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Sample records for whole-body vibration training

  1. Whole body vibration exercise: training and benefits.

    PubMed

    Dolny, Dennis G; Reyes, G Francis Cisco

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, it has been suggested that exercise using whole body vibration (WBV) platforms may increase muscle activity and subsequently enhance muscle performance in both acute and chronic conditions. WBV platforms produce frequencies ranging from 15-60 Hz and vertical displacements from ~1-11 mm, resulting in accelerations of ~2.2-5.1 g. Acute exposure to WBV has produced mixed results in terms of improving jump, sprint, and measures of muscle performance. With WBV training, younger fit subjects may not experience gains unless some type of external load is added to WBV exercise. However, sedentary and elderly individuals have demonstrated significant gains in most measures of muscle performance, similar with comparable traditional resistance exercise training programs. WBV training also has demonstrated gains in flexibility in younger athletic populations and gains or maintenance in bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. These promising results await further research to establish preferred WBV training parameters. PMID:18477873

  2. Acute Effects of Loaded Whole Body Vibration Training on Performance

    PubMed Central

    Pojskic, Haris; Pagaduan, Jeffrey; Uzicanin, Edin; Babajic, Fuad; Muratovic, Melika; Tomljanovic, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background: The application of whole body vibration (WBV) as a warm-up scheme has been receiving an increasing interest among practitioners. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of loaded and unloaded WBV on countermovement jump, speed and agility. Patients and Methods: Twenty-one healthy male college football players (age: 20.14 ± 1.65 years; body height: 179.9 ± 8.34 cm; body mass: 74.4 ± 13.0 kg; % body fat: 9.45 ± 4.8) underwent randomized controlled trials that involved standing in a half squat position (ST), ST with 30% of bodyweight (ST + 30%), whole body vibration at f = 50 Hz, A = 4 mm (WBV), and WBV with 30% bodyweight (WBV + 30% BW) after a standardized warm-up. Post measures of countermovement jump, 15-m sprint, and modified t-test were utilized for analyses. Results: One way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the countermovement jump performance, F (3, 60 = 9.06, η2 = 2.21, P = 0.000. Post-hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW posted significant difference compared to (P = 0.008), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). There was also a significant difference in the sprint times among interventions, F (3, 60) = 23.0, η2 = 0.865, P = 0.000. Post hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW displayed significantly lower time values than ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). Lastly, there was a significant difference in the agility performance across experimental conditions at F(2.01, 40.1) = 21.0, η2 = 0.954, P = 0.000. Post hoc demonstrated that WBV have lower times than ST (P = 0.013). Also, WBV + 30% BW posted lower times compared to ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.003). Conclusions: Additional external load of 30% bodyweight under WBV posted superior gains in countermovement jump, speed and agility compared to unloaded WBV, loaded non-WBV and unloaded non-WBV interventions. PMID:25883774

  3. Controlled whole-body vibration training reduces risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; King, George A; Dillon, Loretta; Su, Xiaogang

    2015-09-18

    The primary purpose of this study was to systematically examine the effects of an 8-week controlled whole-body vibration training on reducing the risk of falls among community-dwelling adults. Eighteen healthy elderlies received vibration training which was delivered on a side alternating vibration platform in an intermittent way: five repetitions of 1 min vibration followed by a 1 min rest. The vibration frequency and amplitude were 20 Hz and 3.0mm respectively. The same training was repeated 3 times a week, and the entire training lasted for 8 weeks for a total of 24 training sessions. Immediately prior to (or pre-training) and following (or post-training) the 8-week training course, all participants' risk of falls were evaluated in terms of body balance, functional mobility, muscle strength and power, bone density, range of motion at lower limb joints, foot cutaneous sensation level, and fear of falling. Our results revealed that the training was able to improve all fall risk factors examined with moderate to large effect sizes ranging between 0.55 and 1.26. The important findings of this study were that an 8-week vibration training could significantly increase the range of motion of ankle joints on the sagittal plane (6.4 at pre-training evaluation vs. 9.6 at post-training evaluation for dorsiflexion and 45.8 vs. 51.9 for plantar-flexion, p<0.05 for both); reduce the sensation threshold of the foot plantar surface (p<0.05); and lower the fear of falling (12.2 vs. 10.8, p<0.05). These findings could provide guidance to design optimal whole-body vibration training paradigm for fall prevention among older adults. PMID:26189095

  4. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition in adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez-Agero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gmez-Cabello, Alba; Casajs, Jos A; Vicente-Rodrguez, Germn

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after 20 weeks of WBV training. Repeated measures of ANOVA adjusting by height, weight and Tanner stage were used to analyze possible group by time interactions on body composition. The adjusted percentages of change in body composition were also compared between control and WBV groups. No group by time interactions were found for any variable, but the WBV group showed a higher reduction in body fat at the upper limbs (p<0.05), and a tendency toward higher percent increase in whole body lean body mass. Overall, a 20-week WBV training is not enough by itself for increasing lean body mass in adolescents with DS, but it might be helpful for improving body composition in this population. Its relationship with health and autonomy enhances the importance of these results. PMID:23474995

  5. Whole body vibration training in patients with COPD: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gloeckl, Rainer; Heinzelmann, Inga; Kenn, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown that whole body vibration training (WBVT) may be a beneficial training mode in a variety of chronic diseases and conditions such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, or chronic low back pain. However, a systematic review on the effects of WBVT in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been performed yet. An extensive literature search was performed using various electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, LILACS, and PEDro). They were searched from inception until September 20, 2014, using key words like "COPD" and "whole body vibration training." A total of 91 studies could be identified and were screened for relevance by two independent reviewers. Six studies were included in a qualitative analysis. Trials studied either the effects of WBVT versus an inactive control group, versus sham WBVT, during an acute COPD exacerbation or as a modality on top of conventional endurance and strength training. All randomized trials reported a significantly superior benefit on exercise capacity (6-minute walking distance) in favor of the WBVT group. Although there are only few studies available, there is some preliminary evidence that WBVT may be an effective exercise modality to improve functional exercise capacity in patients with COPD. PMID:25904085

  6. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  7. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

  8. Strength training with superimposed whole body vibration does not preferentially modulate cortical plasticity.

    PubMed

    Weier, Ashleigh T; Kidgell, Dawson J

    2012-01-01

    Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to investigate 4 wks of leg strength training with and without whole body vibration (WBV) on corticospinal excitability and short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI). Participants (n = 12) were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental (WBV) group. All participants completed 12 squat training sessions either with (WBV group) or without (control group) exposure to WBV (f = 35 Hz, A = 2.5 mm). There were significant (P < 0.05) increases in squat strength and corticospinal excitability and significant (P < 0.05) reductions in SICI for both groups following the 4 wk intervention. There were no differences detected between groups for any dependant variable (P > 0.05). It appears that WBV training does not augment the increase in strength or corticospinal excitability induced by strength training alone. PMID:22654645

  9. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular health in elderly and disease population. However, its mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of WBVT in cardiovascular health has not been well documented. Therefore, this review highlighted the impacts of WBVT on cardiovascular health, and its mechanisms in conjunction with the improved muscular strength and body composition in various populations. PMID:26730378

  10. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-12-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular health in elderly and disease population. However, its mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of WBVT in cardiovascular health has not been well documented. Therefore, this review highlighted the impacts of WBVT on cardiovascular health, and its mechanisms in conjunction with the improved muscular strength and body composition in various populations. PMID:26730378

  11. THE ACUTE EFFECT OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON FLEXIBILITY AND EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH OF YOUNG GYMNASTS

    PubMed Central

    Kirialanis, P.; Mellos, V.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of a single bout of whole body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young artistic gymnasts. Thirty-two young competitive gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study, and were allocated to either the vibration group or traditional body weight training according to the vibration protocol. The vibration intervention consisted of a single bout of eccentric and concentric squatting movements on a vibration platform that was turned on (vibration group: VG n = 15), whereas the traditional body weight (no vibration) group performed the same training protocol with the WBV device turned off (NVG: n= 17). Flexibility (sit and reach test) and explosive strength tests [squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), and single leg squat (right leg (RL) and left leg (LL))] were performed initially (pre-test), immediately after the intervention (post-test 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the intervention programme (post-test 15). Four 2x3 ANOVAs were used to examine the interaction between group (VG vs NVG) and time (pre, post 1, and post 15) with respect to examined variables. The results revealed that a significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to SJ (p < 0.05). However, no significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to flexibility, CMJ, RL and LL after the end of the intervention programme (p > 0.05). Further, the percentage improvement of the VG was significantly greater in all examined variables compared to the NVG. This study concluded that WBV training improves flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young trained artistic gymnasts and maintains the initial level of performance for at least 15 minutes after the WBV intervention programme. PMID:25177103

  12. The acute effect of whole body vibration training on flexibility and explosive strength of young gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Dallas, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of a single bout of whole body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young artistic gymnasts. Thirty-two young competitive gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study, and were allocated to either the vibration group or traditional body weight training according to the vibration protocol. The vibration intervention consisted of a single bout of eccentric and concentric squatting movements on a vibration platform that was turned on (vibration group: VG n = 15), whereas the traditional body weight (no vibration) group performed the same training protocol with the WBV device turned off (NVG: n= 17). Flexibility (sit and reach test) and explosive strength tests [squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), and single leg squat (right leg (RL) and left leg (LL))] were performed initially (pre-test), immediately after the intervention (post-test 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the intervention programme (post-test 15). Four 2x3 ANOVAs were used to examine the interaction between group (VG vs NVG) and time (pre, post 1, and post 15) with respect to examined variables. The results revealed that a significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to SJ (p < 0.05). However, no significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to flexibility, CMJ, RL and LL after the end of the intervention programme (p > 0.05). Further, the percentage improvement of the VG was significantly greater in all examined variables compared to the NVG. This study concluded that WBV training improves flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young trained artistic gymnasts and maintains the initial level of performance for at least 15 minutes after the WBV intervention programme. PMID:25177103

  13. Effects of different amplitudes (high vs. low) of whole-body vibration training in active adults.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Alcaraz, Pedro E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different amplitudes of whole-body vibrations on the development of strength, mechanical power of the lower limb, and body composition. Thirty-eight recreationally active participants took part in the study. Participants were divided in two experimental groups (low amplitude group [GL] = 2 mm; high amplitude group [GH] = 4 mm) and a control group. The experimental groups performed an incremental vibratory training, 2 days per week during 6 weeks. The frequency of vibration (50 Hz), time of work (60 seconds), and time of rest (60 seconds) were constant for GL and GH groups. All the participants were on the platform in a static semi-squat position. Maximum isokinetic strength, body composition, and performance in vertical jumps (squat and countermovement jumps) were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the training cycle. A significant increase of isokinetic strength was observed in GL and GH at angular velocities of 60°.s(-1), 180°.s(-1) and 270°.s(-1). Total lean mass was significantly increased in GH (0.9 ± 1.0 kg). There were no significant changes in the total fat mass in any of the groups. Significant changes were not observed in different variables (height, peak power, and rate of force development) derived from the vertical jumps for any of the groups submitted to study. The vibration training, whatever the amplitude, produced significant improvements in isokinetic strength. However, high vibration amplitude training presents better adaptations for hypertrophy than the training with low vibration amplitude. In this sense, GH would be a better training if the practitioners want to develop both strength and hypertrophy of the lower limbs. PMID:23096064

  14. Whole-body vibration training effect on physical performance and obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25317067

  15. Whole-Body Vibration Training Effect on Physical Performance and Obesity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25317067

  16. A Comparison of Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Total Work in the Rotator Cuff

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Jason; Verscheure, Susan; Osternig, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Context: Whole-body vibration machines are a relatively new technology being implemented in the athletic setting. Numerous authors have examined the proposed physiologic mechanisms of vibration therapy and performance outcomes. Changes have mainly been observed in the lower extremity after individual exercises, with minimal attention to the upper extremity and resistance training programs. Objective: To examine the effects of a novel vibration intervention directed at the upper extremity as a precursor to a supervised, multijoint dynamic resistance training program. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA institution. Patients or Other Participants: Thirteen female student-athletes were divided into the following 2 treatment groups: (1) whole-body vibration and resistance training or (2) resistance training only. Intervention(s): Participants in the vibration and resistance training group used an experimental vibration protocol of 2 60 seconds at 4 mm and 50 Hz, in a modified push-up position, 3 times per week for 10 weeks, just before their supervised resistance training session. Main Outcome Measure(s): Isokinetic total work measurements of the rotator cuff were collected at baseline and at week 5 and week 10. Results: No differences were found between the treatment groups (P > .05). However, rotator cuff output across time increased in both groups (P < .05). Conclusions: Although findings did not differ between the groups, the use of whole-body vibration as a precursor to multijoint exercises warrants further investigation because of the current lack of literature on the topic. Our results indicate that indirectly strengthening the rotator cuff using a multijoint dynamic resistance training program is possible. PMID:19771284

  17. Whole-body vibration training improves the walking ability of a moderately impaired child with cerebral palsy: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Yabumoto, Tamotsu; Shin, Sohee; Watanabe, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Yusuke; Naka, Toru; Oguri, Kazuo; Matsuoka, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Strength training is recommended for children with cerebral palsy. However, it is difficult for moderately impaired children with cerebral palsy, who require crutches for ambulation, to participate in this type of training. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether whole-body vibration training is an effective method of strengthening in a moderately impaired child with cerebral palsy. [Subject and Methods] This report describes an 8-year-old Japanese boy with cerebral palsy, who was ambulatory with crutches. The subject participated in physical therapy twice a week for 5 weeks. Whole-body vibration training was selected to complement the standing practice. The patients crutch-walking ability, gross motor function, and spasticity were evaluated. [Results] The number of steps and walking duration were reduced in a 5-m walk test with crutches and gross motor function was improved. Further, the spasticity was reduced. [Conclusion] Whole-body vibration training is an effective physical therapy intervention in moderately impaired children with cerebral palsy, who are unable to walk without crutches. PMID:26504349

  18. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable. PMID:26834381

  19. Whole-Body Vibration Training and Its Application to Age-Related Performance Decrements: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam; Griffiths, Katie; Babraj, John; Cobley, James N

    2016-02-01

    Hawkey, A, Griffiths, K, Babraj, J, and Cobley, JN. Whole-body vibration training and its application to age-related performance decrements: an exploratory analysis. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 555-560, 2016-Middle age is associated with a pronounced decline in power and flexibility. Whilst whole-body vibration training (WBVT) improves performance in a range of populations, whether WBVT can improve muscle power and flexibility in a middle-aged population is not known. The present study aimed to determine the influence of 5 weeks progressive WBVT in middle-aged (45-55 years) and younger (20-30 years) recreationally active females. Participants in each age group were randomly allocated to an intervention (WBVT) or control group. The WBVT groups trained for 5 weeks on a vibration platform, while the control groups performed identical exercises, with no vibration. Prior to, and after, the 5-week study vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) and range of motion (ROM) performance were measured. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved VCMJ performance when compared to the control groups. This improvement was significantly (p = 0.001) greater in the middle-aged compared with the younger WBVT group. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved ROM irrespective of age. Taken together, these results suggest that WBVT can off-set age related performance decrements, which has therapeutic implications for musculoskeletal aging. Therefore, WBVT could be undertaken to minimise age-related performance deterioration in middle-aged female populations. PMID:26244828

  20. Effects of Whole Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Bone Mineral Density and Anthropometry in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two exercise programs, whole body vibration and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometry in obese postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Eighty Egyptian obese postmenopausal women were enrolled in this study; their age ranged from 50 to 68 years. Their body mass index ranged (3036?kg/m2). The exercise prescription consisted of whole body vibration (WBV) and resistance training. Bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometrical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. Changes from baseline to eight months in BMD and anthropometric parameters were investigated. Results. BMD at the greater trochanter, at ward's triangle, and at lumbar spine were significantly higher after physical training, using both WBV and resistive training. Moreover, both exercise programs were effective in BMI and waist to the hip ratio. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity duration and BMD at all sites. The highest values of R2 were found for the models incorporating WBV plus BMI. Conclusion. The study suggests that both types of exercise modalities had a similar positive effect on BMD at all sites in obese postmenopausal women. Significant association was noted between physical activity and anthropometric variables and BMD measures at all sites. PMID:25136473

  1. Effects of whole-body vibration training on explosive strength and postural control in young female athletes.

    PubMed

    Fort, Azahara; Romero, Daniel; Bagur, Caritat; Guerra, Myriam

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a whole-body vibration training program to improve neuromuscular performance in young elite female athletes. Twenty-three women basketball players (14-18 years old) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11) or to a whole-body vibration group (WBVG, n = 12). During the study period, both groups continued their usual training program, but the WBVG also underwent a 15-week vibration training program. We analyzed the countermovement jump test (CMJ), the 1-leg hop test for the right leg and for the left leg, and the single-limb standing balance for both legs and with eyes open and closed at 3 time points: before training (T1), after an 8-week training period (T2), and after a further 7-week training period (T3). Compared with the CG, CMJ increased significantly in the WBVG from T1 to T2 (6.47%, p < 0.001), T1 to T3 (10.07%, p = 0.005), and T2 to T3 (3.38%, p < 0.001). One-leg hop test for the right and left legs also showed significantly higher values in WBVG from T1 to T2 (10.12%, p < 0.001 and 9.63%, p = 0.002, respectively) and T1 to T3 (14.17%, p = 0.001 and 15.17%, p = 0.004, respectively). Lateral deviation of the center of pressure in the closed eyes test decreased significantly in WBVG for both right and left leg, from T1 to T2 (-22.20%, p = 0.043 and -34.77%, p < 0.001, respectively) and from T1 to T3 (-33.14%, p = 0.027 and -33.58%, p = 0.043, respectively) compared with the CG. In conclusion, our results show that a 15-week whole-body vibration training program improves explosive strength and postural stability in adolescent female basketball players. PMID:22446665

  2. EMG and Heart Rate Responses Decline within 5 Days of Daily Whole-Body Vibration Training with Squatting

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, André; Liphardt, Anna-Maria; Bargmann, Arne; Müller, Klaus; Beck, Luis; Mester, Joachim; Zange, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the acute effects of a 5-day daily whole-body vibration (WBV) training on electromyography (EMG) responses of the m. rectus femoris and m. gastrocnemius lateralis, heart rate (HR, continuously recorded), and blood lactate levels. The purpose of the study was to investigate the adaptation of muscle activity, heart rate and blood lactate levels during 5 days of daily training. Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either squat exercises with vibration at 20 Hz on a side alternating platform (SE+V, n = 20, age  = 31.9±7.5 yrs., height  = 178.8±6.2 cm, body mass  = 79.2±11.4 kg) or squat exercises alone (SE, n = 21, age  = 28.4±7.3 years, height  = 178.9±7.4 cm, body mass  = 77.2±9.7 kg). On training day 1, EMG amplitudes of the m. rectus femoris were significantly higher (P<0.05) during SE+V than during SE. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant on training days 3 and 5. The heart rate (HR) response was significantly higher (P<0.05) during SE+V than during SE on all training days, but showed a constant decline throughout the training days. On training day 1, blood lactate increased significantly more after SE+V than after SE (P<0.05). On the following training days, this difference became much smaller but remained significantly different. The specific physiological responses to WBV were largest on the initial training day and most of them declined during subsequent training days, showing a rapid neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptation to the vibration stimulus. PMID:24905721

  3. Effect of 6 weeks of whole body vibration training on total and segmental body composition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Arias, J A; Esteban, P; Martínez, F; Ramos-Campo, D J; Mendizábal, S; Berdejo-Del-Fresno, D; Jiménez-Díaz, J F

    2015-12-01

    The applied use of new technologies to enhance performance and improve health has been increasing. Initially, whole body vibration training (WBVT) was used as system to improve elite athlete performance. However, this is also used to improve body composition, especially there is a great attention on the effectiveness of WBVT to reduce fat and body weight, with a potential increase in muscle tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 6-week vibration-training program on total and segmental body composition in a group of physically healthy participants. The final study sample included 64 healthy young adults. Subjects were randomly allocated into the control group (CG: n = 26; 16 males and 10 females) and the experimental group (EGWBVT: n = 38; 19 males and 19 females). The program lasted six weeks with a frequency of three sessions per week and each session varied in intensity. There were not found statistically significant differences in any of the body composition variables analysed. This study suggests that a six-week vibration-training program with an increasing intensity (7.2 g-32.6 g) in healthy young adults that are not overweight did not alter total and segmental body composition. PMID:26690036

  4. Whole-body vibration training reduces arterial stiffness, blood pressure and sympathovagal balance in young overweight/obese women.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arturo; Gil, Ryan; Wong, Alexei; Hooshmand, Shirin; Park, Song Y; Vicil, Florence; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is associated with early cardiovascular dysfunction and reduced muscle strength. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training may improve arterial function and muscle strength. The effects of WBV training on arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, baPWV), wave reflection (augmentation index, AIx), brachial systolic blood pressure (bSBP), aortic systolic blood pressure (aSBP), heart rate variability, and muscle strength (one-repetition maximum, 1RM) were examined in 10 young (21 ± 2 year) overweight/obese women (body mass index, BMI = 29.9 ± 0.8 kg m(-2)). Participants were randomized to a 6-week WBV training or non-exercising control (CON) period in a crossover design. WBV training (3 days × week) consisted of static and dynamic squats and calf raises with vibration intensity at 25-30 Hz and 1-2 mm amplitude (2.83-4.86 G). There were significant (P<0.05) decreases in baPWV (-0.9 ± 0.3 m s(-1)), AIx (-8.0 ± 2.2 %), bSBP (-5.3 ± 1.5 mm Hg), aSBP (-5.2 ± 2.1 mm Hg), low-frequency power (-0.13 ± 0.05 nu) and sympathovagal balance (LF/HF, -0.42 ± 0.16) after WBV training compared with CON. Significant (P<0.05) increases in high-frequency power (HF, 0.19 ± 0.04 nu) and leg extension 1RM (8.2 ± 2.3 kg) occurred after WBV training compared with CON. Six weeks of WBV training decreased systemic arterial stiffness and aSBP via improvements in wave reflection and sympathovagal balance in young overweight/obese normotensive women. WBV training may benefit arterial function and muscle strength in deconditioned individuals who cannot perform conventional exercise. PMID:22357522

  5. Changes in circulating angiogenic factors after an acute training bout before and after resistance training with or without whole-body-vibration training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; May, Francisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Joern; Rosenberger, Andre

    2012-07-01

    Both Resistance Exercise and Whole-Body-Vibration training are currently considered as countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Here we investigated the effects of whole-body vibration superimposed upon resistance exercise. Within this context, the present study focuses on changes in circulating angiogenic factors as indicators of skeletal muscle adaption. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male subjects (25.2 ± 4.2 yr) were included in this two-group parallel-designed study and randomly assigned to one of the training interventions: either resistance exercise (RE) or resistance vibration exercise (RVE). Participants trained 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks (completing 16 training sessions), where one session took 9 ± 1 min. Participants trained with weights on a guided barbell. The individual training load was set at 80% of their 1-Repetition-Maximum. Each training session consisted of three sets with 8 squats and 12 heel raises, following an incremental training design with regards to weight (RE and RVE) and vibration frequency (RVE only). The vibration frequency was increased from 20 Hz in the first week till 40 Hz during the last two weeks with 5-Hz weekly increments. At the first and 16 ^{th} training session, six blood samples (pre training and 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 35 min and 75 min post training) were taken. Circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Endostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) were determined in serum using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Results: MMP-2 levels increased by 7.0% (SE = 2.7%, P < 0.001) within two minutes after the exercise bout and then decreased to 5.7% below baseline (SE = 2.4%, P < 0.001) between 15 and 75 minutes post exercise. This response was comparable before and after the training programs (P = 0.70) and also between the two intervention groups (P = 0.42). Preliminary analyses indicate that a similar pattern applies to circulating MMP-9, VEGF and Endostatin levels. Conclusion: The present findings suggest 1) that resistance exercise, both with and without superimposed vibration, leads to a transient rise in circulating angiogenic factors, 2) which is not altered after a period of resistance exercise with or without vibration.

  6. Acute effect of whole body vibration on isometric strength, squat jump, and flexibility in well-trained combat athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pekünlü, E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on maximal strength, squat jump, and flexibility of well-trained combat athletes. Twelve female and 8 male combat athletes (age: 22.8 ± 3.1 years, mass: 65.4 ± 10.7 kg, height: 168.8 ± 8.8 cm, training experience: 11.6 ± 4.7 years, training volume: 9.3 ± 2.8 hours/week) participated in this study. The study consisted of three sessions separated by 48 hours. The first session was conducted for familiarization. In the subsequent two sessions, participants performed WBV or sham intervention in a randomized, balanced order. During WBV intervention, four isometric exercises were performed (26 Hz, 4 mm). During the sham intervention, participants performed the same WBV intervention without vibration treatment (0 Hz, 0 mm). Hand grip, squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength tests were performed after each intervention. The results of a two-factor (pre-post[2] × intervention[2]) repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p = 0.018) of pre-post × intervention only for the hand grip test, indicating a significant performance increase of moderate effect (net increase of 2.48%, d = 0.61) after WBV intervention. Squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength performances were not affected by WBV. In conclusion, the WBV protocol used in this study potentiated hand grip performance, but did not enhance squat jump, trunk flexion, or isometric leg strength in well-trained combat athletes. PMID:26060334

  7. The Effect of a Single Session of Whole-Body Vibration Training in Recreationally Active Men on the Excitability of the Central and Peripheral Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska, Daria; Piecha, Magdalena; B?aszczak, Edward; Krl, Piotr; Smykla, Agnieszka; Juras, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Vibration training has become a popular method used in professional sports and recreation. In this study, we examined the effect of whole-body vibration training on the central nervous system and muscle excitability in a group of 28 active men. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of two experimental groups with different variables of vibrations. The chronaximetry method was used to evaluate the effect of a single session of whole-body vibration training on the excitability of the rectus femoris and brachioradialis muscles. The examination of the fusing and flickering frequencies of the light stimulus was performed. An increase in the excitability of the quadriceps femoris muscle due to low intensity vibrations (20 Hz frequency, 2 mm amplitude) was noted, and a return to the initial values was observed 30 min after the application of vibration. High intensity vibrations (60 Hz frequency, 4 mm amplitude) caused elongations of the chronaxy time; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Neither a low intensity vibration amplitude of 2 mm (frequency of 20 Hz) nor a high intensity vibration amplitude of 4 mm (frequency of 60 Hz) caused a change in the excitability of the central nervous system, as revealed by the average frequency of the fusing and flickering of the light stimulus. A single session of high intensity whole-body vibration did not significantly decrease the excitability of the peripheral nervous system while the central nervous system did not seem to be affected. PMID:25114735

  8. Combined whole-body vibration training and l-citrulline supplementation improves pressure wave reflection in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexei; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Jaime, Salvador J; Kinsey, Amber W; Spicer, Maria T; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Figueroa, Arturo

    2016-03-01

    Postmenopausal women have increased wave reflection (augmentation pressure (AP) and index (AIx)) and reduced muscle function that predispose them to cardiac diseases and disability. Our aim was to examine the combined and independent effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) and l-citrulline supplementation on aortic hemodynamics and plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) in postmenopausal women. Forty-one obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 3 groups: l-citrulline, WBVT+l-citrulline and WBVT+Placebo for 8 weeks. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, AP, AIx, AIx adjusted to 75 beats/min (AIx@75), and NOx were measured before and after 8 weeks. All groups similarly decreased (P < 0.05) brachial and aortic pressures as well as AP, and similarly increased (P < 0.05) NOx levels. AIx and AIx@75 decreased (P < 0.01) in the WBVT+l-citrulline and WBVT+Placebo groups, but not in the l-citrulline group. The improvement in AIx@75 (-10.5% ± 8.8%, P < 0.05) in the WBVT+l-citrulline group was significant compared with the l-citrulline group. l-Citrulline supplementation and WBVT alone and combined decreased blood pressures. The combined intervention reduced AIx@75. This study supports the effectiveness of WBVT+l-citrulline as a potential intervention for prevention of hypertension-related cardiac diseases in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:26863234

  9. Progressive-overload whole-body vibration training as part of periodized, off-season strength training in trained women athletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret T

    2014-09-01

    The purpose was to examine the effects of progressive-overload, whole-body vibration (WBV) training on strength and power as part of a 15-week periodized, strength training (ST) program. Eighteen collegiate women athletes with ?1 year of ST and no prior WBV training participated in the crossover design. Random assignment to 1 of the 2 groups followed pretests of seated medicine ball throw (SMBT), single-leg hop for distance (LSLH, RSLH), countermovement jump (CMJ), 3 repetition maximum (3RM) front squat (FS), pull-up (PU), and 3RM bench press (BP). Whole-body vibration was two 3-week phases of dynamic and static hold body weight exercises administered 2 dwk in ST sessions throughout the 15-week off-season program. Total WBV exposure was 6 minutes broken into 30-second bouts with 60-second rest (1:2 work-to-relief ratio). Exercises, frequency, and amplitude progressed in intensity from the first 3-week WBV training to the second 3-week phase. Repeated-measures analysis of variances were used to analyze the SMBT, CMJ, LSLH, RSLH, FS, PU, and BP tests. Alpha level was p ? 0.05. Front squat, LSLH, and RSLH increased (p = 0.001) from pre- to posttest; FS increased from mid- to posttest. Pull-up increased (p = 0.008) from pre- to posttest. Seated medicine ball throw and BP showed a trend of increased performance from pre- to posttest (p = 0.11). Two 3-week phases of periodized, progressive-overload WBV + ST training elicited gains in strength and power during a 15-week off-season program. Greatest improvements in performance tests occurred in the initial WBV phase. Implementing WBV in conjunction with ST appears to be more effective in the early phases of training. PMID:24936902

  10. Does whole-body vibration training in the horizontal direction have effects on motor function and balance of chronic stroke survivors? A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, GyuChang

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) in the horizontal direction on the motor function and balance of chronic stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-one individuals with chronic stroke from an inpatient rehabilitation center participated in the study. The participants were allocated to either the WBV training group or the control group. The WBV training group (n = 12) received whole-body vibration delivered in the horizontal direction (15 min/day, 3 times/week, 6 wks) followed by conventional rehabilitation (30 min/day, 5 times/week, 6 wks); the control group (n = 9) received conventional rehabilitation only (30 min/day, 5 times/week, 6 wks). Motor function was measured by using the Fugl-Meyer assessment, and balance was measured by using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test before and after the interventions. [Results] After the interventions, all variables improved significantly compared with the baseline values in the WBV training group. In the control group, no significant improvements in any variables were noted. In addition, the BBS score in the WBV training group increased significantly compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] WBV training with whole-body vibration delivered in the horizontal direction may be a potential intervention for improvement of motor function and balance in patients who previously experienced a stroke. PMID:25995573

  11. Whole-body vibration perception thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, K. C.; Griffin, M. J.

    1988-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of laboratory experiments concerned with perception thresholds for whole-body vibration. The nature of absolute perception thresholds is discussed and a method of determining vibration thresholds, based upon signal detection theory, is proposed. Thresholds of subjects exposed to x-, y- and z-axis sinusoidal vibration were determined for sitting and standing subjects (from 2 to 100 Hz). Perception thresholds have also been determined for supine subjects exposed to vertical ( x-axis) sinusoidal vibration (10-63 Hz). In additional experiments the effects of complex (e.g., random) vibration and the effects of duration on the perception thresholds were investigated. The relation between perception thresholds and vibration levels, said by subjects to be unacceptable if they occurred in their own homes, was investigated as well as the effects of subjects' personality and the visual and acoustic conditions in the laboratory. For the vertical vibration of seated subjects no significant differences were found between the responses of male and female subjects. Significant differences were found between perception thresholds for sitting and standing postures. The median threshold was approximately 001 m/s 2 r.m.s. between 2 and 100 Hz. Perception thresholds for x-axis and y-axis vibration were not significantly different in either sitting or standing subjects but significant differences in thresholds were found between sitting and standing positions for both x-axis and y-axis vibration. Subjects tended to be more sensitive to vibration when lying than when sitting or standing. The results suggested that the perception of random vibrations can be predicted from a knowledge of the perception of its component vibrations. The number of cycles of vibration did not affect perception thresholds for vibration durations of more than about 025 s. Some assessments suggested that vibration at more than twice the perception threshold may not be acceptable if it occurs in the home.

  12. Action slips during whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Ishimatsu, Kazuma; Meland, Anders; Hansen, Tor Are S; Kåsin, Jan Ivar; Wagstaff, Anthony S

    2016-07-01

    Helicopter aircrew members engage in highly demanding cognitive tasks in an environment subject to whole-body vibration (WBV). Sometimes their actions may not be according to plan (e.g. action slips and lapses). This study used a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) to examine whether action slips were more frequent during exposure to WBV. Nineteen participants performed the SART in two blocks. In the WBV block participants were exposed to 17 Hz vertical WBV, which is typical of larger helicopter working environments. In the No-WBV block there was no WBV. There were more responses to the rare no-go digit 3 (i.e. action slips) in the WBV block, and participants responded faster in the WBV block. These results suggest that WBV influences response inhibition, and can induce impulsive responding. WBV may increase the likelihood of action slips, mainly due to failure of response inhibition. PMID:26611989

  13. Alternative to traditional stretching methods for flexibility enhancement in well-trained combat athletes: local vibration versus whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Kurt, C

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of local vibration (LV) and whole body vibration (WBV) on lower body flexibility and to assess whether vibration treatments were more effective than traditionally used static and dynamic stretching methods. Twenty-four well-trained male combat athletes (age: 22.7 ± 3.3 years) performed four exercise protocols - LV (30 Hz, 4 mm), WBV (30 Hz, 4 mm), static stretching (SS), and dynamic stretching (DS) - in four sessions of equal duration 48 hours apart in a randomized, balanced order. During a 15-minute recovery after each protocol, subjects performed the stand and reach test (S&R) at the 15th second and the 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th), 8(th), 10(th) and 15(th) minute. There was a similar change pattern in S&R scores across the 15-minute recovery after each protocol (p = 0.572), remaining significantly elevated throughout the recovery. A significant main protocol effect was found for absolute change in S&R scores relative to baseline (p = 0.015). These changes were statistically greater in LV than WBV and DS. Changes in SS were not significantly different from LV, but were consistently lower than LV with almost moderate effect sizes. After LV, a greater percentage of subjects increased flexibility above the minimum detectable change compared to other protocols. Subjects with high flexibility (n = 12) benefited more from LV compared with other methods (effect size ≥ 0.862). In conclusion, LV was an effective alternative exercise modality to acutely increase lower extremity flexibility for well-trained athletes compared with WBV and traditional stretching exercises. PMID:26424926

  14. Alternative to traditional stretching methods for flexibility enhancement in well-trained combat athletes: local vibration versus whole-body vibration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of local vibration (LV) and whole body vibration (WBV) on lower body flexibility and to assess whether vibration treatments were more effective than traditionally used static and dynamic stretching methods. Twenty-four well-trained male combat athletes (age: 22.7 ± 3.3 years) performed four exercise protocols – LV (30 Hz, 4 mm), WBV (30 Hz, 4 mm), static stretching (SS), and dynamic stretching (DS) – in four sessions of equal duration 48 hours apart in a randomized, balanced order. During a 15-minute recovery after each protocol, subjects performed the stand and reach test (S&R) at the 15th second and the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 15th minute. There was a similar change pattern in S&R scores across the 15-minute recovery after each protocol (p = 0.572), remaining significantly elevated throughout the recovery. A significant main protocol effect was found for absolute change in S&R scores relative to baseline (p = 0.015). These changes were statistically greater in LV than WBV and DS. Changes in SS were not significantly different from LV, but were consistently lower than LV with almost moderate effect sizes. After LV, a greater percentage of subjects increased flexibility above the minimum detectable change compared to other protocols. Subjects with high flexibility (n = 12) benefited more from LV compared with other methods (effect size ≥ 0.862). In conclusion, LV was an effective alternative exercise modality to acutely increase lower extremity flexibility for well-trained athletes compared with WBV and traditional stretching exercises. PMID:26424926

  15. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodzi?ski, Bart?omiej; Ciechanowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The report of the World Health Organization (WHO) of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used postmenopausal osteoporosis and whole-body vibration exercise. PMID:26327887

  16. Whole body vibration and cerebral palsy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Duquette, Sean A.; Guiliano, Anthony M.; Starmer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this review is to evaluate the effects of whole body vibration on outcomes in patients with cerebral palsy. The findings in this review may help clinicians make evidence informed decisions on the use of whole body vibration for cerebral palsy. Methods: A systematic search was conducted on April 29, 2014.The following search terms were used to search of several databases: (whole body vibration OR whole-body vibration OR whole body-vibration OR WBV) AND (cerebral palsy). Articles that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Scottish intercollegiate guidelines network (SIGN) rating system to assess the methodology and bias of the articles for randomized control trials. Results: The search produced 25 articles, of which 12 duplicates were identified and removed. Another seven articles were not considered since they did not fit the inclusion criteria, leaving a total of five studies for review. Four of the articles analyzed the effects of WBV in children while the other study focused on adults with cerebral palsy. There was one low quality article, four acceptable quality articles and one high quality article when assessed using the SIGN criteria. Conclusions: It appears that whole body vibration has the potential to provide symptomatic relief for patients with cerebral palsy. Whole body vibration may improve spasticity, muscle strength and coordination. There is a lack of research to conclusively determine whether it does alter bone mineral density. PMID:26500358

  17. Effects of whole-body vibration training on physical function, bone and muscle mass in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Gusso, Silmara; Munns, Craig F; Colle, Patrícia; Derraik, José G B; Biggs, Janene B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    We performed a clinical trial on the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on muscle function and bone health of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Forty participants (11.3-20.8 years) with mild to moderate cerebral palsy (GMFCS II-III) underwent 20-week WBVT on a vibration plate for 9 minutes/day 4 times/week at 20 Hz (without controls). Assessments included 6-minute walk test, whole-body DXA, lower leg pQCT scans, and muscle function (force plate). Twenty weeks of WBVT were associated with increased lean mass in the total body (+770 g; p = 0.0003), trunk (+410 g; p = 0.004), and lower limbs (+240 g; p = 0.012). Bone mineral content increased in total body (+48 g; p = 0.0001), lumbar spine (+2.7 g; p = 0.0003), and lower limbs (+13 g; p < 0.0001). Similarly, bone mineral density increased in total body (+0.008 g/cm(2); p = 0.013), lumbar spine (+0.014 g/cm(2); p = 0.003), and lower limbs (+0.023 g/cm(2); p < 0.0001). Participants reduced the time taken to perform the chair test, and improved the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test by 11% and 35% for those with GMFCS II and III, respectively. WBVT was associated with increases in muscle mass and bone mass and density, and improved mobility of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. PMID:26936535

  18. Effects of whole-body vibration training on physical function, bone and muscle mass in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gusso, Silmara; Munns, Craig F; Colle, Patrícia; Derraik, José G B; Biggs, Janene B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    We performed a clinical trial on the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on muscle function and bone health of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Forty participants (11.3–20.8 years) with mild to moderate cerebral palsy (GMFCS II–III) underwent 20-week WBVT on a vibration plate for 9 minutes/day 4 times/week at 20 Hz (without controls). Assessments included 6-minute walk test, whole-body DXA, lower leg pQCT scans, and muscle function (force plate). Twenty weeks of WBVT were associated with increased lean mass in the total body (+770 g; p = 0.0003), trunk (+410 g; p = 0.004), and lower limbs (+240 g; p = 0.012). Bone mineral content increased in total body (+48 g; p = 0.0001), lumbar spine (+2.7 g; p = 0.0003), and lower limbs (+13 g; p < 0.0001). Similarly, bone mineral density increased in total body (+0.008 g/cm2; p = 0.013), lumbar spine (+0.014 g/cm2; p = 0.003), and lower limbs (+0.023 g/cm2; p < 0.0001). Participants reduced the time taken to perform the chair test, and improved the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test by 11% and 35% for those with GMFCS II and III, respectively. WBVT was associated with increases in muscle mass and bone mass and density, and improved mobility of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. PMID:26936535

  19. Wireless Network for Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Diogo; Chiaramonte, Marilda S.; Balbinot, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the development of a system integrated to a ZigBee network to measure whole-body vibration. The developed system allows distinguishing human vibrations of almost 400Hz in three axes with acceleration of almost 50g. The tests conducted in the study ensured the correct functioning of the system for the project's purpose.

  20. Potential beneficial effects of whole-body vibration for muscle recovery after exercise.

    PubMed

    Kosar, Angela C; Candow, Darren G; Putland, Jessica T

    2012-10-01

    Whole-body vibration is an emerging strategy used by athletes and exercising individuals to potentially accelerate muscle recovery. The vibration elicits involuntary muscle stretch reflex contractions leading to increased motor unit recruitment and synchronization of synergist muscles, which may lead to greater training adaptations over time. Intense exercise training, especially eccentric muscle contractions, will inevitably lead to muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness, which may interfere with the maintenance of a planned training program. Whole-body vibration before and after exercise shows promise for attenuating muscle soreness and may be considered as an adjunct to traditional therapies (i.e., massage, cryotherapy) to accelerate muscle recovery. PMID:22130390

  1. Influence of Whole-Body Vibration Training Without Visual Feedback on Balance and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength of the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Lai, Chung-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ling; Hsu, Pi-Shan; Lee, Meng-Chih; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of whole-body vibration (WBV) training without visual feedback on balance and lower-extremity muscle strength in the elderly.Elderly subjects who did not exercise regularly participated in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into a WBV with eyes open group, a visual feedback-deprived plus WBV (VFDWBV) group, and a control group (0?Hz, eyes open). WBV training was provided over a 3-month period, 3 times per week for 5 min each session. Balance performance was measured with the limits of stability test, and muscle strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer.A total of 45 elderly subjects with an average age of 69.22??3.97 years, divided into a WBV group (n?=?14), a VFDWBV group (n?=?17), and a control group (n?=?14), completed the trial. Statistically significant differences were found in the balance performance of the 3 groups at different time points (time group interaction: F?=?13.213, P?training at 20?Hz without visual feedback can significantly improve the balance performance and lower-extremity muscle strength of the elderly. PMID:26844514

  2. Impact of L-citrulline supplementation and whole-body vibration training on arterial stiffness and leg muscle function in obese postmenopausal women with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arturo; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Ormsbee, Michael J; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Campbell, Jeremiah C; Wong, Alexei

    2015-03-01

    Aging is associated with increased arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity, PWV) and muscle strength/mass loss. Exercise training alone is not always effective to improve PWV and lean mass (LM) in older women. To investigate the independent and combined effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) and L-citrulline supplementation on PWV and muscle function in women, forty-one postmenopausal women aged 58 3 years and body mass index (34 2 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to the following groups: WBVT, L-citrulline, and WBVT + L-citrulline for 8 weeks. WBVT consisted of four leg exercises three times weekly. Aortic (cfPWV) and leg (faPWV) PWV, leg LM index, leg strength, and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured before and after the interventions. WBVT + L-citrulline decreased cfPWV (-0.91 0.21 m/s, P < 0.01) compared to both groups. All interventions decreased faPWV (P < 0.05) similarly. Leg LM index increased (2.7 0.5%, P < 0.001) after WBVT + L-citrulline compared with L-citrulline. Both WBVT interventions increased leg strength (~37%, P < 0.001) compared to L-citrulline while decreased BF% (~2.0%, P < 0.01). Reductions in cfPWV were correlated with increases in leg LM index (r = -0.63, P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that leg muscle strength and arterial stiffness can be improved after WBVT, but its combination with L-citrulline supplementation enhanced benefits on aortic stiffness and leg LM. Therefore, WBVT + L-citrulline could be an intervention for improving arterial stiffness and leg muscle function in obese postmenopausal women with prehypertension or hypertension, thereby reducing their cardiovascular and disability risk. PMID:25636814

  3. Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration Exposure from Garbage Trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, S.; Morioka, M.

    1998-08-01

    Japanese garbage truck drivers are exposed to mechanical whole-body vibration during their work. Some drivers have suffered from low back pain from this vibration. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the whole-body vibration from the garbage trucks and low back pain or occupational disease, due to the lack of investigations. A field study was conducted in order to characterize the health risks associated with garbage truck work. Three different types of truck were tested at different loadings and on different road surfaces, with the vibrations measured at the driver/seat interface (x,y, andz-axes). The vibrations were compared with the health risk guidance according to Annex B of ISO 2631-1 [1]. The findings of this study indicated that Japanese garbage truck drivers should not operate trucks for 2.5 h in a day, under current working conditions.

  4. Effects of a 6-week periodized squat training with or without whole-body vibration upon short-term adaptations in squat strength and body composition.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Hugh S; Cramer, Joel T; Bemben, Debra A; Shehab, Randa L; Anderson, Mark A; Bemben, Michael G

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week, periodized squat training program, with or without whole-body low-frequency vibration (WBLFV), applied before and between sets to 1RM squat strength and body composition. Thirty men aged between 20 and 30 years with at least 6 months of recreational weight training experience completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either 1 of 2 training groups or to an active control group (CON). Group 1 (CON; n = 6) did not participate in the training protocol but participated only in testing sessions. Group 2 (SQTV, n = 13) performed 6 weeks of squat training while receiving WBLFV (50 Hz), before, and in-between sets. The third group (SQT, n = 11) performed 6 weeks of squat training only. Subjects completed 12 workouts with variable loads (55-90% one repetition maximum [1RM]) and sets (), performing squats twice weekly separated by 72 hours. The RM measures were recorded on weeks (W) 1, 3, and 7. During the second workout of a week, the load was reduced by 10-15%, with "speed squats" performed during the final 3 weeks. Rest periods in between sets were set at 240 seconds. The WBLFV was applied while subjects stood on a WBLFV platform holding an isometric quarter squat position (knee angle 135 ± 5°). Initially, WBLFV was applied at 50 Hz for 30 seconds at low amplitude (peak-peak 2-4 mm). A rest period of 180 seconds followed WBLFV exposure before the first set of squats. The WBLFV was then applied intermittently (3 × 10 seconds) at 50 Hz, high amplitude (peak-peak, 4-6 mm) at time points, 60, 120, and 180 seconds into the 240-second rest period. Total body dual x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at W0 (week before training) and W7 (week after training). Measures recorded included total body mass (kg), total body lean mass (TLBM, kg), trunk lean mass (kg), leg lean mass (kg), total body fat percentage, trunk fat percentage, and leg fat percentage (LF%). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance revealed 1RM increased significantly between W1-W3, W3-W7, and W1-W7 for both experimental groups but not for control (p = 0.001, effect size [ES] = 0.237, 1 - β = 0.947). No significant differences were seen for %Δ (p > 0.05). Significant group by trial and group effects were seen for TLBM, SQTV > CON at W7 (p = 0.044). A significant main effect for time was seen for LF%, W0 vs. W7 (p = 0.047). No other significant differences were seen (p > 0.05). "Practical trends" were seen favoring "short-term" neuromuscular adaptations for the SQTV group during the first 3 weeks (p = 0.10, ES = 0.157, 1 - β = 0.443, mean diff; SQTV week 3 4.72 kg > CON and 2.53 kg > SQT). Differences in motor unit activation patterns, hypertrophic responses, and dietary intake during the training period could account for the trends seen. PMID:21572357

  5. The acute effects of different training loads of whole body vibration on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in divers

    PubMed Central

    Paradisis, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V; Argitaki, P; Smirniotou, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different vibration loads (frequency and amplitude) of whole-body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in springboard divers. Eighteen male and female divers, aged 19 ± 2 years, volunteered to perform 3 different WBV protocols in the present study. To assess the vibration effect, flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were measured before (Pre), immediately after (Post 1) and 15 min after the end of vibration exposure (Post 15). Three protocols with different frequencies and amplitudes were used in the present study: a) low vibration frequency and amplitude (30 Hz/2 mm); b) high vibration frequency and amplitude (50 Hz/4 mm); c) a control protocol (no vibration). WBV protocols were performed on a Power Plate platform, whereas the no vibration divers performed the same protocol but with the vibration platform turned off. A two-way ANOVA 3 x 3 (protocol × time) with repeated measures on both factors was used. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Univariate analyses with simple contrasts across time were selected as post hoc tests. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were used to assess the reliability across time. The results indicated that flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were significantly higher in both WBV protocols compared to the no vibration group (NVG). The greatest improvement in flexibility and explosive strength, which occurred immediately after vibration treatment, was maintained 15 min later in both WBV protocols, whereas NVG revealed a significant decrease 15 min later, in all examined strength parameters. In conclusion, a bout of WBV significantly increased flexibility and explosive strength in competitive divers compared with the NVG. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate WBV as a method to increase flexibility and vertical jump height in sports where these parameters play an important role in the success outcome of these sports. PMID:26424927

  6. The acute effects of different training loads of whole body vibration on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in divers.

    PubMed

    Dallas, G; Paradisis, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V; Argitaki, P; Smirniotou, A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different vibration loads (frequency and amplitude) of whole-body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in springboard divers. Eighteen male and female divers, aged 19 ± 2 years, volunteered to perform 3 different WBV protocols in the present study. To assess the vibration effect, flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were measured before (Pre), immediately after (Post 1) and 15 min after the end of vibration exposure (Post 15). Three protocols with different frequencies and amplitudes were used in the present study: a) low vibration frequency and amplitude (30 Hz/2 mm); b) high vibration frequency and amplitude (50 Hz/4 mm); c) a control protocol (no vibration). WBV protocols were performed on a Power Plate platform, whereas the no vibration divers performed the same protocol but with the vibration platform turned off. A two-way ANOVA 3 x 3 (protocol × time) with repeated measures on both factors was used. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Univariate analyses with simple contrasts across time were selected as post hoc tests. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were used to assess the reliability across time. The results indicated that flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were significantly higher in both WBV protocols compared to the no vibration group (NVG). The greatest improvement in flexibility and explosive strength, which occurred immediately after vibration treatment, was maintained 15 min later in both WBV protocols, whereas NVG revealed a significant decrease 15 min later, in all examined strength parameters. In conclusion, a bout of WBV significantly increased flexibility and explosive strength in competitive divers compared with the NVG. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate WBV as a method to increase flexibility and vertical jump height in sports where these parameters play an important role in the success outcome of these sports. PMID:26424927

  7. Absorption of Energy during Whole-Body Vibration Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrm, R.; Holmlund, P.

    1998-08-01

    Absorbed power,PAbs, during exposure to vertical and horizontal whole-body vibration in sitting posture was measured using 15 male and 15 female subjects. Different experimental conditions were applied, such as vibration level (025-14 m/s2), frequency (113-80 Hz), body weight (54-93 kg), relaxed and erect upper body posture. Results show thatPAbswas strongly related to frequency of the vibration peaking, within the range of 4-6 Hz and below 25 Hz for vertical and horizontal directions respectively.PAbsincreased with acceleration level and body weight. If risk assessment is based on the assumption that the amount ofPAbs, independence of the frequency of the vibration, indicates a hazard, then the frequency weighting procedure in ISO-standard 2631 can be questioned. The ISO weighting for horizontal vibration seems to underestimate the risk for frequencies within the range of about 15-3 Hz and overestimate them above about 5 Hz. For the vertical direction the frequency weighting overestimates the risk for frequencies above about 6 Hz. The results also indicate a need for differential guidelines for females and males. Many types of vehicle produce whole-body vibration with frequencies in the range where the highestPAbswas observed. Although not yet thoroughly evaluated,PAbsmay be a better quantity for risk assessment than acceleration as specified in ISO 2631, since it also takes into account the dynamic force applied to the human body.

  8. Acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Elfering, Achim; Zahno, Jasmine; Taeymans, Jan; Blasimann, Angela; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) training to identify possible explanations for preventive effects against musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this quasi-experimental pilot study. Acute physiological and psychological effects of SR-WBV training were examined using electromyography of descending trapezius (TD) muscle, heart rate variability (HRV), different skin parameters (temperature, redness and blood flow) and self-report questionnaires. All subjects conducted a sham SR-WBV training at a low intensity (2 Hz with noise level 0) and a verum SR-WBV training at a higher intensity (6 Hz with noise level 4). They were tested before, during and after the training. Conclusions were drawn on the basis of analysis of variance. RESULTS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this study (age = 22.4 2.1 years; body mass index = 21.6 2.2 kg/m2). Muscular activity of the TD and energy expenditure rose during verum SR-WBV compared to baseline and sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). Muscular relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than at baseline and after sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). During verum SR-WBV the levels of HRV were similar to those observed during sham SR-WBV. The same applies for most of the skin characteristics, while microcirculation of the skin of the middle back was higher during verum compared to sham SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Skin redness showed significant changes over the three measurement points only in the middle back area (P = 0.022). There was a significant rise from baseline to verum SR-WBV (0.86 0.25 perfusion units; P = 0.008). The self-reported chronic pain grade indicators of pain, stiffness, well-being, and muscle relaxation showed a mixed pattern across conditions. Muscle and joint stiffness (P = 0.018) and muscular relaxation did significantly change from baseline to different conditions of SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Moreover, muscle relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than after sham SR-WBV (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Verum SR-WBV stimulated musculoskeletal activity in young healthy individuals while cardiovascular activation was low. Training of musculoskeletal capacity and immediate increase in musculoskeletal relaxation are potential mediators of pain reduction in preventive trials. PMID:24147265

  9. Effects of bioDensity Training and Power Plate Whole-Body Vibration on Strength, Balance, and Functional Independence in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek T; Judge, Stacey; Malone, Ashley; Moynes, Rebecca C; Conviser, Jason; Skinner, James S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22-51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P < .001), with no changes in control and PP. Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy. PMID:26215362

  10. Whole-body vibration dosage alters leg blood flow.

    PubMed

    Lythgo, Noel; Eser, Prisca; de Groot, Patricia; Galea, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The effect of whole-body vibration dosage on leg blood flow was investigated. Nine healthy young adult males completed a set of 14 random vibration and non-vibration exercise bouts whilst squatting on a Galileo 900 plate. Six vibration frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 Hz (5 Hz increments) were used in combination with a 2.5 mm and 4.5 mm amplitude to produce twelve 1-min vibration bouts. Subjects also completed two 1-min bouts where no vibration was applied. Systolic and diastolic diameters of the common femoral artery and blood cell velocity were measured by an echo Doppler ultrasound in a standing or rest condition prior to the bouts and during and after each bout. Repeated measures MANOVAs were used in the statistical analysis. Compared with the standing condition, the exercise bouts produced a four-fold increase in mean blood cell velocity (P<0.001) and a two-fold increase in peak blood cell velocity (P<0.001). Compared to the non-vibration bouts, frequencies of 10-30 Hz increased mean blood cell velocity by approximately 33% (P<0.01) whereas 20-30 Hz increased peak blood cell velocity by approximately 27% (P<0.01). Amplitude was additive to frequency but only achieved significance at 30 Hz (P<0.05). Compared with the standing condition, squatting alone produced significant increases in mean and peak blood cell velocity (P<0.001). The results show leg blood flow increased during the squat or non-vibration bouts and systematically increased with frequency in the vibration bouts. PMID:19125731

  11. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    There is strong epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. A prototype health surveillance scheme for WBV is presented in this paper. Surveillance is the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. The aims are to assess health status and diagnose vibration-induced disorders at an early stage, to inform the workers on the potential risk associated with vibration exposure, to give preventive advice to employers and employees and to control whether preventive measures which have been taken, were successful. It is suggested that a pre-placement health examination should be offered to each worker who will be exposed to WBV so as to make the worker aware of the hazards, to obtain baseline health data, and to identify medical conditions that may increase the risk due to WBV. The case history should focus on personal history, work history, and leisure activities involving driving of vehicles. The personal medical history should detail back pain complaints, disorders in the spine, any injuries or surgery to the musculoskeletal system. A physical examination on the lower back should be performed on workers who have experienced LBP symptoms over the past 12 months. The preplacement examination should be followed by periodic health reassessment with a regular interval according to the legislation of the country. It is suggested that periodic medical examination should be made available at least every 2 years to all workers who are exposed to WBV. Any change in vibration exposure at the workplace should be reported by the employer. If an increase in vibration exposure or a change in health status have occurred, the medical re-examination should be offered at shorter intervals at the discretion of the attending physician. There should be a periodic medical examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

  12. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  13. Signal Processing Methods for Removing the Effects of Whole Body Vibration upon Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bitner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.

    2014-01-01

    Humans may be exposed to whole-body vibration in environments where clear speech communications are crucial, particularly during the launch phases of space flight and in high-performance aircraft. Prior research has shown that high levels of vibration cause a decrease in speech intelligibility. However, the effects of whole-body vibration upon speech are not well understood, and no attempt has been made to restore speech distorted by whole-body vibration. In this paper, a model for speech under whole-body vibration is proposed and a method to remove its effect is described. The method described reduces the perceptual effects of vibration, yields higher ASR accuracy scores, and may significantly improve intelligibility. Possible applications include incorporation within communication systems to improve radio-communication systems in environments such a spaceflight, aviation, or off-road vehicle operations.

  14. Effect of whole-body vibration warm-up on bat speed in women softball players.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Nicole C; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Lynn, Scott K; Biagini, Matt S; Tran, Tai T

    2010-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) may enhance human performance via augmented muscular strength and motor function if used before performance. Because warm-up is a crucial aspect of preparation for performance, it remains unknown if WBV may enhance bat speed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of WBV warm-up on bat speed. Eleven National Collegiate Athletic Association division I and 11 recreationally trained female softball players volunteered to participate. Subjects randomly performed 3 different warm-up conditions consisting of WBV alone, dry swings alone (DS), and WBV with dry swings (WBVDS). Whole-body vibration was performed on a pivotal vibration platform at a frequency of 25 Hz and an amplitude of 13 mm for one 30-second bout. Thirty seconds after each warm-up condition, 5 maximal bat swings were recorded. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference between groups by training status, and there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference between WBV (42.39 +/- 9.83 mph), DS (40.45 +/- 11.00 mph), or WBVDS (37.98 +/- 12.40 mph) conditions. These results indicate that WBV warm-up may be used in place of DS to achieve similar bat speeds. Future research should investigate different combinations of WBV warm-up using various frequencies, durations, amplitudes, and rest times. PMID:20683351

  15. Possible Mechanisms of Low Back Pain due to Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, M. H.; Wilder, D. G.; Magnusson, M.

    1998-08-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole-body vibration and low back pain.In vitroexperiments, using percutaneous pin-mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4·5 Hz. The frequency response was affected by posture, seating, and seat-back inclination. The response appears to be largely determined by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats, and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  16. Effects of whole-body vibrations on sensory motor system performance in man.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, G M; Roll, J P; Martin, B; Harlay, F

    1981-08-01

    The effects of whole body vibration (WBV) were studied on subjects trained to perform on tasks involving blindfolded arm positioning (proprioceptive tasks), tracking of visual targets and control of static and dynamic torques. Subjects were vibrated in a seated position by means of a hydraulic jack. The vibration used (0.1 G at floor level and 18 Hz) was that occasionally encountered on medium-size cruising helicopter. The seat was that of a heliccopter pilot whose foam cushion was 6 cm thick with a density of 26 kg/m3. Systematic past-pointing was observed for both arm flexion and extension. Foot and arm visual tracking precision, as determined by position and velocity errors, increased in both directions. Static and dynamic control, rated by torque holding stability and torque amplitude precision, were also significantly altered compared to pre-stimulus readings. The results are interpreted in relation to current knowledge of the effects of vibration induced at spinal, vestibular, and central nervous system levels. It is concluded that the proprioceptive system through which vibration-induced afferents enter the neurological networks is the common denominator for the observed alterations of the position, velocity, and force controls. Our observations suggest that particular care should be taken in helicopters and other vibrating vehicles to prevent vibration from reaching muscular masses, especially those involved in motor tasks. PMID:7259700

  17. [The effect of whole-body vibration: an unrecognized medical problem].

    PubMed

    Bogadi-Sare, A

    1993-09-01

    Exposure to whole-body vibration is a growing concern in industry, traffic and in other branches of the economy. This harmful physical factor endangers work efficiency and human health not only at work but also in everyday life, in public transportation and even at home. In spite of increasing exposure to vibrations, our medical practice does not pay adequate attention to the health effects of whole-body vibration. The paper deals with the basic characteristics of vibration (frequency, amplitude, velocity and acceleration), its adequate evaluation (effective or weighted average value, peak values, rating and weighting procedure of vibration measurement) and exposure (vibration direction, exposure time, transmission and dissipation). In industry and traffic, vibrations present complex oscillatory motions, characterized by a wide frequency spectrum, variable amplitude and acceleration, and different directions. To assess the harmful effects of vibration, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has proposed three standards for acceptable human exposure to whole-body vibration: fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary, exposure limit and reduced comfort boundary. Quantitative parameters of vibration for some vehicles, and for constructional, industrial and agricultural machinery are also given. The most pronounced long-term effect of whole-body vibration is damage to the spine. The spinal region most frequently affected is the lumbar part, where spinal deformation, lumbago and sciatica can develop. The possible cause of spinal damage could be mechanical overload and metabolic changes of the intervertebral disc. Other organ systems, such as peripheral and autonomic nervous, vestibular, vascular, digestive and female reproductive systems are also liable to become affected. Risk assessment of chronic health effects is based on the appropriate evaluation of whole-body vibration exposure and individual response. Health risk increases with the intensity and duration of vibration exposure. The concomitant factors are forced sitting posture and heavy physical work. Human response to whole-body vibration depends on factors promoting the development of degenerative changes such as constitution, previous spine disease and young age. The main problems in diagnosing whole-body vibration syndrome are differentiation of vibration induced disorders from age dependent changes of the spine and lack of a specific diagnostic method for assessing those changes. Therefore, only permanent medical surveillance can guarantee proper assessment of the damage induced by whole-body vibration. For vibration exposed workers preplacement and periodic examinations are recommended. Those should include a basic medical examination and an X-ray of the spine, or at least of its lumbar part. PMID:8311700

  18. An active head-neck model in whole-body vibration: vibration magnitude and softening.

    PubMed

    Rahmatalla, Salam; Liu, Ye

    2012-04-01

    An active head-neck model is introduced in this work to predict human-dynamic response to different vibration magnitudes during fore-aft whole-body vibration. The proposed model is a rigid-link dynamic system augmented with passive spring-damper tissue-like elements and additional active dampers that resemble the active part of the muscles. The additional active dampers are functions of the input displacement, velocity, and acceleration and are based on active control theories and a kd-tree data-searching scheme. Five human subjects exposed to random fore-aft vibration with frequency content of 0.5-10 Hz were tested under different vibration with magnitudes of 0.46 m/s(2), 1.32 m/s(2), and 1.66 m/s(2) rms. The results showed that the proposed model was able to reasonably capture the softening characteristics of the human head-neck response during fore-aft whole-body vibration of different magnitudes. PMID:22336196

  19. Effects of whole body vibration on hormonal & functional indices in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Eftekhari, Elham; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease, which affects the patients mobility, and exercise training is considered to be beneficial for these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 10 wk of low intensity exercise and whole body vibration (WBV) training on fatigue, quality of life, functional and physical indices, and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone in MS patients. Methods: Thirty four MS patients with mild to moderate disability were recruited and randomly divided into two groups, the training group (n=17) and control group (n=17). Patients in the training group did low intensity exercise and WBV training programme three times a week for 10 wk. The control group continued their routine life. Intended variables like expanded disability status scale (EDSS), fatigue, quality of life, functional and physical indices consisted of balance, walking speed, functional mobility, functional muscle endurance, and walking endurance, and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone were measured before and after the protocol. Results: Thirty subjects completed the study (23 females, 7 males; mean age =38.80 9.50 yr). Statistical analysis demonstrated that EDSS in the WBV training group was significantly decreased (P=0.01), balance (P=0.01), and walking endurance significantly increased (P=0.01) in MS patients (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that low intensity exercise and WBV training have some beneficial impact on functional and physical indices of MS patients. PMID:26609037

  20. Optimal whole-body vibration settings for muscle strength and power enhancement in human knee extensors.

    PubMed

    Petit, Pierre-David; Pensini, Manuela; Tessaro, Jol; Desnuelle, Claude; Legros, Patrick; Colson, Serge S

    2010-12-01

    This study compared the effects of 6-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training programs with different frequency and peak-to-peak displacement settings on knee extensor muscle strength and power. The underlying mechanisms of the expected gains were also investigated. Thirty-two physically active male subjects were randomly assigned to a high-frequency/high peak-to-peak displacement group (HH; n=12), a low-frequency/low peak-to-peak displacement group (LL; n=10) or a sham training group (SHAM; n=10). Maximal voluntary isometric, concentric and eccentric torque of the knee extensors, maximal voluntary isometric torque of the knee flexors, jump performance, voluntary muscle activation, and contractile properties of the knee extensors were assessed before and after the training period. Significant improvement in knee extensor eccentric voluntary torque (P<0.01), knee flexor isometric voluntary torque (P<0.05), and jump performance (P<0.05) was observed only for HH group. Regardless of the group, knee extensor muscle contractile properties (P<0.05) were enhanced. No modification was observed for voluntary muscle activation or electrical activity of agonist and antagonist muscles. We concluded that high-frequency/high peak-to-peak displacement was the most effective vibration setting to enhance knee extensor muscle strength and jump performance during a 6-week WBV training program and that these improvements were not mediated by central neural adaptations. PMID:20801671

  1. Whole body vibration in mountain-rescue operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, E.; Chiappa, D.; Moschioni, G.; Saggin, B.; Tarabini, M.

    2006-12-01

    In mountain-rescue operations injured people are generally exposed to vibrations and shocks that can be potential causes of physical conditions worsening. Such vibrations can derive both from patient's body manipulations (e.g. when it is being loaded and immobilized on a stretcher) and from forces coming from the transport devices and vehicles. Despite the general feeling that during this kind of operations the levels of transmitted vibrations to the injured can be quite large and potentially dangerous, there is practically no study in literature providing reliable parameters (i.e. measurements) to support or dismiss these beliefs. This paper reports the results of a measurement campaign carried-out in order to outline, identify and quantify the excitations a human body is exposed to, during typical transportation phases related to mountain-rescue operations. The work mainly presents and discusses the experimental setup with the aim of focusing on the problems related to this kind of measurements; the results of the experimental campaign carried-out for the measurement of the vibrations undergone by a human body during a simulated rescue operation are presented and discussed as well. Such simulation includes three phases of transportation: on a hand-held stretcher, on an ambulance and on a helicopter. The work is not intended to supply a complete characterization and analysis of vibrations transmission during any rescue operation but just to provide a preliminary overview and to define a measurement method that can be applied for a more comprehensive characterization. With such aims measurements were carried out in on-field situations stated as "typical" by rescue experts and data then analyzed both with standard procedures and algorithms (e.g. ISO 2631s weighting curves) and with the commonly used statistical indexes; in the analysis it is important to be aware that standardized measurement procedures and indexes, created to verify comfort or health-risks of workers, might not fit the case of a generic patient who experienced a serious mountain accident. The work includes also a laboratory activity mainly related to mechanical characterization of the stretcher used in the field tests. The most interesting result of the study is the comparison of the vibration levels in the various rescue phases that, even when using different indicators, shows that the most critical issue is due to hand transportation despite the bad judgment usually expressed for helicopter flight.

  2. Whole-Body Vibrations Do Not Elevate the Angiogenic Stimulus when Applied during Resistance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Beijer, sa; Rosenberger, Andr; Blck, Birgit; Suhr, Frank; Rittweger, Jrn; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about biological factors involved in exercise-induced angiogenesis is to date still scanty. The present study aimed to investigate the angiogenic stimulus of resistance exercise with and without superimposed whole-body vibrations. Responses to the exercise regimen before and after a 6-week training intervention were investigated in twenty-six healthy male subjects. Serum was collected at the initial and final exercise sessions and circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2 and -9, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and endostatin were determined via ELISA. Furthermore, we studied the proliferative effect of serum-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro via BrdU-incorporation assay. It was found that circulating MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF and endostatin levels were significantly elevated (P<0.001) from resting levels after both exercise interventions, with higher post-exercise VEGF concentrations in the resistance exercise (RE) group compared to the resistive vibration exercise (RVE) group. Moreover, RE provoked increased endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and higher post-exercise circulating endostatin concentrations after 6 weeks of training. These effects were elusive in the RVE group. The present findings suggest that resistance exercise leads to a transient rise in circulating angiogenic factors and superimposing vibrations to this exercise type might not further trigger a potential signaling of angiogenic stimulation in skeletal muscle. PMID:24260349

  3. Effects of quadriceps strength after static and dynamic whole-body vibration exercise.

    PubMed

    Bush, Jill A; Blog, Gabriel L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown performance benefits including whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training modality or an acute exercise protocol when used as a component of the resistance training program. Some studies have indicated that performing dynamic exercises as compared with static position exercises while exposed to WBV might be beneficial; however, evidence is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if an acute bout of dynamic versus static squats performed during WBV results in increase in quadriceps force production by means of dynamic isokinetic knee extension and flexion exercise. Nonresistance-trained healthy young men and women (N = 21) of 18-25 years participated in 4 protocols with 2-week rest in-between. Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats without vibration; Protocol 2: 5 sets of 30-second static squats without vibration; Protocol 3: 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes; and Protocol 4: 5 sets of 30-second static squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes. Prestrength tests (1 set of 4 repetitions at 100 s(-1) for the knee extension exercise) was performed within 5 minutes of starting each protocol, and poststrength testing was performed within 1 minute of completing each protocol. Strength outcomes were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a significance level set at p ? 0.05. A significant decrease in strength was observed after dynamic and static squats without WBV (p = 0.002); an increase in strength after dynamic squats with WBV (p = 0.003); and a decrease in strength after static squats with WBV (p = 0.003). The inclusion of WBV to dynamic resistance exercise can be an added modality to increase strength. Whole-body vibration can have varied effects in altering muscle strength in untrained individuals according to the type of resistance training performed. As a dynamic squat with WBV seems to immediately potentiate neuromuscular functioning, the combination of dynamic exercises and WBV could be used as a potential warm-up procedure before resistance exercise. PMID:25268289

  4. The Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on the Cross-Transfer of Strength

    PubMed Central

    Goodwill, Alicia M.; Kidgell, Dawson J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the use of superimposed whole-body vibration (WBV) during cross-education strength training would optimise strength transfer compared to conventional cross-education strength training. Twenty-one healthy, dominant right leg volunteers (21 3 years) were allocated to a strength training (ST, m = 3, f = 4), a strength training with WBV (ST + V, m = 3, f = 4), or a control group (no training, m = 3, f = 4). Training groups performed 9 sessions over 3 weeks, involving unilateral squats for the right leg, with or without WBV (35?Hz; 2.5?mm amplitude). All groups underwent dynamic single leg maximum strength testing (1RM) and single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) prior to and following training. Strength increased in the trained limb for the ST (41%; ES = 1.14) and ST + V (55%; ES = 1.03) groups, which resulted in a 35% (ES = 0.99) strength transfer to the untrained left leg for the ST group and a 52% (ES = 0.97) strength transfer to the untrained leg for the ST + V group, when compared to the control group. No differences in strength transfer between training groups were observed (P = 0.15). For the untrained leg, no differences in the peak height of recruitment curves or SICI were observed between ST and ST + V groups (P = 1.00). Strength training with WBV does not appear to modulate the cross-transfer of strength to a greater magnitude when compared to conventional cross-education strength training. PMID:23365521

  5. Effects of whole body vibration on strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Prez-Turpin, J A; Zmijewski, P; Jimenez-Olmedo, J M; Jov-Tossi, M A; Martnez-Carbonell, A; Surez-Llorca, C; Andreu-Cabrera, E

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.23.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (p<0.001), a WBV use effect (p<0.001) and a discipline effect (p<0.001). Significantly greater improvements in the SJ (p<0.001) and CMJ (p<0.001) and in 1RM (p<0.001) were found in the WBV training groups than in traditional training groups. Significant 3-way interaction effects (training, WBV use, discipline kind) were also found for SJ, CMJ and 1RM (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001, respectively). It can be concluded that implementation of 6-week WBV training in routine practice in volleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

  6. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jose C.; Olivares, Pedro R.; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Parraca, Jose A.; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Gusi, Narcis

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials. PMID:26351517

  7. Whole-body vibration and health effects in the agricultural machinery drivers.

    PubMed

    Futatsuka, M; Maeda, S; Inaoka, T; Nagano, M; Shono, M; Miyakita, T

    1998-04-01

    Recently farm mechanization has been widespread and developing rapidly, in particular riding farm machines are increasingly used in paddy fields in Japan. We have no information available on the actual situation regarding whole-body vibration on the seats of these farm machines from the standpoint of labour protection. Measurement and evaluation of whole-body vibration was performed on the seats of popular riding agricultural machineries. Whole-body vibration on the seats of combine harvesters and wheel tractors exceeded exposure limits and the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary limit of 8 hr and also shortened the reduced comfort boundary limits of ISO 2631 (1985). Some combines, tractors and carieers had only less than one hour exposure duration as compared with the ISO 2631-1 standard (1997). On the other hand a questionnaire was also performed on the subject of agricultural machine operators. Any specific injury or other effects, i.e. low back injuries were not found among the group of operators as compared with those in non-operator farmers. It seems to be difficult to find out the health effects of whole-body vibration itself, because there may be a lot of causes, i.e. working posture, operating heavy materials, in farm working conditions. PMID:9583309

  8. The Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Mobility and Balance in Parkinson Disease: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A.; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in healthcompromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease. PMID:25031483

  9. The effects of whole body vibration on mobility and balance in Parkinson disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary

    2014-07-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in health-compromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease. PMID:25031483

  10. Changes in postural sway frequency and complexity in altered sensory environments following whole body vibrations.

    PubMed

    Dickin, D Clark; McClain, Matthew A; Hubble, Ryan P; Doan, Jon B; Sessford, David

    2012-10-01

    Studies assessing whole body vibration (WBV) have produced largely positive effects, with some neutral, on postural control with frequencies between 25 and 40 Hz. However no conclusive evidence indicates that 25-40 Hz elicits the optimal beneficial effects. To address this issue, a larger range of vibration intensity (10-50 Hz at peak-to-peak amplitudes of 2 and 5mm) was employed while increasing the postural complexity (altered somatosensory and/or visual information) to assess acute effects of 4-min of WBV on postural control. Twelve healthy young adults underwent postural assessment at four time intervals (prior to, immediately following and 10 and 20 min post WBV). Findings revealed both postural sway frequency and sway complexity/regularity were affected by WBV. Baseline posture demonstrated increased sway frequency (p=.04) following WBV with no changes in sway complexity. When the support surface was altered, changes in both the frequency and complexity of sway were elicited (p=.027, .002, respectively). When both somatosensory and visual information were altered delayed improvements in postural control were elicited (p=.05 and .01, for frequency and complexity, respectively). Given the differential acute effects as a function of postural task complexity, future longitudinal studies could determine the overall training effect on sway frequency and complexity. PMID:22516837

  11. Microcirculation of skeletal muscle adapts differently to a resistive exercise intervention with and without superimposed whole-body vibrations.

    PubMed

    Beijer, sa; Degens, Hans; Weber, Tobias; Rosenberger, Andr; Gehlert, Sebastian; Herrera, Frankyn; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias; Zange, Jochen; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jrn

    2015-11-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is commonly practiced and may enhance peripheral blood flow. Here, we investigated muscle morphology and acute microcirculatory responses before and after a 6-week resistive exercise training intervention without (RE) or with (RVE) simultaneous whole-body vibrations (20 Hz, 6 mm peak-to-peak amplitude) in 26 healthy men in a randomized, controlled parallel-design study. Total haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were measured in gastrocnemius muscle (GM) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2 ) was measured via spirometry, and skeletal muscle morphology was determined in soleus (SOL) muscle biopsies. Our data reveal that exercise-induced muscle deoxygenation both before and after 6 weeks training was similar in RE and RVE (P = 0.76), although VO2 was 20% higher in the RVE group (P < 0.001). The RVE group showed a 14%-point increase in reactive hyperaemia (P = 0.007) and a 27% increase in blood volume (P < 0.01) in GM after 6 weeks of training. The number of capillaries around fibres was increased by 15% after 6 weeks training in both groups (P < 0.001) with no specific effect of superimposed WBV (P = 0.61). Neither of the training regimens induced fibre hypertrophy in SOL. The present findings suggest an increased blood volume and vasodilator response in GM as an adaptation to long-term RVE, which was not observed after RE alone. We conclude that RVE training enhances vasodilation of small arterioles and possibly capillaries. This effect might be advantageous for muscle thermoregulation and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to exercising muscle and removal of carbon dioxide and metabolites. PMID:25041226

  12. Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Speech. Part 2; Effect on Intelligibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect on speech intelligibility was measured for speech where talkers reading Diagnostic Rhyme Test material were exposed to 0.7 g whole body vibration to simulate space vehicle launch. Across all talkers, the effect of vibration was to degrade the percentage of correctly transcribed words from 83% to 74%. The magnitude of the effect of vibration on speech communication varies between individuals, for both talkers and listeners. A worst case scenario for intelligibility would be the most sensitive listener hearing the most sensitive talker; one participant s intelligibility was reduced by 26% (97% to 71%) for one of the talkers.

  13. Whole-Body Vibration Partially Reverses Aging-Induced Increases in Visceral Adiposity and Hepatic Lipid Storage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Theo H.; Havinga, Rick; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Groen, Albert K.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    At old age, humans generally have declining muscle mass and increased fat deposition, which can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While regular physical activity postpones these age-related derangements, this is not always possible in the elderly because of disabilities or risk of injury. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training may be considered as an alternative to physical activity particularly in the frail population. To explore this possibility, we characterized whole-body and organ-specific metabolic processes in 6-month and 25-month old mice, over a period of 14 weeks of WBV versus sham training. WBV training tended to increase blood glucose turnover rates and stimulated hepatic glycogen utilization during fasting irrespective of age. WBV was effective in reducing white fat mass and hepatic triglyceride content only in old but not in young mice and these reductions were related to upregulation of hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling of metabolism (assessed by high-resolution respirometry) and increased expression of uncoupling protein 2. Because these changes occurred independent of changes in food intake and whole-body metabolic rate (assessed by indirect calorimetry), the liver-specific effects of WBV may be a primary mechanism to improve metabolic health during aging, rather than that it is a consequence of alterations in energy balance. PMID:26886917

  14. Whole-Body Vibration Partially Reverses Aging-Induced Increases in Visceral Adiposity and Hepatic Lipid Storage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Reijne, Aaffien C; Ciapaite, Jolita; van Dijk, Theo H; Havinga, Rick; van der Zee, Eddy A; Groen, Albert K; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    At old age, humans generally have declining muscle mass and increased fat deposition, which can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While regular physical activity postpones these age-related derangements, this is not always possible in the elderly because of disabilities or risk of injury. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training may be considered as an alternative to physical activity particularly in the frail population. To explore this possibility, we characterized whole-body and organ-specific metabolic processes in 6-month and 25-month old mice, over a period of 14 weeks of WBV versus sham training. WBV training tended to increase blood glucose turnover rates and stimulated hepatic glycogen utilization during fasting irrespective of age. WBV was effective in reducing white fat mass and hepatic triglyceride content only in old but not in young mice and these reductions were related to upregulation of hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling of metabolism (assessed by high-resolution respirometry) and increased expression of uncoupling protein 2. Because these changes occurred independent of changes in food intake and whole-body metabolic rate (assessed by indirect calorimetry), the liver-specific effects of WBV may be a primary mechanism to improve metabolic health during aging, rather than that it is a consequence of alterations in energy balance. PMID:26886917

  15. Whole-Body Vibration and Rehabilitation of Chronic Diseases: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chanou, Konstantina; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Jamurtas, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to review the current literature and findings on the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training method on performance and its ability to aid in the rehabilitation of chronic diseases (neurological, musculoskeletal or metabolic conditions). Six electronic databases were searched. The combination of the search terminology used included WBV and several neurological, musculoskeletal and metabolic conditions. Twenty six papers were found to be relevant for this review and were included for critical evaluation with regards to sample characteristics, research intervention and methodology. Most studies were conducted on patients diagnosed with neurological conditions (n = 15) while less were performed on patients suffering from musculoskeletal (n = 7) or metabolic (n = 4) disorders. Comparisons were difficult to draw on because of the different pathologies and the differences in the methodology of each study. Some of the observed methodological flaws included limitations in relation to insufficient randomisation, lack of sample homogeneity (size, age variability) and poor blinding in most studies. No consensus could be reached as to whether WBV is more effective than other interventions or no intervention at all, while the additional effects that WBV may have in relation to other interventions could not be assumed. Nevertheless, chronic WBV training seems to only improve strength in neurological patients while balance and mobility improves only in patients suffering from musculoskeletal or metabolic but not from neurological conditions. Although WBV did not prove to be more effective compared to other training methods, it can be used, in some cases, as a less fatiguing and less time-consuming method to enhance physical capabilities. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of WBV in relation to no treatment at all, and to age. Key pointsChronic WBV training seems to only improve strength in neurological patients while balance and mobility improves only in patients suffering from musculoskeletal or metabolic conditions.WBV did not prove to be more effective than other interventions, while the positive effects of WBV in relation to no intervention at all could not be established.No consensus could be reached as to which vibration type is more effective.WBV training could be used as a safe, less fatiguing and less time-consuming type of exercise for patients with neurologic conditions instead of other more demanding interventions. PMID:24149191

  16. Fluid dynamic aspects of cardiovascular behavior during low-frequency whole-body vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of the cardiovascular system during low frequency whole-body vibration, such as encountered by astronauts during launch and reentry, is examined from a fluid mechanical viewpoint. The vibration characteristics of typical manned spacecraft and other vibration environments are discussed, and existing results from in vivo studies of the hemodynamic aspects of this problem are reviewed. Recent theoretical solutions to related fluid mechanical problems are then used in the interpretation of these results and in discussing areas of future work. The results are included of studies of the effects of vibration on the work done by the heart and on pulsatile flow in blood vessels. It is shown that important changes in pulse velocity, the instantaneous velocity profile, mass flow rate, and wall shear stress may occur in a pulsatile flow due to the presence of vibration. The significance of this in terms of changes in peripheral vascular resistance and possible damage to the endothelium of blood vessels is discussed.

  17. Display strobing: An effective countermeasure against visual blur from whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelstein, Bernard D.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Beutter, Brent R.; McCann, Robert S.; Anderson, Mark R.

    2013-11-01

    Crews and equipment in aerospace vehicles, including spacecraft at launch, can be exposed to significant vibration. Prior to this study, we examined the ability of vibrating observers to read alphanumeric symbology on stationary (i.e., non-vibrating) flight-relevant display formats and noted performance degradation with increasing vibration amplitude and decreasing font size. Here we test the efficacy of a display strobing countermeasure for the reading decrements caused by the same 12-Hz whole-body vibration in the surge (chest-to-spine) direction applied in our prior studies. To produce the strobe countermeasure, we triggered the backlight of a stationary liquid crystal diode (LCD) display panel to flash in synchrony with the 12-Hz vibration of the observer's seat while experimentally varying both the strobe duty cycle and phase angle between the strobe onset and the vibration cycle zero-crossings. Strobing proved an effective countermeasure, restoring reading error rates during 0.7g (6.9 m/s2 half-amplitude) whole-body vibration to levels indistinguishable from those achieved under the non-strobed (equivalent luminance) non-vibrating baseline condition and improving response times although not fully to the baseline. While we noted differences in the "preferred" phase angle of individual observers, on average, no overall effect of phase angle was detected. Likewise, no effect was seen for the two duty cycles and their respective equivalent luminance levels. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of strobing for multi-axis and multi-frequency vibration, and for displays with moving images.

  18. Whole-body vibration applied during upper body exercise improves performance.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Herrero, Azael J; Milton, John G; Hazell, Tom J; García-López, David

    2013-07-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has exercisers perform static and dynamic resistance training exercises on a ground-based platform. Exposure to WBV exposure has demonstrated benefits and no effect on lower body strength, power, and performance. The aim of this study was to determine if WBV exposure (50 Hz, 2.51 mm) has any potentiating effects postexercise by measuring the kinematic variables of a set of upper body elbow-extensor exercise (70% one-repetition maximum [1RM]) to volitional exhaustion. Sixteen recreationally active students (12 male and 4 female) performed 3 different experimental conditions on separate days. Each condition had the subjects perform 1 set of elbow-extension exercise to fatigue with 1 of 3 WBV treatments: WBV simultaneously during the set (AE); 60 seconds after application of WBV for 30 seconds (RE); and no WBV (CTRL). Kinematic parameters of each repetition were monitored by linking a rotary encoder to the highest load plate. The mean velocity and acceleration throughout the set and perceived exertion were analyzed. A significant increase (p < 0.05) was observed in the mean velocity for the whole set in the AE condition vs. the CTRL condition. The mean acceleration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the AE condition in comparison with RE (increased by 45.3%) and CTRL (increased by 50.4%) conditions. The positive effect induced by WBV on upper-limb performance is only achieved when the stimulus is applied during the exercise. However, WBV applied 60 seconds before upper body exercise results in no benefit. PMID:23085972

  19. Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, J.; Mubarak, N.; Nelson, S.; Sweerts de Landas, M.; Magnusson, M.; Okunribido, O.; Pope, M.

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different positions were adopted (bending, leaning and twisting) and postural analyses were conducted using the OWAS and RULA techniques. Forklift vibrations at the seat (exposure) were measured in the three orthogonal axes ( x-fore and aft, y-lateral and z-vertical) under actual working conditions according to the recommendations of ISO 2631-1. The results showed that LBP was more prevalent amongst forklift drivers than among non-drivers and driving postures in which the trunk is considerably twisted or bent forward associated with greatest risk. Furthermore, forklift drivers showed to be exposed to acceptable levels of vibration in the x- and y-directions (i.e., below the EU Physical Agents Directive on Vibration Exposure recommended action level—0.5 m/s 2), but not in the z-direction. There were indications that whole-body vibration acts associatively with other factors (not independently) to precipitate LBP.

  20. On the Health Risk of the Lumbar Spine due to Whole-Body VIBRATIONTHEORETICAL Approach, Experimental Data and Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, H.; Blthner, R.; Hinz, B.; Schust, M.

    1998-08-01

    The guidance on the effects of vibration on health in standards for whole-body vibration (WBV) does not provide quantitative relationships between WBV and health risk. The paper aims at the elucidation of exposure-response relationships. An analysis of published data on the static and dynamic strength of vertebrae and bone, loaded with various frequencies under different conditions, provided the basis for a theoretical approach to evaluate repetitive loads on the lumbar spine (internal loads). The approach enabled the calculation of equivalentwith respect to cumulative fatigue failurecombinations of amplitudes and numbers of internal cyclic stress. In order to discover the relation between external peak accelerations at the seat and internal peak loads, biodynamic data of experiments (36 subjects, three somatotypes, two different posturesrelaxed and bent forward; random WBV,aw, r.m.s. 14 ms-2, containing high transients) were used as input to a biomechanical model. Internal pressure changes were calculated using individual areas of vertebral endplates. The assessment of WBV was based on the quantitative relations between peak accelerations at the seat and pressures predicted for the disk L5/S1. For identical exposures clearly higher rates of pressure rise in the bent forward compared to the relaxed posture were predicted. The risk assessment for internal forces considered the combined internal static and dynamic loads, in relation to the predicted individual strength, and Miner's hypothesis. For exposure durations between 1 min and 8 h, energy equivalent vibration magnitudes (formula B.1, ISO 2631-1, 1997) and equivalent vibration magnitudes according to formula B.2 (time dependence over-energetic) were compared with equivalent combinations of upward peak accelerations and exposure durations according to predicted cumulative fatigue failures of lumbar vertebrae. Formula B.1 seems to underestimate the health risk caused by high magnitudes, formula B.2 is recommended for the evaluation of such conditions.

  1. Measurement of whole-body vibration exposure from speed control humps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshid, E.; Alkalby, F.; Kamal, H.

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of speed control humps is to introduce shocks and high vibration levels when a car passes over them if its speed is higher than the allowable limit. Hump geometry is a major factor in altering the level of these shocks and specifying the speed limit. However, there is no study of the relationship between whole body vibration due to passing over a speed control hump and lower back pain or occupational diseases. In this study, an experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate health risks associated with different geometry speed control humps. Vibration levels and shocks are measured by a seat pad accelerometer placed under the driver's seat to evaluate hazard risks on the human body's lower back. The assessment is based on two standard methods of measuring whole body vibration: the British standard BS 6841 and the new ISO/DIS standard 2631-5. These methods are used to assess the effects of vehicle type, passenger location in the vehicle, vehicle speed, and speed control hump geometry. It was found that circular speed control humps currently installed on many public roads should be modified in order to eliminate hazards. Two newly designed speed humps were proved to be less hazardous than circular speed control humps.

  2. An exploratory study of whole-body vibration exposure and dose while operating heavy equipment in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Cann, Adam P; Salmoni, Alan W; Vi, Peter; Eger, Tammy R

    2003-12-01

    Whole-body vibration measurements were recorded for various types of heavy equipment used within the construction industry. The purpose of these measurements was to provide more information about the potential levels of whole-body vibration experienced by equipment operators in the construction industry, as well as to identify types of equipment warranting further research. In total, 67 pieces of equipment were tested from 14 different equipment types. Testing took place at various construction sites including corporate, public, and residential work projects. Measurements were made (following the 1997 International Standards Organization's 2631-1 whole-body vibration standards) for 20-minute testing periods using a Larson Davis HVM100 vibration monitor and a triaxial accelerometer. The mobile equipment tested was associated with greater levels of whole-body vibration than the stationary equipment. When whole-body vibration levels were compared to the International Standards Organization's 2631-1 standards, wheel loaders, off-road dump trucks, scrapers, skid steer vehicles, backhoes, bulldozers, crawler loaders, and concrete trowel vehicles exceeded the recommendations based on measured vibration dose values. Further research incorporating larger sample sizes and controlled testing conditions is required to better understand the levels of exposure experienced by operators as well as the amount to which seating, terrain, mobility, and vehicle structure might affect whole-body vibration. PMID:14612296

  3. Influence of pelvic position and vibration frequency on muscle activation during whole body vibration in quiet standing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joong-Hwi; Seo, Hye-Jung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation related to postural stability depending on the pelvic position and frequency of whole body vibration (WBV) during quiet standing, and to identify the most effective training conditions that elicit the highest neuromuscular responses. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this single-group, repeated-measures study in which surface electromyography (EMG) data for the upper trapezius, rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominis, erector spinae, gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, and medial gastrocnemius were collected at three frequencies (0?Hz, 10?Hz, and 20?Hz) of WBV and three pelvic positions (neutral, anterior tilt, posterior tilt) for each subject during quiet standing. [Results] The EMG activities of all the recorded muscles showed significant differences between the three frequencies of WBV and three pelvic positions during quiet standing. [Conclusion] The study findings suggest that a higher WBV frequency (20?Hz) should be used to strengthen most muscles, and that using the posterior pelvic tilt during WBV is much more effective at strengthening and training muscles related to core stability. PMID:25995555

  4. Can an iPod Touch be used to assess whole-body vibration associated with mining equipment?

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Di Corleto, Luke; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-11-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available whole-body vibration measurement devices is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by collecting 58 simultaneous pairs of acceleration measurements in three dimensions from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and gold standard whole-body vibration measurement devices, while a range of heavy mining equipment was operated at three surface coal mines. The results suggest that accelerometer data gathered from a consumer electronic device are able to be used to measure whole-body vibration amplitude with 95% confidence of 0.06 m s(-2) root mean square for the vertical direction (1.96 standard deviation of the constant error). PMID:25106947

  5. Equal sensation curves for whole-body vibration expressed as a function of driving force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Neil J.; Maeda, Setsuo

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the seated human is most sensitive to whole-body vertical vibration at about 5 Hz. Similarly, the body shows an apparent mass resonance at about 5 Hz. Considering these similarities between the biomechanical and subjective responses, it was hypothesized that, at low frequencies, subjective ratings of whole-body vibration might be directly proportional to the driving force. Twelve male subjects participated in a laboratory experiment where subjects sat on a rigid seat mounted on a shaker. The magnitude of a test stimulus was adjusted such that the subjective intensity could be matched to a reference stimulus, using a modified Bruceton test protocol. The sinusoidal reference stimulus was 8-Hz vibration with a magnitude of 0.5 m/s2 rms (or 0.25 m/s2 rms for the 1-Hz test); the sinusoidal test stimuli had frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 16, and 32 Hz. Equal sensation contours in terms of seat acceleration showed data similar to those in the literature. Equal sensation contours in terms of force showed a nominally linear response at 1, 2, and 4 Hz, but an increasing sensitivity at higher frequencies. This is in agreement with a model derived from published subjective and objective fitted data. .

  6. Three-dimensional modeling of supine human and transport system under whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2013-06-01

    The development of predictive computer human models in whole-body vibration has shown some success in predicting simple types of motion, mostly for seated positions and in the uniaxial vertical direction. The literature revealed only a handful of papers that tackled supine human modeling in response to vertical vibration. The objective of this work is to develop a predictive, multibody, three-dimensional human model to simulate the supine human and underlying transport system in response to multidirectional whole-body vibration. A three-dimensional dynamic model of a supine human and its underlying transport system is presented in this work to predict supine-human biodynamic response under three-dimensional input random whole-body vibration. The proposed supine-human model consists of three interconnected segments representing the head, torso-arms, and pelvis-legs. The segments are connected via rotational and translational joints that have spring-damper components simulating the three-dimensional muscles and tissuelike connecting elements in the three x, y, and z directions. Two types of transport systems are considered in this work, a rigid support and a long spinal board attached to a standard military litter. The contact surfaces between the supine human and the underlying transport system are modeled using spring-damper components. Eight healthy supine human subjects were tested under combined-axis vibration files with a magnitude of 0.5?m/s2 (rms) and a frequency content of 0.5-16?Hz. The data from seven subjects were used in parameter identification for the dynamic model using optimization schemes in the frequency domain that minimize the differences between the magnitude and phase of the predicted and experimental transmissibility. The predicted accelerations in the time and frequency domains were comparable to those gathered from experiments under different anthropometric, input vibration, and transport conditions under investigation. Based on the results, the proposed dynamic model has the potential to be used to provide motion data to drive a detailed finite element model of a supine human for further investigation of muscle forces and joint dynamics. The predicted kinematics of the supine human and transport system would also benefit patient safety planners and vibration suppression designers in their endeavors. PMID:23699722

  7. Varying whole body vibration amplitude differentially affects tendon and ligament structural and material properties.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin V; Davis, Matthew L; Thompson, William R; Dahners, Laurence E; Weinhold, Paul S

    2013-05-31

    Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular for helping to maintain bone mass and strengthening muscle. Vibration regimens optimized for bone maintenance often operate at hypogravity levels (<1G) and regimens for muscle strengthening often employ hypergravity (>1G) vibrations. The effect of vibratory loads on tendon and ligament properties is unclear though excessive vibrations may be injurious. Our objective was to evaluate how tendon gene expression and the mechanical/histological properties of tendon and ligament were affected in response to WBV in the following groups: no vibration, low vibration (0.3G peak-to-peak), and high vibration (2G peak-to-peak). Rats were vibrated for 20 min a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks. Upon sacrifice, the medial collateral ligament (MCL), patellar tendon (PT), and the Achilles Tendon (AT) were isolated with insertion sites intact. All tissues were tensile tested to determine structural and material properties or used for histology. Patellar tendon was also subjected to quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate expression of anabolic and catabolic genes. No differences in biomechanical data between the control and the low vibration groups were found. There was evidence of significant weakness in the MCL with high vibration, but no significant effect on the PT or AT. Histology of the MCL and PT showed a hypercellular tissue response and some fiber disorganization with high vibration. High vibration caused an increase in collagen expression and a trend for an increase in IGF-1 expression suggesting a potential anabolic response to prevent tendon overuse injury. PMID:23623311

  8. Professional Soccer Player Neuromuscular Responses and Perceptions to Acute Whole Body Vibration Differ from Amateur Counterparts.

    PubMed

    Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Acute whole body vibration (WBV) is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m). Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement) or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP) of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p < 0.01, Partial Eta(2) = 0.22) in peak knee isometric force following acute WBV with no significant differences among amateur players. A significant difference (p < 0.01, Partial Eta(2) = 0.16) in PAP amongst professional players following acute WBVT was also reported. No significant differences amongst amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p < 0.01, Partial Eta(2) = 0.27) compared to amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players. Key pointsAcute WBV improves knee extensor peak isometric force output and PAP amongst professional and not amateur soccer playersProfessional players perceived acute WBV as more beneficial to performance than amateur playersIsometric strength,vibration intensity and duration appear to influence results amongst players of different playing levels. PMID:26957927

  9. Professional Soccer Player Neuromuscular Responses and Perceptions to Acute Whole Body Vibration Differ from Amateur Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Acute whole body vibration (WBV) is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m). Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement) or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP) of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.22) in peak knee isometric force following acute WBV with no significant differences among amateur players. A significant difference (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.16) in PAP amongst professional players following acute WBVT was also reported. No significant differences amongst amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.27) compared to amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players. Key points Acute WBV improves knee extensor peak isometric force output and PAP amongst professional and not amateur soccer players Professional players perceived acute WBV as more beneficial to performance than amateur players Isometric strength,vibration intensity and duration appear to influence results amongst players of different playing levels PMID:26957927

  10. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    PubMed

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

    2009-01-01

    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

  11. Survey of Technical Preventative Measures to Reduce Whole-Body Vibration Effects when Designing Mobile Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DONATI, P.

    2002-05-01

    Engineering solutions to minimize the effects on operators of vibrating mobile machinery can be conveniently grouped into three areas: Reduction of vibration at source by improvement of the quality of terrain, careful selection of vehicle or machine, correct loading, proper maintenance, etc.Reduction of vibration transmission by incorporating suspension systems (tyres, vehicle suspensions, suspension cab and seat) between the operator and the source of vibration.Improvement of cab ergonomics and seat profiles to optimize operator posture. These paper reviews the different techniques and problems linked to categories (2) and (3). According to epidemiological studies, the main health risk with whole-body vibration exposure would appear to be lower back pain. When designing new mobile machinery, all factors which may contribute to back injury should be considered in order to reduce risk. For example, optimized seat suspension is useless if the suspension seat cannot be correctly and easily adjusted to the driver's weight or if the driver is forced to drive in a bent position to avoid his head striking the ceiling due to the spatial requirement of the suspension seat.

  12. Modeling of Spinal Column of Seated Human Body under Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaoki, Gen; Yoshimura, Takuya; Kuriyama, Kaoru; Nakai, Kazuma

    In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spinal column such as low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column. Thus the modeling of seated human body is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of whole-body vibration to the spinal column. This model has the spinal column and the support structures such as the muscles of the back and the abdomen. The spinal column is made by the vertebrae and the intervertebral disks that are considered the rigid body and the rotational spring and damper respectively. The parameter of this model is decided by the literature and the body type of the subject with respect to the mass and the model structure. And stiffness and damping parameters are searched by fitting the model simulation results to the experimental measured data with respect to the vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and the head and with respect to the driving-point apparent mass. In addition, the natural modes of the model compare with the result of experimental modal analysis. The influence of the abdomen and the muscles of the back are investigated by comparing three models with respect to above vibration characteristics. Three model are the proposed model, the model that has the spinal column and the model that has the muscles of the back in addition to the spinal column.

  13. Random Whole Body Vibration over 5 Weeks Leads to Effects Similar to Placebo: A Controlled Study in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gaßner, Heiko; Janzen, Annette; Schwirtz, Ansgar; Jansen, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background. Random whole body vibration (WBV) training leads to beneficial short-term effects in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the effect of WBV lasting several weeks is not clear. Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess a random WBV training over 5 weeks in PD. Methods. Twenty-one participants with PD were allocated to either an experimental or a placebo group matched by age, gender, and Hoehn&Yahr stage. The WBV training consisted of 5 series, 60 s each. In the placebo group, vibration was simulated. The primary outcome was the change of performance in Functional reach test (FRT), step-walk-turn task, biomechanical Gait Analysis, Timed up and go test (TUG), and one leg stance. Findings. In most of the parameters, there was no significant interaction of “time∗group.” Both groups improved significantly in Gait parameters, TUG, and one leg stance. Only in the FRT [F(1,15) = 8.397; P < 0.05] and in the TUG [F(1,15) = 4.971; P < 0.05] the experimental group performed significantly better than the placebo group. Conclusions. Random WBV training over 5 weeks seems to be less effective than reported in previous studies performing short-term training. The slight improvements in the FRT and TUG are not clinically relevant. PMID:25371843

  14. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    den Heijer, Anne E.; Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition). The present study replicated these findings in healthy children and examined acute effects of WBV treatment on inhibition. Methods Fifty-five healthy children (aged 8–13) participated in this within-subject design study. WBV treatment was applied by having the children sit on a chair mounted to a vibrating platform. After each condition (vibration vs. non-vibration), inhibition was measured by using the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test. Repeated measures analyses were applied in order to explore the effects of WBV treatment on inhibition, and correlations were computed between the treatment effect and participant characteristics in order to explore individual differences in treatment sensitivity. Results Three-minute WBV treatments had significant beneficial effects on inhibition in this sample of healthy children. Especially the repeated application (three times) of WBV treatment appeared beneficial for cognition. Stronger WBV treatment effects were correlated with higher intelligence and younger age, but not with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Conclusions This study demonstrates that especially repeated WBV treatment improves inhibition in healthy children. As this cognitive function is often impaired in children with developmental disorders (e.g. ADHD), future studies should further explore the effects, working mechanism and potential applicability of WBV treatment for this target group. PMID:26524188

  15. The effects of whole-body vibration on human biodynamic response.

    PubMed

    Smith, S D

    1995-01-01

    The objective of vibration research at the Armstrong Laboratory includes the expansion and improvement of the measurement, quantification, analysis, and modeling of human vibration response. The driving-point impedance and transmissibility techniques have been expanded and are rigorously applied in the research efforts. Driving-point impedance is defined as the ratio between the transmitted force and input velocity at the point of load application. Transmissibility is typically defined as the ratio between the acceleration level measured at some location on the body and the input acceleration at the seat. These two ratios are used to assess the magnitude and frequency location of resonance behaviors where maximum motions occur in the body. From these data, analytical models are developed which can simulate the motions and coupling behaviors, and predict the stiffness and damping characteristics of the affected anatomical structures. The ultimate goal of the research is to provide new and improved data and modeling capability for revising exposure standards and for developing equipment design guidelines and criteria for improving tolerance and reducing physiological consequences. This paper describes the results of recent studies conducted to identify the biodynamic behavior of major anatomical structures affected by seated whole-body vibration, to develop an analytical model for simulating human vibration response, and to apply the model to evaluate the effects of seat cushion materials on the transmission/attenuation pathways. PMID:11538949

  16. Analysis of non-linear response of the human body to vertical whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Tarabini, Marco; Solbiati, Stefano; Moschioni, Giovanni; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The human response to vibration is typically studied using linear estimators of the frequency response function, although different literature works evidenced the presence of non-linear effects in whole-body vibration response. This paper analyses the apparent mass of standing subjects using the conditioned response techniques in order to understand the causes of the non-linear behaviour. The conditioned apparent masses were derived considering models of increasing complexity. The multiple coherence function was used as a figure of merit for the comparison between the linear and the non-linear models. The apparent mass of eight male subjects was studied in six configurations (combinations of three vibration magnitudes and two postures). The contribution of the non-linear terms was negligible and was endorsed to the change of modal parameters during the test. Since the effect of the inter-subject variability was larger than that due to the increase in vibration magnitude, the biodynamic response should be more meaningfully modelled using a linear estimator with uncertainty rather than looking for a non-linear modelling. PMID:25105223

  17. Benefits of helmet-mounted display image stabilisation under whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Wells, M J; Griffin, M J

    1984-01-01

    The effects of whole-body vertical vibration in the range 2.5-25 Hz on visual performance with two types of raster scan helmet-mounted display have been determined. The benefit of an image stabilisation system on numeral reading performance during vibration was also assessed with both display systems. Increases in mean reading time of over 130%/m . s-2 R.M.S. and increases in percentage reading error of more than 30%/m . s-2 R.M.S. were recorded with unstabilised displays. With vertical and horizontal image stabilisation, these decrements in performance were reduced to less than 40%/m . s-2 R.M.S. increase in reading time and less than 10%/m . s-2 R.M.S. increase in reading error. Data on the transmission of vibration from the seat to the head and from the head to the helmet were also obtained. These indicate a relation between biodynamic behaviour and visual performance during vibration. PMID:6696690

  18. Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to whole body vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESTo estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and to identify the common sources of exposure and the occupations and industries where such exposures arise.?METHODSA postal questionnaire was posted to a random community sample of 22194 men and women of working age. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to WBV in the past week, including occupational and common non-occupational sources. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and national prevalence estimates were derived from census information. Estimates were also made of the average estimated daily personal dose of vibration (eVDV).?RESULTSFrom the 12907 responses it was estimated that 7.2million men and 1.8million women in Great Britain are exposed to WBV at work in a 1week period if the occupational use of cars, vans, buses, trains, and motor cycles is included within the definition of exposure. The eVDV of >374000 men and 9000women was estimated to exceed a proposed British Standard action level of 15ms-1.75. Occupations in which the estimated exposures most often exceeded 15ms-1.75 included forklift truck and mechanical truck drivers, farm owners and managers, farm workers, and drivers of road goods vehicles. These occupations also contributed the largest estimated numbers of workers in Great Britain with such levels of exposure. The highest estimated median occupational eVDVs were found in forklift truck drivers, drivers of road goods vehicles, bus and coach drivers, and technical and wholesale sales representatives, among whom a greater contribution to total dose was received from occupational exposures than from non-occupational ones; but in many other occupations the reverse applied. The most common sources of occupational exposure to WBV are cars, vans, forklift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, and loaders.?CONCLUSIONSExposure to whole body vibration is common, but only a small proportion of exposures exceed the action level proposed in British standards, and in many occupations, non-occupational sources are more important than those at work. The commonest occupational sources of WBV and occupations with particularly high exposures have been identified, providing a basis for targeting future control activities.???Keywords: whole body vibration; population; prevalence; exposure PMID:10810108

  19. The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antnio; Falco, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, Joo; Minozzo, Fbio; Falco, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)

  20. The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

  1. Whole-body vibration and ergonomic study of US railroad locomotives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanning, Eckardt; Landsbergis, Paul; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Luhrman, Raymond

    2006-12-01

    US locomotive operators have exposure to multi-axis whole-body vibration (WBV) and shocks while seated. This study assessed operator-related and ergonomic seating design factors that may have confounding or mitigating influence on WBV exposure and its effects. Vibration exposure was measured according to international guidelines (ISO 2631-1; 1997); ergonomic work place factors and vibration effects were studied with a cross-sectional survey instrument distributed to a randomly selected group of railroad engineers ( n=2546) and a control group; and during vehicle inspections. The survey response rate was 47% for the RR engineers ( n=1195) and 41% for the controls ( n=323). Results of the mean basic vibration measurements were for the x, y, z-direction and vector sum 0.14, 0.22, 0.28 and 0.49 m/s 2 respectively; almost all crest factors (CF), MTVV and VDV values were above the critical ratios given in ISO 2631-1. The prevalence of serious neck and lower back disorders among locomotive engineers was found to be nearly double that of the sedentary control group without such exposure. Railroad engineers rated their seats mostly unacceptable regarding different adjustment and comfort aspects (3.02-3.51; scale 1=excellent to 4=unacceptable), while the control group rated their chairs more favorably (1.96-3.44). Existing cab and seat design in locomotives can result in prolonged forced awkward spinal posture of the operator combined with WBV exposure. In a logistic regression analysis, time at work being bothered by vibration (h/day) was significantly associated with an increased risk of low back pain, shoulder and neck pain, and sciatic pain among railroad engineers. Customized vibration attenuation seats and improved cab design of the locomotive controls should be further investigated.

  2. Time domain detection of shocks and impacts in whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Anthony J; Roddan, George; Morrison, James B

    2010-01-01

    A method for detecting shocks and impacts in whole-body vibration time histories has been developed that is suitable for implementation as a computer algorithm. The procedure consists of comparing the magnitudes of a higher-order mean value and the impulsiveness calculated for successive time segments of the acceleration-time history. The indicators were the ratio of the 12th-order root mean value to the root mean square RMT/RMS, and the impulsiveness corresponding to a cumulative probability value of 0.97, I(0.97) (i.e., the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions exceeded 3% of the time divided by 2RMS). Both indicators have a value of 2.16 for random vibration with a Gaussian amplitude distribution, and deviate from this value when the motion possesses other characteristics. For seat motion in the Z-direction analyzed using frequency weighting W(b), and time segments of ~20 s, shocks and impacts could be identified when RMT/RMS ? 2.5, and I(0.97) ? 2.6. A subjective visual classification of 160 exposures to vibration recorded in a range of military vehicles operating under different conditions was performed by a jury of two observers. The subjective classification agreed with computer identification of shocks and impacts in 94% of the cases. PMID:20953070

  3. Whole body vibration exposure in heavy earth moving machinery operators of metalliferrous mines.

    PubMed

    Vanerkar, A P; Kulkarni, N P; Zade, P D; Kamavisdar, A S

    2008-08-01

    As mining operations get mechanized, the rate of profit generation increases and so do the rate of occupational hazards. This study deals with one such hazard - occupational vibration. The present study was carried out to determine the whole body vibration (WBV) exposure of the heavy earth moving machinery (HEMM) operators in two types of metalliferous mines in India, when they were engaged in the mining activity. Cross-comparison was done of the vibration dose value (VDV) for HEMM operators as well as each type of mine. The VDV for the shovel operator in bauxite mine was observed to be 13.53 +/- 5.63 m/s(7/4) with 25% of the readings higher than the prescribed limit whereas in iron ore mine VDV for dumper operator was 10.81 +/- 3.44 m/s(7/4) with 14.62% readings on the higher side. Cross-comparison of the VDV values for bauxite and iron ore mines revealed that it was 9.57 +/- 4.93 and 8.21 +/- 5.12 m/s(7/4) with 21.28 and 14.95% of the readings on the higher side respectively. The Student's t test level was found to be insignificant for both type of mines, indicating that the WBV exposure is not dependent on the type of mine but is dependent on the working condition and type of HEMM in operation. PMID:17874194

  4. Effect of Seating on Exposures to Whole-Body Vibration in Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PADDAN, G. S.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    The vibration isolation efficiency of seating has been evaluated in 100 work vehicles in 14 categories (cars, vans, lift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, dumpers, excavators, helicopters, armoured vehicles, mobile cranes, grass rollers, mowers and milk floats). Seat isolation efficiency, expressed by the SEAT value, was determined for all seats (67 conventional seats and 33 suspension seats) from the vertical acceleration measured on the floors and on the seats of the vehicles.For most categories of vehicle, the average SEAT value was less than 100%, indicating that the average seat provided some attenuation of vibration. However, there were large variations in SEAT values between vehicles within categories. Two alternative vibration frequency weightings (Wb from BS 6841, 1987; Wk from ISO 2631, 1997) yielded SEAT values that differed by less than 6%. Overall, the SEAT values determined by two alternative methods (the ratio of r.m.s. values and the ratio of vibration dose values) differed by less than 45% when using weighting Wb, although larger differences may be expected in some situations. The median SEAT value for the suspension seats was 846%; the median SEAT value for the conventional seats was 869% (based on weighting Wb and the ratio of r.m.s. values).Predicted SEAT values were obtained assuming that each seat could be interchanged between vehicles without altering its transmissibility. The calculations suggest that 94% of the vehicles investigated might benefit from changing the current seat to a seat from one of the other vehicles investigated. Although the predictions are based on assumptions that will not always apply, it is concluded that the severity of whole-body vibration exposures in many work environments can be lessened by improvements to seating dynamics.

  5. Low back pain and association with whole body vibration among military armoured vehicle drivers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rozali, A; Rampal, K G; Shamsul Bahri, M T; Sherina, M S; Shamsul Azhar, S; Khairuddin, H; Sulaiman, A

    2009-09-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted among military armoured vehicle drivers in the two largest mechanized battalions with the objective to determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP), and its association with whole body vibration (WBV) and other associated factors. A self-administered questionnaire and Human Vibration Meter were used in this study. A total of 159 respondents participated in this study and 102 (64.2%) of them were subjected to WBV measurement. One-hundred-and-seventeen respondents complained of LBP for the past 12 months giving a prevalence of 73.6%. The prevalence of LBP among tracked armoured vehicle drivers was higher (81.7%) as compared to wheeled armoured vehicle drivers (67.0%). The mean acceleration at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles (1.09 +/- 0.26 ms(-2)) and wheeled armoured vehicles (0.33 +/- 0.07 ms) were the dominant vibration directions. The mean estimated vibration dose value (eVDV) for eight-hour daily exposure at Z-axis (19.86 +/- 4.72 ms(-1.75)) in tracked armoured vehicles showed the highest estimation. Based on the European Vibration Directive (2002), the mean eVDV at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles exceeded exposure action value (EAV) (> 9.1 ms(-1.75), but did not exceed exposure limit value (ELV) (<21.0 ms(-1.75)). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only driving in forward bending sitting posture (OR = 3.63, 95% CI 1.06-12.42) and WBV exposure at X-axis (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.02-3.69) were significant risk factors to LBP. Preventive measures should be implemented to minimize risk of WBV and to improve ergonomic postures among drivers. PMID:20527267

  6. Experimental Evidence of the Tonic Vibration Reflex during Whole-Body Vibration of the Loaded and Unloaded Leg

    PubMed Central

    Zaidell, Lisa N.; Mileva, Katya N.; Sumners, David P.; Bowtell, Joanna L.

    2013-01-01

    Increased muscle activation during whole-body vibration (WBV) is mainly ascribed to a complex spinal and supraspinal neurophysiological mechanism termed the tonic vibration reflex (TVR). However, TVR has not been experimentally demonstrated during low-frequency WBV, therefore this investigation aimed to determine the expression of TVR during WBV.  Whilst seated, eight healthy males were exposed to either vertical WBV applied to the leg via the plantar-surface of the foot, or Achilles tendon vibration (ATV) at 25Hz and 50Hzfor 70s. Ankle plantar-flexion force, tri-axial accelerations at the shank and vibration source, and surface EMG activity of m. soleus (SOL) and m. tibialis anterior (TA) were recorded from the unloaded and passively loaded leg to simulate body mass supported during standing.  Plantar flexion force was similarly augmented by WBV and ATV and increased over time in a load- and frequency dependent fashion. SOL and TA EMG amplitudes increased over time in all conditions independently of vibration mode. 50Hz WBV and ATV resulted in greater muscle activation than 25Hz in SOL when the shank was loaded and in TA when the shank was unloaded despite the greater transmission of vertical acceleration from source to shank with 25Hz and WBV, especially during loading. Low-amplitude WBV of the unloaded and passively loaded leg produced slow tonic muscle contraction and plantar-flexion force increase of similar magnitudes to those induced by Achilles tendon vibration at the same frequencies. This study provides the first experimental evidence supporting the TVR as a plausible mechanism underlying the neuromuscular response to whole-body vibration. PMID:24386466

  7. Exposure to whole-body vibration in open-cast mines in the Barents region

    PubMed Central

    Burström, Lage; Hyvärinen, Ville; Johnsen, Magnar; Pettersson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to measure and evaluate whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure among drivers of mining vehicles in the Barents region. Study design In the period from November 2012 to August 2014, this cross-sectional study was carried out at 3 mines in Finland, Norway and Sweden as part of the MineHealth project. Methods Measurements of WBV were conducted on the surface of the driver's seat during normal work in accordance with international standards. Personal data on daily exposure times were collected by a questionnaire. Results Measurements were conducted on 95 different mining vehicles both as root mean square (RMS) value and vibration dose value (VDV) representing different manufacturers, models and capacities. Of the 453 miners who answered the questionnaire, 232 indicated that they were exposed to WBV during their working day. The results show that the mean daily exposure time varies between 1.9 and 6.7 h for different vehicles. The calculated mean A(8) could be found in an interval between 0.2 and 1.0 m/s2 and the corresponding 8-h VDV fell between 7 and 17 m/s1.75. Conclusions Exposure to WBV among operators of mining vehicles may be a serious health and safety problem in the mines studied. The employers ought, therefore, take active steps to reduce exposure in accordance with the European vibration directive. Moreover, since some groups of drivers are exposed to vibration that is close to or exceeds the exposure limit values, the employer should take immediate action to reduce exposure below these values. PMID:26864832

  8. Uncertainty in the evaluation of occupational exposure to whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Iole; Stacchini, Nicola

    2006-12-01

    Uncertainties associated with field assessments of daily exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) have been investigated in four categories of work vehicles (fork lift trucks, wheel loaders, garbage trucks, buses) in different working conditions. A total of 50 vehicles were included in the study. WBV exposures were measured in different field conditions in marble quarries, marble laboratories, dockyards, paper mills, transportation and public utilities: over 700 individual vibration measurements were analysed to quantify relevant uncertainty components due to changes in the operators' working methods, variations in the characteristics and conditions of the machines, changes in the characteristics of the travelling surface, uncertainty in the evaluation of exposure duration, and systematic errors due to measurement equipment. The methods used in the study to calculate measurement uncertainties are in accordance with the ISO publication "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement". The study made it possible to isolate major sources of uncertainty in field assessment of daily exposures to WBV. The investigation revealed that, in all the field conditions, differences in the characteristics of the machines and/or in working cycles were the most relevant uncertainty components. The overall relative uncertainty p in WBV field assessment was in the range 14% < p<32%, whereas the relative uncertainty caused by transducer and measurement equipment in a correctly calibrated system is less than 4%.

  9. Whole Body Vibration at Different Exposure Frequencies: Infrared Thermography and Physiological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sonza, Anelise; Robinson, Caroline C.; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3 ± 2.6 years) participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz) with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P ≤ 0.05). Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature. PMID:25664338

  10. Whole-body vibration-induced muscular reflex: Is it a stretch-induced reflex?

    PubMed Central

    Cakar, Halil Ibrahim; Cidem, Muharrem; Sebik, Oguz; Yilmaz, Gizem; Karamehmetoglu, Safak Sahir; Kara, Sadik; Karacan, Ilhan; Trker, Kemal S?tk?

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Whole-body vibration (WBV) can induce reflex responses in muscles. A number of studies have reported that the physiological mechanisms underlying this type of reflex activity can be explained by reference to a stretch-induced reflex. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to test whether the WBV-induced muscular reflex (WBV-IMR) can be explained as a stretch-induced reflex. [Subjects and Methods] The present study assessed 20 healthy males using surface electrodes placed on their right soleus muscle. The latency of the tendon reflex (T-reflex) as a stretch-induced reflex was compared with the reflex latency of the WBV-IMR. In addition, simulations were performed at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50?Hz to determine the stretch frequency of the muscle during WBV. [Results] WBV-IMR latency (40.5 0.8?ms; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 39.041.9?ms) was significantly longer than T-reflex latency (34.6 0.5?ms; 95% CI: 33.635.5?ms) and the mean difference was 6.2?ms (95% CI of the difference: 4.77.7?ms). The simulations performed in the present study demonstrated that the frequency of the stretch signal would be twice the frequency of the vibration. [Conclusion] These findings do not support the notion that WBV-IMR can be explained by reference to a stretch-induced reflex. PMID:26310784

  11. Human head-neck models in whole-body vibration: effect of posture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2013-02-22

    This work presents passive and muscle-based models to predict the biodynamical response of the human head-neck under fore-aft and combined-axis whole-body vibration considering four head-neck postures: neutral, flexion, lateral flexion, and lateral rotation. The passive model consists of one link, a three-rotational-degrees-of-freedom joint, and traditional spring-mass-damper elements. The muscle-based model is similar to the passive model but has additional muscle components. The additional muscle component comprises spring-mass-damper elements to capture the effects of changes in displacement, velocity, acceleration, and jerk. Eleven male participants were tested under white-noise random vibration input signals at the seat level with a frequency range of 0.5-10Hz and magnitudes of 1.5m/s(2) RMS for the fore-aft condition and 1.0m/s(2) RMS in each direction for the combined-axis condition. The proposed models were able to reasonably predict the frequency content and acceleration of the head-neck for the postures under investigation, with the muscle-based model performing better. PMID:23290314

  12. Whole Body Vibration Exercises and the Improvement of the Flexibility in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Ronikeili-Costa, Pedro; Carvalho-Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bravo-Monteiro, Milena Oliveira; Costa, Rebeca; de Moraes-Silva, Janaina; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Mantilla-Giehl, Paula; Arnobio, Adriano; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV) exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF) of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS. PMID:25276434

  13. Whole body vibration exercises and the improvement of the flexibility in patient with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Ronikeili-Costa, Pedro; Carvalho-Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bravo-Monteiro, Milena Oliveira; Costa, Rebeca; de Moraes-Silva, Janaina; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Mantilla-Giehl, Paula; Arnobio, Adriano; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV) exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword "flexibility" and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF) of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS. PMID:25276434

  14. Influence of Combined Whole-Body Vibration Plus G-Loading on Visual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard D.; Beutter, Brent Robert; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Stone, Leland S.; Anderson, Mark R.; Renema, Fritz; Paloski, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent engineering analyses of the integrated Ares-Orion stack show that vibration levels for Orion crews have the potential to be much higher than those experienced in Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle vehicles. Of particular concern to the Constellation Program (CxP) is the 12 Hz thrust oscillation (TO) that the Ares-I rocket develops during the final 20 seconds preceding first-stage separation, at maximum G-loading. While the structural-dynamic mitigations being considered can assure that vibration due to TO is reduced to below the CxP crew health limit, it remains to be determined how far below this limit vibration must be reduced to enable effective crew performance during launch. Moreover, this "performance" vibration limit will inform the operations concepts (and crew-system interface designs) for this critical phase of flight. While Gemini and Apollo studies provide preliminary guidance, the data supporting the historical limits were obtained using less advanced interface technologies and very different operations concepts. In this study, supported by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Human Research Program, we investigated display readability-a fundamental prerequisite for any interaction with electronic crew-vehicle interfaces-while observers were subjected to 12 Hz vibration superimposed on the 3.8 G loading expected for the TO period of ascent. Two age-matched groups of participants (16 general population and 13 Crew Office) performed a numerical display reading task while undergoing sustained 3.8 G loading and whole-body vibration at 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g in the eyeballs in/out (x-axis) direction. The time-constrained reading task used an Orion-like display with 10- and 14-pt non-proportional sans-serif fonts, and was designed to emulate the visual acquisition and processing essential for crew system monitoring. Compared to the no-vibration baseline, we found no significant effect of vibration at 0.15 and 0.3 g on task error rates (ER) or response times (RT). Significant degradations in both ER and RT, however, were observed at 0.5 and 0.7 g for 10-pt, and at 0.7 g for 14-pt font displays. These objective performance measures were mirrored by participants' subjective ratings. Interestingly, we found that the impact of vibration on ER increased with distance from the center of the display, but only for vertical displacements. Furthermore, no significant ER or RT aftereffects were detected immediately following vibration, regardless of amplitude. Lastly, given that our reading task required no specialized spaceflight expertise, our finding that effects were not statistically distinct between our two groups is not surprising. The results from this empirical study provide initial guidance for evaluating the display readability trade-space between text-font size and vibration amplitude. However, the outcome of this work should be considered preliminary in nature for a number of reasons: 1. The single 12 Hz x-axis vibration employed was based on earlier load-cycle models of the induced TO environment at the end of Ares-I first stage flight. Recent analyses of TO mitigation designs suggest that significant concurrent off-axis vibration may also occur. 2. The shirtsleeve environment in which we tested fails to capture the full kinematic and dynamic complexity of the physical interface between crewmember and the still-to-bematured helmet-suit-seat designs, and the impact these will have for vibration transmission and consequent performance. 3. By examining performance in this reading and number processing task, we are only assessing readability, a first and necessary step that in itself does not directly address the performance of more sophisticated operational tasks such as vehicle-health monitoring or manual control of the vehicle.

  15. Quantification of mouse in vivo whole-body vibration amplitude from motion-blur using x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhengyi; Welch, Ian; Yuan, Xunhua; Pollmann, Steven I.; Nikolov, Hristo N.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2015-08-01

    Musculoskeletal effects of whole-body vibration on animals and humans have become an intensely studied topic recently, due to the potential of applying this method as a non-pharmacological therapy for strengthening bones. It is relatively easy to quantify the transmission of whole-body mechanical vibration through the human skeletal system using accelerometers. However, this is not the case for small-animal pre-clinical studies because currently available accelerometers have a large mass, relative to the mass of the animals, which causes the accelerometers themselves to affect the way vibration is transmitted. Additionally, live animals do not typically remain motionless for long periods, unless they are anesthetized, and they are required to maintain a static standing posture during these studies. These challenges provide the motivation for the development of a method to quantify vibrational transmission in small animals. We present a novel imaging technique to quantify whole-body vibration transmission in small animals using 280 μm diameter tungsten carbide beads implanted into the hind limbs of mice. Employing time-exposure digital x-ray imaging, vibrational amplitude is quantified based on the blurring of the implanted beads caused by the vibrational motion. Our in vivo results have shown this technique is capable of measuring vibration amplitudes as small as 0.1 mm, with precision as small as  ±10 μm, allowing us to distinguish differences in the transmitted vibration at different locations on the hindlimbs of mice.

  16. Quantification of mouse in vivo whole-body vibration amplitude from motion-blur using x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhengyi; Welch, Ian; Yuan, Xunhua; Pollmann, Steven I; Nikolov, Hristo N; Holdsworth, David W

    2015-08-21

    Musculoskeletal effects of whole-body vibration on animals and humans have become an intensely studied topic recently, due to the potential of applying this method as a non-pharmacological therapy for strengthening bones. It is relatively easy to quantify the transmission of whole-body mechanical vibration through the human skeletal system using accelerometers. However, this is not the case for small-animal pre-clinical studies because currently available accelerometers have a large mass, relative to the mass of the animals, which causes the accelerometers themselves to affect the way vibration is transmitted. Additionally, live animals do not typically remain motionless for long periods, unless they are anesthetized, and they are required to maintain a static standing posture during these studies. These challenges provide the motivation for the development of a method to quantify vibrational transmission in small animals. We present a novel imaging technique to quantify whole-body vibration transmission in small animals using 280 ?m diameter tungsten carbide beads implanted into the hind limbs of mice. Employing time-exposure digital x-ray imaging, vibrational amplitude is quantified based on the blurring of the implanted beads caused by the vibrational motion. Our in vivo results have shown this technique is capable of measuring vibration amplitudes as small as 0.1?mm, with precision as small as??10 ?m, allowing us to distinguish differences in the transmitted vibration at different locations on the hindlimbs of mice. PMID:26248045

  17. Endurance exercise training blunts the deleterious effect of high-fat feeding on whole body efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Cameron J.; Murray, Andrew J.; Knight, Nicholas S.; Carter, Emma E.; Kemp, Graham J.; Thompson, Campbell H.; Tyler, Damian J.; Neubauer, Stefan; Robbins, Peter A.; Clarke, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    We recently showed that a week-long, high-fat diet reduced whole body exercise efficiency in sedentary men by >10% (Edwards LM, Murray AJ, Holloway CJ, Carter EE, Kemp GJ, Codreanu I, Brooker H, Tyler DJ, Robbins PA, Clarke K. FASEB J 25: 10881096, 2011). To test if a similar dietary regime would blunt whole body efficiency in endurance-trained men and, as a consequence, hinder aerobic exercise performance, 16 endurance-trained men were given a short-term, high-fat (70% kcal from fat) and a moderate carbohydrate (50% kcal from carbohydrate) diet, in random order. Efficiency was assessed during a standardized exercise task on a cycle ergometer, with aerobic performance assessed during a 1-h time trial and mitochondrial function later measured using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The subjects then underwent a 2-wk wash-out period, before the study was repeated with the diets crossed over. Muscle biopsies, for mitochondrial protein analysis, were taken at the start of the study and on the 5th day of each diet. Plasma fatty acids were 60% higher on the high-fat diet compared with moderate carbohydrate diet (P < 0.05). However, there was no change in whole body efficiency and no change in mitochondrial function. Endurance exercise performance was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), most probably due to glycogen depletion. Neither diet led to changes in citrate synthase, ATP synthase, or mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3. We conclude that prior exercise training blunts the deleterious effect of short-term, high-fat feeding on whole body efficiency. PMID:21632846

  18. sEMG during Whole-Body Vibration Contains Motion Artifacts and Reflex Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lienhard, Karin; Cabasson, Aline; Meste, Olivier; Colson, Serge S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the excessive spikes observed in the surface electromyography (sEMG) spectrum recorded during whole-body vibration (WBV) exercises contain motion artifacts and/or reflex activity. The occurrence of motion artifacts was tested by electrical recordings of the patella. The involvement of reflex activity was investigated by analyzing the magnitude of the isolated spikes during changes in voluntary background muscle activity. Eighteen physically active volunteers performed static squats while the sEMG was measured of five lower limb muscles during vertical WBV using no load and an additional load of 33 kg. In order to record motion artifacts during WBV, a pair of electrodes was positioned on the patella with several layers of tape between skin and electrodes. Spectral analysis of the patella signal revealed recordings of motion artifacts as high peaks at the vibration frequency (fundamental) and marginal peaks at the multiple harmonics were observed. For the sEMG recordings, the root mean square of the spikes increased with increasing additional loads (p < 0.05), and was significantly correlated to the sEMG signal without the spikes of the respective muscle (r range: 0.54 - 0.92, p < 0.05). This finding indicates that reflex activity might be contained in the isolated spikes, as identical behavior has been found for stretch reflex responses evoked during direct vibration. In conclusion, the spikes visible in the sEMG spectrum during WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and possibly reflex activity. Key points The spikes observed in the sEMG spectrum during WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and possibly reflex activity The motion artifacts are more pronounced in the first spike than the following spikes in the sEMG spectrum Reflex activity during WBV exercises is enhanced with an additional load of approximately 50% of the body mass PMID:25729290

  19. Acute and Chronic Whole-Body Vibration Exercise does not Induce Health-Promoting Effects on The Blood Profile

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, Anastasios A.; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Paschalis, Vassilis; Chanou, Konstantina; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise is an alternative, popular and easy exercise that can be followed by general public. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic WBV exercise on health-related parameters. Twenty-eight women were allocated into a control group (n=11, mean ±SEM: age, 43.5 ±1.5 yr; body mass, 66.1 ±3.1 kg; height, 160.6 ±1.5 cm) and a vibration group (n=17, mean ±SEM: age, 44.0 ±1.0 yr; body mass, 67.1 ±2.2 kg; height, 162.5 ±1.5 cm). After baseline assessments, participants of the experimental group performed WBV training 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Before and after the chronic WBV exercise, the participants of the vibration group performed one session of acute WBV exercise. Blood chemistry measurements (hematology, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin) were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise at the first and eighth week of WBV exercise in both control and vibration groups. The results failed to support any effect of both acute and chronic WBV exercise on biochemical health-related parameters. However, it seems that WBV exercise is a safe way of training without a negative impact on muscle and liver functionality. PMID:26240654

  20. Acute and Chronic Whole-Body Vibration Exercise does not Induce Health-Promoting Effects on The Blood Profile.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Paschalis, Vassilis; Chanou, Konstantina; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2015-06-27

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise is an alternative, popular and easy exercise that can be followed by general public. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic WBV exercise on health-related parameters. Twenty-eight women were allocated into a control group (n=11, mean SEM: age, 43.5 1.5 yr; body mass, 66.1 3.1 kg; height, 160.6 1.5 cm) and a vibration group (n=17, mean SEM: age, 44.0 1.0 yr; body mass, 67.1 2.2 kg; height, 162.5 1.5 cm). After baseline assessments, participants of the experimental group performed WBV training 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Before and after the chronic WBV exercise, the participants of the vibration group performed one session of acute WBV exercise. Blood chemistry measurements (hematology, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin) were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise at the first and eighth week of WBV exercise in both control and vibration groups. The results failed to support any effect of both acute and chronic WBV exercise on biochemical health-related parameters. However, it seems that WBV exercise is a safe way of training without a negative impact on muscle and liver functionality. PMID:26240654

  1. What is the most effective posture to conduct vibration from the lower to the upper extremities during whole-body vibration exercise?

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Yuka; Iwamoto, Jun; Iwashita, Kosui; Shinjo, Takuma; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise is widely used for training and rehabilitation. However, the optimal posture for training both the upper and lower extremities simultaneously remains to be established. Objectives The objective of this study was to search for an effective posture to conduct vibration from the lower to the upper extremities while performing WBV exercises without any adverse effects. Methods Twelve healthy volunteers (age: 22–34 years) were enrolled in the study. To measure the magnitude of vibration, four accelerometers were attached to the upper arm, back, thigh, and calf of each subject. Vibrations were produced using a WBV platform (Galileo 900) with an amplitude of 4 mm at two frequencies, 15 and 30 Hz. The following three postures were examined: posture A, standing posture with the knees flexed at 30°; posture B, crouching position with no direct contact between the knees and elbows; and posture C, crouching position with direct contact between the knees and elbows. The ratio of the magnitude of vibration at the thigh, back, and upper arm relative to that at the calf was used as an index of vibration conduction. Results Posture B was associated with a greater magnitude of vibration to the calf than posture A at 15 Hz, and postures B and C were associated with greater magnitudes of vibration than posture A at 30 Hz. Posture C was associated with a vibration conduction to the upper arm that was 4.62 times and 8.26 times greater than that for posture A at 15 and 30 Hz, respectively. Conclusion This study revealed that a crouching position on a WBV platform with direct contact between the knees and elbows was effective for conducting vibration from the lower to the upper extremities. PMID:26793008

  2. The effects of whole body vibration on static balance, spinal curvature, pain, and disability of patients with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinmo; Seo, Dongkwon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of whole body vibration (WBV) on static balance, spinal curvature, pain, and the disability of patients with chronic lower back pain. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were of 40 patients, who were randomly assigned to WBV and control groups. Twenty-five minutes of lumbar stability training and 5 minutes of WBV were conducted for the WBV group, and 30 minutes of lumbar stability training was conducted for the control group. The training was conducted three times per week for a total of 6 weeks. Static balance, spinal curvature, pain, and disability were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] After the intervention, the WBV group showed a significant differences in static balance, spinal curvature, pain, and disability. The control group presented significant differences in pain, and disability. In the comparison of the two groups, the WBV group showed more significant improvements in the fall index and pain. [Conclusion] WBV can be recommended for the improvement of the balance ability and pain of chronic lower back pain patients. PMID:25931735

  3. Whole body vibration induces forepaw and hind paw behavioral sensitivity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Baig, Hassam A; Guarino, Benjamin B; Lipschutz, Daniel; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2013-11-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been linked to neck and back pain, but the biomechanical and physiological mechanisms responsible for its development and maintenance are unknown. A rodent model of WBV was developed in which rats were exposed to different WBV paradigms, either daily for 7 consecutive days (repeated WBV) or two single exposures at Day 0 and 7 (intermittent WBV). Each WBV session lasted for 30?min and was imposed at a frequency of 15?Hz and RMS platform acceleration of 0.56??0.07?g. Changes in the withdrawal response of the forepaw and hind paw were measured, and were used to characterize the onset and maintenance of behavioral sensitivity. Accelerations and displacements of the rat and deformations in the cervical and lumbar spines were measured during WBV to provide mechanical context for the exposures. A decrease in withdrawal threshold was induced at 1 day after the first exposure in both the hind paw and forepaw. Repeated WBV exhibited a sustained reduction in withdrawal threshold in both paws and intermittent WBV induced a sustained response only in the forepaw. Cervical deformations were significantly elevated which may explain the more robust forepaw response. Findings suggest that a WBV exposure leads to behavioral sensitivity. PMID:23832376

  4. On the relationship between whole-body vibration exposure and spinal health risk.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Helmut

    2005-07-01

    A conceptual framework provides the possibility to identify factors determining the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spine and the internal stress-strain relationships. Epidemiological studies were critically evaluated with respect to their significance for the derivation of quantitative exposure-effect relationships. The approach of deriving such relationships from a comparison with self-generated accelerations during daily activities was considered as unsuited. Trunk muscle activity and control with apparently identical accelerations of body parts during self-generated and forced motions differ widely. Simple biodynamic models coupled with experimental in vivo and in vitro data permitted a preliminary deduction of quantitative relationships between WBV and spinal health with the consideration of individual factors and exposure conditions. Examples of anatomy-based verified finite element models and their application are provided. Such models are considered as a very promising instrument. They can be used to assess quantitatively preventive measures and design. Future research needs concern the examination of (1) the nonlinearity of biodynamics, (2) the effects of WBV in x- and y-axes, (3) the strength of the spine for shear, (4) the contact parameters between the seat and man, (5) the significance of postures and muscle activity, and (6) material properties of spinal structures. PMID:16100914

  5. Computation of trunk muscle forces, spinal loads and stability in whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazrgari, B.; Shirazi-Adl, A.; Kasra, M.

    2008-12-01

    Whole-body vibration has been indicated as a risk factor in back disorders. Proper prevention and treatment management, however, requires a sound knowledge of associated muscle forces and loads on the spine. Previous trunk model studies have either neglected or over-simplified the trunk redundancy with time-varying unknown muscle forces. Trunk stability has neither been addressed. A novel iterative dynamic kinematics-driven approach was employed to evaluate muscle forces, spinal loads and system stability in a seated subject under a random vertical base excitation with 1 g peak acceleration contents. This iterative approach satisfied equations of motion in all directions/levels while accounting for the nonlinear passive resistance of the ligamentous spine. The effect of posture, co-activity in abdominal muscles and changes in buttocks stiffness were also investigated. The computed vertical accelerations were in good agreement with measurements. The input base excitation, via inertial and muscle forces, substantially influenced spinal loads and system stability. The flexed posture in sitting increased the net moment, muscle forces and passive spinal loads while improving the trunk stability. Similarly, the introduction of low to moderate antagonistic coactivity in abdominal muscles increased the passive spinal loads and improved the spinal stability. A trade-off, hence, exists between lower muscle forces and spinal loads on one hand and more stable spine on the other. Base excitations with larger peak acceleration contents substantially increase muscle forces/spinal loads and, hence, the risk of injury.

  6. Two way assessment of other physical work demands while measuring the whole body vibration magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2008-03-01

    Direct observation, instead of using self-administered questionnaires might give more reliable and specific information about physical work demands at the workplace. This information is of use in a population already at risk of developing low back pain (LBP) due to whole body vibration (WBV) exposure. The aims of this study are to assess the WBV exposure in an exposed population and to assess other physical work demands in two ways, by direct observation and with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. We therefore assessed the WBV magnitude and 5 WBV-related physical work demands by using the PalmTrac system and a self-administered questionnaire in a group of drivers ( N=10). The main findings are 7 out of 10 drivers are exceeding the EU action value. About 50% of the drivers under-estimated the time 'bending', 60% the time 'walking+standing' and 60% over-estimated the time when 'lifting.' We concluded that 7 drivers from this group are at risk of developing LBP and substantial differences exists for the 5 physical work demands comparing the PalmTrac method with the questionnaire. Direct observational assessment in WBV measurements yields extra information. This is useful for preventive activities necessary as drivers are exceeding the EU action value.

  7. Effects of 8-Prenylnaringenin and Whole-Body Vibration Therapy on a Rat Model of Osteopenia

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Daniel B.; Griesel, Markus H.; Brockhusen, Bastian; Tezval, Mohammad; Komrakova, Marina; Menger, Bjoern; Wassmann, Marco; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Sehmisch, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is the phytoestrogen with the highest affinity for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), which is required to maintain BMD. The osteoprotective properties of 8-PN have been demonstrated previously in tibiae. We used a rat osteopenia model to perform the first investigation of 8-PN with whole-body vertical vibration (WBVV). Study Design. Ovariectomy was performed on 52 of 64 Sprague-Dawley rats. Five weeks after ovariectomy, one group received daily injections (sc) of 8-PN (1.77 mg/kg) for 10 weeks; a second group was treated with both 8-PN and WBVV (twice a day, 15 min, 35 Hz, amplitude 0.47 mm). Other groups received either only WBVV or no treatment. Methods. The rats were sacrificed 15 weeks after ovariectomy. Lumbar vertebrae and femora were removed for biomechanical and morphological assessment. Results. 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose did not cause fundamental improvements in osteoporotic bones. Treatment with 8-PN caused a slight increase in uterine wet weight. Combined therapy using WBVV and 8-PN showed no significant improvements in bone structure and biomechanical properties. Conclusion. We cannot confirm the osteoprotective effects of 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose in primary affected osteoporotic bones. Higher concentrations of 8-PN are not advisable for safety reasons. Adjunctive therapy with WBVV demonstrates no convincing effects on bones. PMID:26904278

  8. Effect of Whole Body Vibration on Skin Blood Flow and Nitric Oxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Feland, J. Brent; Johnson, A. Wayne; Mack, Gary W.; Mitchell, Ulrike H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vascular dysfunction due to hyperglycemia in individuals with diabetes is a factor contributing to distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN). Reactive oxygen species reduce the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), a powerful vasodilator, resulting in reduced circulation and nerve ischemia. Increases in blood NO concentrations and circulation have been attributed to whole body vibration (WBV). The purpose of this study was to the determine the effects of low-frequency, low-amplitude WBV on whole blood NO concentrations and skin blood flow (SBF) in individuals with symptoms of DSPN. Methods: Ten patients with diabetes and impaired sensory perception in the lower limbs participated in this crossover study. Each submitted to 2 treatment conditions, WBV and sham, with a 1-week washout period between. Blood draws for NO analysis and laser Doppler imager scans of SBF were performed before, immediately after, and following a 5-minute recovery of each of the treatments. Results: Low-frequency, low-amplitude WBV significantly increased SBF compared to the sham condition (F2,18 = 5.82, P = .0115). Whole blood NO concentrations did not differ between the WBV and sham conditions immediately or 5 minutes after treatment (F2,18 = 1.88, P = .1813). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that patients with diabetes respond to WBV with increased SBF compared to the sham condition. The implication is that WBV is a potential nonpharmacological therapy for neurovascular complications of diabetes. PMID:24876449

  9. Whole-body vibration decreases the proliferative response of TCD4+ cells in elderly individuals with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tossige-Gomes, R.; Avelar, N.C.P.; Simo, A.P.; Neves, C.D.C.; Brito-Melo, G.E.A.; Coimbra, C.C.; Rocha-Vieira, E.; Lacerda, A.C.R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding whole-body vibration (WBV; frequency = 35 to 40?Hz; amplitude = 4?mm) to squat training on the T-cell proliferative response of elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. This study was a randomized controlled trial in which the selected variables were assessed before and after 12 weeks of training. Twenty-six subjects (72 5 years of age) were divided into three groups: 1) squat training with WBV (WBV, N = 8); 2) squat training without WBV (N = 10), and 3) a control group (N = 8). Women who were ?60 years of age and had been diagnosed with OA in at least one knee were eligible. The intervention consisted of 12 uninterrupted weeks of squatting exercise training performed 3 times/week. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from peripheral blood collected before and after training. The proliferation of TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester fluorescence decay before and after the intervention (?). The proliferative response of TCD4+ cells (P = 0.02, effect size = 1.0) showed a significant decrease (23%) in the WBV group compared to the control group, while there was no difference between groups regarding the proliferative response of TCD8+ cells (P = 0.12, effect size = 2.23). The data suggest that the addition of WBV to squat exercise training might modulate T-cell-mediated immunity, minimizing or slowing disease progression in elderly patients with OA of the knee. PMID:22948377

  10. Whole-body vibration decreases the proliferativeb response of TCD4(+) cells in elderly individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tossige-Gomes, R; Avelar, N C P; Simo, A P; Neves, C D C; Brito-Melo, G E A; Coimbra, C C; Rocha-Vieira, E; Lacerda, A C R

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding whole-body vibration (WBV; frequency = 35 to 40 Hz; amplitude = 4 mm) to squat training on the T-cell proliferative response of elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. This study was a randomized controlled trial in which the selected variables were assessed before and after 12 weeks of training. Twenty-six subjects (72 5 years of age) were divided into three groups: 1) squat training with WBV (WBV, N = 8); 2) squat training without WBV (N = 10), and 3) a control group (N = 8). Women who were ?60 years of age and had been diagnosed with OA in at least one knee were eligible. The intervention consisted of 12 uninterrupted weeks of squatting exercise training performed 3 times/week. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from peripheral blood collected before and after training. The proliferation of TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester fluorescence decay before and after the intervention (?). The proliferative response of TCD4+ cells (P = 0.02, effect size = 1.0) showed a significant decrease (23%) in the WBV group compared to the control group, while there was no difference between groups regarding the proliferative response of TCD8+ cells (P = 0.12, effect size = 2.23). The data suggest that the addition of WBV to squat exercise training might modulate T-cell-mediated immunity, minimizing or slowing disease progression in elderly patients with OA of the knee. PMID:22948377

  11. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males.

    PubMed

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Laudani, L; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 284 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  12. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 284 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  13. Effects of whole body vibration on outer hair cells' hearing response to distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Moussavi-Najarkola, Seyyed-Ali; Khavanin, Ali; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Akbari, Mehdi

    2012-05-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is one of the most vexing problems in industries. There is a debate about the effect of WBV exposure on hearing system as vibration-induced hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate outer hair cells' (OHCs') hearing response hearing response to distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in rabbits exposed to WBV. It was hypothesized that the DPOAE response amplitudes (A(dp)) in rabbits exposed to WBV would be lower than those in control rabbits not exposed to WBV. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits as vibration group (n = 6, exposed to WBV in the z-axis at 4-8 Hz and 1.0 ms(-2) root mean square for 8 h per day during five consecutive days) and NZW rabbits as control group (n = 6, not exposed to any WBV) were participated. A(dp) and noise floor levels (L(nf)) were examined on three occasions: day 0 (i.e., baseline), day 8 (i.e., immediately 1 h after exposure), and day 11 (i.e., 72 h following exposure) with f(2) frequencies ranging from 500 to 10,000 Hz and primaries L(1) and L(2) levels of 65 and 55 dB sound pressure level, respectively. Main effects were statistically found to be significant for group, time, and frequency (p < 0.05). DPOAE amplitudes were significantly larger for rabbits exposed to WBV, larger on day 8 and larger for mid to high f(2) frequencies (at and above 5,888.50 Hz). Main effects were not statistically found to be significant for ear (p > 0.05). Also, four statistically significant interactions including time by ear, time by frequency, group by frequency, and group by time were detected (p < 0.05). Contrary to the main hypothesis, DPOAE amplitudes were significantly larger for rabbits exposed to WBV. WBV exposure significantly led to enhanced mean A(dp) at mid to high frequencies rather than at low ones. PMID:22549335

  14. Effects of muscular strength, exercise order, and acute whole-body vibration exposure on bat swing speed.

    PubMed

    Reyes, G F Cisco; Dickin, D Clark; Dolny, Dennis G; Crusat, Nolan J K

    2010-12-01

    The purposes for this study were to investigate effects of acute whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure and exercise order on bat speed and to examine relationship between muscular strength and bat speed. All participants were recreationally trained men (n = 16; 22 ± 2 years; 181.4 ± 7.4 cm; 84.7 ± 9 kg), with previous baseball experience and were tested for 1 repetitive maximum (1RM) strength in squat and bench press. Subjects then participated in 4 randomized sessions on separate days, each consisting of 3 sets of 5 bat swings. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements related to bat swing) with or without WBV exposure were performed after sets 1 and 2. Trials were as follows: no-exercise Control (CTRL), upper body followed by lower body exercises without WBV (Arm-Leg NOVIB), upper body followed by lower body exercises with WBV (Arm-Leg VIB), and lower body followed by upper body exercises with WBV (Leg-Arm VIB). Bat speed was recorded during each swing and averaged across sets. Statistical analyses were performed to assess differences across sets and trials. Linear regressions analyzed relationship between strength and bat speed. A significant relationship existed between bat speed and lower body strength (r = 0.406, p = 0.008) but not for upper body strength. The exercise order of Arm-Leg VIB significantly increased bat speed by 2.6% (p = 0.02). Performing identical order of exercises without vibration (Arm-Leg NOVIB) significantly decreased bat speed by 2% (p = 0.039). It was concluded that adding vibration exposure to total-body exercises can provide acute enhancements in bat speed. Additionally, leg strength was shown to influence bat speed suggesting that increasing leg strength may enhance bat speed. PMID:21088545

  15. Impairment in Extinction of Contextual and Cued Fear Following Post-Training Whole-Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Reid H. J.; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24?h later. Animals were given 2?weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2?weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2?weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall. PMID:25071488

  16. Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued fear following post-training whole-body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Reid H J; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24?h later. Animals were given 2?weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2?weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2?weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall. PMID:25071488

  17. Effect of stochastic resonance whole body vibration on functional performance in the frail elderly: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Jessica; Radlinger, Lorenz; Baur, Heiner; Rogan, Slavko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and the effect size of a four-week stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) intervention on functional performance and strength in frail elderly individuals. Twenty-seven participants have been recruited and randomly distributed in an intervention group (IG) and a sham group (SG). Primary outcomes were feasibility objectives like recruitment, compliance and safety. Secondary outcomes were short physical performance battery (SPPB), isometric maximum voluntary contraction (IMVC) and isometric rate of force development (IRFD). The intervention was feasible and safe. Furthermore it showed significant effects (p=0.035) and medium effect size (0.43) within the IG in SPPB. SR-WBV training over four weeks with frail elderly individuals is a safe intervention method. The compliance was good and SR-WBV intervention seems to improve functional performance. Further research over a longer time frame for the strength measurements (IMVC and IRFD) is needed to detect potential intervention effects in the force measurements as well. Clinical Trial register: NTC01704976. PMID:25042993

  18. Wearable ballistocardiography: preliminary methods for mapping surface vibration measurements to whole body forces.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Andrew; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Klein, Liviu; Roy, Shuvo; Inan, Omer T

    2014-01-01

    The recent resurgence of ballistocardiogram (BCG) measurement and interpretation technologies has led to a wide range of powerful tools available for unobtrusively assessing mechanical aspects of cardiovascular health at home. Researchers have demonstrated a multitude of modern BCG measurement modalities, including beds, chairs, weighing scales, and wearable approaches. However, many modalities produce significant variations in the morphology of the measured BCG, creating confusion in the analysis and interpretation of the signals. This paper creates a framework for comparing wearable BCG measurements to whole body measurements--such as taken with a weighing scale system--to eventually allow the same analysis and interpretation tools that have been developed for whole body systems to be applied in the future to wearable systems. To the best of our knowledge, it represents the first attempt to morphologically compare vertical acceleration recordings measured on different locations on the torso to whole body displacements measured by BCG instrumentation. PMID:25571158

  19. Wearable Ballistocardiography: Preliminary Methods for Mapping Surface Vibration Measurements to Whole Body Forces

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Andrew; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Klein, Liviu; Roy, Shuvo; Inan, Omer T.

    2015-01-01

    The recent resurgence of ballistocardiogram (BCG) measurement and interpretation technologies has led to a wide range of powerful tools available for unobtrusively assessing mechanical aspects of cardiovascular health at home. Researchers have demonstrated a multitude of modern BCG measurement modalities, including beds, chairs, weighing scales, and wearable approaches. However, many modalities produce significant variations in the morphology of the measured BCG, creating confusion in the analysis and interpretation of the signals. This paper creates a framework for comparing wearable BCG measurements to whole body measurements—such as taken with a weighing scale system—to eventually allow the same analysis and interpretation tools that have been developed for whole body systems to be applied in the future to wearable systems. To the best of our knowledge, it represents the first attempt to morphologically compare vertical acceleration recordings measured on different locations on the torso to whole body displacements measured by BCG instrumentation. PMID:25571158

  20. Effects of combining whole-body vibration with exercise on the consequences of detraining on muscle performance in untrained adults.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Yusuke; Oguma, Yuko

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated whether whole-body vibration (WBV) coupled with low-velocity exercise (EX) for 13 weeks retains muscle performance gains after 5 weeks of subsequent detraining compared with the results of an identical EX program without WBV. Thirty-two untrained healthy adults (22-49 years of age) were randomly assigned to groups that performed EX with or without WBV (EX-WBV and EX, respectively; n = 16 per group). The following outcome variables were evaluated: countermovement jump height; maximal isometric, concentric, and eccentric knee extension strengths; local muscular endurance; and lumbar extension torque before, during, and after the 13-week training period, and after 5 weeks of detraining. Compared with the EX group, significantly higher increases in countermovement jump height and isometric and concentric knee extension strengths were detected in the EX-WBV group after the 13-week training period. However, detraining caused significant declines in these 3 muscle performance tests only in the EX-WBV group (-4.8, -10.2, and -17.2%, respectively), resulting in no significant differences between the test and control groups after the detraining period. After detraining, all examined variables showed significantly better performance compared with pretraining (p < 0.05) and did not significantly differ from midtraining (7 weeks) in both groups (p > 0.05). These results suggest that muscle strength in the lower extremities, particularly isometric and concentric contractions, and muscle power might be more susceptible to short-term detraining effects when exercise is combined with WBV. Thus, it is necessary to perform regular exercise to maximize the benefits of WBV on muscle strength and power during the early stages of training in previously untrained individuals. PMID:22739330

  1. Good Vibrations – Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Attention in Healthy Individuals and Individuals with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Most of the current treatment strategies of ADHD are associated with a number of disadvantages which strengthen the need for alternative or additional approaches for the treatment of ADHD. In this respect, Whole Body Vibration (WBV) might be interesting as it was found to have beneficial effects on a variety of physiological measures. The present study explored the effects of WBV on attention of healthy individuals and adults diagnosed with ADHD. Methods Eighty-three healthy individuals and seventeen adults diagnosed with ADHD participated in the study. WBV treatment was applied passively, while participants were sitting on a chair which was mounted on a vibrating platform. A repeated measure design was employed in order to explore potential effects of WBV treatment on attention within subjects. Attention (i.e. inhibitory control) was measured with a color-word interference paradigm. Results A period of two minutes of WBV treatment had significant beneficial effects of small to medium size on attention of both healthy individuals and adults with ADHD. The effect of WBV treatment on attention did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions WBV was demonstrated to improve cognitive performance of healthy individuals as well as of individuals with ADHD. WBV treatment is relatively inexpensive and easy to apply and might therefore be of potential relevance for clinical use. The application of WBV treatment as a cognitive enhancement strategy and as a potential treatment of cognitive impairments is discussed. PMID:24587412

  2. The impact of self-reported exposure to whole-body-vibrations on the risk of disability pension among men: a 15 year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Whole-body-vibrations are often associated with adverse health effect but the long term effects are less known. This study investigates the association between occupational exposures to whole-body vibrations, and subsequent transition to disability pension. Methods A total of 4215 male employees were followed up for subsequent disability pension retirement. Exposure to whole-body-vibration was self-reported while new cases of disability pension were retrieved from a national register. Results The hazard ratio (HR) for disability pension retirement among men exposed to whole-body-vibrations was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.40) after adjustment for age, smoking habits, BMI, physical job demands and awkward work postures. In our model, with the available explanatory variables, 5.6% of the male disability pension cases were attributable to whole-body-vibrations. Conclusions Exposure to whole-body-vibrations predicts subsequent disability pension retirement. Continued reduction of whole-body-vibrations may reduce the number of new cases of disability pension. PMID:20525268

  3. Optimal frequency, displacement, duration, and recovery patterns to maximize power output following acute whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jessica B; Edwards, David; Serravite, Daniel H; Serviette, Daniel; Bedient, Abby M; Huntsman, Emy; Jacobs, Kevin A; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Roos, Bernard A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2009-01-01

    Power is an important component of general health, fitness, and athletic performance. Traditional overload techniques require considerable time, intensity, and volume of training. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a potentially less time-consuming method for increasing power performance than traditional training. However, the exact protocols that can maximize power output have not yet been identified. Eleven healthy men, aged 32.3 +/- 4.1 years, and 9 healthy women, aged 29.1 +/- 3.5 years, performed countermovement jumps (CMJs) of maximal volition to assess peak power pre and post (immediately and at 1, 5, and 10 minutes) randomized WBV stimuli set at different frequency (30, 35, 40, and 50 Hz), displacement (2-4 vs. 4-6 mm), and duration (30, 45, and 60 seconds) combinations. Repeated-measures analysis of variance on peak power normalized to initial power (nPP) revealed no significant effects attributable to duration of stimulus. However, high frequencies were more effective when combined with high displacements, and low frequencies were more effective in conjunction with low displacements (p < 0.05). Additionally, the greatest improvements in nPP occurred at 1 minute posttreatment, with significant improvements lasting through 5 minutes posttreatment (p < 0.05). Optimal acute effects can be attained using as little as 30 seconds of WBV, and they are highest from 1 to 5 minutes posttreatment. Additionally, high frequencies were most effective when applied in conjunction with high displacements, whereas low frequencies were most effective when applied in conjunction with low displacements. PMID:19057405

  4. Evaluation of an occupational health intervention programme on whole?body vibration in forklift truck drivers: a controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hulshof, C T J; Verbeek, J H A M; Braam, I T J; Bovenzi, M; van Dijk, F J H

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate process and outcome of a multifaceted occupational health intervention programme on whole?body vibration (WBV) in forklift truck drivers. Methods An experimental pretest/post?test control group study design. The authors trained occupational health services (OHS) in the experimental group in the use of the programme. OHS in the control group were asked to deliver care as usual. In total, 15 OHS, 32 OHS professionals, 26 companies, and 260 forklift drivers were involved. Post?test measurements were carried out one year after the start of the programme. Results Baseline data before the start of the programme showed no difference between experimental and control group. Results of the outcome evaluation indicate a slight, although not statistically significant, reduction of WBV exposure in the experimental group (p?=?0.06). Process evaluation revealed a positive influence on company policy toward WBV, attitude and intended behaviour of forklift drivers, and a trend towards an increase in knowledge of OHS professionals and company managers. The number of observed control measures with a major impact (levelling of surface and reduction of speed) was rather low. In those cases where control measures had been taken, there was a significant reduction in WBV exposure. This limited effect of the programme might be caused by the short period of follow up and the dropout of participants. The feasibility and the usefulness of the programme within the OHS setting were rated good by the participants. Conclusions This programme to decrease WBV exposure was partially effective. Significant effects on intermediate objectives were observed. More research on the effectiveness of intervention in the field of WBV is needed. PMID:16551762

  5. a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

    1998-08-01

    The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

  6. Effects of Short-Period Whole-Body Vibration of 20 Hz on Selected Blood Biomarkers in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Milena de Oliveira Bravo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Carmo, Fernanda Santos do; Bernardo, Raquel Mattos; Pacheco, Raphaelle; Arnóbio, Adriano; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Santos-Filho, Sebastião David; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Unger, Marianne; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2015-08-31

    There is a growing interest in the use of vibration generated by oscillating/vibratory platforms - also known as whole-body vibration (WBV) - for achieving therapeutic, preventative and/or physical performance goals. This study investigated the effects of vibration generated by an oscillating platform on the concentration of blood biomarkers in rats. Wistar rats (n = 8) were divided in 2 groups, sedated and individually positioned on an oscillating platform. The experimental group (EG) was subjected to vibrations of 20 Hz for one min per day for one week while the control group (CG) experienced no vibration. Samples of heparinized whole blood were drawn by cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, glucose, CK, albumin, alkaline phosphates, TGP, TGO, γGT, lipase, amylase, urea and creatinine were determined. White blood cell count and a platelet hemogram were also performed. Following seven sessions of exposure to the vibration, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in γGT, VLDL and leukocytes was found. A weekly 1-min/day exposure of 20 Hz vibration can was shown to alter the concentrations of selected blood biomarkers in rats. The action mechanism associated with these effects seems highly complex, but the findings might contribute to the understanding of these mechanisms related to the exposure to 20 Hz vibration. PMID:26211644

  7. Individual and combined effects of noise-like whole-body vibration and parathyroid hormone treatment on bone defect repair in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and exposure to whole-body vibration on osteoporotic fracture healing has been previously investigated, but data on their concurrent use are lacking. Thus, we evaluated the effects of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, whole-body vibration, and their combination on bone repair in osteoporotic mice. Noise-like whole-body vibration with a broad frequency range was used instead of conventional sine-wave whole-body vibration at a specific frequency. Mice were ovariectomized at 9?weeks of age and subjected to drill-hole surgery in the right tibial diaphysis at 11?weeks. The animals were divided into four groups (n?=?12 each): a control group, and groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, noise-like whole-body vibration, and both. From postoperative day 2, the groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were subcutaneously administered parathyroid hormone at a dose of 30?g/kg/day. The groups treated with noise-like whole-body vibration and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were exposed to noise-like whole-body vibration at a root mean squared acceleration of 0.3g and frequency components of 45-100?Hz for 20?min/day. Following 18?days of interventions, the right tibiae were harvested, and the regenerated bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography and nanoindentation testing. Compared with the control group, callus volume fraction was 40% higher in groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and 73% higher in groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration, and callus thickness was 35% wider in groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration. Indentation modulus was 46% higher in groups treated with noise-like whole-body vibration and 43% higher in groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration, and hardness was 31% higher in groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration compared with the control group. There was no interaction between the two treatments for both structure and mechanical indexes. The main effects of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration on bone repair included increased bone formation and enhanced mechanical function of regenerated bone, respectively. The combined treatment resulted in further regeneration of bone with high indentation modulus and hardness, suggesting the therapeutic potential of the combined use of noise-like whole-body vibration and intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone for enhancing osteoporotic bone healing. PMID:26586525

  8. The effect of whole body vibration therapy on bone density in patients with thalassemia: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Ellen B.; Gariepy, Catherine A.; Sawyer, Aenor J.; Higa, Annie; Vichinsky, Elliott P.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with thalassemia (Thal) have low bone mass which can lead to fracture and decreased quality of life. There are no noninvasive anabolic therapies available to improve bone health in Thal. A longitudinal cross-over pilot trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of low magnitude whole body vibration (WBV) therapy on bone in 18 patients with Thal (9 adults, 10 male, 22.1 10.7 years). Subjects were asked to stand on a vibrating platform (30 Hz, 0.3 g) for 20 min/day for 6 months. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by DXA and volumetric BMD by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Adherence in the first 3 months was greater when compared with the second 3 months (14 6 vs. 10 7 min/day, P=0.007). Intention to treat analysis revealed a significant increase in whole body BMC (2.6%; P = 0.021), BMC/Ht (2.6%, P = 0.02) and aBMD (1.3%; P = 0.036), as well as a net increase in serum markers of bone formation (Osteocalcin/CTx, P = 0.027) in the adult subjects. These preliminary findings suggest that vibration therapy may be an effective nonpharmacologic intervention in Thal. Future research is needed to confirm these findings in a larger sample for longer duration. PMID:22886910

  9. Whole-body vibration improves functional capacity and quality of life in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Braz Jnior, Donato S; Dornelas de Andrade, Armle; Teixeira, Andrei S; Cavalcanti, Clssyo A; Morais, Andr B; Marinho, Patrcia EM

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance is a common development in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is little data on the use of an isolated program using vibration platform training on functional capacity in these patients, which is an area that deserves investigation. Aim To investigate the effect of training on a vibrating platform (whole-body vibration [WBV]) on functional performance and quality of life of subjects with COPD. Methods A randomized controlled crossover pilot study with eleven subjects with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]% predicted =14.6311.14; forced vital capacity [FVC]% predicted =48.8415.21; FEV1/FVC =47.3911.63) underwent a 12-week WBV training program. Participants were randomized into the intervention group (IG) undergoing three sessions per week for a total of 12 weeks and control group (CG) without intervention. We evaluated the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), distance walked (DW), duration of the walk (TW), and index of perceived exertion (IPE), quality of life using St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and developed a 12-week program of training on a vibrating platform. Results The mean age was 62.918.82 years old (72.7% male). The DW increased at the end of training with a difference between groups of 75 m; all domains of the SGRQ improved at the end of training. The effect size Cohens d ranged from small to large for all the measured results. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that WBV may potentially be a safe and feasible way to improve functional capacity in the 6MWT of patients with COPD undergoing a training program on the vibrating platform as well as in all domains of the SGRQ quality of life. However, further studies with a larger number of patients are needed to establish the long-term effect on functional capacity and quality of life in these patients. PMID:25624756

  10. Benefits of Whole-Body Vibration with an Oscillating Platform for People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Filho, Sebastião David; Cameron, Michelle H.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration on people with multiple sclerosis (MS). PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus databases were systematically searched for studies on the use of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise in people with MS. These searches were supplemented with material identified in the references and in the authors' personal files. A qualitative analysis was performed to summarize the findings. Five studies with a total of seventy-one subjects were identified. All of these studies had small numbers of subjects (3–25), and two of the studies had no control groups. Some investigations have shown significant improvements of the muscle strength, of the functional mobility, and of the timed get up and go test in patients with MS. The number of publications found in the databanks searched is small, and in general, they have limitations in the design of protocols with a weakness to the interpretation of the findings. However, the analysis of the findings in these studies permits to conclude that some papers indicate that WBV exercises could benefit patients with MS. In addition, we suggest further larger scale investigations with controlled parameters and well-designed protocols into the effects of WBV exercises in people with MS. PMID:22685660

  11. Benefits of whole-body vibration with an oscillating platform for people with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Santos-Filho, Sebastião David; Cameron, Michelle H; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration on people with multiple sclerosis (MS). PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus databases were systematically searched for studies on the use of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise in people with MS. These searches were supplemented with material identified in the references and in the authors' personal files. A qualitative analysis was performed to summarize the findings. Five studies with a total of seventy-one subjects were identified. All of these studies had small numbers of subjects (3-25), and two of the studies had no control groups. Some investigations have shown significant improvements of the muscle strength, of the functional mobility, and of the timed get up and go test in patients with MS. The number of publications found in the databanks searched is small, and in general, they have limitations in the design of protocols with a weakness to the interpretation of the findings. However, the analysis of the findings in these studies permits to conclude that some papers indicate that WBV exercises could benefit patients with MS. In addition, we suggest further larger scale investigations with controlled parameters and well-designed protocols into the effects of WBV exercises in people with MS. PMID:22685660

  12. Apparent Mass and Absorbed Power during Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Repeated Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MANSFIELD, N. J.; HOLMLUND, P.; LUNDSTRM, R.

    2001-11-01

    Exposure to mechanical shocks might pose a greater health risk than exposure to continuous vibration. Previous studies have investigated subjective responses, muscle activity or transmission of vibration to the spine or head during shock. If there is a difference between biomechanic responses of the seated body to shocks when compared to continuous vibration, then this may indicate a more, or less, hazardous vibration waveform. This paper presents measurements of apparent mass and absorbed power during exposure to random vibration, repeated shocks and combinations of shocks and random vibration. Eleven male and 13 female subjects were exposed to 15 vibration conditions generated using an electro-dynamic shaker. Subjects were exposed to five 20 s acceleration waveforms with nominally identical power spectra (random vibration, equally spaced shocks, unequally spaced shocks, random combined with equally spaced shocks, random combined with unequally spaced shocks) at each of 05, 10 and 15 m/s2r.m.s. The general shapes of the apparent mass or absorbed power curves were not affected by stimulus type, indicating that the biomechanical response of the body is fundamentally the same when exposed to shocks or random vibration. Two non-linear effects were observed: apparent mass resonance frequencies were slightly higher for exposure to shocks; apparent mass and absorbed power resonance frequencies decreased with increases in vibration magnitude for each stimulus type. It is concluded that the two non-linear mechanisms operate simultaneously: a stiffening effect during exposure to shocks and a softening effect as vibration magnitudes increase. Total absorbed powers were greatest for shock stimuli and least for random vibration.

  13. Low-magnitude high-frequency loading, by whole-body vibration, accelerates early implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Meng-Chun; Xu, Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Hua-Wei; Dong, Wei; Li, Jin-Yuan; Hu, Min

    2014-12-01

    Osteoporosis deteriorates jaw bone quality and may compromise early implant osseointegration and early implant loading. The influence of low?magnitude, high?frequency (LMHF) vibration on peri?implant bone healing and implant integration in osteoporotic bones remains poorly understood. LMHF loading via whole?body vibration (WBV) for 8 weeks has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance bone?to?implant contact, peri?implant bone fraction and implant mechanical properties in osteoporotic rats. In the present study, LMHF loading by WBV was performed in osteoporotic rats, with a loading duration of 4 weeks during the early stages of bone healing. The results indicated that 4?week LMHF loading by WBV partly reversed the negative effects of osteoporosis and accelerated early peri?implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25270245

  14. Low-magnitude high-frequency loading, by whole-body vibration, accelerates early implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, YONG-QIANG; QI, MENG-CHUN; XU, JIANG; XU, JUAN; LIU, HUA-WEI; DONG, WEI; LI, JIN-YUAN; HU, MIN

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis deteriorates jaw bone quality and may compromise early implant osseointegration and early implant loading. The influence of low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibration on peri-implant bone healing and implant integration in osteoporotic bones remains poorly understood. LMHF loading via whole-body vibration (WBV) for 8 weeks has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance bone-to-implant contact, peri-implant bone fraction and implant mechanical properties in osteoporotic rats. In the present study, LMHF loading by WBV was performed in osteoporotic rats, with a loading duration of 4 weeks during the early stages of bone healing. The results indicated that 4-week LMHF loading by WBV partly reversed the negative effects of osteoporosis and accelerated early peri-implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25270245

  15. A model analysis of internal loads, energetics, and effects of wobbling mass during the whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Yue, Z; Mester, J

    2002-05-01

    The internal loads, energetics, and the effects of wobbling mass during the whole-body vibration are studied in terms of analysis and comparison of two models: one is a system of four degrees-of-freedom with rigid and wobbling masses in both lower body and upper body (Model A), while the other one (Model B) is a system of three degrees-of-freedom with a rigid upper body and is otherwise identical to Model A. The main findings are the following: (1) The wobbling mass in the upper body is able to reduce the total internal load on the rigid mass of the upper body considerably. (2) "Partial" internal loads on a certain part of the body may be even larger than the total load on the same part of the body because of the phase differences among the partial loads. Therefore, a full consideration of safety during the whole-body vibration has to take not only the total, but also all the partial internal loads into account. (3) The fluctuation of power input and the fluctuation of mechanical energy could be much larger than the fluctuation of dissipation rate. (4) For frequencies higher than the resonance frequency range, the amplitude of the oscillation of the centre of mass of the body is so reduced that only the change of elastic potential energy dominates in the change of mechanical energy. Thus, a simple picture of energy flow is obtained as follows: for approximately one half of the oscillation period, the energy flows from the vibrator into the human body and is mainly stored in the muscle-tendon system, while for the remaining approximate half of the period, the energy flows from the muscle-tendon system back to the vibrator with a slightly smaller amount because a small part of the flown-in energy has been dissipated. PMID:11955503

  16. The ISO standard: Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vongierke, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    The international guideline is discussed in terms of safety and human tolerance. Charts for equal subjective vibration intensity, subjective judgement of equal fatigue, and severe discomfort boundaries are included.

  17. Acute bone response to whole body vibration in healthy pre-pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R; Ward, K; Lee, E; Razaghi, H; Horne, C; Bishop, N J

    2015-06-01

    The skeleton responds to mechanical stimulation. We wished to ascertain the magnitude and speed of the growing skeleton's response to a standardised form of mechanical stimulation, vibration. 36 prepubertal boys stood for 10 minutes in total on one of two vibrating platforms (high (>2 g) or low (<1 g) magnitude vibration) on either 1, 3 or 5 successive days (n=12 for each duration); 15 control subjects stood on an inactive platform. Blood samples were taken at intervals before and after vibration to measure bone formation (P1NP, osteocalcin) and resorption (CTx) markers as well as osteoprotegerin and sclerostin. There were no significant differences between platform and control groups in bone turnover markers immediately after vibration on days 1, 3 and 5. Combining platform groups, at day 8 P1NP increased by 25.1% (CI 12.3 to 38.0; paired t-test p=0.005) and bone resorption increased by 10.9% (CI 3.6 to 18.2; paired t-test p=0.009) compared to baseline. Osteocalcin, osteoprotogerin and sclerostin did not change significantly. The growing skeleton can respond quickly to vibration of either high or low magnitude. Further work is needed to determine the utility of such "stimulation-testing" in clinical practice. PMID:26032203

  18. Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2008-04-01

    Nonlinear biodynamic responses are evident in many studies of the apparent masses of sitting and standing subjects in static postures that require muscle activity for postural control. In the present study, 12 male subjects adopted a relaxed semi-supine posture assumed to involve less muscle activity than during static sitting and standing. The supine subjects were exposed to two types of vertical vibration (in the x-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 m s -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 10.35 to 7.32 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 m s -2 rms. This nonlinear response was apparent in both the vertical ( x-axis) apparent mass and in the horizontal ( z-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. As the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 m s -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass with intermittent random vibration decreased from 9.28 to 8.06 Hz whereas, over the same range of magnitudes with continuous random vibration, the resonance frequency decreased from 9.62 to 7.81 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms) was 1.37 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 1.71 with the continuous random vibration. With the intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration of the same magnitudes. The response was typical of thixotropy that may be a primary cause of the nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration.

  19. Low back pain in drivers: The relative role of whole-body vibration, posture and manual materials handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunribido, O. O.; Magnusson, M.; Pope, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the relative role of whole-body vibration (WBV), posture and manual materials handling (MMH) as risk factors for low back pain (LBP). Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history, posture and MMH performed was obtained from 394 workers who drove vehicles as part of their job (according to seven predefined occupational groups) and 59 who did not. The intention was to reflect a wide range of exposures with the lower end of the exposure spectrum defined as that of non-manual workers who do not drive as part of their job. Based on the questionnaire responses and direct measurements of vibration exposure, personal aggregate measures of exposure were computed for each of the respondents, i.e., total vibration dose (TVD), posture score (PS) and manual handling score (MHS). Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for back pain were obtained from logistics regression models and log-linear backward elimination analysis was performed. The findings showed that 'combined exposure' due to posture and one or both of vibration and MMH, rather than the individual exposure to one of the three factors (WBV, posture, MMH) is the main contributor of the increased prevalence of LBP.

  20. Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during longitudinal horizontal whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2008-04-01

    The resonance frequencies in frequency response functions of the human body (e.g. apparent mass and transmissibility) decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear biodynamic response is found with various sitting and standing postures requiring postural control. The present study measured the apparent mass of the body in a relaxed semi-supine posture with two types of longitudinal horizontal vibration (in the z-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ms -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 3.7 to 2.4 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 ms -2 rms. A nonlinear response was apparent in both the horizontal ( z-axis) apparent mass and the vertical ( x-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. With intermittent random vibration, as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 ms -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass decreased from 3.2 to 2.5 Hz whereas, with continuous random vibration over the same range of magnitudes, the resonance frequency decreased from 3.4 to 2.4 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms) was 0.6 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 0.9 Hz with the continuous random vibration. With intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration at the same magnitudes. The responses were consistent with passive thixotropy being a primary cause of nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration, although reflex activity of the muscles may also have an influence.

  1. Myoelectric Response of Back Muscles to Vertical Random Whole-Body Vibration with Different Magnitudes at Different Postures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BLTHNER, R.; SEIDEL, H.; HINZ, B.

    2002-05-01

    Back muscle forces contribute essentially to the whole-body vibration-induced spinal load. The electromyogram (EMG) can help to estimate these forces during whole-body vibration (WBV). Thirty-eight subjects were exposed to identical random low-frequency WBV (07, 10 and 14 m/s-2 r.m.s. weighted acceleration) at a relaxed, erect and bent forward postures. The acceleration of the seat and the force between the seat and the buttocks were measured. Six EMGs were derived from the right side of the m. trapezius pars descendens, m. ileocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, m. ileocostalis lumborum pars lumborum; m. longissimus thoracis pars thoracis, m. longissimus thoracis pars lumborum, and lumbar multifidus muscle. All data were filtered for anti-aliasing and sampled with 1000 Hz. Artefacts caused by the ECG in the EMG were identified and eliminated in the time domain using wavelets. The individually rectified and normalized EMGs were averaged across subjects. The EMGs without WBV exhibited characteristic patterns for the three postures examined. The coherence and transfer functions indicated characteristic myoelectric responses to random WBV with several effects of posture and WBV magnitude. A comprehensive set of transfer functions from the seat acceleration or the mean normalized input force to the mean processed EMG was presented.The results can be used for the development of more sophisticated models with a separate control of various back muscle groups. However, the EMG-force relationship under dynamic conditions needs to be examined in more detail before the results can be implemented. Since different reflex mechanisms depending on the frequency of WBV are linked with different types of active muscle fibres, various time delays between the EMG and muscle force may be necessary.

  2. Psychophysical relationships characterizing human response to whole-body sinusoidal vertical vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation determined that the psychophysical relationships between subjective discomfort evaluations to vibratory stimuli and subjective evaluations of the intensity of vibratory stimuli can be expressed in a linear fashion. Furthermore, significant differences were found to exist between discomfort and intensity subjective response for several but not all discrete frequencies investigated. The implication of these results is that ride quality criteria based upon subjective evaluation of vibration intensity should be applied cautiously in the development of criteria for human comfort.

  3. Low-Magnitude Whole-Body Vibration Does Not Enhance the Anabolic Skeletal Effects of Intermittent PTH in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Michelle A.; Brodt, Michael D.; Stephens, Abby L.; Civitelli, Roberto; Silva, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a low-magnitude mechanical stimulus that may be anabolic for bone, yet we recently found that WBV did not improve bone properties in adult mice. Because intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) enhances the anabolic effects of high-magnitude skeletal loading, we sought to determine the skeletal effects of WBV in combination with PTH. Seven-month old male BALB/c mice were assigned to six groups (n = 1314/group) based on magnitude of applied acceleration (0, 0.3 G) and PTH dose (0, 10, 40 ?g/kg/day). Mice were exposed to WBV (0.3 G, 90 Hz, sine wave) or sham loading (0 G) for 15 min/day, 5 days/wk for 8 weeks. Vehicle or hPTH(134) was administered prior to each WBV session. Whole-body bone mineral content increased by ~5% from 0 to 8 weeks in the 40 ?g/kg PTH group only, independent of WBV loading. Similarly, PTH treatment increased tibial cortical bone volume by ~5% from 0 to 8 weeks, independent of WBV loading. Neither PTH nor WBV stimulated trabecular bone formation. Consistent with the cortical bone effect, tibias from the 40 ?g/kg PTH group had significantly greater ultimate force and energy to failure than tibias in the 0 and 10 ?g/kg PTH groups, independent of WBV treatment. In summary, 8 weeks of intermittent PTH treatment increased cortical bone volume and strength in adult male BALB/c mice. Daily exposure to low-magnitude WBV by itself did not improve skeletal properties and did not enhance the PTH effect. There was no WBV-PTH synergy in this preclinical study. PMID:21337386

  4. Additive effect of repeated bouts of individualized frequency whole body vibration on postural stability in young adults.

    PubMed

    Dickin, D Clark; Heath, Jacqueline E

    2014-08-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been shown to improve force and power output as well as flexibility and speed, with improvements suggested to result from reduced electromechanical delays, improved rate of force development, and sensitivity of muscle spindles. Fixed frequency studies on postural control have been somewhat equivocal; however, individualized frequency protocols have shown promising results in other motor tasks. To assess this, 18 healthy young adults experienced three 4-minute WBV sessions with postural control assessed before vibration, after multiple exposures, and during recovery, with altered levels of sensory information available to the participants. Sway velocity, sway path length, and sway area were assessed in each environment. Study findings revealed that stability was impacted following WBV, with more challenging environments eliciting improvements persisting for 20 minutes. When the environment was less challenging, postural stability was impaired; however, the effects dissipated quickly (10-20 min). It was determined that exposure to individualized frequency WBV served to impair postural control when the challenge was low, but resulted in heightened stability when the overall challenge was high and vestibular information was needed for stability. PMID:24603631

  5. Development of a Protocol for Epidemiologal Studies of Whole-Body Vibration and Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Lower Back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, M. L.; Pope, M. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.

    1998-08-01

    It seems evident from a large number of studies that there is a positive relationship between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and the occurrence of low back pain. There are existing standards for evaluating the human exposure to WBV, which are based on other factors than the effect of musculoskeletal disorders. Several national and international standards also exist for evaluating human exposure to WBV. The exposure limit values or health guidance caution zones included in some of these standards are not or only to a limited extent based on systematic epidemiological investigations. It has not yet been possible to establish a clear exposure-response relationship. There are many confounding or contributing factors which influence the hazards to workers caused by exposure to WBV. Reliable methods for the detection and prevention of injury due to vibration exposure at work, alone or in combination with other risk factors, need to be implemented. The aim of this paper was to design a protocol and a questionnaire for conducting collaborative studies of WBV and musculoskeletal back disorders. The protocol will be tested in a pilot study before it will be used in multi-center studies.

  6. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    PubMed

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions. PMID:25625530

  7. Characterization of the frequency and muscle responses of the lumbar and thoracic spines of seated volunteers during sinusoidal whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Baig, Hassam A; Dorman, Daniel B; Bulka, Ben A; Shivers, Bethany L; Chancey, Valeta C; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2014-10-01

    Whole body vibration has been postulated to contribute to the onset of back pain. However, little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to measure the frequency and corresponding muscle responses of seated male volunteers during whole body vibration exposures along the vertical and anteroposterior directions to define the transmissibility and associated muscle activation responses for relevant whole body vibration exposures. Seated human male volunteers underwent separate whole body vibration exposures in the vertical (Z-direction) and anteroposterior (X-direction) directions using sinusoidal sweeps ranging from 2 to 18?Hz, with a constant amplitude of 0.4?g. For each vibration exposure, the accelerations and displacements of the seat and lumbar and thoracic spines were recorded. In addition, muscle activity in the lumbar and thoracic spines was recorded using electromyography (EMG) and surface electrodes in the lumbar and thoracic region. Transmissibility was determined, and peak transmissibility, displacement, and muscle activity were compared in each of the lumbar and thoracic regions. The peak transmissibility for vertical vibrations occurred at 4?Hz for both the lumbar (1.55??0.34) and thoracic (1.49??0.21) regions. For X-directed seat vibrations, the transmissibility ratio in both spinal regions was highest at 2?Hz but never exceeded a value of 1. The peak muscle response in both spinal regions occurred at frequencies corresponding to the peak transmissibility, regardless of the direction of imposed seat vibration: 4?Hz for the Z-direction and 2-3?Hz for the X-direction. In both vibration directions, spinal displacements occurred primarily in the direction of seat vibration, with little off-axis motion. The occurrence of peak muscle responses at frequencies of peak transmissibility suggests that such frequencies may induce greater muscle activity, leading to muscle fatigue, which could be a contributing mechanism of back pain. PMID:25010637

  8. Whole body vibration compared to conventional physiotherapy in patients with gonarthrosis: a protocol for a randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative arthropathy. Load-bearing joints such as knee and hip are more often affected than spine or hands. The prevalence of gonarthrosis is generally higher than that of coxarthrosis. Because no cure for OA exists, the main emphasis of therapy is analgesic treatment through either mobility or medication. Non-pharmacologic treatment is the first step, followed by the addition of analgesic medication, and ultimately by surgery. The goal of non-pharmacologic and non-invasive therapy is to improve neuromuscular function, which in turn both prevents formation of and delays progression of OA. A modification of conventional physiotherapy, whole body vibration has been successfully employed for several years. Since its introduction, this therapy is in wide use at our facility not only for gonarthrosis, but also coxarthrosis and other diseases leading to muscular imbalance. Methods/Design This study is a randomized, therapy-controlled trial in a primary care setting at a university hospital. Patients presenting to our outpatient clinic with initial symptoms of gonarthrosis will be assessed against inclusion and exclusion criteria. After patient consent, 6 weeks of treatment will ensue. During the six weeks of treatment, patients will receive one of two treatments, conventional physiotherapy or whole-body-vibration exercises of one hour three times a week. Follow-up examinations will be performed immediately after treatment and after another 6 and 20 weeks, for a total study duration of 6 months. 20 patients will be included in each therapy group. Outcome measurements will include objective analysis of motion and ambulation as well as examinations of balance and isokinetic force. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and SF-12 scores, the patients' overall status, and clinical examinations of the affected joint will be carried out. Discussion As new physiotherapy techniques develop for the treatment of OA, it is important to investigate the effectiveness of competing strategies. With this study, not only patient-based scores, but also objective assessments will be used to quantify patient-derived benefits of therapy. Trial registration Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS) DRKS00000415 Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01037972 EudraCT 2009-017617-29 PMID:20565956

  9. Numerical assessment of fore-and-aft suspension performance to reduce whole-body vibration of wheel loader drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Grard; Mistrot, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    While driving off-road vehicles, operators are exposed to whole-body vibration acting in the fore-and-aft direction. Seat manufacturers supply products equipped with fore-and-aft suspension but only a few studies report on their performance. This work proposes a computational approach to design fore-and-aft suspensions for wheel loader seats. Field tests were conducted in a quarry to analyse the nature of vibration to which the driver was exposed. Typical input signals were recorded to be reproduced in the laboratory. Technical specifications are defined for the suspension. In order to evaluate the suspension vibration attenuation performance, a model of a sitting human body was developed and coupled to a seat model. The seat model combines the models of each suspension component. A linear two-degree-of-freedom model is used to describe the dynamic behaviour of the sitting driver. Model parameters are identified by fitting the computed apparent mass frequency response functions to the measured values. Model extensions are proposed to investigate postural effects involving variations in hands and feet positions and interaction of the driver's back with the backrest. Suspension design parameters are firstly optimized by computing the seat/man model response to sinusoidal acceleration. Four criteria including transmissibility, interaction force between the driver's back and the backrest and relative maximal displacement of the suspension are computed. A new suspension design with optimized features is proposed. Its performance is checked from calculations of the response of the seat/man model subjected to acceleration measured on the wheel loader during real work conditions. On the basis of the computed values of the SEAT factors, it is found possible to design a suspension that would increase the attenuation provided by the seat by a factor of two.

  10. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Vigels, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne B; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and changes in CS activity is often assumed. However, this relationship and absolute values of CS and maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2max) has never been assessed across different studies. A systematic PubMed search on literature published from 1983 to 2013 was performed. The search profile included: citrate, synthase, human, skeletal, muscle, training, not electrical stimulation, not in-vitro, not rats. Studies that reported changes in CS activity and V.O2max were included. Different training types and subject populations were analyzed independently to assess correlation between relative changes in V.O2max and CS activity. 70 publications with 97 intervention groups were included. There was a positive (r = 0.45) correlation (P < 0.001) between the relative change in V.O2max and the relative change in CS activity. All reported absolute values of CS and V.O2max did not correlate (r =- 0.07, n = 148, P = 0.4). Training induced changes in whole body oxidative capacity is matched by changes in muscle CS activity in a nearly 1:1 relationship. Absolute values of CS across different studies cannot be compared unless a standardized analytical method is used by all laboratories. PMID:25057335

  11. a Modal Analysis of Whole-Body Vertical Vibration, Using a Finite Element Model of the Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, S.; Griffin, M. J.

    1997-02-01

    A two-dimensional model of human biomechanical responses to whole-body vibration has been developed, by using the finite element method. Beam, spring and mass elements were used to model the spine, viscera, head, pelvis and buttocks tissue in the mid-sagittal plane. The model was developed by comparison of the vibration mode shapes with those previously measured in the laboratory. At frequencies below 10 Hz, the model produced seven modes which coincided well with the measurements. The principal resonance of the driving point response at about 5 Hz consisted of an entire body mode, in which the head, spinal column and the pelvis move almost rigidly, with axial and shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis occurring in phase with a vertical visceral mode. The second principal resonance at about 8 Hz corresponded to a rotational mode of the pelvis, with a possible contribution from a second visceral mode. A shift of the principal resonance of the driving point response, when changing posture, was achieved only by changing the axial stiffness of the buttocks tissue. It is suggested that an increase in contact area between the buttocks and the thighs and the seat surface, when changing posture from erect to slouched, may decrease the axial stiffness beneath the pelvis, with a non-linear force-deflection relationship of tissue resulting in decreases in the natural frequencies. A change in posture from erect to slouched also increased shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis in the entire body mode, and the natural frequency was decreased as a result of the much lower shear stiffness of tissue compared to the axial stiffness.

  12. An Updated Review of Epidemiologic Studies on the Relationship Between Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovenzi, M.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to update the information on the epidemiologic evidence of the adverse health effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spinal system by means of a review of the epidemiologic studies published between 1986 and 1996. In a systematic search of epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with exposure to WBV, 37 articles were retrieved. The quality of each study was evaluated according to criteria concerning the assessment of vibration exposure, assessment of health effects, and methodology. The epidemiologic studies reaching an adequate score on each of the above mentioned criteria, were included in the final review. A meta-analysis was also conducted in order to combine the results of independent epidemiologic studies. After applying the selection criteria, 16 articles reporting the occurrence of LBP disorders in 19 WBV-exposed occupational groups, reached a sufficient score. The study design was cross-sectional for 13 occupational groups, longitudinal for 5 groups and of case-control type for one group. The main reasons for the exclusion of studies were insufficient quantitative information on WBV exposure and the lack of control groups. The findings of the selected studies and the results of the meta-analysis of both cross-sectional and cohort studies showed that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of LBP, sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. Owing to the cross-sectional design of the majority of the reviewed studies, this epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to outline a clear exposure-response relationship between WBV exposure and LBP disorders. Upon comparing the epidemiological studies included in this review with those conducted before 1986, it is concluded that research design and the quality of exposure and health effect data in the field of WBV have improved in the last decade.

  13. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on peak isometric torque, muscle twitch torque and voluntary muscle activation of the knee extensors.

    PubMed

    Jordan, M; Norris, S; Smith, D; Herzog, W

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the acute effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) with a static squat on resting muscle twitch torque, peak isometric torque and voluntary muscle activation of the knee extensors during an isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Twenty-four healthy, strength-trained males were recruited for this randomized, cross-over design investigation. The WBV treatment consisted of three sets of 60 s of vibration (30 Hz, +/-4 mm) while standing in a semi-squat position. Voluntary muscle activation, peak isometric torque during MVC and resting muscle twitch torque (RTT) through percutaneous femoral nerve stimulation were obtained before and following the treatment. Change in peak isometric torque, voluntary muscle activation and the RTT were calculated as the difference between pre- and post-treatment values. There was no observable post-activation potentiation of muscle twitch torque or enhancement in voluntary muscle activation or peak isometric torque. However, decreases in the peak isometric torque (P=0.0094) and voluntary muscle activation (P=0.0252) were significantly smaller post WBV interventions compared with the control treatment. Based on the current data, it is unclear whether or not this was attributable to the effects of WBV but further research into this possibility is warranted. PMID:19602188

  14. Whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit improves aerobic fitness and muscle strength in sedentary young females.

    PubMed

    Myers, Terrence R; Schneider, Matthew G; Schmale, Matthew S; Hazell, Tom J

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a time-effective whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit using only body weight exercises is as effective in improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness, as well as muscular strength and endurance as a traditional concurrent style training combining resistance and endurance training. Thirty-four sedentary females (20.9 3.2 years; 167.6 6.4 cm; 65.0 15.2 kg) were assigned to either: (a) a combined resistance and aerobic exercise group (COMBINED; n = 17) or (b) a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit group (CIRCUIT; n = 17). Training was 3 days per week for 5 weeks. Pre- and post-training measures included a (Equation is included in full-text article.)test, anaerobic Wingate cycling test, and muscular strength and endurance tests. After training, (Equation is included in full-text article.)improved with CIRCUIT by 11% (p = 0.015), with no change for COMBINED (p = 0.375). Both relative peak power output and relative average power output improved with CIRCUIT by 5% (p = 0.027) and 3.2% (p = 0.006), respectively, and with COMBINED by 5.3% (p = 0.025) and 5.1% (p = 0.003). Chest and hamstrings 1 repetition maximum (1RM) improved with CIRCUIT by 20.6% (p = 0.011) and 8.3% (p = 0.022) and with COMBINED by 35.6% (p < 0.001) and 10.2% (p = 0.004), respectively. Only the COMBINED group improved back (11.7%; p = 0.017) and quadriceps (9.6%; p = 0.006) 1RM. The COMBINED group performed more repetitions at 60% of their pretraining 1RM for back (10.0%; p = 0.006) and hamstring (23.3%; p = 0.056) vs. CIRCUIT. Our results suggest that a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training program can elicit a greater cardiorespiratory response and similar muscular strength gains with less time commitment compared with a traditional resistance training program combined with aerobic exercise. PMID:25486302

  15. Comparison of the apparent masses and cross-axis apparent masses of seated humans exposed to single- and dual-axis whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Neil J.; Maeda, Setsuo

    2006-12-01

    Humans are exposed to whole-body vibration in many types of environment. In almost all cases, the vibration to which the human is exposed comprises multi-axis vibration, such that vibration occurs in all directions simultaneously. Despite the complex nature of vibration to which humans are exposed in the workplace, almost all laboratory studies investigating the biomechanical response of the person have been completed using single-axis simulators. This paper presents a study whereby 15 male subjects were exposed to single-axis whole-body vibration in the x-, y- and z-directions and dual-axis vibration in the xy-, xz-, and yz-directions using a 6 degree-of-freedom vibration simulator. All vibration magnitudes were 0.4 ms -2 rms in each axis. Acceleration and force was measured in the x-, y-, and z-direction during all trials. Subjects sat in two postures ('back-on' and 'back-off') on a flat rigid seat. Apparent masses measured using single-axis and dual-axis vibration stimuli showed comparable results; similarly, cross-axis apparent masses (i.e. the ratio of the force in one direction to the acceleration in another direction) were almost identical for the single- and dual-axis vibration stimuli. All results were in agreement with data previously published using single-axis vibration. In most cases, the peaks in the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass occurred at a slightly lower frequency for the dual-axis vibration than for the single-axis vibration. It is hypothesised that this change is due to a nonlinear effect, analogous to that which occurs with increasing vibration magnitude for single-axis vibration.

  16. Assessment of contribution of other users to own total whole-body RF absorption in train environment.

    PubMed

    Plets, David; Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vermeeren, Günter; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc

    2015-12-01

    For the first time, the contribution of radio-frequent radiation originating from other people's devices to total own whole-body absorption is assessed in a simulation study. Absorption in a train environment due to base station's downlink is compared with absorption due to uplink (UL) of the user's own mobile device and absorption due to the UL of 0, 1, 5, or 15 other nearby active users. In a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) macro cell connection scenario, UL of 15 other users can cause up to 19% of total absorption when calling yourself and up to 100% when not calling yourself. In a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) femtocell connection scenario, UL of 15 other users contributes to total absorption of a non-calling user for no more than 1.5%. For five other users in the train besides the considered person, median total whole-body Specific Absorption Rate is reduced by a factor of about 400000 when deploying a UMTS femtocell base station instead of relying on the GSM macrocell. Bioelectromagnetics. 36:597-602, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26511787

  17. Effect of whole-body vibration for 3 months on arterial stiffness in the middle-aged and elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chung-Liang; Chen, Han-Yu; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Liao, Wan-Chun; Liu, Bing-Tang; Lee, Meng-Chih; Chen, Hsin-Shui

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common problem of middle-aged and older adults. Increased arterial stiffness is a CVD risk factor. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise for middle-aged and older adults; however, there have been few studies investigating the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness. This study mainly investigated the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. Methods A total of 38 (21 women and 17 men) middle-aged and elderly subjects (average age, 61.9 years) were randomly divided into the WBV group and the control group for a 3-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of 30 Hz and 3.2 g WBV in a natural full standing posture at a sports center. The brachialankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of systemic arterial stiffness, and blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the intervention. Results After 3 months, there were no significant changes in blood pressure or heart rate in both groups. However, the bilateral baPWV was significantly reduced in the WBV group (decreased by 0.65 m/second [P=0.014]; 0.63 m/second [P=0.041] in either side), but not in the control group. The comparison between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study found that 3 months of WBV had a positive effect on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults and could therefore be regarded as a supplementary exercise. Larger-scale studies are needed to confirm the effects of WBV in the future. PMID:24872684

  18. Muscle activity, cross-sectional area, and density following passive standing and whole body vibration: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Masani, Kei; Alizadeh-Meghrazi, Milad; Sayenko, Dimitry G.; Zariffa, Jose; Moore, Cameron; Giangregorio, Lora; Popovic, Milos R.; Catharine Craven, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of intermittent passive standing (PS) and whole body vibration (WBV) on the electromyography (EMG) activity, cross-sectional area, and density of lower extremity muscles in individuals with chronic motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Case series. Methods Seven adult men with chronic (?2 years), thoracic motor complete (AIS AB) SCI completed a 40-week course of thrice-weekly intermittent PS-WBV therapy, in a flexed knee posture (160), for 45 minutes per session at a frequency of 45Hz and 0.60.7mm displacement using the WAVE Pro Plate, with an integrated EasyStand standing frame. EMG was measured in major lower extremity muscles to represent muscle activity during PS-WBV. The cross-sectional area and density of the calf muscles were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the widest calf cross-section (66% of the tibia length) at pre- and post-intervention. All measured variables were compared between the pre- and post-intervention measurements to assess change after the PS-WBV intervention. Results PS-WBV acutely induced EMG activity in lower extremity muscles of SCI subjects. No significant changes in lower extremity EMG activity, muscle cross-sectional area, or density were observed following the 40-week intervention. Conclusions Although acute exposure to PS-WBV can induce electrophysiological activity of lower extremity muscles during PS in men with motor complete SCI, the PS-WBV intervention for 40 weeks was not sufficient to result in enhanced muscle activity, or to increase calf muscle cross-sectional area or density. PMID:25059652

  19. The Fate of Mrs Robinson: Criteria for Recognition of Whole-Body Vibration Injury as AN Occupational Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HULSHOF, C. T. J.; VAN DER LAAN, G.; BRAAM, I. T. J.; VERBEEK, J. H. A. M.

    2002-05-01

    Several recently published critical reviews conclude that there is strong epidemiological evidence for a relationship between occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV), low back pain (LBP) and back disorders. Whether this exposure is only a modest or a substantial risk factor for the onset and recurrence of LBP is still a matter of debate. In spite of this controversy, four European Union countries have decided to recognize and compensate LBP and certain spinal disorders as an occupational disease. In this paper, we review the criteria currently in use for the recognition of this occupational disease. A search of the literature was performed; additional information was obtained in work visits to national occupational disease institutes in Germany, France and Belgium, in annual reports and national statistics on occupational diseases. Belgium was the first country to add WBV injury to the official list of occupational diseases (1978), followed by Germany (1993), the Netherlands (1997), and France (1999). The incidence of newly recognized cases in 1999 varied considerably: 763 in Belgium, 269 in France, 16 in Germany, and 10 reported cases in the Netherlands. The findings of this review indicate that significant differences exist in the established and applied diagnostic and exposure criteria in the four EU countries. This is illustrated by the case of Mrs Robinson, a 41-year-old forklift driver with LBP, who would probably get recognition and compensation in the Netherlands and Belgium but would be rejected in France and Germany. The development of uniform internationally accepted criteria is recommended, also from an epidemiological point of view, as many data are collected in the process of recognition of this occupational disease.

  20. Bone mineral density, microarchitectural and mechanical alterations of osteoporotic rat bone under long-term whole-body vibration therapy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Pengfei; Tang, Zhurong; Qing, Fangzhu; Chen, Xuening; Zhu, Xiangdong; Fan, Yujiang; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xingdong

    2016-01-01

    Low-magnitude, high-frequency whole body vibration (WBV) is receiving increasing interest as a non-pharmacological anti-osteoporosis approach. However, the long-term effect of WBV therapy is seldom studied. In this study, the efficacy of 16-week WBV (0.3g, 30Hz) on bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitectural parameters and mechanical properties of ovariectomized rat femur were examined by in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), ex vivo micro-computed tomography (CT), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and fracture test. To the best of our knowledge, 16 weeks of WBV administration (20min/day) is currently the longest duration on rodent. The longitudinal BMD change showed that positive effect of WBV on ovariectomized rat femoral neck diminished with prolonged administration duration. In addition, 16-week of WBV treatment was found to cause significantly reduction in the mean BMD, trabecular BMD (Tb.BMD), trabecular bone volume ration (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and maximum load in femoral neck of ovariectomized rat. Metaphyseal Tb.BMD and BV/TV were also significantly decreased in WBV treated ovariectomized group than non-treated controls. Whole-femur DMA was demonstrated as a sensitive tool in distinguishing osteoporotic femur from healthy aged-matched controls, in terms of decreased storage modulus (E') and loss factor (tan ?). However, E' and tan ? are not enhanced by 16-week WBV treatment. Together, these findings indicate that administration duration played an important role in the effect of WBV. 16-week WBV may exacerbate trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized rat femur, especially in trabecular-rich femoral neck region. An optimal WBV protocol including administration duration should be established prior to long-term clinical practice. PMID:26398779

  1. Single-dose effects of whole body vibration on quadriceps strength in individuals with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bosveld, Rick; Field-Fote, Edelle C

    2015-11-01

    Context Paresis associated with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) impairs function. Whole body vibration (WBV) may increase strength by activating neuromuscular circuits. Objective We assessed effects of a single session of WBV on lower extremity strength in individuals with motor-incomplete SCI. Design A single-session blinded randomized controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation research laboratory. Participants Subjects (n=25; age 49.712.5 years) had chronic SCI (>1 year) and were able to stand for at least 45 seconds. Interventions Subjects were randomized either to WBV (n=13) consisting of four 45-second bouts with 1-minute intervening rest periods (frequency: 50Hz, amplitude: 2mm) or to sham electrical stimulation (n=12). Outcome measures Maximal voluntary isometric quadriceps force was measured with a fixed dynamometer. A modified Five-Time-Sit-To-Stand (FTSTS) test was used to assess functional lower extremity strength. Measures were made at pre-test, immediate post-test, and delayed post-test 20 minutes later. Results At immediate post-test, change in voluntary isometric force in the WBV group was 1.12kg greater than in the sham group. The within-group change for the WBV group was significant with a moderate effect size (P=0.05; ES=0.60). No force-related changes were observed in the sham group. The modified FTSTS scores improved in both groups, suggesting that this measure was subject to practice effects. Conclusion Evidence from the present study suggests that even a single session of WBV is associated with a meaningful short-term increase in quadriceps force-generating capacity in persons with motor-incomplete SCI. The multi-session use of WBV as part of a strengthening program deserves exploration. PMID:25664489

  2. CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF LOW-BACK PAIN PRESENTING FOR MRI, WITH SPECIAL RELATION TO WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, KT; Harris, EC; Griffin, MJ; Bennett, J; Reading, I; Sampson, M; Coggon, D

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate risk factors for low-back pain (LBP) presenting for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with special focus on whole-body vibration (WBV). Methods A case-control approach was used. The study population comprised working-aged subjects from a catchment area for radiology services. Cases were a consecutive series referred for a lumbar MRI because of LBP. Controls were age- sex-matched subjects X-rayed for other reasons. Subjects were questioned about physical factors loading the spine, psychosocial factors, driving, personal characteristics, mental health, and certain beliefs about LBP. Exposure to WBV was assessed by six measures, including weekly duration of professional driving, hours driven at a spell, and current r.m.s. A(8). Associations with WBV were examined with adjustment for age, sex, and other potential confounders. Results Altogether, 252 cases and 820 controls were studied, including 185 professional drivers. Strong associations were found with poor mental health and belief in work as a causal factor for LBP, and with occupational sitting for ≥3 hours while not driving. Associations were also seen with taller stature, consulting propensity, BMI, smoking history, fear-avoidance beliefs, frequent twisting, low decision latitude and low support at work. However, associations with the six metrics of WBV were weak and not statistically significant, and no exposure-response relationships were found. Conclusions We found little evidence of a risk from professional driving or WBV. Drivers were substantially less heavily exposed to WBV than in some earlier surveys. Nonetheless, it seems that at the population level, WBV is not an important cause of LBP referred for MRI. PMID:18853063

  3. Daytime pattern of post-exercise protein intake affects whole-body protein turnover in resistance-trained males

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The pattern of protein intake following exercise may impact whole-body protein turnover and net protein retention. We determined the effects of different protein feeding strategies on protein metabolism in resistance-trained young men. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to ingest either 80g of whey protein as 8x10g every 1.5h (PULSE; n=8), 4x20g every 3h (intermediate, INT; n=7), or 2x40g every 6h (BOLUS; n=8) after an acute bout of bilateral knee extension exercise (4x10 repetitions at 80% maximal strength). Whole-body protein turnover (Q), synthesis (S), breakdown (B), and net balance (NB) were measured throughout 12h of recovery by a bolus ingestion of [15N]glycine with urinary [15N]ammonia enrichment as the collected end-product. Results PULSE Q rates were greater than BOLUS (~19%, P<0.05) with a trend towards being greater than INT (~9%, P=0.08). Rates of S were 32% and 19% greater and rates of B were 51% and 57% greater for PULSE as compared to INT and BOLUS, respectively (P<0.05), with no difference between INT and BOLUS. There were no statistical differences in NB between groups (P=0.23); however, magnitude-based inferential statistics revealed likely small (mean effect90%CI; 0.590.87) and moderate (0.800.91) increases in NB for PULSE and INT compared to BOLUS and possible small increase (0.421.00) for INT vs. PULSE. Conclusion We conclude that the pattern of ingested protein, and not only the total daily amount, can impact whole-body protein metabolism. Individuals aiming to maximize NB would likely benefit from repeated ingestion of moderate amounts of protein (~20g) at regular intervals (~3h) throughout the day. PMID:23067428

  4. A summary of current Bureau research into the effects of whole-body vibration and shock on operators of underground mobile equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Love, A.C.; Unger, R.L.; Bobick, T.G.; Fowkes, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses current research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) and shock on underground mobile equipment operators. The highlights of a comprehensive literature review of WBV, shock, and seating are presented. Factors discussed include health and physiological effects, comfort, performance, and fatigue. Vibration data were collected from shuttle cars and ramcars at several underground coal mines in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois. The data were formatted so that they could be used to drive the Bureau's motion platform, and to compare them with ANSI S3-1979, Guide for the Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration. Human subject testing in the Bureau's vibration research laboratory evaluated the effects of two different seat angles and of the presence or absence of vibration and of foam padding on heart rate, blood pressure, and subjective discomfort. Only vibration significantly increased heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressures. Vibration and a steel seat had a significant effect on subjective discomfort. The apparatus used for these tests and the experimental procedures are described in detail. Recommendations are made for additional research on the exposure of underground mining machine operators to WBV and shock.

  5. Contribution of individual components of a job cycle on overall severity of whole-body vibration exposure: a study in Indian mines.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bibhuti B; Mansfield, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Drivers of earth-moving machines are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV). In mining operations there can be a combination of relatively high magnitudes of vibration and long exposure times. Effective risk mitigation requires understanding of the main aspects of a task that pose a hazard to health. There are very few published studies of WBV exposure from India. This paper reports on a study that considered the contribution of the component phases of dumper operations, on the overall vibration exposure of the drivers. It shows that vibration magnitudes are relatively high, and that haulage tasks are the main contributor to the exposure. It is recommended that driver speed, haul road surfaces and vehicle maintenance/selection are optimized to ensure minimization of vibration. If this is not sufficient, operation times might need to be reduced in order to ensure that the health guidance caution zone from Standard No. ISO 2631-1:1997 is not exceeded. PMID:26652833

  6. The effects of passive warm-up vs. whole-body vibration on high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Nbia C P; Costa, Sidney J; da Fonseca, Sueli F; Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Gripp, Fernando J; Coimbra, Cndido C; Lacerda, Ana C R

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of passive warm-up (PW), whole-body vibration (WBV), and control (C) on high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise. Six recreationally trained men performed a 30-second sprint cycle test after the 3 aforementioned conditions; each test was carried out on a different day after balanced-order experimental tests. The WBV consisted of 5 minutes of squats associated with WBV (45 Hz, 2 mm). The PW consisted of 30 minutes of PW using a thermal blanket on the thighs and legs (35 W). The C consisted of 30 minutes of no warm-up with the subject lying down. Motor neuron excitability from the vastus lateralis muscle, evaluated by electromyography (EMG), was determined before exercise at rest and during sprint cycle exercise. Blood lactate levels (BLs), evaluated by spectroscopy, and muscle temperature (MT) of the thigh, estimated indirectly by measuring skin temperature, were determined at following time points: before exercise at rest (before and after experimental conditions), immediately, and 3 minutes after the 30-second sprint cycle test. Peak power, relative power, relative work, time of peak power, and pedaling cadence were significantly higher in the WBV compared with that for C (p < 0.05). Although MT was significantly greater in PW compared with that in WBV and C before exercise (p < 0.01), no significant differences were observed between the experimental conditions for BL immediately after sprint cycle exercise (p = 0.35) and in EMG during sprint cycle exercise (p = 0.16). Thus, it is plausible to suggest WBV as a method for an acute increase in high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise for athletes immediately before competition or training. PMID:22293678

  7. Energy Expenditure and Substrate Oxidation in Response to Side-Alternating Whole Body Vibration across Three Commonly-Used Vibration Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Elie-Jacques; Charrière, Nathalie; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Schutz, Yves; Dulloo, Abdul G.; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim There is increasing recognition about the importance of enhancing energy expenditure (EE) for weight control through increases in low-intensity physical activities comparable with daily life (1.5–4 METS). Whole-body vibration (WBV) increases EE modestly and could present both a useful adjuvant for obesity management and tool for metabolic phenotyping. However, it is unclear whether a “dose-response” exists between commonly-used vibration frequencies (VF) and EE, nor if WBV influences respiratory quotient (RQ), and hence substrate oxidation. We aimed to investigate the EE-VF and RQ-VF relationships across three different frequencies (30, 40, and 50Hz). Methods EE and RQ were measured in 8 healthy young adults by indirect calorimetry at rest, and subsequently during side-alternating WBV at one of 3 VFs (30, 40, and 50 Hz). Each frequency was assessed over 5 cycles of intermittent WBV (30s vibration/30s rest), separated by 5 min seated rest. During the WBV participants stood on the platform with knees flexed sufficiently to maintain comfort, prevent transmission of vibration to the upper body, and minimise voluntary physical exertion. Repeatability was assessed across 3 separate days in a subset of 4 individuals. In order to assess any sequence/habituation effect, an additional group of 6 men underwent 5 cycles of intermittent WBV (30s vibration/30s rest) at 40 Hz, separated by 5 min seated rest. Results Side-alternating WBV increased EE relative to standing, non-vibration levels (+36%, p<0.001). However, no differences in EE were observed across VFs. Similarly, no effect of VF on RQ was found, nor did WBV alter RQ relative to standing without vibration. Conclusion No relationship could be demonstrated between EE and VF in the range of 30-50Hz, and substrate oxidation did not change in response to WBV. Furthermore, the thermogenic effect of intermittent WBV, whilst robust, was quantitatively small (<2 METS). PMID:26974147

  8. Long duration measurements of whole-body vibration exposures associated with surface coal mining equipment compared to previous short-duration measurements.

    PubMed

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Lynas, Danellie

    2016-05-01

    Previous measurements of whole-body vibration associated with earth-moving equipment at surface coal mines have highlighted the significance of the hazard. Considerable variability in measurement amplitudes, even within the same equipment type operated at the same site, has been noted. However, the measurements have previously been undertaken for relatively short durations. Fifty-nine measurements were collected from a range of earth-moving equipment in operation at a surface coal mine. Measurement durations ranged from 100-460 min (median = 340 min). The results indicate that the measurements previously observed are not an artifact of the relatively short durations and confirm that operators of dozers and off-road haul trucks, in particular, are frequently exposed to vertical whole-body vibration levels which lie within, or above, the Health Guidance Caution Zone defined by ISO2631.1. Further investigations are justified to identify opportunities for reducing operators' exposure to high amplitude vibrations. PMID:26771238

  9. Assessing combined exposures of whole-body vibration and awkward posture--further results from application of a simultaneous field measurement methodology.

    PubMed

    Raffler, Nastaran; Hermanns, Ingo; Sayn, Detlef; Gres, Benno; Ellegast, Rolf; Rissler, Jrg

    2010-01-01

    The drivers of ten vehicles (tram, helicopter, saloon car, van, forklift, two mobile excavators, wheel loader, tractor, elevating platform truck) were studied with regard to the combined exposures of whole-body vibration and awkward posture during occupational tasks. Seven degrees of freedom (DOFs), or body angles, were recorded as a function of time by means of the CUELA measuring system (Computer-assisted registration and long-term analysis of musculoskeletal workloads) for the purpose of posture assessment. The vibrational exposure is expressed as the vector sum of the frequency-weighted accelerations in the three Cartesian coordinates; these were recorded simultaneously with the posture measurement. Based upon the percentage of working time spent under different workloads, a scheme is proposed for classification of the two exposures into three categories. In addition, a risk of adverse health effects classified as low, possible or high can be assigned to the combination of the two exposures. With regard to posture, the most severe exposure was measured for the drivers of the wheel loader and for the tractor driver, whereas the lowest exposure was measured for the helicopter pilots and van drivers. With regard to the combination of whole-body and posture exposures, the tractor driver and the elevating platform truck driver exhibited the highest workloads. PMID:20953080

  10. High-frequency and low-magnitude whole body vibration with rest days is more effective in improving skeletal micro-morphology and biomechanical properties in ovariectomised rodents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Renshi; Zhu, Dong; Gong, He; Gu, Guishan; Huang, Xu; Gao, Jia zi; Zhang, Xizheng

    2012-01-01

    We explored the optimal regime in preventing or treating bone loss, using ovariectomised rodents loaded by mechanical stimuli with rest days during the loading cycle. Eighty-four Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 6 months, were randomly divided into 7 groups after bilateral ovariectomy. Mechanical vibration with 1-day rest (ML1R), with 3-day rest (ML3R), with 5-day rest (ML5R), with 7-day rest (ML7R), daily loading (DL), comparing the ovariectomised group (OVX) with baseline (BCL) measurements. After a recovery of one week, all the rodents were loaded daily by whole body vibration at 35 Hz and 0.25 g for 15 minutes. Eight weeks later, a three-point bending test of the radius and micro-CT scanning of the femoral head were performed after animal sacrifice. Large improvements in biomechanical properties occurred in all the experimental groups for failure load, elastic modulus and deflection, while a significantly enhanced efficacy was detected in ML7R compared with daily loading (p<0.05). In micro-CT scanning, bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, number and separation were improved by the regime in all experimental groups, while ML7R showed a significant improvement over daily loading (p<0.05). Early bone loss in human subjects may be improved by high-frequency and low-magnitude whole body vibration with rest days or daily stimuli. Mechanical stimulus with a 7-day rest was more effective in improving biomechanical properties and micro-morphology compared with daily loading. This may have clinical implications in relation to the prevention and treatment of hip fractures, and in postoperative management following hip arthroplasty. PMID:22344486

  11. Nonlinearity in apparent mass and transmissibility of the supine human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2009-07-01

    Resonance frequencies evident in the apparent mass and the transmissibility of the human body decrease with increasing vibration magnitude, but the mechanisms responsible for this nonlinearity have not been established. This experiment was designed to explore the effects of body location on the nonlinearity of the body in supine postures. In a group of 12 male subjects, the apparent mass and transmissibility to the sternum, upper abdomen, and lower abdomen were measured in three postures (relaxed semi-supine, flat supine and constrained semi-supine) with vertical random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) at seven vibration magnitudes (nominally 0.0313, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 ms -2 rms). In all three postures, the apparent mass resonance frequencies and the primary peak frequencies in the transmissibilities to the upper and lower abdomen decreased with increases in vibration magnitude from 0.25 to 1.0 ms -2 rms. Nonlinearity generally apparent in transmissibility to the abdomen was less evident in transmissibility to the sternum and less evident in transmissibilities to the abdomen at vibration magnitudes less than 0.125 ms -2 rms. The nonlinearity was more apparent in the flat supine posture than in the semi-supine postures. The findings are consistent with the nonlinearity being associated with the response of soft tissues, more likely a consequence of passive thixotropy than muscle activity.

  12. Whole Body Vibration Exercise Protocol versus a Standard Exercise Protocol after ACL Reconstruction: A Clinical Randomized Controlled Trial with Short Term Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Berschin, Gereon; Sommer, Bjrn; Behrens, Antje; Sommer, Hans-Martin

    2014-09-01

    The suitability and effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise in rehabilitation after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was studied using a specially designed WBV protocol. We wanted to test the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol. In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, forty patients who tore their ACL and underwent subsequent ligament reconstruction were enrolled. Patients were randomized to the whole body vibration (n=20) or standard rehabilitation exercise protocol (n=20). Both protocols started in the 2(nd) week after surgery. Isometric and isokinetic strength measurements, clinical assessment, Lysholm score, neuromuscular performance were conducted weeks 2, 5, 8 and 11 after surgery. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. The WBV group displayed significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, preliminary data indicate that our whole body vibration muscle exercise protocol seems to be a good alternative to a standard exercise program in ACL-rehabilitation. Despite of its significant reduced time requirement it is at least equally effective compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. Key pointsIn this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol in forty patients who underwent ACL reconstruction.Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group as compared to the standard exercise group. Both protocols showed no differences regarding clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength.Despite a more than 50% reduction in time spent for exercise sessions, the WBV group achieved significant better results in the stability test.In conclusion, the presented WBV program can be considered as a practical alternative to a standard exercise program during ACL-rehabilitation. PMID:25177185

  13. Whole Body Vibration Exercise Protocol versus a Standard Exercise Protocol after ACL Reconstruction: A Clinical Randomized Controlled Trial with Short Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Berschin, Gereon; Sommer, Björn; Behrens, Antje; Sommer, Hans-Martin

    2014-01-01

    The suitability and effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise in rehabilitation after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was studied using a specially designed WBV protocol. We wanted to test the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol. In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, forty patients who tore their ACL and underwent subsequent ligament reconstruction were enrolled. Patients were randomized to the whole body vibration (n=20) or standard rehabilitation exercise protocol (n=20). Both protocols started in the 2nd week after surgery. Isometric and isokinetic strength measurements, clinical assessment, Lysholm score, neuromuscular performance were conducted weeks 2, 5, 8 and 11 after surgery. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. The WBV group displayed significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, preliminary data indicate that our whole body vibration muscle exercise protocol seems to be a good alternative to a standard exercise program in ACL-rehabilitation. Despite of its significant reduced time requirement it is at least equally effective compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. Key points In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol in forty patients who underwent ACL reconstruction. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group as compared to the standard exercise group. Both protocols showed no differences regarding clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. Despite a more than 50% reduction in time spent for exercise sessions, the WBV group achieved significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, the presented WBV program can be considered as a practical alternative to a standard exercise program during ACL-rehabilitation. PMID:25177185

  14. Seven Day Insertion Rest in Whole Body Vibration Improves Multi-Level Bone Quality in Tail Suspension Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Gao, Jiazi; Fang, Juan; Fan, Yubo

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration with rest days on bone quality at multiple levels. Methods Forty-nine three-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups, namely, vibrational loading for X day followed by X day rest (VLXR, X?=?1, 3, 5, 7), vibrational loading every day (VLNR), tail suspension (SPD), and baseline control (BCL). One week after tail suspension, rats were loaded by vibrational loading (35 Hz, 0.25 g, 15 min/day) except SPD and BCL. Fluorescence markers were used in all rats. Eight weeks later, femora were harvested to investigate macromechanical properties, and micro-computed tomography scanning and fluorescence test were used to evaluate microarchitecture and bone growth rate. Atomic force microscopy analyses and nanoindentation test were used to analyze the nanostructure and mechanical properties of bone material, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy was used for quantitative chemical analyses. Results Microarchitecture, mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate and macromechanical properties were improved in VL7R. Grain size and roughness were significantly different among all groups. No statistical difference was found for the mechanical properties of the bone material, and the chemical composition of all groups was almost similar. Conclusions Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration with rest days altered bone microarchitecture and macro-biomechanical properties, and VL7R was more efficacious in improving bone loss caused by mechanical disuse, which provided theoretical basis and explored the mechanisms of vibration for improving bone quality in clinics. PMID:24637608

  15. Assessment of whole-body vibration exposures and influencing factors for quarry haul truck drivers and loader operators

    PubMed Central

    Mayton, Alan G.; Jobes, Christopher C.; Gallagher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    To further assess vibration exposure on haul trucks (HTs) and front-end wheel loaders (FELs), follow-up investigations were conducted at two US crushed stone operations. The purpose was to: 1) evaluate factors such as load/no-load conditions, speed, load capacity, vehicle age, and seat transmissibility relative to vibration exposure; 2) compare exposure levels with existing ISO/ANSI and EUGPG guidelines. Increasing HT speed increased recorded vibration at the chassis and seat as expected. Neither vehicle load nor vehicle speed increased transmissibility. Increasing HT size and age did show transmissibility decreasing. HT dominant-axis wRMS levels (most often the y-axis, lateral or side-to-side direction) were predominantly within the health guidance caution zone (HGCZ). However, several instances showed vibration dose value (VDV) above the exposure limit value (ELV) for the ISO/ANSI guidelines. VDV levels (all dominant x-axis or fore-aft) were within and above the HGCZ for the EUGPG and above the HGCZ for ISO/ANSI guidelines. PMID:26361493

  16. The effects of whole-body vibration exercise on isokinetic muscular function of the knee and jump performance depending on squatting position

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeyuong; Park, Yunjin; Seo, Yonggon; Kang, Gyumin; Park, Sangseo; Cho, Hyeyoung; Moon, Hyunghoon; Kim, Myungki; Yu, Jaeho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) on isokinetic muscular function of the knee and jump performance depending on different squatting positions. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 healthy adult men who did not exercise regularly between the ages of 27 and 34. [Methods] WBVE was performed with high squat position (SP), middle SP, and low SP. Before and after the intervention, isokinetic muscular function of the knees and jump performance were measured. [Results] Knee flexion peak torque at 60°/s and total work at 180°/s were significantly increased after implementing WBVE. Jump height also significantly increased after completing the exercise at all positions in comparison with the pre-exercise programs. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that SP during WBVE is an important factor stimulating positive effects on muscular function. PMID:26957749

  17. DOSE-RESPONSE Relationships Between Whole-Body Vibration and Lumbar Disk DISEASEA Field Study on 388 Drivers of Different Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarze, S.; Notbohm, G.; Dupuis, H.; Hartung, E.

    1998-08-01

    In a longitudinal study, the dose-response relationships between long term occupational exposure to whole-body vibration and degenerative processes in the lumbar spine caused by the lumbar disks were examined. From 1990 to 1992, 388 vibration-exposed workers from different driving jobs were examined medically and by lumbar X-ray. For each individual, a history of all exposure conditions was recorded, and a cumulative vibration dose was calculated allowing comparisons between groups of low, middle, and high intensity of exposure. 310 subjects were selected for a follow-up four years later, of whom 906% (n=281) agreed to participate. In comparing the exposure groups, the results indicate that the limit value ofazw(8h)=08 m/s2should be reviewed. The best fit between the lifelong vibration dose and the occurrence of a lumbar syndrome was obtained by applying a daily reference ofazw(8h)=06 ms2as a limit value. The results became more distinct still when only those subjects were included in the statistical analysis who had had no lumbar symptoms up to the end of the first year of exposure. The prevalence of lumbar syndrome is 155 times higher in the highly exposed group when compared to the reference group with low exposure (CI95%=124/195). Calculating the cumulative incidence of new cases of lumbar syndrome in the follow-up period yields a relative risk ofRRMH=137 (CI95%=086/217) for the highly exposed group. It is concluded that the limit value for the calculation of an individual lifelong vibration dose should be based on a daily reference exposure ofazw(8h)=06 m/s2. With increasing dose it is more and more probable that cases of lumbar syndrome are caused by exposure to vibration.

  18. Ride quality and international standard ISO 2631 (Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the standard, which is aimed at promoting research and production of more data, and providing some design guidance, is outlined and its contents summarized. Some of the assumptions and information on which it is based are analyzed. Its application to vehicle ride quality is considered in the context of the safety, efficiency and comfort of crew and passengers. The importance of establishing the precise criteria against which vibration limits are required is underlined, particularly the difficulties of first defining comfort and then postulating appropriate levels. Some current and future work related to improving the standard is outlined and additional suggestions offered.

  19. Whole body vibration improves osseointegration by up-regulating osteoblastic activity but down-regulating osteoblast-mediated osteoclastogenesis via ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Guan, Xiaoxu; Liu, Tie; Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Mengfei; Yang, Guoli; Wang, Huiming

    2015-02-01

    Due to the reduction in bone mass and deterioration in bone microarchitecture, osteoporosis is an important risk factor for impairing implant osseointegration. Recently, low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibration (LM: <1g; HF: 20-90Hz) has been shown to exhibit anabolic, but anti-resorptive effects on skeletal homeostasis. Therefore, we hypothesized that LMHF loading, in terms of whole body vibration (WBV), may improve implant fixation under osteoporotic status. In the in vivo study, WBV treatment (magnitude: 0.3g, frequency: 40Hz, time: 30min/12h, 5days/week) was applied after hydroxyapatite-coated titanium implants were inserted in the bilateral tibiae of ovariectomized rats. The bone mass and the osteospecific gene expressions were measured at 12weeks post implantation. In the in vitro study, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities were fully investigated using various experimental assays. Micro-CT examination showed that WBV could enhance osseointegration by improving microstructure parameters surrounding implants. WBV-regulated gene levels in favor of bone formation over resorption may be the reason for the favorable adaptive bone remolding on bone-implant surface. The in vitro study showed that vibration (magnitude: 0.3g, frequency: 40Hz, time: 30min/12h) up-regulated osteoblast differentiation, matrix synthesis and mineralization. However, mechanically regulated osteoclastic activity was mainly through the effect on osteoblastic cells producing osteoclastogenesis-associated key soluble factors, including RANKL and M-CSF. Osteoblasts were therefore the direct target cells during the mechanotransduction process. The ERK1/2 pathway was demonstrated to play an essential role in vibration-induced enhancement of bone formation and decreased bone resorption. Our data suggests that WBV was a helpful non-pharmacological intervention for improving osseointegration under osteoporosis. PMID:25304090

  20. Mathematical equations and system identification models for a portable pneumatic bladder system designed to reduce human exposure to whole body shock and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz Ayyad, Ezzat

    A mathematical representation is sought to model the behavior of a portable pneumatic foam bladder designed to mitigate the effects of human exposure to shock and whole body random vibration. Fluid Dynamics principles are used to derive the analytic differential equations used for the physical equations Model. Additionally, combination of Wiener and Hammerstein block oriented representation techniques have been selected to create system identification (SID) block oriented models. A number of algorithms have been iterated to obtain numerical solutions for the system of equations which was found to be coupled and non-linear, with no analytic closed form solution. The purpose is to be able to predict the response of such system due to random vibrations and shock within reasonable margin of error. The constructed models were found to be accurate within accepted confidence level. Beside the analytic set of physical equations model representation, a linear SID model was selected to take advantage of the available vast amount of mathematical tools available to further analyze and redesign the bladder as a dynamic system. Measured field-test and lab test data have been collected from several helicopter and land terrain vehicle experiments. Numerous excitation and response acceleration measurement records were collected and used to prove the agreement with predictions. The estimation of two selected models were later applied to standard metrics in the frequency domain realization and compared with measurement responses. The collected test records are obtained from measured data at the US Army fields and facilities and at UNLV-CMEST environmental lab. The emerged models have been validated for conformity with actual accelerometer measurement responses and found within accepted error tolerance that is in both time and frequency domains. Further, standard metrics have been used to further confirm the confidence in the validation results. When comparing model prediction with the already proven pneumatic bladder system effectiveness both equally proves that bladder performance exceeds metrics standard to reduce human exposure to shock and random vibrations.

  1. Combined isometric and vibration training does not enhance strength beyond that of isometric training alone.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Van-Dongen, M; Sutherland, R

    2014-10-01

    Research considering combined vibration and strength training is extensive yet results are equivocal. However, to date there appears no research which has considered the combination of both direct vibration and whole---body vibration when used in an isometric deadlift position. The aims of this study were to compare groups performing isometric training with and without direct and whole---body vibration. Twenty four participants (19---24 years) were randomly divided into: isometric training with vibration (ST+VT: n=8), isometric training without vibration (ST: n=8), and control (CON: n=8). Within the training groups participants trained twice per week, for 6 weeks, performing 6---sets of maximal isometric deadlift contractions, increasing in duration from 30 seconds to 40 seconds (weeks 1---6). Hip and knee angle was maintained at 60 and 110, respectively for both testing and training. Training sessions for ST+VT were identical to ST with the addition of a direct vibratory stimulus through hand---held straps and whole---body vibration via standing on vibration a platform. The amplitude remained constant (2mm) throughout the intervention whilst the frequency increased from 35Hz to 50Hz. Pre--- and post---test isometric strength was measured using an isometric deadlift dynamometer. Results revealed significant increases in isometric strength for both ST+VT (p < 0.001, 23.8%) and ST (p < 0.001, 32.5%) compared to CON, with no significant differences between ST+VT and ST training groups. The present study provides evidence to suggest that there are no greater gains to be incurred by the addition of a vibratory stimulus to traditional strength training. PMID:25295625

  2. Effect of combining passive muscle stretching and whole body vibration on spasticity and physical performance of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Tupimai, Teeraporn; Peungsuwan, Punnee; Prasertnoo, Jitlada; Yamauchi, Juinichiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the immediate and short-term effects of a combination of prolonged passive muscle stretching (PMS) and whole body vibration (WBV) on the spasticity, strength and balance of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized two-period crossover trial was designed. Twelve subjects with cerebral palsy aged 10.6 ± 2.4 years received both PMS alone as a control group (CG) and a combination of PMS and WBV as an experimental group (EG). After random allocation to the trial schedules of either EG-CG or CG-EG, CG received prolonged PMS while standing on a tilt-table for 40 minutes/day, and EG received prolonged PMS for 30 minutes, followed by 10 minutes WBV. Both CG and EG received the treatment 5 days/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Immediately after one treatment, EG resulted in better improvement in scores on the Modified Ashworth Scale than CG. After the 6-week intervention, EG also showed significantly decreased scores on the Modified Ashworth Scale compared to CG. Both CG and EG showed significantly reduced the performance times in the five times sit to stand test, and EG also showed significantly increased scores on the pediatric balance scale. [Conclusion] This study showed that 6 weeks of combined prolonged PMS and WBV had beneficial effects on the spasticity, muscle strength and balance of children and adolescents with CP. PMID:26957720

  3. Effects of an eight-week whole body vibration on lower extremity muscle tone and function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Yu, Yu-Chun; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Ju, Yan-Ying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an eight-week whole body vibration (WBV) on lower extremity spasticity and ambulatory function in children with cerebral palsy with a complete crossover design. Sixteen participants aged 9.2 (2.1) years participated in this study. Half of the participants received a 10-min WBV, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Then a 4-week washout period followed, after which they received a sham WBV 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The other half received the intervention in a reversed order. The participants were evaluated via variables measuring range-of-motion, muscle tone, and ambulatory function before, immediately after, 1 day after, and 3 days after each intervention. Repeated-measures analyses revealed significant beneficial effects on most variables expect the passive range-of-motion measurement. Significant correlations were found between timed up-and-go and relaxation index, and between timed up-and-go and six-minute walk test. The results suggested that an 8-week WBV intervention normalized muscle tone, improved active joint range and enhanced ambulatory performance in children with cerebral palsy for at least 3 days. These indicated that regular WBV can serve as an alternative, safe, and efficient treatment for these children in both clinical and home settings. PMID:25575288

  4. Whole-Body Electromyostimulation to Fight Osteopenia in Elderly Females: The Randomized Controlled Training and Electrostimulation Trial (TEST-III)

    PubMed Central

    von Stengel, Simon; Bebenek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) has been shown to be effective in increasing muscle strength and mass in elderly women. Because of the interaction of muscles and bones, these adaptions might be related to changes in bone parameters. 76 community-living osteopenic women 70 years and older were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n = 38) or a control group (CG: n = 38). The WB-EMS group performed 3 sessions every 14 days for one year while the CG performed gymnastics containing identical exercises without EMS. Primary study endpoints were bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (thip) as assessed by DXA. After 54 weeks of intervention, borderline nonsignificant intergroup differences were determined for LS-BMD (WB-EMS: 0.6 2.5% versus CG ?0.7 2.5%, P = .051) but not for thip-BMD (WB-EMS: ?1.1 1.9% versus CG: ?0.8 2.3%, P = .771). With respect to secondary endpoints, there was a gain in lean body mass (LBM) of 1.5% (P = .006) and an increase in grip strength of 8.4% (P = .000) in the WB-EMS group compared to CG. WB-EMS effects on bone are less pronounced than previously reported effects on muscle mass. However, for subjects unable or unwilling to perform intense exercise programs, WB-EMS may be an option for maintaining BMD at the LS. PMID:25785225

  5. Whole-Body Vibration as a Modality for the Rehabilitation of Peripheral Neuropathies: Implications for Cancer Survivors Suffering from Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Savelberg, Hans H.C.M.; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; Mischi, Massimo; Schep, Goof

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) on strength, balance and pain in patients with peripheral neuropathies and to consider its significance for the rehabilitation of patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Using a broad search strategy, PubMed was searched for clinical trials on WBV interventions aimed at improving strength, balance or pain in patients with peripheral neuropathies, which were published in English until 5th June 2014. The search was performed by the first author and generated a total of 505 results, which yielded 5 articles that met the inclusion criteria, being studies: i) published in English; ii) involving adult human subjects peripheral neuropathies; iii) evaluating the effect of WBV as a therapeutic intervention; and iv) reporting findings for at least one of the following outcomes: strength, balance or pain. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed independently by first and second author, using the physiotherapy evidence database scale. The overall methodological quality of included studies was low. Two studies found a beneficial effect of WBV on neuropathic pain, but another study failed to find the same effect. One study found significant improvements in both muscle strength and balance, while another study found improvements only in some, but not all, of the applied tests to measure muscle strength and balance. The results of this literature search suggest insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness for the effects of WBV on neuropathic pain, muscle strength and balance in patients with peripheral neuropathies. More high-quality trials are needed to guide the optimization of rehabilitation programs for cancer survivors with CIPN in particular. PMID:26779309

  6. Whole-body vibration and resistance exercise prevent long-term hindlimb unloading-induced bone loss: independent and interactive effects.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhili; Tan, Cheng; Wu, Yonghua; Ding, Ye; Wang, Huijuan; Chen, Wenjuan; Zhu, Yu; Ma, Honglei; Yang, Honghui; Liang, Wenbin; Jiang, Shizhong; Wang, Desheng; Wang, Linjie; Tang, Guohua; Wang, Jun

    2012-11-01

    Skeletal unloading induced by disuse or immobilization causes a decrease in bone mass and strength. We investigated the relationship between whole-body vibration (WBV) and resistance exercise (RE) in preventing bone loss induced by 8-week hindlimb unloading in young male rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to 6 groups: age-matched control group (CON, n=10), hindlimb unloading group (HU, n=10), hindlimb unloading+standing group (HU+ST, n=10), hindlimb unloading+WBV group (HU+WBV, n=10), hindlimb unloading+RE group (HU+RE, n=10) and hindlimb unloading+WBV+RE group (HU+WBV+RE, n=10). After 8-week hindlimb unloading, micro-CT scanning and three-point bending test were performed in the femur. Sera were collected for analysis of bone formation and resorption markers. Compared with HU group, WBV, RE and the combination of WBV and RE (WBV+RE) significantly improved (P<0.01) one repetition maximum (1RM) (expressed as the percentage change from baseline, HU: -23%, HU+WBV: 21%, HU+RE: 48%, HU+WBV+RE: 51%), and maintained (P<0.05) cancellous volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and trabecular structure. No difference of cortical vBMD was found among all groups (P>0.05). WBV had no effects on biomechanical properties of the femur diaphysis (P>0.05). RE and WBV+RE significantly increased maximum load and cross-sectional moment of inertia of the femur diaphysis in hindlimb unloading rats (P<0.05). There was an interaction between WBV and RE in improving cancellous bone. These results demonstrate that WBV and RE interactively maintain cancellous structure and vBMD, and independently partially mitigate the reduction of bone strength in long-term hindlimb unloading rats. PMID:22371114

  7. The effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on arm volume and arm circumference in women treated for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lane, K; Jespersen, D; McKenzie, D C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on changes in arm volume in breast cancer survivors. A total of 16 female breast cancer survivors with no clinical history of lymphoedema volunteered. The 20-week exercise programme consisted of resistance and aerobic exercise with the addition of dragon boat training at week 8. Arm circumference at two sites (CIRC10, CIRC15), arm volume (VOL), and upper body strength (1-RM) were measured at baseline (T1), week 8 (T2), and week 20 (T3). All statistical tests were two-sided (alpha < or = 0.05). No significant differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral upper extremities at any of the three time points were found. All variables significantly increased from T1 to T3 (CIRC10: difference, d = 0.49 cm, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.25-0.73, P = 0.000; CIRC15: d = 1.33 cm, CI = 0.78-1.88, P = 0.000; VOL: d = 100 mL, CI = 69-130, P = 0.000). As well, 1-RM significantly increased from T1 to T3 (d = 10.8 kg, CI = 5.6-16.1; P = 0.000). In summary, participation in a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training resulted in a significant increase in upper extremity volume over time. However, the changes were consistent for both arms and the significant gain in upper body muscular strength likely accounted for the increase in arm volume. PMID:16098120

  8. The Exercising Brain: Changes in Functional Connectivity Induced by an Integrated Multimodal Cognitive and Whole-Body Coordination Training.

    PubMed

    Demirakca, Traute; Cardinale, Vita; Dehn, Sven; Ruf, Matthias; Ende, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of "life kinetik" training on brain plasticity in terms of an increased functional connectivity during resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The training is an integrated multimodal training that combines motor and cognitive aspects and challenges the brain by introducing new and unfamiliar coordinative tasks. Twenty-one subjects completed at least 11 one-hour-per-week "life kinetik" training sessions in 13 weeks as well as before and after rs-fMRI scans. Additionally, 11 control subjects with 2 rs-fMRI scans were included. The CONN toolbox was used to conduct several seed-to-voxel analyses. We searched for functional connectivity increases between brain regions expected to be involved in the exercises. Connections to brain regions representing parts of the default mode network, such as medial frontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, did not change. Significant connectivity alterations occurred between the visual cortex and parts of the superior parietal area (BA7). Premotor area and cingulate gyrus were also affected. We can conclude that the constant challenge of unfamiliar combinations of coordination tasks, combined with visual perception and working memory demands, seems to induce brain plasticity expressed in enhanced connectivity strength of brain regions due to coactivation. PMID:26819776

  9. The Exercising Brain: Changes in Functional Connectivity Induced by an Integrated Multimodal Cognitive and Whole-Body Coordination Training

    PubMed Central

    Demirakca, Traute; Cardinale, Vita; Dehn, Sven; Ruf, Matthias; Ende, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of “life kinetik” training on brain plasticity in terms of an increased functional connectivity during resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The training is an integrated multimodal training that combines motor and cognitive aspects and challenges the brain by introducing new and unfamiliar coordinative tasks. Twenty-one subjects completed at least 11 one-hour-per-week “life kinetik” training sessions in 13 weeks as well as before and after rs-fMRI scans. Additionally, 11 control subjects with 2 rs-fMRI scans were included. The CONN toolbox was used to conduct several seed-to-voxel analyses. We searched for functional connectivity increases between brain regions expected to be involved in the exercises. Connections to brain regions representing parts of the default mode network, such as medial frontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, did not change. Significant connectivity alterations occurred between the visual cortex and parts of the superior parietal area (BA7). Premotor area and cingulate gyrus were also affected. We can conclude that the constant challenge of unfamiliar combinations of coordination tasks, combined with visual perception and working memory demands, seems to induce brain plasticity expressed in enhanced connectivity strength of brain regions due to coactivation. PMID:26819776

  10. Whole-body Vibration Exposure of Drill Operators in Iron Ore Mines and Role of Machine-Related, Individual, and Rock-Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Dhanjee Kumar; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Patra, Aditya Kumar; Chau, Nearkasen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure among large blast hole drill machine operators with regard to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommended threshold values and its association with machine- and rock-related factors and workers' individual characteristics. Methods The study population included 28 drill machine operators who had worked in four opencast iron ore mines in eastern India. The study protocol comprised the following: measurements of WBV exposure [frequency weighted root mean square (RMS) acceleration (m/s2)], machine-related data (manufacturer of machine, age of machine, seat height, thickness, and rest height) collected from mine management offices, measurements of rock hardness, uniaxial compressive strength and density, and workers' characteristics via face-to-face interviews. Results More than 90% of the operators were exposed to a higher level WBV than the ISO upper limit and only 3.6% between the lower and upper limits, mainly in the vertical axis. Bivariate correlations revealed that potential predictors of total WBV exposure were: machine manufacturer (r = 0.453, p = 0.015), age of drill (r = 0.533, p = 0.003), and hardness of rock (r = 0.561, p = 0.002). The stepwise multiple regression model revealed that the potential predictors are age of operator (regression coefficient β = −0.052, standard error SE = 0.023), manufacturer (β = 1.093, SE = 0.227), rock hardness (β = 0.045, SE = 0.018), uniaxial compressive strength (β = 0.027, SE = 0.009), and density (β = –1.135, SE = 0.235). Conclusion Prevention should include using appropriate machines to handle rock hardness, rock uniaxial compressive strength and density, and seat improvement using ergonomic approaches such as including a suspension system. PMID:26929838

  11. Modelling the effects of exposure to whole-body vibration on low-back pain and its long-term consequences for sickness absence and associated work disability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdorf, A.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

    2006-12-01

    BackgroundExposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known risk factor for the occurrence of low-back pain (LBP). Little is known about the long-term course of back pain in workers exposed to WBV and the consequences for (temporary) disability, due to lack of cohort studies with sufficiently long follow-up periods. MethodsA systematic review of the literature was performed to assess associations between exposure to WBV and LBP, sickness absence due to low-back disorders and permanent disability. A meta-analysis was used to estimate the prevalences of LBP and sickness absence due to low-back disorders in occupational populations, depending on relevant exposure characteristics. These prevalences were converted into probabilities for transitions between no complaints, LBP, sickness due to LBP, and disability. A Markov model was applied to evaluate a hypothetical cohort of workers without LBP at the start of the cohort and a follow-up of 40 years (40 cycles of 1 year) to reflect a long-life career with continuous exposure to WBV. ResultsIn this hypothetical cohort it was estimated that among workers with the highest exposure to WBV on average about 47 weeks of their working life were lost due to sick leave because of LBP, which is approximately 2.5% of their working life. When all workers on prolonged sick leave for 52 weeks would remain disabled for the rest of their working life, a maximum of 23.4% of their working life could be lost due to high WBV exposure. Among workers without or low exposure to WBV the corresponding losses were 0.8% and 7.8%, respectively. ConclusionThe approach to assess years of work lost due to an occupational exposure may provide a more adequate description for stakeholders than the traditional measures of relative risk or attributable risk fraction. The concept of work years lost may also facilitate a better appreciation of the potential benefits of preventive measures.

  12. Early Adolescence: Whole Body Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Roger K., Jr.; Padilla, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    "Whole body" denotes using the entire body to sense and experience a concept or idea. Typical whole body learning activities involve use of several senses: muscle sense, temperature, pain, pressure, and sense of equilibrium. Four whole body science activities are described, including identifying trees by touch. (Author/JN)

  13. Whole body lexical decision.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Miguel A; Stepp, Nigel; Turvey, M T

    2011-02-25

    When a person standing upright raises an arm on cue, muscles of the left and right sides of the body exhibit changes prior to and specific to the responding arm. We had standing participants perform a visual lexical decision task ("is this letter string a word?"), responding yes by raising one arm and no by raising the other arm. We recorded onset of the arm movement and onset of electromyographic activity in thigh, trunk, and shoulder muscles. We observed the expected responding arm specificity and found that the onset difference favoring word decisions was evident in similar magnitude at all measurement sites, with the difference at the levels of thigh, trunk and shoulder muscles available 225, 189, and 120 ms, respectively, prior to its manifestation at the level of arm movement. We discuss including (a) whole body reaction time along with event-related potentials in determining the decision-response, brain-body temporal relation and (b) response execution along with response initiation in investigating mental chronometry. PMID:21184808

  14. Effects of whole-body electromyostimulation on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and maximum strength in postmenopausal women: the Training and ElectroStimulation Trial.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Schliffka, Rebecca; Mayhew, Jerry L; von Stengel, Simon

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) during dynamic exercises over 14 weeks on anthropometric, physiological, and muscular parameters in postmenopausal women. Thirty women (64.5 +/- 5.5 years) with experience in physical training (>3 years) were randomly assigned either to a control group (CON, n = 15) that maintained their general training program (2 x 60 min.wk of endurance and dynamic strength exercise) or to an electromyostimulation group (WB-EMS, n = 15) that additionally performed a 20-minute WB-EMS training (2 x 20 min.10 d). Resting metabolic rate (RMR) determined from spirometry was selected to indicate muscle mass. In addition, body circumferences, subcutaneous skinfolds, strength, power, and dropout and adherence values. Resting metabolic rate was maintained in WB-EMS (-0.1 +/- 4.8 kcal.h) and decreased in CON (-3.2+/-5.2 kcal.h, p = 0.038); although group differences were not significant (p = 0.095), there was a moderately strong effect size (ES = 0.62). Sum of skinfolds (28.6%) and waist circumference (22.3%) significantly decreased in WB-EMS whereas both parameters (1.4 and 0.1%, respectively) increased in CON (p = 0.001, ES = 1.37 and 1.64, respectively), whereas both parameters increased in CON (1.4 and 0.1%, respectively). Isometric strength changes of the trunk extensors and leg extensors differed significantly (p < or = 0.006) between WB-EMS and CON (9.9% vs. -6.4%, ES = 1.53; 9.6% vs. -4.5%, ES = 1.43, respectively). In summary, adjunct WB-EMS training significantly exceeds the effect of isolated endurance and resistance type exercise on fitness and fatness parameters. Further, we conclude that for elderly subjects unable or unwilling to perform dynamic strength exercises, electromyostimulation may be a smooth alternative to maintain lean body mass, strength, and power. PMID:20555279

  15. Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, Franois; Pournot, Herv; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities. PMID:22163272

  16. Changes in fat and skeletal muscle with exercise training in obese adolescents: comparison of whole-body MRI and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SoJung; Kuk, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined skeletal muscle (SM) and fat distribution using whole-body MRI in response to aerobic (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) training in obese adolescents and whether DXA provides similar estimates of fat and SM change as MRI. Design and Methods Thirty-nine obese boys (12–18 yr) were randomly assigned to one of three 3-month interventions: AE (n=14), RE (n=14) or a control (n=11). Results At baseline, MRI-measured total fat was significantly greater than DXA-measured total fat [Δ=3.1 kg (95% CI: −0.4 to 7.4 kg, P<0.05)], wherein underestimation by DXA was greatest in those with the highest total fat. Overall, the changes in total fat were not significantly different between MRI and DXA [Δ= −0.4 kg (95% CI: −3.5 to 2.6 kg, P>0.05)], but DXA tended to overestimate MRI fat losses in those with larger fat losses. MRI-measured SM and DXA-measured LBM (lean body mass) were significantly correlated, but as expected the absolute values were different at baseline [Δ= −28.4 kg (95% CI: −35.4 to −21.3 kg, P<0.05)]. Further, DXA overestimated MRI gains in SM in those with larger SM gains. Conclusions Although DXA and MRI-measured total and regional measures tended to be correlated at baseline and changes with exercise, there were substantial differences in the absolute values derived using DXA versus MRI. Further, there were systemic biases in the estimation between the methods wherein DXA tended to overestimate fat losses and SM gains compared to MRI. Thus, the changes in body composition observed are influenced by the method employed. PMID:23512818

  17. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy vs. far-infrared vs. passive modalities on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in highly-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, Franois; Pournot, Herv; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities. PMID:22163272

  18. The ORNL whole body counter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report is a non-technical document intended to provide an individual about to undergo a whole-body radiation count with a general understanding of the counting procedure and with the results obtained. 9 figs. (TEM)

  19. Impact of whole-body electromyostimulation on body composition in elderly women at risk for sarcopenia: the Training and ElectroStimulation Trial (TEST-III).

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Bebenek, Michael; Engelke, Klaus; von Stengel, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Most studies have confirmed the positive impact of resistance training on muscle mass and functional capacity in aging adults. However, due to physical limitation or a simple aversion against regular exercise, the majority of elderly subjects do not reach the exercise doses recommended for impacting strength or muscle mass. This led us to evaluate the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS), a novel, time-efficient and smooth training technology, on body composition with special regard to sarcopenia. Seventy-six lean, non-sportive women (75 ± 4 years) were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (WB-EMS, n = 38) that performed 18 min of WB-EMS (bipolar, 85 Hz) 3 sessions in 14 days (1.5 sessions/week) or a semi-active control group (aCG, n = 38). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum strength was evaluated using isometric techniques for trunk and legs. After 54 weeks of intervention, significant inter-group differences were determined for appendicular skeletal muscle mass (WB-EMS, 0.4 ± 2.2 % vs. aCG, -1.5 ± 3.1 %; p = 0.009), lean body mass (WB-EMS, 0.8 ± 1.8 % vs. aCG, -0.8 ± 2.7 %; p = 0.008) and maximum isometric strength (leg extensors, 9.8 ± 12.9 % vs. 0.2 ± 10.4 %; p = 0.003; trunk extensors, 10.1 ± 12.7 vs. -1.6 ± 8.6 %; p = 0.001). Although borderline significant for abdominal fat mass (WB-EMS, -2.9 ± 8.3 vs. aCG, 1.5 ± 10.7 %; p = 0.069), differences did not reach statistically significant levels for body fat parameters. Considering the clinical effectiveness for impacting sarcopenia and the good acceptance of this technology by this non-sportive cohort of elderly women, we conclude that for elderly subjects unable or unwilling to perform dynamic strength exercises, electromyostimulation may be a less off-putting alternative to maintain lean body mass and strength. PMID:23949160

  20. Vibration or balance training on neuromuscular performance in osteopenic women.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, N; Belavý, D L; Rawer, R; Felsenberg, D

    2013-11-01

    Maintaining neuromuscular function in older age is an important topic for aging societies, especially for older women with low bone density who may be at risk of falls and bone fracture. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of resistive exercise with either whole-body vibration training (VIB) or coordination/balance training (BAL) on neuromuscular function (countermovement jump, multiple 1-leg hopping, sit-to-stand test). 68 postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis were recruited for the study. 57 subjects completed the 9-month, twice weekly, intervention period. All subjects conducted 30 min of resistance exercise each training day. The VIB-group performed additional training on the Galileo vibration exercise device. The BAL-group performed balance training. An "intent-to-treat" analysis showed greater improvement in the VIB-group for peak countermovement power (p=0.004). The mean [95% confidence interval] effect size for this parameter was a  + 0.9[0.3 to 1.5] W/kg greater change in VIB than BAL after 9 months. In multiple 1-leg hopping, a significantly better performance in the VIB-group after the intervention period was seen on a "per-protocol" analysis only. Both groups improved in the sit-to-stand test. The current study provides evidence that short-duration whole-body vibration exercise can have a greater impact on some aspects of neuromuscular function in post-menopausal women with low bone density than proprioceptive training. PMID:23549694

  1. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. a Comparison of Evaluations and Assessments Obtained Using Alternative Standards for Predicting the Hazards of Whole-Body Vibration and Repeated Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, C. H.; Griffin, M. J.

    1998-08-01

    There are three current standards that might be used to assess the vibration and shock transmitted by a vehicle seat with respect to possible effects on human health: ISO 2631/1 (1985), BS 6841 (1987) and ISO 2631-1 (1997). Evaluations have been performed on the seat accelerations measured in nine different transport environments (bus, car, mobile crane, fork-lift truck, tank, ambulance, power boat, inflatable boat, mountain bike) in conditions that might be considered severe. For each environment, limiting daily exposure durations were estimated by comparing the frequency weighted root mean square (i.e., r.m.s.) accelerations and the vibration dose values (i.e.,VDV), calculated according to each standard with the relevant exposure limits, action level and health guidance caution zones. Very different estimates of the limiting daily exposure duration can be obtained using the methods described in the three standards. Differences were observed due to variations in the shapes of the frequency weightings, the phase responses of the frequency weighting filters, the method of combining multi-axis vibration, the averaging method, and the assessment method. With the evaluated motions, differences in the shapes of the weighting filters results in up to about 31% difference in r.m.s. acceleration between the “old” and the “new” ISO standard and up to about 14% difference between BS 6841 and the “new” ISO 2631. There were correspondingly greater differences in the estimates of safe daily exposure durations. With three of the more severe motions there was a difference of more than 250% between estimated safe daily exposure durations based on r.m.s. acceleration and those based on fourth power vibration dose values. The vibration dose values provided the more cautious assessments of the limiting daily exposure duration.

  3. High-Intensity Interval Training with Vibration as Rest Intervals Attenuates Fiber Atrophy and Prevents Decreases in Anaerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sandro Manuel; Aguayo, David; Zuercher, Matthias; Fleischmann, Oliver; Boutellier, Urs; Auer, Maria; Jung, Hans H.; Toigo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT) improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W′) and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4x4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function. Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4x4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18) or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30) in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30). Pre and post training, critical power (CP), W′, cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W′ (−14.3%, P = 0.013), maximal voluntary torque (−8.6%, P = 0.001), rate of force development (−10.5%, P = 0.018), maximal jumping power (−6.3%, P = 0.007) and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (−6.4%, P = 0.044) were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V̇O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations. Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes) may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146 PMID:25679998

  4. Toward a whole-body neuroprosthetic.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2011-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) hold promise for the restoration of body mobility in patients suffering from devastating motor deficits caused by brain injury, neurological diseases, and limb loss. Considerable progress has been achieved in BMIs that enact arm movements, and initial work has been done on BMIs for lower limb and trunk control. These developments put Duke University Center for Neuroengineering in the position to develop the first BMI for whole-body control. This whole-body BMI will incorporate very large-scale brain recordings, advanced decoding algorithms, artificial sensory feedback based on electrical stimulation of somatosensory areas, virtual environment representations, and a whole-body exoskeleton. This system will be first tested in nonhuman primates and then transferred to clinical trials in humans. PMID:21867793

  5. WHOLE BODY COUNTING AND NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition of the human body can be described using a number of different models. The most basic is the atomic model. This chapter describes several nuclear-based techniques that have been used to obtain direct in vivo chemical assays of the whole body of humans. In particular, the body's co...

  6. Whole Body Melanoma Transcriptome Response in Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, Manfred; Shen, Yingjia; Maurus, Katja; Walter, Ron; Tomlinson, Chad; Wilson, Richard K.; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wesley C.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma continues to increase each year with poor prognosis for survival in many relapse cases. To reverse this trend, whole body response measures are needed to discover collaborative paths to primary and secondary malignancy. Several species of fish provide excellent melanoma models because fish and human melanocytes both appear in the epidermis, and fish and human pigment cell tumors share conserved gene expression signatures. For the first time, we have examined the whole body transcriptome response to invasive melanoma as a prelude to using transcriptome profiling to screen for drugs in a medaka (Oryzias latipes) model. We generated RNA-seq data from whole body RNA isolates for controls and melanoma fish. After testing for differential expression, 396 genes had significantly different expression (adjusted p-value <0.02) in the whole body transcriptome between melanoma and control fish; 379 of these genes were matched to human orthologs with 233 having annotated human gene symbols and 14 matched genes that contain putative deleterious variants in human melanoma at varying levels of recurrence. A detailed canonical pathway evaluation for significant enrichment showed the top scoring pathway to be antigen presentation but also included the expected melanocyte development and pigmentation signaling pathway. Results revealed a profound down-regulation of genes involved in the immune response, especially the innate immune system. We hypothesize that the developing melanoma actively suppresses the immune system responses of the body in reacting to the invasive malignancy, and that this mal-adaptive response contributes to disease progression, a result that suggests our whole-body transcriptomic approach merits further use. In these findings, we also observed novel genes not yet identified in human melanoma expression studies and uncovered known and new candidate drug targets for further testing in this malignant melanoma medaka model. PMID:26714172

  7. A whole body statistical shape model for radio frequency simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Lin; Ali, Khaleda; Brizzi, Alessio; Keegan, Jennifer; Hao, Yang; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    The development of ultra low power wireless sensors for customized wearable and implantable medical devices requires patient specific models for radio frequency simulation to understand wave propagation in the body. In practice, the creation of a patient specific whole-body model is difficult and time consuming to create. It is therefore necessary to establish a method for studying a population in a statistical manner. In this paper, we present a statistical shape model for the whole body for RF simulation. It is built from 10 male and 10 female subjects of varying size and height. This model has the ability to instantiate a new surface mesh with the parameters allowed by the training set. This model would provide shapes of varying sizes for studies, without the requirement of obtaining subject specific whole body models. Results from finite-differences time-domain simulation are presented on the extreme shapes from the model and demonstrate the need for a full understanding of the range in body shapes. PMID:22255985

  8. Prediction of Ground Vibration from Freight Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. J. C.; Block, J. R.

    1996-05-01

    Heavy freight trains emit ground vibration with predominant frequency components in the range 4-30 Hz. If the amplitude is sufficient, this may be felt by lineside residents, giving rise to disturbance and concern over possible damage to their property. In order to establish the influence of parameters of the track and rolling stock and thereby enable the design of a low vibration railway, a theoretical model of both the generation and propagation of vibration is required. The vibration is generated as a combination of the effects of dynamic forces, due to the unevenness of the track, and the effects of the track deformation under successive axle loads. A prediction scheme, which combines these effects, has been produced. A vehicle model is used to predict the dynamic forces at the wheels. This includes the non-linear effects of friction damped suspensions. The loaded track profile is measured by using a track recording coach. The dynamic loading and the effects of the moving axles are combined in a track response model. The predicted track vibration is compared to measurements. The transfer functions from the track to a point in the ground can be calculated by using a coupled track and a three-dimensional layered ground model. The propagation effects of the ground layers are important but the computation of the transfer function from each sleeper, which would be required for a phase coherent summation of the vibration in the ground, would be prohibitive. A compromise summation is used and results are compared with measurements.

  9. Whole body MRI in paediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Canale, S; Vilcot, L; Ammari, S; Lemery, M; Bidault, F; Balleyguier, C; Caramella, C; Dromain, C

    2014-06-01

    Whole body MRI provides excellent contrast resolution imaging and is an interesting alternative to nuclear medicine examinations in paediatric oncology because it does not involve exposure to radiation. This technique, now feasible in clinical practice, helps to evaluate metastatic spread and response to treatment, which are of great prognostic interest. Numerous studies have demonstrated the non-inferiority of this technique when compared to nuclear medicine examinations. However, there is still a need to standardize indications in each type of cancer and at every stage of it. This article first discusses the technical principles of whole body MRI, then reviews current clinical applications for the modality in children, and finally, discusses future useful developments for paediatric oncology. PMID:24704147

  10. Whole-body cryotherapy in athletes.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni; Colombini, Alessandra; Melegati, Gianluca

    2010-06-01

    Cold therapy is commonly used as a procedure to relieve pain symptoms, particularly in inflammatory diseases, injuries and overuse symptoms. A peculiar form of cold therapy (or stimulation) was proposed 30 years ago for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The therapy, called whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), consists of exposure to very cold air that is maintained at -110 degrees C to -140 degrees C in special temperature-controlled cryochambers, generally for 2 minutes. WBC is used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms caused by numerous disorders, particularly those associated with rheumatic conditions, and is recommended for the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia and ankylosing spondylitis. In sports medicine, WBC has gained wider acceptance as a method to improve recovery from muscle injury. Unfortunately, there are few papers concerning the application of the treatment on athletes. The study of possible enhancement of recovery from injuries and possible modification of physiological parameters, taking into consideration the limits imposed by antidoping rules, is crucial for athletes and sports physicians for judging the real benefits and/or limits of WBC. According to the available literature, WBC is not harmful or detrimental in healthy subjects. The treatment does not enhance bone marrow production and could reduce the sport-induced haemolysis. WBC induces oxidative stress, but at a low level. Repeated treatments are apparently not able to induce cumulative effects; on the contrary, adaptive changes on antioxidant status are elicited--the adaptation is evident where WBC precedes or accompanies intense training. WBC is not characterized by modifications of immunological markers and leukocytes, and it seems to not be harmful to the immunological system. The WBC effect is probably linked to the modifications of immunological molecules having paracrine effects, and not to systemic immunological functions. In fact, there is an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, and a decrease in proinflammatory cytokine IL-2 and chemokine IL-8. Moreover, the decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 supported the anti-inflammatory response. Lysosomal membranes are stabilized by WBC, reducing potential negative effects on proteins of lysosomal enzymes. The cold stimulation shows positive effects on the muscular enzymes creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, and it should be considered a procedure that facilitates athletes' recovery. Cardiac markers troponin I and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, parameters linked to damage and necrosis of cardiac muscular tissue, but also to tissue repair, were unchanged, demonstrating that there was no damage, even minimal, in the heart during the treatment. N-Terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a parameter linked to heart failure and ventricular power decrease, showed an increase, due to cold stress. However, the NT-proBNP concentrations observed after WBC were lower than those measured after a heavy training session, suggesting that the treatment limits the increase of the parameter that is typical of physical exercise. WBC did not stimulate the pituitary-adrenal cortex axis: the hormonal modifications are linked mainly to the body's adaptation to the stress, shown by an increase of noradrenaline (norepinephrine). We conclude that WBC is not harmful and does not induce general or specific negative effects in athletes. The treatment does not induce modifications of biochemical and haematological parameters, which could be suspected in athletes who may be cheating. The published data are generally not controversial, but further studies are necessary to confirm the present observations. PMID:20524715

  11. Complex effects of stable noise, sinusoidal vs stochastic low frequency whole-body vibration and dynamic muscular work in temporary hearing threshold shifts (TTS) at a dry-bulb temperature of 30/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Manninen, O.

    1982-01-01

    In the metal industry occupational loss of hearing occurred twice as often among those working with vibrating equipment than among those not exposed to vibration. Occupational loss of hearing also occurred frequently in miners. In the same pits, hearing loss occurred less often among those engaged in pit-propping and among other specialist workers. The generation and development of occupational hearing loss in miners is, in fact, said to depend critically upon vibration, to the effects of which coal-face workers are particularly exosed when drilling. No absolute conclusions can, however, be drawn from these observations, since in many cases the number of different environmental factors prevailing in production life is very large and varies in each stage of production. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine under controlled laboratory conditions the temporary hearing thresholds (TTS) of subjects who, during dynamic muscular work, are exposed at slightly elevated ambient temperature to either noise or vibration separately or to combinations of these factors.

  12. The acute effects of vibration training on balance and stability amongst soccer players.

    PubMed

    Cloak, Ross; Nevill, Alan; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Acute whole body vibration training (WBVT) is a tool used amongst coaches to improve performance prior to activity. Its effects on other fitness components, such as balance and stability, along with how different populations respond are less well understood. The aim of the current research is to determine the effect of acute WBVT on balance and stability amongst elite and amateur soccer players. Forty-four healthy male soccer players (22 elite and 22 amateur) were assigned to a treatment or control group. The intervention group then performed 3 × 60 seconds static squat on vibration platform at 40 Hz (±4 mm) with Y balance test (YBT) scores and dynamic postural stability index (DPSI) measured pre and post. DPSI was significantly lower in the elite players in the acute WBVT compared to amateur players (F1, 40= 6.80; P = 0.013). YBT anterior reach distance showed a significant improvement in both amateur and elite players in the acute WBVT group (F1, 40= 32.36; P < 0.001). The improvement in DPSI amongst the elite players indicates a difference in responses to acute high frequency vibration between elite and amateur players during a landing stability task. The results indicate that acute WBVT improves anterior YBT reach distances through a possible improvement in flexibility amongst both elite and amateur players. In conclusion, acute WBVT training appears to improve stability amongst elite soccer players in comparison to amateur players, the exact reasoning behind this difference requires further investigation. PMID:25357208

  13. Whole body radiotherapy: A TBI-guideline

    PubMed Central

    Quast, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Total Body Irradiation (TBI) is one main component in the interdisciplinary treatment of widely disseminated malignancies predominantly of haematopoietic diseases. Combined with intensive chemotherapy, TBI enables myeloablative high dose therapy and immuno-ablative conditioning treatment prior to subsequent transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow stem cells or peripheral blood progenitor stem cells. Jointly prepared by DEGRO and DGMP, the German Society of Radio-Oncology, and the German Association of Medical Physicists, this DEGRO/DGMP-Leitlinie Ganzkoerper-Strahlenbehandlung - DEGRO/DGMP Guideline Whole Body Radiotherapy, summarises the concepts, principles, facts and common methods of Total Body Irradiation and poses a set of recommendations for reliable and successful application of high dose large-field radiotherapy as essential part of this interdisciplinary, multi-modality treatment concept. The guideline is geared towards radio-oncologists, medical physicists, haematooncolo-gists, and all contributing to Whole Body Radiotherapy. To guide centres intending to start or actualise TBI criteria are included. The relevant treatment parameters are defined and a sample of a form is given for reporting TBI to international registries. PMID:21206634

  14. Compensation to whole body active rotation perturbation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, S; Gazzellini, S; Petrarca, M; Patan, F; Salfa, I; Castelli, E; Cappa, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the exploration of the compensation mechanisms in healthy adults elicited by superimposing a horizontal perturbation, through a rotation of the support base, during a whole body active rotation around the participant's own vertical body axis. Eight healthy participants stood on a rotating platform while executing 90 whole body rotations under three conditions: no concurrent platform rotation (NP), support surface rotation of 45 in the same (45-S) and opposite (45-O) directions. Participants' kinematics and CoP displacements were analyzed with an optoelectronic system and a force platform. In both 45-S and 45-O conditions, there was a tendency for the head to be affected by the external perturbation and to be the last and least perturbed segment while the pelvis was the most perturbed. The observed reduced head perturbation in 45-S and 45-O trials is consistent with a goal-oriented strategy mediated by vision and vestibular information, whereas the tuning of lumbar rotation is consistent with control mechanisms mediated by somato-sensory information. PMID:23871422

  15. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  1. Whole-Body Nanoparticle Aerosol Inhalation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L.; Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation ?g < 2.5 5. The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size 6, which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria 5. A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m3 whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm3) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m3). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpreand Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t), where Q is sampling flowrate (m3/min), and t is the sampling time (minute). The chamber pressure, temperature, relative humidity (RH), O2 and CO2 concentrations were monitored and controlled continuously. Nano-TiO2 aerosols collected on Nuclepore filters were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. In summary, we report that the nano-particle aerosols generated and delivered to our exposure chamber have: 1) steady mass concentration; 2) homogenous composition free of contaminants; 3) stable particle size distributions with a count-median aerodynamic diameter of 157 nm during aerosol generation. This system reliably and repeatedly creates test atmospheres that simulate occupational, environmental or domestic ENM aerosol exposures. PMID:23685643

  2. Whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposures.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation ?g < 2.5 (5). The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size (6), which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria (5). A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m(3) whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm(3)) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m(3)). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre and Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t), where Q is sampling flowrate (m(3)/min), and t is the sampling time (minute). The chamber pressure, temperature, relative humidity (RH), O2 and CO2 concentrations were monitored and controlled continuously. Nano-TiO2 aerosols collected on Nuclepore filters were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. In summary, we report that the nano-particle aerosols generated and delivered to our exposure chamber have: 1) steady mass concentration; 2) homogenous composition free of contaminants; 3) stable particle size distributions with a count-median aerodynamic diameter of 157 nm during aerosol generation. This system reliably and repeatedly creates test atmospheres that simulate occupational, environmental or domestic ENM aerosol exposures. PMID:23685643

  3. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na(+)]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50°C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na(+)] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na(+)] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na(+)] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na(+)] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na(+)] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions. PMID:26070030

  4. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter....

  5. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter....

  6. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner....

  7. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner....

  8. Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C.

    1995-12-31

    A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

  9. Mutual Stabilization of Rhythmic Vocalization and Whole-Body Movement

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Kohei; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1) whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2) whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice) in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition) that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition). The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure. PMID:25502730

  10. Theoretical and experimental study of vibration, generated by monorail trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybak, Samuil A.; Makhortykh, Sergey A.; Kostarev, Stanislav A.

    2002-11-01

    Monorail transport as all other city transport vehicles is the source of high noise and vibration levels. It is less widespread than cars or underground transport but its influence in modern cities enhances. Now in Moscow the first monorail road with trains on tires is designed, therefore the problem of vibration and noise assessments and prediction of its impact on the residential region appears. To assess the levels of generated vibration a physical model of interaction in the system wagon-tire-road coating-viaduct-soil has been proposed and then numerically analyzed. The model is based on the known from publications facts of automobile transport vibration and our own practice concerning underground trains vibration generation. To verify computer simulation results and adjust model parameters the series of measurements of noise and vibration near experimental monorail road was carried out. In the report the results of calculations and measurements will be presented and some outcomes of possible acoustical ecologic situation near monorail roads will be proposed.

  11. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    SciTech Connect

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition.

  12. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting.

    PubMed

    James, H M; Fabricius, P J; Dykes, P W

    1987-01-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition. PMID:3118069

  13. Whole body MRI and PET/CT in haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chieh; Luciani, Alain; Itti, Emmanuel; Haioun, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The usefulness of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in haematological malignancies is reviewed. PET/CT combining functional and anatomical information is currently a valuable tool in the management of patients with lymphoma, especially in the assessment of early treatment response. MRI is advantageous in evaluating bone marrow involvement and therefore plays an important role in clinical decision making for patients with myeloma. The development of whole body functional MR studies is underway and can potentially complement the PET/CT for better patient care. PMID:17921084

  14. Design specification for the whole-body algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary requirements and guidelines for the construction of a computer program of the whole-body algorithm are presented. The minimum subsystem models required to effectively simulate the total body response to stresses of interest are (1) cardiovascular (exercise/LBNP/tilt); (2) respiratory (Grodin's model); (3) thermoregulatory (Stolwijk's model); and (4) long-term circulatory fluid and electrolyte (Guyton's model). The whole-body algorithm must be capable of simulating response to stresses from CO2 inhalation, hypoxia, thermal environmental exercise (sitting and supine), LBNP, and tilt (changing body angles in gravity).

  15. Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2009-01-01

    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…

  16. Student Attitudes to Whole Body Donation Are Influenced by Dissection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2008-01-01

    Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudes to life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial

  17. Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2009-01-01

    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to

  18. REGIONAL AND WHOLE BODY COMPOSITION AND BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS (BIA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined the symmetry of regional (half) body composition and then related any dissymmetry to differences in bioelectrical impedance (Z). Seventy-three volunteers (45 women, 28 men) were measured for whole body Z at 50 kHz and body composition by pencil beam dual x-ray absorptiometry. Z...

  19. Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Claudiu; Bojinc?, Violeta; Opri?, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR) and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA); CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75?RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP) was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001) and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001). Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP), in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients. PMID:24808969

  20. Small-animal whole-body photoacoustic tomography: a review

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    With the wide use of small animals for biomedical studies, in vivo small-animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging whole-body imaging modality that shows great potential for preclinical research. As a hybrid technique, PAT is based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from either endogenous tissue chromophores, such as oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin, or exogenous contrast agents. Because ultrasound scatters much less than light in tissue, PAT generates high-resolution images in both the optical ballistic and diffusive regimes. Using near-infrared light, which has relatively low blood absorption, PAT can image through the whole body of small animals with acoustically defined spatial resolution. Anatomical and vascular structures are imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, while functional and molecular images are enabled by the wide choice of exogenous optical contrasts. This paper reviews the rapidly growing field of small-animal whole-body PAT and highlights studies done in the past decade. PMID:24108456

  1. Towards Whole-Body Fluorescence Imaging in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Sophie K.; Habermehl, Christina; Schmitz, Christoph H.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Obrig, Hellmuth; Steinbrink, Jens; Mehnert, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (DNIF) whole-body imaging of small animals has become a popular tool in experimental biomedical research. In humans, however, the field of view has been limited to body parts, such as rheumatoid hands, diabetic feet or sentinel lymph nodes. Here we present a new whole-body DNIF-system suitable for adult subjects. We explored whether this system (i) allows dynamic whole-body fluorescence imaging and (ii) can detect modulations in skin perfusion. The non-specific fluorescent probe indocyanine green (ICG) was injected intravenously into two subjects, and fluorescence images were obtained at 5 Hz. The in- and out-flow kinetics of ICG have been shown to correlate with tissue perfusion. To validate the system, skin perfusion was modulated by warming and cooling distinct areas on the chest and the abdomen. Movies of fluorescence images show a bolus passage first in the face, then in the chest, abdomen and finally in the periphery (∼10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds, respectively). When skin perfusion is augmented by warming, bolus arrives about 5 seconds earlier than when the skin is cooled and perfusion decreased. Calculating bolus arrival times and spatial fitting of basis time courses extracted from different regions of interest allowed a mapping of local differences in subcutaneous skin perfusion. This experiment is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-body dynamic fluorescence imaging in humans. Since the whole-body approach demonstrates sensitivity to circumscribed alterations in skinperfusion, it may be used to target autonomous changes in polyneuropathy and to screen for peripheral vascular diseases. PMID:24391820

  2. Wireless Cortical Brain-Machine Interface for Whole-Body Navigation in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Rajangam, Sankaranarayani; Tseng, Po-He; Yin, Allen; Lehew, Gary; Schwarz, David; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Several groups have developed brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) that allow primates to use cortical activity to control artificial limbs. Yet, it remains unknown whether cortical ensembles could represent the kinematics of whole-body navigation and be used to operate a BMI that moves a wheelchair continuously in space. Here we show that rhesus monkeys can learn to navigate a robotic wheelchair, using their cortical activity as the main control signal. Two monkeys were chronically implanted with multichannel microelectrode arrays that allowed wireless recordings from ensembles of premotor and sensorimotor cortical neurons. Initially, while monkeys remained seated in the robotic wheelchair, passive navigation was employed to train a linear decoder to extract 2D wheelchair kinematics from cortical activity. Next, monkeys employed the wireless BMI to translate their cortical activity into the robotic wheelchair’s translational and rotational velocities. Over time, monkeys improved their ability to navigate the wheelchair toward the location of a grape reward. The navigation was enacted by populations of cortical neurons tuned to whole-body displacement. During practice with the apparatus, we also noticed the presence of a cortical representation of the distance to reward location. These results demonstrate that intracranial BMIs could restore whole-body mobility to severely paralyzed patients in the future. PMID:26938468

  3. Wireless Cortical Brain-Machine Interface for Whole-Body Navigation in Primates.

    PubMed

    Rajangam, Sankaranarayani; Tseng, Po-He; Yin, Allen; Lehew, Gary; Schwarz, David; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2016-01-01

    Several groups have developed brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) that allow primates to use cortical activity to control artificial limbs. Yet, it remains unknown whether cortical ensembles could represent the kinematics of whole-body navigation and be used to operate a BMI that moves a wheelchair continuously in space. Here we show that rhesus monkeys can learn to navigate a robotic wheelchair, using their cortical activity as the main control signal. Two monkeys were chronically implanted with multichannel microelectrode arrays that allowed wireless recordings from ensembles of premotor and sensorimotor cortical neurons. Initially, while monkeys remained seated in the robotic wheelchair, passive navigation was employed to train a linear decoder to extract 2D wheelchair kinematics from cortical activity. Next, monkeys employed the wireless BMI to translate their cortical activity into the robotic wheelchair's translational and rotational velocities. Over time, monkeys improved their ability to navigate the wheelchair toward the location of a grape reward. The navigation was enacted by populations of cortical neurons tuned to whole-body displacement. During practice with the apparatus, we also noticed the presence of a cortical representation of the distance to reward location. These results demonstrate that intracranial BMIs could restore whole-body mobility to severely paralyzed patients in the future. PMID:26938468

  4. Aerobic fitness level does not modulate changes in whole-body protein turnover produced by unaccustomed increases in energy expenditure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a sudden increase in energy expenditure (EE) on whole-body protein turnover vary between studies, and the possibility that fitness level modulates those responses has not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that aerobically trained individuals may exhibit adaptations that protec...

  5. Quantitative whole-body autoradiography: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Andrew; Henson, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Traditional bioanalytical measurements determine concentrations of drug and metabolites in plasma; however, most drugs exert their effects in defined target tissues. As there is no clear relation between concentrations in plasma and those in tissue, alternative methods must be employed to study the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties of new therapeutic agents. Quantitative whole-body autoradiography is used in the drug development process to determine the distribution and concentrations of radiolabeled test compounds in laboratory animals. Quantitative whole-body autoradiography can provide information on tissue PKs, penetration, accumulation and retention. Although the technique is considered the industry standard for performing preclinical tissue distribution studies, it is perhaps timely, 60 years after the first reported use of the method, to re-assess the technique against modern alternatives. PMID:25826137

  6. The development of a whole-body algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    The whole-body algorithm is envisioned as a mathematical model that utilizes human physiology to simulate the behavior of vital body systems. The objective of this model is to determine the response of selected body parameters within these systems to various input perturbations, or stresses. Perturbations of interest are exercise, chemical unbalances, gravitational changes and other abnormal environmental conditions. This model provides for a study of man's physiological response in various space applications, underwater applications, normal and abnormal workloads and environments, and the functioning of the system with physical impairments or decay of functioning components. Many methods or approaches to the development of a whole-body algorithm are considered. Of foremost concern is the determination of the subsystems to be included, the detail of the subsystems and the interaction between the subsystems.

  7. Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging in lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Itti, E.; Luciani, A.; Haioun, C.; Meignan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The current evidence regarding the usefulness of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in lymphoma is reviewed. DWI is capable of combining anatomical and functional information and is becoming a valuable tool in oncology, in particular for staging purposes. DWI may prove to be a useful biomarker in clinical decision making for patients with lymphoma. Large-scaled prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:20880782

  8. Clinical Effects of Whole-body Hyperthermia in Advanced Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, R. T.; Galt, Jean M.; Ludgate, C. M.; Smith, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty-one patients in the terminal stages of cancer have been treated with whole-body hyperthermia either alone (38 cases) or in combination with chemotherapy (13 cases). Altogether 227 treatment sessions were held averaging four hours each. The most sensitive tumours were those of the gastrointestinal tract and sarcomas. Breast and genitourinary tumours did not respond, and lung tumours and melanomas were only partially responsive. Major complications were remarkably few. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4441859

  9. Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent. PMID:24636222

  10. Ground vibration generated by trains in underground tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, J. A.; Hunt, H. E. M.

    2006-07-01

    A popular method used to reduce vibration transmitted from underground railways into nearby buildings is floating-slab track, whereby a concrete slab supporting the two rails is mounted on rubber bearings or steel springs to isolate it from the tunnel invert. This paper adds a track model to a previously developed three-dimensional tunnel model in order to assess the effectiveness of floating-slab track. A slab beam coupled to the tunnel in the wavenumber domain, with the slab bearings represented by an elastic layer, is examined first. A second beam representing the two rails together is then coupled to the slab, and axle masses representing a train are added to the rail beam. Power-spectral densities and RMS levels of soil vibration due to random roughness-displacement excitation between the masses and the rail beam are calculated. Analytical techniques are used to minimise the computational requirements of the model. The results demonstrate the inadequacy of simple mass-spring and Winkler-beam models with rigid foundations for the assessment of the vibration-isolation performance of railway track. They suggest that the achievable insertion loss is modest and that floating the track slab may in fact cause increased transmission of vibration under certain conditions.

  11. Whole-body response to pure lateral impact.

    PubMed

    Lessley, David; Shaw, Greg; Parent, Daniel; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Kindig, Matthew; Riley, Patrick; Purtsezov, Sergey; Sochor, Mark; Gochenour, Thomas; Bolton, James; Subit, Damien; Crandall, Jeff; Takayama, Shinichi; Ono, Koshiro; Kamiji, Koichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband. Following the impact the subject was captured in an energy-absorbing net that provided a controlled non-injurious deceleration. The wall maintained nearly constant velocity throughout the impact event. One of the tested subjects sustained 16 rib fractures as well as injury to the struck shoulder while the other two tested subjects sustained no injuries. The collected response data suggest that the shoulder injury may have contributed to the rib fractures in the injured subject. The results suggest that the shoulder presents a substantial load path and may play an important role in transmitting lateral forces to the spine, shielding and protecting the ribcage. This characterization of whole-body, lateral impact response provides quantified subject responses and boundary condition interactions that are currently unavailable for whole-body, lateral impacts at impact speeds less than 6.7 m/s. PMID:21512913

  12. Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

  13. Superconducting magnets for whole body magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.F.

    1989-03-01

    Superconducting magnets have achieved preeminence in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) industry. Further growth in this market will depend on reducing system costs, extending medical applications, and easing the present siting problem. New magnet designs from Oxford address these issues. Compact magnets are economical to build and operate. Two 4 Tesla whole body magnets for research in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are now in operation. Active-Shield magnets, by drastically reducing the magnetic fringe fields, will allow MRI systems with superconducting magnets to be located in previously inaccessible sites.

  14. A noise delivery system for multi-animal multi-level whole body ototoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, John E; Slagley, Jeremy M; Reboulet, James E

    2015-11-01

    The Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton (NAMRU-D) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, in conjunction with the U.S. Air Force, studied ototoxic effects of JP-8 in rats. NAMRU-D used a multi-chamber whole body exposure facility for up to 96 test animals and 32 control animals at different exposure levels. The objective was to design a noise delivery system that could provide a white noise source one octave band wide, centered at 8 kHz frequency, delivered from outside the exposure chambers. Sound pressure levels were required to be within ±2 dB at all exposure points within each chamber and within ±2 dB over a 6-h run. Electrodynamic shakers were used to produce input noise in exposure chambers by inducing vibration in chamber plenums. Distribution of sound pressure levels across exposure points was controlled within a ±1.5dB prediction interval (α = 0.05) or better. Stability at a central reference point was controlled over 6-h runs within a ±1 dB prediction interval (α = 0.05) or better. The final system allowed NAMRU-D to deliver noise and whole-body aerosol exposures to multiple animals at different levels simultaneously and study the effects that ototoxins may have on hearing loss. PMID:26627791

  15. Further studies of human whole-body radiofrequency absorption rates.

    PubMed

    Hill, D A

    1985-01-01

    Further studies of human whole-body radiofrequency (RF) absorption rates were carried out using a TEM-cell exposure system. Experiments were done at one frequency near the grounded resonance frequency (approximately 40 MHz), and at several below-resonance frequencies. Absorption rates are small for the K and H orientations of the body, even when grounded. For the body trunk in an E orientation, the absorption rate of a sitting person is about half of the rate for the same person standing with arms at the sides; the latter in turn is about half the rate for the same subject standing with arms over the head. Two-body interactions cause no increase in absorption rates for grounded people. They do, however, increase the absorption rates for subjects in an E orientation in free space; the largest interaction occurs when one subject is lambda/2 behind the other (as seen by the incident wave). When these results are applied to practical occupational exposure situations, the whole-body specific absorption rate does not exceed the ANSI limit of 0.4 W/kg for exposures permitted by the ANSI standard (C95.1-1982) at frequencies from 7 to 40 MHz. PMID:3977967

  16. A Portable Stereo Vision System for Whole Body Surface Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a whole body surface imaging system based on stereo vision technology. We have adopted a compact and economical configuration which involves only four stereo units to image the frontal and rear sides of the body. The success of the system depends on a stereo matching process that can effectively segment the body from the background in addition to recovering sufficient geometric details. For this purpose, we have developed a novel sub-pixel, dense stereo matching algorithm which includes two major phases. In the first phase, the foreground is accurately segmented with the help of a predefined virtual interface in the disparity space image, and a coarse disparity map is generated with block matching. In the second phase, local least squares matching is performed in combination with global optimization within a regularization framework, so as to ensure both accuracy and reliability. Our experimental results show that the system can realistically capture smooth and natural whole body shapes with high accuracy. PMID:20161620

  17. Fast-response whole body indirect calorimeters for infants.

    PubMed

    Moon, J K; Jensen, C L; Butte, N F

    1993-01-01

    Portable whole body indirect calorimeters were constructed for full-term (2.5- to 8-kg) and preterm (1- to 2.5-kg) infants. A new calibration system significantly increased the accuracy of flowmeters and gas analyzers. Performance tests with N2 and CO2 infusions and butane combustion demonstrated that the error of individual measurements of O2 consumption and CO2 production were within +/- 2%. The measured error was close to the theoretical uncertainty of approximately +/- 1% calculated from test results of the flowmeters and gas analyzers. System response to a step change in butane combustion rate exceeded 90% within 2 min. Error of +/- 2% and response of 2 min are likely to be the practical lower limits for whole body infant indirect calorimeters with current technology. The calorimeters demonstrated a rapid increase in O2 consumption after feeding (preterm infants) and in the transition from non-rapid-eye-movement to rapid-eye-movement sleep stages (full-term infants). PMID:8444731

  18. Central nervous system effects of whole-body proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Tara Beth; Panda, Nirlipta; Hein, Amy M; Das, Shoshana L; Hurley, Sean D; Olschowka, John A; Williams, Jacqueline P; O'Banion, M Kerry

    2014-07-01

    Space missions beyond the protection of Earth's magnetosphere expose astronauts to an environment that contains ionizing proton radiation. The hazards that proton radiation pose to normal tissues, such as the central nervous system (CNS), are not fully understood, although it has been shown that proton radiation affects the neurogenic environment, killing neural precursors and altering behavior. To determine the time and dose-response characteristics of the CNS to whole-body proton irradiation, C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1 GeV/n proton radiation at doses of 0-200 cGy and behavioral, physiological and immunohistochemical end points were analyzed over a range of time points (48 h-12 months) postirradiation. These experiments revealed that proton radiation exposure leads to: 1. an acute decrease in cell division within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, with significant differences detected at doses as low as 10 cGy; 2. a persistent effect on proliferation in the subgranular zone, at 1 month postirradiation; 3. a decrease in neurogenesis at doses as low as 50 cGy, at 3 months postirradiation; and 4. a decrease in hippocampal ICAM-1 immunoreactivity at doses as low as 10 cGy, at 1 month postirradiation. The data presented contribute to our understanding of biological responses to whole-body proton radiation and may help reduce uncertainty in the assessment of health risks to astronauts. These findings may also be relevant to clinical proton beam therapy. PMID:24937778

  19. Effect of antiperspirants on whole body sweat rate and thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Burry, J S; Evans, R L; Rawlings, A V; Shiu, J

    2003-08-01

    It is well established that the evaporation of sweat from the human body surface is the main mechanism by which heat balance is maintained following a rise in body core temperature. Since the introduction of the first brand name antiperspirant in the United States during the early 1900s, antiperspirant products designed to control underarm wetness have grown to represent one of the largest cosmetic categories in most global markets. However, although axillary sweating only constitutes less than 1% of whole body sweat rate, consumers, particularly in hot countries, have begun to articulate the concern that antiperspirants may interfere with the body's natural cooling process. To investigate this, we undertook carefully designed experiments that measured the effects of axillary antiperspirant application on whole body sweat rate and body core temperature, following a regimen of exercise-induced heat stress in a hot environment in human volunteers. Our data show clearly that although antiperspirant prevents sweat production in the axillary area, this does not impact the ability of the body to thermoregulate following a rise in body core temperature. Thus, recent consumer questioning over this aspect of antiperspirant use appears to be unwarranted. PMID:18494900

  20. Five-Day Whole-Body Cryostimulation, Blood Inflammatory Markers, and Performance in High-Ranking Professional Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Ewa; Olek, Robert Antoni; Kujach, Sylwester; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Antosiewicz, J?drzej; Garsztka, Tomasz; Laskowski, Rados?aw

    2012-01-01

    Context Tournament season can provoke overreaching syndrome in professional tennis players, which may lead to deteriorated performance. Thus, appropriate recovery methods are crucial for athletes in order to sustain high-level performance and avoid injuries. We hypothesized that whole-body cryostimulation could be applied to support the recovery process. Objective To assess the effects of 5 days of whole-body cryostimulation combined with moderate-intensity training on immunologic, hormonal, and hematologic responses; resting metabolic rate; and tennis performance in a posttournament season. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting National Olympic Sport Centre. Patients or Other Participants Twelve high-ranking professional tennis players. Intervention(s) Participants followed a moderate-intensity training program. A subgroup was treated with the 5-day whole-body cryostimulation (?120C) applied twice a day. The control subgroup participated in the training only. Main Outcome Measure(s) Pretreatment and posttreatment blood samples were collected and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 6, testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase. Resting metabolic rate and performance of a tennis drill were also assessed. Results Proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor ?) decreased and pleiotropic cytokine (interleukin 6) and cortisol increased in the group exposed to cryostimulation. In the same group, greater stroke effectiveness during the tennis drill and faster recovery were observed. Neither the training program nor cryostimulation affected resting metabolic rate. Conclusions Professional tennis players experienced an intensified inflammatory response after the completed tournament season, which may lead to overreaching. Applying whole-body cryostimulation in conjunction with moderate-intensity training was more effective for the recovery process than the training itself. The 5-day exposure to cryostimulation twice a day ameliorated the cytokine profile, resulting in a decrease in tumor necrosis factor ? and an increase in interleukin 6. PMID:23182015

  1. Performance Evaluation of Whole Body Counting Facilities in the Marshall Islands (2002-2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Kehl, S R; Hamilton, T; Jue, T; Hickman, D

    2007-04-03

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands (https://eed.llnl.gov/mi/). Local atoll governments have been actively engaged in developing shared responsibilities for protecting the health and safety of resettled and resettling population at risk from exposure to elevated levels of residual fallout contamination in the environment. Under the program, whole body counting facilities have been established at three locations in the Marshall Islands. These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing technical support services including data quality assurance and performance testing. We have also established a mirror whole body counting facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as a technician training center. The LLNL facility also allows program managers to develop quality assurance and operational procedures, and test equipment and corrective actions prior to deployment at remote stations in the Marshall Islands. This document summarizes the results of external performance evaluation exercises conducted at each of the facilities (2002-2005) under the umbrella of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Intercomparison Studies Program (ISP). The ISP was specifically designed to meet intercomparison requirements of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). In this way, the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program has attempted to establish quality assurance measures in whole body counting that are consistent with standard requirements used to monitor DOE workers in the United States. Based on ANSI N13.30, the acceptable performance criteria for relative measurement bias and precision for radiobioassay service laboratory quality control, performance evaluation, and accreditation is -25% to +50% and less than or equal to 40%, respectively.

  2. A hybrid modelling approach for predicting ground vibration from trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triepaischajonsak, N.; Thompson, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of ground vibration from trains presents a number of difficulties. The ground is effectively an infinite medium, often with a layered structure and with properties that may vary greatly from one location to another. The vibration from a passing train forms a transient event, which limits the usefulness of steady-state frequency domain models. Moreover, there is often a need to consider vehicle/track interaction in more detail than is commonly used in frequency domain models, such as the 2.5D approach, while maintaining the computational efficiency of the latter. However, full time-domain approaches involve large computation times, particularly where three-dimensional ground models are required. Here, a hybrid modelling approach is introduced. The vehicle/track interaction is calculated in the time domain in order to be able t account directly for effects such as the discrete sleeper spacing. Forces acting on the ground are extracted from this first model and used in a second model to predict the ground response at arbitrary locations. In the present case the second model is a layered ground model operating in the frequency domain. Validation of the approach is provided by comparison with an existing frequency domain model. The hybrid model is then used to study the sleeper-passing effect, which is shown to be less significant than excitation due to track unevenness in all the cases considered.

  3. Whole-body cryostimulation and oxidative stress in rowers: the preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Alina; Szpinda, Micha?; Chwalbinska-Moneta, Jolanta; Augustynska, Beata; Jurecka, Alicja

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The effect of whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) on the biomarkers of oxidative stress, lysosomal enzymes, creatine kinase and cortisol was studied. Material and methods The rowers underwent two 6-day training cycles: with pre-training daily WBC (temperature: from 125C to 150C) and without cryostimulation (control). Blood samples were taken before and after the third and sixth day of training. Results The activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase was lower (by 44% and 42%, respectively) after the third day of training with WBC than without WBC. The concentration of lipid peroxidation products was also lower after the training preceded by WBC. Moreover, the acid phosphatase activity was 50% lower after the third day of training with WBC than training without WBC. Considering the antioxidant enzymes activity during training without WBC, the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity was observed after the third day of training (by about 74% and 100%, respectively). The level of lipid peroxidation products also increased after the training without WBC. No statistically significant changes were observed in creatine kinase activity after the training preceded with WBC, while after the training without WBC activity of this enzyme was two-fold higher than before the training. Conclusions The use of WBC prior to training may reduce the risk of oxidative stress and the extent of muscle fibre injuries provoked by intense exercise. The WBC seems to be an effective and safe method for limiting exercise-induced damage; thus it may be used in biological regeneration of sportsmen. PMID:23671442

  4. Between-centre variability versus variability over time in DXA whole body measurements evaluated using a whole body phantom.

    PubMed

    Louis, Olivia; Verlinde, Siska; Thomas, Muriel; De Schepper, Jean

    2006-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the variability of whole body measurements, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among geographically distinct centres versus that over time in a given centre. A Hologic-designed 28 kg modular whole body phantom was used, including high density polyethylene, gray polyvinylchloride and aluminium. It was scanned on seven Hologic QDR 4500 DXA devices, located in seven centres and was also repeatedly (n=18) scanned in the reference centre, over a time span of 5 months. The mean between-centre coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 2.0 (lean mass) to 5.6% (fat mass) while the mean within-centre CV ranged from 0.3 (total mass) to 4.7% (total area). Between-centre variability compared well with within-centre variability for total area, bone mineral content and bone mineral density, but was significantly higher for fat (p<0.001), lean (p<0.005) and total mass (p<0.001). Our results suggest that, even when using the same device, the between-centre variability remains a matter of concern, particularly where body composition is concerned. PMID:16513312

  5. Vestibular labyrinth contributions to human whole-body motion discrimination.

    PubMed

    Valko, Yulia; Lewis, Richard F; Priesol, Adrian J; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2012-09-26

    To assess the contributions of the vestibular system to whole-body motion discrimination in the dark, we measured direction recognition thresholds as a function of frequency for yaw rotation, superior-inferior translation ("z-translation"), interaural translation ("y-translation"), and roll tilt for 14 normal subjects and for 3 patients following total bilateral vestibular ablation. The patients had significantly higher average threshold measurements than normal (p < 0.01) for yaw rotation (depending upon frequency, 5.4 to 15.7 greater), z-translation (8.3 to 56.8 greater), y-translation (1.7 to 4.5 greater), and roll tilt (1.3 to 3.0 greater)--establishing the predominant contributions of the vestibular system for these motions in the dark. PMID:23015443

  6. Integrated Whole Body MR/PET: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body integrated magnetic resonance imaging (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging systems have recently become available for clinical use and are currently being used to explore whether the combined anatomic and functional capabilities of MR imaging and the metabolic information of PET provide new insight into disease phenotypes and biology, and provide a better assessment of oncologic diseases at a lower radiation dose than a CT. This review provides an overview of the technical background of combined MR/PET systems, a discussion of the potential advantages and technical challenges of hybrid MR/PET instrumentation, as well as collection of possible solutions. Various early clinical applications of integrated MR/PET are also addressed. Finally, the workflow issues of integrated MR/PET, including maximizing diagnostic information while minimizing acquisition time are discussed. PMID:25598673

  7. Whole-body mathematical model for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, William D. (Inventor); Penar, Paul L. (Inventor); Stevens, Scott A. (Inventor); Tranmer, Bruce I. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A whole-body mathematical model (10) for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics. In one embodiment, model (10) includes 17 interacting compartments, of which nine lie entirely outside of intracranial vault (14). Compartments (F) and (T) are defined to distinguish ventricular from extraventricular CSF. The vasculature of the intracranial system within cranial vault (14) is also subdivided into five compartments (A, C, P, V, and S, respectively) representing the intracranial arteries, capillaries, choroid plexus, veins, and venous sinus. The body's extracranial systemic vasculature is divided into six compartments (I, J, O, Z, D, and X, respectively) representing the arteries, capillaries, and veins of the central body and the lower body. Compartments (G) and (B) include tissue and the associated interstitial fluid in the intracranial and lower regions. Compartment (Y) is a composite involving the tissues, organs, and pulmonary circulation of the central body and compartment (M) represents the external environment.

  8. Applications of quantitative whole body autoradiographic technique in radiopharmaceutical research

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Yonekura, Y.; Meyer, M.A.; Fand, I.; Brill, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The routine evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals involves dissecting tissue distribution studies (DTDS) and gamma or positron imaging. DTDS have the following disadvantages: since not all tissues can always be sampled, sites of radiopharmaceutical uptake may be missed and because the procedure involves weighing of dissected tissue samples, the spatial resolution of this method is low and determined by the smallest amount that can be weighed accurately. Gamma camera imaging and positron emission tomography though more comprehensive in evaluating the global distribution of a compound, have relative low spatial resolution. Whole body autoradiography of small animals has a much higher spatial resolution as compared to the above and depicts the global distribution of radiopharmaceuticals. A computer-assisted quantification method of WBARG applied to positron, beta, and gamma emitters will complement the method by producing quantitative values comparable to those obtained by dissection and direct tissue counting, with the advantages of depicting the global distribution at high spatial resolution.

  9. Modelling and simulation of an infant's whole body plethysmograph.

    PubMed

    Amezzane, Ilham; Awada, Ali; Sawan, Mohamad; Bellemare, Franois

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a computational model dedicated to building an apnoea monitoring system for newborn babies. The proposed model is based on whole body plethysmography, which involves non-invasive measurement of lung ventilation indirectly from the pressure deflections generated when a subject breathes inside a chamber of fixed volume (Bert in C R Soc Biol Paris 20:22-23, 1868). The computational model simulates thermal and environmental flow conditions occurring in the neonate chamber, especially steady state flow with heat transfer and carbon dioxide (CO2) transport during the exhalation phase. This permits the variance of all critical parameters and the analysis of their effects on the distributions of interest. The main objective is to study thermal and air quality comfort conditions under which infants can be monitored for long-term periods. The method deploys computational fluid dynamics techniques and parametric modelling which, by allowing input parameters to be modulated, represent a more efficient and flexible analytical tool than previous experimental techniques. Simulation data reveal that the largest flow rates occur in areas near the openings with slight formation of air recirculation zones; temperature distribution shows signs of stratification, with higher temperatures than the supplied air, CO2 distribution presents acceptable air quality level and predicted mean vote index affords a relatively acceptable thermal comfort level. This analytical approach can be considered as innovative, and can find a new application in clinical infant apnoea monitoring in a way that allows determination of the optimal location for placing a sensor to detect respiration activity without any contact with the infant's body, and without any risk, in contrast to available whole body plethysmography techniques previously tested in infants (Fleming et al. in J Appl Physiol 55:1924-1931, 1983). PMID:16941102

  10. Visualizing gene expression by whole-body fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Baranov, E; Moossa, A R; Penman, S; Hoffman, R M

    2000-10-24

    Transgene expression in intact animals now can be visualized by noninvasive techniques. However, the instruments and protocols developed so far have been formidable and expensive. We describe here a system for rapidly visualizing transgene expression in major organs of intact live mice that is simple, rapid, and eminently affordable. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is expressed in the cells of brain, liver, pancreas, prostate, and bone, and its fluorescence is encoded in whole-body optical images. For low-magnification images, animals are illuminated atop a fluorescence light box and directly viewed with a thermoelectrically cooled color charge-coupled device camera. Higher-magnification images are made with the camera focused through an epi-fluorescence dissecting microscope. Both nude and normal mice were labeled by directly injecting 8 x 10(10) plaque-forming units/ml of adenoviral GFP in 20-100 microl PBS and 10% glycerol into either the brain, liver, pancreas, prostate, or bone marrow. Within 5-8 h after adenoviral GFP injection, the fluorescence of the expressed GFP in brain and liver became visible, and whole-body images were recorded at video rates. The GFP fluorescence continued to increase for at least 12 h and remained detectable in liver for up to 4 months. The system's rapidity of image acquisition makes it capable of real-time recording. It requires neither exogenous contrast agents, radioactive substrates, nor long processing times. The method requires only that the expressed gene or promoter be fused or operatively linked to GFP. A comparatively modest investment allows the study of the therapeutic and diagnostic potential of suitably tagged genes in relatively opaque organisms. PMID:11050247

  11. Characterization of Train-Induced Vibration and its Effect on Fecal Corticosterone Metabolites in Mice.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Nicholas A; Sargent, Jennifer L; Parmigiani, John P; Palme, Rupert; Diggs, Helen E

    2015-01-01

    Excessive environmental vibrations can have deleterious effects on animal health and experimental results, but they remain poorly understood in the animal laboratory setting. The aims of this study were to characterize train-associated vibration in a rodent vivarium and to assess the effects of this vibration on the reproductive success and fecal corticosterone metabolite levels of mice. An instrumented cage, featuring a high-sensitivity microphone and accelerometer, was used to characterize the vibrations and sound in a vivarium that is near an active railroad. The vibrations caused by the passing trains are 3 times larger in amplitude than are the ambient facility vibrations, whereas most of the associated sound was below the audible range for mice. Mice housed in the room closest to the railroad tracks had pregnancy rates that were 50% to 60% lower than those of mice of the same strains but bred in other parts of the facility. To verify the effect of the train vibrations, we used a custom-built electromagnetic shaker to simulate the train-induced vibrations in a controlled environment. Fecal pellets were collected from male and female mice that were exposed to the simulated vibrations and from unexposed control animals. Analysis of the fecal samples revealed that vibrations similar to those produced by a passing train can increase the levels of fecal corticosterone metabolites in female mice. These increases warrant attention to the effects of vibration on mice and, consequently, on reproduction and experimental outcomes. PMID:26632783

  12. A whole body counting facility in a remote Enewetak Island setting.

    PubMed

    Bell, Thomas R; Hickman, David; Yamaguchi, Lance; Jackson, William; Hamilton, Terry

    2002-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. As part of this new initiative, DOE agreed to design and construct a radiological laboratory on Enewetak Island, and help develop the necessary local resources to maintain and operate the facility. This cooperative effort was formalized in August 2000 between the DOE, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Enewetak/Ujelang Local Atoll Government (EULGOV). The laboratory facility was completed in May 2001. The laboratory incorporates both a permanent whole body counting system to assess internal exposures to 137Cs, and clean living space for people providing 24-h void urine samples. DOE continues to provide on-going technical assistance, training, and data quality review while EULGOV provides manpower and infrastructure development to sustain facility operations on a full-time basis. This paper will detail the special construction, transportation and installation issues in establishing a whole body counting facility in an isolated, harsh environmental setting. PMID:12132723

  13. Whole-Body MRI in Children: Current Imaging Techniques and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in children to evaluate the extent and distribution of various neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Not using ionizing radiation is a major advantage of pediatric whole-body MRI. Coronal and sagittal short tau inversion recovery imaging is most commonly used as the fundamental whole-body MRI protocol. Diffusion-weighted imaging and Dixon-based imaging, which has been recently incorporated into whole-body MRI, are promising pulse sequences, particularly for pediatric oncology. Other pulse sequences may be added to increase diagnostic capability of whole-body MRI. Of importance, the overall whole-body MRI examination time should be less than 30-60 minutes in children, regardless of the imaging protocol. Established and potentially useful clinical applications of pediatric whole-body MRI are described. PMID:26355493

  14. Effects of Low-Volume, High-Intensity Whole-Body Calisthenics on Army ROTC Cadets.

    PubMed

    Gist, Nicholas H; Freese, Eric C; Ryan, Terence E; Cureton, Kirk J

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) on fitness in Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps cadets. Twenty-six college-aged (20.5 1.7 years) participants completed 4 weeks of exercise training 3 days wk(-1) consisting of either approximately 60 minutes of typical physical training or HIT whole-body calisthenics involving 4 to 7 sets of 30-second "all out" burpees separated by 4 minutes of active recovery. Several pre- and postintervention fitness variables were compared. We observed no changes across time or differences between groups in aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, or Army Physical Fitness Test performance (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant Group Time interaction (p = 0.015) for skeletal muscle mitochondrial function (Tc: time constant of recovery). For the typical physical training group, we observed improved mitochondrial function (Tc decreased 2.4 4.6 seconds; Cohen's d = -0.51); whereas, mitochondrial function decreased in HIT (Tc increased 2.4 4.6 seconds; d = 0.50). HIT sustained fitness despite the short duration and reduced volume of activity. A program that includes HIT as part of a larger program may be well suited for maintaining fitness in moderately trained armed forces personnel without access to equipment. PMID:25939101

  15. Assessment of an infant whole-body plethysmograph using an infant lung function model.

    PubMed

    Reinmann, B; Stocks, J; Frey, U

    2001-04-01

    In order to facilitate international multicentre studies and improve the quality control of infant pulmonary function measurements, the European Respiratory Society-American Thoracic Society Task Force for infant lung function testing has recently developed specifications for standardized infant lung function equipment and software. A mechanical infant lung model analogue has been developed to assess whether infant lung function equipment is able to meet these requirements. However, the practical testing of infant lung function equipment using such models is highly complex because of the need to use very small pressure and flow changes, and the numerous potentially confounding factors associated with both the design of the device and the testing procedure. The aim of this study was to determine whether the infant lung model is capable of assessing the overall function of an whole-body infant- plethysmograph, using the only infant plethysmograph that was commercially available at the time as an example. The mechanical characteristics of the model such as vibrations or noise did not disturb the delicate plethysmographic measurements and thereby allowed a reliable assessment of the system. A series of tests revealed that the plethysmograph was able to measure airway resistance 1-3.5 kPa.L(-1).s with an accuracy of +/-2.5% and lung volumes 75-300 mL with an accuracy of +/-2.5% under in vitro conditions. To conclude, the infant lung model is a useful means of assessing the overall in vitro performance of infant whole-body plethysmographs, but thermal, mechanical and frequency response characteristics of such a device must be taken into account when interpreting the results of such assessments. PMID:11401075

  16. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, Franois; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below ?100C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC. PMID:24648779

  17. Sex differences in whole body gait kinematics at preferred speeds.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Dustin A; Frimenko, Rebecca E; Goodyear, Chuck D; Bowden, David R; Fullenkamp, Adam M

    2015-02-01

    Studies on human perception have identified pelvis and torso motion as key discriminators between male and female gaits. However, while most observers would advocate that men and women walk differently, consistent findings and explanations of sex differences in gait kinematics across modern empirical studies are rare. In the present study we evaluated sex differences in whole body gait kinematics from a large sample of subjects (55 men, 36 women) walking at self selected speeds. We analyzed the data through comparisons of discrete metrics and whole curve analyses. Results showed that in the frontal plane, women walked with greater pelvic obliquity than men, but exhibited a more stable torso and head. Women had greater transverse plane pelvis and torso rotation as well as greater arm swing. Additional sex differences were noted at the hip and ankle. These kinematic results are in line with anectdotal observations and qualitative studies. In order to understand these observations and substantiate some of the explanations previously set forth in the biomechanics literature, we also explored possible reasons for dynamic sex effects, and suggested applications that may benefit from their consideration. PMID:25548119

  18. Whole-body impedance--what does it measure?

    PubMed

    Foster, K R; Lukaski, H C

    1996-09-01

    Although the bioelectrical impedance technique is widely used in human nutrition and clinical research, an integrated summary of the biophysical and bioelectrical bases of this approach is lacking. We summarize the pertinent electrical phenomena relevant to the application of the impedance technique in vivo and discuss the relations between electrical measurements and biological conductor volumes. Key terms in the derivation of bioelectrical impedance analysis are described and the relation between the electrical properties of tissues and tissue structure is discussed. The relation between the impedance of an object and its geometry, scale, and intrinsic electrical properties is also discussed. Correlations between whole-body impedance measurements and various bioconductor volumes, such as total body water and fat-free mass, are experimentally well established; however, the reason for the success of the impedence technique is much less clear. The bioengineering basis for the technique is critically presented and considerations are proposed that might help to clarify the method and potentially improve its sensitivity. PMID:8780354

  19. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, Franois; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below -100C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC. PMID:24648779

  20. External whole-body image of EGFP gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shinji, Seiichi; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Tajiri, Takashi; Tanaka, Noritake; Seya, Tomoko; Kawahara, Kiyoko; Yokoyama, Munehiro; Naito, Zenya

    2003-12-01

    Whole-body optical imaging is an external and noninvasive procedure that enables the continuous visual monitoring of malignant growth and spread within intact animals. The human colon adenocarcinoma cell-line HCT-15 was transfected with a pIRES 2-EGFP vector, and stable enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) expression was established (Fig.1). Approximately 10(6) HCT-15 EGFP stable transfectant cells were subcutaneously injected into the left flank of six-week-old male Balb/c-nu/nu mice. On post-injection day 78, the size of the subcutaneous tumor was 13.1 mm x 15.4 mm in diameter, as observed using an ORCA-C 7780-20 three-chip cooled color charge-coupled-device camera (Hamamatsu Photonics Systems, Hamamatsu City, Japan). An external fluorescent image of the tumor was acquired through the skin (Fig.2B). The tumor could be seen more clearly once the skin was removed (Fig.2D). Furthermore, in the peritoneal metastasis (Fig.3B) and liver metastasis models (Fig.3D), metastasis could also be seen through the skin. This new technology is a useful method for investigating tumor growth in vivo. In the future, this method could be applied to the detection of peritoneal, liver and lung metastasis in living animals. PMID:14685284

  1. Whole-body counting in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    In 1978 the Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program was organized to perform radiation measurements and assess radiation doses for the people of the Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. One of the major field components of this program is whole- body counting (WBC). WBC is used to monitor the quantity of gamma- emitting radionuclides present in individuals. A primary objective of the program was to establish {sup 137}Cesium body contents among the Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik populations. {sup 137}Cs was the only gamma-emitting fission radionuclide detected in the 1,967 persons monitored. {sup 137}Cs body burdens tended to increase with age for both sexes, and were higher in males. The average {sup 137}Cs dose Annual Effective Dose for the three populations was as follows: For Enewetak, the dose was 22{+-}4 {mu}Sv. For Utirik, the dose was 33{+-} 3 {mu}Sv. Since 1985 the Rongelap people have been self-exiled to Mejatto. Biological elimination should have reduced their dose to virtually zero, and the measured dose was 2{+-}2 {mu}Sv. If they had remained on Rongelap Island, the calculated dose would have been 99 {mu}Sv, which is about one-third of the background dose. 7 refs., 1 tab. (MHB)

  2. Distribution of transglutaminase family members in mouse whole body sections.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Hideki; Abe, Natsumi; Ohashi, Shintaro; Hitomi, Kiyotaka

    2015-11-27

    Transglutaminases (TGs) comprise a protein family in which the members catalyze the formation of isopeptide bonds between glutamine and lysine residues in various proteins. Eight enzymes have been identified and designated as factor XIII (FXIII) and TG1-7. Expression studies of four major members, i.e., FXIII, TG1, TG2, and TG3, have been performed in a relatively large number of mammalian tissues in comparison with those on the other isozymes. The structural and biochemical characteristics of these individual isozymes and expression analyses of TG family in some tissue extracts have been reported, but there have been no simultaneous comparative analyses of both their mRNA and protein expression patterns in tissues distributions. Thus, we developed novel experimental systems for in situ hybridization using cryofilm attached to whole body sections of neonatal mice, thereby obtaining data regarding the tissue distributions of the major TG isozymes. In this study, we performed the first detailed comparative analysis of the mRNA and protein distribution studies of TG family members in a wide range of mouse tissues. These data will be helpful for elucidating the unknown physiological and pathological functions of TGs. PMID:26456644

  3. Polyarteritis nodosa: MDCT as a 'One-Stop Shop' Modality for Whole-Body Arterial Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, W.-L.; Tsai, I-C.; Lee Tain; Hsieh, C.-W.

    2008-07-15

    Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare disease, which is characterized by aneurysm formation and occlusion in the arteries of multiple systems. Due to its extensive involvement, whole-body evaluation is necessary for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We report a case of polyarteritis nodosa using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as a 'one-stop shop' modality for whole-body arterial evaluation. With precise protocol design, MDCT can be used as a reliable noninvasive modality providing comprehensive whole-body arterial evaluation.

  4. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christopher B

    2005-01-01

    Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production) although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis). An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure. PMID:15958171

  5. Human perceptual overestimation of whole body roll tilt in hypergravity.

    PubMed

    Clark, Torin K; Newman, Michael C; Oman, Charles M; Merfeld, Daniel M; Young, Laurence R

    2015-04-01

    Hypergravity provides a unique environment to study human perception of orientation. We utilized a long-radius centrifuge to study perception of both static and dynamic whole body roll tilt in hypergravity, across a range of angles, frequencies, and net gravito-inertial levels (referred to as G levels). While studies of static tilt perception in hypergravity have been published, this is the first to measure dynamic tilt perception (i.e., with time-varying canal stimulation) in hypergravity using a continuous matching task. In complete darkness, subjects reported their orientation perception using a haptic task, whereby they attempted to align a hand-held bar with their perceived horizontal. Static roll tilt was overestimated in hypergravity, with more overestimation at larger angles and higher G levels, across the conditions tested (overestimated by ?35% per additional G level, P < 0.001). As our primary contribution, we show that dynamic roll tilt was also consistently overestimated in hypergravity (P < 0.001) at all angles and frequencies tested, again with more overestimation at higher G levels. The overestimation was similar to that for static tilts at low angular velocities but decreased at higher angular velocities (P = 0.006), consistent with semicircular canal sensory integration. To match our findings, we propose a modification to a previous Observer-type canal-otolith interaction model. Specifically, our data were better modeled by including the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. This modified model was able to simulate quantitatively both the static and the dynamic roll tilt overestimation in hypergravity measured experimentally. PMID:25540216

  6. [New strategies for exercise training in osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, A; Schilling, S; Neuerburg, C; Mutschler, W; Böcker, W; Felsenberg, D; Stumpf, U

    2015-11-01

    In the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, movement with muscle strengthening and proprioceptive training plays a major role. This was taken into consideration in the guidelines by the governing body on osteoporosis (Dachverband Osteoporose, DVO) from 2014 on prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and in the DVO guidelines from 2008 on physiotherapy and exercise therapy for osteoporosis. Increases in lumbar bone density of between 0.5 % and 2.5 % can be achieved in women by strengthening exercises with high resistance. With this combination and strengthening of the quadriceps muscle a reduction of falls and hence the fracture risk could also be achieved. In traumatology, training for muscle strengthening is not always possible, especially for elderly patients. Practically relevant alternatives are regular walking and aquatraining, which may also lead to a significant increase in bone mineral density. Furthermore, large effects can be achieved with alternating side whole-body vibration (WBV) training with whole body vibration plates with only 3 days of training per week and with short training periods (15-20 min). Rates of increase in leg strength between 20 % and almost 40 % and in bone density between 0.5 % and 4 % in 6 months have been described. Whether and with what intensity whole body vibration therapy could be used for e.g. more rapid healing of fractures, is currently unclear. Initial positive results have been described in animal models. PMID:26467265

  7. Effects of train noise and vibration on human heart rate during sleep: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Croy, Ilona; Smith, Michael G; Waye, Kerstin Persson

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Transportation of goods on railways is increasing and the majority of the increased numbers of freight trains run during the night. Transportation noise has adverse effects on sleep structure, affects the heart rate (HR) during sleep and may be linked to cardiovascular disease. Freight trains also generate vibration and little is known regarding the impact of vibration on human sleep. A laboratory study was conducted to examine how a realistic nocturnal railway traffic scenario influences HR during sleep. Design Casecontrol. Setting Healthy participants. Participants 24 healthy volunteers (11 men, 13 women, 1928?years) spent six consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Interventions All participants slept during one habituation night, one control and four experimental nights in which train noise and vibration were reproduced. In the experimental nights, 20 or 36 trains with low-vibration or high-vibration characteristics were presented. Primary and secondary outcome measures Polysomnographical data and ECG were recorded. Results The train exposure led to a significant change of HR within 1?min of exposure onset (p=0.002), characterised by an initial and a delayed increase of HR. The high-vibration condition provoked an average increase of at least 3?bpm per train in 79% of the participants. Cardiac responses were in general higher in the high-vibration condition than in the low-vibration condition (p=0.006). No significant effect of noise sensitivity and gender was revealed, although there was a tendency for men to exhibit stronger HR acceleration than women. Conclusions Freight trains provoke HR accelerations during sleep, and the vibration characteristics of the trains are of special importance. In the long term, this may affect cardiovascular functioning of persons living close to railways. PMID:23793667

  8. Active vibration control for high speed train bogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiffer, Alexander; Storm, Stefan; Rder, Arno; Maier, Rudolf; Frank, Paul-Gerhard

    2005-02-01

    This report deals with the design of an active vibration control (AVC) system integrated into the primary suspension of the bogie of a German high-speed train (ICE). As a design case a prototype bogie (WU92) for the ICE2 was taken. This paper comprises all parts and stages of the development of an AVC system. First, a transfer path analysis was performed in order to identify the main paths of propagation and to determine the boundary conditions at the actuator contact points. A detailed FE-analysis performed on the basis of an already existing FE-model serves as a support to investigate the actuator performance and evaluate several actuator concepts. However, the evaluation of a multifold of varying configurations of actuator, error sensor and monitor sensor positions is obviously not possible in the experiment, but is in the simulation. Based on the simulations and the experiments the control system is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP) system. The structure borne noise level was determined during running tests at the ICE3 and measurements at the WU92 installed in the test rig. The design of the actuator system includes the layout of the specific system as well as the selection of the piezoelectric elements. A specifically developed amplifier drives the actuators. Finally the system is integrated into one axle of the WU92 and tested during roller-rig measurements.

  9. Transcriptional analysis of a whole-body form of long-term habituation in Aplysia californica

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Geraldine; Herdegen, Samantha; Schuon, Jonathan; Cyriac, Ashly; Lass, Jamie; Conte, Catherine; Calin-Jageman, Irina E.

    2015-01-01

    Habituation is the simplest form of learning, but we know little about the transcriptional mechanisms that encode long-term habituation memory. A key obstacle is that habituation is relatively stimulus-specific and is thus encoded in small sets of neurons, providing poor signal/noise ratios for transcriptional analysis. To overcome this obstacle, we have developed a protocol for producing whole-body long-term habituation of the siphon-withdrawal reflex (SWR) of Aplysia californica. Specifically, we constructed a computer-controlled brushing apparatus to apply low-intensity tactile stimulation over the entire dorsal surface of Aplysia at regular intervals. We found that 3 d of training (10 rounds of stimulation/day; each round = 15 min brushing at a 10-sec ISI; 15-min rest between rounds) produces habituation with several characteristics favorable for mechanistic investigation. First, habituation is widespread, with SWR durations reduced whether the reflex is evoked by tactile stimulation to the head, tail, or the siphon. Second, long-term habituation is sensitive to the pattern of training, occurring only when brushing sessions are spaced out over 3 d rather than massed into a single session. Using a custom-designed microarray and quantitative PCR, we show that long-term habituation produces long-term up-regulation of an apparent Aplysia homolog of cornichon, a protein important for glutamate receptor trafficking. Our training paradigm provides a promising starting point for characterizing the transcriptional mechanisms of long-term habituation memory. PMID:25512573

  10. A high protein diet upregulated whole-body protein turnover during energy deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of higher protein diets and sustained energy deficit (ED) on whole-body protein turnover (WBPTO) are not well described. This study examined whether dietary protein level influences whole-body protein breakdown (Ra), non-oxidative leucine disposal (NOLD), and oxidation (Ox) during ED. ...

  11. Optimization of Training Sets for Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns from Vibrating Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been used for a number of years to process holography-generated characteristic patterns of vibrating structures. This technology depends critically on the selection and the conditioning of the training sets. A scaling operation called folding is discussed for conditioning training sets optimally for training feed-forward neural networks to process characteristic fringe patterns. Folding allows feed-forward nets to be trained easily to detect damage-induced vibration-displacement-distribution changes as small as 10 nm. A specific application to aerospace of neural-net processing of characteristic patterns is presented to motivate the conditioning and optimization effort.

  12. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Fonda, B; Sarabon, N

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted of WBC everyday during the recovery period. WBC included single 3-min daily exposures to low temperatures (-140 to -19 °C) in the cryo-cabin. During the recovery period, subjects were tested for biochemical markers, perceived pain sensation, and physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal isometric torque production, and maximally explosive isometric torque production). Majority of the observed variables showed statistically significant time effects (P < 0.05) in control group, which indicates the presence of muscle damage. Significant interaction between the control and WBC condition was evident for the rate of torque development (P < 0.05). Pain measures substantially differed between the WBC and the control condition after the exercise. Results of this study are not completely supportive of the use of WBC for recovery enhancement after strenuous training. PMID:23614691

  13. Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simes, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean standard deviation age = 23.95.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at ?110C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60 s?1 concentric and 180 s?1 eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE. PMID:25750548

  14. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  15. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    PubMed Central

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mlbak, Lars; de Bruijn, Adrianus; Schierbeek, Henk; Boye, Mette; Boehm, Gnther; Renes, Ingrid; Burrin, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously administered antibiotics, or probiotics affects whole body nitrogen and amino acid turnover. We quantified whole body urea kinetics, threonine fluxes, and threonine disposal into protein, oxidation, and tissue protein synthesis with stable isotope techniques. Compared with controls, antibiotics reduced the number and diversity of bacterial species in the distal small intestine (SI) and colon. Antibiotics decreased plasma urea concentrations via decreased urea synthesis. Antibiotics elevated threonine plasma concentrations and turnover, as well as whole body protein synthesis and proteolysis. Antibiotics decreased protein synthesis rate in the proximal SI and liver but did not affect the distal SI, colon, or muscle. Probiotics induced a bifidogenic microbiota and decreased plasma urea concentrations but did not affect whole body threonine or protein metabolism. Probiotics decreased protein synthesis in the proximal SI but not in other tissues. In conclusion, modulation of the gut microbiota by antibiotics and probiotics reduced hepatic ureagenesis and intestinal protein synthesis, but neither altered whole body net threonine balance. These findings suggest that changes in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism resulting from antibiotic- or probiotic-induced shifts in the microbiota are localized to the gut and liver and have limited impact on whole body growth and anabolism in neonatal piglets. PMID:23139222

  16. Regional Muscle and Whole-Body Composition Factors Related to Mobility in Older Individuals: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kidde, Jason; Marcus, Robin; Dibble, Lee; Smith, Sheldon

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe previously reported locomotor muscle and whole-body composition factors related to mobility in older individuals. Methods: A narrative review of the literature, including a combination of search terms related to muscle and whole-body composition factors and to mobility in older individuals, was carried out. Statistical measures of association and risk were consolidated to summarize the common effects between studies. Results: Fifty-three studies were reviewed. Muscle and whole-body factors accounted for a substantial amount of the variability in walking speed, with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.30 to 0.47. Muscle power consistently accounted for a greater percentage of the variance in mobility than did strength. Risks associated with high fat mass presented a minimum odds ratio (OR) of 0.70 and a maximum OR of 4.07, while the minimum and maximum ORs associated with low lean mass were 0.87 and 2.30 respectively. Whole-body and regional fat deposits accounted for significant amounts of the variance in mobility. Conclusion: Muscle power accounts for a greater amount of the variance in the level of mobility in older individuals than does muscle strength. Whole-body fat accounts for a greater amount of the variance in level of mobility than does whole-body lean tissue. Fat stored within muscle also appears to increase the risk of a mobility limitation in older individuals. PMID:20808481

  17. Training Data Optimized and Conditioned to Learn Characteristic Patterns of Vibrating Blisks and Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we have been training artificial neural networks to interpret the characteristic patterns (see the leftmost image) generated from electronic holograms of vibrating structures. These patterns not only visualize the vibration properties of structures, but small changes in the patterns can indicate structural changes, cracking, or damage. Neural networks detect these small changes well. Our objective has been to adapt the neural-network, electronic-holography combination for inspecting components in Glenn's Spin Rig.

  18. Measurement of ground and nearby building vibration and noise induced by trains in a metro depot.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Wang, Peng; Guo, Jixing

    2015-12-01

    Metro depots are where subway trains are parked and where maintenance is carried out. They usually occupy the largest ground areas in metro projects. Due to land utilization problems, Chinese cities have begun to develop over-track buildings above metro depots for people's life and work. The frequently moving trains, when going into and out of metro depots, can cause excessive vibration and noise to over-track buildings and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Considering the current need of reliable experimental data for the construction of metro depots, field measurements of vibration and noise on the ground and inside a nearby 3-story building subjected to moving subway trains were conducted in a metro depot at Guangzhou, China. The amplitudes and frequency contents of velocity levels were quantified and compared. The composite A-weighted equivalent sound levels and maximum sound levels were captured. The predicted models for vibration and noise of metro depot were proposed based on existing models and verified. It was found that the vertical vibrations were significantly greater than the horizontal vibrations on the ground and inside the building near the testing line. While at the throat area, the horizontal vibrations near the curved track were remarkably greater than the vertical vibrations. The attenuation of the vibrations with frequencies above 50 Hz was larger than the ones below 50 Hz, and the frequencies of vibration transmitting to adjacent buildings were mainly within 10-50 Hz. The largest equivalent sound level generated in the throat area was smaller than the testing line one, but the instantaneous maximum sound level induced by wheels squeal, contact between wheels and rail joints as well as turnout was close to or even greater than the testing line one. The predicted models gave a first estimation for design and assessment of newly built metro depots. PMID:26254076

  19. Vibrations of Railroad Due to The Passage of The Underground Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konowrocki, Robert; Bajer, Czes?aw

    2010-03-01

    In the paper we present results of vibration measurements in the train and on the base of the railroad in tunnels of Warsaw Underground. Measurements were performed at straight and curved sections of the track. The paper is focused on the influence of the lateral slip in rail/wheel contact zone on the generation of vibrations and a noise. Vibrations were analyzed in terms of accelerations, velocities or displacements as a function of time and frequency. Results ware compared with the experiment of rolling of the wheel with lateral sleep. In both cases we observed double periodic oscillations.

  20. Damped vibration of engine valve train by recent transfer matrix and matrix procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadag, Vedat

    1991-05-01

    Damped vibrations of engine valve systems have been investigated by multiple degree of freedom models and the recent transfer matrix techniques and complex eigenvalue analysis procedures. The numerical results obtained were compared with the other available procedures including an exact continuous model solution. The multiple degree of freedom models were found to be superior, especially, in predicting forces acting on the engine valve train. The present application of the transfer matrix method with recent developments, gives accurate estimation of the vibration characteristics and harmonic response of engine valve trains. Complex matrix method analysis also supports the obtained results.

  1. Whole-Body Vibration Exercise for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Wang, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Bing-Lin; Huang, Ling-Yan; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effects of WBV exercise on patients with KOA. Methods. Eight databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, CNKI, and Wanfang were searched up to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of WBV for KOA were eligible. The outcomes were pain intensity, functional performances, self-reported status, adverse events, and muscle strength. A meta-analysis was conducted. Results. Five trials with 168 participants provided data for the meta-analysis. No significant difference was shown in pain intensity and self-reported status between WBV and other forms of exercise. Improvement in functional performance (evaluated by BBS; WMD, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.29 to 4.62; P = 0.0005) was greater in WBV group, but the other parameters of functional performance (including 6MWT and TGUG) revealed no statistically significant difference. Adverse events were only reported in one trial and no significant difference was discovered in muscle strength. The overall quality of evidence was very low. Conclusion. Currently there is only limited evidence that suggested that WBV is effective in the treatment of KOA. Large, well-designed RCTs with better designs are needed. PMID:26347287

  2. Modelling resonances of the standing body exposed to vertical whole-body vibration: Effects of posture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2008-10-01

    Lumped parameter mathematical models representing anatomical parts of the human body have been developed to represent body motions associated with resonances of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body standing in five different postures: 'upright', 'lordotic', 'anterior lean', 'knees bent', and 'knees more bent'. The inertial and geometric parameters of the models were determined from published anthropometric data. Stiffness and damping parameters were obtained by comparing model responses with experimental data obtained previously. The principal resonance of the vertical apparent mass, and the first peak in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass, of the standing body in an upright posture (at 5-6 Hz) corresponded to vertical motion of the viscera in phase with the vertical motion of the entire body due to deformation of the tissues at the soles of the feet, with pitch motion of the pelvis out of phase with pitch motion of the upper body above the pelvis. Upward motion of the body was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the pelvis. Changing the posture of the upper body had minor effects on the mode associated with the principal resonances of the apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass, but the mode changed significantly with bending of the legs. In legs-bent postures, the principal resonance (at about 3 Hz) was attributed to bending of the legs coupled with pitch motion of the pelvis in phase with pitch motion of the upper body. In this mode, extension of the legs was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the upper body and the upward vertical motion of the viscera.

  3. Dynamic tread wear measurement method for train wheels against vibrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Sun, Junhua; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-06-10

    Dynamic tread wear measurement is difficult but significant for railway transportation safety and efficiency. The accuracy of existing methods is inclined to be affected by environmental vibrations since they are highly dependent on the accurate calibration of the relative pose between vision sensors. In this paper, we present a method to obtain full wheel profiles based on automatic registration of vision sensor data instead of traditional global calibrations. We adopt two structured light vision sensors to recover the inner and outer profiles of each wheel, and register them by the iterative closest point algorithm. Computer simulations show that the proposed method is insensitive to noises and relative pose vibrations. Static experiments demonstrate that our method has high accuracy and great repeatability. Dynamic experiments show that the measurement accuracy of our method is about 0.18 mm, which is a twofold improvement over traditional methods. PMID:26192824

  4. Who donates their bodies to science? The combined role of gender and migration status among California whole-body donors.

    PubMed

    Asad, Asad L; Anteby, Michel; Garip, Filiz

    2014-04-01

    The number of human cadavers available for medical research and training, as well as organ transplantation, is limited. Researchers disagree about how to increase the number of whole-body bequeathals, citing a shortage of donations from the one group perceived as most likely to donate from attitudinal survey data - educated white males over 65. This focus on survey data, however, suffers from two main limitations: First, it reveals little about individuals' actual registration or donation behavior. Second, past studies' reliance on average survey measures may have concealed variation within the donor population. To address these shortcomings, we employ cluster analysis on all whole-body donors' data from the Universities of California at Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Two donor groups emerge from the analyses: One is made of slightly younger, educated, married individuals, an overwhelming portion of whom are U.S.-born and have U.S.-born parents, while the second includes mostly older, separated women with some college education, a relatively higher share of whom are foreign-born and have foreign-born parents. Our results demonstrate the presence of additional donor groups within and beyond the group of educated and elderly white males previously assumed to be most likely to donate. More broadly, our results suggest how the intersectional nature of donors' demographics - in particular, gender and migration status - shapes the configuration of the donor pool, signaling new ways to possibly increase donations. PMID:24534732

  5. Comprehensive diagnosis of whole-body acid-base and fluid-electrolyte disorders using a mathematical model and whole-body base excess.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Matthew B

    2015-08-01

    A mathematical model of whole-body acid-base and fluid-electrolyte balance was used to provide information leading to the diagnosis and fluid-therapy treatment in patients with complex acid-base disorders. Given a set of measured laboratory-chemistry values for a patient, a model of their unique, whole-body chemistry was created. This model predicted deficits or excesses in the masses of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and H2O as well as the plasma concentration of unknown or unmeasured species, such as ketoacids, in diabetes mellitus. The model further characterized the acid-base disorder by determining the patient's whole-body base excess and quantitatively partitioning it into ten components, each contributing to the overall disorder. The results of this study showed the importance of a complete set of laboratory measurements to obtain sufficient accuracy of the quantitative diagnosis; having only a minimal set, just pH and PCO2, led to a large scatter in the predicted results. A computer module was created that would allow a clinician to achieve this diagnosis at the bedside. This new diagnostic approach should prove to be valuable in the treatment of the critically ill. PMID:25281215

  6. Statistical determination of whole-body average SARs in a 2 GHz whole-body exposure system for unrestrained pregnant and newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqing; Wake, Kanako; Kawai, Hiroki; Watanabe, Soichi; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    A 2 GHz whole-body exposure to rats over a multigeneration has been conducted as part of bio-effect research in Japan. In this study, the rats moved freely in the cage inside the exposure system. From observation of the activity of rats in the cage, we found that the rats do not stay in each position with uniform possibility. In order to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) during the entire exposure period with high accuracy, we present a new approach to statistically determine the SAR level in an exposure system. First, we divided the rat cage in the exposure system into several small areas, and derived the fraction of time the rats spent in each small area based on the classification of the documentary photos of rat activity. Then, using the fraction of time spent in each small area as a weighting factor, we calculated the statistical characteristics of the whole-body average SAR for pregnant rats and young rats during the entire exposure period. As a result, this approach gave the statistical distribution as well as the corresponding mean value, median value and mode value for the whole-body SAR so that we can reasonably clarify the relationship between the exposure level and possible biological effect. PMID:22127341

  7. Statistical determination of whole-body average SARs in a 2 GHz whole-body exposure system for unrestrained pregnant and newborn rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianqing; Wake, Kanako; Kawai, Hiroki; Watanabe, Soichi; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    A 2 GHz whole-body exposure to rats over a multigeneration has been conducted as part of bio-effect research in Japan. In this study, the rats moved freely in the cage inside the exposure system. From observation of the activity of rats in the cage, we found that the rats do not stay in each position with uniform possibility. In order to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) during the entire exposure period with high accuracy, we present a new approach to statistically determine the SAR level in an exposure system. First, we divided the rat cage in the exposure system into several small areas, and derived the fraction of time the rats spent in each small area based on the classification of the documentary photos of rat activity. Then, using the fraction of time spent in each small area as a weighting factor, we calculated the statistical characteristics of the whole-body average SAR for pregnant rats and young rats during the entire exposure period. As a result, this approach gave the statistical distribution as well as the corresponding mean value, median value and mode value for the whole-body SAR so that we can reasonably clarify the relationship between the exposure level and possible biological effect.

  8. Effect of whole-body and local heating on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is compromised during whole-body heating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether whole-body heating and/or local surface heating reduce cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in human skin. Protocol I: Six subjects were exposed to neutral skin temperature (i.e., 34 degrees C), whole-body heating, and local heating of forearm skin to increase skin blood flow to the same relative magnitude as that observed during whole-body heating. Protocol II: In eight subjects forearm skin was locally heated to 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C. During both protocols, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was assessed by local delivery of norepinephrine (NE) via intradermal microdialysis. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored over each microdialysis membrane via laser-Doppler flowmetry. In protocol I, whole-body and local heating caused similar increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The EC50 (log NE dose) of the dose-response curves for both whole body (-4.2 +/- 0.1 M) and local heating (-4.7 +/- 0.4 M) were significantly greater (i.e., high dose required to cause 50% reduction in CVC) relative to neutral skin temperature (- 5.6 +/- 0.0 M; P<0.05 for both). In both local and whole-body heated conditions CVC did not return to pre-heating values even at the highest dose of NE. In protocol II, calculated EC50 for 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C local heating was - 5.5 +/- 0.4, -4.6 +/- 0.3, -4.5 +/- 0.3, - 4.2 +/- 0.4 M, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the EC50 for 37,40 and 42 degrees C were significantly greater than the EC50 for 34 degrees C. These results indicate that even during administration of high concentrations of NE, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction does not fully compensate for local heating and whole-body heating induced vasodilatation in young, healthy subjects. Moreover, these data suggest that elevated local temperatures, above 37 degrees C, and whole-body heating similarly attenuate cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction responsiveness.

  9. Patient-specific biomechanical model as whole-body CT image registration tool.

    PubMed

    Li, Mao; Miller, Karol; Joldes, Grand Roman; Doyle, Barry; Garlapati, Revanth Reddy; Kikinis, Ron; Wittek, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Whole-body computed tomography (CT) image registration is important for cancer diagnosis, therapy planning and treatment. Such registration requires accounting for large differences between source and target images caused by deformations of soft organs/tissues and articulated motion of skeletal structures. The registration algorithms relying solely on image processing methods exhibit deficiencies in accounting for such deformations and motion. We propose to predict the deformations and movements of body organs/tissues and skeletal structures for whole-body CT image registration using patient-specific non-linear biomechanical modelling. Unlike the conventional biomechanical modelling, our approach for building the biomechanical models does not require time-consuming segmentation of CT scans to divide the whole body into non-overlapping constituents with different material properties. Instead, a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm is used for tissue classification to assign the constitutive properties automatically at integration points of the computation grid. We use only very simple segmentation of the spine when determining vertebrae displacements to define loading for biomechanical models. We demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of our approach on CT images of seven patients suffering from cancer and aortic disease. The results confirm that accurate whole-body CT image registration can be achieved using a patient-specific non-linear biomechanical model constructed without time-consuming segmentation of the whole-body images. PMID:25721296

  10. Measurements of the equivalent whole-body dose during radiation therapy by cytogenetic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco; Yamada, Shigeru; Ando, Koichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Kawata, Tetsuya; Majima, Hideyuki; Nakano, Takashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    1999-05-01

    Estimates of equivalent whole-body dose following partial body exposure can be performed using different biophysical models. Calculations should be compared with biodosimetry data, but measurements are complicated by mitotic selection induced in target cells after localized irradiation. In this paper we measured chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes during radiotherapy, and estimated the equivalent whole-body dose absorbed, by using the novel technique of interphase chromosome painting. Premature chromosome condensation was induced in stimulated lymphocytes by incubation in calyculin A, and slides were hybridized in situ with whole-chromosome DNA probes specific for human chromosomes 2 and 4. Reciprocal exchanges were used to estimate the equivalent whole-body dose, based on individual pre-treatment in vitro calibration curves. Equivalent whole-body dose increased as a function of the number of fractions, and reached a plateau at high fraction numbers. Chromosomal aberration yields were dependent on field size, tumour position and concurrent chemotherapy. Results suggest that interphase chromosome painting is a simple technique able to give a reliable estimate of the equivalent whole-body dose absorbed during therapeutic partial-body irradiation.

  11. Whole-body protein turnover in chicks at early stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, T; Okumura, J

    1985-04-01

    Changes in whole-body protein turnover rate in young chicks were measured during very early stages of chicken growth. Day-old single comb White Leghorn male chicks were fed an adequate purified diet. Whole-body protein turnover was determined weekly for 4 wk. Fractional rates of protein synthesis (percent/day) in the whole body decreased from 1 to 4 wk of age while those of degradation remained unchanged. When expressed in terms of body weight per se, no significant change in absolute protein turnover rate (grams/day) was found during the experimental period; however, when expressed in terms of metabolizable body weight (kilograms 0.75), turnover rates increased slightly. Thus, during the first 4 wk of life no decrease in the whole-body protein turnover rate was found in chickens on the basis of units or metabolic body size. Twenty to 28% of the total heat production was accounted for by the energy expenditure due to whole-body protein synthesis. PMID:3981267

  12. Whole body exposure at 2100 MHz induced by plane wave of random incidences in a population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; El Habachi, Aimad; Wiart, J.

    2010-11-01

    In this article, the whole body exposure induced by plane wave coming from a random direction of arrival is analyzed at 2100 MHz. This work completes previous studies on the influence of different parameters on the whole body exposure (such as morphology, frequency or usage in near field). The Visible Human phantom has been used to build a surrogate model to predict the whole body exposure depending on the highlighted surface of the phantom and on the direction of arrival of the incident plane wave. For the Visible Human, the error on the whole body averaged Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is on average 4%. The surrogate model is applied to other 3D anthropomorphic phantoms for a frontal incidence with an averaged error of 10%. The great interest of the surrogate model is the possibility to apply a Monte Carlo process to assess probability distribution function of a population. A recent French anthropometric database of more than 3500 adults is used to build the probability distribution function of the whole body SAR for a random direction of arrival.

  13. Characterisation of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome in French Bulldogs Using Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nai-Chieh; Sargan, David R.; Adams, Vicki J.; Ladlow, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is an important health and welfare problem in several popular dog breeds. Whole-body barometric plethysmography (WBBP) is a non-invasive method that allows safe and repeated quantitative measurements of respiratory cycles on unsedated dogs. Here respiratory flow traces in French bulldogs from the pet population were characterised using WBBP, and a computational application was developed to recognise affected animals. Eighty-nine French bulldogs and twenty non-brachycephalic controls underwent WBBP testing. A respiratory functional grading system was used on each dog based on respiratory signs (i.e. respiratory noise, effort, etc.) before and after exercise. For development of an objective BOAS classifier, functional Grades 0 and I were considered to have insignificant clinical signs (termed here BOAS-) and Grades II and III to have significant signs (termed here BOAS+). A comparison between owner-perception of BOAS and functional grading revealed that 60 % of owners failed to recognise BOAS in dogs that graded BOAS+ in this study.WBBP flow traces were found to be significantly different between non-brachycephalic controls and Grade 0 French bulldogs; BOAS- and BOAS+ French bulldogs. A classifier was developed using quadratic discriminant analysis of the respiratory parameters to distinguish BOAS- and BOAS + French bulldogs, and a BOAS Index was calculated for each dog. A cut-off value of the BOAS Index was selected based on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the classifier on the training group (n=69) were 0.97, 0.93, 0.95, and 0.97, respectively. The classifier was validated using a test group of French bulldogs (n=20) with an accuracy of 0.95. WBBP offers objective screening for the diagnosis of BOAS in French Bulldogs. The technique may be applied to other brachycephalic breeds affected by BOAS, and possibly to other respiratory disease in dogs. PMID:26079684

  14. Characterisation of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome in French Bulldogs Using Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nai-Chieh; Sargan, David R; Adams, Vicki J; Ladlow, Jane F

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is an important health and welfare problem in several popular dog breeds. Whole-body barometric plethysmography (WBBP) is a non-invasive method that allows safe and repeated quantitative measurements of respiratory cycles on unsedated dogs. Here respiratory flow traces in French bulldogs from the pet population were characterised using WBBP, and a computational application was developed to recognise affected animals. Eighty-nine French bulldogs and twenty non-brachycephalic controls underwent WBBP testing. A respiratory functional grading system was used on each dog based on respiratory signs (i.e. respiratory noise, effort, etc.) before and after exercise. For development of an objective BOAS classifier, functional Grades 0 and I were considered to have insignificant clinical signs (termed here BOAS-) and Grades II and III to have significant signs (termed here BOAS+). A comparison between owner-perception of BOAS and functional grading revealed that 60 % of owners failed to recognise BOAS in dogs that graded BOAS+ in this study.WBBP flow traces were found to be significantly different between non-brachycephalic controls and Grade 0 French bulldogs; BOAS- and BOAS+ French bulldogs. A classifier was developed using quadratic discriminant analysis of the respiratory parameters to distinguish BOAS- and BOAS + French bulldogs, and a BOAS Index was calculated for each dog. A cut-off value of the BOAS Index was selected based on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the classifier on the training group (n=69) were 0.97, 0.93, 0.95, and 0.97, respectively. The classifier was validated using a test group of French bulldogs (n=20) with an accuracy of 0.95. WBBP offers objective screening for the diagnosis of BOAS in French Bulldogs. The technique may be applied to other brachycephalic breeds affected by BOAS, and possibly to other respiratory disease in dogs. PMID:26079684

  15. Automated extraction and labelling of the arterial tree from whole-body MRA data.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Rahil; Dzyubachyk, Oleh; Staring, Marius; Kullberg, Joel; Johansson, Lars; Ahlstrm, Hkan; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; van der Geest, Rob J

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we present a fully automated algorithm for extraction of the 3D arterial tree and labelling the tree segments from whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) sequences. The algorithm developed consists of two core parts (i) 3D volume reconstruction from different stations with simultaneous correction of different types of intensity inhomogeneity, and (ii) Extraction of the arterial tree and subsequent labelling of the pruned extracted tree. Extraction of the arterial tree is performed using the probability map of the "contrast" class, which is obtained as one of the results of the inhomogeneity correction scheme. We demonstrate that such approach is more robust than using the difference between the pre- and post-contrast channels traditionally used for this purpose. Labelling the extracted tree is performed by using a combination of graph-based and atlas-based approaches. Validation of our method with respect to the extracted tree was performed on the arterial tree subdivided into 32 segments, 82.4% of which were completely detected, 11.7% partially detected, and 5.9% were missed on a cohort of 35 subjects. With respect to automated labelling accuracy of the 32 segments, various registration strategies were investigated on a training set consisting of 10 scans. Further analysis on the test set consisting of 25 data sets indicates that 69% of the vessel centerline tree in the head and neck region, 80% in the thorax and abdomen region, and 84% in the legs was accurately labelled to the correct vessel segment. These results indicate clinical potential of our approach in enabling fully automated and accurate analysis of the entire arterial tree. This is the first study that not only automatically extracts the WB-MRA arterial tree, but also labels the vessel tree segments. PMID:26057864

  16. Effect of Vibration Training on Anaerobic Power and Quardroceps Surface EMG in Long Jumpers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Bin; Luo, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anaerobic power and surface EMG (sEMG) of quardrocep muscle in lower extremities after single vibration training intervention. Methods: 8 excellent male long jumpers voluntarily participated in this study. Four intervention modes were devised, including high frequency high amplitude (HFHA,30Hz,6mm), low frequency low…

  17. Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chondronikola, Maria; Volpi, Elena; Brsheim, Elisabet; Porter, Craig; Annamalai, Palam; Enerbck, Sven; Lidell, Martin E.; Saraf, Manish K.; Labbe, Sebastien M.; Hurren, Nicholas M.; Yfanti, Christina; Chao, Tony; Andersen, Clark R.; Cesani, Fernando; Hawkins, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted scientific interest as an antidiabetic tissue owing to its ability to dissipate energy as heat. Despite a plethora of data concerning the role of BAT in glucose metabolism in rodents, the role of BAT (if any) in glucose metabolism in humans remains unclear. To investigate whether BAT activation alters whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans, we studied seven BAT-positive (BAT+) men and five BAT-negative (BAT?) men under thermoneutral conditions and after prolonged (58 h) cold exposure (CE). The two groups were similar in age, BMI, and adiposity. CE significantly increased resting energy expenditure, whole-body glucose disposal, plasma glucose oxidation, and insulin sensitivity in the BAT+ group only. These results demonstrate a physiologically significant role of BAT in whole-body energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity in humans, and support the notion that BAT may function as an antidiabetic tissue in humans. PMID:25056438

  18. Whole-body MRI for the staging and follow-up of patients with metastasis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gerwin P; Reiser, Maximilian F; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    The advent of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) has introduced tumor imaging with a systemic approach compared to established sequential, multi-modal diagnostic algorithms. Hardware innovations, such as the introduction of multi-receiver channel whole-body scanners at 1.5 T and recently 3T, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made high resolution WB-MRI clinically feasible. Now, a dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomic coverage in a multi-planar imaging approach. More flexible protocols, e.g. including T1-weighted TSE- and STIR-imaging, dedicated lung imaging or dynamic contrast-enhanced studies of the abdomen can be performed within less than 45 min. For initial tumor staging PET-CT as a competing whole-body modality in oncologic imaging has proved more accurate for the definition of T-stage and lymph node assessment, using the additional metabolic information of PET for the assessment of tumor viability and therapy response. However, new applications, such as MR-whole-body diffusion imaging, may significantly increase sensitivity in near future. WB-MRI has shown advantages for the detection of distant metastatic disease, especially from tumors frequently spreading to the liver or brain and it is especially useful as a radiation-free alternative for the surveillance of tumor patients with multiple follow-up exams. Furthermore, it has been introduced as a whole-body bone marrow screening application. Within this context WB-MRI is highly accurate for the detection of skeletal metastases and staging of hematologic diseases, such as multiple myeloma or lymphoma. This article summarizes recent developments and applications of WB-MRI and highlights its performance within the scope of systemic oncologic staging and surveillance. PMID:19457631

  19. Whole-body FDG-PET imaging for staging of Hodgkin`s disease and lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hoh, C.K.; Glaspy, J.; Rosen, P.

    1997-03-01

    Accurate staging of Hodgkin`s disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma (NHL) is important for treatment management. In this study, the utility of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) wholebody PET was evaluated as an imaging modality for initial staging or restaging of 7 HD and 11 NHL patients. Whole-body PET-based staging results were compared to the patient`s clinical stage based on conventional staging studies, which included combinations of CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, MRI scans, gallium scans, lymphangiograms, staging laparatomies and bone scans. Accurate staging was performed in 17 of 18 patients using a whole-body PET-based staging algorithm compared to the conventional staging algorithm in 15 of 18 patients. In 5 of 18 patients, whole-body PET-based staging showed additional lesions not detected by conventional staging modalities, whereas conventional staging demonstrated additional lesions in 4 of 18 patients not detected by whole-body PET. The total cost of conventional staging was $66,292 for 16 CT chest scans, 16 CT abdominal/pelvis scans, three limited MRI scans, four bone scans, give gallium scans, two laparotomies and one lymphangiogram. In contrast, scans cost $36,250 for 18 whole-body PET studies and additional selected correlative studies: one plain film radiograph, one limited CT, one bone marrow san, one upper GI and one endoscopy. A whole-body FDG-PET-based staging algorithm may be an accurate and cost-effective method for staging or restaging HD and NHL. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography in oncology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gerwin P; Kramer, Harald; Reiser, Maximilian F; Glaser, Christian

    2007-06-01

    The advent of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has introduced tumor imaging with a systemic and functional approach compared with established sequential, multimodal diagnostic algorithms.Whole-body PET with [18F]-fluoro-2-desoxy-glucose is a useful imaging procedure for tumor staging and monitoring that can visualize active tumor tissue by detecting pathological glucose metabolism. The combination of PET with the detailed anatomical information of multislice computed tomography as dual-modality scanners has markedly increased lesion localization and diagnostic accuracy compared with both modalities as standalone applications.Hardware innovations, such as the introduction of multi-receiver channel whole-body MRI scanners at 1.5 and, recently, 3 T, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made high-resolution WB-MRI clinically feasible. Now, a dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution, and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomical coverage in a multiplanar imaging approach. More flexible protocols (eg, T1-weighted turbo spin-echo and short inversion recovery imaging, dedicated lung imaging or dynamic contrast-enhanced studies of the abdomen) can be performed within 45 minutes.Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging has recently been proposed for tumor screening of asymptomatic individuals, and potentially life-changing diagnoses, such as formerly unknown malignancy, have been reported. However, larger patient cohort studies will have to show the cost efficiency and the clinical effectiveness of such an approach.For initial tumor staging, PET-CT has proved more accurate for the definition of T-stage and lymph node assessment, mainly because of the missing metabolic information in WB-MRI. However, new applications, such as magnetic resonance whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging or lymphotropic contrast agents, may significantly increase sensitivity in near future. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging has shown advantages for the detection of distant metastatic disease, especially from tumors frequently spreading to the liver or brain and as a whole-body bone marrow screening application. Within this context, WB-MRI is highly accurate for the detection of skeletal metastases and staging of multiple myeloma. This article summarizes recent developments of CT/PET-CT and WB-MRI and highlights their performance within the scope of systemic oncological imaging. PMID:17762383

  1. Detection and semi-quantitative measurement of lung cancer metabolic activity by whole body PET

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, K.K.M.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Alavi, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    Conventional radiologic and nuclear medicine techniques have been shown to have a limited role in the staging and monitoring of disease activity in patients with lung cancer. Both qualitative and semi-quantitative position emission tomography (PET) using the F-18 FDG technique have been applied to determine the clinical utility of whole body PET-FDG imaging in lung cancer. Nineteen whole body FDG PET scans were performed in 18 patients; 17 with lung cancer (15 non-small cell and 2 small cell) and 1 with squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea.

  2. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  3. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  4. Seasonal Changes in Whole Body and Regional Body Composition Profiles of Elite Collegiate Ice-Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Neal W; Reid, Ryan E R; Andersen, Ross E

    2016-03-01

    Prokop, NW, Reid, RER, and Andersen, RE. Seasonal changes in whole body and regional body composition profiles of elite collegiate ice-hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 684-692, 2016-The monitoring of a collegiate hockey player's body composition can reflect fitness characteristics and may help players, coaches, or strength and conditioning specialists optimize physiologic gains during an off-season, whereas simultaneously preventing performance decrements in-season. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in whole-body and regional-body composition of fat and lean tissue. The body composition profiles of 19 elite Canadian collegiate hockey players were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Players completed end-of-season, preseason, and midseason assessments with questionnaires relating to their off-season and in-season training. Statistically significant changes in body composition profiles were observed between the different time points because players showed various tissue gains and losses depending on the region assessed. Overall, players gained (1.38 kg, p ≤ 0.01) and lost (0.79 kg, p ≤ 0.01) fat tissue during the off-season and in-season, respectively. Players also showed a significant gain of leg lean tissue (0.29 kg, p = 0.02) and loss of arm tissue mass (-0.25 kg, p = 0.02) during the first-half of the competitive season. Several correlations emerged that may provide insight into potential trends that could be more pronounced during longer and more demanding schedules. Collegiate hockey players show changes in body composition during the off-season and in-season. The understanding of body composition profiles, body composition fluctuations, and potential variables that may influence the composition of collegiate hockey players can help coaches and athletic programs tailor their team's training, nutrition, lifestyle, and informative resources to further support their athletes. PMID:26907839

  5. Railway noise annoyance and the importance of number of trains, ground vibration, and building situational factors.

    PubMed

    Gidlf-Gunnarsson, Anita; gren, Mikael; Jerson, Tomas; hrstrm, Evy

    2012-01-01

    Internationally accepted exposure-response relationships show that railway noise causes less annoyance than road traffic and aircraft noise. Railway transport, both passenger and freight transport, is increasing, and new railway lines are planned for environmental reasons. The combination of more frequent railway traffic and faster and heavier trains will, most probably, lead to more disturbances from railway traffic in the near future. To effectively plan for mitigations against noise and vibration from railway traffic, new studies are needed to obtain a better basis of knowledge. The main objectives of the present study was to investigate how the relationship between noise levels from railway traffic and general annoyance is influenced by (i) number of trains, (ii) the presence of ground borne vibrations, and (iii) building situational factors, such as orientation of balcony/patio and bedroom window. Socio-acoustic field studies were executed in residential areas; (1) with relatively intense railway traffic; (2) with strong vibrations, and; (3) with the most intense railway traffic in the country. Data was obtained for 1695 respondents exposed to sound levels ranging from L(Aeq,24h) 45 to 65 dB. Both number of trains and presence of ground-borne vibrations, and not just the noise level per se, are of relevance for how annoying railway noise is perceived. The results imply that, for the proportion annoyed to be equal, a 5 - 7 dB lower noise level is needed in areas where the railway traffic causes strong ground-borne vibrations and in areas with a very large number of trains. General noise annoyance was twice as high among residents in dwellings with balcony / patio oriented towards the railway and about 1.5 times higher among residents with bedroom windows facing the railway. PMID:22918150

  6. Criteria for acceptable levels of the Shinkansen Super Express train noise and vibration in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kanada, S.; Tanahashi, M.; Muramatsu, T.; Yamada, S.

    1982-10-01

    A survey of 1187 housewives living in 18 areas along the Shinkansen Super Express (bullet train) railway was conducted by means of a self-administered health questionnaire (modified Cornell Medical Index). In addition, geographically corresponding measurements of noise level and vibration intensity were taken. The relationship of noise and vibration to positive responses (health complaints) related to bodily symptoms, illness and emotional disturbances was analyzed. The factors which correlated with an increase in the average number of positive responses included noise, vibration, age and health status. Such factors as marital status, educational level, part time work, duration of inhabitancy and occupation of the head of the houshold correlated poorly with the number of positive responses. Unhealthy respondents compared to healthy respondents are more frequently affected by noise and vibration. The rate of positive responses in the visual, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems, sleep disturbances and emotional disturbances increased accordingly as noise and vibration increased. Combined effects of noise and vibration stimuli on the total number of positive responses (an indicator of general health) were found. This study has produced results indicating that the maximum permissible noise level should not exceed 70 dB(A) in the residential areas along the Shinkansen railway.

  7. Heat load tests of superconducting magnets vibrated electromagnetically for the Maglev train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, J.; Nakao, H.; Yamashita, T.; Sanada, Y.; Shudou, M.; Kawai, M.; Fujita, M.; Terai, M.; Miura, A.

    Superconducting magnets on Maglev trains vibrate due to harmonic ripples of electromagnetic flux generated by ground coils. Heat load caused by vibration in the magnet amounted to several tens of watts in the electromagnetic vibration test. This was mainly because a.c. loss was induced in the helium vessel housing the superconducting coil, due to relative vibration between the aluminium thermal shield and the coil. The heat load caused by vibration should be strictly restricted to less than 4W due to limited cryogenic refrigeration capacity. The heat load was tested using electromagnetic flux ripples for a superconducting magnet model of one coil which corresponds to 1/4 of an actual magnet. The flux ripples simulated the 6th harmonic of the actual ground levitation coil. Some ideas to reduce the heat load were tried for the magnet model, such as applying high resistance thermal radiation shielding, increasing rigidity of the vacuum vessel, and using high purity copper plating on the helium vessel. These ideas proved effective, and the maximum heat load due to vibration was held to less than 4 W per magnet for the one coil magnet model.

  8. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Combined with Vibration Training on Balance Control and Lower Extremity Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key points Eight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population. The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism. Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other. PMID:24149721

  9. DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING. R Slade, J L McKee and G E Hatch. PTB, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Reliable non-invasive markers for detecting oxidative stress in vivo are currently not available. We pr...

  10. Nasal visualization on radioiodine whole-body scintigraphy due to benign abnormality.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue; Wang, Qiao; Huang, Rui

    2015-04-01

    Nasal iodine activity can be observed on 123Iodine (123I) or 131I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) commonly as a normal variant caused by nasal or salivary secretion of the tracer. We encountered 2 patients whose increased accumulation of 131I activity was associated with underlying abnormalities. One patient had a nasal polyp, whereas the other had an abscess. PMID:25674863

  11. Albumin and whole-body protein synthesis respond differently to intraperitoneal and oral amino acids.

    PubMed

    Tjiong, H L; Fieren, M W; Rietveld, T; Wattimena, J L; Schierbeek, H; Huijmans, J G M; Hop, W C; Swart, G R; van den Berg, J W

    2007-08-01

    Patients with peritoneal dialysis are at risk for malnutrition and hypoalbuminemia, which are indicators of poor outcome. Recently, it was shown that dialysis solutions containing amino acids (AAs) and glucose improve protein anabolism in peritoneal dialysis patients. We determined if the same solutions could increase the fractional synthesis rate of albumin along with whole-body protein synthesis. Changes in the fractional albumin synthetic rate reflect acute change in hepatic albumin synthesis. A random-order cross-over study compared the effects of Nutrineal (AA source) plus Physioneal (glucose) dialysate with Physioneal alone dialysate. Eight patients in the overnight fasting state were compared to 12 patients in the daytime-fed state. Fractional albumin synthetic rate and whole-body protein synthesis were determined simultaneously using a primed-continuous infusion of L-[1-(13)C]-leucine. Fractional albumin synthesis on AAs plus glucose dialysis did not differ significantly from that on glucose alone in the fasting or the fed state. Protein intake by itself (fed versus fasting) failed to induce a significant increase in the fractional synthetic rate of albumin. Conversely, the oral protein brought about a significant stimulation of whole-body protein synthesis. Our findings show that the supply of AAs has different effects on whole-body protein synthesis and the fractional synthetic rate of albumin. PMID:17554255

  12. Solid anthropomorphic infant whole body DXA phantom: Design, evaluation, and multisite testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires phantoms for quality control and cross-calibration. No commercially available phantoms are designed specifically for infant whole-body scanning. We fabricated a phantom closely matching a 7-kg human infant in body habitus using PVC, nylon-mix, and poly...

  13. Moving along the Mental Number Line: Interactions between Whole-Body Motion and Numerical Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia; Mast, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Active head turns to the left and right have recently been shown to influence numerical cognition by shifting attention along the mental number line. In the present study, we found that passive whole-body motion influences numerical cognition. In a random-number generation task (Experiment 1), leftward and downward displacement of participants…

  14. Effects of kinematics constraints on hand trajectory during whole-body lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Kerlirzin, Y; Pozzo, T; Dietrich, G; Vieilledent, S

    1999-12-17

    Trajectories of the hands and whole-body center of mass were studied during whole-body lifting tasks. The movements of different parts of the body were monitored with the ELITE system. Subjects were instructed to lift to shoulder height an object placed at one of two distances (5-45 cm) before them on the floor. The lifts were performed both with and without kinematics constraints (i.e. to produce a straight hand trajectory while lifting, and to lift without any instructions, respectively). Hand trajectories were roughly straight when performed under the constrained condition, but curved when performed without instruction. Hand velocity curves showed bell-shaped profiles. In both groups, body centers of mass (whole-body, upper and lower part) were calculated and their trajectories showed invariant sagittal displacements. These results support the idea that movement contributes to postural control and, reciprocally, that whole-body center of mass is a robust and controlled variable which plays an important role in hand trajectory formation. PMID:10643893

  15. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,

  16. Headshake versus whole-body rotation testing of the vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    PubMed

    Goebel, J A; Fortin, M; Paige, G D

    1991-07-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is usually evaluated by whole-body rotary chair oscillation in darkness, but is limited to ambulatory patients. In order to develop a portable method of VOR assessment, eye movements from 10 normal subjects were studied under three conditions: 1. whole-body rotary chair oscillation in the dark and in the light with a head mounted blank field, 2. passive head-on-body rotation in the light with a blank field, and 3. active head-on-body rotation in the light with a blank field. The influence of visual fixation, neck rotation, and volition on VOR gain was to be assessed. Head oscillations were maintained at 0.5 and 1.0 Hz, 50 degrees/s peak velocity. Mean VOR gains with blank field testing were indistinguishable from those obtained in darkness during whole-body rotation. In addition, there were no significant differences in the mean gain between whole-body, passive head rotation or active head rotation. Two vestibulopathic patients (absent calorics bilaterally and oscillopsia) were also studied to illustrate potential clinical utility of the methods. Rotations under all conditions revealed low but variable gains. The evaluation of the VOR in the light with a blank visual surround and passive or active head rotation is a potentially useful clinical method of bedside assessment of the VOR. PMID:2062148

  17. Immunosuppression by whole-body irradiation and its effect on oedema in experimental cerebral ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Strachan, R D; Kane, P J; Cook, S; Chambers, I R; Clayton, C B; Mendelow, A D

    1992-09-01

    The effect of global immunosuppression by sublethal whole body X-irradiation on the development of cerebral oedema was assessed 24 h after right middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. Irradiation produced a significant leukopenia and thrombocytopaenia, and significantly reduced cortical oedema when compared to non-irradiated control animals. PMID:1414243

  18. AMMONIA ABATEMENT SYSTEM FOR WHOLE-BODY SMALL ANIMAL INHALATION EXPOSURES TO ACID MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conducting whole-body acid aerosol inhalation exposures of laboratory animals is complicated by ammonia arising from the excrement of the test animals which is sufficient to completely neutralize much of the acid aerosol. he neutralization of acid by ammonia con only be controlle...

  19. Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P < 0.03) during the 2nd wk of bed rest. Leg and whole body lean mass decreased after bed rest (P < 0.05). Serum cortisol, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, and testosterone values did not change. Arteriovenous model calculations based on the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine in five subjects revealed a 50% decrease in muscle protein synthesis (PS; P < 0.03). Fractional PS by tracer incorporation into muscle protein also decreased by 46% (P < 0.05). The decrease in PS was related to a corresponding decrease in the sum of intracellular amino acid appearance from protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P < 0.01). Neither model-derived nor whole body values for protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

  20. PERSISTENCE OF LYMPHOCYTES WITH DECENTRIC CHROMOSOMES FOLLOWING WHOLE-BODY X IRRADIATION OF MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-six male C57B1/6 mice were whole-body x-irradiated with 3 Gy to generate lymphocytes with dicentric chromosomes to study the Persistence of these lymphocytes in the spleen and peripheral blood to estimate the lifespan of mature 8- and 7-cells. lood and spleen were removed ...

  1. Insulin and amino acids stimulate whole body protein synthesis in neonates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin and amino acids (AA) stimulate muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. To determine the effects of insulin and AA on whole body protein turnover, hyperinsulinemic (0 and 100 ng/(kg[0.66]/min))-euglycemic-AA clamps were performed during euaminoacidemia or hyperaminoacidemia in fasted 7-d-...

  2. Whole-body CO2 production as an index of the metabolic response to sepsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-body carbon dioxide (CO2) production (RaCO2) is an index of substrate oxidation and energy expenditure; therefore, it may provide information about the metabolic response to sepsis. Using stable isotope techniques, we determined RaCO2 and its relationship to protein and glucose metabolism in m...

  3. Optimization of Whole-body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature lacks information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in devel...

  4. Moving along the Mental Number Line: Interactions between Whole-Body Motion and Numerical Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia; Mast, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Active head turns to the left and right have recently been shown to influence numerical cognition by shifting attention along the mental number line. In the present study, we found that passive whole-body motion influences numerical cognition. In a random-number generation task (Experiment 1), leftward and downward displacement of participants

  5. Head Exposure to Cold during Whole-Body Cryostimulation: Influence on Thermal Response and Autonomic Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Bieuzen, François; Le Meur, Yann; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Volondat, Marielle; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on whole-body cryotherapy has hypothesized a major responsibility of head cooling in the physiological changes classically reported after a cryostimulation session. The aim of this experiment was to verify this hypothesis by studying the influence of exposing the head to cold during whole-body cryostimulation sessions, on the thermal response and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Over five consecutive days, two groups of 10 participants performed one whole-body cryostimulation session daily, in one of two different systems; one exposing the whole-body to cold (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC), and the other exposing the whole-body except the head (partial-body cryostimulation, PBC).10 participants constituted a control group (CON) not receiving any cryostimulation. In order to isolate the head-cooling effect on recorded variables, it was ensured that the WBC and PBC systems induced the same decrease in skin temperature for all body regions (mean decrease over the 5 exposures: -8.6°C±1.3°C and -8.3±0.7°C for WBC and PBC, respectively), which persisted up to 20-min after the sessions (P20). The WBC sessions caused an almost certain decrease in tympanic temperature from Pre to P20 (-0.28 ±0.11°C), while it only decreased at P20 (-0.14±0.05°C) after PBC sessions. Heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-8.6%) and WBC (-12.3%) sessions. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF) were very likely to almost certainly increased after PBC (RMSSD:+49.1%, HF: +123.3%) and WBC (RMSSD: +38.8%, HF:+70.3%). Plasma norepinephrine concentration was likely increased in similar proportions after PBC and WBC, but only after the first session. Both cryostimulation techniques stimulated the ANS with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation from the first to the fifth session and in slightly greater proportion with WBC than PBC. The main result of this study indicates that the head exposure to cold during whole-body cryostimulation may not be the main factor responsible for the effects of cryostimulation on the ANS. PMID:25915642

  6. Whole body protein kinetics during hypocaloric and normocaloric feeding in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Optimal feeding of critically ill patients in the ICU is controversial. Existing guidelines rest on rather weak evidence. Whole body protein kinetics may be an attractive technique for assessing optimal protein intake. In this study, critically ill patients were investigated during hypocaloric and normocaloric IV nutrition. Methods Neurosurgical patients on mechanical ventilation (n?=?16) were studied during a 48-hour period. In random order 50% and 100% of measured energy expenditure was given as IV nutrition during 24hours, corresponding to hypocaloric and normocaloric nutrition, respectively. At the end of each period, whole body protein turnover was measured using d5-phenylalanine and 13C-leucine tracers. Results The phenylalanine tracer indicated that whole-body protein synthesis was lower during hypocaloric feeding, while whole-body protein degradation and amino acid oxidation were unaltered, which resulted in a more negative protein balance, namely ?1.9??2.1 versus ?0.7??1.3mg phenylalanine/kg/h (P?=?0.014). The leucine tracer indicated that whole body protein synthesis and degradation and amino acid oxidation were unaltered, but the protein balance was negative during hypocaloric feeding, namely ?0.3??0.5 versus 0.6??0.5mg leucine/kg/h (P?

  7. Variant and invariant features characterizing natural and reverse whole-body pointing movements.

    PubMed

    Chiovetto, Enrico; Patan, Laura; Pozzo, Thierry

    2012-05-01

    Previous investigations showed that kinematics and muscle activity associated with natural whole-body movements along the gravity direction present modular organizations encoding specific aspects relative to both the motor plans and the motor programmes underlying movement execution. It is, however, still unknown whether such modular structures characterize also the reverse movements, when the displacement of a large number of joints is required to take the whole body back to a standing initial posture. To study what motor patterns are conserved across the reversal of movement direction, principal component analysis and non-negative matrix factorization were therefore applied, respectively, to the time series describing the temporal evolution of the elevation angles associated with all the body links and to the electromyographic signals of both natural and reverse whole-body movements. Results revealed that elevation angles were highly co-varying in time and that despite some differences in the global parameters characterizing the different movements (indicating differences in high-level variable associated with the selected motor plans), the level of joint co-variation did not change across movement direction. In contrast, muscle organization of the forward whole-body pointing tasks was found to be different with respect to that characterizing the reverse movements. Such results agree with previous findings, according to which the central nervous system exploits, dependently on the direction of motion, different motor plans for the execution of whole-body movements. However, in addition, this study shows how such motor plans are translated into different muscle strategies that equivalently assure a high level of co-variation in the joint space. PMID:22370741

  8. An information theoretic view of the scheduling problem in whole-body CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-03-01

    Emerging whole-body imaging technologies push computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) to scale up to a whole-body level, which involves multiple organs or anatomical structure. To be exploited in this paper is the fact that the various tasks in whole-body CAD are often highly dependent (e.g., the localization of the femur heads strongly predicts the position of the iliac bifurcation of the aorta). One way to effectively employ task dependency is to schedule the tasks such that outputs of some tasks are used to guide the others. In this sense, optimal task scheduling is key to improve overall performance of a whole-body CAD system. In this paper, we propose a method for task scheduling that is optimal in an information-theoretic sense. The central idea is to schedule tasks in such an order that each operation achieves maximum expected information gain over all the tasks. The formulation embeds two intuitive principles: (1) a task with higher confidence tends to be scheduled earlier; (2) a task with higher predictive power for other tasks tends to be scheduled earlier. More specifically, task dependency is modeled by conditional probability; the outcome of each task is assumed to be probabilistic as well; and the objective function is based on the reduction of the summed conditional entropy over all tasks. The validation is carried out on a challenging CAD problem, multi-organ localization in whole-body CT. Compared to unscheduled and ad hoc scheduled organ detection/localization, our scheduled execution achieves higher accuracy with much less computation time.

  9. Acute Whole-Body Cooling for Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Brendon P; Casa, Douglas J; Ganio, Matthew S; Lopez, Rebecca M; Yeargin, Susan W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess existing original research addressing the efficiency of whole-body cooling modalities in the treatment of exertional hyperthermia. Data Sources: During April 2007, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Reviews databases as well as ProQuest for theses and dissertations to identify research studies evaluating whole-body cooling treatments without limits. Key words were cooling, cryotherapy, water immersion, cold-water immersion, ice-water immersion, icing, fanning, bath, baths, cooling modality, heat illness, heat illnesses, exertional heatstroke, exertional heat stroke, heat exhaustion, hyperthermia, hyperthermic, hyperpyrexia, exercise, exertion, running, football, military, runners, marathoner, physical activity, marathoning, soccer, and tennis. Data Synthesis: Two independent reviewers graded each study on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Seven of 89 research articles met all inclusion criteria and a minimum score of 4 out of 10 on the PEDro scale. Conclusions: After an extensive and critical review of the available research on whole-body cooling for the treatment of exertional hyperthermia, we concluded that ice-water immersion provides the most efficient cooling. Further research comparing whole-body cooling modalities is needed to identify other acceptable means. When ice-water immersion is not possible, continual dousing with water combined with fanning the patient is an alternative method until more advanced cooling means can be used. Until future investigators identify other acceptable whole-body cooling modalities for exercise-induced hyperthermia, ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion are the methods proven to have the fastest cooling rates. PMID:19180223

  10. Vibrational stabilization of cold molecules using a phase coherent train of ultrashort pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pe'Er, Avi; Shapiro, Evgeny; Stowe, Matthew C.; Shapiro, Moshe; Ye, Jun

    2007-06-01

    Ultracold molecules can be created from atoms by Feshbach resonance techniques. While these molecules are in the electronic ground state, they are highly excited vibrationally. As a result, these molecules are unstable due to virational quenching. We present a general and highly efficient scheme for vibration stabilization using a coherent train of weak pump-dump pairs of shaped ultrashort pulses to perform narrow-band Raman transitions between vibrational levels. The use of weak pulses permits an analytic description within the framework of coherent control in the perturbative regime, while coherent accumulation of many pulse pairs enables near unity transfer efficiency with a high spectral selectivity, thus forming a powerful combination of pump-dump control schemes and the precision of the frequency comb. The feasibility and robustness of this concept is verified by realistic simulations of the molecular dynamics.

  11. Resistance Training and Vibration Improve Muscle Strength and Functional Capacity in Female Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Elham; Mostahfezian, Mina; Etemadifar, Masoud; Zafari, Ardeshir

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an eight-week progressive resistance training and vibration program on strength and ambulatory function in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods Twenty-Four female MS patients with the following demographics: age 27-45 years, and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) 2-4, participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups. The exercise group (n = 12) trained according to a progressive program, mainly consisting of resistance training and vibration, three times a week for eight weeks and compared with subjects in the control group (n = 12) that received no intervention. Subjects completed one set of 5-12 reps at%50-70 maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). After 5-10 minutes rest, six postures on plate vibration were done. Isotonic MVC of knee extensors, abduction of the scapula and downward rotation of the scapular girdle muscle groups were predicted by using the Brzycki formula. Right leg balance (RLB), left leg balance (LLB), and walking speed (10-Meter Walk Test) were assessed before and after the training program. Descriptive statistics and Co-variance were used for analyzing data. Results After eight weeks of training the exercise group showed significant increase in MVC of Knee extensors (32.3%), Abduction of the scapula (24.7%) and Downward Rotation Scapular (39.1%) muscle groups, RLB (33.5%), LLB (9.5%), and decrease in 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) (9.3%), (P<0.05). Conclusions The results of this study indicated this type of training can cause improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:23342227

  12. Optimization of Training Sets For Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns From Vibrating Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An artificial neural network is disclosed that processes holography generated characteristic pattern of vibrating structures along with finite-element models. The present invention provides for a folding operation for conditioning training sets for optimally training forward-neural networks to process characteristic fringe pattern. The folding pattern increases the sensitivity of the feed-forward network for detecting changes in the characteristic pattern The folding routine manipulates input pixels so as to be scaled according to the location in an intensity range rather than the position in the characteristic pattern.

  13. Whole-body fat oxidation increases more by prior exercise than overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hall, Ulrika; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body fat oxidation kinetics after prior exercise with overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes. Thirteen highly trained athletes (9 men and 4 women; maximal oxygen uptake: 66 ± 1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 identical submaximal incremental tests on a cycle ergometer using a cross-over design. A control test (CON) was performed 3 h after a standardized breakfast, a fasting test (FAST) 12 h after a standardized evening meal, and a postexercise test (EXER) after standardized breakfast, endurance exercise, and 2 h fasting recovery. The test consisted of 3 min each at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rates were measured through indirect calorimetry. During CON, maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.51 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) compared with 0.69 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) in FAST (P < 0.01), and 0.89 ± 0.05 g·min(-1) in EXER (P < 0.01). Across all intensities, EXER was significantly higher than FAST and FAST was higher than CON (P < 0.01). Blood insulin levels were lower and free fatty acid and cortisol levels were higher at the start of EXER compared with CON and FAST (P < 0.05). Plasma nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolomics showed similar changes in both EXER and FAST, including increased levels of fatty acids and succinate. In conclusion, prior exercise significantly increases whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with overnight fasting. Already high rates of maximal fat oxidation in elite endurance athletes were increased by approximately 75% after prior exercise and fasting recovery. PMID:26988766

  14. FMS Scores Change With Performers' Knowledge of the Grading Criteria-Are General Whole-Body Movement Screens Capturing "Dysfunction"?

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-11-01

    Frost, DM, Beach, TAC, Callaghan, JP, and McGill, SM. FMS scores change with performers' knowledge of the grading criteria-Are general whole-body movement screens capturing "dysfunction"? J Strength Cond Res 29(11): 3037-3044, 2015-Deficits in joint mobility and stability could certainly impact individuals' Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores; however, it is also plausible that the movement patterns observed are influenced by the performers' knowledge of the grading criteria. Twenty-one firefighters volunteered to participate, and their FMS scores were graded before and immediately after receiving knowledge of the movement patterns required to achieve a perfect score on the FMS. Standardized verbal instructions were used to administer both screens, and the participants were not provided with any coaching or feedback. Time-synchronized sagittal and frontal plane videos were used to grade the FMS. The firefighters significantly (p < 0.001) improved their FMS scores from 14.1 (1.8) to 16.7 (1.9) when provided with knowledge pertaining to the specific grading criteria. Significant improvements (p < 0.05) were also noted in the deep squat (1.4 [0.7]-2.0 [0.6]), hurdle step (2.1 [0.4]-2.4 [0.5]), in-line lunge (2.1 [0.4]-2.7 [0.5]), and shoulder mobility (1.8 [0.8]-2.4 [0.7]) tests. Because a knowledge of a task's grading criteria can alter a general whole-body movement screen score, FMS or otherwise, observed changes may not solely reflect "dysfunction." The instant that individuals are provided with coaching and feedback regarding their performance on a particular task, the task may lose its utility to evaluate the transfer of training or predict musculoskeletal injury risk. PMID:26502271

  15. Image reconstruction for the new simultaneous whole-body openPET/CT geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yannan; Tashima, Hideaki; Obi, Takashi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-03-01

    A new simultaneous whole-body PET/CT imaging geometry based on the OpenPET imaging structure has been proposed. In this geometry, multiple x-ray sources are adopted to implement the same field of view at the exactly same time for the simultaneous PET and CT imaging process. In this paper, we conducted further quantitative analysis to the new geometry by computer simulation. Then we examined and compared the iterative and analytical algorithms in terms of image quality, regarding the features of the geometry. Results indicated better images were acquired with the iterative algorithms under this geometry for the whole-body range rather than the analytical method. Improved reconstruction images were still expected with generalization of modified algorithm for the proposed geometry. Technical implementation of the geometry in clinical application should also be further considered.

  16. Design, fabrication and acceptance testing of a zero gravity whole body shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, E. A.; Lenda, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Recent research and development programs have established the ability of the zero gravity whole body shower to maintain a comfortable environment in which the crewman can safely cleanse and dry the body. The purpose of this program was to further advance the technology of whole body bathing and to demonstrate technological readiness including in-flight maintenance by component replacement for flight applications. Three task efforts of this program are discussed. Conceptual designs and system tradeoffs were accomplished in task 1. Task 2 involved the formulation of preliminary and final designs for the shower, while task 3 included the fabrication and test of the shower assembly. Particular attention is paid to the evaluation and correction of test anomalies during the final phase of the program.

  17. A comparison of four commercial systems used to measure whole-body electrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Smye, S W; Sutcliffe, J; Pitt, E

    1993-11-01

    Four commercial whole-body impedance measuring systems (Holtain, RJL, Bodystat and EZcomp) were compared on two separate occasions for a group of normal subjects. The first set of readings in 21 subjects demonstrated a significant difference of approximately 6% between the Holtain measurement and the higher readings from the Bodystat or RJL systems. The differences between the RJL and Bodystat readings were much less (mean difference 0.6%). Similar differences between the Holtain and EZcomp or Bodystat measurements were demonstrated on a second occasion for a group of 11 subjects. Given that these devices operate by supplying a constant current, the differences may be explained by the results from a series of measurements on a whole-body resistance simulator in which it appears that for skin contact resistance > 200 omega the Holtain device is unable to sustain a constant current and therefore records a lower impedance than the true value. PMID:8274971

  18. MRI compatible small animal monitoring and trigger system for whole body scanners.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Pfeiffer, Norman; Krumbein, Ines; Herrmann, Lutz; Reichenbach, Jrgen R

    2014-03-01

    Performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments with small animals requires continuous monitoring of vital parameters, especially the respiration rate. Clinical whole-body MR scanners represent an attractive option for preclinical imaging as dedicated animal scanners are cost-intensive in both investment and maintenance, thus limiting their availability. Even though impressive image quality is achievable with clinical MR systems in combination with special coils, their built-in physiologic monitoring and triggering units are often not suited for small animal imaging. In this work, we present a simple, MRI compatible low cost solution to monitor the respiration and heart rate of small animals in a clinical whole-body MR scanner. The recording and processing of the biosignals as well as the optimisation of the respiratory trigger generation is decribed. Additionally rat and mouse in-vivo MRI experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the monitoring and respiratory trigger system in suppressing motion artifacts. PMID:23962379

  19. Animal physiology. Whole-body endothermy in a mesopelagic fish, the opah, Lampris guttatus.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Nicholas C; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Dewar, Heidi; Hyde, John R

    2015-05-15

    Endothermy (the metabolic production and retention of heat to warm body temperature above ambient) enhances physiological function, and whole-body endothermy generally sets mammals and birds apart from other animals. Here, we describe a whole-body form of endothermy in a fish, the opah (Lampris guttatus), that produces heat through the constant "flapping" of wing-like pectoral fins and minimizes heat loss through a series of counter-current heat exchangers within its gills. Unlike other fish, opah distribute warmed blood throughout the body, including to the heart, enhancing physiological performance and buffering internal organ function while foraging in the cold, nutrient-rich waters below the ocean thermocline. PMID:25977549

  20. Clinical examination or whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: the Holy Grail of spondyloarthritis imaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging allows acquisition of diagnostic images in the shortest scan time, leading to better patient compliance and artifact-free images. Methods of clinical examination of the anterior chest wall joints vary between physician groups and consideration of the rules of rib motion is suggested. The type of joint and its synovial lining may also aid imaging/clinical correlation. This well-written study by experts in the field with a standardized design and methodology allows good scientific analysis and suggests the advantages of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in anterior chest wall imaging. Selection of clinical examination criteria and specific joints may have had an influence on the study results and the lack of association reported. PMID:22380535

  1. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion

    PubMed Central

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

  2. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion.

    PubMed

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-Ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

  3. Hepatic visualization on iodine-131 whole-body thyroid cancer scans

    SciTech Connect

    Ziessman, H.A.; Bahar, H.; Fahey, F.H.; Dubiansky, V.

    1987-09-01

    This study examines the frequency and significance of diffuse liver uptake on /sup 131/I whole-body thyroid cancer scans. Sixty whole-body scans on 27 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were reviewed. Liver uptake was quantitated on another 21 studies (16 patients). Diffuse hepatic uptake was seen in 44% of patients and 35% of all the studies. It correlated best with the /sup 131/I dose administered (r = 0.733) and the product of the /sup 131/I percent radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and administered dose (r = 0.656), less well with the serum /sup 131/I protein bound iodine (r = 0.494) and the RAIU. This study demonstrates that liver visualization is more common than generally appreciated and is related to the /sup 131/I dose and indices of thyroid function although other factors may also play a role in liver visualization.

  4. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) scanner for whole-body small animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Taruttis, Adrian; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2009-11-23

    A major difficulty arising from whole-body optoacoustic imaging is the long acquisition times associated with recording signals from multiple spatial projections. The acquired signals are also generally weak and the signal-to-noise-ratio is low, problems often solved by signal averaging, which complicates acquisition and increases acquisition times to an extent that makes many in vivo applications challenging or even impossible. Herein we present a fast acquisition multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) scanner for whole-body visualization of molecular markers in small animals. Multi-wavelength illumination offers the possibility to resolve exogenously administered fluorescent probes, biomarkers, and other intrinsic and exogenous chromophores. The system performance is determined in phantom experiments involving molecular probes and validated by imaging of small animals of various scales. PMID:19997381

  5. Development of an Ergonomics Checklist for Investigation of Work-Related Whole-Body Disorders in Farming - AWBA: Agricultural Whole-Body Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Y K; Lee, S J; Lee, K S; Kim, G R; Kim, D M

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have been using various ergonomic tools to study occupational musculoskeletal diseases in industrial contexts. However, in agricultural work, where the work environment is poorer and the socio-psychological stress is high due to the high labor intensities of the industry, current research efforts have been scarce, and the number of available tools is small. In our preliminary studies, which focused on a limited number of body parts and other working elements, we developed separate evaluation tools for the upper and lower extremities. The current study was conducted to develop a whole-body ergonomic assessment tool for agricultural work that integrates the existing assessment tools for lower and upper extremities developed in the preliminary studies and to verify the relevance of the integrated assessment tool. To verify the relevance of the Agricultural Whole-Body Assessment (AWBA) tool, we selected 50 different postures that occur frequently in agricultural work. Our results showed that the AWBA-determined risk levels were similar to the subjective risk levels determined by experts. In addition, as the risk level increased, the average risk level increased to a similar extent. Moreover, the differences in risk levels between the AWBA and expert assessments were mostly smaller than the differences in risk levels between other assessment tools and the expert assessments in this study. In conclusion, the AWBA tool developed in this study was demonstrated to be appropriate for use as a tool for assessing various postures commonly assumed in agricultural work. Moreover, we believe that our verification of the assessment tools will contribute to the enhancement of the quality of activities designed to prevent and control work-related musculoskeletal diseases in other industries. PMID:26710578

  6. MONICA: A Compact, Portable Dual Gamma Camera System for Mouse Whole-Body Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Karkareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named MONICA for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed looking up through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV 10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1-cm), 2.2-mm; sensitivity, 149 cps/MBq (5.5 cps/?Ci); energy resolution (FWHM), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2 = 0.99 for 0185 MBq (05 mCi) in the field-of-view (FOV); spatial uniformity, < 3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-minute images acquired throughout the 168-hour study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g. limited imaging space, portability, and, potentially, cost are important. PMID:20346864

  7. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Romy S.; Selen, Luc P. J.; Medendorp, W. Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques) or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion. PMID:26720413

  8. MONICA: a compact, portable dual gamma camera system for mouse whole-body imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Choyke, Peter L.; Xia, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.

    2010-04-01

    Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named "MONICA" for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed ?looking up? through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV?10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1 cm), 2.2 mm; sensitivity, 149 cps (counts per seconds)/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM, full width at half maximum), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2=0.99 for 0?185 MBq (0?5 mCi) in the field of view (FOV); spatial uniformity, <3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-min images acquired throughout the 168-h study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g., limited imaging space, portability and, potentially, cost are important.

  9. Whole Body Screening Using High-Temperature Superconducting MR Volume Resonators: Mice Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, In-Tsang; Yang, Hong-Chang; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2012-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) surface resonators have been used as a low loss RF receiver resonator for improving magnetic resonance imaging image quality. However, the application of HTS surface resonators is significantly limited by their filling factor. To maximize the filling factor, it is desirable to have the RF resonator wrapped around the sample so that more nuclear magnetic dipoles can contribute to the signal. In this study, a whole new Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu2O3 (Bi-2223) superconducting saddle resonator (width of 5 cm and length of 8 cm) was designed for the magnetic resonance image of a mouse's whole body in Bruker 3 T MRI system. The experiment was conducted with a professionally-made copper saddle resonator and a Bi-2223 saddle resonator to show the difference. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with the HTS saddle resonator at 77 K was 2.1 and 2 folds higher than that of the copper saddle resonator at 300 K for a phantom and an in-vivo mice whole body imaging. Testing results were in accordance with predicted ones, and the difference between the predicted SNR gains and measured SNR gains were 2.4%?2.7%. In summary, with this HTS saddle system, a mouse's whole body can be imaged in one scan and could reach a high SNR due to a 2 folds SNR gain over the professionally-made prototype of copper saddle resonator at 300 K. The use of HTS saddle resonator not only improves SNR but also enables a mouse's whole body screen in one scan. PMID:22493666

  10. Whole body and abdominal lipolytic sensitivity to epinephrine is suppressed in upper body obese women.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, J F; Klein, S

    2000-06-01

    We measured whole body and regional lipolytic and adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) sensitivity to epinephrine in 8 lean [body mass index (BMI): 21 +/- 1 kg/m(2)] and 10 upper body obese (UBO) women (BMI: 38 +/- 1 kg/m(2); waist circumference >100 cm). All subjects underwent a four-stage epinephrine infusion (0.00125, 0.005, 0.0125, and 0.025 microgram. kg fat-free mass(-1). min(-1)) plus pancreatic hormonal clamp. Whole body free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol rates of appearance (R(a)) in plasma were determined by stable isotope tracer methodology. Abdominal and femoral subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolytic activity was determined by microdialysis and (133)Xe clearance methods. Basal whole body FFA R(a) and glycerol R(a) were both greater (P < 0.05) in obese (449 +/- 31 and 220 +/- 12 micromol/min, respectively) compared with lean subjects (323 +/- 44 and 167 +/- 21 micromol/min, respectively). Epinephrine infusion significantly increased FFA R(a) and glycerol R(a) in lean (71 +/- 21 and 122 +/- 52%, respectively; P < 0.05) but not obese subjects (7 +/- 6 and 39 +/- 10%, respectively; P = not significant). In addition, lipolytic and ATBF sensitivity to epinephrine was blunted in abdominal but not femoral subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese compared with lean subjects. We conclude that whole body lipolytic sensitivity to epinephrine is blunted in women with UBO because of decreased sensitivity in upper body but not lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:10827018

  11. Whole-body CO2 production as an index of the metabolic response to sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Christina C; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K; Bandi, Venkata; Jahoor, Farook

    2009-07-01

    Whole-body carbon dioxide (CO2) production (RaCO2) is an index of substrate oxidation and energy expenditure; therefore, it may provide information about the metabolic response to sepsis. Using stable isotope techniques, we determined RaCO2 and its relationship to protein and glucose metabolism in medical patients with sepsis and septic shock. Whole-body CO2 production, an index of basal metabolic rate, was measured in 13 patients with sepsis or septic shock and 7 healthy controls using an i.v. infusion of 13C-sodium bicarbonate. Endogenous leucine flux, leucine oxidation, and nonoxidative disposal, indices of whole-body protein breakdown, catabolism, and synthesis, were measured with an infusion of 1-13C-leucine, and glucose production and clearance were measured with an infusion of 2H2-glucose. There was no difference in mean RaCO2 between the patients and controls, but the patients had a wider range of values. The four patients with the lowest RaCO2 died. Protein breakdown and synthesis and glucose production were significantly faster in patients than in controls (P < 0.05). Whole-body CO2 production was positively correlated with protein breakdown (P = 0.001), protein synthesis (P < 0.01), and glucose clearance (P = 0.01). Patients with low metabolic rates (mean-2 SDs of controls) had slower protein breakdown and decreased glucose clearance compared with patients with high metabolic rates (mean + 2 SDs of controls). Septic patients were both hypometabolic and hypermetabolic. The correlation between RaCO2 and protein breakdown and synthesis as well as glucose clearance suggests that RaCO2 can provide information about substrate metabolism in septic patients. Because hypometabolism was associated with mortality and changes in protein and glucose metabolism in septic patients, it may be a useful clinical indicator of an inadequate metabolic response. PMID:19060787

  12. Localized NMR Spectroscopy with a 1.5 T Whole- Body Imager Using CODEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Wulf-Ingo; Lutz, Otto; Pfeffer, Markus

    1991-05-01

    With a whole-body NMR imager working at 1.5 T localized 1H and 31P spectra were obtained using the CODEX sequence. Examples are presented: With ethanol 'H spectra the resolution, stability, and sensitivity are documented. Human in vivo investigations of the yellow bone marrow of (13 mm)3 volume elements show well resolved spectra with a good signal-to-noise ratio. An example for 31P spectroscopy is also given

  13. A biomimetic framework for coordinating and controlling whole body movements in humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Morasso, Pietro; Rea, Francesco; Mohan, Vishwanathan

    2013-01-01

    An integrated model for the coordination of whole body movements of a humanoid robot with a compliant ankle similar to the human case is described. It includes a synergy formation part, which takes into account the motor redundancy of the body model, and an intermittent controller, which stabilizes in a robust way postural sway movements, thus combining the hip strategy with ankle strategy. PMID:24110934

  14. Evaluation of Radio-Protective Effect of Melatonin on Whole Body Irradiation Induced Liver Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazale; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of melatonin against radiation-induced oxidative injury to the rat liver after whole body irradiation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study,thirty-two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 only received melatonin (30 mg/kg on the first day and 30 mg/kg on the following days), group 3 only received whole body gamma irradiation of 10 Gy, and group 4 received 30 mg/kg melatonin 30 minutes prior to radiation plus whole body irradiation of 10 Gy plus 30 mg/kg melatonin daily through intraperitoneal (IP) injection for three days after irradiation. Three days after irradiation, all rats were sacrificed and their livers were excised to measure the biochemical parameters malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Each data point represents mean standard error on the mean (SEM) of at least eight animals per group. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare different groups, followed by Tukeys multiple comparison tests (p<0.05). Results: The results demonstrated that whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage by increasing MDA levels and decreasing GSH levels. Hepatic MDA levels in irradiated rats that were treated with melatonin (30 mg/kg) were significantly decreased, while GSH levels were significantly increased, when compared to either of the control groups or the melatonin only group. Conclusion: The data suggest that administration of melatonin before and after irradiation may reduce liver damage caused by gamma irradiation. PMID:23577309

  15. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Marchiori, Edson; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations. PMID:25987752

  16. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art*

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Marchiori, Edson; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations. PMID:25987752

  17. Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Zhang, R.; Levine, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR was assessed using transfer function analysis. In normothermic and heat-stressed conditions, each subject breathed at a fixed rate (0. 25 Hz) while beat-by-beat HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were obtained. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature, HR, and forearm skin blood flow. Spectral analysis of HR and SBP revealed that the heat stress significantly reduced HR and SBP variability within the high-frequency range (0.2-0.3 Hz), reduced SBP variability within the low-frequency range (0.03-0.15 Hz), and increased the ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability (all P < 0.01). Transfer function gain analysis showed that the heat stress reduced dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR within the high-frequency range (from 1.04 +/- 0.06 to 0.54 +/- 0.6 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P < 0.001) without significantly affecting the gain in the low-frequency range (P = 0.63). These data suggest that whole body heating reduced high-frequency dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR associated with spontaneous changes in blood pressure. Reduced vagal baroreflex regulation of HR may contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance known to occur in humans during heat stress.

  18. Retrospective respiration-gated whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography of mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun; Chen, Wanyi; Maslov, Konstantin; Anastasio, Mark A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging technique that has a great potential for preclinical whole-body imaging. To date, most whole-body PAT systems require multiple laser shots to generate one cross-sectional image, yielding a frame rate of <1 Hz. Because a mouse breathes at up to 3 Hz, without proper gating mechanisms, acquired images are susceptible to motion artifacts. Here, we introduce, for the first time to our knowledge, retrospective respiratory gating for whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography. This new method involves simultaneous capturing of the animal's respiratory waveform during photoacoustic data acquisition. The recorded photoacoustic signals are sorted and clustered according to the respiratory phase, and an image of the animal at each respiratory phase is reconstructed subsequently from the corresponding cluster. The new method was tested in a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system with a hardware-limited frame rate of 0.625 Hz. After respiratory gating, we observed sharper vascular and anatomical images at different positions of the animal body. The entire breathing cycle can also be visualized at 20 frames/cycle.

  19. Retrospective respiration-gated whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography of mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jun; Chen, Wanyi; Maslov, Konstantin; Anastasio, Mark A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging technique that has a great potential for preclinical whole-body imaging. To date, most whole-body PAT systems require multiple laser shots to generate one cross-sectional image, yielding a frame rate of <1??Hz. Because a mouse breathes at up to 3Hz, without proper gating mechanisms, acquired images are susceptible to motion artifacts. Here, we introduce, for the first time to our knowledge, retrospective respiratory gating for whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography. This new method involves simultaneous capturing of the animals respiratory waveform during photoacoustic data acquisition. The recorded photoacoustic signals are sorted and clustered according to the respiratory phase, and an image of the animal at each respiratory phase is reconstructed subsequently from the corresponding cluster. The new method was tested in a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system with a hardware-limited frame rate of 0.625Hz. After respiratory gating, we observed sharper vascular and anatomical images at different positions of the animal body. The entire breathing cycle can also be visualized at 20??frames/cycle. PMID:24395586

  20. Therapeutic effects of whole-body devices applying pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF): a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hug, Kerstin; Rsli, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) delivered by whole-body mats are promoted in many countries for a wide range of therapeutic applications and for enhanced well-being. However, neither the therapeutic efficacy nor the potential health hazards caused by these mats have been systematically evaluated. We conducted a systematic review of trials investigating the therapeutic effects of low-frequency PEMF devices. We were interested in all health outcomes addressed so far in randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind trials. In total, 11 trials were identified. They were focused on osteoarthritis of the knee (3 trials) or the cervical spine (1), fibromyalgia (1), pain perception (2), skin ulcer healing (1), multiple sclerosis-related fatigue (2), or heart rate variability and well-being (1). The sample sizes of the trials ranged from 12 to 71 individuals. The observation period lasted 12 weeks at maximum, and the applied magnetic flux densities ranged from 3.4 to 200?T. In some trials sporadic positive effects on health were observed. However, independent confirmation of such singular findings was lacking. We conclude that the scientific evidence for therapeutic effects of whole-body PEMF devices is insufficient. Acute adverse effects have not been reported. However, adverse effects occurring after long-term application have not been studied so far. In summary, the therapeutic use of low-frequency whole-body PEMF devices cannot be recommended without more scientific evidence from high-quality, double-blind trials. PMID:21938735

  1. Whole-body acoel regeneration is controlled by Wnt and Bmp-Admp signaling.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Mansi; Mazza-Curll, Kathleen L; van Wolfswinkel, Josien C; Reddien, Peter W

    2014-05-19

    Whole-body regeneration is widespread in the Metazoa, yet little is known about how underlying molecular mechanisms compare across phyla. Acoels are an enigmatic phylum of invertebrate worms that can be highly informative about many questions in bilaterian evolution, including regeneration. We developed the three-banded panther worm, Hofstenia miamia, as a new acoelomorph model system for molecular studies of regeneration. Hofstenia were readily cultured, with accessible embryos, juveniles, and adults for experimentation. We developed molecular resources and tools for Hofstenia, including a transcriptome and robust systemic RNAi. We report the identification of molecular mechanisms that promote whole-body regeneration in Hofstenia. Wnt signaling controls regeneration of the anterior-posterior axis, and Bmp-Admp signaling controls regeneration of the dorsal-ventral axis. Perturbation of these pathways resulted in regeneration-abnormal phenotypes involving axial feature duplication, such as the regeneration of two heads following Wnt perturbation or the regeneration of ventral cells in place of dorsal ones following bmp or admp RNAi. Hofstenia regenerative mechanisms are strikingly similar to those guiding regeneration in planarians. However, phylogenetic analyses using the Hofstenia transcriptome support an early branching position for acoels among bilaterians, with the last common ancestor of acoels and planarians being the ancestor of the Bilateria. Therefore, these findings identify similar whole-body regeneration mechanisms in animals separated by more than 550 million years of evolution. PMID:24768051

  2. Whole body kinetics and dosimetry of I-123-{alpha}-methyltyrosine

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, D.; Langen, K.J.; Herzog, H.

    1995-05-01

    The synthetic amino acid L-3-[I-123]iodo-{alpha}-methyltyrosine (IMT) is currently under clinical evaluation for brain SPECT of cerebral gliomas. An accurate assessment of the radiation dose of this investigation is not yet available. Five male patients with cerebral glioma had ventral and dorsal whole body scans 15 1.5 h, 3 h and 5 h after injection of 370-550 MBq IMT. The bladder was voided prior to the scans and excreted radioactivity measured. The geometric mean of ventral and dorsal whole body cans was calculated. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn over brain, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestine, thyroid (blocked by perchlorate) and bladder. The ROI data were related to whole body counts and transferred to percentages of the injected dose with the excreted radioactivity taken into account. Based on these data the MIRD method was used to calculate the absorbed dose in various organs. IMT was rapidly eliminated by the kidneys (57{plus_minus}6% at 1,5 h, 70{plus_minus}4% at 3h and 79{plus_minus} at 5 h). The effective dose according to ICRP 60 was 7,67 {mu}Sv/MBq. At a recommended dose of 550 MBq IMT for brain-SPECT the effective dose is 4.2 mSv and thus in the range of routine nuclear medicine investigations.

  3. Segmental composition of whole-body impedance cardiogram estimated by computer simulations and clinical experiments.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, P K; Kbi, T; Hyttinen, J; Malmivuo, J

    2000-03-01

    Whole-body impedance cardiography (ICGWB) has been proposed as a feasible means of measuring cardiac output (CO). However, the source distribution of heart-related impedance variations in the whole body is not known. To establish how much of a signal originates in each segment of the body and what the contribution of each is to stroke volume (SV) in ICGWB, impedance in the extremities and trunk were investigated in 15 healthy volunteers. In addition, the theoretical measurement properties of ICGWB were studied using a computer model of the whole-body anatomy as a volume conductor. The model confirmed the expected result that most of the basal impedance originates from the extremities. Clinical experiments revealed that the heart-related amplitude variations in the ICGWB signal originate more evenly from various body segments, the trunk slightly more than the arms or legs. The heart-related ICGWB signal represents a weighted sum of segmental pulsatile events in the body yielding physiologically meaningful data on almost the whole circulatory system. PMID:10735977

  4. Eight-Week Vibration Training of the Elbow Flexors by Force Modulation: Effects on Dynamic and Isometric Strength.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Cardinale, Marco; Rabotti, Chiara; Beju, Bogdan; Mischi, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Xu, L, Cardinale, M, Rabotti, C, Beju, B, and Mischi, M. Eight-Week vibration training of the elbow flexors by force modulation: effects on dynamic and isometric strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 739-746, 2016-Vibration exercise (VE) has been suggested as an effective method to improve strength and power capabilities. However, the underlying mechanisms in response to VE are still unclear. A pulley-like VE system, characterized by sinusoidal force applications has been developed and tested for proof of concept in a previous study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of such force modulation on elbow flexors strength and compare it with conventional methods. Forty subjects were randomly divided into 4 groups of 10: the vibration group (VG), the no-vibration group (NVG), the dumbbell group (DG), and the control group (CG). Biceps curl exercises were used to train the elbow flexors 2 times a week for 8 weeks. Subjects in the VG were trained using a ramp-up baseline with superimposed 30 Hz sinusoidal vibration whereas the subjects in the NVG were trained using the same baseline but without vibration. Subjects in the DG were trained using dumbbells, and the subjects in the CG were not trained. The isometric break force (IBF) and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of the subject's dominant arm were assessed before and after the 8-week training period. The VG achieved 1RM improvement (22.7%) larger than the NVG (10.8%) and comparable with the DG (22.3%). Differences in IBF gains following the training period among the training groups were found to be not significant. Our results support the inclusion of the proposed VE in strength training programs aimed at improving dynamic strength on the elbow flexors. PMID:26332777

  5. A three-dimensional tunnel model for calculation of train-induced ground vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, J. A.; Hunt, H. E. M.

    2006-07-01

    The frequency range of interest for ground vibration from underground urban railways is approximately 20 to 100 Hz. For typical soils, the wavelengths of ground vibration in this frequency range are of the order of the spacing of train axles, the tunnel diameter and the distance from the tunnel to nearby building foundations. For accurate modelling, the interactions between these entities therefore have to be taken into account. This paper describes an analytical three-dimensional model for the dynamics of a deep underground railway tunnel of circular cross-section. The tunnel is conceptualised as an infinitely long, thin cylindrical shell surrounded by soil of infinite radial extent. The soil is modelled by means of the wave equations for an elastic continuum. The coupled problem is solved in the frequency domain by Fourier decomposition into ring modes circumferentially and a Fourier transform into the wavenumber domain longitudinally. Numerical results for the tunnel and soil responses due to a normal point load applied to the tunnel invert are presented. The tunnel model is suitable for use in combination with track models to calculate the ground vibration due to excitation by running trains and to evaluate different track configurations.

  6. Segmentation and Visual Analysis of Whole-Body Mouse Skeleton microSPECT

    PubMed Central

    Khmelinskii, Artem; Groen, Harald C.; Baiker, Martin; de Jong, Marion; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability). The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) and 99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate (99mTc-HDP) were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs) of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR) algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.512.1 to 2.62.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for incomplete data (large chunks of skeleton missing) and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT/CT cross-sectional mouse data. PMID:23152834

  7. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-01

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (˜15-20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study, was employed along with extensive Monte Carlo simulations and an initial clinical 18F-deoxyglucose patient dataset to validate and demonstrate the potential of the proposed statistical estimation methods. Both simulated and clinical results suggest that hybrid regression in the context of whole-body Patlak Ki imaging considerably reduces MSE without compromising high CNR. Alternatively, for a given CNR, hybrid regression enables larger reductions than OLS in the number of dynamic frames per bed, allowing for even shorter acquisitions of ˜30 min, thus further contributing to the clinical adoption of the proposed framework. Compared to the SUV approach, whole-body parametric imaging can provide better tumor quantification, and can act as a complement to SUV, for the task of tumor detection.

  8. Dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

    PubMed Central

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~1520cm) of a single bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study, was employed along with extensive Monte Carlo simulations and an initial clinical FDG patient dataset to validate and demonstrate the potential of the proposed statistical estimation methods. Both simulated and clinical results suggest that hybrid regression in the context of whole-body Patlak Ki imaging considerably reduces MSE without compromising high CNR. Alternatively, for a given CNR, hybrid regression enables larger reductions than OLS in the number of dynamic frames per bed, allowing for even shorter acquisitions of ~30min, thus further contributing to the clinical adoption of the proposed framework. Compared to the SUV approach, whole body parametric imaging can provide better tumor quantification, and can act as a complement to SUV, for the task of tumor detection. PMID:24080994

  9. Physical inactivity decreases whole body glutamine turnover independently from changes in proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Agostini, Francesco; Heer, Martina; Guarnieri, Gianfranco; Biolo, Gianni

    2008-01-01

    Glutamine synthesis and utilization are strictly linked to energy metabolism and physical activity. To investigate the interaction between bed rest and moderate energy restriction on whole body glutamine kinetics in healthy volunteers, we performed a four-period study in which each subject randomly underwent a bed rest or ambulatory 14 day period both in eucaloric or hypocaloric (?20% of energy requirement) conditions. Glutamine kinetics were measured by l-[5-15N]glutamine and l-[1-13C]leucine primed continuous infusions in the postabsorptive state and during a 3 h infusion of a glutamine-free amino acid mixture (0.13 g amino acids (kg lean body mass (LBM))?1 h?1). Bed rest decreased glutamine de novo synthesis in the postabsorptive state both in eucaloric (from 4.17 0.14 to 3.56 0.13 ?mol (kg LBM)?1 min?1; P < 0.001) and in hypocaloric (from 3.79 0.19 to 3.49 0.14 ?mol (kg LBM)?1 min?1; P < 0.001) conditions, independently of changes in whole body proteolysis. Bed rest did not affect glutamine clearance. We failed to detect either significant effects of energy intake or energy activity interactions on glutamine kinetics. Bed rest significantly decreased postabsorptive plasma glutamine concentrations (P < 0.05). Amino acid infusion increased glutamine de novo synthesis rate and plasma glutamine concentrations in all conditions, without significant effects of bed rest or energy levels. We conclude that inactivity is associated with decreased whole body glutamine availability due to down-regulated de novo synthesis. PMID:18669539

  10. Contralateral subtraction technique for detection of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scintigrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for assisting radiologists in the detection of asymmetric abnormalities on a single whole-body bone scintigram by applying a contralateral subtraction (CS) technique. Twenty whole-body bone scans including 107 abnormal lesions in anterior and/or posterior images (the number of lesions per case ranged from 1 to 16, mean 5.4) were used in this study. In our scheme, the original bone scan image was flipped horizontally to provide a mirror image. The mirror image was first rotated and shifted globally to match the original image approximately, and then was nonlinearly warped by use of an elastic matching technique in order to match the original image accurately. We applied a nonlinear lookup table to convert the difference in pixel values between the original and the warped images to new pixel values for a CS image, in order to enhance dark shadows at the locations of abnormal lesions where uptake of radioisotope was asymmetrically high, and to suppress light shadows of the lesions on the contralateral side. In addition, we applied a CAD scheme for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities by use of rule-based tests and sequential application of artificial neural networks with 25 image features extracted from the original and CS images. The performance of the CAD scheme, which was evaluated by a leave-one-case-out method, indicated an average sensitivity of 80.4 % with 3.8 false positives per case. This CAD scheme with the contralateral subtraction technique has the potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy and could be used for computerized identification of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scans.

  11. Whole body massage for reducing anxiety and stabilizing vital signs of patients in cardiac care unit

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Abasi, Ali; Rajabi-Beheshtabad, Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients admitted in coronary care units face various stressors. Ambiguity of future life conditions and unawareness of caring methods intensifies the patients’ anxiety and stress. This study was conducted to assess the effects of whole body massage on anxiety and vital signs of patients with acute coronary disorders. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 120 patients. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. The intervention group received a session of whole body massage and the control group received routine care. The levels of State, Trait and overall anxiety and vital signs were assessed in both groups before and after intervention. Independent sample t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square and Fischer exact tests were used for data analysis. Results: The baseline overall mean score of anxiety was 79.43±29.34 in the intervention group and was decreased to 50.38±20.35 after massage therapy (p=0.001). However, no significant changes were occurred in the overall mean anxiety in the control group during the study. The baseline diastolic blood pressure was 77.05±8.12 mmHg and was decreased to 72.18±9.19 mmHg after the intervention (p=0.004). Also, significant decreases were occurred in heart rate and respiration rate of intervention group after massage therapy (p=0.001). However, no significant changes were occurred in vital signs of the control group during the study. Conclusion: The results suggest that whole body massage was effective in reducing anxiety and stabilizing vital signs of patients with acute coronary disorders. PMID:25405113

  12. Effect of sway on image fidelity in whole-body digitizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corner, Brian D.; Hu, Anmin

    1998-03-01

    For 3D digitizers to be useful data collection tools in scientific and human factors engineering applications, the models created from scan data must match the original object very closely. Factors such as ambient light, characteristics of the object's surface, and object movement, among others can affect the quality of the image produced by any 3D digitizing system. Recently, Cyberware has developed a whole body digitizer for collecting data on human size and shape. With a digitizing time of about 15 seconds, the effect subject movement, or sway, on model fidelity is an important issue to be addressed. The effect of sway is best measured by comparing the dimensions of an object of known geometry to the model of the same object captured by the digitizer. Since it is difficult to know the geometry of a human body accurately, it was decided to compare an object of simple geometry to its digitized counterpart. Preliminary analysis showed that a single cardboard tube would provide the best artifact for detecting sway. A tube was attached to the subjects using supports that allowed the cylinder to stand away from the body. The stand-off was necessary to minimize occluded areas. Multiple scans were taken of 1 subject and the cylinder extracted from the images. Comparison of the actual cylinder dimensions to those extracted from the whole body images found the effect of sway to be minimal. This follows earlier findings that anthropometric dimensions extracted from whole body scans are very close to the same dimensions measured using standard manual methods. Recommendations for subject preparation and stabilization are discussed.

  13. Systemic suppression of human peripheral blood phagocytic leukocytes after whole-body UVB irradiation.

    PubMed

    Leino, L; Saarinen, K; Kivist, K; Koulu, L; Jansen, C T; Punnonen, K

    1999-05-01

    We examined systemic effects of whole-body UVB irradiation on human peripheral blood phagocytes. We found that 24 h after a single erythemal dose of UVB radiation two phagocyte functions, adhesion and phagocytosis, were reduced by 50%. This functional suppression was accompanied by a significant decrease in the expression of complement receptors (CR1 and CR3) and IgG Fc receptors (FcRII and FcRIII). The greatest reduction (47%) was observed in CR3, which is important for both adhesion and phagocytosis. A kinetic analysis showed that both CR1 and CR3 levels started to decrease 15 min after the UVB exposure, reaching the lowest levels at 4.5- and 24-h time points, respectively. The down-modulation of CRs after whole-body UVB exposure was not due to a defective receptor synthesis or translocation from internal stores to plasma membrane because the maximal CR levels in stimulated cells were not affected by UVB. No change in the serum soluble ICAM-1 was detected after UVB, which rules out CD1 1b epitope masking by sICAM-1. UVB did not release low-receptor-density myeloid progenitor cells from storage pools into circulation. Interleukin 10, a mediator of UVB-induced immunosuppression, was unable to modulate CR expression in vitro. When seven suberythemal whole-body UVB exposures were given repeatedly within 2 weeks, a significant decrease in CR expression was seen, which was greatest after three irradiations. Our data suggest that an exposure to UVB has systemic effects in humans which, possibly due to the down-modulation of preexisting cell-surface receptors, suppress some important functions of circulating phagocytic cells. PMID:10331484

  14. Whole-body effective half-lives for radiolabeled antibodies and related issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Baum, J.W.; Barber, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) are being developed and used in medical imaging and therapy in rapidly increasing numbers. Data on the whole body half effective half-lives were calculated from external dose rates obtained from attending physicians and radiation safety officers at participating institutions. Calculations were made using exponential regression analysis of data from patients receiving single and multiple administrations. Theses data were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, isotope label, radiation energy, antibody type, disease treated, administration method, and number of administrations.

  15. Ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography for small-animal whole-body imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    We report herein a novel three-dimensional photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system for small-animal whole-body imaging. The PACT system, based on a 512-element full-ring ultrasonic transducer array, was cylindrically focused and capable of forming a two-dimensional image in 1.6 seconds. The pulsed laser could either illuminate directly from the top or be reshaped to illuminate the sample from the side. Top illumination was mainly used for mouse brain and mouse embryo imaging. Side illumination provided in vivo anatomical images of an adult mouse. By translating the mouse along the elevational direction, the system provided serial cross-sectional images.

  16. Incidental Gallbladder Cancer Visualized From Posttreatment 131I Whole-Body Scan.

    PubMed

    Anongpornjossakul, Yoch; Utamakul, Chirawat; Chamroonrat, Wichana; Kositwattanarerk, Arpakorn; Thamnirat, Kanungnij; Sritara, Chanika

    2016-03-01

    A 72-year-old woman with papillary thyroid cancer post-total thyroidectomy was referred for post-I treatment whole-body scan. Images revealed focal uptake within the gallbladder. Cholecystectomy was subsequently performed, and the pathology report showed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Given a history of papillary thyroid cancer, the iodine uptake was reasonably explained as metastasis; however, gallbladder metastasis was extremely infrequent. Literature described the incidental radioiodine retention in the gallbladder as false-positive findings, which can be normal variants or benign hepatobiliary conditions. Primary gallbladder malignancy could be counted for another possibility despite controversial mechanism of uptake. PMID:26447377

  17. Forearm cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses to whole body passive heat stress in young smokers.

    PubMed

    Moyen, Nicole E; Anderson, Hannah M; Burchfield, Jenna M; Tucker, Matthew A; Gonzalez, Melina A; Robinson, Forrest B; Ganio, Matthew S

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare smokers and nonsmokers' sudomotor and cutaneous vascular responses to whole body passive heat stress. Nine regularly smoking (SMK: 29 9 yr; 10 6 cigarettes/day) and 13 nonsmoking (N-SMK: 27 8 yr) males were passively heated until core temperature (TC) increased 1.5C from baseline. Forearm local sweat rate (LSR) via ventilated capsule, sweat gland activation (SGA), sweat gland output (SGO), and cutaneous vasomotor activity via laser-Doppler flowmetry (CVC) were measured as mean body temperature increased (?Tb) during passive heating using a water-perfused suit. Compared with N-SMK, SMK had a smaller ?Tb at the onset of sweating (0.52 0.19 vs. 0.35 0.14C, respectively; P = 0.03) and cutaneous vasodilation (0.61 0.21 vs. 0.31 0.12C, respectively; P < 0.01). Increases in LSR and CVC per C ?Tb (i.e., sensitivity) were similar in N-SMK and SMK (LSR: 0.63 0.21 vs. 0.60 0.40 ?mg/cm(2)/min/C ?Tb, respectively, P = 0.81; CVC: 82.5 46.2 vs. 58.9 23.3 ?%max/C ?Tb, respectively; P = 0.19). However, the plateau in LSR during whole body heating was higher in N-SMK vs. SMK (1.00 0.13 vs. 0.79 0.26 mgcm(-2)min(-1); P = 0.03), which was likely a result of higher SGO (8.94 3.99 vs. 5.94 3.49 ?ggland(-1)min(-1), respectively; P = 0.08) and not number of SGA (104 7 vs. 121 9 glands/cm(2), respectively; P = 0.58). During whole body passive heat stress, smokers had an earlier onset for forearm sweating and cutaneous vasodilation, but a lower local sweat rate that was likely due to lower sweat output per gland. These data provide insight into local (i.e., forearm) thermoregulatory responses of young smokers during uncompensatory whole body passive heat stress. PMID:25924880

  18. Metastatic meningioma: The role of whole?body diffusion-weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cabada, Teresa; Bermejo, Rebeca; Bacaicoa, Carmen; Martnez-Peuela, Ana

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 74-year-old male patient with a completely resected anaplastic meningioma who developed multiple metastases two years later (subcutaneous tissue near the surgical area, cervical lymph nodes, lung, pleura and bones). The primary tumor and all of the metastases showed a significant restricted diffusion. Whole?body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed for assessment of the metastases. This case demonstrated the usefulness of this technique in screening extracranial metastases in patients with malignant meningiomas. PMID:22866153

  19. Whole-body MRI as an unconventional diagnostic tool in a pediatric patient with systemic infection.

    PubMed

    Picco, Paolo; Naselli, Aldo; Pala, Giovanna; Rizzo, Francesca; Damasio, Beatrice; Buoncompagni, Antonella; Martini, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), a tickborne infection usually manifesting as fever, malaise, cytopenia, spleen enlargement, and hepatitis. Herein, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl with HGA whose whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed an unusual picture characterized by small, widespread punctuate millimetric nodules, hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on STIR sequences. This firstly reported finding may represent an alternative tool for identifying atypical infectious diseases. PMID:25535572

  20. Incidentally Visualization of the Thymus on Whole-Body Iodine Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Farhoudi, Farinaz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Radioiodine uptake is not commonly seen by the thymus gland. On the contrary, the gland is slowly replaced by fat after puberty. Herein, we present 2 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant, and cervical lymph node involvement. After total/near-total thyroidectomy, the patients received 131I for ablation therapy. On posttreatment radioiodine scintigraphy, mediastinal 131I uptake was noted that finally was histologically/anatomically diagnosed as thymus gland uptake. It should be borne in mind as a potential cause of false-positive whole-body 131I scintigraphy. PMID:26131804

  1. Waveform-Sampling Electronics for a Whole-Body Time-of-Flight PET Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Ashmanskas, W. J.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Newcomer, F. M.; Panetta, J. V.; Ryan, W. A.; Van Berg, R.; Wiener, R. I.; Karp Fellow, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Waveform sampling is an appealing technique for instruments requiring precision time and pulse-height measurements. Sampling each PMT waveform at oscilloscope-like rates of several gigasamples per second enables one to process PMT signals digitally, which in turn makes it straightforward to optimize timing resolution and amplitude (energy and position) resolution in response to calibration effects, pile-up effects, and other systematic sources of waveform variation. We describe a system design and preliminary implementation that neatly maps waveform-sampling technology onto the LaPET prototype whole-body time-of-flight PET scanner that serves as the platform for testing this new technology. PMID:25484379

  2. Performance Characteristics of a Positron Projection Imager For Mouse Whole-body Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Jurgen; Xi, Wenze; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Jagoda, Elaine M.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We describe a prototype positron projection imager (PPI) for visualizing the whole-body biodistribution of positron-emitting compounds in mouse-size animals. The final version of the PPI will be integrated into the MONICA portable dual-gamma camera system to allow the user to interchangeably image either single photon or positron-emitting compounds in a shared software and hardware environment. Methods A mouse is placed in the mid-plane between two identical, opposed, pixelated LYSO arrays separated by 21.8-cm and in time coincidence. An image of the distribution of positron decays in the animal is formed on this mid-plane by coincidence events that fall within a small cone angle to the perpendicular to the two detectors and within a user-specified energy window. We measured the imaging performance of this device with phantoms and in tests performed in mice injected with various compounds labeled with positron-emitting isotopes. Results Representative performance measurements yielded the following results (energy window 250–650 keV, cone angle 3.5-degrees): resolution in the image mid-plane, 1.66-mm (FWHM), resolution ±1.5-cm above and below the image plane, 2.2-mm (FWHM), sensitivity: 0.237-cps/kBq (8.76-cps/μCi) 18F (0.024% absolute). Energy resolution was 15.9% with a linear-count-rate operating range of 0–14.8 MBq (0–400 μCi) and a corrected sensitivity variation across the field-of-view of <3%. Whole-body distributions of [18F] FDG and [18F] fluoride were well visualized in mice of typical size. Conclusion Performance measurements and field studies indicate that the PPI is well suited to whole-body positron projection imaging of mice. When integrated into the MONICA gamma camera system, the PPI may be particularly useful early in the drug development cycle where, like MONICA, basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors (e.g., available imaging space, non-portability, and cost) may be limitations. PMID:23402672

  3. Lutetium DOTATATE whole body scans: A novel approach for evaluation of neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Natasha; Krishna, BA; Vyas, Madhusudan; Venkatesh, Meera; Banerjee, Sharmila; Das, Tapas; Nair, KV Vimal; Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We undertook a study to evaluate whether Lutetium (Lu) DOTATATE whole body scan is well comparable to Gallium positron emission tomography (PET) / Indium Octreotide, and hence with dosimetric advantage can replace it in the pre-therapy setting. Materials and Methods: We undertook a prospective study of a total of 39 patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (age 1170 years), who underwent Lu-DOTATATE scans within the period August 2009November 2010. This included 28 males and 11 females. Dose of Lu-DOTATATE injected for diagnostic scanning purpose was 10 mCi i.v. Whole body planar images and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT images were obtained at 4, 24 and 48 hours. The Lu-DOTATATE whole body and SPECT-CT images were compared to contrast CT scans in all patients, and Indium Octreotide and Gallium DOTATATE PET images in nine patients, with reference to detection sensitivity of number of lesions. The pre-therapy scans were also used for dosimetric calculations. Fourteen of these 39 patients further went ahead with Lu-DOTATATE therapy. Results: All 39 patients demonstrated Lu-DOTATATE uptake in the disease sites seen on the contrast CT images. The uptake intensity was well comparable to Indium Octreotide and Gallium DOTATATE PET scans of all nine patients, with equally well-defined lesions. The post-therapy Lu-DOTATATE scans of the 14 patients who underwent therapy demonstrated higher intensity uptake pattern in the same disease sites, suggesting favorable therapeutic effect. The scans were useful in determining dosimetric details for therapeutic purpose and adequate exposure rates to suggest good ablative effect. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that Lu-DOTATATE whole body scanning procedure is cost effective and equally sensitive as Gallium DOTATOC/NOC PET scan in pre-therapy setting of neuroendocrine tumors. The additional advantage of dosimetry calculations on this scanning procedure makes it more ideal to tailor therapies with more accuracy. PMID:23326064

  4. Absolute accuracy of the Cyberware WB4 whole-body scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daanen, Hein A. M.; Taylor, Stacie E.; Brunsman, Matthew A.; Nurre, Joseph H.

    1997-03-01

    The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner is one of the first scanning systems in the world that generates a high resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory of Wright-Patterson AFB intends to use the scanner to enable quick and reliable acquisition of anthropometric data. For this purpose, a validation study was initiated to check the accuracy, reliability and errors of the system. A calibration object, consisting of two boxes and a cylinder, was scanned in several locations in the scanning space. The object dimensions in the resulting scans compared favorably to the actual dimensions of the calibration object.

  5. Quantifying Postural Control during Exergaming Using Multivariate Whole-Body Movement Data: A Self-Organizing Maps Approach

    PubMed Central

    van Diest, Mike; Stegenga, Jan; Wörtche, Heinrich J.; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exergames are becoming an increasingly popular tool for training balance ability, thereby preventing falls in older adults. Automatic, real time, assessment of the user’s balance control offers opportunities in terms of providing targeted feedback and dynamically adjusting the gameplay to the individual user, yet algorithms for quantification of balance control remain to be developed. The aim of the present study was to identify movement patterns, and variability therein, of young and older adults playing a custom-made weight-shifting (ice-skating) exergame. Methods Twenty older adults and twenty young adults played a weight-shifting exergame under five conditions of varying complexity, while multi-segmental whole-body movement data were captured using Kinect. Movement coordination patterns expressed during gameplay were identified using Self Organizing Maps (SOM), an artificial neural network, and variability in these patterns was quantified by computing Total Trajectory Variability (TTvar). Additionally a k Nearest Neighbor (kNN) classifier was trained to discriminate between young and older adults based on the SOM features. Results Results showed that TTvar was significantly higher in older adults than in young adults, when playing the exergame under complex task conditions. The kNN classifier showed a classification accuracy of 65.8%. Conclusions Older adults display more variable sway behavior than young adults, when playing the exergame under complex task conditions. The SOM features characterizing movement patterns expressed during exergaming allow for discriminating between young and older adults with limited accuracy. Our findings contribute to the development of algorithms for quantification of balance ability during home-based exergaming for balance training. PMID:26230655

  6. Time-course of changes in inflammatory response after whole-body cryotherapy multi exposures following severe exercise.

    PubMed

    Pournot, Herv; Bieuzen, Franois; Louis, Julien; Mounier, Rmi; Fillard, Jean-Robert; Barbiche, Etienne; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n?=?11) completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS), the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC) for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day). For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL) -1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), protein C-reactive (CRP) and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post) following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05). Indeed, IL-1? (Post 1 h) and CRP (Post 24 h) levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h) increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05), TNF-?, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory. PMID:21829501

  7. Measurement of 24-hour whole-body retention of Tc-99m HEDP by a gamma camera.

    PubMed

    Martin, W; Fogelman, I; Bessent, R G

    1981-06-01

    Measurement of 24-hr whole-body retention of Tc-99m HEDP, using a shadow-shield, whole-body monitor, has been shown to be a sensitive measure of skeletal metabolism and of value in the diagnosis of metabolic bone disease. A new method of measuring the retention using a gamma camera, with a scanning (fishtail) collimator and patient placed at 2.,3 m distance, has been evaluated in 18 patients undergoing routine bone scans. The patients also had whole-body monitor (WBM), and the two methods correlated well, yielding a regression line GC% = -0.82 + 0.98 WBM%, r = 0.975, p less than 0.001. The limitations to, and repeatability of, the gamma-camera measurements are discussed. This work shows that measurements of whole-body retention can be obtained in any nuclear medicine department possessing a gamma camera with a suitable collimator. PMID:6785399

  8. Transient infiltration of neutrophils into the thymus following whole-body X-ray irradiation in IL-10 knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Hiroya; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Uzawa, Akiko; Nagata, Kisaburo; Kobayashi, Yoshiro

    2008-05-02

    IL-10 is known to suppress the inflammatory responses in a variety of experimental models. Because we previously found that whole-body X-irradiation causes massive apoptosis in the thymus and transient infiltration of neutrophils, in this study, we examined whether or not IL-10 is involved in the regulation of neutrophil infiltration upon whole-body X-ray irradiation using IL-10 knockout mice. Although IL-10 was induced in the thymus on whole-body X-ray irradiation, apoptosis of thymocytes, neutrophil infiltration, and MIP-2 and KC production in the thymus were not affected by an IL-10 deficiency. Coculturing of bone marrow-derived macrophages with late apoptotic cells caused MIP-2 production, which was also not affected by an IL-10 deficiency. These results suggest the uniqueness of the inflammatory response induced by whole-body X-ray irradiation, which does not seem to be regulated by IL-10.

  9. Low Intensity, High Frequency Vibration Training to Improve Musculoskeletal Function in a Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Susan A.; Mader, Tara L.; Greising, Angela G.; Lin, Angela S.; Guldberg, Robert E.; Warren, Gordon L.; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if low intensity, high frequency vibration training impacted the musculoskeletal system in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, relative to healthy mice. Three-week old wildtype (n?=?26) and mdx mice (n?=?22) were randomized to non-vibrated or vibrated (45 Hz and 0.6 g, 15 min/d, 5 d/wk) groups. In vivo and ex vivo contractile function of the anterior crural and extensor digitorum longus muscles, respectively, were assessed following 8 wks of vibration. Mdx mice were injected 5 and 1 days prior to sacrifice with Calcein and Xylenol, respectively. Muscles were prepared for histological and triglyceride analyses and subcutaneous and visceral fat pads were excised and weighed. Tibial bones were dissected and analyzed by micro-computed tomography for trabecular morphometry at the metaphysis, and cortical geometry and density at the mid-diaphysis. Three-point bending tests were used to assess cortical bone mechanical properties and a subset of tibiae was processed for dynamic histomorphometry. Vibration training for 8 wks did not alter trabecular morphometry, dynamic histomorphometry, cortical geometry, or mechanical properties (P?0.34). Vibration did not alter any measure of muscle contractile function (P?0.12); however the preservation of muscle function and morphology in mdx mice indicates vibration is not deleterious to muscle lacking dystrophin. Vibrated mice had smaller subcutaneous fat pads (P?=?0.03) and higher intramuscular triglyceride concentrations (P?=?0.03). These data suggest that vibration training at 45 Hz and 0.6 g did not significantly impact the tibial bone and the surrounding musculature, but may influence fat distribution in mice. PMID:25121503

  10. Non-stationary random vibration analysis of a 3D train-bridge system using the probability density evolution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhi-wu; Mao, Jian-feng; Guo, Feng-qi; Guo, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Rail irregularity is one of the main sources causing train-bridge random vibration. A new random vibration theory for the coupled train-bridge systems is proposed in this paper. First, number theory method (NTM) with 2N-dimensional vectors for the stochastic harmonic function (SHF) of rail irregularity power spectrum density was adopted to determine the representative points of spatial frequencies and phases to generate the random rail irregularity samples, and the non-stationary rail irregularity samples were modulated with the slowly varying function. Second, the probability density evolution method (PDEM) was employed to calculate the random dynamic vibration of the three-dimensional (3D) train-bridge system by a program compiled on the MATLAB® software platform. Eventually, the Newmark-β integration method and double edge difference method of total variation diminishing (TVD) format were adopted to obtain the mean value curve, the standard deviation curve and the time-history probability density information of responses. A case study was presented in which the ICE-3 train travels on a three-span simply-supported high-speed railway bridge with excitation of random rail irregularity. The results showed that compared to the Monte Carlo simulation, the PDEM has higher computational efficiency for the same accuracy, i.e., an improvement by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Additionally, the influences of rail irregularity and train speed on the random vibration of the coupled train-bridge system were discussed.

  11. Whole-body dynamic imaging with continuous bed motion PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Acuff, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Most dynamic imaging protocols require long scan times that are beyond the range of what can be supported in a routine clinical environment and suffer from various difficulties related to step and shoot imaging techniques. In this short communication, we describe continuous bed motion (CBM) imaging techniques to create clinically relevant 15 min whole-body dynamic PET imaging protocols. We also present initial data that suggest that these CBM methods may be sufficient for quantitative analysis of uptake rates and rates of glucose metabolism. Multipass CBM PET was used in conjunction with a population-based input function to perform Patlak modeling of normal tissue. Net uptake rates were estimated and metabolic rates of glucose were calculated. Estimations of k3 (Ki/Vd) were calculated along with modeling of liver regions of interest to assess model stability. Calculated values of metabolic rates of glucose were well within normal ranges found in the previous literature. CBM techniques can potentially be used clinically to obtain reliable, quantitative multipass whole-body dynamic PET data. Values calculated for normal brain were shown to be within previously published values for normal brain glucose metabolism. PMID:26629770

  12. Calibration of the Accuscan II In Vivo System for Whole Body Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Orval R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-08-01

    This report describes the April 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for whole body counting. The source used for the calibration was a NIST traceable BOMAB manufactured by DOE as INL2006 BOMAB containing Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu-152, Sb-125 and Y-88 with energies from 27 keV to 1836 keV with a reference date of 11/29/2006. The actual usable energy range was 86.5 keV to 1597 keV on 4/21/2011. The BOMAB was constructed inside the Accuscan II counting 'tub' in the order of legs, thighs, abdomen, thorax/arms, neck, and head. Each piece was taped to the backwall of the counter. The arms were taped to the thorax. The phantom was constructed between the v-ridges on the backwall of the Accuscan II counter. The energy and efficiency calibrations were performed using the INL2006 BOMAB. The calibrations were performed with the detectors in the scanning mode. This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibration including performance verification and validation counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for whole body counting and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  13. Hematological Profile and Martial Status in Rugby Players during Whole Body Cryostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Porcelli, Simone; Mauri, Clara; Colombini, Alessandra; Grasso, Dalila; Zani, Viviana; Bonomi, Felice Giulio; Melegati, Gianluca; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (−110°C to −140°C). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers. PMID:23383348

  14. Control of whole body balance in the frontal plane during human walking.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, C D; Winter, D A

    1993-06-01

    A whole-body inverted pendulum model was used to investigate the control of balance and posture in the frontal plane during human walking. The model assessed the effects of net joint moments, joint accelerations and gravitational forces acting about the supporting foot and hip. Three video cameras and two force platforms were used to collect kinematic and kinetic data from repeat trials on four subjects during natural walking. An inverse solution was used to calculate net joint moments and powers. Whole body balance was ensured by the centre of mass (CM) passing medial to the supporting foot, thus creating a continual state of dynamic imbalance towards the centerline of the plane of progression. The medial acceleration of the CM was primarily generated by a gravitational moment about the supporting foot, whose magnitude was established at initial contact by the lateral placement of the new supporting foot relative to the horizontal location of the CM. Balance of the trunk and swing leg about the supporting hip was maintained by an active hip abduction moment, which recognized the contribution of the passive accelerational moment, and countered a large destabilizing gravitational moment. Posture of the upper trunk was regulated by the spinal lateral flexors. Interactions between the supporting foot and hip musculature to permit variability in strategies used to maintain balance were identified. Possible control strategies and muscle activation synergies are discussed. PMID:8514809

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of a whole-body counter using IGOR phantoms.

    PubMed

    Bochud, Franois O; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Baechler, Sbastien; Bailat, Claude J; Boschung, Markus; Aroua, Abbas; Mayer, Sabine

    2014-12-01

    Whole-body counting is a technique of choice for assessing the intake of gamma-emitting radionuclides. An appropriate calibration is necessary, which is done either by experimental measurement or by Monte Carlo (MC) calculation. The aim of this work was to validate a MC model for calibrating whole-body counters (WBCs) by comparing the results of computations with measurements performed on an anthropomorphic phantom and to investigate the effect of a change in phantom's position on the WBC counting sensitivity. GEANT MC code was used for the calculations, and an IGOR phantom loaded with several types of radionuclides was used for the experimental measurements. The results show a reasonable agreement between measurements and MC computation. A 1-cm error in phantom positioning changes the activity estimation by >2%. Considering that a 5-cm deviation of the positioning of the phantom may occur in a realistic counting scenario, this implies that the uncertainty of the activity measured by a WBC is ?10-20%. PMID:24379435

  16. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-07-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested /sup 47/Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003), and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation.

  17. Muscle oxygen desaturation is related to whole body VO2 during cross-country ski skating.

    PubMed

    Im, J; Nioka, S; Chance, B; Rundell, K W

    2001-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that blood flow and subsequent O2 desaturation (OD) in exercising muscle is related to the static component during exercise. In speed skating, increased OD is dissociated from whole body VO2 and heart rate (HR) when the skater increases the static component by 'sitting low'. This phenomenon was evaluated in cross-country skiers by manipulating speed and incline during treadmill roller skiing. Eight male cross-country skiers (22.4 +/- 3.2 yrs old) randomly performed constant incline- and constant speed-based protocols in which increased load was manipulated in five 4min stages by treadmill incline or speed change, respectively. A strong relationship (r = 0.83) was observed between VO2 and % OD while blood volume change (deltaBV) was minimal. Unexpectedly, no HR/ VO2 or HR/OD shifts were observed between protocols. The % OD response, in relation to blood lactate values, during submaximal exercise was very similar to that of VO2. The lack of an observed greater desaturation at higher inclines suggests that the expected static load may be attenuated by an increased contribution of poling. The strong relationship of % OD to whole body VO2 may be attributed to O2 dissociation in the capillary bed of the muscle to meet aerobic energy demand and is independent of blood flow dynamics during cross-country ski skating. PMID:11510872

  18. Consequences of Lethal-Whole-Body Gamma Radiation and Possible Ameliorative Role of Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Mihandoost, Ehsan; Shirazi, Alireza; Mahdavi, Seied Rabie; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Gamma radiation induces the generation of free radicals, leading to serious cellular damages in biological systems. Radioprotectors act as prophylactic agents that are administered to shield normal cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiation. Melatonin synergistically acts as an immune-stimulator and antioxidant. We investigated the possible radioprotective role of melatonin (100 mg/kg i.p.) against lethal-whole-body radiation- (10 Gy) induced sickness, body weight loss, and mortality in rats. Results of the present study suggest that exposure to lethal-whole-body radiation incurred mortality, body weight loss, and apoptosis and it also depleted the immunity and the antioxidant status of the rats. Our results show that melatonin pretreatment provides protection against radiation induced mortality, oxidative stress, and immune-suppression. The melatonin pretreated irradiated rats showed less change in body weight as compared to radiation only group. On the other hand, melatonin appeared to have another radioprotective role, suggesting that melatonin may reduce apoptosis through a caspase-3-mediated pathway by blocking caspase-3 activity. PMID:25431791

  19. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Porcelli, Simone; Mauri, Clara; Colombini, Alessandra; Grasso, Dalila; Zani, Viviana; Bonomi, Felice Giulio; Melegati, Gianluca; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110C to -140C). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers. PMID:23383348

  20. Small-animal whole-body imaging using a photoacoustic full ring array system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun; Guo, Zijian; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    In this report, we present a novel 3D photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system for small-animal whole-body imaging. The PACT system, based on a 512-element full-ring transducer array, received photoacoustic signals primarily from a 2-mm-thick slice. The light was generated by a pulse laser, and can either illuminate from the top or be reshaped to illuminate the sample from the side, using a conical lens and an optical condenser. The PACT system was capable of acquiring an in-plane image in 1.6 s; by scanning the sample in the elevational direction, a 3D tomographic image could be constructed. We tested the system by imaging a cylindrical phantom made of human hairs immersed in a scattering medium. The reconstructed image achieved an in-plane resolution of 0.1 mm and an elevational resolution of 1 mm. After deconvolution in the elevational direction, the 3D image was found to match well with the phantom. The system was also used to image a baby mouse in situ; the spinal cord and ribs can be seen easily in the reconstructed image. Our results demonstrate that the PACT system has the potential to be used for fast small-animal whole-body tomographic imaging.

  1. Whole-body live mouse imaging by hybrid reflection-mode ultrasound and optoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Mer?ep, Elena; Burton, Neal C; Claussen, Jing; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-10-15

    We present a hybrid preclinical imaging scanner that optimally supports image acquisition in both reflection-mode ultrasonography and optoacoustic (OA) tomography modes. The system comprises a quasi-full-ring tomographic geometry capable of the simultaneous dual-mode imaging through entire cross sections of mice with in-plane spatial resolution in the range of 150 and 350?m in the respective OA and ultrasound (US) imaging modes with an imaging speed of up to 10 two-dimensional frames per second. Three-dimensional whole-body data is subsequently rendered by rapid scanning of the imaged plane. The system further incorporates rapid laser wavelength tuning for real-time acquisition of multispectral OA data, which enables studies of longitudinal dynamics as well as fast kinetics and biodistribution of contrast agents. In vivo imaging performance is demonstrated by label-free hybrid anatomical scans through living mice, as well as real-time visualization of optical contrast agent perfusion. By setting new standards for whole-body tomographic imaging performance in both the OA and pulse-echo US modes, the developed hybrid imaging approach is expected to benefit numerous applications where the availability of high-quality structural information provided by the tomographic reflection-mode US can ease interpretation of the functional and molecular imaging results attained by the OA modality. PMID:26469584

  2. Optimization of transmission and emission scan duration in 3D whole-body PET

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, T.; Kinahan, P.E.; Townsend, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    Whole-body PET imaging is being increasingly used to identify and localize malignant disease remote from the site of the primary tumor. Patients are typically scanned at multiple contiguous bed positions over an axial length of 75-100 cm. For oncology patients, the total scan duration should not exceed about an hour and therefore only 5-10 minutes of imaging can be performed at each bed position. To minimize the total scan duration, the transmission scan is often omitted and the emission scan reconstructed without attenuation correction. However, whole-body scans reconstructed without attenuation correction can lead to incorrect diagnosis, particularly for tumors located deep within the body. We have performed a series of torso phantom measurements to investigate the optimal partition of scan time between the emission and transmission scans for a fixed total scan duration. We find that a transmission fraction of about 0.4 is optimal for a 5 min and 10 min total acquisition time per bed position. The optimal partition depends on the way the attenuation correction factors are calculated and on the reconstruction algorithm.

  3. Rat Cardiovascular Responses to Whole Body Suspension: Head-down and Non-Head-Down Tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

    1992-01-01

    The rat whole body suspension technique mimics responses seen during exposure to microgravity and was evaluated as a model for cardiovascular responses with two series of experiments. In one series, changes were monitored in chronically catheterized rats during 7 days of Head-Down Tilt (HDT) or Non-Head-Down Tilt (N-HDT) and after several hours of recovery. Elevations of mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures of approx. 20 % (P less than 0.05) in HDT rats began as early as day 1 and were maintained for the duration of suspension. Pulse pressures were relatively unaffected, but heart rates were elevated approx. 10 %. During postsuspension (2-7 h), most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. N-HDT rats exhibited elevations chiefly on days 3 and 7. In the second series, blood pressure was monitored in 1- and 3-day HDT and N-HDT rats to evaluate responses to rapid head-up tilt. MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated (P less than 0.05) in HDT and N-HDT rats during head-up tilt after 1 day of suspension, while pulse pressures remained un changed. HDT rats exhibited elevated pretilt MAP and failed to respond to rapid head-up tilt with further increase of MAP on day 3, indicating some degree of deconditioning. The whole body suspended rat may be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

  4. Whole-body dynamic imaging with continuous bed motion PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Dustin R; Acuff, Shelley

    2016-04-01

    Most dynamic imaging protocols require long scan times that are beyond the range of what can be supported in a routine clinical environment and suffer from various difficulties related to step and shoot imaging techniques. In this short communication, we describe continuous bed motion (CBM) imaging techniques to create clinically relevant 15 min whole-body dynamic PET imaging protocols. We also present initial data that suggest that these CBM methods may be sufficient for quantitative analysis of uptake rates and rates of glucose metabolism. Multipass CBM PET was used in conjunction with a population-based input function to perform Patlak modeling of normal tissue. Net uptake rates were estimated and metabolic rates of glucose were calculated. Estimations of k3 (Ki/Vd) were calculated along with modeling of liver regions of interest to assess model stability. Calculated values of metabolic rates of glucose were well within normal ranges found in the previous literature. CBM techniques can potentially be used clinically to obtain reliable, quantitative multipass whole-body dynamic PET data. Values calculated for normal brain were shown to be within previously published values for normal brain glucose metabolism. PMID:26629770

  5. Kaempferia parviflora extract increases whole-body energy expenditure in humans: roles of brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Mami; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Aita, Sayuri; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Sugie, Hiroki; Saito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora extract (KP) has been reported to have a preventive effect on obesity in mice, probably by increasing energy expenditure (EE). The aims of the current study were to examine the acute effects of KP ingestion on whole-body EE in humans and to analyze its relation to the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a site of non-shivering thermogenesis. After an oral ingestion of an ethanol extract of KP, EE increased significantly, showing a maximal increase of 22969 kJ/d at 60 min, while it did not change after placebo ingestion. To evaluate BAT activity, the subjects underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, and divided into two groups with high- and low-BAT activities. A similar and greater response of EE to KP ingestion was observed in the high-BAT group (35150 kJ/d at 60 min), but not in the low activity group. Placebo ingestion did not cause any significant EE change in either group. These results indicate that a single oral ingestion of the KP extract can potentially increase whole-body EE probably through the activation of BAT in healthy men, and may be useful as an anti-obesity regimen. PMID:25994142

  6. Rat cardiovascular responses to whole body suspension - Head-down and non-head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments aimed at examining the versatility of the whole body suspension (WBS) system as a ground-based model for cardiovascular effects of microgravity are described. The first experiment studied heart rate and arterial pressure responses in rats during a 7-day period of head-down tilt (HDT) or nonhead-down tilt (NHDT) and after removal from whole body suspension (WBS). Mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures increased about 20 percent in HDT rats on the fist day, heart rates were elevated about 10 percent. During postsuspension most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. The second experiment evaluated responses to rapid head-up tilt in HDT and NHDT rats. It was observed that, while pulse pressures remained unchanged, MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated in HDT and NHDT rats during head-up tilt after one day of suspension. The WBS rats are considered to be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

  7. Late response to whole-lung irradiation alone and with whole-body hyperthermia in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gillette, S.M.; Gillette, E.L.; Dawson, C.A.

    1997-02-01

    The late effects of whole-lung irradiation with and without whole-body hyperthermia were studied in beagle dogs. The reference doses ranged from 18 to 49.5 Gy given in 1.5-Gy fractions over 6 weeks. Whole-body hyperthermia was given in three 2-h treatments to a deep rectal temperature of 42.0{degrees}C. Radiation was given simultaneously with hyperthermia on those days. Physiological and histopathological responses were evaluated. Physiological changes included decreases in cardiac output, systemic blood pressure, dynamic compliance and serotonin uptake. Early changes included an increase in extravascular water and total protein in the lavage. These changes were considered mild, were compensated for and occurred only in dogs receiving doses of 40.5 Gy or greater given in 1.5-Gy fractions over 6 weeks. Histopathological change were typical of irradiated lung and included pleural fibrosis, interstitial fibrosis, fibrotic foci, and peribronchial and perivascular fibrosis. There was no enhancement of late injury to lung by hyperthermia seen in this study. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.

  9. Visually evoked whole-body turning responses during stepping in place in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Hollands, Mark A; Reed-Jones, James G; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2009-10-01

    Humans use a specific sequence of reorientation of the eyes, head and body to perform turning and redirections while walking. Gaze (eye and head) rotation in a new direction of travel precedes body rotation by as much as 1.5s and provides a stable reference frame that guides subsequent whole-body redirection. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether a visually presented rotation of the external environment can induce whole-body turning lead by gaze redirection in a new travel direction. Five healthy young adults performed a stepping in place task while watching a virtual scene that moved as if they were walking down a hallway, thus providing participants with a perception of forward self motion. While "forward" stepping, the virtual scene would gradually turn around a 90 degrees corner. As a result the turn could be anticipated by the participants. Significant horizontal eye movements and head and body rotation magnitudes were observed in response to the virtual visual turning cue. Onset of eye, head and body redirection revealed a sequenced order and timing of segment rotation that is characteristic of steering behaviour in real world turning situations. The results of this study provide support for the hypothesis that gaze redirection may be an essential subcomponent to steering behaviour. The link between visual redirection and coordinated body turning implies instability when turning may result from visual and/or oculomotor deficits. PMID:19560360

  10. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-01

    Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ˜15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ˜45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45 to ˜35 min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging.

  11. Dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Static whole body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ~1520 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole body PET acquisition protocol of ~45min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6-min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (6 passes x 7 bed positions, each scanned for 45sec). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares (OLS) Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of 10 different clinically acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole-body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45min to ~35min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error (MSE) and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging. PMID:24080962

  12. Random vibration analysis of train-bridge under track irregularities and traveling seismic waves using train-slab track-bridge interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Wen-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Ling-Kun; Lou, Ping

    2015-04-01

    The frequent use of bridges in high-speed railway lines greatly increases the probability that trains are running on bridges when earthquakes occur. This paper investigates the random vibrations of a high-speed train traversing a slab track on a continuous girder bridge subjected to track irregularities and traveling seismic waves by the pseudo-excitation method (PEM). To derive the equations of motion of the train-slab track-bridge interaction system, the multibody dynamics and finite element method models are used for the train and the track and bridge, respectively. By assuming track irregularities to be fully coherent random excitations with time lags between different wheels and seismic accelerations to be uniformly modulated, non-stationary random excitations with time lags between different foundations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are transformed into a series of deterministic pseudo-excitations based on PEM and the wheel-rail contact relationship. A computer code is developed to obtain the time-dependent random responses of the entire system. As a case study, the random vibration characteristics of an ICE-3 high-speed train traversing a seven-span continuous girder bridge simultaneously excited by track irregularities and traveling seismic waves are analyzed. The influence of train speed and seismic wave propagation velocity on the random vibration characteristics of the bridge and train are discussed.

  13. 2.5D Finite/infinite Element Approach for Simulating Train-Induced Ground Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. B.; Hung, H. H.; Kao, J. C.

    2010-05-01

    The 2.5D finite/infinite element approach for simulating the ground vibrations by surface or underground moving trains will be briefly summarized in this paper. By assuming the soils to be uniform along the direction of the railway, only a two-dimensional profile of the soil perpendicular to the railway need be considered in the modeling. Besides the two in-plane degrees of freedom (DOFs) per node conventionally used for plane strain elements, an extra DOF is introduced to account for the out-of-plane wave transmission. The profile of the half-space is divided into a near field and a semi-infinite far field. The near field containing the train loads and irregular structures is simulated by the finite elements, while the far field covering the soils with infinite boundary by the infinite elements, by which due account is taken of the radiation effects for the moving loads. Enhanced by the automated mesh expansion procedure proposed previously by the writers, the far field impedances for all the lower frequencies are generated repetitively from the mesh created for the highest frequency considered. Finally, incorporated with a proposed load generation mechanism that takes the rail irregularity and dynamic properties of trains into account, an illustrative case study was performed. This paper investigates the vibration isolation effect of the elastic foundation that separates the concrete slab track from the underlying soil or tunnel structure. In addition, the advantage of the 2.5D approach was clearly demonstrated in that the three-dimensional wave propagation effect can be virtually captured using a two-dimensional finite/infinite element mesh. Compared with the conventional 3D approach, the present approach appears to be simple, efficient and generally accurate.

  14. Restrictions in systemic and locomotor skeletal muscle perfusion, oxygen supply and VO2 during high-intensity whole-body exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; Gonzlez-Alonso, Jos

    2008-05-15

    Perfusion to exercising skeletal muscle is regulated to match O(2) delivery to the O(2) demand, but this regulation might be compromised during or approaching maximal whole-body exercise as muscle blood flow for a given work rate is blunted. Whether muscle perfusion is restricted when there is an extreme metabolic stimulus to vasodilate during supramaximal exercise remains unknown. To examine the regulatory limits of systemic and muscle perfusion in exercising humans, we measured systemic and leg haemodynamics, O(2) transport, and , and estimated non-locomotor tissue perfusion during constant load supramaximal cycling (498 +/- 16 W; 110% of peak power; mean +/- S.E.M.) in addition to both incremental cycling and knee-extensor exercise to exhaustion in 13 trained males. During supramaximal cycling, cardiac output (Q), leg blood flow (LBF), and systemic and leg O(2) delivery and reached peak values after 60-90 s and thereafter levelled off at values similar to or approximately 6% (P < 0.05) below maximal cycling, while upper body blood flow remained unchanged (approximately 5.5 l min(-1)). In contrast, Q and LBF increased linearly until exhaustion during one-legged knee-extensor exercise accompanying increases in non-locomotor tissue blood flow to approximately 12 l min(-1). At exhaustion during cycling compared to knee-extensor exercise, Q, LBF, leg vascular conductance, leg O(2) delivery and leg for a given power were reduced by 32-47% (P < 0.05). In conclusion, locomotor skeletal muscle perfusion is restricted during maximal and supramaximal whole-body exercise in association with a plateau in Q and limb vascular conductance. These observations suggest that limits of cardiac function and muscle vasoconstriction underlie the inability of the circulatory system to meet the increasing metabolic demand of skeletal muscles and other tissues during whole-body exercise. PMID:18372307

  15. Optimal whole-body PET scanner configurations for different volumes of LSO scintillator: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Jonathan K; Dahlbom, Magnus L; Moses, William W; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Wang, Wenli; Cherry, Simon R; Badawi, Ramsey D

    2013-01-01

    The axial field of view (AFOV) of the current generation of clinical whole-body PET scanners range from 1522 cm, which limits sensitivity and renders applications such as whole-body dynamic imaging, or imaging of very low activities in whole-body cellular tracking studies, almost impossible. Generally, extending the AFOV significantly increases the sensitivity and count-rate performance. However, extending the AFOV while maintaining detector thickness has significant cost implications. In addition, random coincidences, detector dead time, and object attenuation may reduce scanner performance as the AFOV increases. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulations to find the optimal scanner geometry (i.e. AFOV, detector thickness and acceptance angle) based on count-rate performance for a range of scintillator volumes ranging from 10 to 90 l with detector thickness varying from 5 to 20 mm. We compare the results to the performance of a scanner based on the current Siemens Biograph mCT geometry and electronics. Our simulation models were developed based on individual components of the Siemens Biograph mCT and were validated against experimental data using the NEMA NU-2 2007 count-rate protocol. In the study, noise-equivalent count rate (NECR) was computed as a function of maximum ring difference (i.e. acceptance angle) and activity concentration using a 27 cm diameter, 200 cm uniformly filled cylindrical phantom for each scanner configuration. To reduce the effect of random coincidences, we implemented a variable coincidence time window based on the length of the lines of response, which increased NECR performance up to 10% compared to using a static coincidence time window for scanners with large maximum ring difference values. For a given scintillator volume, the optimal configuration results in modest count-rate performance gains of up to 16% compared to the shortest AFOV scanner with the thickest detectors. However, the longest AFOV of approximately 2 m with 20 mm thick detectors resulted in performance gains of 2531 times higher NECR relative to the current Siemens Biograph mCT scanner configuration. PMID:22678106

  16. Responses of primate caudal parabrachial nucleus and Kolliker-fuse nucleus neurons to whole body rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaban, Carey D.; McGee, David M.; Zhou, Jianxun; Scudder, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The caudal aspect of the parabrachial (PBN) and Kolliker-Fuse (KF) nuclei receive vestibular nuclear and visceral afferent information and are connected reciprocally with the spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic cortex. Hence, they may be important sites of vestibulo-visceral integration, particularly for the development of affective responses to gravitoinertial challenges. Extracellular recordings were made from caudal PBN cells in three alert, adult female Macaca nemestrina through an implanted chamber. Sinusoidal and position trapezoid angular whole body rotation was delivered in yaw, roll, pitch, and vertical semicircular canal planes. Sites were confirmed histologically. Units that responded during rotation were located in lateral and medial PBN and KF caudal to the trochlear nerve at sites that were confirmed anatomically to receive superior vestibular nucleus afferents. Responses to whole-body angular rotation were modeled as a sum of three signals: angular velocity, a leaky integration of angular velocity, and vertical position. All neurons displayed angular velocity and integrated angular velocity sensitivity, but only 60% of the neurons were position-sensitive. These responses to vertical rotation could display symmetric, asymmetric, or fully rectified cosinusoidal spatial tuning about a best orientation in different cells. The spatial properties of velocity and integrated velocity and position responses were independent for all position-sensitive neurons; the angular velocity and integrated angular velocity signals showed independent spatial tuning in the position-insensitive neurons. Individual units showed one of three different orientations of their excitatory axis of velocity rotation sensitivity: vertical-plane-only responses, positive elevation responses (vertical plane plus ipsilateral yaw), and negative elevation axis responses (vertical plane plus negative yaw). The interactions between the velocity and integrated velocity components also produced variations in the temporal pattern of responses as a function of rotation direction. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a vestibulorecipient region of the PBN and KF integrates signals from the vestibular nuclei and relay information about changes in whole-body orientation to pathways that produce homeostatic and affective responses.

  17. Lack of effect of lovastatin therapy on the parameters of whole-body cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, I J; Holleran, S; Ramakrishnan, R; Adams, M; Palmer, R H; Dell, R B; Goodman, D S

    1990-01-01

    The effects of lovastatin therapy on the parameters of body cholesterol metabolism were explored in nine hypercholesterolemic patients. Long-term cholesterol turnover studies were performed before therapy, and were repeated after 15 mo of lovastatin therapy (40 mg/d) while continuing on therapy. The major question addressed was whether a reduction in plasma cholesterol level with lovastatin would be associated with a reduction in the whole-body production rate of cholesterol or with the sizes of exchangeable body cholesterol pools as determined by the three-pool model of cholesterol turnover. The mean plasma cholesterol level decreased 19.4% (from 294 to 237 mg/dl), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased 23.8% (from 210 to 159 mg/dl) with lovastatin therapy. Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level were not significant. The cholesterol production rate did not change significantly with therapy (1.09 +/- 0.10 [mean +/- S.D.] vs. 1.17 +/- 0.09 g/d). By comparison, colestipol and niacin treatment in three other subjects more than doubled the cholesterol production rate (1.14 +/- 0.28 vs. 2.42 +/- 0.34 g/d). Thus, hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibition by lovastatin at the therapeutic dose used here did not change the steady-state rate of whole-body cholesterol synthesis. Despite the changes in plasma cholesterol levels, no significant changes were seen in the values of M1, of M3 or of Mtot, the sizes of the pools of rapidly, of slowly, and of total body exchangeable cholesterol. Conclusion: lovastatin therapy to lower plasma cholesterol does not lead to corresponding reductions in body cholesterol pools or to a reduction in the rate of whole-body cholesterol synthesis. In the new steady state that exists during long-term lovastatin therapy, along with increased expression of the genes for HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor, the body compensates for the effects of the drug so that cholesterol production rate and tissue pool sizes are not changed from pretreatment values. PMID:2394831

  18. Gene Expression Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton or Gamma-Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purgason, Ashley; Zhang, Ye; Mangala, Lingegowda; Nie, Ying; Gridley, Daila; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Seidel, Dere