.; Bessent, R.G.; Tofe, A.J.; Francis, M.D.

1981-01-01

366

Comparison of skeletal uptakes of three diphosphonates by whole-body retention. [Technetium 99  

SciTech Connect

Twenty normal volunteers had measurements of 24-hr whole-body retention (WBR) of three structurally related Tc-99m-labeled phosphonate skeletal imaging agents: (1-hydroxyethylidene) diphosphonate (HEDP), methylene diphosphonate (MDP), and hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP). The average WBR values, reflecting skeletal uptake, were 18.4, 30.3, and 36.6%, respectively. These results clearly illustrate that slight alterations in diphosphonate molecular structure have a significant effect upon specificity for osseous tissue, and thus may affect skeletal image quality and the usefulness of the WBR technique in diagnosing metabolic bone disease.

Fogelman, I. (Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Scotland); Pearson, D.W.; Bessent, R.G.

1981-10-01

367

Time-Course of Changes in Inflammatory Response after Whole-Body Cryotherapy Multi Exposures following Severe Exercise  

PubMed Central

The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n?=?11) completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS), the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC) for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day). For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL) -1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), protein C-reactive (CRP) and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post) following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05). Indeed, IL-1? (Post 1 h) and CRP (Post 24 h) levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h) increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05), TNF-?, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory.

Pournot, Herve; Bieuzen, Francois; Louis, Julien; Fillard, Jean-Robert; Barbiche, Etienne; Hausswirth, Christophe

2011-01-01

368

Early Effects of Whole-Body 56Fe Irradiation on Hippocampal Function in C57BL/6J Mice  

PubMed Central

Relatively little is known about early irradiation effects on hippocampal function in wild-type mice. In this study, the effects of 56Fe irradiation on hippocampal function were assessed starting 2 weeks after whole-body irradiation. Compared to sham irradiation, radiation impaired novel object recognition in female and male C57BL/6J wild-type mice. There were no effects of irradiation on contextual fear conditioning or spatial memory retention in the water maze. It is possible that oxidative damage might contribute to radiation-induced cognitive changes. Therefore, hippocampal and cortical levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT) and lipid peroxidation, measures of oxidative damage were assessed. There were no effects of irradiation on these measures of oxidative damage. As 56Fe irradiation can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, which may contribute to the impairments in novel object recognition, the effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on cognition following sham irradiation and irradiation were also assessed. ALA did not prevent radiation-induced impairments in novel object recognition and impaired spatial memory retention of sham-irradiated and irradiated mice in the probe trial after the first day of hidden platform training in the water maze. Thus, the novel object recognition test is particularly sensitive to detect early cognitive effects of 56Fe irradiation through a mechanism unlikely involving ROS or oxidative damage.

Haley, Gwendolen E.; Yeiser, Lauren; Olsen, Reid H. J.; Davis, Matthew J.; Johnson, Lance A.; Raber, Jacob

2014-01-01

369

Transient infiltration of neutrophils into the thymus following whole-body X-ray irradiation in IL-10 knockout mice  

SciTech Connect

IL-10 is known to suppress the inflammatory responses in a variety of experimental models. Because we previously found that whole-body X-irradiation causes massive apoptosis in the thymus and transient infiltration of neutrophils, in this study, we examined whether or not IL-10 is involved in the regulation of neutrophil infiltration upon whole-body X-ray irradiation using IL-10 knockout mice. Although IL-10 was induced in the thymus on whole-body X-ray irradiation, apoptosis of thymocytes, neutrophil infiltration, and MIP-2 and KC production in the thymus were not affected by an IL-10 deficiency. Coculturing of bone marrow-derived macrophages with late apoptotic cells caused MIP-2 production, which was also not affected by an IL-10 deficiency. These results suggest the uniqueness of the inflammatory response induced by whole-body X-ray irradiation, which does not seem to be regulated by IL-10.

Fujiwara, Hiroya; Yamazaki, Takahiro [Department of Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, 2-2-1, Miyama, Funabashi (Japan); Uzawa, Akiko [National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba (Japan); Nagata, Kisaburo [Department of Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, 2-2-1, Miyama, Funabashi (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshiro [Department of Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, 2-2-1, Miyama, Funabashi (Japan)], E-mail: yoshiro@biomol.sci.toho-u.ac.jp

2008-05-02

370

Whole-body posture planning in anticipation of a manual prehension task: prospective and retrospective effects.  

PubMed

This study examined the extent to which the anticipation of a manual action task influences whole-body postural planning and orientation. Our participants walked up to a drawer, opened the drawer, then grasped and moved an object in the drawer to another location in the same drawer. The starting placement of the object within the drawer and the final placement of the object in the drawer were varied across trials in either a blocked design (i.e., in trials where the same start and end location were repeated consecutively) or in a mixed fashion. Of primary interest was the posture adopted at the moment of grasping the drawer handle before pulling it out prior to the object manipulation task. Of secondary interest was whether there were sequential effects such that postures adopted in preceding trials influenced postures in subsequent trials. The results indicated that the spatial properties of the forthcoming object manipulation influenced both the postures adopted by the participants and the degree to which the drawer was opened, suggesting a prospective effect. In addition, the adopted postures were more consistent in blocked trials than in mixed trials, suggesting an additional retrospective effect. Overall, our findings suggest that motor planning occurs at the level of the whole body, and reflects both prospective and retrospective influences. PMID:23932999

Land, William M; Rosenbaum, David A; Seegelke, Christian; Schack, Thomas

2013-10-01

371

Small-animal whole-body imaging using a photoacoustic full ring array system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, we present a novel 3D photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system for small-animal whole-body imaging. The PACT system, based on a 512-element full-ring transducer array, received photoacoustic signals primarily from a 2-mm-thick slice. The light was generated by a pulse laser, and can either illuminate from the top or be reshaped to illuminate the sample from the side, using a conical lens and an optical condenser. The PACT system was capable of acquiring an in-plane image in 1.6 s; by scanning the sample in the elevational direction, a 3D tomographic image could be constructed. We tested the system by imaging a cylindrical phantom made of human hairs immersed in a scattering medium. The reconstructed image achieved an in-plane resolution of 0.1 mm and an elevational resolution of 1 mm. After deconvolution in the elevational direction, the 3D image was found to match well with the phantom. The system was also used to image a baby mouse in situ; the spinal cord and ribs can be seen easily in the reconstructed image. Our results demonstrate that the PACT system has the potential to be used for fast small-animal whole-body tomographic imaging.

Xia, Jun; Guo, Zijian; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing; Wang, Lihong V.

2011-02-01

372

Rat Cardiovascular Responses to Whole Body Suspension: Head-down and Non-Head-Down Tilt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rat whole body suspension technique mimics responses seen during exposure to microgravity and was evaluated as a model for cardiovascular responses with two series of experiments. In one series, changes were monitored in chronically catheterized rats during 7 days of Head-Down Tilt (HDT) or Non-Head-Down Tilt (N-HDT) and after several hours of recovery. Elevations of mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures of approx. 20 % (P less than 0.05) in HDT rats began as early as day 1 and were maintained for the duration of suspension. Pulse pressures were relatively unaffected, but heart rates were elevated approx. 10 %. During postsuspension (2-7 h), most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. N-HDT rats exhibited elevations chiefly on days 3 and 7. In the second series, blood pressure was monitored in 1- and 3-day HDT and N-HDT rats to evaluate responses to rapid head-up tilt. MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated (P less than 0.05) in HDT and N-HDT rats during head-up tilt after 1 day of suspension, while pulse pressures remained un changed. HDT rats exhibited elevated pretilt MAP and failed to respond to rapid head-up tilt with further increase of MAP on day 3, indicating some degree of deconditioning. The whole body suspended rat may be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

1992-01-01

373

Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in developmental, toxicity, and carcinogenicity studies. The optimal medium for embedding and cryosectioning a whole organism or soft-tissue specimen for histological examination is a synthetic polymer mixture that is incompatible with MSI as a result of ion suppression. We describe the optimal methods and results for embedding and cryosectioning whole-body ZF for MALDI-MSI. We evaluated 13 distinct embedding media formulations and found a supportive hydrogel with the consistency of cartilage to be the optimal embedding medium. The hydrogel medium does not interfere with MSI data collection, aids in tissue stability, is readily available for purchase, and is easy to prepare and handle during cryosectioning. Additionally, we decreased the matrix cluster interference commonly caused by ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid by adding ammonium phosphate to the solvent spray solution. The optimized methods developed in our laboratory produced high-quality cryosections, as well as high-quality mass spectral images of sectioned ZF.

Nelson, Kimberly A.; Daniels, Gabrielle J.; Fournie, John W.; Hemmer, Michael J.

2013-01-01

374

Muscle oxygen desaturation is related to whole body VO2 during cross-country ski skating.  

PubMed

Previous research has demonstrated that blood flow and subsequent O2 desaturation (OD) in exercising muscle is related to the static component during exercise. In speed skating, increased OD is dissociated from whole body VO2 and heart rate (HR) when the skater increases the static component by 'sitting low'. This phenomenon was evaluated in cross-country skiers by manipulating speed and incline during treadmill roller skiing. Eight male cross-country skiers (22.4 +/- 3.2 yrs old) randomly performed constant incline- and constant speed-based protocols in which increased load was manipulated in five 4min stages by treadmill incline or speed change, respectively. A strong relationship (r = 0.83) was observed between VO2 and % OD while blood volume change (deltaBV) was minimal. Unexpectedly, no HR/ VO2 or HR/OD shifts were observed between protocols. The % OD response, in relation to blood lactate values, during submaximal exercise was very similar to that of VO2. The lack of an observed greater desaturation at higher inclines suggests that the expected static load may be attenuated by an increased contribution of poling. The strong relationship of % OD to whole body VO2 may be attributed to O2 dissociation in the capillary bed of the muscle to meet aerobic energy demand and is independent of blood flow dynamics during cross-country ski skating. PMID:11510872

Im, J; Nioka, S; Chance, B; Rundell, K W

2001-07-01

375

Visually evoked whole-body turning responses during stepping in place in a virtual environment.  

PubMed

Humans use a specific sequence of reorientation of the eyes, head and body to perform turning and redirections while walking. Gaze (eye and head) rotation in a new direction of travel precedes body rotation by as much as 1.5s and provides a stable reference frame that guides subsequent whole-body redirection. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether a visually presented rotation of the external environment can induce whole-body turning lead by gaze redirection in a new travel direction. Five healthy young adults performed a stepping in place task while watching a virtual scene that moved as if they were walking down a hallway, thus providing participants with a perception of forward self motion. While "forward" stepping, the virtual scene would gradually turn around a 90 degrees corner. As a result the turn could be anticipated by the participants. Significant horizontal eye movements and head and body rotation magnitudes were observed in response to the virtual visual turning cue. Onset of eye, head and body redirection revealed a sequenced order and timing of segment rotation that is characteristic of steering behaviour in real world turning situations. The results of this study provide support for the hypothesis that gaze redirection may be an essential subcomponent to steering behaviour. The link between visual redirection and coordinated body turning implies instability when turning may result from visual and/or oculomotor deficits. PMID:19560360

Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Hollands, Mark A; Reed-Jones, James G; Vallis, Lori Ann

2009-10-01

376

Potential errors in body composition as estimated by whole body scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

Vigorous exercise has been reported to increase the apparent potassium content of athletes measured by whole body gamma ray scintillation counting of /sup 40/K. The possibility that this phenomenon is an artifact was evaluated in three cyclists and one nonathlete after exercise on the road (cyclists) or in a room with a source of radon and radon progeny (nonathlete). The apparent /sup 40/K content of the thighs of the athletes and whole body of the nonathlete increased after exercise. Counts were also increased in both windows detecting /sup 214/Bi, a progeny of radon. /sup 40/K and /sup 214/Bi counts were highly correlated (r . 0.87, p less than 0.001). The apparent increase in /sup 40/K was accounted for by an increase in counts associated with the 1.764 MeV gamma ray emissions from /sup 214/Bi. Thus a failure to correct for radon progeny would cause a significant error in the estimate of lean body mass by /sup 40/K counting.

Lykken, G.I.; Lukaski, H.C.; Bolonchuk, W.W.; Sandstead, H.H.

1983-04-01

377

Potential errors in body composition as estimated by whole body scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

Vigorous exercise has been reported to increase the apparent potassium content of athletes measured by whole body gamma ray scintillation counting of /sup 40/K. The possibility that this phenomenon is an artifact was evaluated in three cyclists and one nonathlete after exercise on the road (cyclists) or in a room with a source of radon and radon progeny (nonathlete). The apparent /sup 40/K content of the thighs of the athletes and whole body of the nonathlete increased after exercise. Counts were also increased in both windows detecting /sup 214/Bi, a progeny of radon. /sup 40/K and /sup 214/Bi counts were highly correlated (r = 0.87, p < 0.001). The apparent increase in /sup 40/K was accounted for by an increase in counts associated with the 1.764 MeV gamma ray emissions from /sup 214/Bi. Thus a failure to correct for radon progeny would cause a significant error in the estimate of lean body mass by /sup 40/K counting.

Lykken, G.I.; Lukaski, H.C.; Bolonchuk, W.W.; Sandstead, H.H.

1983-04-01

378

Automatic Vertebral Column Extraction by Whole-Body Bone SPECT Scan  

PubMed Central

Bone extraction and division can enhance the accuracy of diagnoses based on whole-body bone SPECT data. This study developed a method for using conventional SPECT for automatic recognition of the vertebral column. A novel feature of the proposed approach is a novel “bone graph" image description method that represents the connectivity between these image regions to facilitate manipulation of morphological relationships in the skeleton before surgery. By tracking the paths shown on the bone graph, skeletal structures can be identified by performing morphological operations. The performance of the method was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Datasets for whole-body bone SPECT scans in 46 lung cancer patients with bone metastasis were obtained with Tc-99m MDP. The algorithm successfully segmented vertebrae in the thoracolumbar spine. The quantitative assessment shows that the segmentation method achieved an average TP, FP, and FN rates of 95.1%, 9.1%, and 4.9%. The qualitative evaluation shows an average acceptance rate of 83%, where the data for the acceptable and unacceptable groups had a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.718, which indicated reasonable internal consistency and reliability.

Huang, Sheng-Fang; Chao, Hao-Yu; Kao, Pan-Fu; Shen, Wei-Chih; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Liu, Shu-Hsin

2013-01-01

379

Whole-body Cerenkov luminescence tomography with the finite element SP(3) method.  

PubMed

Generation of an accurate Cerenkov luminescence imaging model is a current issue of nuclear tomography with optical techniques. The article takes a pro-active approach toward whole-body Cerenkov luminescence tomography. The finite element framework employs the equation of radiative transfer via the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation to model Cerenkov photon propagation in a small animal. After this forward model is performed on a digital mouse with optical property heterogeneity and compared with the Monte Carlo method, we investigated the whole body reconstruction algorithm along a regularization path via coordinate descent. The endpoint of the follow-up study is the in vivo application, which provides three-dimensional biodistribution of the radiotracer uptake in the mouse from measured partial boundary currents. The combination of the forward and inverse model with elastic-net penalties is not only validated by numerical simulation, but it also effectively demonstrates in vivo imaging in small animals. Our exact reconstruction method enables optical molecular imaging to best utilize Cerenkov radiation emission from the decay of medical isotopes in tissues. PMID:21301961

Zhong, Jianghong; Tian, Jie; Yang, Xin; Qin, Chenghu

2011-06-01

380

Evaluation of pulmonary function in European land tortoises using whole-body plethysmography.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of whole-body plethysmography as a non-invasive method to determine the respiratory parameters and profiles in two tortoise species belonging to the genus Testudo. Pulmonary functions and volumetric parameters were determined in 10 adults of Testudo hermanni and in seven Testudo marginata animals, using whole-body plethysmography. A profile pattern was regularly observed: an inspiratory flow peak, an expiratory peak, an apnoea phase and a second expiratory peak, previous to the beginning of the next respiratory cycle. Positive and significant correlation was observed between the inspiratory time, weight and length of the tortoises. Larger tortoises showed a higher time of inhalation. The peak of inspiratory flow was correlated with the sex, being longer in the females. T. marginata had an inspiratory time longer than that of T. hermanii. In T. hermanii, differences related to the sex were observed in the tidal volume, peak inspiratory flow, peak expiratory flow, expiratory flow of 50 per cent and enhanced pause, which could be related to the smaller size of males. The results suggest that additional information on new technologies currently used in pet medicine or even in human medicine should be developed and adjusted as alternative ways to support the rehabilitation of turtles and tortoises. PMID:22832080

Valente, A L Schifino; Martínez-Silvestre, A; García-Guasch, L; Riera-Tort, A; Marco, I; Lavin, S; Cuenca, R

2012-08-11

381

Feasibility of intrafraction whole-body motion tracking for total marrow irradiation  

PubMed Central

With image-guided tomotherapy, highly targeted total marrow irradiation (TMI) has become a feasible alternative to conventional total body irradiation. The uncertainties in patient localization and intrafraction motion of the whole body during hour-long TMI treatment may pose a risk to the safety and accuracy of targeted radiation treatment. The feasibility of near-infrared markers and optical tracking system (OTS) is accessed along with a megavoltage scanning system of tomotherapy. Three near-infrared markers placed on the face of a rando phantom are used to evaluate the capability of OTS in measuring changes in the markers’ positions as the rando is moved in the translational direction. The OTS is also employed to determine breathing motion related changes in the position of 16 markers placed on the chest surface of human volunteers. The maximum uncertainty in locating marker position with the OTS is 1.5 mm. In the case of normal and deep breathing motion, the maximum marker position change is observed in anterior–posterior direction with the respective values of 4 and 12 mm. The OTS is able to measure surface changes due to breathing motion. The OTS may be optimized to monitor whole body motion during TMI to increase the accuracy of treatment delivery and reduce the radiation dose to the lungs.

Sharma, Manju; Santos, Troy Dos; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P.; Hui, Susanta Kumar

2011-01-01

382

THE ROLE OF INTESTINAL BACTERIA IN THE RECOVERY FROM WHOLE BODY RADIATION  

PubMed Central

Non-absorbable antibiotics, neomycin sulfate or polymyxin B, prevent death from an otherwise lethal dose of whole body radiation by suppressing the activity of the Gram-negative bacterial flora of the intestinal tract. The protective effect of such suppression has been evaluated over a range of radiation exposure from 325 to 675 r. Coliform-free animals uniformly survive exposure to 550 r, a dose which is regularly lethal for coliform bearing animals. When antibiotic treatment is begun within 1 hour after 550 r whole body radiation, survival is the rule. Delay in starting treatment is critical, for the longer the delay, the higher the mortality, even though the stool cultures meanwhile become coliform-free. When antibiotic is started prior to or immediately after radiation exposure, it must be continued for at least 3 weeks if maximum effectiveness is to be obtained. The shorter the postradiation period of treatment, the greater the mortality. This suggests that the defense systems involved require protection for at least 3 weeks in order to permit return of maximal function. The non-absorbable intestinal antibiotics are effective only when cultural data demonstrate successful elimination of the coliform flora in the gut.

Rosoff, Chester B.

1963-01-01

383

Measurement of respiratory function using whole-body plethysmography in unanesthetized and unrestrained nonhuman primates.  

PubMed

Extended term, continuous measurement and observation of drug responses were performed to examine the feasibility of a custom-made whole-body plethysmograph for measuring respiratory function in unanesthetized, unrestrained monkeys. Using this apparatus, respiratory function (respiration rate, tidal volume, and minute volume) was observed for 23 hr in unanesthetized, unrestrained cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The respiration rate, tidal volume, and minute volume in the light period (7:00 to 19:00) reached approximately 30% to 50% higher values than in the dark period (19:00 to 7:00), thus clearly exhibiting circadian variation in the cynomolgus monkey respiratory functions. Administration of morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) resulted in sustained reduction in tidal volume and minute volume, and ketamine (30 mg/kg [sub-anesthetic dose], i.m.) also produced sustained reduction in respiration rate, tidal volume, and minute volume. With dimorpholamine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) or caffeine (10 mg/kg, s.c.), respiration rate, tidal volume, and minute volume increased. Physiological saline (1 ml/kg, s.c. and 0.1 ml/kg, i.v.) and chlorpromazine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) produced no clear-cut changes in respiration rate, tidal volume, or minute volume. From the above results, we conclude that our custom-made whole-body plethysmograph is useful for measuring respiratory function in unanesthetized and unrestrained monkeys. PMID:21139336

Iizuka, Hiromi; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Odagiri, Norio; Obo, Mayumi; Imaizumi, Masakazu; Atai, Hiroshi

2010-12-01

384

The effects of thiamin on lead metabolism: whole body retention of lead-203.  

PubMed

The effects of thiamin on the whole body retention of led were evaluated in CD-1 mice treated intragastrically or intraperitoneally while exposed to a single dose of lead acetate (100 micrograms) containing 100 mu Ci lead-203. They were administered thiamin (25 or 50 mg/kg body wt.), calcium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) (50 mg/kg body wt.) or their combination in pretreatment or posttreatment regimens for 13 days. Both pre- and posttreatment with thiamin reduced the lead retention compared to the untreated lead-exposed mice, although the different patterns of lead retention were observed. The combined pretreatment (thiamin 50 mg/kg and CaEDTA) and the CaEDTA treatment alone reduced the whole body retention of lead most effectively. Thiamin, CaEDTA and the combined treatments decreased the absorption of lead-203 and the biological half-life of retained lead-203 following oral or intraperitoneal lead exposure. The reduced absorption and enhanced excretion of lead associated with thiamin administration may have therapeutic application for the treatment of lead poisoning. PMID:1902008

Kim, J S; Hamilton, D L; Blakley, B R; Rousseaux, C G

1991-04-01

385

Whole-body and multi-joint kinematic control strategy variability during backward rotating dismounts from beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop insight into the whole-body and multi-joint kinematic control strategy variability associated with the execution of fundamental backward rotating dismounts from beam. Two-dimensional joint centre coordinate data were obtained for ten backward piked and backward tucked somersault dismount skills performed by four female gymnasts (N = 80 trials). Gymnast-specific and group variability in whole-body and

Marianne J. R. Gittoes; Gareth Irwin; David R. Mullineaux; David G. Kerwin

2011-01-01

386

Ovarian cancer recurrence: role of whole-body positron emission tomography using 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy- D -glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This study was designed to assess the value of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) for the diagnosis of recurrent ovarian cancer. Twenty-five patients who had previously undergone surgery for ovarian cancer were imaged using whole-body FDG-PET. During the 4 weeks preceding the PET study, conventional imaging, comprising computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of

Tatsuo Torizuka; Shuji Nobezawa; Toshihiko Kanno; Masami Futatsubashi; Etsuji Yoshikawa; Hiroyuki Okada; Munetaka Takekuma; Makoto Maeda; Yasuomi Ouchi

2002-01-01

387

IV radionuclide total-body arteriography: a new noninvasive whole-body screening procedure--a case report  

SciTech Connect

Recently the authors introduced a new technique of intravenous (IV) radionuclide total-body arteriography. The major arterial system, multiple organs of the whole body, and cardiac function can be evaluated with one small IV injection in the arm. After analyzing more than 1000 cases, they have found that many pathologies can be detected and/or confirmed in this procedure. This new technique may be used as a general whole-body screening test for those patients at high risk for disease.

Yang, D.C.; Gould, L.; Yee, W.K.; Patel, D.; Giovanniello, J.

1988-01-01

388

Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application.  

PubMed

Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ~15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ~45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45 to ~35 min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging. PMID:24080962

Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Tahari, Abdel K; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

2013-10-21

389

Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ˜15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ˜45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45 to ˜35 min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging.

Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

2013-10-01

390

Vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Man's reactions to vibration are emphasized rather than his reactions to the vibrational characteristics of vehicles. Vibrational effects studies include: performance effects reflected in tracking proficiency, reaction time, visual impairment, and other measures related to man's ability to control a system; physiological reactions; biodynamic responses; subjective reactions; and human tolerance limits. Technological refinements in shaker systems and improved experimental designs are used to validate the data.

Hornick, R. J.

1973-01-01

391

Lack of effect of lovastatin therapy on the parameters of whole-body cholesterol metabolism.  

PubMed Central

The effects of lovastatin therapy on the parameters of body cholesterol metabolism were explored in nine hypercholesterolemic patients. Long-term cholesterol turnover studies were performed before therapy, and were repeated after 15 mo of lovastatin therapy (40 mg/d) while continuing on therapy. The major question addressed was whether a reduction in plasma cholesterol level with lovastatin would be associated with a reduction in the whole-body production rate of cholesterol or with the sizes of exchangeable body cholesterol pools as determined by the three-pool model of cholesterol turnover. The mean plasma cholesterol level decreased 19.4% (from 294 to 237 mg/dl), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased 23.8% (from 210 to 159 mg/dl) with lovastatin therapy. Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level were not significant. The cholesterol production rate did not change significantly with therapy (1.09 +/- 0.10 [mean +/- S.D.] vs. 1.17 +/- 0.09 g/d). By comparison, colestipol and niacin treatment in three other subjects more than doubled the cholesterol production rate (1.14 +/- 0.28 vs. 2.42 +/- 0.34 g/d). Thus, hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibition by lovastatin at the therapeutic dose used here did not change the steady-state rate of whole-body cholesterol synthesis. Despite the changes in plasma cholesterol levels, no significant changes were seen in the values of M1, of M3 or of Mtot, the sizes of the pools of rapidly, of slowly, and of total body exchangeable cholesterol. Conclusion: lovastatin therapy to lower plasma cholesterol does not lead to corresponding reductions in body cholesterol pools or to a reduction in the rate of whole-body cholesterol synthesis. In the new steady state that exists during long-term lovastatin therapy, along with increased expression of the genes for HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor, the body compensates for the effects of the drug so that cholesterol production rate and tissue pool sizes are not changed from pretreatment values.

Goldberg, I J; Holleran, S; Ramakrishnan, R; Adams, M; Palmer, R H; Dell, R B; Goodman, D S

1990-01-01

392

Design Study of a Whole-Body PET Scanner with Improved Spatial and Timing Resolution  

PubMed Central

Current state-of-art whole-body PET scanners achieve a system spatial resolution of 4–5 mm with limited sensitivity. Since the reconstructed spatial resolution and image quality are limited by the count statistics, there has not been a significant push for developing higher resolution whole-body PET scanners. Our goal in this study is to investigate the impact of improved spatial resolution together with time-of-flight (TOF) capability on lesion uptake estimation and lesion detectability, two important tasks in whole-body oncologic studies. The broader goal of this project is the development of a new state-of-art TOF PET scanner operating within an MRI while pushing the technology in PET system design. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to test the effects of crystal size (4 mm and 2.6 mm wide crystals), TOF timing resolution (300ps and 600ps), and 2-level depth-of-interaction (DOI) capability. Spatial resolution was calculated by simulating point sources in air at multiple positions. Results show that smaller crystals produced improved resolution, while degradation of resolution due to parallax error could be reduced with a 2-level DOI detector. Lesion phantoms were simulated to measure the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) and area under the LROC curve (ALROC) for 0.5 cm diameter lesions with 6:1 activity uptake relative to the background. Smaller crystals produce higher CRC, leading to increased ALROC values or a reduction in scan time. Improved timing resolution provides faster CRC convergence and once again leads to an increase in ALROC value or reduced scan time. Based on our choice of timing resolution and crystal size, improved timing resolution (300ps) with larger crystals (4 mm wide) has similar ALROC as smaller crystals (2.6 mm wide) with 600ps timing resolution. A 2-level DOI measurement provides some CRC and ALROC improvement for lesions further away from the center, leading to a more uniform performance within the imaging field-of-view (FOV). Given a choice between having either an improved spatial resolution, improved timing resolution, or DOI capability, improved spatial or timing resolution provide an overall higher ALROC relative to a 2-level DOI detector.

Surti, S.; Shore, Adam R.; Karp, Joel S.

2013-01-01

393

Responses of primate caudal parabrachial nucleus and Kolliker-fuse nucleus neurons to whole body rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The caudal aspect of the parabrachial (PBN) and Kolliker-Fuse (KF) nuclei receive vestibular nuclear and visceral afferent information and are connected reciprocally with the spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic cortex. Hence, they may be important sites of vestibulo-visceral integration, particularly for the development of affective responses to gravitoinertial challenges. Extracellular recordings were made from caudal PBN cells in three alert, adult female Macaca nemestrina through an implanted chamber. Sinusoidal and position trapezoid angular whole body rotation was delivered in yaw, roll, pitch, and vertical semicircular canal planes. Sites were confirmed histologically. Units that responded during rotation were located in lateral and medial PBN and KF caudal to the trochlear nerve at sites that were confirmed anatomically to receive superior vestibular nucleus afferents. Responses to whole-body angular rotation were modeled as a sum of three signals: angular velocity, a leaky integration of angular velocity, and vertical position. All neurons displayed angular velocity and integrated angular velocity sensitivity, but only 60% of the neurons were position-sensitive. These responses to vertical rotation could display symmetric, asymmetric, or fully rectified cosinusoidal spatial tuning about a best orientation in different cells. The spatial properties of velocity and integrated velocity and position responses were independent for all position-sensitive neurons; the angular velocity and integrated angular velocity signals showed independent spatial tuning in the position-insensitive neurons. Individual units showed one of three different orientations of their excitatory axis of velocity rotation sensitivity: vertical-plane-only responses, positive elevation responses (vertical plane plus ipsilateral yaw), and negative elevation axis responses (vertical plane plus negative yaw). The interactions between the velocity and integrated velocity components also produced variations in the temporal pattern of responses as a function of rotation direction. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a vestibulorecipient region of the PBN and KF integrates signals from the vestibular nuclei and relay information about changes in whole-body orientation to pathways that produce homeostatic and affective responses.

Balaban, Carey D.; McGee, David M.; Zhou, Jianxun; Scudder, Charles A.

2002-01-01

394

Optimal whole-body PET scanner configurations for different volumes of LSO scintillator: a simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The axial field of view (AFOV) of the current generation of clinical whole-body PET scanners range from 15-22 cm, which limits sensitivity and renders applications such as whole-body dynamic imaging or imaging of very low activities in whole-body cellular tracking studies, almost impossible. Generally, extending the AFOV significantly increases the sensitivity and count-rate performance. However, extending the AFOV while maintaining detector thickness has significant cost implications. In addition, random coincidences, detector dead time, and object attenuation may reduce scanner performance as the AFOV increases. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulations to find the optimal scanner geometry (i.e. AFOV, detector thickness and acceptance angle) based on count-rate performance for a range of scintillator volumes ranging from 10 to 93 l with detector thickness varying from 5 to 20 mm. We compare the results to the performance of a scanner based on the current Siemens Biograph mCT geometry and electronics. Our simulation models were developed based on individual components of the Siemens Biograph mCT and were validated against experimental data using the NEMA NU-2 2007 count-rate protocol. In the study, noise-equivalent count rate (NECR) was computed as a function of maximum ring difference (i.e. acceptance angle) and activity concentration using a 27 cm diameter, 200 cm uniformly filled cylindrical phantom for each scanner configuration. To reduce the effect of random coincidences, we implemented a variable coincidence time window based on the length of the lines of response, which increased NECR performance up to 10% compared to using a static coincidence time window for scanners with a large maximum ring difference values. For a given scintillator volume, the optimal configuration results in modest count-rate performance gains of up to 16% compared to the shortest AFOV scanner with the thickest detectors. However, the longest AFOV of approximately 2 m with 20 mm thick detectors resulted in performance gains of 25-31 times higher NECR relative to the current Siemens Biograph mCT scanner configuration.

Poon, Jonathan K.; Dahlbom, Magnus L.; Moses, William W.; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Wang, Wenli; Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.

2012-07-01

395

Whole body and regional body composition changes following 10-day hypoxic confinement and unloading-inactivity.  

PubMed

Future planetary habitats will expose inhabitants to both reduced gravity and hypoxia. This study investigated the effects of short-term unloading and normobaric hypoxia on whole body and regional body composition (BC). Eleven healthy, recreationally active, male participants with a mean (SD) age of 24 (2) years and body mass index of 22.4 (3.2) kg·m(-2) completed the following 3 10-day campaigns in a randomised, cross-over designed protocol: (i) hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), (ii) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), and (iii) normoxic bed rest (NBR; FIO2 = 0.209; PIO2 = 133.5 (0.7) mm Hg). Nutritional requirements were individually precalculated and the actual intake was monitored throughout the study protocol. Body mass, whole body, and regional BC were assessed before and after the campaigns using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The calculated daily targeted energy intake values were 2071 (170) kcal for HBR and NBR and 2417 (200) kcal for HAMB. In both HBR and NBR campaigns the actual energy intake was within the targeted level, whereas in the HAMB the intake was lower than targeted (-8%, p < 0.05). Body mass significantly decreased in all 3 campaigns (-2.1%, -2.8%, and -2.0% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05), secondary to a significant decrease in lean mass (-3.8%, -3.8%, -4.3% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05) along with a slight, albeit not significant, increase in fat mass. The same trend was observed in the regional BC regardless of the region and the campaign. These results demonstrate that, hypoxia per se, does not seem to alter whole body and regional BC during short-term bed rest. PMID:24552383

Debevec, Tadej; McDonnell, Adam C; Macdonald, Ian A; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

2014-03-01

396

Optimal whole-body PET scanner configurations for different volumes of LSO scintillator: a simulation study  

PubMed Central

The axial field of view (AFOV) of the current generation of clinical whole-body PET scanners range from 15–22 cm, which limits sensitivity and renders applications such as whole-body dynamic imaging, or imaging of very low activities in whole-body cellular tracking studies, almost impossible. Generally, extending the AFOV significantly increases the sensitivity and count-rate performance. However, extending the AFOV while maintaining detector thickness